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Sample records for biomass supply analysis

  1. BIOMASS SUPPLY CHAIN ANALYSIS WITH DENSIFIED WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela Fernandes da Silva Campana Possidônio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The possibility to vary the energy matrix, thus reducing the dependency on fossil fuels, has amplified the acceptance of biomass as an alternative fuel. Despite being a cheap and renewable option and the fact that Brazil is a major producer of waste from agriculture and forestry activities, the use of these materials has barriers due to its low density and low energetic efficiency, which can raise the costs of its utilization. Biomass densification has drawn attention due to its advantage in comparison to in natura biomass due to its better physical and combustion characteristics. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of biomass densification in distribution and transport costs. To reach this objective, a mathematical model was used to represent decisions at a supply chain that coordinates the purchase and sale of forestry and wood waste. The model can evaluate the options to deliver biomass through the supply chain combining demand meeting and low cost. Results point to the possibility of an economy of 60% in transport cost and a reduction of 63% in the required quantity of trucks when densified waste is used. However, costs related to the densifying process lead to an increase of total supply costs of at least 37,8% in comparison to in natura waste. Summing up, the viability of biomass briquettes industry requires a cheaper densification process.

  2. Biomass Feedstock and Conversion Supply System Design and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Jacob J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Roni, Mohammad S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lamers, Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cafferty, Kara G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy’s bioenergy research program. As part of the research program INL investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. A series of reports were published between 2000 and 2013 to demonstrate the feedstock logistics cost. Those reports were tailored to specific feedstock and conversion process. Although those reports are different in terms of conversion, some of the process in the feedstock logistic are same for each conversion process. As a result, each report has similar information. A single report can be designed that could bring all commonality occurred in the feedstock logistics process while discussing the feedstock logistics cost for different conversion process. Therefore, this report is designed in such a way that it can capture different feedstock logistics cost while eliminating the need of writing a conversion specific design report. Previous work established the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $55/dry ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, low-cost feedstock. The 2017 programmatic target is to supply feedstock to the conversion facility that meets the in-feed conversion process quality specifications at a total logistics cost of $80/dry T. The $80/dry T. target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all conversion in-feed quality targets

  3. Opportunities and Challenges in the Design and Analysis of Biomass Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautala, Pasi T.; Hilliard, Michael R.; Webb, Erin; Busch, Ingrid; Richard Hess, J.; Roni, Mohammad S.; Hilbert, Jorge; Handler, Robert M.; Bittencourt, Roger; Valente, Amir; Laitinen, Tuuli

    2015-12-01

    The biomass supply chain is one of the most critical elements of large-scale bioenergy production and in many cases a key barrier for procuring initial funding for new developments on specific energy crops. Most productions rely on complex transforming chains linked to feed and food markets. The term `supply chain' covers various aspects from cultivation and harvesting of the biomass, to treatment, transportation, and storage. After energy conversion, the product must be delivered to final consumption, whether it is in the form of electricity, heat, or more tangible products, such as pellets and biofuels. Effective supply chains are of utmost importance for bioenergy production, as biomass tends to possess challenging seasonal production cycles and low mass, energy and bulk densities. Additionally, the demand for final products is often also dispersed, further complicating the supply chain. The goal of this paper is to introduce key components of biomass supply chains, examples of related modeling applications, and if/how they address aspects related to environmental metrics and management. The paper will introduce a concept of integrated supply systems for sustainable biomass trade and the factors influencing the bioenergy supply chain landscape, including models that can be used to investigate the factors. The paper will also cover various aspects of transportation logistics, ranging from alternative modal and multi-modal alternatives to introduction of support tools for transportation analysis. Finally gaps and challenges in supply chain research are identified and used to outline research recommendations for the future direction in this area of study.

  4. Opportunities and Challenges in the Design and Analysis of Biomass Supply Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautala, Pasi T; Hilliard, Michael R; Webb, Erin; Busch, Ingrid; Richard Hess, J; Roni, Mohammad S; Hilbert, Jorge; Handler, Robert M; Bittencourt, Roger; Valente, Amir; Laitinen, Tuuli

    2015-12-01

    The biomass supply chain is one of the most critical elements of large-scale bioenergy production and in many cases a key barrier for procuring initial funding for new developments on specific energy crops. Most productions rely on complex transforming chains linked to feed and food markets. The term 'supply chain' covers various aspects from cultivation and harvesting of the biomass, to treatment, transportation, and storage. After energy conversion, the product must be delivered to final consumption, whether it is in the form of electricity, heat, or more tangible products, such as pellets and biofuels. Effective supply chains are of utmost importance for bioenergy production, as biomass tends to possess challenging seasonal production cycles and low mass, energy and bulk densities. Additionally, the demand for final products is often also dispersed, further complicating the supply chain. The goal of this paper is to introduce key components of biomass supply chains, examples of related modeling applications, and if/how they address aspects related to environmental metrics and management. The paper will introduce a concept of integrated supply systems for sustainable biomass trade and the factors influencing the bioenergy supply chain landscape, including models that can be used to investigate the factors. The paper will also cover various aspects of transportation logistics, ranging from alternative modal and multi-modal alternatives to introduction of support tools for transportation analysis. Finally gaps and challenges in supply chain research are identified and used to outline research recommendations for the future direction in this area of study.

  5. Sustainable Biomass Supply Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erin Searcy; Dave Muth; Erin Wilkerson; Shahab Sokansanj; Bryan Jenkins; Peter Titman; Nathan Parker; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson

    2009-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) aims to displace 30% of the 2004 gasoline use (60 billion gal/yr) with biofuels by 2030 as outlined in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which will require 700 million tons of biomass to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually. Lignocellulosic biomass will make an important contribution towards meeting DOE’s ethanol production goals. For the biofuels industry to be an economically viable enterprise, the feedstock supply system (i.e., moving the biomass from the field to the refinery) cannot contribute more that 30% of the total cost of the biofuel production. The Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of California, Davis and Kansas State University are developing a set of tools for identifying economical, sustainable feedstocks on a regional basis based on biorefinery siting.

  6. Development and implementation of integrated biomass supply analysis and logistics model (IBSAL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokhansanj, Shahab; Turhollow, Anthony F. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Kumar, Amit [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-10-15

    This paper describes the framework development of a dynamic integrated biomass supply analysis and logistics model (IBSAL) to simulate the collection, storage, and transport operations for supplying agricultural biomass to a biorefinery. The model consists of time dependent events representing the working rate of equipment and queues representing the capacity of storage structures. The discrete event and queues are inter-connected to represent the entire network of material flow from field to a biorefinery. Weather conditions including rain and snow influence the moisture content and the dry matter loss of biomass through the supply chain and are included in the model. The model is developed using an object oriented high level simulation language EXTEND(TM). A case of corn stover collection and transport scenario using baling system is described. (author)

  7. Development of the Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis and Logistics Model (IBSAL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL

    2008-06-01

    The Integrated Biomass Supply & Logistics (IBSAL) model is a dynamic (time dependent) model of operations that involve collection, harvest, storage, preprocessing, and transportation of feedstock for use at a biorefinery. The model uses mathematical equations to represent individual unit operations. These unit operations can be assembled by the user to represent the working rate of equipment and queues to represent storage at facilities. The model calculates itemized costs, energy input, and carbon emissions. It estimates resource requirements and operational characteristics of the entire supply infrastructure. Weather plays an important role in biomass management and thus in IBSAL, dictating the moisture content of biomass and whether or not it can be harvested on a given day. The model calculates net biomass yield based on a soil conservation allowance (for crop residue) and dry matter losses during harvest and storage. This publication outlines the development of the model and provides examples of corn stover harvest and logistics.

  8. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Indirect Liquefaction of Blended Biomass to Produce High Octane Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Canter, Christina E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartley, Damon S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) aims at developing and deploying technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2015). BETO also performs a supply chain sustainability analysis (SCSA). This report describes the SCSA of the production of renewable high octane gasoline (HOG) via indirect liquefaction (IDL) of lignocellulosic biomass. This SCSA was developed for the 2017 design case for feedstock logistics (INL, 2014) and for the 2022 target case for HOG production via IDL (Tan et al., 2015). The design includes advancements that are likely and targeted to be achieved by 2017 for the feedstock logistics and 2022 for the IDL conversion process. The 2017 design case for feedstock logistics demonstrated a delivered feedstock cost of $80 per dry U.S. short ton by the year 2017 (INL, 2014). The 2022 design case for the conversion process, as modeled in Tan et al. (2015), uses the feedstock 2017 design case blend of biomass feedstocks consisting of pulpwood, wood residue, switchgrass, and construction and demolition waste (C&D) with performance properties consistent with a sole woody feedstock type (e.g., pine or poplar). The HOG SCSA case considers the 2017 feedstock design case (the blend) as well as individual feedstock cases separately as alternative scenarios when the feedstock blend ratio varies as a result of a change in feedstock availability. These scenarios could be viewed as bounding SCSA results because of distinctive requirements for energy and chemical inputs for the production and logistics of different components of the blend feedstocks.

  9. Geographical cost-supply analysis forest biomass for distributed generation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The article presents a study which uses geographical information system (GIS) to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production.......The article presents a study which uses geographical information system (GIS) to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production....

  10. Biomass Supply Logistics and Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Hess, J. Richard

    Feedstock supply system encompasses numerous unit operations necessary to move lignocellulosic feedstock from the place where it is produced (in the field or on the stump) to the start of the conversion process (reactor throat) of the biorefinery. These unit operations, which include collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation, represent one of the largest technical and logistics challenges to the emerging lignocellulosic biorefining industry. This chapter briefly reviews the methods of estimating the quantities of biomass, followed by harvesting and collection processes based on current practices on handling wet and dry forage materials. Storage and queuing are used to deal with seasonal harvest times, variable yields, and delivery schedules. Preprocessing can be as simple as grinding and formatting the biomass for increased bulk density or improved conversion efficiency, or it can be as complex as improving feedstock quality through fractionation, tissue separation, drying, blending, and densification. Handling and transportation consists of using a variety of transport equipment (truck, train, ship) for moving the biomass from one point to another. The chapter also provides typical cost figures for harvest and processing of biomass.

  11. Biomass supply logistics and infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Hess, J Richard

    2009-01-01

    Feedstock supply system encompasses numerous unit operations necessary to move lignocellulosic feedstock from the place where it is produced (in the field or on the stump) to the start of the conversion process (reactor throat) of the biorefinery. These unit operations, which include collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation, represent one of the largest technical and logistics challenges to the emerging lignocellulosic biorefining industry. This chapter briefly reviews the methods of estimating the quantities of biomass, followed by harvesting and collection processes based on current practices on handling wet and dry forage materials. Storage and queuing are used to deal with seasonal harvest times, variable yields, and delivery schedules. Preprocessing can be as simple as grinding and formatting the biomass for increased bulk density or improved conversion efficiency, or it can be as complex as improving feedstock quality through fractionation, tissue separation, drying, blending, and densification. Handling and transportation consists of using a variety of transport equipment (truck, train, ship) for moving the biomass from one point to another. The chapter also provides typical cost figures for harvest and processing of biomass.

  12. Sustainable Biomass Supply in EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbersen, B. [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research WUR, Wageningen (Netherlands); Van Stralen, J.; Uslu, A. [Unit Policy Studies, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boettcher, H. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis IIASA, Laxenburg (Austria); Panoutsou, C. [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Fritsche, U. [Energy and Climate Division, Oeko-Institut, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    According to the analysis of the Member States' National Renewable Energy Action Plans, biomass will make up 19% of total renewable electricity in the year 2020, 78% of total renewable heating and cooling in 2020 and 89% of total renewable energy in transport.

  13. Switchgrass (Panicum vigratum, L.) delivery to a biorefinery using integrated biomass supply analysis and logistics (IBSAL) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2007-03-01

    This study develops cost, energy input and carbon emissions for a number of switchgrass supply options. The Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis and Logistics (IBSAL) model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is used to evaluate the delivery systems. Three biomass collection systems: baling, loafing and ensiling are evaluated. The number and operational performance of equipment are specified to complete collection operations within 120 days of harvest after August 1. Bales are stacked and tarped on the farm side. The transport of biomass from the farm side to a biorefinery takes place over a full year cycle, i.e. 365 days. Supply quantities range from 454 to 4540 dry tonnes/day (500-5000 dry tons/day). Delivered costs to a biorefinery with capacity of 1814 dry tonnes/day (2000 dry tons/day) are: 44-47 dollars/dry tonne for delivered bales (round and square); 37 dollars/dry tonne for delivered loafs (size 2.4 m x 3.6 m x 6 m); 40 dollars/dry tonne for chopped biomass; and 48 dollars/dry tonne for ensiled chops. These costs do not include any payment to the farmers or switchgrass farming cost. Based on the data from literature, the switchgrass farming cost can range from 30 to 36 dollars/dry tonne. These costs would be additional to the switchgrass collection and transportation cost. Switchgrass collection is generally less expensive than collection of straw or corn stover because of the assumed high yield of 11 dry tonnes/ha and a denser biomass. Energy consumption for delivery systems at this capacity ranges from 4.8% to 6.3% of the energy content of switchgrass. Additional 1% of the energy content of switchgrass is consumed in its farming. At 1814 dry tonnes/day (2000 dry tons/day) capacity, greenhouse gas emissions ranges from 75 to 100 kg of CO2/dry tonne of switchgrass delivered.

  14. Economic Analysis of Biomass Supply Chains: A Case Study of Four Competing Bioenergy Power Plants in Northwestern Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Bedarul Alam; Reino Pulkki; Chander Shahi; Thakur Prasad Upadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Supply chain optimization for biomass-based power plants is an important research area due to greater emphasis on green energy sources. This paper develops and applies two optimization models to analyze the impacts of biomass competition on cost structures and gross margins for four competing biomass-based power plants in northwestern Ontario. Model scenarios are run to study the impacts of changes in parameters relevant to biomass type and processing technology, and prices of inputs and outp...

  15. Ethanol distribution, dispensing, and use: analysis of a portion of the biomass-to-biofuels supply chain using system dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Vimmerstedt

    Full Text Available The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 targets use of 36 billion gallons of biofuels per year by 2022. Achieving this may require substantial changes to current transportation fuel systems for distribution, dispensing, and use in vehicles. The U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory designed a system dynamics approach to help focus government action by determining what supply chain changes would have the greatest potential to accelerate biofuels deployment. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed the Biomass Scenario Model, a system dynamics model which represents the primary system effects and dependencies in the biomass-to-biofuels supply chain. The model provides a framework for developing scenarios and conducting biofuels policy analysis. This paper focuses on the downstream portion of the supply chain-represented in the distribution logistics, dispensing station, and fuel utilization, and vehicle modules of the Biomass Scenario Model. This model initially focused on ethanol, but has since been expanded to include other biofuels. Some portions of this system are represented dynamically with major interactions and feedbacks, especially those related to a dispensing station owner's decision whether to offer ethanol fuel and a consumer's choice whether to purchase that fuel. Other portions of the system are modeled with little or no dynamics; the vehicle choices of consumers are represented as discrete scenarios. This paper explores conditions needed to sustain an ethanol fuel market and identifies implications of these findings for program and policy goals. A large, economically sustainable ethanol fuel market (or other biofuel market requires low end-user fuel price relative to gasoline and sufficient producer payment, which are difficult to achieve simultaneously. Other requirements (different for ethanol vs. other biofuel markets include the need for infrastructure for distribution and

  16. Ethanol Distribution, Dispensing, and Use: Analysis of a Portion of the Biomass-to-Biofuels Supply Chain Using System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J.; Bush, Brian; Peterson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 targets use of 36 billion gallons of biofuels per year by 2022. Achieving this may require substantial changes to current transportation fuel systems for distribution, dispensing, and use in vehicles. The U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory designed a system dynamics approach to help focus government action by determining what supply chain changes would have the greatest potential to accelerate biofuels deployment. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed the Biomass Scenario Model, a system dynamics model which represents the primary system effects and dependencies in the biomass-to-biofuels supply chain. The model provides a framework for developing scenarios and conducting biofuels policy analysis. This paper focuses on the downstream portion of the supply chain–represented in the distribution logistics, dispensing station, and fuel utilization, and vehicle modules of the Biomass Scenario Model. This model initially focused on ethanol, but has since been expanded to include other biofuels. Some portions of this system are represented dynamically with major interactions and feedbacks, especially those related to a dispensing station owner’s decision whether to offer ethanol fuel and a consumer’s choice whether to purchase that fuel. Other portions of the system are modeled with little or no dynamics; the vehicle choices of consumers are represented as discrete scenarios. This paper explores conditions needed to sustain an ethanol fuel market and identifies implications of these findings for program and policy goals. A large, economically sustainable ethanol fuel market (or other biofuel market) requires low end-user fuel price relative to gasoline and sufficient producer payment, which are difficult to achieve simultaneously. Other requirements (different for ethanol vs. other biofuel markets) include the need for infrastructure for distribution and dispensing and

  17. Ethanol distribution, dispensing, and use: analysis of a portion of the biomass-to-biofuels supply chain using system dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J; Bush, Brian; Peterson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 targets use of 36 billion gallons of biofuels per year by 2022. Achieving this may require substantial changes to current transportation fuel systems for distribution, dispensing, and use in vehicles. The U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory designed a system dynamics approach to help focus government action by determining what supply chain changes would have the greatest potential to accelerate biofuels deployment. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed the Biomass Scenario Model, a system dynamics model which represents the primary system effects and dependencies in the biomass-to-biofuels supply chain. The model provides a framework for developing scenarios and conducting biofuels policy analysis. This paper focuses on the downstream portion of the supply chain-represented in the distribution logistics, dispensing station, and fuel utilization, and vehicle modules of the Biomass Scenario Model. This model initially focused on ethanol, but has since been expanded to include other biofuels. Some portions of this system are represented dynamically with major interactions and feedbacks, especially those related to a dispensing station owner's decision whether to offer ethanol fuel and a consumer's choice whether to purchase that fuel. Other portions of the system are modeled with little or no dynamics; the vehicle choices of consumers are represented as discrete scenarios. This paper explores conditions needed to sustain an ethanol fuel market and identifies implications of these findings for program and policy goals. A large, economically sustainable ethanol fuel market (or other biofuel market) requires low end-user fuel price relative to gasoline and sufficient producer payment, which are difficult to achieve simultaneously. Other requirements (different for ethanol vs. other biofuel markets) include the need for infrastructure for distribution and dispensing and

  18. Integrated strategic and tactical biomass-biofuel supply chain optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Rodríguez, Luis F; Shastri, Yogendra N; Hansen, Alan C; Ting, K C

    2014-03-01

    To ensure effective biomass feedstock provision for large-scale biofuel production, an integrated biomass supply chain optimization model was developed to minimize annual biomass-ethanol production costs by optimizing both strategic and tactical planning decisions simultaneously. The mixed integer linear programming model optimizes the activities range from biomass harvesting, packing, in-field transportation, stacking, transportation, preprocessing, and storage, to ethanol production and distribution. The numbers, locations, and capacities of facilities as well as biomass and ethanol distribution patterns are key strategic decisions; while biomass production, delivery, and operating schedules and inventory monitoring are key tactical decisions. The model was implemented to study Miscanthus-ethanol supply chain in Illinois. The base case results showed unit Miscanthus-ethanol production costs were $0.72L(-1) of ethanol. Biorefinery related costs accounts for 62% of the total costs, followed by biomass procurement costs. Sensitivity analysis showed that a 50% reduction in biomass yield would increase unit production costs by 11%.

  19. Bioenergy Project Development and Biomass Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Modern biomass, and the resulting useful forms of bioenergy produced from it, are anticipated by many advocates to provide a significant contribution to the global primary energy supply of many IEA member countries during the coming decades. For non-member countries, particularly those wishing to achieve economic growth as well as meet the goals for sustainable development, the deployment of modern bioenergy projects and the growing international trade in biomass-based energy carriers offer potential opportunities.

  20. Biomass Supply Chain and Conversion Economics of Cellulosic Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ronalds W.

    2011-12-01

    Cellulosic biomass is a potential and competitive source for bioenergy production, reasons for such acclamation include: biomass is one the few energy sources that can actually be utilized to produce several types of energy (motor fuel, electricity, heat) and cellulosic biomass is renewable and relatively found everywhere. Despite these positive advantages, issues regarding cellulosic biomass availability, supply chain, conversion process and economics need a more comprehensive understanding in order to identify the near short term routes in biomass to bioenergy production. Cellulosic biomass accounts for around 35% to 45% of cost share in cellulosic ethanol production, in addition, different feedstock have very different production rate, (dry ton/acre/year), availability across the year, and chemical composition that affect process yield and conversion costs as well. In the other hand, existing and brand new conversion technologies for cellulosic ethanol production offer different advantages, risks and financial returns. Ethanol yield, financial returns, delivered cost and supply chain logistic for combinations of feedstock and conversion technology are investigated in six studies. In the first study, biomass productivity, supply chain and delivered cost of fast growing Eucalyptus is simulated in economic and supply chain models to supply a hypothetic ethanol biorefinery. Finding suggests that Eucalyptus can be a potential hardwood grown specifically for energy. Delivered cost is highly sensitive to biomass productivity, percentage of covered area. Evaluated at different financial expectations, delivered cost can be competitive compared to current forest feedstock supply. In the second study, Eucalyptus biomass conversion into cellulosic ethanol is simulated in the dilute acid pretreatment, analysis of conversion costs, cost share, CAPEX and ethanol yield are examined. In the third study, biomass supply and delivered cost of loblolly pine is simulated in economic

  1. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Indirect Liquefaction of Blended Biomass to Produce High Octane Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Canter, Christina E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartley, Damon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Searcy, Erin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the SCSA of the production of renewable high octane gasoline (HOG) via indirect liquefaction (IDL) of lignocellulosic biomass. This SCSA was developed for both the 2015 SOT (Hartley et al., 2015; ANL, 2016; DOE, 2016) and the 2017 design case for feedstock logistics (INL, 2014) and for both the 2015 SOT (Tan et al., 2015a) and the 2022 target case for HOG production via IDL (Tan et al., 2015b). The design includes advancements that are likely and targeted to be achieved by 2017 for the feedstock logistics and 2022 for the IDL conversion process. In the SCSA, the 2015 SOT case for the conversion process, as modeled in Tan et al. (2015b), uses the 2015 SOT feedstock blend of pulpwood, wood residue, and construction and demolition waste (C&D). Moreover, the 2022 design case for the conversion process, as described in Tan et al. (2015a), uses the 2017 design case blend of pulpwood, wood residue, switchgrass, and C&D. The performance characteristics of this blend are consistent with those of a single woody feedstock (e.g., pine or poplar). We also examined the influence of using a single feedstock type on SCSA results for the design case. These single feedstock scenarios could be viewed as bounding SCSA results given that the different components of the feedstock blend have varying energy and material demands for production and logistics.

  2. Drying of willow biomass in supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigler, J.K.

    2000-01-01

    The drying process of willow ( Salix viminalis ) in biomass supply chains to energy plants is quantitatively described. Drying at particle level was modelled for chips and stems by a diffusion equation linked to the mass transfer of moisture to the air. Drying at bulk level is described by a deep be

  3. Drying of willow biomass in supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigler, J.

    2000-01-01

    The drying process of willow ( Salix viminalis ) in biomass supply chains to energy plants is quantitatively described. Drying at particle level was modelled for chips and stems by a diffusion equation linked to the mass transfer of moisture to the air. Drying at bulk

  4. Analysing biomass torrefaction supply chain costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanberg, Martin; Olofsson, Ingemar; Flodén, Jonas; Nordin, Anders

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop a techno-economic system model to evaluate how logistics and production parameters affect the torrefaction supply chain costs under Swedish conditions. The model consists of four sub-models: (1) supply system, (2) a complete energy and mass balance of drying, torrefaction and densification, (3) investment and operating costs of a green field, stand-alone torrefaction pellet plant, and (4) distribution system to the gate of an end user. The results show that the torrefaction supply chain reaps significant economies of scale up to a plant size of about 150-200 kiloton dry substance per year (ktonDS/year), for which the total supply chain costs accounts to 31.8 euro per megawatt hour based on lower heating value (€/MWhLHV). Important parameters affecting total cost are amount of available biomass, biomass premium, logistics equipment, biomass moisture content, drying technology, torrefaction mass yield and torrefaction plant capital expenditures (CAPEX).

  5. Simulation and assessment of agricultural biomass supply chain systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pavlou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural biomass supply chain consists of a number of interacted sequential operations affected by various variables, such as weather conditions, machinery systems, and biomass features. These facts make the process of biomass supply chain as a complex system that requires computational tools, e.g. simulation and mathematical models, for their assessment and analysis. A biomass supply chain simulation model developed on the ExtendSim 8 simulation environment is presented in this paper. A number of sequential operations are applied in order biomass to be mowed, harvested, and transported to a biorefinery facility. Different operational scenarios regarding the travel distance between field and biorefinery facility, number of machines, and capacity of machines are analyzed showing how different parameters affect the processes within biomass supply chain in terms of time and cost. The results shown that parameters such as area of the field, travel distance, number of available machines, capacity of the machines, etc. should be taken into account in order a less time and/ or cost consuming machinery combination to be selected.

  6. Techno-economic analysis of CHP system supplied by waste forest biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsukiewicz-Gozdur, A; Klonowicz, P; Król, D; Wiśniewski, S; Zwarycz-Makles, K

    2015-08-01

    Poland, as for Europe, is a country with an average forest cover of approximately 30%. In these forests, more than 37M m3 of wood, mostly coniferous (over 80%), is harvested per year. In 2012, 4.2M m3 of sawn timber was produced (sawn timber without factory lumber). At the same time, in Poland there are over 8000 sawmills, whereas only about 700 of them saw over 90% of the harvested timber. So much fragmentation is a major cause of low sawmills innovation, particularly of those small ones. However, in recent years, a trend of development in this sector is noticeable, and it is through rationalisation of material and energy economy. One of the methods to increase the technical and economic effectiveness of enterprises involved in woodworking is to build in the combined heat and power system (CHP) plant with the ORC system into the existing infrastructure, which will be matched to the needs of the company. This article presents an analysis of the profitability of the investment based on the example of a medium-sized company sawing approximately 50,000 m3 of timber per year, and the economic analysis was performed for prices and costs valid in Poland. The analysis made for the 1650 kW(el) organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system, has resulted in a profitability index PI = 1.3, on the assumptions that the ORC system operates for 6000 h y(-1), will be purchased at the price of 4500 € kW(el)(-1) and at the price of electricity sales of 130 € MWh(-1). © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Economics, Environmental Impacts, and Supply Chain Analysis of Cellulosic Biomass for Biofuels in the Southern US: Pine, Eucalyptus, Unmanaged Hardwoods, Forest Residues, Switchgrass, and Sweet Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Daystar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of six regionally important cellulosic biomass feedstocks, including pine, eucalyptus, unmanaged hardwoods, forest residues, switchgrass, and sweet sorghum, was analyzed using consistent life cycle methodologies and system boundaries to identify feedstocks with the lowest cost and environmental impacts. Supply chain analysis was performed for each feedstock, calculating costs and supply requirements for the production of 453,592 dry tonnes of biomass per year. Cradle-to-gate environmental impacts from these modeled supply systems were quantified for nine mid-point indicators using SimaPro 7.2 LCA software. Conversion of grassland to managed forest for bioenergy resulted in large reductions in GHG emissions due to carbon uptake associated with direct land use change. By contrast, converting forests to cropland resulted in large increases in GHG emissions. Production of forest-based feedstocks for biofuels resulted in lower delivered cost, lower greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, and lower overall environmental impacts than the agricultural feedstocks studied. Forest residues had the lowest environmental impact and delivered cost per dry tonne. Using forest-based biomass feedstocks instead of agricultural feedstocks would result in lower cradle-to-gate environmental impacts and delivered biomass costs for biofuel production in the southern U.S.

  8. Sustainability of biomass in a bio-based economy. A quick-scan analysis of the biomass demand of a bio-based economy in 2030 compared to the sustainable supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, J.; Olivier, J.; Notenboom, J. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Croezen, H.; Bergsma, G. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    The conversion of a fossil fuel-based economy into a bio-based economy will probably be restricted in the European Union (EU) by the limited supply of ecologically sustainable biomass. It appears realistic that, for the EU, the sustainable biomass supply will be enough to meet about 10% of the final energy and feedstock consumption in 2030. Under optimistic assumptions, this supply might increase to 20%. EU Member States, in their Renewable Energy Action Plans for 2020, already aim to apply an amount of biomass that already approaches this 10%. Therefore, from a sustainability perspective, there is an urgent need to guarantee ecologically sustainable biomass production. In considering sustainable biomass production, land use is the most critical issue, especially the indirect land-use impacts on greenhouse gas emissions and biodiversity. The use of waste resources and agricultural and forestry residues, that does not involve additional land use, therefore, would be a sustainable option. Technically, it is possible to use these types of resources for most applications in a bio-based economy. However, it seems unlikely that, by 2030, waste and residue resources will contribute more than three to four per cent to the final energy and feedstock consumption in Europe. Moreover, many waste and residue resources currently already have useful applications; for instance, as feed or soil improvers. These are the main findings of a quick-scan analysis carried out by the PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency and CE Delft on the sustainability of a bio-based economy. Three priorities can be distinguished in the transition to an ecologically sustainable bio-based economy that aims to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels: (1) develop new technologies, procedures and infrastructure to collect or to produce more biomass without using directly or indirectly valuable natural land; (2) develop technologies to produce hydrocarbons from types of biomass that have potentially

  9. Biomass supply chain management in North Carolina (part 2: biomass feedstock logistical optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Caffrey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomass logistics operations account for a major portion of the feedstock cost of running a biorefinery, and make up a significant portion of total system operational costs. Biomass is a bulky perishable commodity that is required in large quantities year round for optimal biorefinery operations. As a proof of concept for a decision making tool for biomass production and delivery, a heuristic was developed to determine biorefinery location, considering city size, agricultural density, and regional demographics. Switchgrass and sorghum (with winter canola were selected to examine as viable biomass feedstocks based on positive economic results determined using a predictive model for cropland conversion potential. Biomass harvest systems were evaluated to examine interrelationships of biomass logistical networks and the least cost production system, with results demonstrating a need to shift to maximize supply-driven production harvest operations and limit storage requirements. For this supply-driven production harvest operations approach a harvest window from September until March was selected for producing big square bales of switchgrass for storage until use, forage chopped sorghum from September to December, and forage chopped switchgrass from December to March. A case study of the three major regions of North Carolina (Mountains, Piedmont, and Coastal Plain was used to assess logistical optimization of the proposed supply-driven production harvest system. Potential biomass production fields were determined within a hundred mile radius of the proposed biorefinery location, with individual fields designated for crop and harvest system by lowest transportation cost. From these selected fields, crops and harvest system regional storage locations were determined using an alternate location-allocation heuristic with set storage capacity per site. Model results showed that the supply-driven production harvest system greatly reduced system complexity

  10. Success Factor of Woody Biomass Supply Chains in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ahl, Amanda; Eklund, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    There is an abundance of forest in Japan, yet a lack of utilization of woody biomass in energy systems. Small-scale woody biomass can enable a supply chain based on domestic forest integrated with local industry and demands, in turn facilitating local vitalization. Successful creation of collective energy systems is strongly connected to supply chain design based on local conditions and stakeholder integration. A supply chain perspective is key in enabling woody biomass energy systems. In the...

  11. Understanding forest-derived biomass supply with GIS modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hock, B. K.; Blomqvist, L.; Hall, P.

    2012-01-01

    distribution, and the cost of delivery as forests are frequently remote from energy users. A GIS-based model was developed to predict supply curves of forest biomass material for a site or group of sites, both now and in the future. The GIS biomass supply model was used to assist the New Zealand Energy...

  12. Design of sustainable second-generation biomass supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazan, Devrim Yazar; Duren, van Iris; Mes, Martijn; Kersten, Sascha; Clancy, Joy; Zijm, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Operational and economic trade-offs in the design of second-generation biomass (SGB) supply chains guide the decisions about plant scale and location as well as biomass collection routes. This paper compares different SGB supply chain designs with a focus on mobile pyrolysis plants and centralized v

  13. Proximate analysis for amazon biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Antonio Geraldo de Paula; Feitosa Netto, Genesio Batista; Nogueira, Manoel Fernandes Martins; Coutinho, Manoel Fernandes Martins; Coutinho, Hebert Willian Martins; Rendeiro, Goncalo [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia Mecanica (LABGAS)], e-mail: ageraldo@ufpa.br, e-mail: mfmn@ufpa.br, e-mail: rendeiro@ufpa.br

    2006-07-01

    In order to asses the potentiality of Amazon biomass to generate power, either to supply electric energy to the grid or as fuel to plants supplying power for off-grid location, data for their proximate analysis must be available. A literature review on the subject indicated a lack of information and data concerning typical Amazon rain forest species. This work aimed to characterize (proximate analysis) 80 Amazon species in order to evaluate the energy resource from woody biomass wastes in Amazon region. Higher Heating Value, Carbon, Volatile and Ash contents were measured in a dry basis. The measurements were performed obeying the following Brazilian standards, NBR 6923, NBR 8112, NBR 8633, NBR 6922. (author)

  14. Forest biomass supply logistics for a power plant using the discrete-event simulation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobini, Mahdi [Industrial Engineering Group, Department of Wood Science, University of British Columbia, 2943-2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T-1Z4 (Canada); Sowlati, Taraneh [Department of Wood Science, University of British Columbia, 2931-2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T-1Z4 (Canada); Sokhansanj, Shahab [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    This study investigates the logistics of supplying forest biomass to a potential power plant. Due to the complexities in such a supply logistics system, a simulation model based on the framework of Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis and Logistics (IBSAL) is developed in this study to evaluate the cost of delivered forest biomass, the equilibrium moisture content, and carbon emissions from the logistics operations. The model is applied to a proposed case of 300 MW power plant in Quesnel, BC, Canada. The results show that the biomass demand of the power plant would not be met every year. The weighted average cost of delivered biomass to the gate of the power plant is about C$ 90 per dry tonne. Estimates of equilibrium moisture content of delivered biomass and CO{sub 2} emissions resulted from the processes are also provided. (author)

  15. Forest biomass supply logistics for a power plant using the discrete-event simulation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobini, Mahdi [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates the logistics of supplying forest biomass to a potential power plant. Due to the complexities in such a supply logistics system, a simulation model based on the framework of Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis and Logistics (IBSAL) is developed in this study to evaluate the cost of delivered forest biomass, the equilibrium moisture content, and carbon emissions from the logistics operations. The model is applied to a proposed case of 300 MW power plant in Quesnel, BC, Canada. The results show that the biomass demand of the power plant would not be met every year. The weighted average cost of delivered biomass to the gate of the power plant is about C$ 90 per dry tonne. Estimates of equilibrium moisture content of delivered biomass and CO2 emissions resulted from the processes are also provided.

  16. Transport and supply logistics of biomass fuels: Vol. 2. Biomass and strategic modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J.; Browne, M.; Cook, A.; Wicks, N.; Palmer, H.; Hunter, A.; Boyd, J.

    1996-10-01

    This document forms part of the United Kingdom Department of Trade and Industry project ''Transport and Logistics of Biomass Fuels'', which aimed to describe the distribution of existing and potential biomass resources in terms of their supply potential for power stations. Fixed areas of supply, or catchments, have been identified on colour maps of Britain showing the distribution of forest fuel, short rotation coppices, and various types of straw and animal slurry, using a specially written strategic modelling program. Adequate supplies of biomass resources are shown to exist in Britain, but siting of power stations to exploit these resources, will depend on transport and economic considerations appropriate at the time of construction. Biomass power stations in the megawatt capacity range could be resourced. (UK)

  17. Roadmap for Agriculture Biomass Feedstock Supply in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Richard Hess; Thomas D. Foust; Reed Hoskinson; David Thompson

    2003-11-01

    The Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee established a goal that biomass will supply 5% of the nation’s power, 20% of its transportation fuels, and 25% of its chemicals by 2030. These combined goals are approximately equivalent to 30% of the country’s current petroleum consumption. The benefits of a robust biorefinery industry supplying this amount of domestically produced power, fuels, and products are considerable, including decreased demand for imported oil, revenue to the depressed agricultural industry, and revitalized rural economies. A consistent supply of highquality, low-cost feedstock is vital to achieving this goal. This biomass roadmap defines the research and development (R&D) path to supplying the feedstock needs of the biorefinery and to achieving the important national goals set for biomass. To meet these goals, the biorefinery industry must be more sustainable than the systems it will replace. Sustainability hinges on the economic profitability of all participants, on environmental impact of every step in the process, and on social impact of the product and its production. In early 2003, a series of colloquies were held to define and prioritize the R&D needs for supplying feedstock to the biorefinery in a sustainable manner. These colloquies involved participants and stakeholders in the feedstock supply chain, including growers, transporters, equipment manufacturers, and processors as well as environmental groups and others with a vested interest in ensuring the sustainability of the biorefinery. From this series of colloquies, four high-level strategic goals were set for the feedstock area: • Biomass Availability – By 2030, 1 billion dry tons of lignocellulosic feedstock is needed annually to achieve the power, fuel, and chemical production goals set by the Biomass Research and Development Technology Advisory Production Committee • Sustainability – Production and use of the 1 billion dry tons annually must be

  18. Optimization potential of biomass supply chains with torrefaction technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, Batidzirai; van der Hilst, Floortje; Meerman, Hans; Junginger, Martin H.; Faaij, André P C

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the economic and environmental impacts of torrefaction on bioenergy supply chains against conventional pellets for scenarios where biomass is produced in Mozambique, and undergoes pre-processing before shipment to Rotterdam for conversion to power and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels.

  19. Optimization potential of biomass supply chains with torrefaction technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, Batidzirai; van der Hilst, Floortje; Meerman, Hans; Junginger, Martin H.; Faaij, André P C

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the economic and environmental impacts of torrefaction on bioenergy supply chains against conventional pellets for scenarios where biomass is produced in Mozambique, and undergoes pre-processing before shipment to Rotterdam for conversion to power and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels.

  20. Waste biomass toward hydrogen fuel supply chain management for electricity: Malaysia perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Izatul Husna; Ibrahim, Jafni Azhan; Othman, Abdul Aziz

    2016-08-01

    Green energy is becoming an important aspect of every country in the world toward energy security by reducing dependence on fossil fuel import and enhancing better life quality by living in the healthy environment. This conceptual paper is an approach toward determining physical flow's characteristic of waste wood biomass in high scale plantation toward producing gas fuel for electricity using gasification technique. The scope of this study is supply chain management of syngas fuel from wood waste biomass using direct gasification conversion technology. Literature review on energy security, Malaysia's energy mix, Biomass SCM and technology. This paper uses the theoretical framework of a model of transportation (Lumsden, 2006) and the function of the terminal (Hulten, 1997) for research purpose. To incorporate biomass unique properties, Biomass Element Life Cycle Analysis (BELCA) which is a novel technique develop to understand the behaviour of biomass supply. Theoretical framework used to answer the research questions are Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) framework and Sustainable strategy development in supply chain management framework

  1. Biomass supply chain optimisation for Organosolv-based biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarola, Sara; Patel, Mayank; Shah, Nilay

    2014-05-01

    This work aims at providing a Mixed Integer Linear Programming modelling framework to help define planning strategies for the development of sustainable biorefineries. The up-scaling of an Organosolv biorefinery was addressed via optimisation of the whole system economics. Three real world case studies were addressed to show the high-level flexibility and wide applicability of the tool to model different biomass typologies (i.e. forest fellings, cereal residues and energy crops) and supply strategies. Model outcomes have revealed how supply chain optimisation techniques could help shed light on the development of sustainable biorefineries. Feedstock quality, quantity, temporal and geographical availability are crucial to determine biorefinery location and the cost-efficient way to supply the feedstock to the plant. Storage costs are relevant for biorefineries based on cereal stubble, while wood supply chains present dominant pretreatment operations costs.

  2. Environmental and energy performance of the biomass to synthetic natural gas supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, Jan Hessels; Moll, Henri; Benders, Reinerus

    2016-01-01

    A quarter of the total primary energy demand in the European Union is met by natural gas. Synthetic natural gas produced through biomass gasification can contribute to a more sustainable energy supply system. A chain analysis of the energetic performance of synthetic natural gas where the upstream,

  3. Projecting demand and supply of forest biomass for heating in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tromborg, Erik, E-mail: erik.tromborg@umb.no [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 As (Norway); Havskjold, Monica; Lislebo, Ole [Xrgia as, P.O. Box 329, NO-1301, Sandvika (Norway); Rorstad, Per Kristian [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 As (Norway)

    2011-11-15

    This paper assesses the increase in demand and supply for forest biomass for heating in Norway in 2020. By then there is a political aim to double the national production of bioenergy from the level in 2008. The competitiveness of woody biomass in central and district heating is analyzed in a model selecting the least-cost heating technology and scale in municipalities given a set of constraints and under different fuels price scenarios. The supply of forest biomass from roundwood is estimated based on data of forest inventories combined with elasticities regarding price and standing volumes. The supply of biomass from harvesting residues is estimated in an engineering approach based on data from the national forest inventories and roundwood harvest. The results show how the production of bioenergy is affected by changes in energy prices and support schemes for bioenergy. One conclusion from the analyses is that the government target of 14 TWh more bioenergy by 2020 is not likely to be met by current technologies and policy incentives. The contribution of the analysis is the detailed presentation of the heat market potentials and technology choices combined with supply functions for both roundwood and harvesting residues. - Highlights: > This paper accesses the demand and supply for forest biomass for heating in Norway in 2020. > Market share for wood in central and new district heating is analyzed in a cost-minimizing model. > The supply of forest biomass includes wood chips from import, roundwood and harvesting residues. > The production of bioenergy is affected by changes in energy prices and support schemes. > The government target for bioenergy is not met by current technologies and policy incentives.

  4. Biomass Rapid Analysis Network (BRAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-10-01

    Helping the emerging biotechnology industry develop new tools and methods for real-time analysis of biomass feedstocks, process intermediates and The Biomass Rapid Analysis Network is designed to fast track the development of modern tools and methods for biomass analysis to accelerate the development of the emerging industry. The network will be led by industry and organized and coordinated through the National Renewable Energy Lab. The network will provide training and other activities of interest to BRAN members. BRAN members will share the cost and work of rapid analysis method development, validate the new methods, and work together to develop the training for the future biomass conversion workforce.

  5. Integrated supply chain design for commodity chemicals production via woody biomass fast pyrolysis and upgrading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanan; Hu, Guiping; Brown, Robert C

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the optimal supply chain design for commodity chemicals (BTX, etc.) production via woody biomass fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing pathway. The locations and capacities of distributed preprocessing hubs and integrated biorefinery facilities are optimized with a mixed integer linear programming model. In this integrated supply chain system, decisions on the biomass chipping methods (roadside chipping vs. facility chipping) are also explored. The economic objective of the supply chain model is to maximize the profit for a 20-year chemicals production system. In addition to the economic objective, the model also incorporates an environmental objective of minimizing life cycle greenhouse gas emissions, analyzing the trade-off between the economic and environmental considerations. The capital cost, operating cost, and revenues for the biorefinery facilities are based on techno-economic analysis, and the proposed approach is illustrated through a case study of Minnesota, with Minneapolis-St. Paul serving as the chemicals distribution hub.

  6. Regional biomass supply: three case studies in the Midwest, US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, B.C.; Dillivan, K.D.; Ojo, M.A.; Alexander, R.R.; Graham, R.L. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Increased interest in the development and utilization of alternative energy sources has generated research demonstrating that fuels developed from energy crops (biofuels) can be a viable substitute for fossil fuels. A national energy program dedicated to the advancement of fuel derived from lignocellulosic crops could have major impacts on conventional energy supplied in the United States. Sufficient biofuel demand would allow conversion of croplands, as well as some pasture and forest lands, into biomass producing lands and possibly return to production acres formerly idled. A shift from crop, pasture or forest production activities to biomass production would likely require changes in the levels of inputs, outputs, and costs associated with these activities, which would impact producers and ultimately consumers. The conversion of cropland or idled land to biomass production will also have impacts on the physical characteristics of the soil. Soil erosion levels, soil chemical composition, soil structure, and organic matter content are some of the many soil attributes which will be impacted as a result of conversion. Research is needed to estimate the impact conversion activities have on these variables.

  7. Waste biomass-to-energy supply chain management: a critical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovou, E; Karagiannidis, A; Vlachos, D; Toka, A; Malamakis, A

    2010-10-01

    The development of renewable energy sources has clearly emerged as a promising policy towards enhancing the fragile global energy system with its limited fossil fuel resources, as well as for reducing the related environmental problems. In this context, waste biomass utilization has emerged as a viable alternative for energy production, encompassing a wide range of potential thermochemical, physicochemical and bio-chemical processes. Two significant bottlenecks that hinder the increased biomass utilization for energy production are the cost and complexity of its logistics operations. In this manuscript, we present a critical synthesis of the relative state-of-the-art literature as this applies to all stakeholders involved in the design and management of waste biomass supply chains (WBSCs). We begin by presenting the generic system components and then the unique characteristics of WBSCs that differentiate them from traditional supply chains. We proceed by discussing state-of-the-art energy conversion technologies along with the resulting classification of all relevant literature. We then recognize the natural hierarchy of the decision-making process for the design and planning of WBSCs and provide a taxonomy of all research efforts as these are mapped on the relevant strategic, tactical and operational levels of the hierarchy. Our critical synthesis demonstrates that biomass-to-energy production is a rapidly evolving research field focusing mainly on biomass-to-energy production technologies. However, very few studies address the critical supply chain management issues, and the ones that do that, focus mainly on (i) the assessment of the potential biomass and (ii) the allocation of biomass collection sites and energy production facilities. Our analysis further allows for the identification of gaps and overlaps in the existing literature, as well as of critical future research areas. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Indian Farmers’ Perceptions and Willingness to Supply Surplus Biomass to an Envisioned Biomass-Based Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Zyadin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this socio-technical study are to investigate the Indian farmers’ biomass production capacities and their perceptions and willingness to supply their surplus biomass to fuel an envisioned biomass-based power plant in three selected Indian states: Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. For doing so, 471 farmers (about one-third from each state have been interviewed in the field with info-sheet filled in by the field investigators. The farmers from all of the states appeared very much willing to sell their surplus biomass directly to a power plant. The farmers seem to depreciate the involvement of a middleman in the biomass procurement process. The farmers, however, appeared to highly appreciate a community-based association to regulate the biomass prices, with varying perceptions regarding government intervention. The majority of the farmers perceived the establishment of a biomass-based power plant in their region with positive economic outcomes. The farmers identified several barriers to supply biomass to a power plant where transportation logistics appeared to be the main barrier. The study recommends considering biomass collection, storage and transportation logistics as a fundamental segment of any envisioned investment in a biomass-based power plant. Biomass processing, such as pelletization or briquetting is recommended for efficient transportation of biomass at longer distances to reduce the transportation costs. The study further encourages the establishment of a farmers’ association aimed at collecting and selling biomass in agriculture areas predominant for small land holdings.

  9. Design of Sustainable Biomass Value Chains – Optimising the supply logistics and use of biomass over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341355909

    2013-01-01

    Modern bioenergy systems have significant potential to cost-effectively substitute fossil energy carriers with substantial GHG emissions reduction benefits. To mobilise large-scale biomass supplies, large volumes of biomass feedstock need to be secured, and competitive feedstock value chains need to

  10. Design of Sustainable Biomass Value Chains – Optimising the supply logistics and use of biomass over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, B.

    2013-01-01

    Modern bioenergy systems have significant potential to cost-effectively substitute fossil energy carriers with substantial GHG emissions reduction benefits. To mobilise large-scale biomass supplies, large volumes of biomass feedstock need to be secured, and competitive feedstock value chains need to

  11. Macroalgae as a Biomass Feedstock: A Preliminary Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesijadi, Guritno; Jones, Susanne B.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2010-09-26

    A thorough of macroalgae analysis as a biofuels feedstock is warranted due to the size of this biomass resource and the need to consider all potential sources of feedstock to meet current biomass production goals. Understanding how to harness this untapped biomass resource will require additional research and development. A detailed assessment of environmental resources, cultivation and harvesting technology, conversion to fuels, connectivity with existing energy supply chains, and the associated economic and life cycle analyses will facilitate evaluation of this potentially important biomass resource.

  12. Bridging gaps in bioenergy: Deploying system analysis to investigate potential biomass supply, demand and greenhouse gas mitigation scenarios from a national, European and global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, E.T.A.

    2014-01-01

    In transition towards a sustainable energy system with deep reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reduced consumption of fossil fuels, substitution of fossil energy carriers with biomass is considered one of the most important options. In the last decade, fossil energy and GHG mitigation

  13. Uncertainties in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Advanced Biomass Feedstock Logistics Supply Chains in Kansas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Nguyen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To meet Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA cellulosic biofuel mandates, the United States will require an annual domestic supply of about 242 million Mg of biomass by 2022. To improve the feedstock logistics of lignocellulosic biofuels in order to access available biomass resources from areas with varying yields, commodity systems have been proposed and designed to deliver quality-controlled biomass feedstocks at preprocessing “depots”. Preprocessing depots densify and stabilize the biomass prior to long-distance transport and delivery to centralized biorefineries. The logistics of biomass commodity supply chains could introduce spatially variable environmental impacts into the biofuel life cycle due to needing to harvest, move, and preprocess biomass from multiple distances that have variable spatial density. This study examines the uncertainty in greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of corn stover logistics within a bio-ethanol supply chain in the state of Kansas, where sustainable biomass supply varies spatially. Two scenarios were evaluated each having a different number of depots of varying capacity and location within Kansas relative to a central commodity-receiving biorefinery to test GHG emissions uncertainty. The first scenario sited four preprocessing depots evenly across the state of Kansas but within the vicinity of counties having high biomass supply density. The second scenario located five depots based on the shortest depot-to-biorefinery rail distance and biomass availability. The logistics supply chain consists of corn stover harvest, collection and storage, feedstock transport from field to biomass preprocessing depot, preprocessing depot operations, and commodity transport from the biomass preprocessing depot to the biorefinery. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the spatial uncertainty in the feedstock logistics gate-to-gate sequence. Within the logistics supply chain GHG emissions are most sensitive to the

  14. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, Mark [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL; Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Langholtz, Matthew H [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Stokes, Bryce [Navarro Research & Engineering; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL

    2011-08-01

    The report, Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply (generally referred to as the Billion-Ton Study or 2005 BTS), was an estimate of 'potential' biomass based on numerous assumptions about current and future inventory, production capacity, availability, and technology. The analysis was made to determine if conterminous U.S. agriculture and forestry resources had the capability to produce at least one billion dry tons of sustainable biomass annually to displace 30% or more of the nation's present petroleum consumption. An effort was made to use conservative estimates to assure confidence in having sufficient supply to reach the goal. The potential biomass was projected to be reasonably available around mid-century when large-scale biorefineries are likely to exist. The study emphasized primary sources of forest- and agriculture-derived biomass, such as logging residues, fuel treatment thinnings, crop residues, and perennially grown grasses and trees. These primary sources have the greatest potential to supply large, reliable, and sustainable quantities of biomass. While the primary sources were emphasized, estimates of secondary residue and tertiary waste resources of biomass were also provided. The original Billion-Ton Resource Assessment, published in 2005, was divided into two parts-forest-derived resources and agriculture-derived resources. The forest resources included residues produced during the harvesting of merchantable timber, forest residues, and small-diameter trees that could become available through initiatives to reduce fire hazards and improve forest health; forest residues from land conversion; fuelwood extracted from forests; residues generated at primary forest product processing mills; and urban wood wastes, municipal solid wastes (MSW), and construction and demolition (C&D) debris. For these forest resources, only residues, wastes, and small

  15. Forest biomass supply for bioenergy in the southeast: Evaluating assessment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher S. Galik; Robert C. Abt

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential impacts of expanded forest biomass use in the Southeast from present year through 2036, focusing on the forest supply, industrial, and GHG emissions implications of maximizing biomass co-firing with coal. We model demand scenarios at the state, subregional, and regional levels, and assess the influence of study scale on the observed...

  16. Feedstock Supply and Logistics: Biomass as a Commodity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-05-06

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office and its partners are developing the technologies and systems needed to sustainably and economically deliver a broad range of biomass in formats that enable their efficient use as feedstocks for biorefineries.

  17. Biomass Supply and Trade Opportunities of Preprocessed Biomass for Power Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, B.; Junginger, M.; Klemm, M.; Schipfer, F.; Thrän, D.

    2016-01-01

    International trade of solid biomass is expected to increase significantly given the global distribution of biomass resources and anticipated expansion of bioenergy deployment in key global power markets. Given the unique characteristics of biomass, its long-distance trade requires optimized logisti

  18. Analyzing and Comparing Biomass Feedstock Supply Systems in China: Corn Stover and Sweet Sorghum Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lantian Ren

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the rural Chinese biomass supply system and models supply chain operations according to U.S. concepts of logistical unit operations: harvest and collection, storage, transportation, preprocessing, and handling and queuing. In this paper, we quantify the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum in China under different scenarios. We analyze three scenarios of corn stover logistics from northeast China and three scenarios of sweet sorghum stalks logistics from Inner Mongolia in China. The case study estimates that the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk to be $52.95/dry metric ton and $52.64/dry metric ton, respectively, for the current labor-based biomass logistics system. However, if the feedstock logistics operation is mechanized, the cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk decreases to $36.01/dry metric ton and $35.76/dry metric ton, respectively. The study also includes a sensitivity analysis to identify the cost factors that cause logistics cost variation. Results of the sensitivity analysis show that labor price has the most influence on the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk, with a variation of $6 to $12/dry metric ton.

  19. Geospatial economics of the woody biomass supply in Kansas -- A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olga Khaliukova; Darci Paull; Sarah L. Lewis-Gonzales; Nicolas Andre; Larry E. Biles; Timothy M. Young; James H. Perdue

    2017-01-01

    This research assessed the geospatial supply of cellulosic feedstocks for potential mill sites in Kansas (KS), with procurement zones extending to Arkansas (AR), Iowa(IA), Missouri(MO), Oklahoma (OK), and Nebraska (NE). A web-based modeling system, the Kansas Biomass Supply Assessment Tool, was developed to identify least-cost sourcing areas for logging residues and...

  20. Biomass use in chemical and mechanical pulping with biomass-based energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Jonas M.; Gustavsson, Leif [Department of Engineering Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2007-12-15

    The pulp and paper industry is energy intensive and consumes large amounts of wood. Biomass is a limited resource and its efficient use is therefore important. In this study, the total amount of biomass used for pulp and for energy is estimated for the production of several woodfree (containing only chemical pulp) and mechanical (containing mechanical pulp) printing paper products, under Swedish conditions. Chemical pulp mills today are largely self-sufficient in energy while mechanical pulp mills depend on large amounts of external electricity. Technically, all energy used in pulp- and papermaking can be biomass based. Here, we assume that all energy used, including external electricity and motor fuels, is based on forest biomass. The whole cradle-to-gate chain is included in the analyses. The results indicate that the total amount of biomass required per tonne paper is slightly lower for woodfree than for mechanical paper. For the biomass use per paper area, the paper grammage is decisive. If the grammage can be lowered by increasing the proportion of mechanical pulp, this may lower the biomass use per paper area, despite the higher biomass use per unit mass in mechanical paper. In the production of woodfree paper, energy recovery from residues in the mill accounts for most of the biomass use, while external electricity production accounts for the largest part for mechanical paper. Motor fuel production accounts for 5-7% of the biomass use. The biomass contained in the final paper product is 21-42% of the total biomass use, indicating that waste paper recovery is important. The biomass use was found to be about 15-17% lower for modelled, modern mills compared with mills representative of today's average technology. (author)

  1. Single and multiple objective biomass-to-biofuel supply chain optimization considering environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles Sosa, Claudia Evangelina

    Bioenergy has become an important alternative source of energy to alleviate the reliance on petroleum energy. Bioenergy offers diminishing climate change by reducing Green House Gas Emissions, as well as providing energy security and enhancing rural development. The Energy Independence and Security Act mandate the use of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels including 16 billion gallons of cellulosic biofuels by the year 2022. It is clear that Biomass can make a substantial contribution to supply future energy demand in a sustainable way. However, the supply of sustainable energy is one of the main challenges that mankind will face over the coming decades. For instance, many logistical challenges will be faced in order to provide an efficient and reliable supply of quality feedstock to biorefineries. 700 million tons of biomass will be required to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually to meet the projected use of biofuels by the year of 2022. Approaching this complex logistic problem as a multi-commodity network flow structure, the present work proposes the use of a genetic algorithm as a single objective optimization problem that considers the maximization of profit and the present work also proposes the use of a Multiple Objective Evolutionary Algorithm to simultaneously maximize profit while minimizing global warming potential. Most transportation optimization problems available in the literature have mostly considered the maximization of profit or the minimization of total travel time as potential objectives to be optimized. However, on this research work, we take a more conscious and sustainable approach for this logistic problem. Planners are increasingly expected to adopt a multi-disciplinary approach, especially due to the rising importance of environmental stewardship. The role of a transportation planner and designer is shifting from simple economic analysis to promoting sustainability through the integration of environmental objectives. To

  2. Potential and possibilities of supplying energy from biomass and biogas; Potentiale und Moeglichkeiten der Energiebereitstellung durch Biomasse und Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnenberg, H. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Betriebstechnik; Weiland, P.; Ahlgrimm, H.J. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (FAL), Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Technologie

    1998-06-01

    Agriculture`s potential contribution to the energy supply of the ``town of the future`` through the conversion of biomass to energy, including biogas production, is a rather modest one. Supposing that the share of total renewable energy in Germany`s primary energy demand rises to approximately 4%, then the proportion of biomass from biotic raw materials especially produced for the purpose will at the most make up an eighth of this amount. Beyond this, biomass is burdened with other drawbacks such as low supply efficiency, limited availability, and weather-dependent reliability. On the other hand, biomass is well suited for conversion to solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels, including inexpensive ones with low energy density (solid fuels), mostly used for stationary heating applications, as well as more expensive ones such as liquid fuels with a high energy density for mobile applications in the automotive sector. Thanks to its capacity to regenerate, biomass is an inexhaustible resource. Moreover, its natural life cycle has a small impact on the environment. [Deutsch] Der Beitrag, den die Landwirtschaft durch energetische Nutzung von Biomasse, z.B. auch mit der Erzeugung von Biogas, zur Energieversorgung der `Stadt der Zukunft` leisten kann, nimmt sich bescheiden aus. Wird erwartet, dass innerhalb des naechsten Jahrzehnts der Anteil regenerativer Energien insgesamt auf etwa 4% des Primaerenergie-Verbrauchs Deutschlands ansteigen koennte, so duerfte Biomasse als speziell zur Energiegewinnung angebaute nachwachsende Rohstoffe mit bestensfalls 0,5 Prozentpunkten daran beteiligt sein. Es beduerfen darueber hinaus auch Nachteile, wie geringe Bereitstellungseffizienz, beschraenkte Verfuegbarkeit und witterungsabhaengige Zuverlaessigkeit, der Beachtung. Die Biomasse kann jedoch mit Erfolg in feste, fluessige und gasfoermige Energietraeger konvertiert werden, sowohl in preiswerte mit geringer Energiedichte (Festbrennstoffe) fuer bevorzugt stationaeren Heizungs-Einsatz als auch

  3. Biomass proximate analysis using thermogravimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Roberto; Pizarro, Consuelo; Lavín, Antonio G; Bueno, Julio L

    2013-07-01

    This work proposes a 25 min-last thermogravimetric method as a tool to determine biomass sample's proximate analysis data (moisture, ash, volatile matter and fixed carbon contents) just by direct measure of weight changes on each sample's TG chart. Compared with international standards commonly used to that aim, TG is a faster and easier to develop technique. Obtained results were satisfactory, with AEE under 6% for moisture and volatile matter, close to 10% for fixed carbon determination and AAD of 1.6 points for ash content.

  4. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, Mark [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL; Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Langholtz, Matthew H [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Stokes, Bryce [Navarro Research & Engineering; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL

    2011-08-01

    The report, Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply (generally referred to as the Billion-Ton Study or 2005 BTS), was an estimate of 'potential' biomass based on numerous assumptions about current and future inventory, production capacity, availability, and technology. The analysis was made to determine if conterminous U.S. agriculture and forestry resources had the capability to produce at least one billion dry tons of sustainable biomass annually to displace 30% or more of the nation's present petroleum consumption. An effort was made to use conservative estimates to assure confidence in having sufficient supply to reach the goal. The potential biomass was projected to be reasonably available around mid-century when large-scale biorefineries are likely to exist. The study emphasized primary sources of forest- and agriculture-derived biomass, such as logging residues, fuel treatment thinnings, crop residues, and perennially grown grasses and trees. These primary sources have the greatest potential to supply large, reliable, and sustainable quantities of biomass. While the primary sources were emphasized, estimates of secondary residue and tertiary waste resources of biomass were also provided. The original Billion-Ton Resource Assessment, published in 2005, was divided into two parts-forest-derived resources and agriculture-derived resources. The forest resources included residues produced during the harvesting of merchantable timber, forest residues, and small-diameter trees that could become available through initiatives to reduce fire hazards and improve forest health; forest residues from land conversion; fuelwood extracted from forests; residues generated at primary forest product processing mills; and urban wood wastes, municipal solid wastes (MSW), and construction and demolition (C&D) debris. For these forest resources, only residues, wastes, and small

  5. BIOMASS SUPPLY FOR BIOFUEL PRODUCTION: ESTIMATES FOR THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbu Kumarappan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The potential supply of biomass feedstocks in the US and Canada is estimated using a static supply function approach. Estimated total biomass available at a price of $100 per metric ton is 568 million metric tons in the US and 123 million tons in Canada, which together can displace 23-45 billion gallons of gasoline. Sufficient biomass, mainly agricultural and mill residues, will be available at prices of around $50/ton to meet the advanced biofuel mandates of the US Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. The estimates of agricultural residue supply are very sensitive to the assumed fraction of residues that can be sustainably removed from the field, and the potential of municipal solid waste as a feedstock depends on which components can be economically converted into liquid biofuels.

  6. MODEL BASED BIOMASS SYSTEM DESIGN OF FEEDSTOCK SUPPLY SYSTEMS FOR BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Muth, Jr.; Jacob J. Jacobson; Kenneth M. Bryden

    2013-08-01

    Engineering feedstock supply systems that deliver affordable, high-quality biomass remains a challenge for the emerging bioenergy industry. Cellulosic biomass is geographically distributed and has diverse physical and chemical properties. Because of this feedstock supply systems that deliver cellulosic biomass resources to biorefineries require integration of a broad set of engineered unit operations. These unit operations include harvest and collection, storage, preprocessing, and transportation processes. Design decisions for each feedstock supply system unit operation impact the engineering design and performance of the other system elements. These interdependencies are further complicated by spatial and temporal variances such as climate conditions and biomass characteristics. This paper develops an integrated model that couples a SQL-based data management engine and systems dynamics models to design and evaluate biomass feedstock supply systems. The integrated model, called the Biomass Logistics Model (BLM), includes a suite of databases that provide 1) engineering performance data for hundreds of equipment systems, 2) spatially explicit labor cost datasets, and 3) local tax and regulation data. The BLM analytic engine is built in the systems dynamics software package PowersimTM. The BLM is designed to work with thermochemical and biochemical based biofuel conversion platforms and accommodates a range of cellulosic biomass types (i.e., herbaceous residues, short- rotation woody and herbaceous energy crops, woody residues, algae, etc.). The BLM simulates the flow of biomass through the entire supply chain, tracking changes in feedstock characteristics (i.e., moisture content, dry matter, ash content, and dry bulk density) as influenced by the various operations in the supply chain. By accounting for all of the equipment that comes into contact with biomass from the point of harvest to the throat of the conversion facility and the change in characteristics, the

  7. Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-07-01

    At the Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory, NREL scientists have more than 20 years of experience supporting the biomass conversion industry. They develop, refine, and validate analytical methods to determine the chemical composition of biomass samples before, during, and after conversion processing. These high-quality compositional analysis data are used to determine feedstock compositions as well as mass balances and product yields from conversion processes.

  8. Analyzing and Comparing Biomass Feedstock Supply Systems in China: Corn Stover and Sweet Sorghum Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Lantian Ren; Kara Cafferty; Mohammad Roni; Jacob Jacobson; Guanghui Xie; Leslie Ovard; Christopher Wright

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the rural Chinese biomass supply system and models supply chain operations according to U.S. concepts of logistical unit operations: harvest and collection, storage, transportation, preprocessing, and handling and queuing. In this paper, we quantify the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum in China under different scenarios. We analyze three scenarios of corn stover logistics from northeast China and three scenarios of sweet sorghum stalks logistics from Inner M...

  9. Environmental and Energetic Performance of the Biomass to Synthetic Natural Gas Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Miedema

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A quarter of the total primary energy demand in the European Union is met by natural gas. Synthetic natural gas produced through biomass gasification can contribute to a more sustainable energy supply system. A chain analysis of the energetic performance of synthetic natural gas where the upstream, midstream and downstream part are included has not been found in literature. The energy performance of the possible large-scale application of synthetic natural gas is therefore unsure. A model was designed to analyse the performance of the biomass to synthetic natural gas chain and to estimate the effect of 1% synthetic natural gas in the energy system. A break-even distance is introduced to determine whether it is energetically feasible to apply pretreatment. Results show that torrefaction and pelleting are energetically unfeasible within the European Union. Emissions can be reduced with almost 70% compared to a fossil reference scenario. Over 1.2 Mha is required to fulfil 0.25% of the total primary energy demand in the European Union.

  10. An assessment of biomass feedstock availability for the supply of bioenergy to University College Dublin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, Peter G.; McDonnell, Kevin P. [Bioresource Research Centre, Biosystems Engineering, School of Agriculture, Food Science and Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2010-12-15

    As the cost of energy rises due to an increase in fossil fuels prices, the need to develop a sustainable alternative that will reduce green house gas emissions has increased in importance. One such alternative to reduce dependency on fossil fuels is the use of biomass for bioenergy generation. This study aims to quantify how much biomass can be produced in a specific area with a maximum haulage distance of 75 km to its end location, in this case, a large residential campus, to supply fuel to a biomass boiler. The study is carried out by identifying potential sources of biomass within the catchment zone and then quantifying it under different scenarios. The first scenario focuses on minimum land use impact, which quantifies how much biomass could be achieved taking just 10% of biomass from the sources identified. The second scenario is the maximum energy scenario and is set out to establish the maximum amount of energy that could be generated within the catchment zone using 50-100% of available biomass. The final scenario is the environmental scenario which looks to quantify biomass while not infringing on existing land uses such as agriculture and forestry. Results show that scenario one could produce almost 6 PJ of energy which is, scenario two could produce over 31 PJ of energy and scenario three could produce almost 14 PJ of energy. (author)

  11. A Multi-Objective, Hub-and-Spoke Supply Chain Design Model for Densified Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Md. S. Roni; Kara G. Cafferty; Sandra D. Eksioglu

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we propose a model to design the supply chain for densified biomass. Rail is typically used for longhaul, high-volume shipment of densified biomass. This is the reason why a hub-and-spoke network structure is used to model this supply chain. The model is formulated as a multi-objective, mixed-integer programing problem under economic, environmental, and social criteria. The goal is to identify the feasibility of meeting the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) by using biomass for production of cellulosic ethanol. The focus is not just on the costs associated with meeting these standards, but also exploring the social and environmental benefits that biomass production and processing offers by creating new jobs and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We develop an augmented ?-constraint method to find the exact Pareto solution to this optimization problem. We develop a case study using data from the Mid-West. The model identifies the number, capacity and location of biorefineries needed to make use of the biomass available in the region. The model estimates the delivery cost of cellulosic ethanol under different scenario, the number new jobs created and the GHG emission reductions in the supply chain.

  12. A Multi-Objective, Hub-and-Spoke Supply Chain Design Model For Densified Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Md S. Roni; Sandra Eksioglu; Kara G. Cafferty

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we propose a model to design the supply chain for densified biomass. Rail is typically used for long-haul, high-volume shipment of densified biomass. This is the reason why a hub-and-spoke network structure is used to model this supply chain. The model is formulated as a multi-objective, mixed-integer programing problem under economic, environmental, and social criteria. The goal is to identify the feasibility of meeting the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) by using biomass for production of cellulosic ethanol. The focus in not just on the costs associated with meeting these standards, but also exploring the social and environmental benefits that biomass production and processing offers by creating new jobs and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We develop an augmented ?-constraint method to find the exact Pareto solution to this optimization problem. We develop a case study using data from the Mid-West. The model identifies the number, capacity and location of biorefineries needed to make use of the biomass available in the region. The model estimates the delivery cost of cellulosic ethanol under different scenario, the number new jobs created and the GHG emission reductions in the supply chain.

  13. Model collaboration for the improved assessment of biomass supply, demand, and impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, Birka; van der Hilst, Floortje; Daioglou, Vasileios; Banse, Martin; Beringer, Tim; Gerssen - Gondelach, Sarah; Heijnen, Sanne; Karssenberg, Derek; Laborde, David; Lippe, Melvin; van Meijl, Hans; Nassar, André; Powell, Jeff; Prins, Anne Gerdien; Rose, Steve N K; Smeets, Edward M W; Stehfest, Elke; Tyner, Wallace E.; Verstegen, Judith A.; Valin, Hugo; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Yeh, Sonia; Faaij, André P C

    2015-01-01

    Existing assessments of biomass supply and demand and their impacts face various types of limitations and uncertainties, partly due to the type of tools and methods applied (e.g., partial representation of sectors, lack of geographical details, and aggregated representation of technologies involved)

  14. BIOMASS TO ENERGY IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES: SUPPLY CHAIN AND DELIVERED COST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronalds W. Gonzalez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain and delivered cost models for seven feedstocks (loblolly pine, Eucalyptus, natural hardwood, switchgrass, Miscanthus, sweet sorghum, and corn stover were built, simulating a supply of 453,597 dry tons per year to a biorefinery. Delivered cost of forest-based feedstocks ranged from $69 to $71 per dry ton. On the other hand, delivered cost of agricultural biomass ranged from $77.60 to $102.50 per dry ton. The total production area required for fast growing feedstocks was estimated as between 22,500 to 27,000 hectares, while the total production area for feedstocks with lower biomass productivity ranged from 101,200 to 202,300 hectares (corn stover and natural hardwood, respectively. Lower delivered cost per ton of carbohydrate and million BTU were found for loblolly pine, Eucalyptus, and natural hardwood. In addition, agricultural biomass had higher delivered costs for carbohydrate and energy value.

  15. Biomass supply chain management in North Carolina (part 1: predictive model for cropland conversion to biomass feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Caffrey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in biomass cultivation requires detailed analysis of spatial production potential of possible biorefinery locations, with emphasis on feedstock production cost minimization. Integrated assessment of publicly available spatial data on current crop production, soil type, and yield potential, coupled with techno-economic production cost estimates, can support a functional method for rapid analysis of potential biorefinery sites. A novel predictive model was developed to determine cropland conversion using a probabilistic profit based equation for multiple biomass crops: giant reed, miscanthus, switchgrass, and sorghum (with either canola or barley as a winter crop. The three primary regions of North Carolina (Mountains, Piedmont, and Coastal Plain were used as a case study and with a single parameter uncertainty analysis was completed. According to the model, the county chosen to represent the Coastal Plain (Duplin County had the largest potential acreage that would be converted (15,071 ha, 7.1% total land, 9.3% of cropland primarily to sorghum with canola as a winter crop. Large portions were also predicted to convert to giant reed and switchgrass, depending on the price and yield parameters used. The Piedmont (Granville County, 7697 ha, 5.5% total land, 6.9% cropland and Mountain (Henderson County, 2117 ha, 2.2% total land, 2.3% cropland regions were predicted to convert primarily to switchgrass acreage for biomass production, with much less available biomass overall compared to the Coastal Plain. This model provided meaningful insight into regional cropping systems and feedstock availability, allowing for improved business planning in designated regions. Determination of cropland conversion is imperative to develop realistic biomass logistical operations, which in conjunction can assist with rapid determination of profitable biomass availability. After this rapid analysis method is conducted in-depth on-ground biorefinery

  16. A decision model for cost effective design of biomass based green energy supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz Balaman, Şebnem; Selim, Hasan

    2015-09-01

    The core driver of this study is to deal with the design of anaerobic digestion based biomass to energy supply chains in a cost effective manner. In this concern, a decision model is developed. The model is based on fuzzy multi objective decision making in order to simultaneously optimize multiple economic objectives and tackle the inherent uncertainties in the parameters and decision makers' aspiration levels for the goals. The viability of the decision model is explored with computational experiments on a real-world biomass to energy supply chain and further analyses are performed to observe the effects of different conditions. To this aim, scenario analyses are conducted to investigate the effects of energy crop utilization and operational costs on supply chain structure and performance measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sustainable global energy supply based on lignocellulosic biomass from afforestation of degraded areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Jürgen O.; Hüttermann, Aloys

    2009-02-01

    An important aspect of present global energy scenarios is the assumption that the amount of biomass that can be grown on the available area is so limited that a scenario based on biomass as the major source of energy should be unrealistic. We have been investigating the question whether a Biomass Scenario may be realistic. We found that the global energy demand projected by the International Energy Agency in the Reference Scenario for the year 2030 could be provided sustainably and economically primarily from lignocellulosic biomass grown on areas which have been degraded by human activities in historical times. Moreover, other renewable energies will contribute to the energy mix. There would be no competition with increasing food demand for existing arable land. Afforestation of degraded areas and investment for energy and fuel usage of the biomass are not more expensive than investment in energy infrastructure necessary up to 2030 assumed in the fossil energy based Reference Scenario, probably much cheaper considering the additional advantages such as stopping the increase of and even slowly reducing the CO2 content of the atmosphere, soil, and water conservation and desertification control. Most importantly, investment for a Biomass Scenario would be actually sustainable, in contrast to investment in energy-supply infrastructure of the Reference Scenario. Methods of afforestation of degraded areas, cultivation, and energetic usage of lignocellulosic biomass are available but have to be further improved. Afforestation can be started immediately, has an impact in some few years, and may be realized in some decades.

  18. Sustainable global energy supply based on lignocellulosic biomass from afforestation of degraded areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Jürgen O; Hüttermann, Aloys

    2009-02-01

    An important aspect of present global energy scenarios is the assumption that the amount of biomass that can be grown on the available area is so limited that a scenario based on biomass as the major source of energy should be unrealistic. We have been investigating the question whether a Biomass Scenario may be realistic. We found that the global energy demand projected by the International Energy Agency in the Reference Scenario for the year 2030 could be provided sustainably and economically primarily from lignocellulosic biomass grown on areas which have been degraded by human activities in historical times. Moreover, other renewable energies will contribute to the energy mix. There would be no competition with increasing food demand for existing arable land. Afforestation of degraded areas and investment for energy and fuel usage of the biomass are not more expensive than investment in energy infrastructure necessary up to 2030 assumed in the fossil energy based Reference Scenario, probably much cheaper considering the additional advantages such as stopping the increase of and even slowly reducing the CO(2) content of the atmosphere, soil, and water conservation and desertification control. Most importantly, investment for a Biomass Scenario would be actually sustainable, in contrast to investment in energy-supply infrastructure of the Reference Scenario. Methods of afforestation of degraded areas, cultivation, and energetic usage of lignocellulosic biomass are available but have to be further improved. Afforestation can be started immediately, has an impact in some few years, and may be realized in some decades.

  19. Linking state-and-transition simulation and timber supply models for forest biomass production scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K. Costanza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We linked state-and-transition simulation models (STSMs with an economics-based timber supply model to examine landscape dynamics in North Carolina through 2050 for three scenarios of forest biomass production. Forest biomass could be an important source of renewable energy in the future, but there is currently much uncertainty about how biomass production would impact landscapes. In the southeastern US, if forests become important sources of biomass for bioenergy, we expect increased land-use change and forest management. STSMs are ideal for simulating these landscape changes, but the amounts of change will depend on drivers such as timber prices and demand for forest land, which are best captured with forest economic models. We first developed state-and-transition model pathways in the ST-Sim software platform for 49 vegetation and land-use types that incorporated each expected type of landscape change. Next, for the three biomass production scenarios, the SubRegional Timber Supply Model (SRTS was used to determine the annual areas of thinning and harvest in five broad forest types, as well as annual areas converted among those forest types, agricultural, and urban lands. The SRTS output was used to define area targets for STSMs in ST-Sim under two scenarios of biomass production and one baseline, business-as-usual scenario. We show that ST-Sim output matched SRTS targets in most cases. Landscape dynamics results indicate that, compared with the baseline scenario, forest biomass production leads to more forest and, specifically, more intensively managed forest on the landscape by 2050. Thus, the STSMs, informed by forest economics models, provide important information about potential landscape effects of bioenergy production.

  20. Linking state-and-transition simulation and timber supply models for forest biomass production scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Jennifer; Abt, Robert C.; McKerrow, Alexa; Collazo, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    We linked state-and-transition simulation models (STSMs) with an economics-based timber supply model to examine landscape dynamics in North Carolina through 2050 for three scenarios of forest biomass production. Forest biomass could be an important source of renewable energy in the future, but there is currently much uncertainty about how biomass production would impact landscapes. In the southeastern US, if forests become important sources of biomass for bioenergy, we expect increased land-use change and forest management. STSMs are ideal for simulating these landscape changes, but the amounts of change will depend on drivers such as timber prices and demand for forest land, which are best captured with forest economic models. We first developed state-and-transition model pathways in the ST-Sim software platform for 49 vegetation and land-use types that incorporated each expected type of landscape change. Next, for the three biomass production scenarios, the SubRegional Timber Supply Model (SRTS) was used to determine the annual areas of thinning and harvest in five broad forest types, as well as annual areas converted among those forest types, agricultural, and urban lands. The SRTS output was used to define area targets for STSMs in ST-Sim under two scenarios of biomass production and one baseline, business-as-usual scenario. We show that ST-Sim output matched SRTS targets in most cases. Landscape dynamics results indicate that, compared with the baseline scenario, forest biomass production leads to more forest and, specifically, more intensively managed forest on the landscape by 2050. Thus, the STSMs, informed by forest economics models, provide important information about potential landscape effects of bioenergy production.

  1. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haq, Zia [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Analysis Platform Review meeting.

  2. TG-FTIR analysis of biomass pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassilakis, R.; Carangelo, R.M.; Wojtowicz, M.A. [Advanced Fuel Research Inc., Hartford, CT (United States)

    2001-10-09

    A great need exists for comprehensive biomass-pyrolysis models that could predict yields and evolution patterns of selected volatile products as a function of feedstock characteristics and process conditions. A thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared analysis of evolving products (TG-FTIR) can provide useful input to such models in the form of kinetic information obtained under low heating rate conditions. In this work, robust TG-FTIR quantification routes were developed for infrared analysis of volatile products relevant to biomass pyrolysis. The analysis was applied to wheat straw, three types of tobacco (Burley, Oriental, and Bright) and three biomass model compounds (xylan, chlorogenic acid, and D-glucose). Product yields were compared with literature data, and species potentially quantifiable by FT-IR are reviewed. Product-evolution patterns are reported for all seven biomass samples. 41 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Biofuel supply chain, market, and policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei

    Renewable fuel is receiving an increasing attention as a substitute for fossil based energy. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has employed increasing effort on promoting the advanced biofuel productions. Although the advanced biofuel remains at its early stage, it is expected to play an important role in climate policy in the future in the transportation sector. This dissertation studies the emerging biofuel supply chain and markets by analyzing the production cost, and the outcomes of the biofuel market, including blended fuel market price and quantity, biofuel contract price and quantity, profitability of each stakeholder (farmers, biofuel producers, biofuel blenders) in the market. I also address government policy impacts on the emerging biofuel market. The dissertation is composed with three parts, each in a paper format. The first part studies the supply chain of emerging biofuel industry. Two optimization-based models are built to determine the number of facilities to deploy, facility locations, facility capacities, and operational planning within facilities. Cost analyses have been conducted under a variety of biofuel demand scenarios. It is my intention that this model will shed light on biofuel supply chain design considering operational planning under uncertain demand situations. The second part of the dissertation work focuses on analyzing the interaction between the key stakeholders along the supply chain. A bottom-up equilibrium model is built for the emerging biofuel market to study the competition in the advanced biofuel market, explicitly formulating the interactions between farmers, biofuel producers, blenders, and consumers. The model simulates the profit maximization of multiple market entities by incorporating their competitive decisions in farmers' land allocation, biomass transportation, biofuel production, and biofuel blending. As such, the equilibrium model is capable of and appropriate for policy analysis, especially for those policies

  4. Simulating Pelletization Strategies to Reduce the Biomass Supply Risk at America’s Biorefineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Shane Carnohan; Andrew Ford; Allyson Beall

    2014-07-01

    Demand for cellulosic ethanol and other advanced biofuels has been on the rise, due in part to federal targets enacted in 2005 and extended in 2007. The industry faces major challenges in meeting these worthwhile and ambitious targets. The challenges are especially severe in the logistics of timely feedstock delivery to biorefineries. Logistical difficulties arise from seasonal production that forces the biomass to be stored in uncontrolled field-side environments. In this storage format physical difficulties arise; transportation is hindered by the low bulk density of baled biomass and the unprotected material can decay leading to unpredictable losses. Additionally, uncertain yields and contractual difficulties can exacerbate these challenges making biorefineries a high-risk venture. Investors’ risk could limit business entry and prevent America from reaching the targets. This paper explores pelletizer strategies to convert the lignocellulosic biomass into a denser form more suitable for storage. The densification of biomass would reduce supply risks, and the new system would outperform conventional biorefinery supply systems. Pelletizer strategies exhibit somewhat higher costs, but the reduction in risk is well worth the extra cost if America is to grow the advanced biofuels industry in a sustainable manner.

  5. Biomass logistics analysis for large scale biofuel production: case study of loblolly pine and switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoming; Withers, Mitch R; Seifkar, Navid; Field, Randall P; Barrett, Steven R H; Herzog, Howard J

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the costs, energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the biomass supply chain for large scale biofuel production. Two types of energy crop were considered, switchgrass and loblolly pine, as representative of herbaceous and woody biomass. A biomass logistics model has been developed to estimate the feedstock supply system from biomass production through transportation. Biomass in the form of woodchip, bale and pellet was investigated with road, railway and waterway transportation options. Our analysis indicated that the farm or forest gate cost is lowest for loblolly pine whole tree woodchip at $39.7/dry tonne and highest for switchgrass round bale at $72.3/dry tonne. Switchgrass farm gate GHG emissions is approximately 146kgCO2e/dry tonne, about 4 times higher than loblolly pine. The optimum biomass transportation mode and delivered form are determined by the tradeoff between fixed and variable costs for feedstock shipment.

  6. Supply-Chain Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    security score upon first submission – 3/1/2010 Measured Against CWE/SANS Top-25 Errors 24 SQL Database Query Output: All records with ID = 48983...exploitable design or coding errors • Very little data for software supply chains 8 Software Supply Chain Complexity-1 Composite inherits risk from any point... Relative Effort Operational Capabilities Knowledge of Supplier Capabilities Knowledge of Product Attributes 13 Supply-Chain Risk Categories Category

  7. Biomass as feedstock for a bioenergy and bioproducts industry: The technical feasibility of a billion-ton annual supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, Robert D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wright, Lynn L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Turhollow, Anthony F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Graham, Robin L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stokes, Bryce J. [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. (United States); Erbach, Donald C. [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30% or more of the country's present petroleum consumption.

  8. Gasohol - Analysis and biomass alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    The economics of fermentation ethanol as a near-term alternative to liquid hydrocarbon fuels are analyzed and alternatives to grain-fermented ethanol are examined. Based on estimates of raw material and production costs and energy consumption, it is shown that net production costs for alcohol fuel from corn amount to $2.14/gallon, with no significant net consumption or gain in energy. It is also pointed out that the use of grain for alcohol production will influence quantities available for livestock production and export, and that land available for grain production is limited. Consideration is then given to the economic potential of using cellulosic biomass from agricultural and forest residues in the production of ethanol fuels and coal gasification for methanol production, and it is pointed out that these alternatives offer economic, energy and oil-savings advantages over ethanol production from grains.

  9. Elymus repens biomass allocation and acquisition as affected by light and nutrient supply and companion crop competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringselle, Björn; Prieto-Ruiz, Inés; Andersson, Lars; Aronsson, Helena; Bergkvist, Göran

    2017-02-01

    Competitive crops are a central component of resource-efficient weed control, especially for problematic perennial weeds such as Elymus repens Competition not only reduces total weed biomass, but denial of resources can also change the allocation pattern - potentially away from the underground storage organs that make perennial weeds difficult to control. Thus, the competition mode of crops may be an important component in the design of resource-efficient cropping systems. Our aim was to determine how competition from companion crops with different modes of competition affect E. repens biomass acquisition and allocation and discuss that in relation to how E. repens responds to different levels of light and nutrient supply. Greenhouse experiments were conducted with E. repens growing in interspecific competition with increasing density of perennial ryegrass or red clover, or growing at three levels of both light and nutrient supply. Elymus repens total biomass decreased with increasing biomass of the companion crop and the rate of decrease was higher with red clover than with perennial ryegrass, particularly for E. repens rhizome biomass. A reduced nutrient supply shifted E. repens allocation towards below-ground biomass while a reduced light supply shifted it towards shoot biomass. Red clover caused no change in E. repens allocation pattern, while ryegrass mostly shifted the allocation towards below-ground biomass, but the change was not correlated with ryegrass biomass. The companion crop mode of competition influences both the suppression rate of E. repens biomass acquisition and the likelihood of shifts in E. repens biomass allocation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Sustainability Analysis for Gayo Coffee Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachman Jaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable supply chain is a development of the conventional supply chains that discuses trade-off among economic, social and environmental dimensions in order to achieve better responsiveness in terms of quality, quantity and time-delivery in the supply chain structure. The objective of this research was to determine the Gayo coffee supply chain sustainability. The research was conducted at Bener Meriah and Aceh Tengah Districts, Aceh Province, Indonesia. Key actors in the supply chain considered were farmers, collectors, agro-industry and exporter. Sustainability dimensions considered in this research were the economic, social, environmental and material resources. The performance of each aspect was analyzed by using Multi-dimensional scaling and leverage analysis. The result of the research showed that the composite of Gayo coffee supply chain sustainability index was 33.53 which mean less sustainable level. Therefore it is recommended to reengineering the Gayo coffee supply chain by considering all of the four sustainability dimensions above.

  11. Putney Basketville Site Biomass CHP Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsberger, Randolph [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mosey, Gail [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Center for Program Analysis developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to reuse contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The Putney, Vermont, Basketville site, formerly the location of a basket-making facility and a paper mill andwoolen mill, was selected for a feasibility study under the program. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource based on abundant woody-biomass resources available in the area. Biomass combined heat and power (CHP) was selected as the technology due to nearby loads, including Putney Paper and Landmark College.

  12. Social network analysis and supply chain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with social network analysis and how it could be integrated within supply chain management from a decision-making point of view. Even though the benefits of using social analysis have are widely accepted at both academic and industry/services context, there is still a lack of solid frameworks that allow decision-makers to connect the usage and obtained results of social network analysis – mainly both information and knowledge flows and derived results- with supply chain management objectives and goals. This paper gives an overview of social network analysis, the main social network analysis metrics, supply chain performance and, finally, it identifies how future frameworks could close the gap and link the results of social network analysis with the supply chain management decision-making processes.

  13. Sustainability assessment of two chains of biomass supply from field to bioenergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morandi, Fabiana; Østergård, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    LogistEC, “Logistics for Energy Crops biomass”, is an FP7 Project aiming at developing new or improvedtechnologies of the biomass logistics chains (http://www.logistecproject.eu/). Sustainability assessment of different biomasses is being performed by studying the environmental, economic and social...... emergy analysis, a method that accounts for all forms of energy, resources and human services that contribute to the system; 2) combination of all assessment results (coming from emergy, LCA, economic and social evaluations) in a Sustainability Multicriteria Multi-scale Assessment (SUMMA) framework. We...

  14. Techno-economic analysis of using corn stover to supply heat and power to a corn ethanol plant - Part 1: Cost of feedstock supply logistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokhansanj, S.; Turhollow, A.F. [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Mani, S. [Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Driftmier Engineering Center, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Tagore, S. [Office of Biomass Program, US Department of Energy, Washington, DC 20585 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Supply of corn stover to produce heat and power for a typical 170 dam{sup 3} dry mill ethanol plant is proposed. The corn ethanol plant requires 5.6 MW of electricity and 52.3 MW of process heat, which creates the annual stover demand of as much as 140 Gg. The corn stover supply system consists of collection, pre-processing, transportation and on-site fuel storage and preparation to produce heat and power for the ethanol plant. Economics of the entire supply system was conducted using the Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis and Logistics (IBSAL) simulation model. Corn stover was delivered in three formats (square bales, dry chops and pellets) to the combined heat and power plant. Delivered cost of biomass ready to be burned was calculated at 73 Mg{sup -1} for bales, 86 Mg{sup -1} for pellets and 84 Mg{sup -1} for field chopped biomass. Among the three formats of stover supply systems, delivered cost of pelleted biomass was the highest due to high pelleting cost. Bulk transport of biomass in the form of chops and pellets can provide a promising future biomass supply logistic system in the US, if the costs of pelleting and transport are minimized. (author)

  15. Techno-economic analysis of using corn stover to supply heat and power to a corn ethanol plant - Part 1: Cost of feedstock supply logistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Mani, Sudhagar [University of Georgia; Togore, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Supply of corn stover to produce heat and power for a typical 170 dam3 dry mill ethanol plant is proposed. The corn ethanol plant requires 5.6 MW of electricity and 52.3 MW of process heat, which creates the annual stover demand of as much as 140 Gg. The corn stover supply system consists of collection, preprocessing, transportation and on-site fuel storage and preparation to produce heat and power for the ethanol plant. Economics of the entire supply system was conducted using the Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis and Logistics (IBSAL) simulation model. Corn stover was delivered in three formats (square bales, dry chops and pellets) to the combined heat and power plant. Delivered cost of biomass ready to be burned was calculated at 73 $ Mg-1 for bales, 86 $ Mg-1 for pellets and 84 $ Mg-1 for field chopped biomass. Among the three formats of stover supply systems, delivered cost of pelleted biomass was the highest due to high pelleting cost. Bulk transport of biomass in the form of chops and pellets can provide a promising future biomass supply logistic system in the US, if the costs of pelleting and transport are minimized.

  16. Logistics of supplying biomass from a mountain pine beetle-infested forest to a power plant in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoudi, Mohammadhossein; Sowlati, Taraneh (Depts. of Wood Science, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)); Sokhansanj, Shahab (Chemical and Biological Engineering, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

    2009-03-15

    The search for alternative energy sources has increased the interest in forest biomass. During the past few years, the severe infestation of the mountain pine beetle (MPB) within the forests of interior British Columbia (BC) has led to huge volumes of dead wood that exceed the capacity of the lumber industry. One way to make the most value of the surplus wood is to use it as the feedstock for bioenergy. The high costs associated with harvest and transport, and uncertainty in supply logistics are issues related to forest biomass utilization. This paper presents the development of a forest biomass supply logistics simulation model and its application to a case of supplying MPB-killed biomass from Quesnel timber supply area (one of the most infested areas in the interior BC) to a potential 300 MW power plant adjacent to the city of Quesnel. It provides values of quantity, cost and moisture content of biomass which are important factors in feasibility study of bioenergy projects. In the case of a conventional harvesting system, the biomass recovered from roadside residues in 1 year will meet only about 30% of the annual demand of the power plant with an estimated delivered cost of Can $45 per oven-dry tonne of woodchips. Sensitivity analyses were also performed

  17. Capacity study for solid biomass facilities - scenarios for supply and demand of solid biomass for electricity and heat generation in north west Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, E.T.A.; Junginger, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    Background: The growing awareness for climate change and security of supply leads to a increasing share of renewable energy in which biomass plays an important role. Especially in the European Union (EU-27), where member states have agreed on a binding target of a 20% renewable energy share of

  18. Capacity study for solid biomass facilities - scenarios for supply and demand of solid biomass for electricity and heat generation in north west Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, E.T.A.; Junginger, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The growing awareness for climate change and security of supply leads to a increasing share of renewable energy in which biomass plays an important role. Especially in the European Union (EU-27), where member states have agreed on a binding target of a 20% renewable energy share of tota

  19. Evaluation of the ecological efficiency of a logistics system using the biomass supply as an example; Bewertung der Oekoeffizienz von Logistiksystemen am Beispiel der Biomassebereitstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobers, Kerstin

    2011-07-01

    The realization of eco-efficient logistics systems and logistics processes offer companies the chance to prepare for future market developments and market requirements, and further, actively help in the own field of activity in a more eco-friendly economic manner. At the same time, the expansion of bioenergy is yet another control lever to reduce greenhouse gas emissions or to at least slow down its increase. In the present thesis, both approaches are linked together and a basis is established to evaluate the eco-efficiency of biomass provisioning systems and derive precise potential improvements. For this purpose, the status quo in science for economic and ecological assessments of biomass supply systems is presented initiatively. Within the scope of a system analysis typical process chains of the biomass supply are worked out and the system boundaries defined. At this, a main focus is laid on wooden fuels from landscape conservation as well as conservation measures are described in detail. A uniform and universal illustration of entire biomass supply systems, for both economic and ecological assessment is lacking so far. With the current method this gap is being closed: The relevant processes (transport, handling, warehousing and processing) are illustrated according to the current state of science for economic-ecological assessment. The costs of the supply system as well as the greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents) serve as assessment parameters. Further, existing records on consumption and emission factors are checked for their usability, and are selected for biomass logistics. The developed method is transferred in a practice-oriented model and is implemented in a computerized assessment tool within the scope of the thesis. By means of this tool, specific biomass supply systems are illustrated and evaluated concerning their eco-efficiency. Based on the calculations the relevance of transport capacities is made clear within the

  20. Socio-economic drivers of large urban biomass cogeneration: sustainable energy supply for Austria's capital Vienna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madlener, R. [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, Zurich (Switzerland); Bachhiesl, M. [Oesterreichische Bundersforste AG, Purkersdorf (Austria)

    2007-02-15

    This paper provides a detailed case study on Austria's by far largest biomass cogeneration plant. The plant is located in the city of Vienna and scheduled to be put into operation by mid-2006. Given the urban location of the plant and its significant biomass fuel input requirements, fuel delivery logistics play an important role-not only from an economic point of view, but also in relation to supply security and environmental impact. We describe and analyse the history of the project, putting particular emphasis on the main driving forces and actors behind the entire project development process. From this analysis we deduce the following main socio-economic drivers and success factors for the realisation of large bioenergy projects in urban settings: (1) a critical mass of actors; (2) a priori political consensus; (3) the existence of a problem (and problem awareness) that calls for decisive steps to be taken; (4) institutional innovation and changes in the mindset of the main decision makers; (5) favourable economic conditions; (6) change agents that are actively engaged from an early stage of development; (7) intra-firm supporters at different hierarchical levels and from different departments; and (8) targeted study tours that help to reduce uncertainty, to enable leapfrogging in project planning and design, and to build up confidence in the project's feasibility and chance of success. (author)

  1. Enhanced production of green tide algal biomass through additional carbon supply.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro H de Paula Silva

    Full Text Available Intensive algal cultivation usually requires a high flux of dissolved inorganic carbon (Ci to support productivity, particularly for high density algal cultures. Carbon dioxide (CO2 enrichment can be used to overcome Ci limitation and enhance productivity of algae in intensive culture, however, it is unclear whether algal species with the ability to utilise bicarbonate (HCO3 (- as a carbon source for photosynthesis will benefit from CO2 enrichment. This study quantified the HCO3 (- affinity of three green tide algal species, Cladophora coelothrix, Cladophora patentiramea and Chaetomorpha linum, targeted for biomass and bioenergy production. Subsequently, we quantified productivity and carbon, nitrogen and ash content in response to CO2 enrichment. All three species had similar high pH compensation points (9.7-9.9, and grew at similar rates up to pH 9, demonstrating HCO3 (- utilization. Algal cultures enriched with CO2 as a carbon source had 30% more total Ci available, supplying twenty five times more CO2 than the control. This higher Ci significantly enhanced the productivity of Cladophora coelothrix (26%, Chaetomorpha linum (24% and to a lesser extent for Cladophora patentiramea (11%, compared to controls. We demonstrated that supplying carbon as CO2 can enhance the productivity of targeted green tide algal species under intensive culture, despite their clear ability to utilise HCO3 (-.

  2. A LCA Based Biofuel Supply Chain Analysis Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘喆轩; 邱彤; 陈丙珍

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) based biofuel supply chain (SC) analysis framework which enables the study of economic, energy and environmental (3E) performances by using multi-objective opti-mization. The economic objective is measured by the total annual profit, the energy objective is measured by the average fossil energy (FE) inputs per MJ biofuel and the environmental objective is measured by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per MJ biofuel. A multi-objective linear fractional programming (MOLFP) model with multi-conversion pathways is formulated based on the framework and is solved by using theε-constraint method. The MOLFP prob-lem is turned into a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) problem by setting up the total annual profit as the optimization objective and the average FE inputs per MJ biofuel and GHG emissions per MJ biofuel as constraints. In the case study, this model is used to design an experimental biofuel supply chain in China. A set of the weekly Pareto optimal solutions is obtained. Each non-inferior solution indicates the optimal locations and the amount of biomass produced, locations and capacities of conversion factories, locations and amount of biofuel being supplied in final markets and the flow of mass through the supply chain network (SCN). As the model reveals trade-offs among 3E criteria, we think the framework can be a good support tool of decision for the design of biofuel SC.

  3. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasability of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D.

    2005-12-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) are both strongly committed to expanding the role of biomass as an energy source. In particular, they support biomass fuels and products as a way to reduce the need for oil and gas imports; to support the growth of agriculture, forestry, and rural economies; and to foster major new domestic industries--biorefineries--making a variety of fuels, chemicals, and other products. As part of this effort, the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee, a panel established by the Congress to guide the future direction of federally funded biomass R&D, envisioned a 30 percent replacement of the current U.S. petroleum consumption with biofuels by 2030. Biomass--all plant and plant-derived materials including animal manure, not just starch, sugar, oil crops already used for food and energy--has great potential to provide renewable energy for America's future. Biomass recently surpassed hydropower as the largest domestic source of renewable energy and currently provides over 3 percent of the total energy consumption in the United States. In addition to the many benefits common to renewable energy, biomass is particularly attractive because it is the only current renewable source of liquid transportation fuel. This, of course, makes it invaluable in reducing oil imports--one of our most pressing energy needs. A key question, however, is how large a role could biomass play in responding to the nation's energy demands. Assuming that economic and financial policies and advances in conversion technologies make biomass fuels and products more economically viable, could the biorefinery industry be large enough to have a significant impact on energy supply and oil imports? Any and all contributions are certainly needed, but would the biomass potential be sufficiently large to justify the necessary capital replacements in the fuels and automobile sectors? The purpose of this report is to determine

  4. Landscape conservation materials. Optimization of the supply of sustainable raw materials by means of implementation of biomass farms; Landschaftpflegematerial. Optimierung einer nachhaltigen Rohstoffbereitstellung durch die Einbindung von Biomassehoefen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirkner, Ronny [Deutsches BiomasseForschungsZentrum gGmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Within the analysis it could be determined the traditional resource wood is a key factor in the context of using renewable energies with a particular focus on biomass. Its multi-functionality leads to an increasing shortage of wood supply, characterized by growing competition in the overlapping fields of material and energy utilization pathways and consequent increased the pressure on a sustainable, ecologically oriented forest management. To increase the wood supply it's necessary to improve the mobilization of sustainable potential of the forest areas, woody biomass from landscape planning, wood waste and alternative options to accelerate the mobilization of wood (fast-growing tree species) and promote long-term adaptation of existing forest management concepts. The optimized provision of woody biomass from landscape planning is more likely to be short-to medium-term options moreover it has the advantage of a targeted use of residual material. But the supply of the material is discontinuous and includes very heterogeneous qualities, which shows the necessity to establish central co-ordination and processing centres to provide a customized marketing. (orig.)

  5. Techno-economic analysis of a biomass depot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Jacob Jordan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lamers, Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Roni, Mohammad Sadekuzzaman [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cafferty, Kara Grace [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kenney, Kevin Louis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Heath, Brendi May [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hansen, Jason K [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) promotes the production of an array of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the technical, economic, and environmental performance of different feedstock supply systems and their impacts on the downstream conversion processes.

  6. Review and analysis of biomass gasification models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Bruno, Joan Carles; Coronas, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The use of biomass as a source of energy has been further enhanced in recent years and special attention has been paid to biomass gasification. Due to the increasing interest in biomass gasification, several models have been proposed in order to explain and understand this complex process, and th...

  7. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply, April 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30 percent or more of the country’s present petroleum consumption – the goal set by the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee in their vision for biomass technologies. Accomplishing this goal would require approximately 1 billion dry tons of biomass feedstock per year.

  8. Shifts in biomass and resource allocation patterns following defoliation in Eucalyptus globulus growing with varying water and nutrient supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, Alieta; Pinkard, Elizabeth A; Mohammed, Caroline

    2009-06-01

    In woody species, potential mechanisms to compensate for tissue loss to herbivory and diseases have been related to post-event shifts in growth, biomass and internal resource allocation patterns, as modulated by external resource limitations. We examined the interactive effects of belowground resource limitations by varying nutrient and water availability, and aboveground carbon limitation imposed by a single defoliation event (40% leaf removal) on stem growth, whole-tree and within-tree resource allocation patterns (total non-structural carbohydrate and nitrogen) and below- and aboveground biomass allocation patterns in 8-month-old, field-grown Eucalyptus globulus Labill. saplings. Two months after treatments were imposed, the direction of the stem growth response to defoliation depended on the abiotic treatment. Five months after defoliation, however, we found little evidence that resource availability constrained the expression of tolerance to defoliation. With the exception of the combined low-nutrient and low-water supply treatment, saplings grown with (1) adequate water and nutrient supplies and even with (2) low-water supply or (3) low-nutrient supply were able to compensate for the 40% foliage loss. The observed compensatory responses were attributed to the activation of several short- and longer-term physiological mechanisms including reduced biomass allocation to coarse roots, mobilization of carbohydrate reserves, robust internal N dynamics and increased ratio of foliage to wood dry mass.

  9. Upscaling river biomass using dimensional analysis and hydrogeomorphic scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Elizabeth A.; Power, Mary E.; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Hondzo, Miki; Dietrich, William E.

    2007-12-01

    We propose a methodology for upscaling biomass in a river using a combination of dimensional analysis and hydro-geomorphologic scaling laws. We first demonstrate the use of dimensional analysis for determining local scaling relationships between Nostoc biomass and hydrologic and geomorphic variables. We then combine these relationships with hydraulic geometry and streamflow scaling in order to upscale biomass from point to reach-averaged quantities. The methodology is demonstrated through an illustrative example using an 18 year dataset of seasonal monitoring of biomass of a stream cyanobacterium (Nostoc parmeloides) in a northern California river.

  10. Geospatial Assessment of Long-Term Sustainability of Biomass Feedstock Supplies: Erosion, Soil Biomass Accumulation, Greenhouse Gasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosentrater, K. A.; Kaleita, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    In the past decade, the corn grain-based fuel ethanol industry has grown exponentially. Now, stakeholders within the corn grain producing regions of the midwestern United States are seeking to develop advanced biofuels from abundant post-harvest lignocellulosic corn stover resides. How sustainable are these biofuels? Scientific guidelines regarding the sustainable use of corn grain and stover to maintain soil quality have not been clearly defined, due in part to the complexity of agricultural soil systems and the dearth of robust and consistent data. The objective of this study was to examine the long-term sustainability of corn stover harvest for economically relevant agricultural production scenarios focused on the state of Iowa. We used the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model to simulate soil erosion and biomass returned to the soil under two crop rotation scenarios (continuous corn vs. corn-soybean rotation), three corn stover removal rates (0, 50, 100% removed), and three tillage intensities (no till (NT), intermediate till (IT), conventional till (CT)). Calculations were aggregated to the township-scale using multiple sampling points from the USDA Natural Resources Inventory per township within each county, for a total of 17,848 sampling points throughout the state. This accounted for the topographical and soils variation within the state; use of county weather stations incorporated climate variations. Statistical characterization and GIS visualization were used to illustrate and interpret the results. Wide variations in biomass accumulation/erosion/GHG impacts were observed across agronomic scenarios and landform regions throughout Iowa, and biomass management and tillage intensity impacted on-site soil quality and the off-site environment. Soil biomass was primarily affected by stover removal rate, with soybean rotation also reducing soil biomass. Soil erosion was primarily affected by slope and tillage, with stover removal rate playing a lesser

  11. Carbon-nitrogen interactions and biomass partitioning of Carex rostrata grown at three levels of nitrogen supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Systematics

    1996-12-31

    Biomass and production of vascular plants constitutes a major source of carbon input in peatlands. As rates of decomposition vary considerably with depth, the vertical distribution of biomass may substantially affect accumulation of carbon in peatlands. Therefore, allocation patterns between shoot and roots are particularly important when considering carbon balance of peatland ecosystems. The stimulatory effect of increasing atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2} or photosynthesis may increase availability of carbon to most C3 plants. Availability of nitrogen may also alter both due to increased atmospheric deposition and changer in mineralisation rates associated with climate change. Most root-shoot partitioning models predict that allocation of biomass is dependent of the availability and uptake of carbon and nitrogen. A decrease in supply of carbon would favour allocation to shoots and a decrease in supply of nitrogen would increase allocation to roots. At a cellular level, non structural carbohydrates and free amino acids are thought to represent the biochemically available fraction of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. The aim of this work is study the long-term growth responses of Carex rostrata to changes in the availability of nitrogen. Special attention is paid to soluble sugars ant free amino acids, which may control partitioning of biomass. (10 refs.)

  12. The Impact of Biomass Feedstock Supply Variability on the Delivered Price to a Biorefinery in the Peace River Region of Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen, Jamie [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Kloeck, T. [Alberta Agriculture; Townley-Smith, Lawrence [AAFC; Stumborg, Mark [AAFC

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural residue feedstock availability in a given region can vary significantly over the 20 25 year lifetime of a biorefinery. Since delivered price of biomass feedstock to a biorefinery is related to the distance travelled and equipment optimization, and transportation distance increases as productivity decreases, productivity is a primary determinant of feedstock price. Using the Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis and Logistics (IBSAL) modeling environment and a standard round bale harvest and delivery scenario, harvest and delivery price were modelled for minimum, average, and maximum yields at four potential biorefinery sites in the Peace River region of Alberta, Canada. Biorefinery capacities ranged from 50,000 to 500,000 tonnes per year. Delivery cost is a linear function of transportation distance and can be combined with a polynomial harvest function to create a generalized delivered cost function for agricultural residues. The range in delivered cost is substantial and is an important consideration for the operating costs of a biorefinery.

  13. Quantification and comparison of the economic and GHG performance of biomass supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, J.G.G.

    2017-01-01

    There is a widespread scientific consensus that global climate change is caused by the increased levels of anthropogenic greenhouse gasses (GHG). Biomass use is seen as an important GHG mitigation option. However, the use of biomass will not by default generate a significant and timely GHG emission

  14. Novel Role of Rural Official Organization in the Biomass-Based Power Supply Chain in China: A Combined Game Theory and Agent-Based Simulation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyan Luo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Developing biomass-based power generation is helpful for China to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and to release the targets of carbon emission peak. The decentralized farming method leads to Chinese farmers’ weak willingness to collect and sell crop residues to biomass-based power plants. The purpose of this paper is to solve the issue by proposing a novel biomass feedstock supply model with China’s rural official organization—villagers’ committee, which has great influence on villagers’ decision making. Introducing it into the biomass-based power supply chain is beneficial to motivating farmers’ supplying enthusiasm. A combined game theory and agent-based simulation approach is applied to study the effectiveness of this new supply model. Multiple simulation scenarios are built to study impacts of different simulation parameters, and results show that farmers tend to supply more biomass material for electricity production in the proposed villagers’ committee model, compared with the two conventional supply models, direct-deal and broker models. The supply model incorporating the rural official organization can ensure the feedstock sufficiency for plants. A proper model design depends on the feed-in tariff subsidy for biomass-based electricity, feedstock shipping distance, performance appraisal system of the villagers’ committee, as well as farmers’ utility weights on net income and public service improvement.

  15. Development of integrated forest management/harvesting plans for biomass supply operations in remote northern community settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanEvery, K.C.; Higgelke, P.

    2000-07-01

    consultation, goals, resource needs, current capacity, project needs, human resources, equipment resources, funding, outstanding operation requirements, training, special assistance, community approval, challenges, forest inventory, aerial photography, government regulations, and community benefits. Advances in technology have made biomass heating a viable option for almost all communities within a reasonable distance of a biomass supply. 1 fig., 15 refs.

  16. Gas generation from biomass for decentralized power supply systems; Gaserzeugung fuer dezentrale Energiesysteme auf der Basis von Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubiak, H.; Papamichalis, A.; Heek, K.H. van [DMT-Inst. fuer Kokserzeugung und Brennstofftechnik, Essen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    By a reaction with steam, bioresidues and plants can be converted into a gas consisting mainly of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane which can be used for electric power generation in gas engines, gas turbins and fuel cells. The conversion processes, especially the fuel cell process, are environment-friendly and efficient. For decentralized applications (i.e. for biomass volumes of 0.5 to 1 t/h), an allothermal process is recommended which is described in detail. (orig) [Deutsch] Durch Reaktion mit Wasserdampf lassen sich Bioreststoffe und Energiepflanzen zu einem Gas umsetzen, das im wesentlichen aus Wasserstoff, Kohlenmonoxid und Methan besteht und z.B. ueber Gasmotoren, Gasturbinen, vorzugsweise aber Brennstoffzellen zu Strom umgewandelt werden kann. Die Umwandlungsverfahren, insbesondere unter Benutzung von Brennstoffzellen, sind umweltfreundlich und haben einen hohen Wirkungsgrad. Als Vergasungsverfahren eignet sich fuer die dezentrale Anwendung. - d.h. fuer eine Biomassemenge von 0,5 bis 1 t/h - insbesondere das hier beschriebene allotherme Verfahren. (orig)

  17. An Innovative Agro-Forestry Supply Chain for Residual Biomass: Physicochemical Characterisation of Biochar from Olive and Hazelnut Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Zambon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about climate change and food productivity have spurred interest in biochar, a form of charred organic material typically used in agriculture to improve soil productivity and as a means of carbon sequestration. An innovative approach in agriculture is the use of agro-forestry waste for the production of soil fertilisers for agricultural purposes and as a source of energy. A common agricultural practice is to burn crop residues in the field to produce ashes that can be used as soil fertilisers. This approach is able to supply plants with certain nutrients, such as Ca, K, Mg, Na, B, S, and Mo. However, the low concentration of N and P in the ashes, together with the occasional presence of heavy metals (Ni, Pb, Cd, Se, Al, etc., has a negative effect on soil and, therefore, crop productivity. This work describes the opportunity to create an innovative supply chain from agricultural waste biomass. Olive (Olea europaea and hazelnut (Corylus avellana pruning residues represent a major component of biomass waste in the area of Viterbo (Italy. In this study, we evaluated the production of biochar from these residues. Furthermore, a physicochemical characterisation of the produced biochar was performed to assess the quality of the two biochars according to the standards of the European Biochar Certificate (EBC. The results of this study indicate the cost-effective production of high-quality biochar from olive and hazelnut biomass residues.

  18. Biomass compositional analysis for energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Bonnie R

    2009-01-01

    In its broadest definition, biomass can be described as all material that was or is a part of a living organism. For renewable energy applications, however, the definition of biomass is usually limited to include only materials that are plant-derived such as agricultural residues (e.g., wheat straw, corn stover) by-products of industrial processes (e.g., sawdust, sugar cane bagasse, pulp residues, distillers grains), or dedicated energy crops (e.g., switchgrass, sorghum, Miscanthus, short-rotation woody crops). This chapter describes analytical methods developed to measure plant components with an emphasis on the measurement of components that are important for biomass conversion. The methods described here can be viewed as a portfolio of analytical methods, with consistent assumptions and compatible sample preparation steps, selected for simplicity, robust application, and the ability to obtain a summative mass closure on most samples that accurately identifies greater than 95% of the mass of a plant biomass sample. The portfolio of methods has been successfully applied to a wide variety of biomass feedstock as well as liquid and solid fractions of both thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification (1).

  19. Biomass Compositional Analysis for Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Bonnie R.

    In its broadest definition, biomass can be described as all material that was or is a part of a living organism. For renewable energy applications, however, the definition of biomass is usually limited to include only materials that are plant-derived such as agricultural residues (e.g., wheat straw, corn stover) by-products of industrial processes (e.g., sawdust, sugar cane bagasse, pulp residues, distillers grains), or dedicated energy crops (e.g., switchgrass, sorghum, Miscanthus, short-rotation woody crops). This chapter describes analytical methods developed to measure plant components with an emphasis on the measurement of components that are important for biomass conversion. The methods described here can be viewed as a portfolio of analytical methods, with consistent assumptions and compatible sample preparation steps, selected for simplicity, robust application, and the ability to obtain a summative mass closure on most samples that accurately identifies greater than 95% of the mass of a plant biomass sample. The portfolio of methods has been successfully applied to a wide variety of biomass feedstock as well as liquid and solid fractions of both thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification (1).

  20. Bioenergy options for New Zealand : the role of residual biomass and forestry resources in national energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, P. [Scion, Rotorua (New Zealand)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that was conducted to determine bioenergy options for New Zealand. The study showed that current biomass residuals had the potential to contribute approximately 57 PJ per annum between 2005 and 2010. New Zealand has the potential to grow forest biomass on a greater scale from land that is currently providing low economic returns from sheep and cattle grazing. Four afforestation scenarios of 0.8, 1.8, 3.3, and 4.9 million ha were then analyzed in order to determine their production potential as well as economic and environmental impacts. The study showed that the 1.8 m ha scenario provided the highest volumes of biomass in relation to economic and environmental outcomes. The use of chip log technologies resulted in the production of 200 PJ, or nearly two thirds of the country's domestic liquid fuel consumption. Existing forest stands in New Zealand were able to supply 12 million m{sup 3}, or 83 PJ of primary energy. Results demonstrated that New Zealand has the capacity to obtain most of its transport fuel needs from forest biomass.

  1. Feedstock and Conversion Supply System Design and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mohammad, R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cafferty, K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kenney, K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Searcy, E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hansen, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The success of the earlier logistic pathway designs (Biochemical and Thermochemical) from a feedstock perspective was that it demonstrated that through proper equipment selection and best management practices, conventional supply systems (referred to in this report as “conventional designs,” or specifically the 2012 Conventional Design) can be successfully implemented to address dry matter loss, quality issues, and enable feedstock cost reductions that help to reduce feedstock risk of variable supply and quality and enable industry to commercialize biomass feedstock supply chains. The caveat of this success is that conventional designs depend on high density, low-cost biomass with no disruption from incremental weather. In this respect, the success of conventional designs is tied to specific, highly productive regions such as the southeastern U.S. which has traditionally supported numerous pulp and paper industries or the Midwest U.S for corn stover.

  2. Modeling and analysis of biomass production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishoe, J.W.; Lorber, M.N.; Peart, R.M.; Fluck, R.C.; Jones, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    BIOMET is an interactive simulation model that is used to analyze specific biomass and methane production systems. The system model is composed of crop growth models, harvesting, transportation, conversion and economic submodels. By use of menus the users can configure the structure and set selected parameters of the system to analyze the effects of variables within the component models. For example, simulations of a water hyacinth system resulted in yields of 63, 48 and 37 mg/ha/year for different harvest schedules. For napier grass, unit methane costs were $3.04, $2.86 and $2.98 for various yields of biomass. 10 references.

  3. Environmental analysis of biomass-ethanol facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D.; Putsche, V.

    1995-12-01

    This report analyzes the environmental regulatory requirements for several process configurations of a biomass-to-ethanol facility. It also evaluates the impact of two feedstocks (municipal solid waste [MSW] and agricultural residues) and three facility sizes (1000, 2000, and 3000 dry tons per day [dtpd]) on the environmental requirements. The basic biomass ethanol process has five major steps: (1) Milling, (2) Pretreatment, (3) Cofermentation, (4) Enzyme production, (5) Product recovery. Each step could have environmental impacts and thus be subject to regulation. Facilities that process 2000 dtpd of MSW or agricultural residues would produce 69 and 79 million gallons of ethanol, respectively.

  4. Techno-economic analysis of decentralized biomass processing depots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, Patrick; Roni, Mohammad S; Tumuluru, Jaya S; Jacobson, Jacob J; Cafferty, Kara G; Hansen, Jason K; Kenney, Kevin; Teymouri, Farzaneh; Bals, Bryan

    2015-10-01

    Decentralized biomass processing facilities, known as biomass depots, may be necessary to achieve feedstock cost, quantity, and quality required to grow the future U.S. bioeconomy. In this paper, we assess three distinct depot configurations for technical difference and economic performance. The depot designs were chosen to compare and contrast a suite of capabilities that a depot could perform ranging from conventional pelleting to sophisticated pretreatment technologies. Our economic analyses indicate that depot processing costs are likely to range from ∼US$30 to US$63 per dry metric tonne (Mg), depending upon the specific technology implemented and the energy consumption for processing equipment such as grinders and dryers. We conclude that the benefits of integrating depots into the overall biomass feedstock supply chain will outweigh depot processing costs and that incorporation of this technology should be aggressively pursued.

  5. Paths to bioenergy villages. A guideline for a independent supply of heat and electricity based on biomass in rural area. 3. ed.; Wege zum Bioenergiedorf. Leitfaden fuer eine eigenstaendige Waerme- und Stromversrogung auf Basis von Biomasse im laendlichen Raum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, Hans; Eigner-Thiel, Swantje; Girschner, Walter; Karpenstein-Machan, Marianne; Roland, Folker; Ruwisch, Volker; Sauer, Benedikt; Schmuck, Peter

    2010-12-15

    Bioenergy villages are one component for the sustainable energy supply in rural areas. The guideline under consideration is intended to encourage people in villages to switch their heat supply and electricity supply on the bases of biomass. The focus of this process-oriented guideline is on: (1) A presentation of the social feasibility, especially the involvement, motivation and encouragement of the population; (2) The presentation of concepts for a nature-friendly cultivation of the required biomass; (3) The treatment of economic and legal issues from the perspective of the people involved.

  6. Fort Carson Building 1860 Biomass Heating Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsberger, Randolph [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tomberlin, Gregg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gaul, Chris [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    As part of the Army Net-Zero Energy Installation program, the Fort Carson Army Base requested that NREL evaluate the feasibility of adding a biomass boiler to the district heating system served by Building 1860. We have also developed an Excel-spreadsheet-based decision support tool--specific to the historic loads served by Building 1860--with which users can perform what-if analysis on gas costs, biomass costs, and other parameters. For economic reasons, we do not recommend adding a biomass system at this time.

  7. Biomass fly ash in concrete: SEM, EDX and ESEM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuangzhen Wang; Larry Baxter; Fernando Fonseca [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (USA). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-03-15

    This document summarizes microscopy study of concrete prepared from cement and fly ash (25% fly ash and 75% cement by weight), which covers coal fly ash and biomass fly ash. All the fly ash concrete has the statistical equal strength from one day to one year after mix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) analysis show that both coal and biomass fly ash particles undergo significant changes of morphology and chemical compositions in concrete due to pozzolanic reaction, although biomass fly ash differs substantially from coal fly ash in its fuel resources. 8 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Engineering analysis of biomass gasifier product gas cleaning technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Moore, R.H.; Mudge, L.K.; Elliott, D.C.

    1986-08-01

    For biomass gasification to make a significant contribution to the energy picture in the next decade, emphasis must be placed on the generation of clean, pollutant-free gas products. This reports attempts to quantify levels of particulated, tars, oils, and various other pollutants generated by biomass gasifiers of all types. End uses for biomass gases and appropriate gas cleaning technologies are examined. Complete systems analysis is used to predit the performance of various gasifier/gas cleanup/end use combinations. Further research needs are identified. 128 refs., 20 figs., 19 tabs.

  9. Multi-Criteria Analysis of Alternative Energy Supply Solutions to Public Nearly Zero Energy Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrius Šiupšinskas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes energy supply alternatives for modernised public nearly zero energy buildings. The paper examines alternative energy production systems such as heat pumps (air-water and ground-water, solar collectors, adsorption cooling, biomass boiler, solar photovoltaic, wind turbines and combinations of these systems. The simulation of the analysed building energy demand for different energy production alternatives has been performed using TRNSYS modelling software. In order to determine an optimal energy supply variant, the estimated results of energy, environmental, and economic evaluation have been converted into non-dimensional variables (3E using multi-criteria analysis.Article in Lithuanian

  10. Risk analysis of a biomass combustion process using MOSAR and FMEA methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivel, P-X; Bultel, Y; Delpech, F

    2008-02-28

    Thermal and chemical conversion processes that convert in energy the sewage sludge, pasty waste and other pre-processed waste are increasingly common, for economic and ecological reasons. Fluidized bed combustion is currently one of the most promising methods of energy conversion, since it burns biomass very efficiently, and produces only very small quantities of sulphur and nitrogen oxides. The hazards associated with biomass combustion processes are fire, explosion and poisoning from the combustion gases (CO, etc.). The risk analysis presented in this paper uses the MADS-MOSAR methodology, applied to a semi-industrial pilot scheme comprising a fluidization column, a conventional cyclone, two natural gas burners and a continuous supply of biomass. The methodology uses a generic approach, with an initial macroscopic stage where hazard sources are identified, scenarios for undesired events are recognized and ranked using a grid of SeverityxProbability and safety barriers suggested. A microscopic stage then analyzes in detail the major risks identified during the first stage. This analysis may use various different tools, such as HAZOP, FMEA, etc.: our analysis is based on FMEA. Using MOSAR, we were able to identify five subsystems: the reactor (fluidized bed and centrifuge), the fuel and biomass supply lines, the operator and the environment. When we drew up scenarios based on these subsystems, we found that malfunction of the gas supply burners was a common trigger in many scenarios. Our subsequent microscopic analysis, therefore, focused on the burners, looking at the ways they failed, and at the effects and criticality of those failures (FMEA). We were, thus, able to identify a number of critical factors such as the incoming gas lines and the ignition electrode.

  11. Effects of elevated CO2 concentration and nitrogen supply on biomass and active carbon of freshwater marsh after two growing seasons in Sanjiang plain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Guangying; LIU Jingshuang; WANG Yang; DOU Jingxin; DONG Xiaoyong

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was carried out with treatments differing in nitrogen supply (0, 5 and 15 g N/m2) and CO2 level (350 and 700 μmol/mol) using OTC (open top chamber) equipment to investigate the biomass of Calamagrostis angustifolia and soil active carbon contents after two years. The results showed that elevated CO2 concentration increased the biomass of C. angustifolia and the magnitude of response varied with each growth period. Elevated CO2 concentration has increased aboveground biomass by 16.7% and 17.6% during the jointing and heading periods and only 3.5% and 9.4% during dough and maturity periods. The increases in belowground biomass due to CO2 elevation was 26.5%, 34.0% and 28.7% during the heading, dough and maturity periods, respectively. The response of biomass to enhanced CO2 concentration differed in N levels. Both the increase of aboveground biomass and belowground biomass were greater under high level of N supply (15 g N/m2). Elevated CO2 concentration also increased the allocation of biomass and carbon in root. Under elevated CO2 concentration, the average values of active carbon tended to increase. The increases of soil active soil contents followed the sequence of Microbial biomass carbon (10.6%) > dissolved organic carbon (7.5%) > oxidable labile carbon (6.6%) > carbohydrate carbon (4.1%). Stepwise regressions indicated there were significant correlations between the soil active carbon contents and plant biomass. Particularly, microbial carbon, oxidable labile carbon and carbohydrate carbon were found to be correlated with belowground biomass, while dissolved organic carbon has correlation with aboveground biomass. Therefore, increased biomass was regarded as the main driving force for the increase in soil active organic carbon under elevated CO2 concentration.

  12. Biomass partitioning, architecture and turnover of six herbaceous species from habitats with different nutrient supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, Peter; Olff, Han

    2000-01-01

    Three grasses (Holcus lanatus, Anthoxanthum odoratum and Festuca ovina) and three herbs (Rumex obtusifolius, Plantago lanceolata and Hieracium pilosella) were grown in a greenhouse at 3 nutrient levels in order to evaluate plant allocation, architecture and biomass turnover in relation to fertility

  13. Supply Chain Visibility with Linked Open Data for Supply Chain Risk Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Current customs applications are declaration based to support the various customs procedures based on (inter)national laws and regulations. To be able to perform a proper supply chain risk analysis, customs requires to have all data in supply chains. The current declaration procedures are not suffic

  14. Simultaneous effect of nitrate (NO3- concentration, carbon dioxide (CO2 supply and nitrogen limitation on biomass, lipids, carbohydrates and proteins accumulation in Nannochloropsis oculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarón Millán-Oropeza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel from microalgae is a promising technology. Nutrient limitation and the addition of CO2 are two strategies to increase lipid content in microalgae. There are two different types of nitrogen limitation, progressive and abrupt limitation. In this work, the simultaneous effect of initial nitrate concentration, addition of CO2, and nitrogen limitation on biomass, lipid, protein and carbohydrates accumulation were analyzed. An experimental design was established in which initial nitrogen concentration, culture time and CO2 aeration as independent numerical variables with three levels were considered. Nitrogen limitation was taken into account as a categorical independent variable. For the experimental design, all the experiments were performed with progressive nitrogen limitation. The dependent response variables were biomass, lipid production, carbohydrates and proteins. Subsequently, comparison of both types of limitation i.e. progressive and abrupt limitation, was performed. Nitrogen limitation in a progressive mode exerted a greater effect on lipid accumulation. Culture time, nitrogen limitation and the interaction of initial nitrate concentration with nitrogen limitation had higher influences on lipids and biomass production. The highest lipid production and productivity were at 582 mgL-1 (49.7 % lipid, dry weight basis and 41.5 mgL-1d-1, respectively; under the following conditions: 250 mgL-1 of initial nitrate concentration, CO2 supply of 4% (v/v, 12 d of culturing and 2 d in state of nitrogen starvation induced by progressive limitation. This work presents a novel way to perform simultaneous analysis of the effect of the initial concentration of nitrate, nitrogen limitation, and CO2 supply on growth and lipid production of Nannochloropsis oculata, with the aim to produce potential biofuels feedstock.

  15. Nitrogen Additions and Microbial Biomass: A Global Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treseder, K. K.

    2008-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) enrichment is an element of global change that could influence the growth and abundance of many organisms. In this meta-analysis, I synthesized responses of microbial biomass to N additions in 82 published field studies. I hypothesized that the biomass of fungi, bacteria, or the microbial community as a whole would be altered under N additions. I also predicted that changes in biomass would parallel changes in soil CO2 emissions. Microbial biomass declined 15% on average under N fertilization, but fungi and bacteria were not significantly altered in studies that examined each group separately. Moreover, declines in abundance of microbes and fungi were more evident in studies of longer durations and with higher total amounts of N added. In addition, responses of microbial biomass to N fertilization were significantly correlated with responses of soil CO2 emissions. There were no significant effects of biomes, fertilizer types, ambient N deposition rates, or methods of measuring biomass. Altogether, these results suggest that N enrichment could reduce microbial biomass in many ecosystems, with corresponding declines in soil CO2 emissions.

  16. Mapping woody-biomass supply costs using forest inventory and competing industry data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stasko, Timon H.; Conrado, Robert J.; Labatut, Rodrigo; Tasseff, Ryan; Mannion, John T.; Gao, H. Oliver [College of Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Wankerl, Andreas [Innovation Interface, 126 Reach Run, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States); Sanborn, Stephen D.; Knott, Gregory [General Electric Global Research, 1 Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY 12309 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    The goals of energy independence and sustainability have motivated many countries to consider biomass-based energy sources. The United States has substantial and increasing forest resources that could be used to produce both electricity and liquid fuel. However, these forest resources are highly heterogeneous in terms of the wood's properties, the logging cost, the spatial distribution, and the value to other industries. These factors make predicting costs and selecting plant locations particularly challenging. When dealing with forest biomass, feedstock cost and location have frequently been highly simplified in previous studies. This paper presents a methodology for combining highly resolved forest inventory and price data with records of competing industries to develop detailed maps of feedstock availability. The feedstock sourcing strategy of the proposed bioenergy plants is modeled by a cost-minimizing linear program, as is the feedstock selection of the competing mills. A case study is performed on the southeast United States. (author)

  17. Impact of forest biomass residues to the energy supply chain on regional air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael, S; Tarelho, L; Monteiro, A; Sá, E; Miranda, A I; Borrego, C; Lopes, M

    2015-02-01

    The increase of the share of renewable energy in Portugal can be met from different sources, of which forest biomass residues (FBR) can play a main role. Taking into account the demand for information about the strategy of FBR to energy, and its implications on the Portuguese climate policy, the impact of energy conversion of FBR on air quality is evaluated. Three emission scenarios were defined and a numerical air quality model was selected to perform this evaluation. The results reveal that the biomass thermal plants contribute to an increment of the pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere, however restricted to the surrounding areas of the thermal plants, and most significant for NO₂ and O₃. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Biomass Assessment. Assessment of global biomass potentials and their links to food, water, biodiversity, energy demand and economy. Inventory and analysis of existing studies. Supporting document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.; Verweij, P. [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Banse, M.; Van Diepen, K.; Van Keulen, H.; Langeveld, H.; Meeusen, M.; Van de Ven, G.; Wester, F. [Wageningen UR, Wageningen (Netherlands); Alkemade, R.; Ten Brink, B.; Van den Born, G.J.; Van Oorschot, M.; Ros, J.; Smout, F.; Van Vuuren, D.; Van den Wijngaart, R. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency NMP, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Aiking, H. [Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Londo, M.; Mozaffarian, H.; Smekens, K. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Lysen, E. (ed.); Van Egmond, S. (ed.) [Utrecht Centre for Energy research UCE, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2008-01-15

    This supporting document contains the result from the inventory phase of the biomass assessment of global biomass potentials and their links to food, water, biodiversity, energy demand and economy. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of global biomass potential estimates, focusing on the various factors affecting these potentials, such as food supplies, water use, biodiversity, energy demands and agro-economics.

  19. Analysis of environmental and economic aspects of international pellet supply chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrig, Rita

    2014-01-17

    Biomass plays a key role to achieve the EU's 20-20-20 energy and climate targets. Because of rising European demand and limited domestic resources, the EU relies on worldwide imports. Given this framework, the present thesis explores the influences on wood pellet supply chains considering different environmental policies, price risks and the effect of torrefaction pretreatment. The examinations refer to three real case studies for pellet trade from Australia, Canada, and Russia to Europe. In the first investigation, the efficiency of co-firing imported wood pellets in terms of CO{sub 2} savings and related subsidy schemes is analysed. Scenarios show that co-firing biomass is efficient to contribute to the EU energy targets. Though, policy makers could use these instruments more effective when directing sourcing decision towards options with even less environmental impacts. The second analysis explores the influence of statistically derived price risks on total supply chain economics. It is shown that price risks can effect strong fluctuations in the short term, which seriously affect the profitability of individual trade routes. Securing the supply chain is mainly based on individual producer-buyer agreements, personal branch experiences and fast reactions on the subsidy system. Systematic evaluation of supply chains could contribute to a more reliable market and thus foster investment decisions. In the last investigation, the economic and environmental performance of potential torrefaction-based supply chains is assessed. As a result, torrefaction-based supply chains turn out to be a certain alternative to conventional ones. Though, still huge research efforts and industrial demonstration are required to make torrefied biomass a real alternative on the market.

  20. Application of Exergoeconomic and Exergoenvironmental Analysis to an SOFC System with an Allothermal Biomass Gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Tsatsaronis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In the future, energy conversion systems will be needed that reduce the environmental impact and costs of energy supply when fossil fuels are employed. An alternative is using biomass as a renewable energy resource to achieve both effects. For this reason, interest in biomass gasification processes resurged considerably in the past years. In particular, combination of allothermal biomass gasification with a high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC has met with great interest as an attractive option for electricity generation. To objectively evaluate this new biomass conversion process, the newly developed exergoenvironmental analysis and the established exergoeconomic analysis are applied. The basic idea of both methods is that in energy conversion systems, exergy represents the only rational basis for assigning environmental impacts and costs to the energy carriers and to the inefficiencies within the system. The present article identifies the most relevant system components from the environmental and economic points of view and provides information about possibilities of design improvements. Comparison of the results of both methods reveals that the most relevant process components are the SOFC, the heat exchanger for preheating the air, and the allothermal fluidized-bed gasifier. A special focus will be placed on differences between both analysis methods.

    •  This paper is an updated version of a paper published in the ECOS'08 proceedings.

  1. Uniform-Format Solid Feedstock Supply System: A Commodity-Scale Design to Produce an Infrastructure-Compatible Bulk Solid from Lignocellulosic Biomass -- Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Richard Hess; Christopher T. Wright; Kevin L. Kenney; Erin M. Searcy

    2009-04-01

    This report, Uniform-Format Solid Feedstock Supply System: A Commodity-Scale Design to Produce an Infrastructure-Compatible Bulk Solid from Lignocellulosic Biomass, prepared by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), acknowledges the need and provides supportive designs for an evolutionary progression from present day conventional bale-based supply systems to a uniform-format, bulk solid supply system that transitions incrementally as the industry launches and matures. These designs couple to and build from current state of technology and address science and engineering constraints that have been identified by rigorous sensitivity analyses as having the greatest impact on feedstock supply system efficiencies and costs.

  2. Uniform-Format Solid Feedstock Supply System: A Commodity-Scale Design to Produce an Infrastructure-Compatible Bulk Solid from Lignocellulosic Biomass -- Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Richard Hess; Christopher T. Wright; Kevin L. Kenney; Erin M. Searcy

    2009-04-01

    This report, Uniform-Format Solid Feedstock Supply System: A Commodity-Scale Design to Produce an Infrastructure-Compatible Bulk Solid from Lignocellulosic Biomass, prepared by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), acknowledges the need and provides supportive designs for an evolutionary progression from present day conventional bale-based supply systems to a uniform-format, bulk solid supply system that transitions incrementally as the industry launches and matures. These designs couple to and build from current state of technology and address science and engineering constraints that have been identified by rigorous sensitivity analyses as having the greatest impact on feedstock supply system efficiencies and costs.

  3. Processing Cost Analysis for Biomass Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, P.C.

    2002-11-20

    The receiving, handling, storing, and processing of woody biomass feedstocks is an overlooked component of biopower systems. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to identify and characterize all the receiving, handling, storing, and processing steps required to make woody biomass feedstocks suitable for use in direct combustion and gasification applications, including small modular biopower (SMB) systems, and (2) to estimate the capital and operating costs at each step. Since biopower applications can be varied, a number of conversion systems and feedstocks required evaluation. In addition to limiting this study to woody biomass feedstocks, the boundaries of this study were from the power plant gate to the feedstock entry point into the conversion device. Although some power plants are sited at a source of wood waste fuel, it was assumed for this study that all wood waste would be brought to the power plant site. This study was also confined to the following three feedstocks (1) forest residues, (2) industrial mill residues, and (3) urban wood residues. Additionally, the study was confined to grate, suspension, and fluidized bed direct combustion systems; gasification systems; and SMB conversion systems. Since scale can play an important role in types of equipment, operational requirements, and capital and operational costs, this study examined these factors for the following direct combustion and gasification system size ranges: 50, 20, 5, and 1 MWe. The scope of the study also included: Specific operational issues associated with specific feedstocks (e.g., bark and problems with bridging); Opportunities for reducing handling, storage, and processing costs; How environmental restrictions can affect handling and processing costs (e.g., noise, commingling of treated wood or non-wood materials, emissions, and runoff); and Feedstock quality issues and/or requirements (e.g., moisture, particle size, presence of non-wood materials). The study found that over the

  4. Optimizing the supply chain of biomass and biogas for a single plant considering mass and energy losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ida Græsted; Münster, Marie; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    The share of renewable energy in the Danish energy sector is increasing and the goal is that biogas production should reach a production level of 17 petajoules (PJ) in 2020 according to the Danish Energy Agency. However, this goal is currently not reachable due to lack of investments in biogas...... plants. In this paper, a mixed integer programming (MIP) model for finding the optimal production and investment plan for a biogas supply chain is presented to ensure better economy for the full chain hopefully stimulating future investments in biogas. The model makes use of step-wise linear functions...... to represent capital and operational expenditures at the biogas plant; considers the chain from the farmer to the end market; and includes changes of mass and energy content along the chain by modeling the losses and gains for all processes in the chain. Biomass inputs are scheduled on a weekly basis whereas...

  5. Supply reliability and dynamic safety analysis of an alternative energy supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Markert, Frank; Jacobsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the integration of risk and supply chain modelling by means of analysing a case concerning a Hydrogen Refuelling Station in Berlin. It presents a framework that can analyse an energy supply chain and at the same time enables easy reporting and presentation of various results...... by utilizing Dis-crete Event Simulation (DES). The industrial implication of this work is to provide practitioners with an anal-ysis framework for improved decision support. The novelty of this paper is the approach to model a supply chain together with a dynamically modelled event tree-based approach...

  6. Estimates of Aboveground Biomass from Texture Analysis of Landsat Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine C. Kelsey

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Maps of forest biomass are important tools for managing natural resources and reporting terrestrial carbon stocks. Using the San Juan National Forest in Southwest Colorado as a case study, we evaluate regional biomass maps created using physical variables, spectral vegetation indices, and image textural analysis on Landsat TM imagery. We investigate eight gray level co-occurrence matrix based texture measures (mean, variance, homogeneity, contrast, dissimilarity, entropy, second moment and correlation on four window sizes (3 × 3, 5 × 5, 7 × 7, 9 × 9 at four offsets ([1,0], [1,1], [0,1], [1,−1] on four Landsat TM bands (2, 3, 4, and 5. The map with the highest prediction quality was created using three texture metrics calculated from Landsat Band 2 on a 3 × 3 window and an offset of [0,1]: entropy, mean and correlation; and one physical variable: slope. The correlation of predicted versus observed biomass values for our texture-based biomass map is r = 0.86, the Root Mean Square Error is 45.6 Mg∙ha−1, and the Coefficient of Variation of the Root Mean Square Error is 0.31. We find that models including image texture variables are more strongly correlated with biomass than models using only physical and spectral variables. Additionally, we suggest that the use of texture appears to better capture the magnitude and direction of biomass change following disturbance compared to spectral approaches. The biomass mapping methods we present here are widely applicable throughout the US, as they are based on publically available datasets and utilize relatively simple analytical routines.

  7. Global Carbon Fiber Composites Supply Chain Competitiveness Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujit Das, Josh Warren, Devin West, Susan M. Schexnayder

    2016-05-01

    This analysis identifies key opportunities in the carbon fiber supply chain where resources and investments can help advance the clean energy economy. The report focuses on four application areas — wind energy, aerospace, automotive, and pressure vessels — that top the list of industries using carbon fiber and carbon fiber reinforced polymers. For each of the four application areas, the report addresses the supply and demand trends within that sector, supply chain, and costs of carbon fiber and components.

  8. Complex Network Characteristics and Invulnerability Simulating Analysis of Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Hui-Huang Chen; Ai-Min Lin

    2012-01-01

    To study the characteristics of the complex supply chain, a invulnerability analysis method based on the complex network theory is proposed. The topological structure and dynamic characteristics of the complex supply chain network were analyzed. The fact was found that the network is with general characteristics of the complex network, and with the characteristics of small-world network and scale-free network. A simulation experiment was made on the invulnerability of the supply chain network...

  9. ANALYSIS OF THERMAL-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOMASS ENERGY PELLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Gluvakov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern life conditions, when emphasis is on environmental protection and sustainable development, fuels produced from biomass are increasingly gaining in importance, and it is necessary to consider the quality of end products obtained from biomass. Based on the existing European standards, collected literature and existing laboratory methods, this paper presents results of testing individual thermal - chemical properties of biomass energy pellets after extrusion and cooling the compressed material. Analysing samples based on standard methods, data were obtained on the basis of which individual thermal-chemical properties of pellets were estimated. Comparing the obtained results with the standards and literature sources, it can be said that moisture content, ash content and calorific values are the most important parameters for quality analysis which decide on applicability and use-value of biomass energy pellets, as biofuel. This paper also shows the impact of biofuels on the quality of environmental protection. The conclusion provides a clear statement of quality of biomass energy pellets.

  10. Biomass Residues from Agriculture and Potential Contribution towards Modern Energy Supply in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackom, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    of this paper is to understand the role that residues obtained from agricultural practices could be utilised in providing electricity for use in West African countries. Selected countries include: Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal and Togo. The study utilized methods developed by Mendu et. al. 2012, Mabeeet. al. 2010......, Ackom et.al., 2013, to estimate electricity production from agricultural residues in the selected countries. This study considered competing utilization of residues for animal fodder, bedding and nutrient recycling in the region. Findings show bioelectricity from residues could supply 0.6 x 106-1.5 x...... 106MWh (Ghana), 4.5 x 106-13 x 10 6MWh (Nigeria), 0.5 x 106-1.2 x 106 MWh (Senegal) and 0.2 x 106–1.3 x 106 MWh (Togo). This could help bring increased electrification from a renewable energy source to the countries especially in the farming communities where the residue abounds thus ensuring good...

  11. A mixed-methods approach to understanding farmer and rancher interest in supplying woody biomass in the U.S. Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Ashley M.

    Bioenergy produced from cellulosic feedstocks could serve as an opportunity to strengthen local and regional economies, reduce fossil fuel energy consumption for transportation or electricity production, and also jointly produce various environmental services. In the U.S. Northern Great Plains, woody bioenergy crops can provide multifunctional benefits while building biomass supply capacity when established within existing farm and ranch systems. Understanding what facilitates or constraints potential biomass suppliers' level of interest in biomass production is essential to fully assess the regional potential of biomass-based bioenergy in the Northern Great Plains. Qualitative data from a regional focus group series illustrates the complexities associated with farmer definitions of marginality, attitudes towards trees and bioenergy production, while also characterizing influences on farmer/rancher interest in woody biomass production. Quantitatively, a region-wide representative survey of farmers and ranchers managing marginal land captures a snapshot of operator interest in woody biomass production. Results indicate that 61% of farmers and ranchers have some degree of interest in woody biomass production, while results from an ordered probit regression further illustrate how farm/ranch system attributes, individual farmer/rancher characteristics, relevant attitudes and knowledge significantly affect interest. Data from both methods allow us to highlight attributes of operators who are most likely to be early adopters of a woody biomass crop, can serve as an input to local or regional assessments of potential for renewable energy production, and have implications for the development of relevant policy initiatives and management practices.

  12. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels Conversion Pathway: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil Pathway "The 2017 Design Case"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin L. Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J. Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; J. Richard Hess; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass sustainable supply, logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL quantified and the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from the field or stand to the throat of the conversion process using conventional equipment and processes. All previous work to 2012 was designed to improve the efficiency and decrease costs under conventional supply systems. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a biomass logistics cost of $55/dry Ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model.

  13. Illegal immigration: a supply side analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, S; Bandyopadhyay, S C

    1998-12-01

    "This paper analyzes the supply-side determinants of illegal immigration using a three-sector general equilibrium model of the source country. Agricultural liberalization raises illegal immigration while liberalization of the high tech sector reduces it. In contrast, capital mobility in the source country renders trade policy ineffective for controlling illegal immigration. Paradoxically, increased enforcement (by the host country) may raise source country unskilled wages, although illegal immigration falls. Finally, under capital mobility, a rise in the source country restrictions on capital inflow raises the level of illegal immigration and reduces the effectiveness of border enforcement efforts by the host country."

  14. Analysis of the Biomass Composition of the Demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica on Heron Island Reef, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabin R. Watson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are a potential source of important pharmaceutical drugs, the commercialisation of which is restricted by the difficulties of obtaining a sufficient and regular supply of biomass. One way to optimize commercial cell lines for production is the in-depth characterization and target identification through genome scale metabolic modeling and flux analysis. By applying these tools to a sponge, we hope to gain insights into how biomass is formed. We chose Amphimedon queenslandica as it has an assembled and annotated genome, a prerequisite for genome scale modeling. The first stepping stone on the way to metabolic flux analysis in a sponge holobiont, is the characterization of its biomass composition. In this study we quantified the macromolecular composition and investigated the variation between and within sponges of a single population. We found lipids and protein to be the most abundant macromolecules, while carbohydrates were the most variable. We also analysed the composition and abundance of the fatty acids and amino acids, the important building blocks required to synthesise the abundant macromolecule types, lipids, and protein. These data complement the extensive genomic information available for A. queenslandica and lay the basis for genome scale modelling and flux analysis.

  15. Analysis of the biomass composition of the demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica on Heron Island Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jabin R; Brennan, Timothy C R; Degnan, Bernard M; Degnan, Sandie M; Krömer, Jens O

    2014-06-23

    Marine sponges are a potential source of important pharmaceutical drugs, the commercialisation of which is restricted by the difficulties of obtaining a sufficient and regular supply of biomass. One way to optimize commercial cell lines for production is the in-depth characterization and target identification through genome scale metabolic modeling and flux analysis. By applying these tools to a sponge, we hope to gain insights into how biomass is formed. We chose Amphimedon queenslandica as it has an assembled and annotated genome, a prerequisite for genome scale modeling. The first stepping stone on the way to metabolic flux analysis in a sponge holobiont, is the characterization of its biomass composition. In this study we quantified the macromolecular composition and investigated the variation between and within sponges of a single population. We found lipids and protein to be the most abundant macromolecules, while carbohydrates were the most variable. We also analysed the composition and abundance of the fatty acids and amino acids, the important building blocks required to synthesise the abundant macromolecule types, lipids, and protein. These data complement the extensive genomic information available for A. queenslandica and lay the basis for genome scale modelling and flux analysis.

  16. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01

    general term, and includes heating as well as the injection of other ''ingredients'' such as oxygen and water. Pyrolysis alone is a useful first step in creating vapors from coal or biomass that can then be processed in subsequent steps to make liquid fuels. Such products are not the objective of this project. Therefore pyrolysis was not included in the process design or in the economic analysis. High-pressure, fluidized bed gasification is best known to GTI through 30 years of experience. Entrained flow, in contrast to fluidized bed, is a gasification technology applied at much larger unit sizes than employed here. Coal gasification and residual oil gasifiers in refineries are the places where such designs have found application, at sizes on the order of 5 to 10 times larger than what has been determined for this study. Atmospheric pressure gasification is also not discussed. Atmospheric gasification has been the choice of all power system pilot plants built for biomass to date, except for the Varnamo plant in Sweden, which used the Ahlstrom (now Foster Wheeler) pressurized gasifier. However, for fuel production, the disadvantage of the large volumetric flows at low pressure leads to the pressurized gasifier being more economical.

  17. Preparation and Analysis of Biomass Lignins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compere, Alicia L.; Griffith, William L.

    Lignin, comprised primarily of three randomly polymerized phenylpropenyl monomers, is, arguably, the second most common organic molecule on earth. In current biorefinery applications, lignin is burned, usually in concentrated pulping or hydrolysis liquor, as a source of process steam and both internal and exported electricity. The aromatic content of lignin makes it a potentially attractive feedstock for high-value aromatic chemicals, polymers, and carbon products (graphite, activated carbon, and carbon fiber). Revenue from production of lignin-based chemicals could play a major role in biorefinery profitability if cost-effective methods for lignin separation and purification can be developed. This chapter presents descriptions of methods for assessing and purifying biorefinery lignins so that they can be evaluated for use as feedstock for production of chemical products. Areas covered are: (1) initial evaluations of as-received lignin samples (visual, microscopic, separable organics); (2) analysis of common contaminants (bulk and filterable ash and particulate contaminants in liquid and dry lignin samples); (3) preparation of lignins for experimental use as chemical feedstock (prefiltration, filtration using bench-scale chemical apparatus and larger scale bag filters, one-step lignin precipitation, two-step carbohydrate and lignin precipitation, desalting of dry powdered or precipitated lignin, and lyophilization). These methods have been used successfully at the bench scale to produce the 1-50 kg amounts of wood and grass lignins typically required for bench-scale assessment as chemical feedstocks.

  18. Energy analysis of Organic Rankine Cycles for biomass applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algieri Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at analysing the performances of Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs adopted for the exploitation of the biomass resulting from the pruning residues in a 3000 hectares district in Southern Italy. A parametric energy analysis has been carried out to define the influence of the main plant operating conditions. To this purpose, both subcritical and transcritical power plants have been examined and saturated and superheated conditions at the turbine inlet have been imposed. Moreover, the effect of the working fluid, condensation temperature, and internal regeneration on system performances has been investigated. The results show that ORC plants represent an interesting and sustainable solution for decentralised and small-scale power production. Furthermore, the analysis highlights the significant impact of the maximum temperature and the noticeable effect of internal regeneration on the performances of the biomass power plants.

  19. Transpiration and biomass production of the bioenergy crop Giant Knotweed Igniscum under various supplies of water and nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantovani Dario

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil water availability, nutrient supply and climatic conditions are key factors for plant production. For a sustainable integration of bioenergy plants into agricultural systems, detailed studies on their water uses and growth performances are needed. The new bioenergy plant Igniscum Candy is a cultivar of the Sakhalin Knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis, which is characterized by a high annual biomass production. For the determination of transpiration-yield relations at the whole plant level we used wicked lysimeters at multiple irrigation levels associated with the soil water availability (25, 35, 70, 100% and nitrogen fertilization (0, 50, 100, 150 kg N ha-1. Leaf transpiration and net photosynthesis were determined with a portable minicuvette system. The maximum mean transpiration rate was 10.6 mmol m-2 s-1 for well-watered plants, while the mean net photosynthesis was 9.1 μmol m-2 s-1. The cumulative transpiration of the plants during the growing seasons varied between 49 l (drought stressed and 141 l (well-watered per plant. The calculated transpiration coefficient for Fallopia over all of the treatments applied was 485.6 l kg-1. The transpiration-yield relation of Igniscum is comparable to rye and barley. Its growth performance making Fallopia a potentially good second generation bioenergy crop.

  20. Technical and economic analysis of using biomass energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piaskowska-Silarska Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the article were presented the technical possibilities of obtaining solid biomass, biogas, landfill gas, a biogas from wastewater treatment plants, bioethanol and biodiesel. Then processes was described, allowing use of energy from biomass. As first was discussed the incineration which includes drying and degassing of the wood materials, wood gas burning at 1200°C, post-combustion gas and heat transfer in the heat exchanger. Then had been described gasification, or thermochemical conversion process, occurring at high temperature. It is two-stage process. In the first chamber at deficiency of air and at relatively low temperatures (450–800°C, the fuel is being degasified, resulting in creating combustible gas and a mineral residue (charcoal. In the second stage, secondary combustion chamber and at a temperature of about 1000–1200°C and in the presence of excess of oxygen resultant gas is burned. A further process is pyrolysis. It consists of the steps of drying fuel to a moisture level below 10%, milling the biomass into very small particles, the pyrolysis reaction, separation of solid products, cooling and collecting bio-oil. Then discusses co-generation, which is combined production of heat and electricity. In this situation where the biomass contains too much water it can be used for energy purposes through biochemical processes. The alcoholic fermentation results in decomposition of carbohydrates taking place under anaerobic conditions, and the product is bioethanol. Another biochemical process used for the production of liquid biofuels is esterification of vegetable oils. Methane fermentation in turn causes a decomposition of macromolecular organic substances with limited oxygen available. As a result, we obtain alcohols, lower organic acids, methane, carbon dioxide and water. There was analysis of economic increasing of solid biomass energy, biogas and liquid biofuels in the following article.

  1. Analysis on using biomass lean syngas in micro gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mărculescu, C.; Cenuşă, V. E.; Alexe, F. N.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents an analysis on small systems for converting biomass/wastes into power using Micro Gas Turbines (MGT) fed with gaseous bio-fuels produced by air- gasification. The MGT is designed for burning various fossil liquid and gas fuels, having catalogue data related to natural gas use. Fuel switch changes their performances. The present work is focused on adapting the MGT for burning alternative low quality gas fuel produced by biomass air gasification. The heating values of these gas fuels are 3 to 5 times lower than the methane ones, leading to different air demand for the stoichiometric burning. Validated numerical computation procedures were used to model the MGT thermodynamic process. Our purpose was to analyze the influence of fuel change on thermodynamic cycle performances.

  2. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Renewable Hydrocarbon Fuels via Indirect Liquefaction, Fast Pyrolysis, and Hydrothermal Liquefaction: Update of the 2016 State-of-Technology Cases and Design Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Dunn, Jennifer [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Pegallapati, Ambica [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Li, Qianfeng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Canter, Christina [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davis, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markham, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartley, Damon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thompson, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Meyer, Pimphan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhu, Yunhua [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Susanne [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) aims to develop and deploy technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2016). BETO and its national laboratory teams conduct in-depth technoeconomic assessments (TEA) of biomass feedstock supply and logistics and conversion technologies to produce biofuels, and life-cycle analysis of overall system sustainability.

  3. An Analysis of Class II Supplies Requisitions in the Korean Army’s Organizational Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-26

    Retail Supply System SBMA Standard Book of Material Allowance SCM Supply Chain Management SCM Supply Chain Management SDI Supplies Daily...issues. The Standard Army Retail Supply System (SARSS) is currently used at Retail Level Supply. SARSS is the primary automation system used in the... system features provides SPBS-R and ULLS-S4 functionality. (4) SARSS is currently used at Retail Level Supply. The solutions to improve requisition

  4. Effect of Incorporation of Wheat Straw and Urea into Soil on Biomass Nitrogen and Nitrogen—Supplying Characteristics of Paddy Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENQI-RONG; XUSHOU-MING; 等

    1993-01-01

    Pot experiments were carried out to study the effect of incorporation of wheat straw and/ or urea into soil on biomass nitrogen and mineral nitrogen and its relation to the growth and yield of rice.The combined appliation of wheat straw and urea increased much more biomass nitrogen in soil than the application of wheat straw or urea alone and consequently increased the immobilization of urea nitrogen added and reduced the loss of urea nitrogen.An adequate nitrogen-supplying process to rice plant could be obtained if C/ N ratio of the material added was about 20.The three yield components of rice were affected significantly by the status of nitrogen supplying.More than 30mg N/ kg soil of mineral nitrogen at effective tillering stage,panicle initiation stage and filling stage should be maintained in order to get high rice yield,though the criteria varied with the different experimental conditions.

  5. Hybrid modeling and empirical analysis of automobile supply chain network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun-yan; Tang, Jian-ming; Fu, Wei-ping; Wu, Bing-ying

    2017-05-01

    Based on the connection mechanism of nodes which automatically select upstream and downstream agents, a simulation model for dynamic evolutionary process of consumer-driven automobile supply chain is established by integrating ABM and discrete modeling in the GIS-based map. Firstly, the rationality is proved by analyzing the consistency of sales and changes in various agent parameters between the simulation model and a real automobile supply chain. Second, through complex network theory, hierarchical structures of the model and relationships of networks at different levels are analyzed to calculate various characteristic parameters such as mean distance, mean clustering coefficients, and degree distributions. By doing so, it verifies that the model is a typical scale-free network and small-world network. Finally, the motion law of this model is analyzed from the perspective of complex self-adaptive systems. The chaotic state of the simulation system is verified, which suggests that this system has typical nonlinear characteristics. This model not only macroscopically illustrates the dynamic evolution of complex networks of automobile supply chain but also microcosmically reflects the business process of each agent. Moreover, the model construction and simulation of the system by means of combining CAS theory and complex networks supplies a novel method for supply chain analysis, as well as theory bases and experience for supply chain analysis of auto companies.

  6. The conversion of biomass to ethanol using geothermal energy derived from hot dry rock to supply both the thermal and electrical power requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.W.

    1997-10-01

    The potential synergism between a hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy source and the power requirements for the conversion of biomass to fuel ethanol is considerable. In addition, combining these two renewable energy resources to produce transportation fuel has very positive environmental implications. One of the distinct advantages of wedding an HDR geothermal power source to a biomass conversion process is flexibility, both in plant location and in operating process is flexibility, both in plant location and in operating conditions. The latter obtains since an HDR system is an injection conditions of flow rate, pressure, temperature, and water chemistry are under the control of the operator. The former obtains since, unlike a naturally occurring geothermal resource, the HDR resource is very widespread, particularly in the western US, and can be developed near transportation and plentiful supplies of biomass. Conceptually, the pressurized geofluid from the HDR reservoir would be produced at a temperature in the range of 200{degrees} to 220{degrees}c. The higher enthalpy portion of the geofluid thermal energy would be used to produce a lower-temperature steam supply in a countercurrent feedwater-heater/boiler. The steam, following a superheating stage fueled by the noncellulosic waste fraction of the biomass, would be expanded through a turbine to produce electrical power. Depending on the lignin fraction of the biomass, there would probably be excess electrical power generated over and above plant requirements (for slurry pumping, stirring, solids separation, etc.) which would be available for sale to the local power grid. In fact, if the hybrid HDR/biomass system were creatively configured, the power plant could be designed to produce daytime peaking power as well as a lower level of baseload power during off-peak hours.

  7. Environmental impacts of various biomass supply chains for the provision of raw wood in Bavaria, Germany, with focus on climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Daniel; Wolf, Christian; Schulz, Christoph; Weber-Blaschke, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Wood biomass is considered a renewable raw product, but the supply chain of wood biomass involves non-renewable energy inputs, and thus possibly entailing environmental impacts. The objective of this study was to analyze different environmental impacts (GHG emissions, without biogenic CO2; primary energy consumption, non-renewable; particulate matter) caused by the provision of forest biomass for the four main tree species in Bavaria using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) techniques. Based on forest growth simulations, a set of realistic forest biomass supply chains for Bavarian forestry conditions were modeled for the raw wood product system from site preparation to forest road and to plant/farm gate, respectively, analyzing the four different process groups: [A1] site preparation, [A2] site tending, [A3] biomass harvesting and [T] transport of biomass to plant/farm gate. Total GHG emissions of about 383,000tCO2-eq∗year(-1) (18.95kgCO2-eq∗m(-3)) are estimated for the Bavarian forestry sector (from site preparation to plant/farm gate) in the reference year 2013 indicating a share of 0.41% in the total GHG emissions of Bavaria. 0.035MJ of non-renewable energy has to be invested in order to provide 1MJ of woody biomass to plant/farm gate (267MJ∗m(-3)). One hundred and sixty six tons of particulate matter emissions per year are calculated for the Bavarian forestry sector in 2013 (0.008kgPM2.5-eq∗m(-3)). Our LCA results reveal that there is no single GHG emission value for raw wood but a broad range of possible GHG emissions for the Bavarian forestry. Most decisive parameters are forest road maintenance, biomass harvesting, forwarding and biomass transport, and GHG emissions are also notably influenced by tree species, age class, wood assortment and site quality. We recommend that environmental impact calculations should be implemented, for example in wood certification procedures as they are important key indicators for sustainable forest management.

  8. Analysis and Design: Accounting Information System in Purchasing and Supplying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noerlina Noerlina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research are the purchase and material supply process are the main process of the company and it will determine the operational company, so it needs an accounting information system to help them in the planning and taking the best decision. Research methods used are data and information collected which using the analysis and design method. This method needs to support the design of accounting information system in the company. The result are there’s still any weaknesses happened that will hamper the operational company.Index Terms - Analysis and Design, Accounting Information System, Purchasing, Supply.

  9. Adaptive phenotypic plasticity of Pseudoroegneria spicata: response of stomatal density, leaf area and biomass to changes in water supply and increased temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Lauchlan H.; Greenall, Amber; Carlyle, Cameron; Turkington, Roy; Friedman, Cynthia Ross

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Changes in rainfall and temperature brought about through climate change may affect plant species distribution and community composition of grasslands. The primary objective of this study was to test how manipulation of water and temperature would influence the plasticity of stomatal density and leaf area of bluebunch wheatgrass, Pseudoroegneria spicata. It was hypothesized that: (1) an increased water supply will increase biomass and leaf area and decrease stomatal density, while a reduced water supply will cause the opposite effect; (2) an increase in temperature will reduce biomass and leaf area and increase stomatal density; and (3) the combinations of water and temperature treatments can be aligned along a stress gradient and that stomatal density will be highest at high stress. Methods The three water supply treatments were (1) ambient, (2) increased approx. 30 % more than ambient through weekly watering and (3) decreased approx. 30 % less than ambient by rain shades. The two temperature treatments were (1) ambient and (2) increased approx. 1–3 °C by using open-top chambers. At the end of the second experimental growing season, above-ground biomass was harvested, oven-dried and weighed, tillers from bluebunch wheatgrass plants sampled, and the abaxial stomatal density and leaf area of tillers were measured. Key Results The first hypothesis was partially supported – reducing water supply increased stomatal density, but increasing water supply reduced leaf area. The second hypothesis was rejected. Finally, the third hypothesis could not be fully supported – rather than a linear response there appears to be a parabolic stomatal density response to stress. Conclusions Overall, the abaxial stomatal density and leaf area of bluebunch wheatgrass were plastic in their response to water and temperature manipulations. Although bluebunch wheatgrass has the potential to adapt to changing climate, the grass is limited in its ability to respond

  10. Extraction and analysis of indole derivatives from fungal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartz, J

    1994-01-01

    The occurrence and extraction of indole derivatives in six species from four genera of higher fungi were investigated. By using pure methanol for extraction of the mushrooms analysis revealed the highest concentrations of psilocybin and baeocystin. The psilocin content of the species was higher by using aqueous solutions of alcohols than with methanol alone but was an artificial phenomenon caused by enzymatic destruction of psilocybin. The extraction with dilute acetic acid yielded better results than with the water containing alcohols. The simple one-step procedure with methanol for the quantitative extraction is still the safest method to obtain the genuine alkaloids from fungal biomass.

  11. Summative Mass Analysis of Algal Biomass - Integration of Analytical Procedures: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurens, Lieve M. L.

    2016-01-13

    This procedure guides the integration of laboratory analytical procedures to measure algal biomass constituents in an unambiguous manner and ultimately achieve mass balance closure for algal biomass samples. Many of these methods build on years of research in algal biomass analysis.

  12. Biomass Scenario Model: BETO Analysis Platform Peer Review; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, B.

    2015-03-23

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a unique, carefully validated, state-of-the-art fourth-generation model of the domestic bioenergy supply chain which explicitly focuses on policy issues and their potential side effects. It integrates resource availability, behavior, policy, and physical, technological, and economic constraints. The BSM uses system-dynamics simulation to model dynamic interactions across the supply chain; it tracks the deployment of biofuels given technological development and the reaction of the investment community to those technologies in the context of land availability, the competing oil market, consumer demand for biofuels, and government policies over time. It places a strong emphasis on the behavior and decision-making of various economic agents. The model treats the major infrastructure-compatible fuels. Scenario analysis based on the BSM shows that the biofuels industry tends not to rapidly thrive without significant external actions in the early years of its evolution. An initial focus for jumpstarting the industry typically has strongest results in the BSM in areas where effects of intervention have been identified to be multiplicative. In general, we find that policies which are coordinated across the whole supply chain have significant impact in fostering the growth of the biofuels industry and that the production of tens of billions of gallons of biofuels may occur under sufficiently favorable conditions.

  13. Global Carbon Fiber Composites Supply Chain Competitiveness Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sujit [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Warren, Josh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); West, Devin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schexnayder, Susan M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This study identifies key opportunities in the carbon fiber supply chain where the United States Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy resources and investments can help the United States achieve or maintain a competitive advantage. The report focuses on four application areas--wind energy, aerospace, automotive, and pressure vessels--that top the list of industries using carbon fiber and carbon fiber reinforced polymers and are also particularly relevant to EERE's mission. For each of the four application areas, the report addresses the supply and demand trends within that sector, supply chain, and costs of carbon fiber and components, all contributing to a competitiveness assessment that addresses the United States' role in future industry growth. This report was prepared by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of Tennessee for the Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center.

  14. Thermogravimetric and Kinetic Analysis of Raw and Torrefied Biomass Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopczyński Marcin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of torrefied biomass as a substitute for untreated biomass may decrease some technological barriers that exist in biomass co-firing technologies e.g. low grindability, high moisture content, low energy density and hydrophilic nature of raw biomass. In this study the TG-MS-FTIR analysis and kinetic analysis of willow (Salix viminalis L. and samples torrefied at 200, 220, 240, 260, 280 and 300 °C (TSWE 200, 220, 240, 260, 280 and 300, were performed. The TG-DTG curves show that in the case of willow and torrefied samples TSWE 200, 220, 240 and 260 there are pyrolysis and combustion stages, while in the case of TSWE 280 and 300 samples the peak associated with the pyrolysis process is negligible, in contrast to the peak associated with the combustion process. Analysis of the TG-MS results shows m/z signals of 18, 28, 29 and 44, which probably represent H2O, CO and CO2. The gaseous products were generated in two distinct ranges of temperature. H2O, CO and CO2 were produced in the 500 K to 650 K range with maximum yields at approximately 600 K. In the second range of temperature, 650 K to 800 K, only CO2 was produced with maximum yields at approximately 710 K as a main product of combustion process. Analysis of the FTIR shows that the main gaseous products of the combustion process were H2O, CO2, CO and some organics including bonds: C=O (acids, aldehydes and ketones, C=C (alkenes, aromatics, C-O-C (ethers and C-OH. Lignin mainly contributes hydrocarbons (3000-2800 cm−1, while cellulose is the dominant origin of aldehydes (2860-2770 cm−1 and carboxylic acids (1790-1650 cm−1. Hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ketones and various acids were also generated from hemicellulose (1790-1650 cm−1. In the kinetic analysis, the two-steps first order model (F1F1 was assumed. Activation energy (Ea values for the first stage (pyrolysis increased with increasing torrefaction temperature from 93 to 133 kJ/mol, while for the second stage (combustion it

  15. Effects of enterprise technology on supply chain collaboration: analysis of China-linked supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling

    2012-02-01

    Supply chain collaboration has received increasing attention from scholars and practitioners in recent years. However, our understanding of how enterprise information technology facilitates supply chain collaboration is still very limited, especially with regard to Chinese enterprise ownerships such as state-owned firms, joint-venture firms and local village-owned firms. This paper extends the theory established in enterprise information technology (IT) and supply chain collaboration literature and relates it with coordination in China-linked supply chain. Drawing upon an empirical study from 177 Chinese companies, we provide three major findings: (i) uncovered the importance of leveraging enterprise IT through supply chain collaboration; (ii) identified the relationship between enterprise ownership and enterprise technology use and supply chain collaboration in China-linked supply chain and (iii) illustrated effects of supply chain collaborative activities on operational and market performance.

  16. Systems Analysis of Ten Supply Chains for Whole Tree Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmer Belbo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Whole trees from energy thinnings constitute one of many forest fuel sources, yet ten widely applied supply chains could be defined for this feedstock alone. These ten represent only a subset of the real possibilities, as felling method was held constant and only a single market (combustion of whole tree chips was considered. Stages included in-field, roadside landing, terminal, and conversion plant, and biomass states at each of these included loose whole trees, bundled whole trees or chipped material. Assumptions on prices, performances, and conversion rates were based on field trials and published literature in similar boreal forest conditions. The economic outcome was calculated on the basis of production, handling, treatment and storage costs and losses. Outcomes were tested for robustness on a range of object volumes (50–350 m3solid, extraction distances (50–550 m and transport distances (10–70 km using simulation across a set of discrete values. Transport was calculated for both a standard 19.5 m and an extended 24 m timber truck. Results showed that the most expensive chain (roadside bundling, roadside storage, terminal storage and delivery using a 19.5 m timber truck at 158 € td−1 was 23% more costly than the cheapest chain (roadside chipping and direct transport to conversion plant with container truck, at 128 € td−1. Outcomes vary at specific object volumes and transport distances, highlighting the need to verify assumptions, although standard deviations around mean supply costs for each chain were small (6%–9%. Losses at all stages were modelled, with the largest losses (23 € td−1 occurring in the chains including bundles. The study makes all methods and assumptions explicit and can assist the procurement manager in understanding the mechanisms at work.

  17. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Conversion Pathway: Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons The 2017 Design Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL conducted a campaign to quantify the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from standing in the field or stand to the throat of the biomass conversion process. The goal of this program was to establish the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes, design improvements to the current system, and to mark annual improvements based on higher efficiencies or better designs. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $35/dry ton. This goal was successfully achieved in 2012 by implementing field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. Looking forward to 2017, the programmatic target is to supply biomass to the conversion facilities at a total cost of $80/dry ton and on specification with in-feed requirements. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, abundant, low-cost feedstock. If this goal is not achieved, biofuel plants are destined to be small and/or clustered in select regions of the country that have a lock on low-cost feedstock. To put the 2017 cost target into perspective of past accomplishments of the cellulosic ethanol pathway, the $80 target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all

  18. GIS Methodology for Location of Biomass Power Plants Via Multi -Criteria Evaluation and Network Analysis. Location-Allocation Models for Forest Biomass Use; Metodologia SIG para la Localizacion de Centrales de Biomasa mediante Evaluacion Multicriterio y Analisis de Redes. Modelos de Localizacion-Asignacion para el Aprovechamiento de Biomasa Forestal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz, C. de la; Dominguez, J.; Perez, M. E.

    2013-02-01

    The main purpose of this study is to find optimal areas for the installation of Biomass Plants for electric generation and grid connected. In order to achieve this goal, a methodology based on Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) and implemented by means a Geographic Information System (GIS) has been developed. Factors and restrictions for biomass resource and power plants location of biomass have been obtained through the dataset. The methodology output includes maps of greater aptitude areas for resource use (forest biomass available), as well as suitable locations for the placement of Forest Biomass facilities. Both cartographic products have been related by means Network Analysis. It generates Location-Allocation Models which allows locating Forest Biomass Facilities according with an optimization of the supply chain from the resource areas. (Author)

  19. Information technology portfolio in supply chain management using factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jaafarnejad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of information technology (IT along with supply chain management (SCM has become increasingly a necessity among most businesses. This enhances supply chain (SC performance and helps companies achieve the organizational competitiveness. IT systems capture and analyze information and enable management to make decisions by considering a global scope across the entire SC. This paper reviews the existing literature on IT in SCM and considers pertinent criteria. Using principal component analysis (PCA of factor analysis (FA, a number of related criteria are divided into smaller groups. Finally, SC managers can develop an IT portfolio in SCM using mean values of few extracted components on the relevance –emergency matrix. A numerical example is provided to explain details of the proposed method.

  20. Analyzing the Economy-wide Impact of the Supply Chains Activated by a new Biomass Power Plant. The case of cardoon in Sardinia

    OpenAIRE

    Bonfiglio, Andrea; Esposti, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the impact on the economy of the Italian region of the Sardinia generated by a new biomass power plant that will be fed with locally cultivated cardoon. The cardoon will also serve the production of biopolymers. The impact is assessed at an economy-wide level using a multiregional mixed-variable closed I-O model that allows taking into account the whole supply chain activated and the cross-regional effects generated by trade across local industries. The effects are com...

  1. Multilanguage Web application to assess biomass energy production: economic and energetic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berruto, Remigio; Busato, Patrizia; Piccarolo, Pietro [University of Turin (Italy). Dipt. di Economia e Ingegneria Agraria, Forestale e Ambientale (DEIAFA)], E-mail: remigio.berruto@unito.it

    2008-07-01

    One of the main difficulties in the development of biomass supply chains is the lack of reliable and complete information, which is needed to carry out a correct feasibility study. The aim of the research is contributing to knowledge which can be exploited in designing and evaluating biomass supply chains, within a standardized system approach. For this purpose has been implemented by DEIAFA a Web application - www.energyfarm.unito.it - to investigate the biomass supply chains under the technical, economic and energetic aspects. The first set of procedures allow the evaluation of field and logistic operations related to biomass cultivation, harvest and transport to the point of use. Another set of procedures refers to the feasibility study of biomass power plant. All procedures share a common database, ensuring their proper integration. EnergyFarm{sup R} represents a step toward the standardization of data and calculation procedures. In the future, it will be possible to foresee also in the same application the computing of the results with different standards (ASAE, EU, etc.). The interface to the application is provided in English and Italian languages. (author)

  2. Profit Analysis and Supply Chain Planning Model for Closed-Loop Supply Chain in Fashion Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisoo Oh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, due to market growth and use of synthetic fiber, the fashion industry faces a rapid increase of CO2 emission throughout the production cycle and raises environmental issues in recovery processing. This study proposes a closed-loop supply chain (CLSC structure in fashion industry and develops its planning model as multi-objective mixed integer linear programming to find an optimal trade-off between CLSC profit and CO2 emission. The planning model is associated with the profit analysis of each member in CLSC to find the optimal price of products on CLSC network. The model determines optimal production, transportation, and inventory quantities on CLSC network. The proposed models are validated using numerical experiments and sensitivity analyses, and from the results some managerial insights are addressed.

  3. Competition between biomass and food production in the presence of energy policies: a partial equilibrium analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignaciuk, A.; Vöhringer, F.; Ruijs, A.J.W.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2006-01-01

    Bioenergy has several advantages over fossil fuels. For example, it delivers energy at low net CO2 emission levels and contributes to sustaining future energy supplies. The concern, however, is that an increase in biomass plantations will reduce the land available for agricultural production. The

  4. Digital Biomass Accumulation Using High-Throughput Plant Phenotype Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Md Matiur; Ahsan, Md Asif; Gillani, Zeeshan; Chen, Ming

    2017-09-01

    Biomass is an important phenotypic trait in functional ecology and growth analysis. The typical methods for measuring biomass are destructive, and they require numerous individuals to be cultivated for repeated measurements. With the advent of image-based high-throughput plant phenotyping facilities, non-destructive biomass measuring methods have attempted to overcome this problem. Thus, the estimation of plant biomass of individual plants from their digital images is becoming more important. In this paper, we propose an approach to biomass estimation based on image derived phenotypic traits. Several image-based biomass studies state that the estimation of plant biomass is only a linear function of the projected plant area in images. However, we modeled the plant volume as a function of plant area, plant compactness, and plant age to generalize the linear biomass model. The obtained results confirm the proposed model and can explain most of the observed variance during image-derived biomass estimation. Moreover, a small difference was observed between actual and estimated digital biomass, which indicates that our proposed approach can be used to estimate digital biomass accurately.

  5. Sustainability assessment of forest biomass supply chain at local scale: carrying capacity of the system for energy valorisation

    OpenAIRE

    Martire, S; Castellani, V.; Sala, S.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of the trade-off between the benefits coming from forest resources’ use and the conservation of forest ecosystems is needed. Considering the use of biomass for energy purpose, on one hand the use of wood resources should be based on an evaluation of the “carrying capacity” of the forest ecosystem and site-specific characteristics; on the other hand, the role of biomass valorisation has to be assessed considering the socio economic benefit or drawbacks due to the further development...

  6. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of lignocellulosic biomass using infrared techniques: A mini-review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current wet chemical methods for biomass composition analysis using two-step sulfuric acid hydrolysis are time-consuming, labor-intensive, and unable to provide structural information about biomass. Infrared techniques provide fast, low-cost analysis, are non-destructive, and have shown promising re...

  7. Modelling and analysis of workflow for lean supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinping; Wang, Kanliang; Xu, Lida

    2011-11-01

    Cross-organisational workflow systems are a component of enterprise information systems which support collaborative business process among organisations in supply chain. Currently, the majority of workflow systems is developed in perspectives of information modelling without considering actual requirements of supply chain management. In this article, we focus on the modelling and analysis of the cross-organisational workflow systems in the context of lean supply chain (LSC) using Petri nets. First, the article describes the assumed conditions of cross-organisation workflow net according to the idea of LSC and then discusses the standardisation of collaborating business process between organisations in the context of LSC. Second, the concept of labelled time Petri nets (LTPNs) is defined through combining labelled Petri nets with time Petri nets, and the concept of labelled time workflow nets (LTWNs) is also defined based on LTPNs. Cross-organisational labelled time workflow nets (CLTWNs) is then defined based on LTWNs. Third, the article proposes the notion of OR-silent CLTWNS and a verifying approach to the soundness of LTWNs and CLTWNs. Finally, this article illustrates how to use the proposed method by a simple example. The purpose of this research is to establish a formal method of modelling and analysis of workflow systems for LSC. This study initiates a new perspective of research on cross-organisational workflow management and promotes operation management of LSC in real world settings.

  8. Proceedings of the IEA Bioenergy Task 43 and Long-Term Soil Productivity international workshop : sustainability across the supply chain of land-based biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Concerns over energy security and economic and environmental sustainability have created an interest in alternative, renewable forms of energy. Bioenergy is the oldest and most widespread source of converted energy, and can be produced at local and regional scales. Studies have indicated that bioenergy production may offset greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and provide support for traditional and new fibre production and transport systems. This workshop was held to explore methods of ensuring the sustainability of ecosystems as well as to discuss the economic and social challenges related to the production, conversion, and transport of biomass to energy. The economic sustainability of supply was discussed, as well as methods of sustaining soils and plant productive capacity. Sustainable feedstock supply systems were also evaluated. The workshop was divided into the following 12 main sessions: (1) global and regional perspectives; (2) broad scale supply chain issues; (3) broad scale environmental issues; (4) sustainable feedstock supply systems criteria and indicators; (5) managing land for bioenergy feedstock production; (6) managing the productive capacity of soils; (7) environmental sustainability; (8) long term soil productivity; (9) greenhouse gas balances and life cycle assessment; (10) long term soil productivity; (11) bioenergy in practice; and (12) environmental quality concerns. The workshop featured 50 presentations, of which 19 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  9. Upgrading of syngas derived from biomass gasification: A thermodynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haryanto, Agus [Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, Mississippi State University, 130 Creelman St., Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Agricultural Engineering Department, University of Lampung, Jl. Sumantri Brojonegoro No. 1, Bandar Lampung 35145 (Indonesia); Fernando, Sandun D. [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, Texas A and M University, 2117 TAMU College Station, TX 77843-2117 (United States); Pordesimo, Lester O. [Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, Mississippi State University, 130 Creelman St., Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Adhikari, Sushil [Biosystems Engineering Department, Auburn University, 215 Tom Corley Building, Auburn, AL 36849-5417 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Hydrogen yields in the syngas produced from non-catalytic biomass gasification are generally low. The hydrogen fraction, however, can be increased by converting CO, CH{sub 4}, higher hydrocarbons, and tar in a secondary reactor downstream. This paper discusses thermodynamic limits of the synthesis gas upgrading process. The method used in this process is minimization of Gibbs free energy function. The analysis is performed for temperature ranges from 400 to 1300 K, pressure of 1-10 atm (0.1-1 MPa), and different carbon to steam ratios. The study concludes that to get optimum H{sub 2} yields, with negligible CH{sub 4} and coke formation, upgrading syngas is best practiced at a temperature range of 900-1100 K. At these temperatures, H{sub 2} could be possibly increased by 43-124% of its generally observed values at the gasifier exit. The analysis revealed that increasing steam resulted in a positive effect. The study also concluded that increasing pressure from 1 to 3 atm can be applied at a temperature >1000 K to further increase H{sub 2} yields. (author)

  10. Comparison of woody pellets, straw pellets, and delayed harvest system herbaceous biomass (switchgrass and miscanthus): analysis of current combustion techniques determining the value of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hui, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Since the energy consumption is growing fast, it is important to find alternative resources for the future generation energy supply. This study is going to compare the woody pellets, straw pellets and delayed harvest system biomass (switchgrass and miscanthus) from the combustion technique perspecti

  11. Comparison of woody pellets, straw pellets, and delayed harvest system herbaceous biomass (switchgrass and miscanthus): analysis of current combustion techniques determining the value of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hui, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Since the energy consumption is growing fast, it is important to find alternative resources for the future generation energy supply. This study is going to compare the woody pellets, straw pellets and delayed harvest system biomass (switchgrass and miscanthus) from the combustion technique

  12. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil to Produce Hydrocarbon Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adom, Felix K.; Cai, Hao; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Hartley, Damon; Searcy, Erin; Tan, Eric; Jones, Sue; Snowden-Swan, Lesley

    2016-03-31

    This report describes the supply chain sustainability analysis (SCSA) of renewable gasoline and diesel produced via fast pyrolysis of a blended woody feedstock. The metrics considered in this analysis include supply chain greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and water consumption.

  13. Biomass refining for sustainable development. Analysis and directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Luo

    2010-05-11

    To understand the contribution of biomass refining to sustainable development, the technical, environmental and economic aspects are summarized in this thesis. This work begins from life cycle assessment (LCA) of bioethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks such as corn stover, sugarcane and bagasse, and switchgrass. The findings from these studies present a clear example of problem shifting - solving the problems of oil depletion and ozone layer depletion at the expenses of increasing agricultural related emissions. Then this work continues with energy analyses of bioethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks in comparison with selected literature studies. The results indicate that a single-product (ethanol) system can be optimized only to a certain extent due to the fixed process options and relatively low price of ethanol. Therefore, the last part of this thesis focuses on design and system analysis of a lignocellulosic feedstock biorefinery producing fuel, chemicals and power in one plant, and analyzes the environmental and economic potential of such a refinery. The outcomes demonstrate that multi-product biorefining is indeed more feasible and profitable than single-output productions such as ethanol plant. Social aspects are beyond the scope of this study.

  14. An analysis of international nuclear fuel supply options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J'tia Patrice

    As the global demand for energy grows, many nations are considering developing or increasing nuclear capacity as a viable, long-term power source. To assess the possible expansion of nuclear power and the intricate relationships---which cover the range of economics, security, and material supply and demand---between established and aspirant nuclear generating entities requires models and system analysis tools that integrate all aspects of the nuclear enterprise. Computational tools and methods now exist across diverse research areas, such as operations research and nuclear engineering, to develop such a tool. This dissertation aims to develop methodologies and employ and expand on existing sources to develop a multipurpose tool to analyze international nuclear fuel supply options. The dissertation is comprised of two distinct components: the development of the Material, Economics, and Proliferation Assessment Tool (MEPAT), and analysis of fuel cycle scenarios using the tool. Development of MEPAT is aimed for unrestricted distribution and therefore uses publicly available and open-source codes in its development when possible. MEPAT is built using the Powersim Studio platform that is widely used in systems analysis. MEPAT development is divided into three modules focusing on: material movement; nonproliferation; and economics. The material movement module tracks material quantity in each process of the fuel cycle and in each nuclear program with respect to ownership, location and composition. The material movement module builds on techniques employed by fuel cycle models such as the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) code developed at the Idaho National Laboratory under the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) for the analysis of domestic fuel cycle. Material movement parameters such as lending and reactor preference, as well as fuel cycle parameters such as process times and material factors are user-specified through a Microsoft Excel(c) data spreadsheet

  15. Gasification-based biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The gasification-based biomass section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  16. Electrical performance analysis and economic evaluation of combined biomass cook stove thermoelectric (BITE) generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertsatitthanakorn, C

    2007-05-01

    The use of biomass cook stoves is widespread in the domestic sector of developing countries, but the stoves are not efficient. To advance the versatility of the cook stove, we investigated the feasibility of adding a commercial thermoelectric (TE) module made of bismuth-telluride based materials to the stove's side wall, thereby creating a thermoelectric generator system that utilizes a proportion of the stove's waste heat. The system, a biomass cook stove thermoelectric generator (BITE), consists of a commercial TE module (Taihuaxing model TEP1-1264-3.4), a metal sheet wall which acts as one side of the stove's structure and serves as the hot side of the TE module, and a rectangular fin heat sink at the cold side of the TE module. An experimental set-up was built to evaluate the conversion efficiency at various temperature ranges. The experimental set-up revealed that the electrical power output and the conversion efficiency depended on the temperature difference between the cold and hot sides of the TE module. At a temperature difference of approximately 150 degrees C, the unit achieved a power output of 2.4W. The conversion efficiency of 3.2% was enough to drive a low power incandescent light bulb or a small portable radio. A theoretical model approximated the power output at low temperature ranges. An economic analysis indicated that the payback period tends to be very short when compared with the cost of the same power supplied by batteries. Therefore, the generator design formulated here could be used in the domestic sector. The system is not intended to compete with primary power sources but serves adequately as an emergency or backup source of power.

  17. Analysing the economy-wide impact of the supply chains activated by a new biomass power plant. The case of cardoon in Sardinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bonfiglio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact on the economy of Sardinia (Italy generated by a new biomass power plant fed by locally cultivated cardoon. The cardoon also serves the production of biopolymers. The impact is assessed at an economy-wide level using two multiregional closed Input-Output models, which allow us to take into account the entire supply chain activated and the supra-local effects generated by trade across local industries. The effects are computed under alternative scenarios simulating different levels of substitution of existing agricultural activities with the new activity (cardoon. Results show positive and locally significant impacts in terms of value added and employment. However, these impacts are substantially influenced by the degree of substitution. Results also suggest that there are specific territorial areas that are more sensitive to negative effects induced by substitution.

  18. Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol via Acetic Acid Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Jones, Susanne B.

    2009-04-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). This study performs a techno-economic analysis of the thermo chemical conversion of biomass to ethanol, through methanol and acetic acid, followed by hydrogenation of acetic acid to ethanol. The conversion of syngas to methanol and methanol to acetic acid are well-proven technologies with high conversions and yields. This study was undertaken to determine if this highly selective route to ethanol could provide an already established economically attractive route to ethanol. The feedstock was assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two types of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. Process models were developed and a cost analysis was performed. The carbon monoxide used for acetic acid synthesis from methanol and the hydrogen used for hydrogenation were assumed to be purchased and not derived from the gasifier. Analysis results show that ethanol selling prices are estimated to be $2.79/gallon and $2.81/gallon for the indirectly-heated gasifier and the directly-heated gasifier systems, respectively (1stQ 2008$, 10% ROI). These costs are above the ethanol market price for during the same time period ($1.50 - $2.50/gal). The co-production of acetic acid greatly improves the process economics as shown in the figure below. Here, 20% of the acetic acid is diverted from ethanol production and assumed to be sold as a co-product at the prevailing market prices ($0.40 - $0.60/lb acetic acid), resulting in competitive ethanol production costs.

  19. Analysis of the Impacts of Rainfall Variability on Public Water Supply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of the Impacts of Rainfall Variability on Public Water Supply in Ilorin, Nigeria. ... Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science ... out revealed the variability and the percentage changes in rainfall and water supply over time in Ilorin.

  20. Biomass recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    , enzymatic hydrolysis, and product fermentation options. Biomass Recalcitrance is essential reading for researchers, process chemists and engineers working in biomass conversion, also plant scientists working in cell wall biology and plant biotechnology. This book examines the connection between biomass...... - this collective resistance is known as "biomass recalcitrance." Breakthrough technologies are needed to overcome barriers to developing cost-effective processes for converting biomass to fuels and chemicals. This book examines the connection between biomass structure, ultrastructure, and composition......, to resistance to enzymatic deconstruction, with the aim of discovering new cost-effective technologies for biorefineries. It contains chapters on topics extending from the highest levels of biorefinery design and biomass life-cycle analysis, to detailed aspects of plant cell wall structure, chemical treatments...

  1. Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-01-01

    The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in...

  2. [Endogenous respiration process analysis of heterotrophic biomass and autotrophic biomass based on respiration map ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-hua; Bai, Xu-li; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Yi; He, Chun-bo

    2014-09-01

    The endogenous process is an important metabolic part of the activated sludge, and the understanding of this process is still unclear. Characteristics of endogenous respiration for heterotrophic bacteria and autotrophic nitrifiers were analyzed using respirogram. Results showed that both heterotrophic and autotrophic bacteria entered the stage of endogenous respiration at almost the same time, but heterotrophic bacteria first entered the stage of dormancy i. e. , they were easier to recover a higher proportion of biomass during the dormancy stage, indicating that heterotrophic bacteria exhibited strong environmental adaptability. Autotrophic bacteria were, however, quite different. This finding confirmed that autotrophic bacteria were more vulnerable from the viewpoint of endogenous respiration. In addition, the study also found that the increase of endogenous respiration rate ratio reflected the decreased sludge activity. And the proportion of endogenous respiration was an important parameter to characterize the activity of activated sludge, which can be used as a quantitative index for the health status of activated sludge. The findings further deepened the understanding of endogenous respiration process and provided a theoretical basis for the operation and management of wastewater treatment plants.

  3. A VENSIM BASED ANALYSIS FOR SUPPLY CHAIN MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad SHAMSUDDOHA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The emphasis on supply chain has increased in recent years among academic and industry circles. In this paper, a supply chain model will be developed based on a case study of the poultry industry under the Vensim environment. System dynamics, supply chain, design science and case method under positivist and quantitative paradigm will be studied to develop a simulation model. The objectives of this paper are to review literature, develop a Vensim based simulation supply chain model, and examine the model qualitatively and quantitatively. The model will be also briefly discussed in relation of among forward, reverse and mainstream supply chain of the case.

  4. Dynamic Analysis & Characterization of Conventional Hydraulic Power Supply Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Liedhegener, Michael; Bech, Michael Møller

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic power units operated as constant supply pres-sure systems remain to be widely used in the industry, to supply valve controlled hydraulic drives etc., where the hydraulic power units are constituted by variable pumps with mechanical outlet pressure control, driven by induction motors...... and drives will reduce the flow-to-pressure gain of the supply system, and hence increase the time constant of the sup-ply pressure dynamics. A consequence of this may be large vari-ations in the supply pressure, hence large variations in the pump shaft torque, and thereby the induction motor load torque......, with possible excitation of the induction motor dynamics as a result. In such cases, the coupled dynamics of the pressure controlled pump and induction motor may influence the supply pressure sig-nificantly, possibly affecting the dynamics of the supplied drives, especially in cases where pilot operated valves...

  5. Energy Analysis of a Biomass Co-firing Based Pulverized Coal Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The results are reported of an energy analysis of a biomass/coal co-firing based power generation system, carried out to investigate the impacts of biomass co-firing on system performance. The power generation system is a typical pulverized coal-fired steam cycle unit, in which four biomass fuels (rice husk, pine sawdust, chicken litter, and refuse derived fuel and two coals (bituminous coal and lignite are considered. Key system performance parameters are evaluated for various fuel combinations and co-firing ratios, using a system model and numerical simulation. The results indicate that plant energy efficiency decreases with increase of biomass proportion in the fuel mixture, and that the extent of the decrease depends on specific properties of the coal and biomass types.

  6. Experimental facility for analysis of biomass combustion characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković Biljana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present article is to present an experimental facility which was designed and built at the Faculty of Technical Sciences in order to study the combustion of different sorts of biomass and municipal solid waste. Despite its apparent simplicity, direct combustion is a complex process from a technological point of view. Conventional combustion equipment is not designed for burning agricultural residues. Devices for agricultural waste combustion are still in the development phase, which means that adequate design solution is presently not available at the world market. In order to construct a boiler and achieve optimal combustion conditions, it is necessary to develop a mathematical model for biomass combustion. Experimental facility can be used for the collection of data necessary for detailed modelling of real grate combustor of solid biomass fuels. Due to the complexity of the grate combustion process, its mathematical models and simulation software tools must be developed and verified using experimental data. This work highlights the properties required for the laboratory facility designed for the examination of biomass combustion and discusses design and operational issues.

  7. Biomass refining for sustainable development : analysis and directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Lin

    2010-01-01

    To understand the contribution of biomass refining to sustainable development, the technical, environmental and economic aspects are summarized in this thesis. This work begins from life cycle assessment (LCA) of bioethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks such as corn stover, sugarcane and bagasse,

  8. Energy analysis of biochemical conversion processes of biomass to bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakari, M.; Ngadi, M.; Bergthorson, T. [McGill Univ., Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Bioresource Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Bioethanol is among the most promising of biofuels that can be produced from different biomass such as agricultural products, waste and byproducts. This paper reported on a study that examined the energy conversion of different groups of biomass to bioethanol, including lignocelluloses, starches and sugar. Biochemical conversion generally involves the breakdown of biomass to simple sugars using different pretreatment methods. The energy needed for the conversion steps was calculated in order to obtain mass and energy efficiencies for the conversions. Mass conversion ratios of corn, molasses and rice straw were calculated as 0.3396, 0.2300 and 0.2296 kg of bioethanol per kg of biomass, respectively. The energy efficiency of biochemical conversion of corn, molasses and rice straw was calculated as 28.57, 28.21 and 31.33 per cent, respectively. The results demonstrated that lignocelluloses can be efficiently converted with specific microorganisms such as Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae using the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) methods.

  9. Biomass refining for sustainable development : analysis and directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Lin

    2010-01-01

    To understand the contribution of biomass refining to sustainable development, the technical, environmental and economic aspects are summarized in this thesis. This work begins from life cycle assessment (LCA) of bioethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks such as corn stover, sugarcane and bagasse,

  10. Dynamic Supply Response Analysis of Pakistani Rice Growers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M.Shaikh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Alternative specifications of model of supply response of Pakistani rice growers and their economic implications are considered in terms of the existences and nature of production lags, and the choice between expected price and gross returns as the preferred explanatory of producer‟s response to changing economic condition. The analysis indicates that there are lags which are due primarily to the difficulties and cost of rapid adjustment rather than to the time required to revise expectations. The statistical results were similar for the alternative specification of gross margins and prices as the economic decision available. However, the price elasticities derived using the gross margins specification were about a third of those using the prices specification. The gross margin specification yielded additional information in the form of yield and input cost elasticities.

  11. A Subjective Risk Analysis Approach of Container Supply Chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zai-Li Yang; Jin Wang; Steve Bonsall; Jian-Bo Yang; Quan-Gen Fang

    2005-01-01

    After the 9/11 terrorism attacks, the lock-out of the American West Ports in 2002 and the breakout of SARS disease in 2003 have further focused mind of both the public and industrialists to take effective and timely measures for assessing and controlling the risks related to container supply chains (CSCs). However, due to the complexity of the risks in the chains, conventional quantitative risk assessment (QRA) methods may not be capable of providing sufficient safety management information, as achieving such a functionality requires enabling the possibility of conducting risk analysis in view of the challenges and uncertainties posed by the unavailability and incompleteness of historical failure data. Combing the fuzzy set theory (FST) and an evidential reasoning (ER) approach, the paper presents a subjective method to deal with the vulnerability-based risks, which are more ubiquitous and uncertain than the traditional hazard-based ones in the chains.

  12. Biomass-based hydrogen production: A review and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinci, Yildiz [Department of Technical Programs, Izmir Vocational High School, Dokuz Eylul University, Education Campus Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Hepbasli, Arif [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Dincer, Ibrahim [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-11-15

    In this study, various processes for conversion of biomass into hydrogen gas are comprehensively reviewed in terms of two main groups, namely (i) thermo-chemical processes (pyrolysis, conventional gasification, supercritical water gasification (SCWG)), and (ii) biological conversions (fermentative hydrogen production, photosynthesis, biological water gas shift reactions (BWGS)). Biomass-based hydrogen production systems are discussed in terms of their energetic and exergetic aspects. Literature studies and potential methods are then summarized for comparison purposes. In addition, a biomass gasification process via oxygen and steam in a downdraft gasifier is exergetically studied for performance assessment as a case study. The operating conditions and strategies are really important for better performance of the system for hydrogen production. A distinct range of temperatures and pressures is used, such as that the temperatures may vary from 480 to 1400 C, while the pressures are in the range of 0.1-50 MPa in various thermo-chemical processes reviewed. For the operating conditions considered the data for steam biomass ratio (SBR) and equivalence ratio (ER) range from 0.6 to 10 and 0.1 to 0.4, respectively. In the study considered, steam is used as the gasifying agent with a product gas heating value of about 10-15 MJ/Nm{sup 3}, compared to an air gasification of biomass process with 3-6 MJ/Nm{sup 3}. The exergy efficiency value for the case study system is calculated to be 56.8%, while irreversibility and improvement potential rates are found to be 670.43 and 288.28 kW, respectively. Also, exergetic fuel and product rates of the downdraft gasifier are calculated as 1572.08 and 901.64 kW, while fuel depletion and productivity lack ratios are 43% and 74.3%, respectively. (author)

  13. SUSTAINABILITY OF SHORT FOOD SUPPLY CHAINS: ANALYSIS OF RAW MATERIAL SUPPLY IN MILAN PUBLIC SCHOOL CATERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D’Anna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand of short food supply chains is becoming more pressing by consumers, especially in the largest school catering. The implementation of the short chain in a large catering company of Milan, is described in this practical contribution. Several aspects of short food chains sustainability: legal, commercial and economic sustainability, hygienic and gastronomic sustainability, are discussed.

  14. Thermogravimetric Analysis and Kinetics on Reducing Low-Grade Manganese Dioxide Ore by Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honglei; Zhu, Guocai; Yan, Hong; Li, Tiancheng; Feng, Xiujuan

    2013-08-01

    Nonisothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was applied to evaluate rice straw, sawdust, wheat stalk, maize straw, and bamboo to explore their potential for reduction of manganese dioxide ore. Results from the biomass pyrolysis experiments showed that wood-based biomass materials, such as sawdust and bamboo, could produce more reductive agents, while herb-based biomass materials, such as rice straw, wheat stalk, and maize straw, had lower reaction temperatures. The peak temperatures for biomass reduction tests were 20 K to 50 K (20 °C to 50 °C) higher compared with the pyrolysis tests, and a clear shoulder at around 523 K (250 °C) could be observed. The effects of heating rate, biomass/manganese dioxide ore ratio, and different components of biomass were also investigated. An independent parallel first-order reaction kinetic model was used to calculate the values of activation energy and frequency factor for biomass pyrolysis and reduction of manganese dioxide ore. For better understanding the reduction process, kinetic parameters of independent behavior of manganese dioxide ore were also calculated by simple mathematical treatment. Finally, the isokinetic temperature T i and the rate constant k 0 for reduction of manganese oxide ore by reductive volatiles of biomass were derived according to the Arrhenius equation, which were determined to be 603 K (330 °C) and 108.99 min-1, respectively.

  15. Study on risk analysis of supply chain enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Xiaohui; Zhong Xiaobing; Song Shiji; Wu Cheng

    2006-01-01

    The sources of supply chain enterprise risk from different aspects including material flow, information flow, cash flow and partner relationship is analyzed. Measures for risk reduction have also been summarized from the aspects of risk sharing, information sharing, change of inventory control mode, and supply chain flexibility. Finally, problems in current research on supply chain risk management are pointed out and a discussion on future research trend is presented.

  16. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, James F.; Yee, Daniel D.

    2008-07-15

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC-DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC-DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  17. IT-Supported Modeling, Analysis and Design of Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhaus, Jörg; Alard, Robert; Sennheiser, Andreas

    A common language is a prerequisite for analyzing and optimizing supply chains. Based on experiences with three case studies, this paper identifies the aspects of a supply chain that have to be mapped to take informed decisions on its operations. Current, integrated modeling approaches for supply chains, like the SCOR and the GSCM model, will be analyzed and an advanced approach will be defined. The resulting approach takes advantage of IT-support.

  18. An Empirical Analysis of Money Supply Process in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Kumar Shrestha Ph.D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the money supply process in Nepal empirically on the basis of mainstream and Post-Keynesian theoretical perspectives for both pre and post-liberalization period covering the sample period of 1965/66-2009/10. The relative contribution of different components of money supply has been computed and the money supply as well as money multiplier function has been estimated. Empirical results show that disposable high powered money is found to be a major contributor to the change ...

  19. Research in biomass production and utilization: Systems simulation and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Albert Stewart

    There is considerable public interest in developing a sustainable biobased economy that favors support of family farms and rural communities and also promotes the development of biorenewable energy resources. This study focuses on a number of questions related to the development and exploration of new pathways that can potentially move us toward a more sustainable biobased economy. These include issues related to biomass fuels for drying grain, economies-of-scale, new biomass harvest systems, sugar-to-ethanol crop alternatives for the Upper Midwest U.S., biomass transportation, post-harvest biomass processing and double cropping production scenarios designed to maximize biomass feedstock production. The first section of this study considers post-harvest drying of shelled corn grain both at farm-scale and at larger community-scaled installations. Currently, drying of shelled corn requires large amounts of fossil fuel energy. To address future energy concerns, this study evaluates the potential use of combined heat and power systems that use the combustion of corn stover to produce steam for drying and to generate electricity for fans, augers, and control components. Because of the large capital requirements for solid fuel boilers and steam turbines/engines, both farm-scale and larger grain elevator-scaled systems benefit by sharing boiler and power infrastructure with other processes. The second and third sections evaluate sweet sorghum as a possible "sugarcane-like" crop that can be grown in the Upper Midwest. Various harvest systems are considered including a prototype mobile juice harvester, a hypothetical one-pass unit that separates grain heads from chopped stalks and traditional forage/silage harvesters. Also evaluated were post-harvest transportation, storage and processing costs and their influence on the possible use of sweet sorghum as a supplemental feedstock for existing dry-grind ethanol plants located in the Upper Midwest. Results show that the concept

  20. Profit Analysis and Supply Chain Planning Model for Closed-Loop Supply Chain in Fashion Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jisoo Oh; Bongju Jeong

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, due to market growth and use of synthetic fiber, the fashion industry faces a rapid increase of CO 2 emission throughout the production cycle and raises environmental issues in recovery processing. This study proposes a closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) structure in fashion industry and develops its planning model as multi-objective mixed integer linear programming to find an optimal trade-off between CLSC profit and CO 2 emission. The planning model is associated with the pr...

  1. Feasibility Analysis For Heating Tribal Buildings with Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Clairmont; Micky Bourdon; Tom Roche; Colene Frye

    2009-03-03

    This report provides a feasibility study for the heating of Tribal buildings using woody biomass. The study was conducted for the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Reservation in western Montana. S&K Holding Company and TP Roche Company completed the study and worked together to provide the final report. This project was funded by the DOE's Tribal Energy Program.

  2. Small Modular Biomass Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-12-01

    This fact sheet provides information about modular biomass systems. Small modular biomass systems can help supply electricity to rural areas, businesses, and the billions of people who live without power worldwide. These systems use locally available biomass fuels such as wood, crop waste, animal manures, and landfill gas.

  3. An analysis of the South African beef supply chain: from farm to fork.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this dissertation is to perform an analysis of the South African beef supply chain ‘from farm to fork’. This will contribute towards a better understanding of the beef supply chain, aiding collaboration, transparency and supply chain strategies to enhance national industry competitiveness. Currently, the industry, and the supply chain is facing pertinent challenges such as globalisation, the declining consumption of beef, the disconnection of the farmer from the suppl...

  4. Supply Management Analysis of the Chilean Navy Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    1. Generic supply chain diagram (from Sanders, 2012) ......................................11 Figure 2. Chilean Navy Logistics Organization...Sanders, 2012). Supply chain management involves the following activities (Monczka et al., 2009, pp. 17–19). • Purchasing or procurement • Inbound ...it will be measured, and how the data obtained will be used (Monczka et al., 2009). Some examples of indicators used inside the military logistics

  5. A two-phase method for timber supply analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Smith

    1978-01-01

    There is an increasing need to clarify the long-term wood supply implications of current harvesting rates. To assess the wood supply and to set timber production objectives, different linear programming techniques are applied to the short and long term. The transportation method is applied to the short term and the B. C. Forest Service computer-assisted resource...

  6. Ground-based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment

    OpenAIRE

    De Brito, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Morgan, W. T.; Coe, H.; Johnson, B; Haywood, J.; LONGO, K.; Freitas, S.; Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field ...

  7. Biomass recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes - this co......Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes...... - this collective resistance is known as "biomass recalcitrance." Breakthrough technologies are needed to overcome barriers to developing cost-effective processes for converting biomass to fuels and chemicals. This book examines the connection between biomass structure, ultrastructure, and composition......, to resistance to enzymatic deconstruction, with the aim of discovering new cost-effective technologies for biorefineries. It contains chapters on topics extending from the highest levels of biorefinery design and biomass life-cycle analysis, to detailed aspects of plant cell wall structure, chemical treatments...

  8. Nitrogen additions and microbial biomass: a meta-analysis of ecosystem studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treseder, Kathleen K

    2008-10-01

    Nitrogen (N) enrichment is an element of global change that could influence the growth and abundance of many organisms. In this meta-analysis, I synthesized responses of microbial biomass to N additions in 82 published field studies. I hypothesized that the biomass of fungi, bacteria or the microbial community as a whole would be altered under N additions. I also predicted that changes in biomass would parallel changes in soil CO2 emissions. Microbial biomass declined 15% on average under N fertilization, but fungi and bacteria were not significantly altered in studies that examined each group separately. Moreover, declines in abundance of microbes and fungi were more evident in studies of longer durations and with higher total amounts of N added. In addition, responses of microbial biomass to N fertilization were significantly correlated with responses of soil CO2 emissions. There were no significant effects of biomes, fertilizer types, ambient N deposition rates or methods of measuring biomass. Altogether, these results suggest that N enrichment could reduce microbial biomass in many ecosystems, with corresponding declines in soil CO2 emissions.

  9. Managing a live music performance: A supply-side analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Manners

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and objective: The purpose of this research is to determine what managers regard as important critical success factors in ensuring a memorable visitor experience at a live music performance.Problem investigated: When organising a live music performance, it is evident that the various characteristics that form part of the visitor experience have to be considered. The critical success factors of live music performances from the supply side are fundamental, since the costs of organising live music performances are high, the needs of the visitors are constantly changing and competition plays a major role in the success of such events. Management furthermore constantly needs to be aware of the ever-changing external environment by determining what factors visitors consider to be vital for a rewarding experience at a major music event. This is extremely important since the concept of experience has become more pervasive, mainly given that the event sector, such as live music performances, has adopted experience as a tool to make individual businesses more competitive, as the organisations operating within this sector exist to provide consumers with an experience.Design and/or methodology and/or approach: A qualitative research method, by means of interviews, was used to obtain the relevant information from the selected participants. All the data collected in the process were transcribed into text and presented in narrative form. The six steps of data analysis and interpretation were applied to analyse the data.Findings and impications: The following four major themes emerged from the analysis; each theme was differentiated in terms of various categories and subcategories. Theme 1:The most important aspects for a memorable visitor experience; Theme 2:Main purpose when organising a live music performance; Theme 3:Important aspects regarding the management of a live music performance; Theme 4:Timing of event management. Based

  10. Analysis of exfoliated gastric carcinoma cells attached on surgical supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu XF

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Xiao-Fen Yu,1 Ying-Yu Ma,2 Xian-Qin Hu,1 Qin-Fang Zhang,1 Zai-Yuan Ye3 1Operating Theatre, Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital, 2Key Laboratory of Gastroenterology of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital, 3Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Surgery is considered to have a leading role in the treatment of gastric carcinoma. Surgical supplies are used to cut, divide, and ligate during surgery, and are not only in close contact with normal tissues, but may also be contaminated by pathological tissues and cells. This study sought to determine the presence of exfoliated tumor cells on surgical supplies at different stages during the surgical procedure. We collected five types of surgical supplies from 90 patients who underwent D2 radical gastrectomy to find out if there was any cancer cells attached to them. Highest numbers of cancer cells were found on gauze used to clean the surgical instruments and on the gloves of scrub nurses. The likelihood of finding cancer cells increased with advancing clinical stage of disease, lower differentiation of cancer cells, increasing frequency of use of supplies and extent of contact, and was also associated with the characteristic of surgical supplies. Dissemination of tumor cells could be prevented by using a number of methods, depending on the type of surgical supply items. Keywords: exfoliated tumor cells, surgical supplies, gastric carcinoma, metastasis, prevention

  11. Analysis of Competitiveness and Support Instruments for Heat and Electricity Production from Wood Biomass in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavs, G.; Kudrenickis, I.; Kundzina, A.

    2012-01-01

    Utilisation of renewable energy sources is one of the key factors in a search for efficient ways of reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases and improving the energy supply security. So far, the district heating supply in Latvia has been based on natural gas, with the wood fuel playing a minor role; the same is true for decentralised combined heat-power (CHP) production. The paper describes a method for evaluation of the economic feasibility of heat and electricity production from wood biomass under the competition between different fuel types and taking into account the electricity market. For the simulation, a cost estimation model is applied. The results demonstrate that wood biomass can successfully be utilised for competitive heat production by boiler houses, while for electricity production by CHP utilities it cannot compete on the market (even despite the low prices on wood biomass fuel) unless particular financial support instruments are applied. The authors evaluate the necessary support level and the impact of two main support instruments - the investment subsidies and the feed-in tariff - on the economic viability of wood-fuelled CHP plants, and show that the feed-in tariff could be considered as an instrument strongly affecting the competitiveness of such type CHP. Regarding the feed-in tariff determination, a compromise should be found between the economy-dictated requirement to develop CHP projects concerning capacities above 5 MWel - on the one hand, and the relatively small heat loads in many Latvian towns - on the other.

  12. Energy from Biomass for Conversion of Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolins, J.; Gravitis, J.

    2009-01-01

    Along with estimates of minimum energy required by steam explosion pre-treatment of biomass some general problems concerning biomass conversion into chemicals, materials, and fuels are discussed. The energy necessary for processing biomass by steam explosion auto-hydrolysis is compared with the heat content of wood and calculated in terms of the amount of saturated steam consumed per unit mass of the dry content of wood biomass. The fraction of processed biomass available for conversion after steam explosion pre-treatment is presented as function of the amount of steam consumed per unit mass of the dry content of wood. The estimates based on a simple model of energy flows show the energy required by steam explosion pre-treatment of biomass being within 10% of the heat content of biomass - a realistic amount demonstrating that energy for the process can be supplied from a reasonable proportion of biomass used as the source of energy for steam explosion pre-treatment.

  13. Competition around biomass. Development of a land use model for the derivative of possible future developments of the agriculture regarding the supply of food and energy biomass; Konkurrenz um Biomasse. Entwicklung eines Landnutzungsmodells zur Ableitung moeglicher zukuenftiger Entwicklungen in der Landwirtschaft hinsichtlich der Bereitstellung von Nahrungsmitteln und Energiebiomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauh, Stefan Markus

    2010-08-23

    In this work a land use model is developed, which derives possible developments of the agriculture regarding the supply from food and energy biomass. The comparative static model LaNuOpt is based on an optimization of the total land rent using linear optimization. The results are determined in scenarios with different market situations and political basic conditions. With a continuance of the current basic conditions the model computes a doubling of the biogas capacities. Classic procedures of the food production are displaced, depending upon accepted market price.As side effect greenhouse gas emissions are saved. With the help of the model further questions can be examined. (orig.)

  14. Global Carbon Fiber Composites. Supply Chain Competitiveness Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sujit [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Warren, Joshua A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); West, Devin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schexnayder, Susan M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study is to identify key opportunities in the carbon fiber (CF) supply chain where resources and investments can help advance the clean energy economy. The report focuses on four application areas—wind energy, aerospace, automotive, and pressure vessels—that top the list of industries using CF and carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) and are particularly relevant to the mission of U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE EERE). For each of the four application areas, the report addresses the supply and demand trends within that sector, supply chain, and costs of carbon fiber and components.

  15. Analysis and Forecast for Timber Supply and Demand in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the data from 2002 to 2010, the paper analyzed the situation of timber supply and demand in China, and concluded that supply-demand could be balanced basically if taking accounting of timber import. Based on the data from the Seventh National Forestry Inventory, the potential of providing timber from natural forest and plantation was analyzed. The paper also forecasted the future features and trend of timber supply and demand in China. In the end, strategic measures and technological and policy gua...

  16. Variability of biomass chemical composition and rapid analysis using FT-NIR techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lu [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ye, Philip [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

    2010-04-01

    A quick method for analyzing the chemical composition of renewable energy biomass feedstock was developed by using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis. The study presents the broad-based model hypothesis that a single FT-NIR predictive model can be developed to analyze multiple types of biomass feedstock. The two most important biomass feedstocks corn stover and switchgrass were evaluated for the variability in their concentrations of the following components: glucan, xylan, galactan, arabinan, mannan, lignin, and ash. A hypothesis test was developed based upon these two species. Both cross-validation and independent validation results showed that the broad-based model developed is promising for future chemical prediction of both biomass species; in addition, the results also showed the method's prediction potential for wheat straw.

  17. Modelling of pyrolysis of coal-biomass blends using thermogravimetric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadhukhan, A.K.; Gupta, P.; Goyal, T.; Saha, R.K. [National Institute for Technology, Durgapur (India).

    2008-11-15

    The primary objective of this work was to develop an appropriate model to explain the co-pyrolysis behaviour of lignite coal-biomass blends with different proportions using a thermogravimetric analyzer. A new parallel-series kinetic model was proposed to predict the pyrolysis behaviour of biomass over the entire pyrolysis regime, while a kinetic model similar to that of Anthony and Howard (Anthony, D.B., Howard, J.B., 1976. Coal devolatilization and hydrogasification. AIChE Journal 22(4), 625-656) was used for pyrolysis of coal. Analysis of mass loss history of blends showed an absence of synergistic effect between coal and biomass. Co-pyrolysis mass-loss profiles of the blends were predicted using the estimated kinetic parameters of coal and biomass. Excellent agreement was found between the predicted and the experimental results.

  18. Pitfalls and possibilities in the analysis of biomass allocation patterns in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik ePoorter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants can differentially allocate biomass to leaves, stems, roots and reproduction, and follow ontogenetic trajectories that interact with the prevailing climate. Various methodological tools exist to analyse the resulting allocation patterns, based either on the calculation of biomass ratios or fractions of different organs at a given point in time, or on a so-called allometric analysis of biomass data sampled across species or over an experimental growth period. We discuss the weak and strong points of each of these methods. Although both approaches have useful features, we suggest that often a plot of biomass fractions against total plant size, either across species or in the comparison of treatment effects, combines the best of both worlds.

  19. Modelling of pyrolysis of coal-biomass blends using thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Anup Kumar; Gupta, Parthapratim; Goyal, Tripurari; Saha, Ranajit Kumar

    2008-11-01

    The primary objective of this work was to develop an appropriate model to explain the co-pyrolysis behaviour of lignite coal-biomass blends with different proportions using a thermogravimetric analyzer. A new parallel-series kinetic model was proposed to predict the pyrolysis behaviour of biomass over the entire pyrolysis regime, while a kinetic model similar to that of Anthony and Howard [Anthony, D.B., Howard, J.B., 1976. Coal devolatilization and hydrogasification. AIChE Journal 22(4), 625-656] was used for pyrolysis of coal. Analysis of mass loss history of blends showed an absence of synergistic effect between coal and biomass. Co-pyrolysis mass-loss profiles of the blends were predicted using the estimated kinetic parameters of coal and biomass. Excellent agreement was found between the predicted and the experimental results.

  20. [Band depth analysis and partial least square regression based winter wheat biomass estimation using hyperspectral measurements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Ji-Hua; Yang, Gui-Jun; Song, Xiao-Yu; Xu, Xin-Gang; Feng, Hai-Kuan

    2013-05-01

    The major limitation of using existing vegetation indices for crop biomass estimation is that it approaches a saturation level asymptotically for a certain range of biomass. In order to resolve this problem, band depth analysis and partial least square regression (PLSR) were combined to establish winter wheat biomass estimation model in the present study. The models based on the combination of band depth analysis and PLSR were compared with the models based on common vegetation indexes from the point of view of estimation accuracy, subsequently. Band depth analysis was conducted in the visible spectral domain (550-750 nm). Band depth, band depth ratio (BDR), normalized band depth index, and band depth normalized to area were utilized to represent band depth information. Among the calibrated estimation models, the models based on the combination of band depth analysis and PLSR reached higher accuracy than those based on the vegetation indices. Among them, the combination of BDR and PLSR got the highest accuracy (R2 = 0.792, RMSE = 0.164 kg x m(-2)). The results indicated that the combination of band depth analysis and PLSR could well overcome the saturation problem and improve the biomass estimation accuracy when winter wheat biomass is large.

  1. Analysis of power supply circuits for electroluminescent panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumea, Andrei; Dobre, Robert Alexandru

    2016-12-01

    The electroluminescent panel is a light emitting device that requires for normal operations alternative voltages with peak to peak amplitudes in 100V… 300V range and frequencies in 100Hz … 2 kHz range. Its advantages, when compared with standard light sources like incandescent lamps, gas-discharge lamps or light emitting diodes (LEDs), are lower power consumption, flexible substrate and uniform light without observable luminous points. One disadvantage of electroluminescent panels is the complex power supply required to drive them, but the continuous improvement in passive and active integrated devices for switched mode power supplies will eventually solve this issue. The present paper studies different topologies for these power supplies and the effect of the electric parameters like the amplitude, frequency, waveform of the supplying voltage on the light emission and on power consumption for electroluminescent panels with different size and colors.

  2. High temperature solid oxide fuel cell integrated with novel allothermal biomass gasification. Part II: Exergy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panopoulos, K. D.; Fryda, L.; Karl, J.; Poulou, S.; Kakaras, E.

    Biomass gasification derived gas is a renewable fuel, which can be used for SOFC applications. This work investigates the integration of a near atmospheric solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a novel allothermal biomass steam gasification process into a combined heat and power (CHP) system of less than MW e range. Heat for steam gasification is supplied from SOFC depleted fuel in a fluidised bed (FB) combustor via high temperature sodium heat pipes. In the first paper, the integrated system was modelled in Aspen Plus™ and critical aspects for its feasibility were identified. The aim of this second part is the evaluation of the integrated system in exergy terms. Satisfying allothermal gasification heat demand is illustrated by examining each sub-process involved separately as well as combined. For a relatively low STBR = 0.6, the SOFC fuel utilisation for which the system operates under optimum conditions is U f = 0.7. Above that value additional biomass has to be used in the FB combustor to provide gasification heat with considerable exergy losses. For SOFC operation at current density 2500 A m -2, the system uses 90 kg h -1 biomass, operates with electrical exergetic efficiency 32% producing 140 kW e, while the combined electrical and thermal exergetic efficiency is 35%.

  3. Information technology portfolio in supply chain management using factor analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Jaafarnejad; Davood Rafierad; Masoumeh Gardeshi

    2013-01-01

    The adoption of information technology (IT) along with supply chain management (SCM) has become increasingly a necessity among most businesses. This enhances supply chain (SC) performance and helps companies achieve the organizational competitiveness. IT systems capture and analyze information and enable management to make decisions by considering a global scope across the entire SC. This paper reviews the existing literature on IT in SCM and considers pertinent criteria. Using principal comp...

  4. Analysis of Chaotic Behaviour in Supply Chain Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez, Sergio A.; Peña, Gloria E.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we develop a supply chain model of four levels through the utilization of system dynamics with Ithink® and Mathlab® softwares to analyze data. The supply chain is studied from the chaos theory perspective, which helps identifying the sensitive variables that can lead to a state of chaos. A generic structure model that comprehends factory links, distribution, wholesale, retail and the client is constructed. The difficulty of operations and logistics managers to decide how much ...

  5. The prediction of elemental composition of biomass based on proximate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Jianfeng [School of Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei 200, Nanjing 210094 (China); Zhu Shuguang, E-mail: zhushuguang@tsinghua.org.c [School of Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei 200, Nanjing 210094 (China); Liu Xinzhi; Zhang Houlei; Tan Junjie [School of Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei 200, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Elemental composition is one of the most important properties for biomass utilization. The experimental determination of ultimate analysis data require special instrumentation, while proximate analysis data can be obtained easily by using common equipments. This paper presents new correlations for calculating the elemental composition based on proximate analysis of biomass. The correlations with the effect of ash content taken into account are derived by using 66 data points, and validated by using 20 data points selected from different categories of biomass than that for correlations derivation. The correlations are given as: C = 0.635FC + 0.460VM - 0.095ASH, H = 0.059FC + 0.060VM + 0.010ASH, O = 0.340FC + 0.469VM - 0.023ASH, where 9.2% <= FC <= 32.79%, 57.2% <= VM <= 90.6%, 0.1% <= ASH <= 24.6%, 36.2% <= C <= 53.1%, 4.7% <= H <= 6.61%, and 31.37% <= O <= 48.0% in wt.% on dry basis. The average absolute errors of these correlations are 3.17%, 4.47% and 3.16%, and the average bias errors are 0.19%, -0.34% and 0.19% compared with measured values of C, H and O, respectively. The new developed correlations can be used to compute elemental composition of biomass accurately, especially for those biomass whose ash content are high, based on simple proximate analysis.

  6. The prediction of elemental composition of biomass based on proximate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jianfeng Shen; Shuguang Zhu; Xinzhi Liu; Houlei Zhang; Junjie Tan [School of Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei 200, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Elemental composition is one of the most important properties for biomass utilization. The experimental determination of ultimate analysis data require special instrumentation, while proximate analysis data can be obtained easily by using common equipments. This paper presents new correlations for calculating the elemental composition based on proximate analysis of biomass. The correlations with the effect of ash content taken into account are derived by using 66 data points, and validated by using 20 data points selected from different categories of biomass than that for correlations derivation. The correlations are given as: C = 0.635FC + 0.460VM - 0.095ASH, H = 0.059FC + 0.060VM + 0.010ASH, O = 0.340FC + 0.469VM - 0.023ASH, where 9.2% {<=} FC {<=} 32.79%, 57.2% {<=} VM {<=} 90.6%, 0.1% {<=} ASH {<=} 24.6%, 36.2% {<=} C {<=} 53.1%, 4.7% {<=} H {<=} 6.61%, and 31.37% {<=} O {<=} 48.0% in wt.% on dry basis. The average absolute errors of these correlations are 3.17%, 4.47% and 3.16%, and the average bias errors are 0.19%, -0.34% and 0.19% compared with measured values of C, H and O, respectively. The new developed correlations can be used to compute elemental composition of biomass accurately, especially for those biomass whose ash content are high, based on simple proximate analysis. (author)

  7. Exergoeconomic analysis of small-scale biomass steam cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Sotomonte, Cesar Adolfo; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], e-mails: c.rodriguez32@unifei.edu.br, electo@unifei.edu.br; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Escobar, Jose Carlos [Universidad Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: osvaldo@unifei.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    The principal objective of this work is to develop a calculation process, based on the second law of thermodynamics, for evaluating the thermoeconomic potential of a small steam cogeneration plant using waste from pulp processing and/or sawmills as fuel. Four different configurations are presented and assessed. The exergetic efficiency of the cycles that use condensing turbines is found to be around 11%, which has almost 3 percent higher efficiency than cycles with back pressure turbines. The thermoeconomic equations used in this paper estimated the production costs varying the fuel price. The main results show that present cost of technologies in a small-scale steam cycle cogeneration do not justify the implementation of more efficient systems for biomass prices less than 100 R$/t. (author)

  8. Genetic analysis of biomass and photosynthetic parameters in wheat grown in different light intensities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwei Li; Gui Wang; Qi Zheng; Bin Li; Ruilian Jing; Zhensheng Li

    2014-01-01

    Growth light intensities largely determine photo-synthesis, biomass, and grain yield of cereal crops. To explore the genetic basis of light responses of biomass and photosynthetic parameters in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was carried out in a doubled haploid (DH) population grown in low light (LL), medium light (ML), and high light (HL), respectively. The results showed that the wheat seedlings grown in HL produced more biomass with lower total chlorophyll content (Chl), carotenoid content, and maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) while the wheat seed-lings grown in LL produced less biomass with higher Chl compared with those grown in ML. In total, 48 QTLs were identified to be associated with the investigated parameters in relation to growth light intensities. These QTLs were mapped to 15 chromosomes which individually explained 6.3%-36.0% of the phenotypic variance, of which chromo-somes 3A, 1D, and 6B were specifically involved in LL response, 5D and 7A specifically involved in ML response, and 4B specifically involved in HL response. Several light-responsive QTLs were co-located with QTLs for photosyn-thetic parameters, biomass, and grain weight under various conditions which may provide new hints to uncover the genetic control of photosynthesis, biomass, and grain weight.

  9. Fresh Biomass Estimation in Heterogeneous Grassland Using Hyperspectral Measurements and Multivariate Statistical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishzadeh, R.; Skidmore, A. K.; Mirzaie, M.; Atzberger, C.; Schlerf, M.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate estimation of grassland biomass at their peak productivity can provide crucial information regarding the functioning and productivity of the rangelands. Hyperspectral remote sensing has proved to be valuable for estimation of vegetation biophysical parameters such as biomass using different statistical techniques. However, in statistical analysis of hyperspectral data, multicollinearity is a common problem due to large amount of correlated hyper-spectral reflectance measurements. The aim of this study was to examine the prospect of above ground biomass estimation in a heterogeneous Mediterranean rangeland employing multivariate calibration methods. Canopy spectral measurements were made in the field using a GER 3700 spectroradiometer, along with concomitant in situ measurements of above ground biomass for 170 sample plots. Multivariate calibrations including partial least squares regression (PLSR), principal component regression (PCR), and Least-Squared Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) were used to estimate the above ground biomass. The prediction accuracy of the multivariate calibration methods were assessed using cross validated R2 and RMSE. The best model performance was obtained using LS_SVM and then PLSR both calibrated with first derivative reflectance dataset with R2cv = 0.88 & 0.86 and RMSEcv= 1.15 & 1.07 respectively. The weakest prediction accuracy was appeared when PCR were used (R2cv = 0.31 and RMSEcv= 2.48). The obtained results highlight the importance of multivariate calibration methods for biomass estimation when hyperspectral data are used.

  10. Loss Performance Analysis of an Isolated Power Supply for Ultrafast Tracking Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen-Duy, Khiem; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the loss performance analysis of an isolated power supply that is designed for ultra-fast tracking converters. The results of the analysis provide insights into the operation of the proposed power supply, how each physical component contributes to the total loss, and how its e...

  11. Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-07-01

    The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in terms of food availability, prices, and marketing. Along with established forms of supply chain analysis, the method is informed by a historical overview of how food supply chains have changed over time. The method posits that the actors and actions in the chain are affected by organizational, financial, technological, and policy incentives and disincentives, which can in turn be levered for change. It presents a preliminary example of the supply of Coca-Cola beverages into school vending machines and identifies further potential applications. These include fruit and vegetable supply chains, local food chains, supply chains for health-promoting versions of food products, and identifying financial incentives in supply chains for healthier eating.

  12. Biomass potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Biomass resources of the industrialised countries are enormous, if only a small fraction of set-aside fields were used for energy crops. Forest resources could also be utilised more efficiently than at present for large-scale energy production. The energy content of the annual net growth of the total wood biomass is estimated to be 180 million toe in Europe without the former USSR, and about 50 million toe of that in the EC area, in 1990. Presently, the harvesting methods of forest biomass for energy production are not yet generally competitive. Among the most promising methods are integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to the industry and wood fuel for energy production. Several new methods for separate harvesting of energy wood are being developed in many countries. (orig.)

  13. Improving North American forest biomass estimates from literature synthesis and meta-analysis of existing biomass equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Chojnacky; Jennifer C. Jenkins; Amanda K. Holland

    2009-01-01

    Thousands of published equations purport to estimate biomass of individual trees. These equations are often based on very small samples, however, and can provide widely different estimates for trees of the same species. We addressed this issue in a previous study by devising 10 new equations that estimated total aboveground biomass for all species in North America (...

  14. Business to business contribution analysis in supply chain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Modrigais Strauss Nunes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the contribution of e-commerce Business to Business (B2B in the management of supply chains, identifying the main processes developed through such tools in the operations of large corporations in Brazil, highlighting its advantages and disadvantages. For such, topics such as e-commerce, supply chain management and business networks were researched. Based on theoretical references searched, a survey type field research based on questionnaires with forms available on the Internet was performed. Ten major companies in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, which use B2B applications, participated in the survey. Among the various results, it was found that B2B e-commerce is established as an important support to the management of supply chains or business networks, improving the relationships, information exchange and transactions between the companies involved, increasing the potential for competitiveness.

  15. Analysis of inventory level under procurement constraints in supply chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Guangshu

    2007-01-01

    Because the inventory is one of the major factors that affect the performance of the supply chain system,efficient reduction of an inventory can effectively reduce the cost level of the total supply chain.Therefore,inventory management is an important means to optimize the operation of a supply chain and enhance the competitive advantage.Considering the (s,S) policy in an inventory management,this paper establishes a model of the inventory level.Then,the change of the inventory level with and without the procurement constraints is analyzed,and their expectation and variance calculated.Consequently,the order point can be determined accurately to reduce the inventory level and the operation risk.

  16. A Scalable Gaussian Process Analysis Algorithm for Biomass Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandola, Varun [ORNL; Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Biomass monitoring is vital for studying the carbon cycle of earth's ecosystem and has several significant implications, especially in the context of understanding climate change and its impacts. Recently, several change detection methods have been proposed to identify land cover changes in temporal profiles (time series) of vegetation collected using remote sensing instruments, but do not satisfy one or both of the two requirements of the biomass monitoring problem, i.e., {\\em operating in online mode} and {\\em handling periodic time series}. In this paper, we adapt Gaussian process regression to detect changes in such time series in an online fashion. While Gaussian process (GP) have been widely used as a kernel based learning method for regression and classification, their applicability to massive spatio-temporal data sets, such as remote sensing data, has been limited owing to the high computational costs involved. We focus on addressing the scalability issues associated with the proposed GP based change detection algorithm. This paper makes several significant contributions. First, we propose a GP based online time series change detection algorithm and demonstrate its effectiveness in detecting different types of changes in {\\em Normalized Difference Vegetation Index} (NDVI) data obtained from a study area in Iowa, USA. Second, we propose an efficient Toeplitz matrix based solution which significantly improves the computational complexity and memory requirements of the proposed GP based method. Specifically, the proposed solution can analyze a time series of length $t$ in $O(t^2)$ time while maintaining a $O(t)$ memory footprint, compared to the $O(t^3)$ time and $O(t^2)$ memory requirement of standard matrix manipulation based methods. Third, we describe a parallel version of the proposed solution which can be used to simultaneously analyze a large number of time series. We study three different parallel implementations: using threads, MPI, and a

  17. IMPROVING BIOMASS LOGISTICS COST WITHIN AGRONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY CONSTRAINTS AND BIOMASS QUALITY TARGETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Richard Hess; Kevin L. Kenney; Christopher T. Wright; David J. Muth; William Smith

    2012-10-01

    Equipment manufacturers have made rapid improvements in biomass harvesting and handling equipment. These improvements have increased transportation and handling efficiencies due to higher biomass densities and reduced losses. Improvements in grinder efficiencies and capacity have reduced biomass grinding costs. Biomass collection efficiencies (the ratio of biomass collected to the amount available in the field) as high as 75% for crop residues and greater than 90% for perennial energy crops have also been demonstrated. However, as collection rates increase, the fraction of entrained soil in the biomass increases, and high biomass residue removal rates can violate agronomic sustainability limits. Advancements in quantifying multi-factor sustainability limits to increase removal rate as guided by sustainable residue removal plans, and mitigating soil contamination through targeted removal rates based on soil type and residue type/fraction is allowing the use of new high efficiency harvesting equipment and methods. As another consideration, single pass harvesting and other technologies that improve harvesting costs cause biomass storage moisture management challenges, which challenges are further perturbed by annual variability in biomass moisture content. Monitoring, sampling, simulation, and analysis provide basis for moisture, time, and quality relationships in storage, which has allowed the development of moisture tolerant storage systems and best management processes that combine moisture content and time to accommodate baled storage of wet material based upon “shelf-life.” The key to improving biomass supply logistics costs has been developing the associated agronomic sustainability and biomass quality technologies and processes that allow the implementation of equipment engineering solutions.

  18. State Aid and Student Performance: A Supply-Demand Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnucan, Henry W.; Zheng, Yuqing; Brehmer, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    Using a supply-demand framework, a six-equation model is specified to generate hypotheses about the relationship between state aid and student performance. Theory predicts that an increase in state or federal aid provides an incentive to decrease local funding, but that the disincentive associated with increased state aid is moderated when federal…

  19. Green supply chain management: analysis of brazilian academic publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Barbieri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with environmental issues from the perspective of Supply Chain Management. With the incorporation of environmental concerns in a systematic manner the concept of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM has emerged. The subject GSCM interests not only to academics but also to professional audience especially with regard to new legal obligations, and social pressures of various types of stakeholders, as well as issues related to the competitiveness of enterprises and their supply chains. However, the way in which this knowledge is being produced in Brazil is not clear, hence the need for a mapping which areas and sub-areas of GSCM has been studied most frequently. Thus, this work can be characterized as a desk research that aims to analyze the Brazilian academic publications on green supply chain management. In order to delimit the scope of the research, we collected articles published from 2006 to 2010 in specific Brazilian congresses of Management and Production Engineering, as EnANPAD, SIMPOI and SIMPEP. 110 papers were collected and analyzed.The area of Green Operations represents 81% of published articles and 45% of these focus on Reverse Logistics. 70% of total papers are empirical and 77% use a qualitative approach, while 57% of the total are case studies

  20. Water supply system decision making using multicriteria analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-07-04

    Jul 4, 2005 ... managing urban water supply systems, for example, a shortage of resources available to ... which can be used according to the type of problem, such as choice-based, ranking- .... g(b) and g(a)), in other words, size of larger scale, where max corresponds to the ... ing that a dominance hypothesis is justified.

  1. Establishment of Grain Farmers' Supply Response Model and Empirical Analysis under Minimum Grain Purchase Price Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shuang

    2012-01-01

    Based on farmers' supply behavior theory and price expectations theory, this paper establishes grain farmers' supply response model of two major grain varieties (early indica rice and mixed wheat) in the major producing areas, to test whether the minimum grain purchase price policy can have price-oriented effect on grain production and supply in the major producing areas. Empirical analysis shows that the minimum purchase price published annually by the government has significant positive imp...

  2. Theoretical analysis of oxygen supply to contracted skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groebe, K; Thews, G

    1986-01-01

    Honig and collaborators reported striking contradictions in current understanding of O2 supply to working skeletal muscle. Therefore we re-examined the problem by means of a new composite computer simulation. As inclusion of erythrocytic O2 desaturation and oxygen transport and consumption inside the muscle cell into a single model would entail immense numerical difficulties, we broke up the whole process into its several components: O2 desaturation of erythrocytes O2 transport and consumption in muscle fiber capillary transit time characterizing the period of contact between red cell and muscle fiber. "Erythrocyte model" as well as "muscle fiber model" both consist of a central core cylinder surrounded by a concentric diffusion layer representing the extracellular resistance to O2 diffusion (Fig. 1). Resistance layers in both models are to be conceived of as one and the same anatomical structure--even though in each model their shape is adapted to the respective geometry. By means of this overlap region a spatial connexion between both is given, whereas temporal coherence governing O2 fluxes and red cell spacing is derived from capillary transit time. Analysis of individual components is outlined as follows: Assuming axial symmetry of the problem a numerical algorithm was employed to solve the parabolic system of partial differential equations describing red cell O2 desaturation. Hb-O2 reaction kinetics, free and facilitated O2 diffusion in axial and radial directions, and red cell movement in capillary were considered. Resulting time courses of desaturation, which are considerably faster than the ones computed by Honig et al., are given in the following table (see also Fig. 3). (Formula: see text) Furthermore, we studied the respective importance of the several processes included in our model: Omission of longitudinal diffusion increased desaturation time by 15% to 23%, whereas effects of reaction kinetics and axial movement were 5% and 2% respectively. For time

  3. Analysis on Relationship between Supply-demand Coordination and Performance of Logistics Service Supply Chain: An Empirical Study from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-hua Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to discuss the relationship between supply-demand coordination and performance of Logistics Service Supply Chain (LSSC and help managers to understand which factors make significant influence on the performance of LSSC. In this paper, a correlation model for supply-demand coordination and performance analysis is presented, and then the survey method is adopted to conduct an empirical study. With software SPSS 15.0, the hypotheses are verified with multiple regression equations. The results show that the working efficiency of Functional Logistics Service Provider (FLSP, the training for FLSP, the order allocation fairness of Logistics Service Integrator (LSI and the uncertain degree of LSI’s order demand are positive to the cooperation performance. The level of information system sharing has no effect on cooperation satisfaction degree of FLSP. For the factors that have effect on cooperation satisfaction, LSI is more concerned about the efficiency of FLSP, while FLSP is more concerned about the cooperation profits. There is a big difference between their focuses. In order to successfully complete the cooperation of LSSC, the managers of LSI and FLSP must understand the each other's concerns, seek common ground while reserving differences, establish the strategic partnership, reduce the information asymmetry and improve satisfaction of cooperation.

  4. Investigations into the pyrolytic behaviour of coal/biomass blends using thermogravimetric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuthaluru, H.B. [Curtin Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Perth, WA (Australia)

    2004-04-01

    Investigations into the pyrolytic behaviour during co-pyrolysis of coal, biomass materials and coal/biomass blends prepared at different ratios (10:90, 20:80, 30:70 and 50:50) have been conducted using a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) apparatus. The coal sample selected was Collie sub-bituminous coal from Western Australia, while wood waste (WW) and wheat straw (WS) were used as biomass samples. Three thermal events were identified during the pyrolysis. The first two were dominated by the biomass pyrolysis, while the third was linked to the coal pyrolysis, which occurred at much higher temperatures. No interactions were seen between the coal and biomass during co-pyrolysis. The pyrolytic characteristics of the blends followed those of the parent fuels in an additive manner. Among the tested blends, 20:80 blends showed the lowest activation energies of 90.9 and 78.7 kJ mol{sup -1} for coal/WW and coal/WS blends respectively. The optimum blend ratio for pyrolysis of coal/WS was 50:50 with a high degradation rate in all the thermal events and a higher mass loss over the course of the co-pyrolysis compared to coal/WW blends examined. The reaction orders in these experiments were in the range of 0.21-1.60, thus having a significant effect on the overall reaction rate. Besides the pyrolysis of coal alone, the 50:50 coal/biomass blends had the highest reaction rate, ranging 1x10{sup 9}-2x10{sup 9} min{sup -1}. The experimental results may provide useful data for power generation industries for the development of co-firing options with biomass. (Author)

  5. Experience with the operation and fuel supply of the biomass firing plant of the Trocknungsgenossenschaft Lengenfeld eG, a drying cooperative society; Erfahrungen mit Betrieb und Brennstoffbereitstellung der Biomassefeuerung der Trocknungsgenossenschaft Lengenfeld eG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoma, H. [Buero fuer Agraroekonomische Gutachten, Expertisen und Projektstudien, Langenbach (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    The pilot project of the conversion of the green forage drying plant Lengenfeld to biomass firing could not be realized without problems. But the experience until now shows that it is in principle possible. The farmers involved are devoted to the project. For them the cultivation of biomass is an alternative to the abandonment of fields. The present low oil price sets limits to the positive income effect. The aim is an increase of the biomass share in heating energy supply to about 80%. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Umstellung der Gruenfuttertrocknung Lengenfeld auf Biomassefeuerung ist als Pilotprojekt nicht ohne Probleme moeglich gewesen. Die bisherigen Erfahrungen zeigen jedoch die grundsaetzliche Praktikabilitaet. Die beteiligten Landwirte sind engagiert bei der Sache und schaetzen die Produktionsmoeglichkeit als Alternative zur Flaechenstillegung. Der derzeit niedrige Oelpreis setzt der positiven Einkommenswirkung jedoch enge Grenzen. Eine Erhoehung des Biomasseanteils an der Heizenergieversorgung auf etwa 80% ist das Ziel. (orig.)

  6. Determining the biomass composition of a sponge holobiont for flux analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jabin; Degnan, Bernard; Degnan, Sandie; Krömer, Jens O

    2014-01-01

    The first step on the path of flux analysis of a new organism with little available literature is the determination of the biomass composition. Once the content of the macromolecular components (protein, RNA, DNA, carbohydrates, lipids) and their composition is known, this composition can be converted into a biomass equation. The biomass equation is an important part of metabolic flux analysis. This equation provides the information about the precursor and energy needs for growth. In many experiments the determination of the growth rate is the simplest flux to be determined, yet this rate determines the net fluxes of a whole range of anabolic pathways in the system and often is used as the objective function in FBA analysis. The challenge for the scientist is to create a biomass equation that represents the organisms of choice under the conditions studied. This chapter outlines basic protocols that can be applied to the quantification of the macromolecular components, using the marine demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica as a case study. As is true for all other sponges and indeed marine animals, A. queenslandica is a holobiont, comprising an animal host plus symbiotic and other associated microbial cells. We show how this complexity can be overcome by developing a fast, yet robust, method for biomass quantification of sponges using the displacement volume. The analytical protocols we describe herein are widely applicable not only to other organisms sampled from complex environments but also to cell cultures. The second part of the chapter highlights the procedures needed to convert a macromolecular composition into a biomass equation.

  7. Energetic analysis of gasification of biomass by partial oxidation in supercritical water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingqing Guan; Chaohai Wei; Xinsheng Chai; Ping Ning; Senlin Tian; Junjie Gu; Qiuling Chen; Rongrong Miao

    2015-01-01

    Partial oxidation gasification in supercritical water could produce fuel gases (such as H2, CO and CH4) and signif-icantly reduce the energy consumption. In this work, an energetic model was developed to analyze the partial oxidative gasification of biomass (glucose and lignin) in supercritical water and the related key factors on which gasification under autothermal condition depended upon. The results indicated that the oxidant equiva-lent ratio (ER) should be over 0.3 as the concern about energy balance but less than 0.6 as the concern about fuel gas production. Feedstocks such as glucose and lignin also had different energy recovery efficiency. For ma-terials which can be efficiently gasified, the partial oxidation might be a way for energy based on the combustion of fuel gases. Aromatic materials such as lignin and coal are more potential since partial oxidation could produce similar amount of fuel gases as direct gasification and offer additional energy. Energy recovered pays a key role to achieve an autothermal process. Keeping heat exchanger efficiency above 80%and heat transfer coefficient below 15 kJ·s−1 is necessary to maintain the autothermal status. The results also indicated that the biomass loading should be above 15%but under 20%for an autothermal gasification, since the increase of biomass loading could improve the energy supplied but decrease the efficiency of gasification and gaseous yields. In general, some specific conditions exist among different materials.

  8. Energy efficiency analysis of reactor for torrefaction of biomass with direct heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmina, J. S.; Director, L. B.; Shevchenko, A. L.; Zaichenko, V. M.

    2016-11-01

    Paper presents energy analysis of reactor for torrefaction with direct heating of granulated biomass by exhaust gases. Various schemes of gas flow through the reactor zones are presented. Performed is a comparative evaluation of the specific energy consumption for the considered schemes. It has been shown that one of the most expensive processes of torrefaction technology is recycling of pyrolysis gases.

  9. Analysis of heat transfer in portable power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohd Azman; Ali, Ahmad Nazrin

    2016-03-01

    Portable power supply (PPS) is developed based on the necessity in supplying instant power to support domestic appliances during power shortage or in remote area. In this paper, the heat transfer inside the PPS is analyzed and demonstrated by temperature change during battery charging and discharging. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model of the PPS battery and housing are developed. The heat flow inside the PPS is studied at different conditions of battery and air flows. The increment of the temperature inside the PPS could cause the PPS system to damage and unsafe. Few elements are manipulated for the study, such as battery positions, holedimensions and fan models in order toimprove the design of PPS. Experimental approach is also conducted to validate the temperature and heat transfer in the PPS.

  10. Supply risk analysis: applying system dynamics to the Colombian healthcare sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Zamora Aguas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses supply risk in the oncological medicine supply chain (SC in Colombia. A system dynamics model was developed for assessing supply risk impact on SC operation and performance. The costs of risk and logis-tics operation were evaluated in current conditions and in a risk mitigation scenario. The model was based on a systematic analysis of supply networks, mainly concerning the reduction of overall SC costs and improving service, quality and opportunity performance index. This article has resulted from research into SC risk management (SCRM carried out by the Universidad Nacional de Colombia’s SEPRO research group.

  11. Elemental analysis of various biomass solid fractions in biorefineries by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Duy Michael; Sorensen, Hanne R.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2017-01-01

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) of solid samples from a biorefinery process was performed to study the behaviour of mineral elements in a process involving hydrothermal pretreatment of biomass (wheat straw, corn stover, sugarcane bagasse, palm oil empty fruit bunches......, poplar) followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. For all the different biomasses, the biorefinery process concentrated silicon, aluminium, and calcium in the solid fraction, while potassium and magnesium were solubilised in the process and removed from the solid fraction. Sodium concentrations...

  12. Algal Biomass Analysis by Laser-Based Analytical Techniques—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Pořízka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Algal biomass that is represented mainly by commercially grown algal strains has recently found many potential applications in various fields of interest. Its utilization has been found advantageous in the fields of bioremediation, biofuel production and the food industry. This paper reviews recent developments in the analysis of algal biomass with the main focus on the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and partly Laser-Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma techniques. The advantages of the selected laser-based analytical techniques are revealed and their fields of use are discussed in detail.

  13. Exergy analysis : a tool to study the sustainability of food supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apaiah, R.K.; Linnemann, A.R.; Kooi, van der H.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of using exergy analysis to study and compare the environmental impact of food supply chains. The method identifies the links where exergy destruction takes place and shows where improvements are possible to minimize this destruction. The supply chains of three

  14. Exergy analysis : a tool to study the sustainability of food supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apaiah, R.K.; Linnemann, A.R.; Kooi, van der H.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of using exergy analysis to study and compare the environmental impact of food supply chains. The method identifies the links where exergy destruction takes place and shows where improvements are possible to minimize this destruction. The supply chains of three prod

  15. Gradient Elution Moving Boundary Electrophoresis Enables Rapid Analysis of Acids in Complex Biomass-Derived Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Matthew S.; Karp, Eric M.; Nimlos, Claire T.; Salit, Marc; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2016-12-05

    Biomass conversion processes such as pretreatment, liquefaction, and pyrolysis often produce complex mixtures of intermediates that are a substantial challenge to analyze rapidly and reliably. To characterize these streams more comprehensively and efficiently, new techniques are needed to track species through biomass deconstruction and conversion processes. Here, we present the application of an emerging analytical method, gradient elution moving boundary electrophoresis (GEMBE), to quantify a suite of acids in a complex, biomass-derived streams from alkaline pretreatment of corn stover. GEMBE offers distinct advantages over common chromatography-spectrometry analytical approaches in terms of analysis time, sample preparation requirements, and cost of equipment. As demonstrated here, GEMBE is able to track 17 distinct compounds (oxalate, formate, succinate, malate, acetate, glycolate, protocatechuate, 3-hydroxypropanoate, lactate, glycerate, 2-hydroxybutanoate, 4-hydroxybenzoate, vanillate, p-coumarate, ferulate, sinapate, and acetovanillone). The lower limit of detection was compound dependent and ranged between 0.9 and 3.5 umol/L. Results from GEMBE were similar to recent results from an orthogonal method based on GCxGC-TOF/MS. Overall, GEMBE offers a rapid, robust approach to analyze complex biomass-derived samples, and given the ease and convenience of deployment, may offer an analytical solution for online tracking of multiple types of biomass streams.

  16. Analysis of Casein Biopolymers Adsorption to Lignocellulosic Biomass as a Potential Cellulase Stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckard, Anahita Dehkhoda; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan; Gibbons, William

    2012-01-01

    Although lignocellulosic materials have a good potential to substitute current feedstocks used for ethanol production, conversion of these materials to fermentable sugars is still not economical through enzymatic hydrolysis. High cost of cellulase has prompted research to explore techniques that can prevent from enzyme deactivation. Colloidal proteins of casein can form monolayers on hydrophobic surfaces that alleviate the de-activation of protein of interest. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and Kjeldahl and BSA protein assays were used to investigate the unknown mechanism of action of induced cellulase activity during hydrolysis of casein-treated biomass. Adsorption of casein to biomass was observed with all of the analytical techniques used and varied depending on the pretreatment techniques of biomass. FT-IR analysis of amides I and II suggested that the substructure of protein from casein or skim milk were deformed at the time of contact with biomass. With no additive, the majority of one of the cellulase mono-component, 97.1 ± 1.1, was adsorbed to CS within 24 h, this adsorption was irreversible and increased by 2% after 72 h. However, biomass treatment with skim-milk and casein reduced the adsorption to 32.9% ± 6.0 and 82.8% ± 6.0, respectively. PMID:23118515

  17. Qualitative and kinetic analysis of torrefaction of lignocellulosic biomass using DSC-TGA-FTIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimal Acharya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Torrefaction is a thermochemical conversion technique to improve the fuel properties of lignocellulosic biomass by treating at temperature 200 ℃-300 ℃ in the minimum oxygen environment for a reasonable residence time. In this study, thermal decomposition and thermal activities of miscanthus and wheat straw during the torrefaction at 200 ℃, 275 ℃, and 300 ℃ in a nitrogen environment for 45 minutes of residence time are analyzed in a simultaneous thermogravimetric analyzer (micro TGA with a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and a macro-TGA. The output of the micro TGA is fed into the Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR and qualitative analysis of the gaseous product is carried out. The composition of different gas products during the torrefaction of biomass are compared critically and kinetics were analyzed. It is found that the weight loss due to degradation of initial biomass in second stage (torrefaction process is a much faster conversion process than the weight loss process in the first stage (drying process. The weight loss of biomass increases with increase in the residence time and torrefaction treatment temperatures. The yield after torrefaction is a solid bio-coal product. The torrefied product were less reactive and has nearly 25% better heating value than the raw biomass. Between the two feedstocks studied, torrefied miscanthus proved to be a more stable fuel than the torrefied wheat straw. The major gaseous components observed during torrefaction are water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, 1,2-Dibromethylene.

  18. Analysis of Casein Biopolymers Adsorption to Lignocellulosic Biomass as a Potential Cellulase Stabilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Dehkhoda Eckard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although lignocellulosic materials have a good potential to substitute current feedstocks used for ethanol production, conversion of these materials to fermentable sugars is still not economical through enzymatic hydrolysis. High cost of cellulase has prompted research to explore techniques that can prevent from enzyme deactivation. Colloidal proteins of casein can form monolayers on hydrophobic surfaces that alleviate the de-activation of protein of interest. Scanning electron microscope (SEM, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, capillary electrophoresis (CE, and Kjeldahl and BSA protein assays were used to investigate the unknown mechanism of action of induced cellulase activity during hydrolysis of casein-treated biomass. Adsorption of casein to biomass was observed with all of the analytical techniques used and varied depending on the pretreatment techniques of biomass. FT-IR analysis of amides I and II suggested that the substructure of protein from casein or skim milk were deformed at the time of contact with biomass. With no additive, the majority of one of the cellulase mono-component, 97.1 ± 1.1, was adsorbed to CS within 24 h, this adsorption was irreversible and increased by 2% after 72 h. However, biomass treatment with skim-milk and casein reduced the adsorption to 32.9% ± 6.0 and 82.8% ± 6.0, respectively.

  19. Analysis of energetic and exergetic efficiency, and environmental benefits of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez, María; Jiménez, Angel; Rodríguez, Javier; González, Celina; López, Ignacio; Nieto, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    The problem of the high carbon dioxide emissions linked to power generation makes necessary active research on the use of biofuels in gas turbine systems as a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Gasification of biomass waste is particularly of interest in obtaining a fuel to be run in gas turbines, as it is an efficient biomass-to-biofuel conversion process, and an integration into a combined cycle power plant leads to a high performance with regard to energetic efficiency. The goal of this study was to carry out an energetic, exergetic and environmental analysis of the behaviour of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant fuelled with different kinds of biomass waste by means of simulations. A preliminary economic study is also included. Although a technological development in gasification technology is necessary, the results of simulations indicate a high technical and environmental interest in the use of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BioIGCC) systems for large-scale power generation from biomass waste.

  20. SWOT Analysis of Agricultural Producers in the Supply Chain of Chinese Agro-products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of defining the producers in the supply chain of agricultural products,the SWOT analysis is adopted to analyze the advantages,disadvantages,opportunities and threats of producers in the supply chain of Chinese agricultural products.The paper analyzes the advantages of producers in the supply chain of agricultural products from three aspects including land resources,technology level of producers and input costs.The disadvantages of producers in the supply chain of agricultural products are analyzed from three aspects including scale level,mechanization and technology level and profit level.The opportunities of producers in the supply chain of agricultural products are analyzed from the aspects of laws,policies,capitals and technologies.The threats confronted by the producers in the supply chain of agricultural products are analyzed from foreign producers,negotiation control of supply chain of agricultural chain,environment protection and quality safety standard.On the basis of the analysis,the relevant suggestions on facilitating the interests of producers in the supply chain of Chinese agricultural products are put forward,including fully displaying the advantages of land resources;improving the knowledge and technology level of supply chain of agricultural production;establishing the alliances of producers of agricultural products to expand production scale;improving the quality of agricultural products to satisfy the relevant safety quality standard and environmental protection standard.

  1. Fuzzy Bayesian Network-Bow-Tie Analysis of Gas Leakage during Biomass Gasification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yan

    Full Text Available Biomass gasification technology has been rapidly developed recently. But fire and poisoning accidents caused by gas leakage restrict the development and promotion of biomass gasification. Therefore, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA is necessary for biomass gasification system. Subsequently, Bayesian network-bow-tie (BN-bow-tie analysis was proposed by mapping bow-tie analysis into Bayesian network (BN. Causes of gas leakage and the accidents triggered by gas leakage can be obtained by bow-tie analysis, and BN was used to confirm the critical nodes of accidents by introducing corresponding three importance measures. Meanwhile, certain occurrence probability of failure was needed in PSA. In view of the insufficient failure data of biomass gasification, the occurrence probability of failure which cannot be obtained from standard reliability data sources was confirmed by fuzzy methods based on expert judgment. An improved approach considered expert weighting to aggregate fuzzy numbers included triangular and trapezoidal numbers was proposed, and the occurrence probability of failure was obtained. Finally, safety measures were indicated based on the obtained critical nodes. The theoretical occurrence probabilities in one year of gas leakage and the accidents caused by it were reduced to 1/10.3 of the original values by these safety measures.

  2. Fuzzy Bayesian Network-Bow-Tie Analysis of Gas Leakage during Biomass Gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Xu, Kaili; Yao, Xiwen; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Biomass gasification technology has been rapidly developed recently. But fire and poisoning accidents caused by gas leakage restrict the development and promotion of biomass gasification. Therefore, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is necessary for biomass gasification system. Subsequently, Bayesian network-bow-tie (BN-bow-tie) analysis was proposed by mapping bow-tie analysis into Bayesian network (BN). Causes of gas leakage and the accidents triggered by gas leakage can be obtained by bow-tie analysis, and BN was used to confirm the critical nodes of accidents by introducing corresponding three importance measures. Meanwhile, certain occurrence probability of failure was needed in PSA. In view of the insufficient failure data of biomass gasification, the occurrence probability of failure which cannot be obtained from standard reliability data sources was confirmed by fuzzy methods based on expert judgment. An improved approach considered expert weighting to aggregate fuzzy numbers included triangular and trapezoidal numbers was proposed, and the occurrence probability of failure was obtained. Finally, safety measures were indicated based on the obtained critical nodes. The theoretical occurrence probabilities in one year of gas leakage and the accidents caused by it were reduced to 1/10.3 of the original values by these safety measures.

  3. Uncertainty Determination Methodology, Sampling Maps Generation and Trend Studies with Biomass Thermogravimetric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Collazo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a method for the determination of the maximum sampling error and confidence intervals of thermal properties obtained from thermogravimetric analysis (TG analysis for several lignocellulosic materials (ground olive stone, almond shell, pine pellets and oak pellets, completing previous work of the same authors. A comparison has been made between results of TG analysis and prompt analysis. Levels of uncertainty and errors were obtained, demonstrating that properties evaluated by TG analysis were representative of the overall fuel composition, and no correlation between prompt and TG analysis exists. Additionally, a study of trends and time correlations is indicated. These results are particularly interesting for biomass energy applications.

  4. Uncertainty determination methodology, sampling maps generation and trend studies with biomass thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazó, Jose A; Granada, Enrique; Saavedra, Angeles; Eguía, Pablo; Collazo, Joaquín

    2010-09-28

    This paper investigates a method for the determination of the maximum sampling error and confidence intervals of thermal properties obtained from thermogravimetric analysis (TG analysis) for several lignocellulosic materials (ground olive stone, almond shell, pine pellets and oak pellets), completing previous work of the same authors. A comparison has been made between results of TG analysis and prompt analysis. Levels of uncertainty and errors were obtained, demonstrating that properties evaluated by TG analysis were representative of the overall fuel composition, and no correlation between prompt and TG analysis exists. Additionally, a study of trends and time correlations is indicated. These results are particularly interesting for biomass energy applications.

  5. Energy system analysis of marginal electricity supply in consequential LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Christensen, Per

    2010-01-01

    Background, aim and scope This paper discusses the identification of the environmental consequences of marginal electricity supplies in consequential life cycle assessments (LCA). According to the methodology, environmental characteristics can be examined by identifying affected activities, i...... evaluation of the environmental consequences. Recommendations and perspectives This paper recommends a combination of LCA and ESA as a methodology for identifying a complex set of marginal technologies. The paper also establishes values for Danish marginal electricity production as a yearly average (YAM......) that can be used in future LCA studies involving Danish electricity....

  6. Transcriptome and exoproteome analysis of utilization of plant-derived biomass by Myceliophthora thermophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbusz, Magdalena Anna; Di Falco, Marcos; Ishmael, Nadeeza; Marqueteau, Sandrine; Moisan, Marie-Claude; Baptista, Cassio da Silva; Powlowski, Justin; Tsang, Adrian

    2014-11-01

    Myceliophthora thermophila is a thermophilic fungus whose genome encodes a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) involved in plant biomass degradation. Such enzymes have potential applications in turning different kinds of lignocellulosic feedstock into sugar precursors for biofuels and chemicals. The present study examined and compared the transcriptomes and exoproteomes of M. thermophila during cultivation on different types of complex biomass to gain insight into how its secreted enzymatic machinery varies with different sources of lignocellulose. In the transcriptome analysis three monocot (barley, oat, triticale) and three dicot (alfalfa, canola, flax) plants were used whereas in the proteome analysis additional substrates, i.e. wood and corn stover pulps, were included. A core set of 59 genes encoding CAZymes was up-regulated in response to both monocot and dicot straws, including nine polysaccharide monooxygenases and GH10, but not GH11, xylanases. Genes encoding additional xylanolytic enzymes were up-regulated during growth on monocot straws, while genes encoding additional pectinolytic enzymes were up-regulated in response to dicot biomass. Exoproteome analysis was generally consistent with the conclusions drawn from transcriptome analysis, but additional CAZymes that accumulated to high levels were identified. Despite the wide variety of biomass sources tested some CAZy family members were not expressed under any condition. The results of this study provide a comprehensive view from both transcriptome and exoproteome levels, of how M. thermophila responds to a wide range of biomass sources using its genomic resources. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamics of global supply chain and electric power networks: Models, pricing analysis, and computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsypura, Dmytro

    In this dissertation, I develop a new theoretical framework for the modeling, pricing analysis, and computation of solutions to electric power supply chains with power generators, suppliers, transmission service providers, and the inclusion of consumer demands. In particular, I advocate the application of finite-dimensional variational inequality theory, projected dynamical systems theory, game theory, network theory, and other tools that have been recently proposed for the modeling and analysis of supply chain networks (cf. Nagurney (2006)) to electric power markets. This dissertation contributes to the extant literature on the modeling, analysis, and solution of supply chain networks, including global supply chains, in general, and electric power supply chains, in particular, in the following ways. It develops a theoretical framework for modeling, pricing analysis, and computation of electric power flows/transactions in electric power systems using the rationale for supply chain analysis. The models developed include both static and dynamic ones. The dissertation also adds a new dimension to the methodology of the theory of projected dynamical systems by proving that, irrespective of the speeds of adjustment, the equilibrium of the system remains the same. Finally, I include alternative fuel suppliers, along with their behavior into the supply chain modeling and analysis framework. This dissertation has strong practical implications. In an era in which technology and globalization, coupled with increasing risk and uncertainty, complicate electricity demand and supply within and between nations, the successful management of electric power systems and pricing become increasingly pressing topics with relevance not only for economic prosperity but also national security. This dissertation addresses such related topics by providing models, pricing tools, and algorithms for decentralized electric power supply chains. This dissertation is based heavily on the following

  8. Review and analysis of the 1980-1989 biomass thermochemical conversion program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D.J.

    1994-09-01

    In the period between 1980 and 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research and development projects through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion (BTC) Program. Thermochemical conversion technologies use elevated temperatures to convert biomass into more useful forms of energy such as fuel gases or transportation fuels. The BTC Program included a wide range of biomass conversion projects in the areas of gasification, pyrolysis, liquefaction, and combustion. This work formed the basis of the present DOE research and development efforts on advanced liquid fuel and power generation systems. At the beginning of Fiscal Year 1989, the management of the BTC Program was transferred from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, formerly Solar Energy Research Institute). This document presents a summary of the research which was performed under the BTC Program during the 1981-1989 time frame. The document consists of an analysis of the research projects which were funded by the BTC Program and a bibliography of published documents. This work will help ensure that information from PNL`s BTC Program is available to those interested in biomass conversion technologies. The background of the BTC Program is discussed in the first chapter of this report. In addition, a brief summary of other related biomass research and development programs funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and others is presented with references where additional information can be found. The remaining chapters of the report present a detailed summary of the research projects which were funded by the BTC Program. The progress which was made on each project is summarized, the overall impact on biomass conversion is discussed, and selected references are provided.

  9. A meta-analysis of soil microbial biomass responses to forest disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Robin Holden

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate warming is likely to increase the frequency and severity of forest disturbances, with uncertain consequences for soil microbial communities and their contribution to ecosystem C dynamics. To address this uncertainty, we conducted a meta-analysis of 139 published soil microbial responses to forest disturbances. These disturbances included abiotic (fire, harvesting, storm and biotic (insect, pathogen disturbances. We hypothesized that soil microbial biomass would decline following forest disturbances, but that abiotic disturbances would elicit greater reductions in microbial biomass than biotic disturbances. In support of this hypothesis, across all published studies, disturbances reduced soil microbial biomass by an average of 29.4%. However, microbial responses differed between abiotic and biotic disturbances. Microbial responses were significantly negative following fires, harvest, and storms (48.7%, 19.1%, and 41.7% reductions in microbial biomass, respectively. In contrast, changes in soil microbial biomass following insect infestation and pathogen-induced tree mortality were non-significant, although biotic disturbances were poorly represented in the literature. When measured separately, fungal and bacterial responses to disturbances mirrored the response of the microbial community as a whole. Changes in microbial abundance following disturbance were significantly positively correlated with changes in microbial respiration. We propose that the differential effect of abiotic and biotic disturbances on microbial biomass may be attributable to differences in soil disruption and organic C removal from forests among disturbance types. Altogether, these results suggest that abiotic forest disturbances may significantly decrease soil microbial abundance, with corresponding consequences for microbial respiration. Further studies are needed on the effect of biotic disturbances on forest soil microbial communities and soil C dynamics.

  10. Fertilizer supply chain in Ethiopia: structure, performance and policy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanes U.I. Agbahey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In Ethiopia, less than 40% of farmers use fertilizer and those who do, apply rates significantly below those recommended. This low fertilizer use is primarily due to prices being two to three times higher than prices on the world markets. Reducing the price of fertilizer requires a sound understanding of the product´s supply chain. This study investigates whether fertilizer is delivered to farmers in an efficient way and at the lowest possible costs using an institutional economics framework. It was conducted in the Arsi zone and relied on secondary data as well as primary data collected through interviews. The findings point out the presence of several formal and informal institutions regulating the market. A market monopoly at each stage of the supply chain and a striking correspondence between the central organization of the chain and the rise in left-over stocks were observed. This pinpoints the imperfect structure of the chain and a misallocation of resources locked up in fertilizer stockholding. In order to improve the demand estimation procedure, this study suggests that incentives should be instituted to enhance the reliability of the information transferred along the process. Additionally, expert knowledge used in the process should be well documented, stock inventories should not be limited to central warehouses and stockholding needs to be reduced.

  11. A supply sided analysis of leading MOOC platforms and universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Peters

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Investing in education is generally considered as a promising strategy to fight poverty and increase prosperity. This applies to all levels of an economy reaching from individuals to local communities and countries and has a global perspective as well. However, high-quality education is often costly and not available anytime anywhere. Therefore, any promising concept that might help to democratize education is worth pursuing, in a sense that it makes education accessible for everybody without any restrictions. The characteristics attributed to MOOC – Massive Open Online Courses are promising to contribute to this objective. Hence, our objective is to analyse MOOC as it currently operates. Obviously, there is a huge demand for free high-quality education anytime anywhere but a shortage on the supply side. So, we will concentrate on supply-sided effects and study MOOC platforms as well as content providers, particularly universities. We focus our research on some of the leading platforms and universities worldwide. Relative to their size Australia and the Netherlands are very active players in the MOOC sector. Germany is lagging behind and leading universities in the UK seem to virtually refrain from offering MOOC. Our research also shows the leading role of US universities and platform providers.

  12. Energy-, exergy- and emergy analysis of biomass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovelius, K.

    1997-11-01

    In this report, results from analyzing salix-, winter wheat-, and winter rape cultivations from energy, exergy, and EMERGY perspectives are presented. The exchange in terms of energy for this Salix cultivation is 28 times , but if instead an exergy analysis is done the exchange for exactly the same process is 36 times. The energy analysis gives an energy exchange of 8.1 for winter wheat cultivation, and 5.7 for winter rape cultivation. Corresponding exchanges for the exergy analysis are 9.3 for winter wheat and 6.6 for winter rape. The EMERGY analysis gives a transformity for salix of 1.04E+11 sej/kg DM, for winter wheat 3.85E+11 sej/kg DM, and for winter rape 1.03E+12 sej/kg DM. Thus, the EMERGY need is bigger for rape cultivation than for winter wheat and salix cultivations. The NEYR is the ratio between the EMERGY yield and the EMERGY invested from society (economy, services and other resources), and it is 1.10 for this salix cultivation, and 0.66 for both the winter wheat and the winter rape cultivations. The EIR is the ratio between the EMERGY invested from society and the EMERGY invested from the environment, and it is 2.23 for this salix cultivation, 11.5 for the winter wheat cultivation , and 11.8 for the winter rape cultivation. 26 refs, 11 figs, 25 tabs

  13. Application of a Cloud Model-Set Pair Analysis in Hazard Assessment for Biomass Gasification Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Xu, Kaili

    2017-01-01

    Because a biomass gasification station includes various hazard factors, hazard assessment is needed and significant. In this article, the cloud model (CM) is employed to improve set pair analysis (SPA), and a novel hazard assessment method for a biomass gasification station is proposed based on the cloud model-set pair analysis (CM-SPA). In this method, cloud weight is proposed to be the weight of index. In contrast to the index weight of other methods, cloud weight is shown by cloud descriptors; hence, the randomness and fuzziness of cloud weight will make it effective to reflect the linguistic variables of experts. Then, the cloud connection degree (CCD) is proposed to replace the connection degree (CD); the calculation algorithm of CCD is also worked out. By utilizing the CCD, the hazard assessment results are shown by some normal clouds, and the normal clouds are reflected by cloud descriptors; meanwhile, the hazard grade is confirmed by analyzing the cloud descriptors. After that, two biomass gasification stations undergo hazard assessment via CM-SPA and AHP based SPA, respectively. The comparison of assessment results illustrates that the CM-SPA is suitable and effective for the hazard assessment of a biomass gasification station and that CM-SPA will make the assessment results more reasonable and scientific. PMID:28076440

  14. Application of a Cloud Model-Set Pair Analysis in Hazard Assessment for Biomass Gasification Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Xu, Kaili

    2017-01-01

    Because a biomass gasification station includes various hazard factors, hazard assessment is needed and significant. In this article, the cloud model (CM) is employed to improve set pair analysis (SPA), and a novel hazard assessment method for a biomass gasification station is proposed based on the cloud model-set pair analysis (CM-SPA). In this method, cloud weight is proposed to be the weight of index. In contrast to the index weight of other methods, cloud weight is shown by cloud descriptors; hence, the randomness and fuzziness of cloud weight will make it effective to reflect the linguistic variables of experts. Then, the cloud connection degree (CCD) is proposed to replace the connection degree (CD); the calculation algorithm of CCD is also worked out. By utilizing the CCD, the hazard assessment results are shown by some normal clouds, and the normal clouds are reflected by cloud descriptors; meanwhile, the hazard grade is confirmed by analyzing the cloud descriptors. After that, two biomass gasification stations undergo hazard assessment via CM-SPA and AHP based SPA, respectively. The comparison of assessment results illustrates that the CM-SPA is suitable and effective for the hazard assessment of a biomass gasification station and that CM-SPA will make the assessment results more reasonable and scientific.

  15. A Comparative Analysis of the Social Performance of Global and Local Berry Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikelis Grivins

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is twofold: to comparatively analyze the social performance of global and local berry supply chains and to explore the ways in which the social dimension is embedded in the overall performance of food supply chains. To achieve this goal, the social performance of five global and local food supply chains in two countries are analyzed: wild blueberry supply chains in Latvia and cultivated raspberry supply chains in Serbia. The study addresses two research questions: (1 What is the social performance of the local and global supply chains? (2 How can references to context help improve understanding of the social dimension and social performance of food supply chains? To answer these questions, two interlinked thematic sets of indicators (attributes are used—one describing labor relations and the other describing power relations. These lists are then contextualized by examining the micro-stories of the actors involved in these supply chains. An analysis of the chosen attributes reveals that global chains perform better than local chains. However, a context-sensitive analysis from the perspective of embedded markets and communities suggests that the social performance of food chains is highly context-dependent, relational, and affected by actors’ abilities to negotiate values, norms, and the rules embedded within these chains, both global and local. The results illustrate that the empowerment of the chains’ weakest actors can lead to a redefining of the meanings that performance assessments rely on.

  16. Increasing Supply-Chain Visibility with Rule-Based RFID Data Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilic, A.; Andersen, Thomas; Michahelles, F.

    2009-01-01

    , the Supply Chain Visualizer increases supply-chain visibility by analyzing RFID data, using a mix of automated analysis techniques and human effort. The tool's core concepts include rule-based analysis techniques and a map-based representation interface. With these features, it lets users visualize......RFID technology tracks the flow of physical items and goods in supply chains to help users detect inefficiencies, such as shipment delays, theft, or inventory problems. An inevitable consequence, however, is that it generates huge numbers of events. To exploit these large amounts of data...

  17. SUPPLY CHAIN RESILIENCE ANALYSIS: A BRAZILIAN AUTOMOTIVE CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Scavarda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain (SC resilience and flexibility are important research topics receiving growing attention. However, the academic literature needs empirical studies on SC resilience capable of investigating the inter-organizational components of flexibility along different tiers. Therefore, this paper analyzes the main lack of flexibilities in three Brazilian automotive SCs that limit their resilience and therefore their capacity to better support and meet the demand changes in the marketplace. A multi-tier case study approach is adopted. Research findings identify lack of flexibilities in different tiers that inhibit the SC resilience as well as manufacturing and SC flexibilities that build SC resilience. The findings also highlight that the same SC may have the flexibility to be resilient for one of its products but not for another product, what sheds new lights on the academic literature. Finally, flexible SCs should be designed to increase SC resilience to cope with mishaps as significant demand changes.

  18. Failure Analysis of a Water Supply Pumping Pipeline System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Pozos-Estrada

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the most important results of a theoretical, experimental and in situ investigation developed in connection with a water supply pumping pipeline failure. This incident occurred after power failure of the pumping system that caused the burst of a prestressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP. Subsequently, numerous hydraulic transient simulations for different scenarios and various air pockets combinations were carried out in order to fully validate the diagnostic. As a result, it was determined that small air pocket volumes located along the pipeline profile were recognized as the direct cause of the PCCP rupture. Further, a detail survey of the pipeline was performed using a combination of non-destructive technologies in order to determine if immediate intervention was required to replace PCC pipes. In addition, a hydraulic model was employed to analyze the behavior of air pockets located at high points of the pipeline.

  19. Optical Absorption Spectroscopy for Gas Analysis in Biomass Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosch, Helge

    the concentration of the mentioned compounds. However, continuous measurements of different species directly in the gas (in-situ) and at the same time are scarce. In this work, the basis of optical in-situ analysis with ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy was build to determine the concentration of the most...... important gas species of the low-temperature circulating fluidized bed gasifier. At first, a special gas cell,the hot gas flow cell (HGC), was build up and veried. In this custom-made gas cell, the optical properties, the so-called absorption cross-sections, of the most important sulfur and aromatic...

  20. Establishment of Grain Farmers’ Supply Response Model and Empirical Analysis under Minimum Grain Purchase Price Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on farmers’ supply behavior theory and price expectations theory,this paper establishes grain farmers’ supply response model of two major grain varieties (early indica rice and mixed wheat) in the major producing areas,to test whether the minimum grain purchase price policy can have price-oriented effect on grain production and supply in the major producing areas. Empirical analysis shows that the minimum purchase price published annually by the government has significant positive impact on farmers’ grain supply in the major grain producing areas. In recent years,China steadily raises the level of minimum grain purchase price,which has played an important role in effectively protecting grain farmers’ interests,mobilizing the enthusiasm of farmers’ grain production,and ensuring the market supply of key grain varieties.

  1. Evaluating Resiliency of Supply Chain Network: A Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourya Pourhejazy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Supply chains can be vulnerable to sudden disruptions, especially when it emphasizes efficient operation. In this regard, supply chain resilience (SCR has received attention recently to cope with disruptions and improve competitiveness. This paper presents a novel methodology to measure resilience between different configurations of a supply chain network (SCN, based on a number of influential factors. For this reason, data envelopment analysis (DEA is employed to identify the best-practice and less-performing SCN configurations among a group of alternatives. On this basis, the extent to which a current configuration can improve its resiliency is also measured. The methodology is applied to the case of E1, a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG company in Korea. Topological and operational measures were used as variables to assess resilience. The results suggest that the LPG supply chain in the case study requires an addition in the number and capacity of supply nodes in its network.

  2. Estimating terrestrial aboveground biomass estimation using lidar remote sensing: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolkos, S. G.; Goetz, S. J.; Dubayah, R.

    2012-12-01

    Estimating biomass of terrestrial vegetation is a rapidly expanding research area, but also a subject of tremendous interest for reducing carbon emissions associated with deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). The accuracy of biomass estimates is important in the context carbon markets emerging under REDD, since areas with more accurate estimates command higher prices, but also for characterizing uncertainty in estimates of carbon cycling and the global carbon budget. There is particular interest in mapping biomass so that carbon stocks and stock changes can be monitored consistently across a range of scales - from relatively small projects (tens of hectares) to national or continental scales - but also so that other benefits of forest conservation can be factored into decision making (e.g. biodiversity and habitat corridors). We conducted an analysis of reported biomass accuracy estimates from more than 60 refereed articles using different remote sensing platforms (aircraft and satellite) and sensor types (optical, radar, lidar), with a particular focus on lidar since those papers reported the greatest efficacy (lowest errors) when used in the a synergistic manner with other coincident multi-sensor measurements. We show systematic differences in accuracy between different types of lidar systems flown on different platforms but, perhaps more importantly, differences between forest types (biomes) and plot sizes used for field calibration and assessment. We discuss these findings in relation to monitoring, reporting and verification under REDD, and also in the context of more systematic assessment of factors that influence accuracy and error estimation.

  3. Community analysis of plant biomass-degrading microorganisms from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D; Podar, Mircea; Mosher, Jennifer J; Palumbo, Anthony V; Phelps, Tommy J; Keller, Martin; Elkins, James G

    2015-02-01

    The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels can potentially be improved by employing robust microorganisms and enzymes that efficiently deconstruct plant polysaccharides at elevated temperatures. Many of the geothermal features of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are surrounded by vegetation providing a source of allochthonic material to support heterotrophic microbial communities adapted to utilize plant biomass as a primary carbon and energy source. In this study, a well-known hot spring environment, Obsidian Pool (OBP), was examined for potential biomass-active microorganisms using cultivation-independent and enrichment techniques. Analysis of 33,684 archaeal and 43,784 bacterial quality-filtered 16S rRNA gene pyrosequences revealed that archaeal diversity in the main pool was higher than bacterial; however, in the vegetated area, overall bacterial diversity was significantly higher. Of notable interest was a flooded depression adjacent to OBP supporting a stand of Juncus tweedyi, a heat-tolerant rush commonly found growing near geothermal features in YNP. The microbial community from heated sediments surrounding the plants was enriched in members of the Firmicutes including potentially (hemi)cellulolytic bacteria from the genera Clostridium, Anaerobacter, Caloramator, Caldicellulosiruptor, and Thermoanaerobacter. Enrichment cultures containing model and real biomass substrates were established at a wide range of temperatures (55-85 °C). Microbial activity was observed up to 80 °C on all substrates including Avicel, xylan, switchgrass, and Populus sp. Independent of substrate, Caloramator was enriched at lower (65 °C) temperatures.

  4. Analysis of a furnace for heat generation using polydisperse biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Edney Alves; Silva, Juarez de Sousa e; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Oliveira Filho, Delly [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola; Donzeles, Sergio Mauricio Lopes [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG), Vicosa, MG (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In many agro-industrial activities, the processing of raw material generates a substantial amount of fine materials. Examples include the production of soluble coffee, processing of rice, and wood processing, among others. In many regions, these by-products keep piling up on the courtyard of companies or become an environmental problem for land dumps. However, detailed tests of these byproducts indicate that they are excellent sources of energy. With this in mind, a furnace was developed to generate clean and hot air, using the alimentation system for pneumatic transport. Wood sawdust was used as fuel for analysis. The obtained results were considered satisfactory, proven by the small heat losses, primarily by the non-burned carbon monoxide (less than 0.2%) and the cooling of the furnace (less than 2.5%) whereas the losses by the exhaust gases were a little more than 23%. The thermal efficiency of the furnace was considered high when compared to others with an indirect heating system, obtaining an average value of 73%. The developed furnace, beyond being efficient, allows the use of the waste from the wood industry, which is important in the reduction of environmental impacts and minimizing production costs associated with the acquisition of conventional energy. (author)

  5. Analysis of a furnace for heat generation using polydisperse biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Edney Alves; Silva, Juarez de Sousa e; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Oliveira Filho, Delly [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola; Donzeles, Sergio Mauricio Lopes [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG), Vicosa, MG (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In many agro-industrial activities, the processing of raw material generates a substantial amount of fine materials. Examples include the production of soluble coffee, processing of rice, and wood processing, among others. In many regions, these by-products keep piling up on the courtyard of companies or become an environmental problem for land dumps. However, detailed tests of these byproducts indicate that they are excellent sources of energy. With this in mind, a furnace was developed to generate clean and hot air, using the alimentation system for pneumatic transport. Wood sawdust was used as fuel for analysis. The obtained results were considered satisfactory, proven by the small heat losses, primarily by the non-burned carbon monoxide (less than 0.2%) and the cooling of the furnace (less than 2.5%) whereas the losses by the exhaust gases were a little more than 23%. The thermal efficiency of the furnace was considered high when compared to others with an indirect heating system, obtaining an average value of 73%. The developed furnace, beyond being efficient, allows the use of the waste from the wood industry, which is important in the reduction of environmental impacts and minimizing production costs associated with the acquisition of conventional energy. (author)

  6. Algal biomass constituent analysis: method uncertainties and investigation of the underlying measuring chemistries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurens, Lieve M L; Dempster, Thomas A; Jones, Howland D T; Wolfrum, Edward J; Van Wychen, Stefanie; McAllister, Jordan S P; Rencenberger, Michelle; Parchert, Kylea J; Gloe, Lindsey M

    2012-02-21

    Algal biomass compositional analysis data form the basis of a large number of techno-economic process analysis models that are used to investigate and compare different processes in algal biofuels production. However, the analytical methods used to generate these data are far from standardized. This work investigated the applicability of common methods for rapid chemical analysis of biomass samples with respect to accuracy and precision. This study measured lipids, protein, carbohydrates, ash, and moisture of a single algal biomass sample at 3 institutions by 8 independent researchers over 12 separate workdays. Results show statistically significant differences in the results from a given analytical method among laboratories but not between analysts at individual laboratories, suggesting consistent training is a critical issue for empirical analytical methods. Significantly different results from multiple lipid and protein measurements were found to be due to different measurement chemistries. We identified a set of compositional analysis procedures that are in best agreement with data obtained by more advanced analytical procedures. The methods described here and used for the round robin experiment do not require specialized instrumentation, and with detailed analytical documentation, the differences between laboratories can be markedly reduced.

  7. A correlation for calculating elemental composition from proximate analysis of biomass materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jigisha Parikh; S.A. Channiwala; G.K. Ghosal [Sarvajanik College of Engineering and Technology, Surat (India). Chemical Engineering Department

    2007-08-15

    Elemental composition of biomass is an important property, which defines the energy content and determines the clean and efficient use of the biomass materials. However, the ultimate analysis requires very expensive equipments and highly trained analysts. The proximate analysis on the other hand only requires standard laboratory equipments and can be run by any competent scientist or engineer. This work introduces a general correlation, based on proximate analysis of biomass materials, to calculate elemental composition, derived using 200 data points and validated further for additional 50 data points. The entire spectrum of solid lignocellulosic materials have been considered in the derivation of the present correlation, which is given as: C = 0.637FC + 0.455VM, H = 0.052FC + 0.062VM, O = 0.304FC + 0.476VM, where FC - 4.7-38.4% fixed carbon, VM - 57.2-90.6% volatile matter, C - 36.2-53.1% carbon, H - 4.36-8.3% hydrogen and O - 31.37-49.5% oxygen in wt% on a dry basis. The average absolute error of these correlations are 3.21%, 4.79%, 3.4% and bias error of 0.21%, -0.15% and 0.49% with respect to measured values C, H and O, respectively. The major advantage of these correlations is their capability to compute elemental components of biomass materials from the simple proximate analysis and thereby provides a useful tool for the modeling of combustion, gasification and pyrolysis processes. 32 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Combustion characteristics of Malaysian oil palm biomass, sub-bituminous coal and their respective blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Siti Shawalliah; Rahman, Norazah Abd; Ismail, Khudzir

    2012-11-01

    The combustion characteristics of Malaysia oil palm biomass (palm kernel shell (PKS), palm mesocarp fibre (PMF) and empty fruit bunches (EFB)), sub-bituminous coal (Mukah Balingian) and coal/biomass blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were investigated. Six weight ratios of coal/biomass blends were prepared and oxidised under dynamic conditions from temperature 25 to 1100°C at four heating rates. The thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the EFB and PKS evolved additional peak besides drying, devolatilisation and char oxidation steps during combustion. Ignition and burn out temperatures of blends were improved in comparison to coal. No interactions were observed between the coal and biomass during combustion. The apparent activation energy during this process was evaluated using iso-conversional model free kinetics which resulted in highest activation energy during combustion of PKS followed by PMF, EFB and MB coal. Blending oil palm biomass with coal reduces the apparent activation energy value.

  9. Economic Analysis on Migrant Workers’ Education and Training from the Perspective of Supply and Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianghong; JU

    2014-01-01

    The education and training are important methods to improve the quality of migrant workers and the key to solve the issues concerning agriculture,farmer and rural area.Based on theoretical and literature analysis,this paper analyzed economic problems in the education and training of migrant workers from the perspective of supply and demand.And it is considered that the supply and demand of migrant workers’ education and training are affected by many factors and present a certain economic phenomenon.And then it discussed the market failure problem of effective supply and demand for migrant workers’ current education and training based on the above.

  10. The Analysis of Vertical Transaction Behavior and Performance Based on Automobile Brand Trust in Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglan Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nontrust behaviors among the automobile supply chain members lead to a trust crisis situation. Under such circumstances, this paper studies the mutual influences of trust, enterprise behavior, and transaction performance on the independent brand automobile supply chain. The business behavior concept which consists of information sharing, joint action, and specific asset investment is proposed. Then, the paper tests the reliability and validity of the collected data through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. Through empirical test and analysis on mutual relationship among vertical transaction enterprise behaviors, trust, and transaction performance, the vertical transaction enterprise behaviors can be regulated, so as to improve the efficiency of independent brand automobile supply chain.

  11. Multi-functional biomass systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dornburg, Veronika

    2004-01-01

    Biomass can play a role in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions by substituting conventional materials and supplying biomass based fuels. Main reason for the low share of biomass applications in Europe is their often-high production costs, among others due to the relatively low availability of

  12. Experimental analysis of a combustion reactor under co-firing coal with biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Fabyo Luiz; Bazzo, Edson; Oliveira Junior, Amir Antonio Martins de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). LabCET], e-mail: ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br; Bzuneck, Marcelo [Tractebel Energia S.A., Complexo Termeletrico Jorge Lacerda, Capivari de Baixo, SC (Brazil)], e-mail: marcelob@tractebelenergia.com.br

    2010-07-01

    Mitigation of greenhouse gases emission is one of the most important issues in energy engineering. Biomass is a potential renewable source but with limited use in large scale energy production because of the relative smaller availability as compared to fossil fuels, mainly to coal. Besides, the costs concerning transportation must be well analysed to determine its economic viability. An alternative for the use of biomass as a primary source of energy is the co-firing, that is the possibility of using two or more types of fuels combined in the combustion process. Biomass can be co-fired with coal in a fraction between 10 to 25% in mass basis (or 4 to 10% in heat-input basis) without seriously impacting the heat release characteristics of most boilers. Another advantage of cofiring, besides the significant reductions in fossil CO{sub 2} emissions, is the reduced emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}. As a result, co-firing is becoming attractive for power companies worldwide. This paper presents results of some experimental analysis on co-firing coal with rice straw in a combustion reactor. The influence of biomass thermal share in ash composition is also discussed, showing that alkali and earth alkaline compounds play the most important role on the fouling and slagging behavior when co-firing. Some fusibility correlations that can assist in the elucidation of these behavior are presented and discussed, and then applied to the present study. Results show that for a biomass thermal share up to 20%, significant changes are not expected in fouling and slagging behavior of ash. (author)

  13. Biomass Scenario Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a unique, carefully validated, state-of-the-art dynamic model of the domestic biofuels supply chain which explicitly focuses on policy issues, their feasibility, and potential side effects. It integrates resource availability, physical/technological/economic constraints, behavior, and policy. The model uses a system dynamics simulation (not optimization) to model dynamic interactions across the supply chain.

  14. Stress analysis of biomass fuel molding machine piston type stamping forming cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Gaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is established the ram biomass straw machine as the analysis object in this paper,the molding machine cones of stress in the forming process of the analysis of the system. We used pottery instead of Wear-resistant cast iron for improving the performance of forming sleeve. The structure of the forming sleeve was analyzed with the mechanical module of a soft named Pro/engineer in this paper. The result indicated that the program was feasible. With the sensitivity analysis we identified the suitable angle for the sleeve.

  15. NIR and Py-mbms coupled with multivariate data analysis as a high-throughput biomass characterization technique: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li; Wei, Hui; Himmel, Michael E; Jameel, Hasan; Kelley, Stephen S

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing the use of lignocellulosic biomass as the feedstock for renewable energy production is currently being developed globally. Biomass is a complex mixture of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignins, extractives, and proteins; as well as inorganic salts. Cell wall compositional analysis for biomass characterization is laborious and time consuming. In order to characterize biomass fast and efficiently, several high through-put technologies have been successfully developed. Among them, near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry (Py-mbms) are complementary tools and capable of evaluating a large number of raw or modified biomass in a short period of time. NIR shows vibrations associated with specific chemical structures whereas Py-mbms depicts the full range of fragments from the decomposition of biomass. Both NIR vibrations and Py-mbms peaks are assigned to possible chemical functional groups and molecular structures. They provide complementary information of chemical insight of biomaterials. However, it is challenging to interpret the informative results because of the large amount of overlapping bands or decomposition fragments contained in the spectra. In order to improve the efficiency of data analysis, multivariate analysis tools have been adapted to define the significant correlations among data variables, so that the large number of bands/peaks could be replaced by a small number of reconstructed variables representing original variation. Reconstructed data variables are used for sample comparison (principal component analysis) and for building regression models (partial least square regression) between biomass chemical structures and properties of interests. In this review, the important biomass chemical structures measured by NIR and Py-mbms are summarized. The advantages and disadvantages of conventional data analysis methods and multivariate data analysis methods are introduced, compared and evaluated. This review

  16. CBTL Design Case Summary Conventional Feedstock Supply System - Woody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher T. Wright; Erin M. Searcy

    2012-02-01

    A conventional woody feedstock design has been developed that represents supply system technologies, costs, and logistics that are achievable today for supplying woody biomass as a blendstock with coal for energy production. Efforts are made to identify bottlenecks and optimize the efficiency and capacities of this supply system, within the constraints and consideration of existing local feedstock supplies, equipment, and permitting requirements. The feedstock supply system logistics operations encompass all of the activities necessary to move woody biomass from the production location to the conversion reactor ready for blending and insertion. This supply system includes operations that are currently available such that costs and logistics are reasonable and reliable. The system modeled for this research project includes the use of the slash stream since it is a more conservative analysis and represents the material actually used in the experimental part of the project.

  17. Performance Analysis of an Integrated Fixed Bed Gasifier Model for Different Biomass Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmina Begum

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy recovery from biomass by gasification technology has attracted significant interest because it satisfies a key requirement of environmental sustainability by producing near zero emissions. Though it is not a new technology, studies on its integrated process simulation and analysis are limited, in particular for municipal solid waste (MSW gasification. This paper develops an integrated fixed bed gasifier model of biomass gasification using the Advanced System for Process ENngineering (Aspen Plus software for its performance analysis. A computational model was developed on the basis of Gibbs free energy minimization. The model is validated with experimental data of MSW and food waste gasification available in the literature. A reasonable agreement between measured and predicted syngas composition was found. Using the validated model, the effects of operating conditions, namely air-fuel ratio and gasifier temperature, on syngas production are studied. Performance analyses have been done for four different feedstocks, namely wood, coffee bean husks, green wastes and MSWs. The ultimate and proximate analysis data for each feedstock was used for model development. It was found that operating parameters have a significant influence on syngas composition. An air-fuel ratio of 0.3 and gasifier temperature of 700 °C provides optimum performance for a fixed bed gasifier for MSWs, wood wastes, green wastes and coffee bean husks. The developed model can be useful for gasification of other biomasses (e.g., food wastes, rice husks, poultry wastes and sugarcane bagasse to predict the syngas composition. Therefore, the study provides an integrated gasification model which can be used for different biomass feedstocks.

  18. Yakima/Klickitat Production Preliminary Design Report, Appendix B: Water Supply Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bureau of Reclamation.

    1990-03-01

    From May 1988 to January 1990 the Bureau of Reclamation, under an interagency agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration, conducted the water supply analysis required by Task II of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (Council) approval of predesign work on the Yakima/Klickitat Production Project. The purposes of the analysis were to (1) document the adequacy of water supplies (quantity and quality) for the proposed artificial production facilities, and for anadromous fish spawning, incubation, rearing, and migration in the Yakima and Klickitat Rivers and their tributaries; (2) determine the availability and quality of existing anadromous fish habitat in both basins; (3) document existing constraints to achieving anadromous fish production potentials in both basins; and (4) develop a listing of streams in both basins where existing water supplies, access, and habitat are adequate for anadromous fish production; where water supplies, access, and habitat would be adequate if improvements were made and agreements reached with existing water users; and where existing water supplies, access, and habitat are inadequate or unattainable in the near term (supply analysis will be reviewed by project managers and a technical work group, and recommendations will be made to the Council for any changes needed in the location and/or design of the proposed production project facilities.

  19. China’s Rare Earths Supply Forecast in 2025: A Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Ge

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The supply of rare earths in China has been the focus of significant attention in recent years. Due to changes in regulatory policies and the development of strategic emerging industries, it is critical to investigate the scenario of rare earth supplies in 2025. To address this question, this paper constructed a dynamic computable equilibrium (DCGE model to forecast the production, domestic supply, and export of China’s rare earths in 2025. Based on our analysis, production will increase by 10.8%–12.6% and achieve 116,335–118,260 tons of rare-earth oxide (REO in 2025, based on recent extraction control during 2011–2016. Moreover, domestic supply and export will be 75,081–76,800 tons REO and 38,797–39,400 tons REO, respectively. The technological improvements on substitution and recycling will significantly decrease the supply and mining activities of rare earths. From a policy perspective, we found that the elimination of export regulations, including export quotas and export taxes, does have a negative impact on China’s future domestic supply of rare earths. The policy conflicts between the increase in investment in strategic emerging industries, and the increase in resource and environmental taxes on rare earths will also affect China’s rare earths supply in the future.

  20. Carbon deposition in an SOFC fueled by tar-laden biomass gas: a thermodynamic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devinder; Hernández-Pacheco, Eduardo; Hutton, Phillip N.; Patel, Nikhil; Mann, Michael D.

    This work presents a thermodynamic analysis of the carbon deposition in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) fueled by a biomass gasifier. Integrated biomass-SOFC units offer considerable benefits in terms of efficiency and fewer emissions. SOFC-based power plants can achieve a system efficiency of 70-80% (including heat utilization) as compared to 30-37% for conventional systems. The fuel from the biomass gasifier can contain considerable amounts of tars depending on the type of gasifier used. These tars can lead to the deposition of carbon at the anode side of SOFCs and affect the performance of the fuel cells. This paper thermodynamically studies the risk of carbon deposition due to the tars present in the feed stream and the effect various parameters like current density, steam, and temperature have on carbon deposition. Since tar is a complex mixture of aromatics, it is represented by a mixture of toluene, naphthalene, phenol, and pyrene. A total of 32 species are considered for the thermodynamic analysis, which is done by the Gibbs energy minimization technique. The carbon deposition is shown to decrease with an increase in current density and becomes zero after a critical current density. Steam in the feed stream also decreases the amount of carbon deposition. With the increase in temperature the amount of carbon first decreases and then increases.

  1. Biomass conversions in subcritical and supercritical water: driving force, phase equilibria, and thermodynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, W.; Kooi, H.J. van der; Swaan Arons, J. de [Physical Chemistry and Molecular Thermodynamics, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    Two biomass conversion processes have been studied: hydrothermal upgrading (HTU) under subcritical water conditions; supercritical water gasification (SCWG) in supercritical water. For the design of the two biomass conversion processes, the following contributions of thermodynamics have been presented: phase behaviour and phase equilibria in the reactor and separators; indication of the favourable operation conditions and the trends in product distribution for the conversion reactions; construction of heat exchange network and exergy analysis. A wide variety of fluids have been dealt with, from small molecules to large molecules, including non-polar and polar substances. The statistical association fluids theory (SAFT) equation of state has been applied to calculate the mass distribution in different phases and to estimate the entropy and enthalpy values for different mass streams. (author)

  2. A cost-benefit analysis of methods for the determination of biomass concentration in wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, J E; Bachmann, R T; Edyvean, R G J

    2006-01-01

    The measurement of biomass concentration is important in biological wastewater treatment. This paper compares the accuracy and costs of the traditional volatile suspended solids (VSS) and the proposed suspended organic carbon (SOC) methods. VSS and SOC values of a dilution system were very well correlated (R(2)=0.9995). VSS and SOC of 16 samples were determined, the mean SOC/VSS ratio (0.52, n=16, sigma=0.01) was close to the theoretical value (0.53). For costing analysis, two hypothetical cases were analysed. In case A, it is assumed that 108 samples are analysed annually from two continuous reactors. Case B represents a batch experiment to be carried out in 24 incubated serum bottles. The savings, when using the SOC method, were 11,987 pounds for case A and 90 pounds for case B. This study suggests the use of SOC method as a time saving and lower cost biomass concentration measurement.

  3. On-line tracking of pulverized coal and biomass fuels through flame spectrum analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟天阳; 张宏建

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to the on-line tracking of pulverized coal and biomass fuels through flame spectrum analysis. A flame detector containing four photodiodes is used to derive multiple signals covering a wide spectrum of the flame from visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared spectral bands as well as a part of far-infrared band. Different features are extracted in time and frequency domains to identify the dynamic "fingerprints" of the flame. Fuzzy logic inference techniques are employed to combine typical features together and infer the type of fuel being burnt. Four types of pulverized coal and five types of biomass are burnt on a laboratory-scale combustion test rig. Results obtained demonstrate that this approach is capable of tracking the type of fuel under steady combustion conditions.

  4. Supply chain analysis of e-tailing versus retailing operation - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sameer; Tiffany, Maryellen; Vaidya, Salil

    2016-07-01

    The swift growth of e-commerce or e-tailing as a consumer retail channel has made it a serious competitor to traditional retail channels and is changing consumers' purchasing behaviour. The purpose of this case study, based on Target and Amazon.com, is to analyse the attributes of traditional retailing, e-tailing, and hybrid supply chain models to form conclusions about the feasibility of an idealised supply chain model for the future. An integrated and generalised modelling framework is used that incorporates Six Sigma - define, measure, analyse, improve, control methodology leveraging various tools, including process flow maps, cause and effect diagram, performance efficiency metrics, failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), and Monte Carlo simulation. Based on this analysis and research, the conclusion is that the idealised supply chain of the future may evolve into a hybrid supply chain, which includes both e-tail and retail channels. The main recommendations from this study include assessing the risks of migrating to such a hybrid supply chain and to leverage the recommended actions provided in the hybrid FMEA. To facilitate more effective and mature processes, this study can guide researchers in exhaustive empirical evaluations of hybrid supply chains, gather experiences and lessons learned for practitioners.

  5. Supply Chain Performance Evaluation Using Data Envelopment Analysis (A case study of tile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Rezaei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The competition increscent urgency in the global economy causes many organizations focus more on novel management ideas in constructing, delivery services and their productions. In current conditions, supply chain and the importance of a suitable performance evaluating system in order to understand the current condition and program for its improvement, has a very special importance in creating surplus value for clients. In this research, the performance of 7 active supply chains in tile industry which have similar supply chain construction, including providers, producers, distributors and clients, by evaluating producers who perform a key role in chains and by using data envelopment analysis method are considered. According to effectiveness of inputs on outputs of organizations, outputs are considered as functions of inputs and finally the relative performance amounts of decision making units, the key companies of chain supply are computed.

  6. Price competition and equilibrium analysis in multiple hybrid channel supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Guihua; Wang, Aihu; Sha, Jin

    2017-06-01

    The amazing boom of Internet and logistics industry prompts more and more enterprises to sell commodity through multiple channels. Such market conditions make the participants of multiple hybrid channel supply chain compete each other in traditional and direct channel at the same time. This paper builds a two-echelon supply chain model with a single manufacturer and a single retailer who both can choose different channel or channel combination for their own sales, then, discusses the price competition and calculates the equilibrium price under different sales channel selection combinations. Our analysis shows that no matter the manufacturer and retailer choose same or different channel price to compete, the equilibrium price does not necessarily exist the equilibrium price in the multiple hybrid channel supply chain and wholesale price change is not always able to coordinate supply chain completely. We also present the sufficient and necessary conditions for the existence of equilibrium price and coordination wholesale price.

  7. Ground-based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Morgan, W. T.; Coe, H.; Johnson, B.; Haywood, J.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.; Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.

    2014-11-01

    This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which consisted of a combination of aircraft and ground-based measurements over Brazil, aimed to investigate the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality, and numerical weather prediction over South America. The campaign took place during the dry season and the transition to the wet season in September/October 2012. During most of the campaign, the site was impacted by regional biomass burning pollution (average CO mixing ratio of 0.6 ppm), occasionally superimposed by intense (up to 2 ppm of CO), freshly emitted biomass burning plumes. Aerosol number concentrations ranged from ~1000 cm-3 to peaks of up to 35 000 cm-3 (during biomass burning (BB) events, corresponding to an average submicron mass mean concentrations of 13.7 μg m-3 and peak concentrations close to 100 μg m-3. Organic aerosol strongly dominated the submicron non-refractory composition, with an average concentration of 11.4 μg m-3. The inorganic species, NH4, SO4, NO3, and Cl, were observed, on average, at concentrations of 0.44, 0.34, 0.19, and 0.01 μg m-3, respectively. Equivalent black carbon (BCe) ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 μg m-3, with an average concentration of 1.3 μg m-3. During BB peaks, organics accounted for over 90% of total mass (submicron non-refractory plus BCe), among the highest values described in the literature. We examined the ageing of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) using the changes in the H : C and O : C ratios, and found that throughout most of the aerosol processing (O : C ≅ 0

  8. Ground based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brito

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the Southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon forest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment, which consisted of a combination of aircraft and ground based measurements over Brazil, aiming to investigate the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality, and numerical weather prediction over South America. The campaign took place during the dry season and the transition to the wet season in September/October 2012. During most of the campaign, the site was impacted by regional biomass burning pollution (average CO mixing ratio of 0.6 ppm, occasionally superimposed by intense (up to 2 ppm of CO, freshly emitted biomass burning plumes. Aerosol number concentrations ranged from ∼1000 cm−3 to peaks of up to 35 000 cm−3 during biomass burning (BB events, corresponding to an average submicron mass mean concentrations of 13.7 μg m−3 and peak concentrations close to 100 μg m−3. Organic aerosol strongly dominated the submicron non-refractory composition, with an average concentration of 11.4 μg m−3. The inorganic species, NH4, SO4, NO3, and Cl, were observed on average at concentrations of 0.44, 0.34, 0.19, and 0.01 μg m−3, respectively. Equivalent Black Carbon (BCe ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 μg m−3, with an average concentration of 1.3 μg m−3. During BB peaks, organics accounted for over 90% of total mass (submicron non-refractory plus BCe, among the highest values described in the literature. We examined the ageing of Biomass Burning Organic Aerosol (BBOA using the changes in the H : C and O : C ratios, and found that throughout most of the aerosol

  9. Comparative Secretome Analysis of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger during Growth on Sugarcane Biomass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Pagotto Borin

    part of the cell wall in sugarcane are likely the first to be released and assimilated by both species of fungi. At all time points tested, A. niger produced more enzymes (quantitatively and qualitatively than T. reesei. However, the most important enzymes related to biomass degradation, including cellobiohydrolases, endoglucanases, β-glucosidases, β-xylosidases, endoxylanases, xyloglucanases, and α-arabinofuranosidases, were identified in both secretomes. We also noticed that the both fungi produce more enzymes when grown in culm as a single carbon source.Our work provides a detailed qualitative and semi-quantitative secretome analysis of A. niger and T. reesei grown on sugarcane biomass. Our data indicate that a combination of enzymes from both fungi is an interesting option to increase saccharification efficiency. In other words, these two fungal species might be combined for their usage in industrial processes.

  10. Elemental and thermo-chemical analysis of oil palm fronds for biomass energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangul, Fiseha Mekonnen; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Raghavan, Vijay R.

    2012-06-01

    Oil palm frond is the most abundant yet untapped biomass waste in Malaysia. This paper investigates the characteristics of raw oil palm fronds and its ash to evaluate its potential utilization as a biomass fuel for gasification process using single throat downdraft gasifier. The morphological nature, elemental content, proximate and ultimate analysis and calorific value were studied. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and x-ray fluorescence were used to investigate the surface morphology, elemental and mineralogical nature of oil palm frond and its ash. The results were compared with other agricultural and forestry biomass wastes. From proximate analysis volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash were found to be 83.5%, 15.2% and 1.3%, respectively on dry basis. From ultimate analysis result values of 44.58%, 4.53%, 0.71% and 0.07% for carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur were found respectively on dry basis. Oxygen was determined by difference and found to be 48.81%. The proximate and ultimate analysis results indicate that oil palm frond is better than agricultural wastes and less than most forestry wastes to use as a feedstock in the gasification process in order to get a better quality of syngas. The amount of ash content in OPF was found to be much less than in agricultural wastes and higher than most forestry wastes. From x-ray fluorescence analysis CaO and K2O were found as the major oxides in oil palm fronds and rice husk ash with the amount of 28.46% and 15.71% respectively. The overall results of oil palm fronds were found to be satisfactory to use as a feedstock for the process of gasification.

  11. Phosphate/Zinc Interaction Analysis in Two Lettuce Varieties Reveals Contrasting Effects on Biomass, Photosynthesis, and Dynamics of Pi Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Bouain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic phosphate (Pi and Zinc (Zn are essential nutrients for normal plant growth. Interaction between these elements has been observed in many crop plants. Despite its agronomic importance, the biological significance and genetic basis of this interaction remain largely unknown. Here we examined the Pi/Zn interaction in two lettuce (Lactuca sativa varieties, namely, “Paris Island Cos” and “Kordaat.” The effects of variation in Pi and Zn supply were assessed on biomass and photosynthesis for each variety. Paris Island Cos displayed better growth and photosynthesis compared to Kordaat under all the conditions tested. Correlation analysis was performed to determine the interconnectivity between Pi and Zn intracellular contents in both varieties. Paris Island Cos showed a strong negative correlation between the accumulation levels of Pi and Zn in shoots and roots. However, no relation was observed for Kordaat. The increase of Zn concentration in the medium causes a decrease in dynamics of Pi transport in Paris Island Cos, but not in Kordaat plants. Taken together, results revealed a contrasting behavior between the two lettuce varieties in terms of the coregulation of Pi and Zn homeostasis and provided evidence in favor of a genetic basis for the interconnection of these two elements.

  12. 非粮生物质原料体系研发进展及方向%Progress and direction of non-food biomass feedstock supply research and development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢光辉

    2012-01-01

    非粮生物质原料供应是生物质能产业发展的最主要限制因素。本文系统分析了适合中国国情的非粮生物质和宜能非粮地概念,阐述粮食安全和生物质能源发展的关系,认为发展可持续非粮生物质能源是实现粮食、能源、生态、农村经济多赢的战略举措。进而,重点综述了当前中国非粮生物质原料及其供应体系研究进展,分析了当前迫切需要研发的重点任务,内容包括废弃物生物质资源及其可获得性,非粮能源植物种类筛选、育种和生产技术,原料生产、收获、收集和物流及其机械化,宜能非粮地的面积、分布和生产潜力,原料生产与供应的可持续性和标准化,供应产业模式及能源农业发展,发展规划和政策。%Non-food biomass feedstock supply is one of the most important limiting factors in fluencing biofuel development.In this article,the definitions of non-food biomass feedstock and non-food land for bioenergy crops are clarified according to the situation present in China.After identifying the relationship between food security and biomass energy development,it is shown that sustainable non-food biofuel will be a multi-win-win industry to improve food and energy production,eco-environment,and the rural economy and would not have negative effects on food security of the country.This article also reviews the progress of non-food biomass feedstock research,its supply system and further studies currently need in China.It includes the following areas:1)availability of residue biomass,2)nonfood bioenergy plant screening,breeding,and production technology,3)feedstock production,collection,and logistics and mechanization,4)distribution and potential of the non-food land for biomass production,5)sustainability and standardization of nonfood biomass feedstock production and supply,6)development of demonstration and bioenergy agriculture,and 7)planning and policy on the non-food biomass feedstock

  13. Does agricultural crop diversity enhance soil microbial biomass and organic matter dynamics? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, M D; Tiemann, L K; Grandy, A S

    2014-04-01

    Our increasing dependence on a small number of agricultural crops, such as corn, is leading to reductions in agricultural biodiversity. Reductions in the number of crops in rotation or the replacement of rotations by monocultures are responsible for this loss of biodiversity. The belowground implications of simplifying agricultural plant communities remain unresolved; however, agroecosystem sustainability will be severely compromised if reductions in biodiversity reduce soil C and N concentrations, alter microbial communities, and degrade soil ecosystem functions as reported in natural communities. We conducted a meta-analysis of 122 studies to examine crop rotation effects on total soil C and N concentrations, and the faster cycling microbial biomass C and N pools that play key roles in soil nutrient cycling and physical processes such as aggregate formation. We specifically examined how rotation crop type and management practices influence C and N dynamics in different climates and soil types. We found that adding one or more crops in rotation to a monoculture increased total soil C by 3.6% and total N by 5.3%, but when rotations included a cover crop (i.e., crops that are not harvested but produced to enrich the soil and capture inorganic N), total C increased by 8.5% and total N 12.8%. Rotations substantially increased the soil microbial biomass C (20.7%) and N (26.1%) pools, and these overwhelming effects on microbial biomass were not moderated by crop type or management practices. Crop rotations, especially those that include cover crops, sustain soil quality and productivity by enhancing soil C, N, and microbial biomass, making them a cornerstone for sustainable agroecosystems.

  14. Decision Analysis of Advertising and Price for Bilateral Competing Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Tang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of centralized equilibrium, prisoner's dilemma equilibrium, and decentralized equilibrium under different decision models has been provided with regards to bilateral competing supply chain system, either side of which is composed of one manufacturer and one retailer. Theoretical analysis indicates a positive correlation between price and one's own advertising investment level and a negative correlation between price and the opponent's advertising investment level. Through analysis of numerical examples, the results reveal a first mover advantage that leads to prisoner's dilemma in the system as well as the impact that price and advertising competition intensity has on the supply chain's choice of decision model.

  15. NIR and Py-mbms coupled with multivariate data analysis as a high-throughput biomass characterization technique : a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li eXiao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing the use of lignocellulosic biomass as the feedstock for renewable energy production is currently being developed globally. Biomass is a complex mixture of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignins, extractives, and proteins; as well as inorganic salts. Cell wall compositional analysis for biomass characterization is laborious and time consuming. In order to characterize biomass fast and efficiently, several high through-put technologies have been successfully developed. Among them, near infrared spectroscopy (NIR and pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry (Py-mbms are complementary tools and capable of evaluating a large number of raw or modified biomass in a short period of time. NIR shows vibrations associated with specific chemical structures whereas Py-mbms depicts the full range of fragments from the decomposition of biomass. Both NIR vibrations and Py-mbms peaks are assigned to possible chemical functional groups and molecular structures. They provide complementary information of chemical insight of biomaterials. However, it is challenging to interpret the informative results because of the large amount of overlapping bands or decomposition fragments contained in the spectra. In order to improve the efficiency of data analysis, multivariate analysis tools have been adapted to define the significant correlations among data variables, so that the large number of bands/peaks could be replaced by a small number of reconstructed variables representing original variation. Reconstructed data variables are used for sample comparison (principal component analysis and for building regression models (partial least square regression between biomass chemical structures and properties of interests. In this review, the important biomass chemical structures measured by NIR and Py-mbms are summarized. The advantages and disadvantages of conventional data analysis methods and multivariate data analysis methods are introduced, compared and evaluated

  16. Process chain analysis for methanol production from biomass with the aid of mathematical models; Prozesskettenanalyse fuer die Methanolerzeugung aus Biomasse mit Hilfe von mathematischen Modellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saller, G.; Krumm, W. [Siegen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Using the example of primary energy consumption for methanol production from cellulose-rich biomass, it is shown that process chain analysis with mathematical modelling of the technical systems enables calculations of eco-inventories as a function of the relevant process parameters. Optimisation of process chains with regard to ecological indicators or cost necessitates mathematical modelling because of the many different parameters and parameter combinations involved. (orig) [Deutsch] Am Beispiel des Primaerenergieaufwands bei der Methanolgewinnung aus zellulosealtiger Biomasse wurde gezeigt, dass die Prozesskettenanalyse mit Abbildung der technischen Systeme in mathematischen Modellen die Berechnung von Oekoinventaren in Abhaengigkeit der relevanten Prozessparameter erlaubt. Die Optimierung von Prozessketten hinsichtlich oekologischer Indikatoren oder Kosten ist wegen der Vielzahl an unterschiedlichen Parametern und deren Kombinationsmoeglichkeiten nur mit Hilfe mathematischer Modelle moeglich. (orig)

  17. Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

  18. Biomass Allocation of Stoloniferous and Rhizomatous Plant in Response to Resource Availability: A Phylogenetic Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiu-Fang; Hu, Yu-Kun; Pan, Xu; Liu, Feng-Hong; Song, Yao-Bin; Dong, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Resource allocation to different functions is central in life-history theory. Plasticity of functional traits allows clonal plants to regulate their resource allocation to meet changing environments. In this study, biomass allocation traits of clonal plants were categorized into absolute biomass for vegetative growth vs. for reproduction, and their relative ratios based on a data set including 115 species and derived from 139 published literatures. We examined general pattern of biomass allocation of clonal plants in response to availabilities of resource (e.g., light, nutrients, and water) using phylogenetic meta-analysis. We also tested whether the pattern differed among clonal organ types (stolon vs. rhizome). Overall, we found that stoloniferous plants were more sensitive to light intensity than rhizomatous plants, preferentially allocating biomass to vegetative growth, aboveground part and clonal reproduction under shaded conditions. Under nutrient- and water-poor condition, rhizomatous plants were constrained more by ontogeny than by resource availability, preferentially allocating biomass to belowground part. Biomass allocation between belowground and aboveground part of clonal plants generally supported the optimal allocation theory. No general pattern of trade-off was found between growth and reproduction, and neither between sexual and clonal reproduction. Using phylogenetic meta-analysis can avoid possible confounding effects of phylogeny on the results. Our results shown the optimal allocation theory explained a general trend, which the clonal plants are able to plastically regulate their biomass allocation, to cope with changing resource availability, at least in stoloniferous and rhizomatous plants.

  19. Simulation of phytoplankton biomass in Quanzhou Bay using a back propagation network model and sensitivity analysis for environmental variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Wei; SHI Honghua; SONG Xikun; HUANG Dongren; HU Long

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and sensitivity models,to elucidate the response of phytoplankton biomass to environmental factors in Quanzhou Bay,Fujian,China,were developed using a back propagation(BP)network.The environmental indicators of coastal phytoplankton biomass were determined and monitoring data for the bay from 2008 was used to train,test and build a three-layer BP artificial neural network with multi-input and single-output.Ten water quality parameters were used to forecast phytoplankton biomass (measured as chlorophyll-a concentration).Correlation coefficient between biomass values predicted by the model and those observed was 0.964,whilst the average relative error of the network was-3.46% and average absolute error was 10.53%.The model thus has high level of accuracy and is suitable for analysis of the influence of aquatic environmental factors on phytoplankton biomass.A global sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the influence of different environmental indicators on phytoplankton biomass.Indicators were classified according to the sensitivity of response and its risk degree.The results indicate that the parameters most relevant to phytoplankton biomass are estuary-related and include pH,sea surface temperature,sea surface salinity,chemical oxygen demand and ammonium.

  20. Biomass Allocation of Stoloniferous and Rhizomatous Plant in Response to Resource Availability: A Phylogenetic Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Fang eXie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resource allocation to different functions is central in life-history theory. Plasticity of functional traits allows clonal plants to regulate their resource allocation to meet changing environments. In this study, biomass allocation traits of clonal plants were categorized into absolute biomass for vegetative growth versus for reproduction, and their relative ratios based on a data set including 115 species and derived from 139 published literatures. We examined general pattern of biomass allocation of clonal plants in response to availabilities of resource (e.g. light, nutrients and water using phylogenetic meta-analysis. We also tested whether the pattern differed among clonal organ types (stolon vs. rhizome. Overall, we found that stoloniferous plants were more sensitive to light intensity than rhizomatous plants, preferentially allocating biomass to vegetative growth, aboveground part and clonal reproduction under shaded conditions. Under nutrient- and water-poor condition, rhizomatous plants were constrained more by ontogeny than by resource availability, preferentially allocating biomass to belowground part. Biomass allocation between belowground and aboveground part of clonal plants generally supported the optimal allocation theory. No general pattern of trade-off was found between growth and reproduction, and neither between sexual and clonal reproduction. Using phylogenetic meta-analysis can avoid possible confounding effects of phylogeny on the results. Our results shown the optimal allocation theory explained a general trend, which the clonal plants are able to plastically regulate their biomass allocation, to cope with changing resource availability, at least in stoloniferous and rhizomatous plants.

  1. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Three Biofuel Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Erin Searcy; Kara Cafferty; Jennifer B. Dunn; Michael Johnson; Zhichao Wang; Michael Wang; Mary Biddy; Abhijit Dutta; Daniel Inman; Eric Tan; Sue Jones; Lesley Snowden-Swan

    2013-11-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) collaborates with industrial, agricultural, and non-profit partners to develop and deploy biofuels and other biologically-derived products. As part of this effort, BETO and its national laboratory teams conduct in-depth techno-economic assessments (TEA) of technologies to produce biofuels as part state of technology (SOT) analyses. An SOT assesses progress within and across relevant technology areas based on actual experimental results relative to technical targets and cost goals from design cases and includes technical, economic, and environmental criteria as available. Overall assessments of biofuel pathways begin with feedstock production and the logistics of transporting the feedstock from the farm or plantation to the conversion facility or biorefinery. The conversion process itself is modeled in detail as part of the SOT analysis. The teams then develop an estimate of the biofuel minimum selling price (MSP) and assess the cost competitiveness of the biofuel with conventional fuels such as gasoline.

  2. Assessment of fire emission inventories during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gabriel; Siqueira, Ricardo; Rosário, Nilton E.; Longo, Karla L.; Freitas, Saulo R.; Cardozo, Francielle S.; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Wooster, Martin J.

    2016-06-01

    Fires associated with land use and land cover changes release large amounts of aerosols and trace gases into the atmosphere. Although several inventories of biomass burning emissions cover Brazil, there are still considerable uncertainties and differences among them. While most fire emission inventories utilize the parameters of burned area, vegetation fuel load, emission factors, and other parameters to estimate the biomass burned and its associated emissions, several more recent inventories apply an alternative method based on fire radiative power (FRP) observations to estimate the amount of biomass burned and the corresponding emissions of trace gases and aerosols. The Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model (3BEM) and the Fire Inventory from NCAR (FINN) are examples of the first, while the Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model with FRP assimilation (3BEM_FRP) and the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) are examples of the latter. These four biomass burning emission inventories were used during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field campaign. This paper analyzes and inter-compared them, focusing on eight regions in Brazil and the time period of 1 September-31 October 2012. Aerosol optical thickness (AOT550 nm) derived from measurements made by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) operating on board the Terra and Aqua satellites is also applied to assess the inventories' consistency. The daily area-averaged pyrogenic carbon monoxide (CO) emission estimates exhibit significant linear correlations (r, p > 0.05 level, Student t test) between 3BEM and FINN and between 3BEM_ FRP and GFAS, with values of 0.86 and 0.85, respectively. These results indicate that emission estimates in this region derived via similar methods tend to agree with one other. However, they differ more from the estimates derived via the alternative approach. The evaluation of MODIS AOT550 nm indicates that model simulation driven by 3BEM and FINN

  3. Application of Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis to Investigate Accumulation and Adsorption of Mercury by Spirulina platensis Biomass

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Khizanishvili, A I; Frontasyeva, M V; Kirkesali, E I; Aksenova, N G

    2004-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis was used to study interaction of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis with toxic metal mercury. Various concentrations of Hg(II) were added to cell cultures in a nutrient medium. The dynamics of accumulation of Hg was investigated over several days in relation to Spirulina biomass growth. The process of Hg adsorption by Spirulina biomass was studied in short-time experiments. The isotherm of adsorption was carried out in Freindlich coordinates. Natural Spirulina biomass has potential to be used in the remediation of sewage waters at Hg concentrations \\sim 100 {\\mu}g/l.

  4. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of Spirulina platensis Biomass, of the C-Phycocianin and of DNA Extracted from It

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Belokobylsky, A I; Kirkesali, E I; Khizanishvili, A I; Pomyakushina, E V

    2002-01-01

    The epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) was used for study of the biomass of Spirulina platensis. The background levels of concentration 27 macro-, micro- and trace elements ranging from 10^{-3} up to 10^{4} ppm were determined. It was found that the biomass of spirulina does not contain toxic elements above the tolerance levels and can be utilized as a matrix of pharmaceuticals based on it. The concentrations of basic elements in C-phycocianin and DNA extracted from Spirulina platensis were determined by ENAA. A comparison of the element content of a whole spirulina biomass with that of a refined C-phycocianin preparation was made.

  5. Anticipatory Life Cycle Analysis of In Vitro Biomass Cultivation for Cultured Meat Production in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattick, Carolyn S; Landis, Amy E; Allenby, Braden R; Genovese, Nicholas J

    2015-10-06

    Cultured, or in vitro, meat consists of edible biomass grown from animal stem cells in a factory, or carnery. In the coming decades, in vitro biomass cultivation could enable the production of meat without the need to raise livestock. Using an anticipatory life cycle analysis framework, the study described herein examines the environmental implications of this emerging technology and compares the results with published impacts of beef, pork, poultry, and another speculative analysis of cultured biomass. While uncertainty ranges are large, the findings suggest that in vitro biomass cultivation could require smaller quantities of agricultural inputs and land than livestock; however, those benefits could come at the expense of more intensive energy use as biological functions such as digestion and nutrient circulation are replaced by industrial equivalents. From this perspective, large-scale cultivation of in vitro meat and other bioengineered products could represent a new phase of industrialization with inherently complex and challenging trade-offs.

  6. 我国生物质发电产业SWOT分析%SWOT analysis on the biomass power generation industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵振宇; 闫红; 令文君

    2012-01-01

    The energy-related challenges such as the shortage of the electricity supply and the environmental pollution had occurred in China. The renewable energy would play an important role in China's sustainable development. As a renewable resource, biomass had been experienced a rapid growth during the last five years in China. In a changing environment, both opportunities and challenges co-exist in the biomass power industry. By the analysis method of SWOT,the factors of advantages, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats in Chinese biomass power generation industry were analyzed and reviewed, and also the impact of related policies on the development of the renewable power generation was discussed. The results would provide a reference for the development of the Chinese biomass power generation industry in the future.%我国正面临着电力供应短缺和环境污染严重等问题的挑战.鼓励发展可再生能源,将对我国社会的可持续发展发挥重要的作用.生物质能源作为一种可再生能源,在过去的5年中已取得快速的发展,既存在着许多机遇,同时也面临许多挑战.文章运用SWOT分析方法,通过实证研究,回顾和评估了我国生物质发电产业存在的各种优势、劣势、机会以及威胁因素;分析了国家相关政策、法规对生物质发电产业的影响,为我国生物质发电产业的未来发展提供参考和借鉴.

  7. A study of oxy-coal combustion with steam addition and biomass blending by thermogravimetric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Matellanes, María Victoria; Riaza Benito, Juan; Álvarez González, Lucía; Pevida García, Covadonga; Pis Martínez, José Juan; Rubiera González, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The thermal characteristics of pulverized coal have been studied under oxy-fuel combustion conditions using non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The atmospheres used were 21%O2/79%N2, 21%O2/79%CO2, 30%O2/70%O2, and 35%O2/65%CO2. Coal blends of coal with 10 and 20% of biomass were also studied under these atmospheres. The addition of 10 and 20% of steam was evaluated for the oxy-fuel combustion atmospheres with 21 and 30% of O2 in order to study the effect of the wet recirculation o...

  8. Prediction of product distribution in fine biomass pyrolysis in fluidized beds based on proximate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Won

    2015-01-01

    A predictive model was satisfactorily developed to describe the general trends of product distribution in fluidized beds of lignocellulosic biomass pyrolysis. The model was made of mass balance based on proximate analysis and an empirical relationship with operating parameters including fluidization hydrodynamics. The empirical relationships between product yields and fluidization conditions in fluidized bed pyrolyzers were derived from the data of this study and literature. The gas and char yields showed strong functions of temperature and vapor residence time in the pyrolyzer. The yields showed a good correlation with fluidization variables related with hydrodynamics and bed mixing. The predicted product yields based on the model well accorded well with the experimental data.

  9. Analysis of energy wood supply chain in thinning operations: a case study in a pine stand of Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldini S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Thinning is an essential practice in Mediterranean pine forests management but is rarely applied because of the high harvesting costs. The new market of bioenergy products could give a profit to wood biomass harvesting activities, though the drawbacks of elevated supply chain costs, related to technical problems and lack of knowledge about the wood quality have to be overcome in advance. This study analyzed technical, economic, energy and environmental factors of a pine stand thinning in Central Italy, where collected biomass was directed to energy, in order to give a decisional support to reach economical profitability and environmental sustainability in thinning practices. The introduction of Full Tree System maximized the recovery of available biomass, full tree chipping produced material with Heating Value superior than single tree components. The use of a felling frame in motor-manual felling in comparison with the traditional chainsaw reduced operator effort, increasing the number of felled trees per hour, when the stump diameter remained under 15 cm. The energy wood supply chain is not sustainable from an economic point of view, the profitability could be reached only acting on suggested technical levers and particularly reducing costs of hauling operation. The estimation of output/input energy ratio in the supply chain underlined the feasibility of thinning practices for energy. The assessment of CO2 emissions confirmed the environmental sustainability of biomass supply chain in energy when compared to traditional fossil fuels. Study conclusions provide the guidelines for thinning treatment in Mediterranean pine stands, in order to reach environmental and economic sustainability of these practices.

  10. Fiscalini Farms Biomass Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Stringfellow; Mary Kay Camarillo; Jeremy Hanlon; Michael Jue; Chelsea Spier

    2011-09-30

    In this final report describes and documents research that was conducted by the Ecological Engineering Research Program (EERP) at the University of the Pacific (Stockton, CA) under subcontract to Fiscalini Farms LP for work under the Assistance Agreement DE-EE0001895 'Measurement and Evaluation of a Dairy Anaerobic Digestion/Power Generation System' from the United States Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory. Fiscalini Farms is operating a 710 kW biomass-energy power plant that uses bio-methane, generated from plant biomass, cheese whey, and cattle manure via mesophilic anaerobic digestion, to produce electricity using an internal combustion engine. The primary objectives of the project were to document baseline conditions for the anaerobic digester and the combined heat and power (CHP) system used for the dairy-based biomass-energy production. The baseline condition of the plant was evaluated in the context of regulatory and economic constraints. In this final report, the operation of the plant between start-up in 2009 and operation in 2010 are documented and an interpretation of the technical data is provided. An economic analysis of the biomass energy system was previously completed (Appendix A) and the results from that study are discussed briefly in this report. Results from the start-up and first year of operation indicate that mesophilic anaerobic digestion of agricultural biomass, combined with an internal combustion engine, is a reliable source of alternative electrical production. A major advantage of biomass energy facilities located on dairy farms appears to be their inherent stability and ability to produce a consistent, 24 hour supply of electricity. However, technical analysis indicated that the Fiscalini Farms system was operating below capacity and that economic sustainability would be improved by increasing loading of feedstocks to the digester. Additional operational modifications, such as increased utilization of

  11. BENEFIT COST FOR BIOMASS CO-FIRING IN ELECTRICITY GENERATION: CASE OF UTAH, U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Keun Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Policy making regarding biomass co-firing is difficult. The article provides a benefit-cost analysis for decision makers to facilitate policy making process to implement efficient biomass co-firing policy. The additional cost is the sum of cost of the biomass procurement and biomass transportation. Co-benefits are sales of greenhouse gas emission credits and health benefit from reducing harmful air pollutants, especially particulate matter. The benefit-cost analysis is constructed for semi-arid U.S. region, Utah, where biomass supply is limited. Results show that biomass co-firing is not economically feasible in Utah but would be feasible when co-benefits are considered. Benefit-cost ratio is critically dependent upon biomass and carbon credit prices. The procedure to build the benefit-cost ratio can be applied for any region with other scenarios suggested in this study.

  12. Estimation of cell volume and biomass of penicillium chrysogenum using image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, H L; Keshavarz-Moore, E; Lilly, M D; Thomas, C R

    1992-02-20

    A methodology for the estimation of biomass for the penicillin fermentation using image analysis is presented. Two regions of hyphae are defined to describe the growth of mycelia during fermentation: (1) the cytoplasmic region, and (2) the degenerated region including large vacuoles. The volume occupied by each of these regions in a fixed volume of sample is estimated from area measurements using image analysis. Areas are converted to volumes by treating the hyphae as solid cylinders with the hyphal diameter as the cylinder diameter. The volumes of the cytoplasmic and degenerated regions are converted into dry weight estimations using hyphal density values available from the literature. The image analysis technique is able to estimate biomass even in the presence of nondissolved solids of a concentration of up to 30 gL(-1). It is shown to estimate successfully concentrations of mycelia from 0.03 to 38 gL(-1). Although the technique has been developed for the penicillin fermentation, it should be applicable to other (nonpellected) fungal fermentations.

  13. Interaction and kinetic analysis for coal and biomass co-gasification by TG-FTIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chaofen; Hu, Song; Xiang, Jun; Zhang, Liqi; Sun, Lushi; Shuai, Chao; Chen, Qindong; He, Limo; Edreis, Elbager M A

    2014-02-01

    This study aims to investigate the interaction and kinetic behavior of CO2 gasification of coal, biomass and their blends by thermogravimetry analysis (TG). The gas products evolved from gasification were measured online with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) coupled with TG. Firstly, TG experiments indicated that interaction between the coals and biomasses mainly occurred during co-gasification process. The most significant synergistic interaction occurred for LN with SD at the blending mass ratio 4:1. Furthermore, thermal kinetic analysis indicated that the activation energy involved in co-gasification decreased as the SD content increased until the blending ratio of SD with coal reached 4:1. The rise of the frequency factor indicated that the increase of SD content favored their synergistic interaction. Finally, FTIR analysis of co-gasification of SD with LN indicated that except for CO, most gases including CH3COOH, C6H5OH, H2O, etc., were detected at around 50-700°C. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Flux balance analysis of plant metabolism: the effect of biomass composition and model structure on model predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huili eYuan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The biomass composition represented in constraint-based metabolic models is a key component for predicting cellular metabolism using flux balance analysis (FBA. Despite major advances in analytical technologies, it is often challenging to obtain a detailed composition of all major biomass components experimentally. Studies examining the influence of the biomass composition on the predictions of metabolic models have so far mostly been done on models of microorganisms. Little is known about the impact of varying biomass composition on flux prediction in FBA models of plants, whose metabolism is very versatile and complex because of the presence of multiple subcellular compartments. Also, the published metabolic models of plants differ in size and complexity. In this study, we examined the sensitivity of the predicted fluxes of plant metabolic models to biomass composition and model structure. These questions were addressed by evaluating the sensitivity of predictions of growth rates and central carbon metabolic fluxes to varying biomass compositions in three different genome-/large-scale metabolic models of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results showed that fluxes through the central carbon metabolism were robust to changes in biomass composition. Nevertheless, comparisons between the predictions from three models using identical modelling constraints and objective function showed that model predictions were sensitive to the structure of the models, highlighting large discrepancies between the published models.

  15. Energy performance analysis for a photovoltaic, diesel, battery hybrid power supply system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at an energy performance analysis for a photovoltaic, diesel, and battery hybrid power supply system. The procedure starts by the identification of the hourly load requirements for a typical target consumer and the concept of load...

  16. The Timber Resource Inventory Model (TRIM): a projection model for timber supply and policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.L. Tedder; R.N. La Mont; J.C. Kincaid

    1987-01-01

    TRIM (Timber Resource Inventory Model) is a yield table projection system developed for timber supply projections and policy analysis. TRIM simulates timber growth, inventories, management and area changes, and removals over the projection period. Programs in the TRIM system, card-by-card descriptions of required inputs, table formats, and sample results are presented...

  17. [Correlation analysis between meteorological factors, biomass, and active components of Salvia miltiorrhiza in different climatic zones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen-lu; Liang, Zong-suo; Guo, Hong-bo; Liu, Jing-ling; Liu, Yan; Liu, Feng-hua; Wei, Lang-zhu

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the growth and accumulation of active components of Salvia miltiorrhiza in twenty two experimental sites which crossing through three typical climate zones. The S. miltiorrhiza seedlings with the same genotype were planted in each site in spring, which were cultivated in fields with uniform management during their growing seasons till to harvest. The diterpene ketones (dihydrotanshinone, cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I and tanshinone II(A)) in S. miltiorrhiza root samples were determined by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The biomass of root (root length, number of root branches, root width and dry weight) was also measured. The results showed that tanshinone II(A) in all samples of each site were higher than the standards required by China Pharmacopoeia. It has been found there is a relationship between root shape and climate change. The correlation analysis between active components and meteorological factors showed that the accumulation of tanshinones were effected by such meteorological factors as average relative humidity from April to October > average vapor pressure from April to October > average temperature difference day and night from April to October > annual average temperature and so on. The correlation analysis between root biomass and meteorological factors exhibited that root shape and accumulation of dry matter were affected by those factors, such as average annual aboveground (0-20 cm) temperature from April to October > annual average temperature > average vapor pressure from April to October > annual active accumulated temperature > annual average temperature > average vapor pressure from April to October. The accumulation of tanshinones and biomass was increased with the decrease of latitude. At the same time, the dry matter and diameter of root decreased if altitude rises. In addition, S. miltiorrhiza required sunlight is not sophisticated, when compared with humid and temperature. To sum up, S

  18. Vatenfall relies on biomass. Short rotation plantations shall secure the energy supply of a thermal power station in Berlin; Vattenfall setzt auf Biomasse. Kurzumtriebsplantagen sollen Versorgung eines Berliner Heizkraftwerkes sichern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biernath, Dieter

    2013-04-01

    The Vattenfall subsidiary Energy Crops (Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany) looks for farmers for contract farming of short rotation plantations in order to secure the energy supply of a thermal power station in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany). Energy Crops supports farmers with seedlings, equipment and consultancy. However, Energy Crops looks for the correct methods.

  19. Energy efficiency analysis: biomass-to-wheel efficiency related with biofuels production, fuel distribution, and powertrain systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Dong Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Energy efficiency analysis for different biomass-utilization scenarios would help make more informed decisions for developing future biomass-based transportation systems. Diverse biofuels produced from biomass include cellulosic ethanol, butanol, fatty acid ethyl esters, methane, hydrogen, methanol, dimethyether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and bioelectricity; the respective powertrain systems include internal combustion engine (ICE vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles based on gasoline or diesel ICEs, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, sugar fuel cell vehicles (SFCV, and battery electric vehicles (BEV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a simple, straightforward, and transparent biomass-to-wheel (BTW analysis including three separate conversion elements--biomass-to-fuel conversion, fuel transport and distribution, and respective powertrain systems. BTW efficiency is a ratio of the kinetic energy of an automobile's wheels to the chemical energy of delivered biomass just before entering biorefineries. Up to 13 scenarios were analyzed and compared to a base line case--corn ethanol/ICE. This analysis suggests that BEV, whose electricity is generated from stationary fuel cells, and SFCV, based on a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle with an on-board sugar-to-hydrogen bioreformer, would have the highest BTW efficiencies, nearly four times that of ethanol-ICE. SIGNIFICANCE: In the long term, a small fraction of the annual US biomass (e.g., 7.1%, or 700 million tons of biomass would be sufficient to meet 100% of light-duty passenger vehicle fuel needs (i.e., 150 billion gallons of gasoline/ethanol per year, through up to four-fold enhanced BTW efficiencies by using SFCV or BEV. SFCV would have several advantages over BEV: much higher energy storage densities, faster refilling rates, better safety, and less environmental burdens.

  20. Energy efficiency analysis: biomass-to-wheel efficiency related with biofuels production, fuel distribution, and powertrain systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2011-01-01

    Energy efficiency analysis for different biomass-utilization scenarios would help make more informed decisions for developing future biomass-based transportation systems. Diverse biofuels produced from biomass include cellulosic ethanol, butanol, fatty acid ethyl esters, methane, hydrogen, methanol, dimethyether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and bioelectricity; the respective powertrain systems include internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles based on gasoline or diesel ICEs, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, sugar fuel cell vehicles (SFCV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV). We conducted a simple, straightforward, and transparent biomass-to-wheel (BTW) analysis including three separate conversion elements--biomass-to-fuel conversion, fuel transport and distribution, and respective powertrain systems. BTW efficiency is a ratio of the kinetic energy of an automobile's wheels to the chemical energy of delivered biomass just before entering biorefineries. Up to 13 scenarios were analyzed and compared to a base line case--corn ethanol/ICE. This analysis suggests that BEV, whose electricity is generated from stationary fuel cells, and SFCV, based on a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle with an on-board sugar-to-hydrogen bioreformer, would have the highest BTW efficiencies, nearly four times that of ethanol-ICE. In the long term, a small fraction of the annual US biomass (e.g., 7.1%, or 700 million tons of biomass) would be sufficient to meet 100% of light-duty passenger vehicle fuel needs (i.e., 150 billion gallons of gasoline/ethanol per year), through up to four-fold enhanced BTW efficiencies by using SFCV or BEV. SFCV would have several advantages over BEV: much higher energy storage densities, faster refilling rates, better safety, and less environmental burdens.

  1. Energy Efficiency Analysis: Biomass-to-Wheel Efficiency Related with Biofuels Production, Fuel Distribution, and Powertrain Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2011-01-01

    Background Energy efficiency analysis for different biomass-utilization scenarios would help make more informed decisions for developing future biomass-based transportation systems. Diverse biofuels produced from biomass include cellulosic ethanol, butanol, fatty acid ethyl esters, methane, hydrogen, methanol, dimethyether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and bioelectricity; the respective powertrain systems include internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles based on gasoline or diesel ICEs, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, sugar fuel cell vehicles (SFCV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV). Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a simple, straightforward, and transparent biomass-to-wheel (BTW) analysis including three separate conversion elements -- biomass-to-fuel conversion, fuel transport and distribution, and respective powertrain systems. BTW efficiency is a ratio of the kinetic energy of an automobile's wheels to the chemical energy of delivered biomass just before entering biorefineries. Up to 13 scenarios were analyzed and compared to a base line case – corn ethanol/ICE. This analysis suggests that BEV, whose electricity is generated from stationary fuel cells, and SFCV, based on a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle with an on-board sugar-to-hydrogen bioreformer, would have the highest BTW efficiencies, nearly four times that of ethanol-ICE. Significance In the long term, a small fraction of the annual US biomass (e.g., 7.1%, or 700 million tons of biomass) would be sufficient to meet 100% of light-duty passenger vehicle fuel needs (i.e., 150 billion gallons of gasoline/ethanol per year), through up to four-fold enhanced BTW efficiencies by using SFCV or BEV. SFCV would have several advantages over BEV: much higher energy storage densities, faster refilling rates, better safety, and less environmental burdens. PMID:21765941

  2. Cost analysis of concepts for a demand oriented biogas supply for flexible power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Henning; Ganagin, Waldemar; Hartmann, Kilian; Wachendorf, Michael

    2014-10-01

    With the share of intermittent renewable energies within the electricity system rising, balancing services from dispatchable power plants are of increasing importance. Highlighting the importance of the need to keeping fuel costs for flexible power generation to a minimum, the study aims to identify favourable biogas plant configurations, supplying biogas on demand. A cost analysis of five configurations based on biogas storing and flexible biogas production concepts has been carried out. Results show that additional flexibility costs for a biogas supply of 8h per day range between 2€ and 11€MWh(-1) and for a 72h period without biogas demand from 9€ to 19€MWh(-1). While biogas storage concepts were identified as favourable short term supply configurations, flexible biogas production concepts profit from reduced storage requirements at plants with large biogas production capacities or for periods of several hours without biogas demand.

  3. Food loss rate in food supply chain using material flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Munsol; Osako, Masahiro; Harashina, Sachihiko

    2017-03-01

    The food loss rate is a factor that represents food consumption efficiency. To improve food consumption efficiency, we need to fundamentally quantify food loss at national and global levels. This study examines food and food waste flow and calculates the food loss rate in the food supply chain by targeting Japan. We analyzed inedible food waste and avoidable food losses in wholesale, manufacturing, retail, food services, and households and considered different supply chain pathways, different food categories representing whole Japanese meals, and weight changes after cooking. The results are as follows: (1) Japan has an overall rate of avoidable food losses of approximately 15% for meals (excluding agricultural losses), (2) the supply sector with the highest food loss rate is food services, and (3) the food category with the highest food loss rate is vegetables. Finally, we proposed a model for calculating food loss rates that could be used for future analysis in Japan or other countries.

  4. Marketing Strategic Benefit-risk Analysis: Transgenic Poultry Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the causes of marketing strategic benefit-risk of transgenic poultry food supply chain in china, we analyze the role that benefits and risks play in the formation of the decision-making process of transgenic poultry food participants. This study discusses the ways and strategies of transgenic poultry food supply chain from the following aspects: a, the food's safety concerning producers, marketing participants and consumers’ risk behaviour at three stages of the transgenic poultry food supply chain. b, all these risks should be effectively managed in order to derive the utmost of benefits and avoid disruption or catastrophic economic consequences for all stages of the transgenic poultry food supply chain. c, the identification, analysis, determination and understanding of the benefit-risk trade-offs of market participants in transgenic poultry food market may help policy makers, financial analysts and marketers to make well informed and effective corporate marketing strategies in order to deal with highly uncertain and risky situations. We hope these can accelerate the construction of marketing strategic benefit-risk trade-offs of transgenic poultry food supply chain, promote sustained and rapid growth of transgenic poultry food industry in china.

  5. Two-stage data envelopment analysis technique for evaluating internal supply chain efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisakorn Somsuk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA which uses mathematical linear programming techniques is applied to evaluate the efficiency of a system composed of two relational sub-processes, by which the outputs from the first sub-process (as the intermediate outputs of the system are the inputs for the second sub-process. The relative efficiencies of the system and its sub-processes can be measured by applying the two-stage DEA. According to the literature review on the supply chain management, this technique can be used as a tool for evaluating the efficiency of the supply chain composed of two relational sub-processes. The technique can help to determine the inefficient sub-processes. Once the inefficient sub-process was improved its efficiency, it would result in better aggregate efficiency of the supply chain. This paper aims to present a procedure for evaluating the efficiency of the supply chain by using the two-stage DEA, under the assumption of constant returns to scale, with an example of internal supply chain efficiency measurement of insurance companies by applying the two-stage DEA for illustration. Moreover, in this paper the authors also present some observations on the application of this technique.

  6. Analysis of three level supply chain of inventory with deterioration for multi-items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Singh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to generalize the three echelon supply chain model proposed by Jaber and Goyal (2008 [Jaber, M. Y., & Goyal, S. K. (2008. Coordinating a three-level supply chain with multiple suppliers, a vendor and multiple buyers. International Journal Production Economics, 116, 95-103.] for multi-items where single item was considered in production and distribution. This paper develops the coordination amongst different parties in a three-echelon supply chain with a centralized decision process. Producer, suppliers and retailers are the parties of the supply chain where multiple suppliers deliver various types of raw materials to a producer; producer produces different types of items, multi-items, in different units of the factory and supplies the items to multiple retailers. Different deterioration rates for finished items and raw materials are also considered. The model developed of this paper guarantees that the local costs for the members either remain the same as before coordination, or decrease as a result of coordination. A numerical example along with graphical illustrations is considered and the sensitivity analysis is provided to test the feasibility of the proposed model.

  7. A combined noise analysis and power supply current based testing of CMOS analog integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ashok; Pulendra, Vani K.; Yellampalli, Siva

    2005-05-01

    A technique integrating the noise analysis based testing and the conventional power supply current testing of CMOS analog integrated circuits is presented for bridging type faults due to manufacturing defects. The circuit under test (CUT) is a CMOS amplifier designed for operation at +/- 2.5 V and implemented in 1.5 μm CMOS process. The faults simulating possible manufacturing defects have been introduced using the fault injection transistors. The amplifier circuit is analyzed and simulated in SPICE for its performance with and without fault injections. The faults in the CUT are identified by observing the variation in the equivalent noise voltage at the output of CUT. In power supply current testing, the current (IPS) through the power supply voltage, VDD is measured under the application of an AC input stimulus. The effect of parametric variation is taken into consideration by determining the tolerance limit using the Monte-Carlo analysis. The fault is identified if the power supply current, IPS lies outside the deviation given by Monte-Carlo analysis. Simulation results are in close agreement with the corresponding experimental values.

  8. Optimizing national immunization program supply chain management in Thailand: an economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riewpaiboon, A; Sooksriwong, C; Chaiyakunapruk, N; Tharmaphornpilas, P; Techathawat, S; Rookkapan, K; Rasdjarmrearnsook, A; Suraratdecha, C

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to conduct an economic analysis of the transition of the conventional vaccine supply and logistics systems to the vendor managed inventory (VMI) system in Thailand. Cost analysis of health care program. An ingredients based approach was used to design the survey and collect data for an economic analysis of the immunization supply and logistics systems covering procurement, storage and distribution of vaccines from the central level to the lowest level of vaccine administration facility. Costs were presented in 2010 US dollar. The total cost of the vaccination program including cost of vaccine procured and logistics under the conventional system was US$0.60 per packed volume procured (cm(3)) and US$1.35 per dose procured compared to US$0.66 per packed volume procured (cm(3)) and US$1.43 per dose procured under the VMI system. However, the findings revealed that the transition to the VMI system and outsourcing of the supply chain system reduced the cost of immunization program at US$6.6 million per year because of reduction of un-opened vaccine wastage. The findings demonstrated that the new supply chain system would result in efficiency improvement and potential savings to the immunization program compared to the conventional system. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS OF CAMPUS HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEM OF DNIPROPETROVSK NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF RAILWAY TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Pshinko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Heat consumption for heating and hot water supply of housing and industrial facilities is an essential part of heat energy consumption. Prerequisite for development of energy saving measures in existing heating systems is their preliminary examination. The investigation results of campus heating system of Dnipropetrovsk National University of Railway Transport named after Academician V. Lazaryan are presented in the article. On the basis of the analysis it is proposed to take the energy saving measures and assess their effectiveness. Methodology. Analysis of the consumption structure of thermal energy for heating domestic and hot water supply was fulfilled. The real costs of heat supply during the calendar year and the normative costs were compared. Findings. The recording expenditures data of thermal energy for heating supply of residential buildings and dormitories in 2012 were analyzed. The comparison of actual performance with specific regulations was performed. This comparison revealed problems, whose solution will help the efficient use of thermal energy. Originality. For the first time the impact of climate conditions, features of schemes and designs of heating systems on the effective use of thermal energy were analyzed. It was studied the contribution of each component. Practical value. Based on the analysis of thermal energy consumption it was developed a list of possible energy saving measures that can be implemented in the system of heat and power facilities. It was evaluated the fuel and energy resources saving.

  10. Possibility analysis of combustion of torrefied biomass in 140 t/h PC boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagodzińska Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to evaluate the impact of combustion of torrefied willow (Latin: Salix viminalis and palm kernel shell (Latin: Elaeis guineensis on the heat exchange in a 140 t/h PC boiler through an analysis of 6 cases for different boiler loads (60 %, 75 % and 100 % and a comparison with coal combustion. The analysis is premised on a 0-dimensional model based on the method presented in [15, 16, 17] and long-standing experimental measurements. Inter alia, the following results are presented: the temperature distribution of flue gases and the working medium (water/steam in characteristic points of the boiler as well as heat transfer coefficients for each element thereof. The temperature distribution of both fluids and the heat transfer coefficients are similar for all analysed fuels for each boiler load. However, the flue gas temperature at the outlet is higher in the case of torrefied biomass combustion. Due to that, there is an increase in the stack loss, which involves a decrease in the boiler efficiency. The conclusion is that torrefied biomass combustion is possible in a PC boiler without the need to change the boiler construction. However, it would be less effective than coal combustion.

  11. Qualitative phase space reconstruction analysis of supply-chain inventor time series

    OpenAIRE

    Jinliang Wu; Lipeng Xiao; Lizhong Wang; Chenxi Shao

    2010-01-01

    The economy systems are usually too complex to be analysed, but some advanced methods have been developed in order to do so, such as system dynamics modelling, multi-agent modelling, complex adaptive system modelling and qualitative modelling. In this paper, we considered a supply-chain (SC) system including several kinds of products. Using historic suppliers’ demand data, we firstly applied the phase space analysis method and then used qualitative analysis to improve the complex system’s per...

  12. Developing system robustness analysis for drought risk management: an application on a water supply reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. P. Mens

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Droughts will likely become more frequent, of greater magnitude and of longer duration in the future due to climate change. Already in the present climate, a variety of drought events may occur with different exceedance frequencies. These frequencies are becoming more uncertain due to climate change. Many methods in support of drought risk management focus on providing insight into changing drought frequencies, and use water supply reliability as key decision criterion. In contrast, robustness analysis focuses on providing insight into the full range of drought events and their impact on a system's functioning. This method has been developed for flood risk systems, but applications on drought risk systems are lacking. This paper aims to develop robustness analysis for drought risk systems, and illustrates the approach through a case study with a water supply reservoir and its users. We explore drought characterization and the assessment of a system's ability to deal with drought events, by quantifying the severity and socio-economic impact of a variety of drought events, both frequent and rare ones. Furthermore, we show the effect of three common drought management strategies (increasing supply, reducing demand and implementing hedging rules on the robustness of the coupled water supply and socio-economic system. The case is inspired by Oologah Lake, a multipurpose reservoir in Oklahoma, United States. Results demonstrate that although demand reduction and supply increase may have a comparable effect on the supply reliability, demand reduction may be preferred from a robustness perspective. To prepare drought management plans for dealing with current and future droughts, it is thus recommended to test how alternative drought strategies contribute to a system's robustness rather than relying solely on water reliability as the decision criterion.

  13. Ground based characterization of biomass burning aerosols during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment in Brazil during Sept - Oct 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Varanda Rizzo, Luciana; Johnson, Ben; Haywood, Jim; Longo, Karla; Freitas, Saulo; Coe, Hugh

    2013-04-01

    Biomass burning is one of the major drivers for atmospheric composition in the Southern hemisphere. In Amazonia, deforestation rates have been steadily decreasing, from 27,000 Km² in 2004 to about 5,000 Km² in 2011. This large reduction (by factor 5) was not followed by similar reduction in aerosol loading in the atmosphere due to the increase in agricultural fires. AERONET measurements from 5 sites show a large year-to year variability due to climatic and socio-economic issues. Besides this strong reduction in deforestation rate, biomass burning emissions in Amazonia increases concentrations of aerosol particles, CO, ozone and other species, and also change the surface radiation balance in a significant way. To complement the long term biomass burning measurements in Amazonia, it was organized in 2012 the intensive campaign of the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) experiment with an airborne and a ground based components. A sampling site was set up at Porto Velho, with measurements of aerosol size distribution, optical properties such as absorption and scattering at several wavelengths, organic aerosol characterization with an ACSM - Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. CO, CO2 and O3 were also measured to characterize combustion efficiency and photochemical processes. Filters for trace elements measured by XRF and for OC/EC determined using a Sunset instrument were also collected. An AERONET CIMEL sunphotometer was operated in parallel with a multifilter radiometer (MFR). A large data set was collected from August to October 2012. PM2.5 aerosol concentrations up to 250 ug/m3 were measured, with up to 20 ug/m3 of black carbon. Ozone went up to 60 ppb at mid-day in August. At night time ozone was consumed completely most of the time. ACSM shows that more than 85% of the aerosol mass was organic with a clear diurnal pattern. The organic aerosol volatility was very variable depending on the air mass sampled over Porto Velho. Aerosol optical depth at

  14. Comparative economic analysis of perennial, annual, and intercrops for biomass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallam, A. [Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Economics; Anderson, I.C. [Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Agronomy; Buxton, D.R. [USDA-ARS-NPS, Beltsville, MD (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Herbaceous crops may be an important source of renewable energy. Production costs can be more competitive by increasing yields so that overhead costs are applied to more biomass. Most previous economic studies of energy crops have concentrated on the production of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). This study analyzes the biomass yield and economic potential of several high-yielding annual and perennial crops on prime and marginal, sloping land. Crops evaluated were reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) harvested twice per year; switchgrass and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman var. gerardii); alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.); and sweet sorghum, forage sorghum [both Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], and maize (Zea mays L.). The intercropping of the two sorghum species into reed canarygrass and alfalfa was also analyzed. All crops but alfalfa were fertilized with 0, 70, 140, or 280 kgNha{sup -1}, with economic analysis performed assuming 140 kgNha{sup -1}. Sorghums were most productive, with more than 16 t of dry matter ha{sup -1}. Switchgrass was the highest-yielding perennial crop. Costs per ton of biomass produced were lowest for sorghum, somewhat higher for switchgrass, higher still for big bluestem, and highest for alfalfa and reed canarygrass. Yields per ton for intercropped species were higher than for perennial species but lower than for monocrop sorghum. Costs per ton for intercropped species were less than for either alfalfa or reed canarygrass, but were higher than costs per ton of monocrop sorghum. Although the sorghums had the highest yields, high potential for erosion on sloping soils may preclude their use on these soils. (author)

  15. Lidar and Hyperspectral Remote Sensing for the Analysis of Coniferous Biomass Stocks and Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halligan, K. Q.; Roberts, D. A.

    2006-12-01

    Airborne lidar and hyperspectral data can improve estimates of aboveground carbon stocks and fluxes through their complimentary responses to vegetation structure and biochemistry. While strong relationships have been demonstrated between lidar-estimated vegetation structural parameters and field data, research is needed to explore the portability of these methods across a range of topographic conditions, disturbance histories, vegetation type and climate. Additionally, research is needed to evaluate contributions of hyperspectral data in refining biomass estimates and determination of fluxes. To address these questions we are a conducting study of lidar and hyperspectral remote sensing data across sites including coniferous forests, broadleaf deciduous forests and a tropical rainforest. Here we focus on a single study site, Yellowstone National Park, where tree heights, stem locations, above ground biomass and basal area were mapped using first-return small-footprint lidar data. A new method using lidar intensity data was developed for separating the terrain and vegetation components in lidar data using a two-scale iterative local minima filter. Resulting Digital Terrain Models (DTM) and Digital Canopy Models (DCM) were then processed to retrieve a diversity of vertical and horizontal structure metrics. Univariate linear models were used to estimate individual tree heights while stepwise linear regression was used to estimate aboveground biomass and basal area. Three small-area field datasets were compared for their utility in model building and validation of vegetation structure parameters. All structural parameters were linearly correlated with lidar-derived metrics, with higher accuracies obtained where field and imagery data were precisely collocated . Initial analysis of hyperspectral data suggests that vegetation health metrics including measures of live and dead vegetation and stress indices may provide good indicators of carbon flux by mapping vegetation

  16. Biomass Feedstock Availability in the United States: 1999 State Level Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Marie E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perlack, Robert L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Turhollow, Anthony [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); de la Torre Ugarte, Daniel [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Becker, Denny A. [Science Applications International Corporation, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Graham, Robin L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Slinsky, Stephen E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Ray, Daryll E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Interest in using biomass feedstocks to produce power, liquid fuels, and chemicals in the U.S. is increasing. Central to determining the potential for these industries to develop is an understanding of the location, quantities, and prices of biomass resources. This paper describes the methodology used to estimate biomass quantities and prices for each state in the continental United States.

  17. Forecasting drought risks for a water supply storage system using bootstrap position analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Gary; Dunne, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Forecasting the likelihood of drought conditions is an integral part of managing a water supply storage and delivery system. Position analysis uses a large number of possible flow sequences as inputs to a simulation of a water supply storage and delivery system. For a given set of operating rules and water use requirements, water managers can use such a model to forecast the likelihood of specified outcomes such as reservoir levels falling below a specified level or streamflows falling below statutory passing flows a few months ahead conditioned on the current reservoir levels and streamflows. The large number of possible flow sequences are generated using a stochastic streamflow model with a random resampling of innovations. The advantages of this resampling scheme, called bootstrap position analysis, are that it does not rely on the unverifiable assumption of normality and it allows incorporation of long-range weather forecasts into the analysis.

  18. Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Machinal, Michelle A.

    2011-06-01

    ). This study is part of an ongoing effort within the Department of Energy to meet the renewable energy goals for liquid transportation fuels. The objective of this report is to present a techno-economic evaluation of the performance and cost of various biomass based thermochemical fuel production. This report also documents the economics that were originally developed for the report entitled “Biofuels in Oregon and Washington: A Business Case Analysis of Opportunities and Challenges” (Stiles et al. 2008). Although the resource assessments were specific to the Pacific Northwest, the production economics presented in this report are not regionally limited. This study uses a consistent technical and economic analysis approach and assumptions to gasification and liquefaction based fuel production technologies. The end fuels studied are methanol, ethanol, DME, SNG, gasoline and diesel.

  19. Experimental study and product analysis of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis under extremely low acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shurong WANG; Xinshu ZHUANG; Zhongyang LUO; Kefa CEN

    2008-01-01

    Using our self-designed facility for lignocellulo-sic biomass hydrolysis under extremely low acid, and under the optimal reaction conditions of hemicellulose and cel-lulose determined by xylan and quantitative filter paper as the model, two-step dilute acid hydrolysis was carried out in detail on pine, fast-growing poplar and maize straw. The corresponding conversion ratio is 41.78%, 57.84% and 53.44% and the total reducing sugar conversion ratio is 39.28%, 42.83% and 23.82% respectively. Simultaneously, sugar component analysis of the products was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and monosaccharide and oligosaccharide content were com-pared. Finally, poplar hydrolysis residues were analyzed by proximate and ultimate analysis.

  20. Modeling for proximate analysis and heating value of torrefied biomass with vibration spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Brian K; Adhikari, Sushil; Taylor, Steve

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the changes in biomass with torrefaction for near infrared reflectance (NIR) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy for sweetgum, loblolly pine, and switchgrass. Calibration models were built for the prediction of proximate analysis after torrefaction. Two dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy between NIR and FTIR was found to precisely explain the depolymerization at key functional groups located within hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin. This novel 2D technique also demonstrated the possibility of assigning key NIR wavenumbers based on mid IR spectra. Hemicellulose based wavenumbers were found to be most sensitive to torrefaction severity with complete degradation at 250-275°C. Lignin associated wavenumbers exhibited the least degradation to severity but was still detected with 2D correlation spectroscopy. Finally, calibration models for proximate analysis were performed and while both systems could be used for rapid monitoring, NIR performed better than FTIR.

  1. Goal and Scope in Life Cycle Sustainability Analysis: The Case of Hydrogen Production from Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Stefanova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The framework for life cycle sustainability analysis (LCSA developed within the project CALCAS (Co-ordination Action for innovation in Life-Cycle Analysis for Sustainability is introducing a truly integrated approach for sustainability studies. However, it needs to be further conceptually refined and to be made operational. In particular, one of the gaps still hindering the adoption of integrated analytic tools for sustainability studies is the lack of a clear link between the goal and scope definition and the modeling phase. This paper presents an approach to structure the goal and scope phase of LCSA so as to identify the relevant mechanisms to be further detailed and analyzed in the modeling phase. The approach is illustrated with an on-going study on a new technology for the production of high purity hydrogen from biomass, to be used in automotive fuel cells.

  2. Markets during world oil supply crises: an analysis of industry, consumer, and governmental response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erfle, Stephen; Pound, John; Kalt, Joseph

    1981-04-01

    An analysis of the response of American markets to supply crises in world oil markets is presented. It addresses four main issues: the efficiency of the operation of American oil markets during oil supply crises; the problems of both economic efficiency and social equity which arise during the American adaptation process; the propriety of the Federal government's past policy responses to these problems; and the relationship between perceptions of the problems caused by world oil crises and the real economic natures of these problems. Specifically, Chapter 1 presents a theoretical discussion of the effects of a world supply disruption on the price level and supply availability of the world market oil to any consuming country including the US Chapter 2 provides a theoretical and empirical analysis of the efficiency of the adaptations of US oil product markets to higher world oil prices. Chapter 3 examines the responses of various groups of US oil firms to the alterations observed in world markets, while Chapter 4 presents a theoretical explanation for the price-lagging behavior exhibited by firms in the US oil industry. Chapter 5 addresses the nature of both real and imagined oil market problems in the US during periods of world oil market transition. (MCW)

  3. Technoeconomic analysis of different options for the production of hydrogen from sunlight, wind, and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.; Amos, W.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-08-01

    To determine their technical and economic viability and to provide insight into where each technology is in its development cycle, different options to produce hydrogen from sunlight, wind, and biomass were studied. Additionally, costs for storing and transporting hydrogen were determined for different hydrogen quantities and storage times. The analysis of hydrogen from sunlight examined the selling price of hydrogen from two technologies: direct photoelectrochemical (PEC) conversion of sunlight and photovoltaic (PV)-generated electricity production followed by electrolysis. The wind analysis was based on wind-generated electricity production followed by electrolysis. In addition to the base case analyses, which assume that hydrogen is the sole product, three alternative scenarios explore the economic impact of integrating the PV- and wind-based systems with the electric utility grid. Results show that PEC hydrogen production has the potential to be economically feasible. Additionally, the economics of the PV and wind electrolysis systems are improved by interaction with the grid. The analysis of hydrogen from biomass focused on three gasification technologies. The systems are: low pressure, indirectly-heated gasification followed by steam reforming; high pressure, oxygen-blown gasification followed by steam reforming; and pyrolysis followed by partial oxidation. For each of the systems studied, the downstream process steps include shift conversion followed by hydrogen purification. Only the low pressure system produces hydrogen within the range of the current industry selling prices (typically $0.7--$2/kg, or $5--14/GJ on a HHV basis). A sensitivity analysis showed that, for the other two systems, in order to bring the hydrogen selling price down to $2/kg, negative-priced feedstocks would be required.

  4. Thermoeconomic analysis of Biomass Integrated Gasification Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (BIG GT CC) cogeneration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrieta, Felipe Raul Ponce; Lora, Electo Silva [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Estudos de Sistemas Termicos]. E-mails: aponce@iem.efei.br; electo@iem.efei.br; Perez, Silvia Azucena Nebra de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: sanebra@fem. unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    Using thermoeconomics as a tool to identify the location and magnitude of the real thermodynamic losses (energy waste, or exergy destruction and exergy losses) it is possible to assess the production costs of each product (electric power and heat) and the exergetic and exergoeconomic cost of each flow in a cogeneration plant to assist in decision-marketing procedures concerning to plant design, investment, operation and allocations of research funds. Thermo economic analysis of Biomass Integrated Gasification Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (BIG GT CC) cogeneration plant for its applications in sugar cane mills brings the following results: the global exergetic efficiency is low; the highest irreversibilities occur in the following equipment, by order: scrubber (38%), gas turbine (16%), dryer (12%), gasifier and HRSG (6%); due to the adopted cost distribution methodology, the unit exergetic cost of the heat (4,11) is lower than electricity (4,71); the lower market price of biomass is one of the most sensible parameter in the possible implementation of BIG-GT technology in sugar cane industry; the production costs are 31 US$/MWh and 32 US$/MWh for electricity and heat, respectively. The electricity cost is, after all, competitive with the actual market price. The electricity and heat costs are lower or almost equal than other values reported for actual Rankine cycle cogeneration plants. (author)

  5. Life cycle analysis of fuel production from fast pyrolysis of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeongwoo; Elgowainy, Amgad; Dunn, Jennifer B; Wang, Michael Q

    2013-04-01

    A well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of pyrolysis-based gasoline was conducted and compared with petroleum gasoline. To address the variation and uncertainty in the pyrolysis pathways, probability distributions for key parameters were developed with data from literature. The impacts of two different hydrogen sources for pyrolysis oil upgrading and of two bio-char co-product applications were investigated. Reforming fuel gas/natural gas for H2 reduces WTW GHG emissions by 60% (range of 55-64%) compared to the mean of petroleum fuels. Reforming pyrolysis oil for H2 increases the WTW GHG emissions reduction up to 112% (range of 97-126%), but reduces petroleum savings per unit of biomass used due to the dramatic decline in the liquid fuel yield. Thus, the hydrogen source causes a trade-off between GHG reduction per unit fuel output and petroleum displacement per unit biomass used. Soil application of biochar could provide significant carbon sequestration with large uncertainty. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Techno-Economic Analysis of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis to Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, M. M.; Satrio, J. A.; Brown, R. C.; Daugaard, D. E.; Hsu, D. D.

    2010-11-01

    This study develops techno-economic models for assessment of the conversion of biomass to valuable fuel products via fast pyrolysis and bio-oil upgrading. The upgrading process produces a mixture of naphtha-range (gasoline blend stock) and diesel-range (diesel blend stock) products. This study analyzes the economics of two scenarios: onsite hydrogen production by reforming bio-oil, and hydrogen purchase from an outside source. The study results for an nth plant indicate that petroleum fractions in the naphtha distillation range and in the diesel distillation range are produced from corn stover at a product value of $3.09/gal ($0.82/liter) with onsite hydrogen production or $2.11/gal ($0.56/liter) with hydrogen purchase. These values correspond to a $0.83/gal ($0.21/liter) cost to produce the bio-oil. Based on these nth plant numbers, product value for a pioneer hydrogen-producing plant is about $6.55/gal ($1.73/liter) and for a pioneer hydrogen-purchasing plant is about $3.41/gal ($0.92/liter). Sensitivity analysis identifies fuel yield as a key variable for the hydrogen-production scenario. Biomass cost is important for both scenarios. Changing feedstock cost from $50-$100 per short ton changes the price of fuel in the hydrogen production scenario from $2.57-$3.62/gal ($0.68-$0.96/liter).

  7. Particle Morphology Analysis of Biomass Material Based on Improved Image Processing Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhaolin; Hu, Xiaojuan; Lu, Yao

    2017-01-01

    Particle morphology, including size and shape, is an important factor that significantly influences the physical and chemical properties of biomass material. Based on image processing technology, a method was developed to process sample images, measure particle dimensions, and analyse the particle size and shape distributions of knife-milled wheat straw, which had been preclassified into five nominal size groups using mechanical sieving approach. Considering the great variation of particle size from micrometer to millimeter, the powders greater than 250 μm were photographed by a flatbed scanner without zoom function, and the others were photographed using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with high-image resolution. Actual imaging tests confirmed the excellent effect of backscattered electron (BSE) imaging mode of SEM. Particle aggregation is an important factor that affects the recognition accuracy of the image processing method. In sample preparation, the singulated arrangement and ultrasonic dispersion methods were used to separate powders into particles that were larger and smaller than the nominal size of 250 μm. In addition, an image segmentation algorithm based on particle geometrical information was proposed to recognise the finer clustered powders. Experimental results demonstrated that the improved image processing method was suitable to analyse the particle size and shape distributions of ground biomass materials and solve the size inconsistencies in sieving analysis.

  8. Tar analysis from biomass gasification by means of online fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumhakl, Christoph; Karellas, Sotirios

    2011-07-01

    Optical methods in gas analysis are very valuable mainly due to their non-intrusive character. That gives the possibility to use them for in-situ or online measurements with only optical intervention in the measurement volume. In processes like the gasification of biomass, it is of high importance to monitor the gas quality in order to use the product gas in proper machines for energy production following the restrictions in the gas composition but also improving its quality, which leads to high efficient systems. One of the main problems in the biomass gasification process is the formation of tars. These higher hydrocarbons can lead to problems in the operation of the energy system. Up to date, the state of the art method used widely for the determination of tars is a standardized offline measurement system, the so-called "Tar Protocol". The aim of this work is to describe an innovative, online, optical method for determining the tar content of the product gas by means of fluorescence spectroscopy. This method uses optical sources and detectors that can be found in the market at low cost and therefore it is very attractive, especially for industrial applications where cost efficiency followed by medium to high precision are of high importance.

  9. Genome Sequencing and Analysis of the Biomass-Degrading Fungus Trichoderma reesei (syn. Hypocrea jecorina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Antonio D.; Berka, Randy; Henrissat, Bernard; Saloheimo, Markku; Arvas, Mikko; Baker, Scott E.; Chapman, Jaro d; Chertkov, Olga; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Cullen, Dan; Danchin, Etienne G.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Harris, Paul; Jackson, Melissa ?.; kubicek, Christian P.; Han, Cliff F.; Ho, Isaac; Larrando, Luis F.; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Magnuson, Jon K.; Merino, Sandy; Misra, Monica; Nelson, Beth; Putnam, Nicholas; Robbertse, Barbara; Salamov, Asaf; Schmoll, Monika; Terry, Astrid ?.; Thayer, Nina; Westerholm-Parvinen, Ann; Schoch, Conrad L.; Yao, Jian ?.; Barbote, Ravi; Nelson, Mary Anne; Detter, Chris J.; Bruce, David; Kuske, Cheryl; Xie, Gary; Richardson, P. M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Lucas, Susan; Rubin, Eddie M.; Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Ward, Michael ?.; Brettin, T.

    2008-05-01

    A major thrust of the white biotechnology movement involves the development of enzyme systems which depolymerize biomass to simple sugars which are subsequently converted to sustainable biofuels (e.g., ethanol) and chemical intermediates. The fungus Trichoderma reesei (syn. Hypocrea jecorina) represents a paradigm for the industrial production of highly efficient cellulases and hemicellulases needed for hydrolysis of biomass polysaccharides. Herein we describe intriguing attributes of the T. reeseigenome in relation to the future of fuel biotechnology. The T. reesei genome sequence was derived using a whole genome shotgun approach combined with finishing work to generate an assembly comprising 89 scaffolds totaling 34 Mbp with few gaps. In total, 9,130 gene models were predicted using a combination of ab initio and sequence similarity-based methods and EST data. Considering the industrial utility and effectiveness of its enzymes, the T. reesei genome surprisingly encodes the fewest cellulases and hemicellulases of any fungus having the ability to hydrolyze plant cell wall polysaccharides and whose genome has been sequenced. Many genes encoding carbohydrate active enzymes are distributed non-randomly in groups or clusters that interestingly lie between regions of synteny with other Sordariomycetes. Additionally, the T. reesei genome contains a multitude of genes encoding biosynthetic pathways for secondary metabolites (possible antibacterial and antifungal compounds) which may promote successful competition and survival in the crowded and competitive soil habitat occupied by T. reesei. Our analysis coupled with the availability of genome sequence data provides a roadmap for construction of enhanced T. reesei strains for industrial applications.

  10. Feasibility study for biomass power plants in Thailand. Volume 2. appendix: Detailed financial analysis results. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This study, conducted by Black & Veatch, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report presents a technical and commercial analysis for the development of three nearly identical electricity generating facilities (biomass steam power plants) in the towns of Chachgoengsao, Suphan Buri, and Pichit in Thailand. Volume 2 of the study contains the following appendix: Detailed Financial Analysis Results.

  11. Ground-based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brito

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment, which consisted of a combination of aircraft and ground-based measurements over Brazil, aimed to investigate the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality, and numerical weather prediction over South America. The campaign took place during the dry season and the transition to the wet season in September/October 2012. During most of the campaign, the site was impacted by regional biomass burning pollution (average CO mixing ratio of 0.6 ppm, occasionally superimposed by intense (up to 2 ppm of CO, freshly emitted biomass burning plumes. Aerosol number concentrations ranged from ~1000 cm−3 to peaks of up to 35 000 cm−3 (during biomass burning (BB events, corresponding to an average submicron mass mean concentrations of 13.7 μg m−3 and peak concentrations close to 100 μg m−3. Organic aerosol strongly dominated the submicron non-refractory composition, with an average concentration of 11.4 μg m−3. The inorganic species, NH4, SO4, NO3, and Cl, were observed, on average, at concentrations of 0.44, 0.34, 0.19, and 0.01 μg m−3, respectively. Equivalent black carbon (BCe ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 μg m−3, with an average concentration of 1.3 μg m−3. During BB peaks, organics accounted for over 90% of total mass (submicron non-refractory plus BCe, among the highest values described in the literature. We examined the ageing of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA using the changes in the H : C and O : C ratios, and found that throughout most of the

  12. Techno-economic analysis for upgrading the biomass-derived ethanol-to-jet blendstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Ling; Markham, Jennifer N.; Haq, Zia; Biddy, Mary J.

    2016-12-30

    This study summarizes the detailed techno-economic analysis of the ethanol-to-jet (ETJ) process based on two different feedstocks (corn grain and corn stover) at the plant scale of 2000 dry metric tons per day. Ethanol biologically derived from biomass is upgraded catalytically to jet blendstocks via alcohol dehydration, olefin oligomerization, and hydrotreating. In both pathways, corn-grain-derived ethanol to jet (corn mill ETJ) and corn-stover-derived ethanol to jet (corn stover ETJ), there are portions of gasoline and diesel produced as coproducts. Two cost bases are used in this study: the minimum jet fuel selling prices (MJSP) for jet-range blendstocks and the minimum fuel selling prices (MFSP) for all the hydrocarbons (gasoline, jet, and diesel) produced using a gallon gasoline equivalent (GGE) basis. The nth-plant MJSPs for the two pathways are estimated to be $4.20 per gal for corn mill and $6.14 per gal for corn stover, while MFSPs are $3.91 per GGE for corn mill and $5.37 per GGE for corn stover. If all of the hydrocarbon products (gasoline, jet, and diesel ranges) can be considered as fuel blendstocks using a GGE basis, the total hydrocarbon yield for fuel blendstock is 49.6 GGE per dry ton biomass for corn stover and 71.0 GGE per dry ton biomass for corn grain. The outcome of this study shows that the renewable jet fuel could be cost competitive with fossil derived jet fuel if further improvements could be made to increase process yields (particularly yields of sugars, sugar to ethanol, and ethanol to hydrocarbons), research and development of sustainable feedstocks, and more effective catalytic reaction kinetics. Pioneer plant analysis, which considers the increased capital investment and the decreased plant performance over the nth-plant analysis, is also performed, showing a potential 31%-178% increase in cost compared to the nth-plant assumptions for the dry mill pathway, but with a much wider range of 69%-471% cost increase over the nth

  13. Utilization of the biomass in Japan: analysis of the researches and the enterprises implication; Utilisation de la biomasse au Japon: etat des recherches et implication des entreprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    According the Kyoto protocol, the renewable energies became necessary and more especially for the Japan, the biomass energy. Since 1990 three Departments launched plans to promote the biomass. Compared to other occidental countries, the Japan began late the biomass utilization but invest massively to promote this resource. The government forecasts a market of 260 milliards of yen in 2010. (A.L.B.)

  14. Life Cycle Multi-Criteria Analysis Of Alternative Energy Supply Systems For A Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Rogoža

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses energy supply alternatives for a partially renovated residential building. In addition to the existing district heating (base case alternative systems, gas boilers, heat pumps (air-water and ground-water, solar collectors, solar cells, and combinations of these systems have been examined. Actual heat consumption of the building and electricity demand determined by the statistical method are used for simulating the systems. The process of simulation is performed using EnergyPro software. In order to select an optimal energy supply option, the life cycle analysis of all systems has been carried out throughout a life span of the building, and the estimated results of energy, environmental and economic evaluation have been converted into non-dimensional variables (3E using multi–criteria analysis.Article in Lithuanian

  15. Analysis and intervention plan of water resource supply and demand in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yuhang

    2017-04-01

    Firstly, this paper use Regression Analysis Prediction Method to analysis surface water, underground water and sewage treatment, so that we can predict the water supply capacity of North China in the next 15 years. After that, we test the trusting degree of this model to ensure the facticity by identifying the statistical significance of each data. Secondly, we adopt analytic hierarchy process (AHP method) to gain the factors mostly affecting sewage treatment capacity is the Chemical Oxygen Demand and ammoniac nitrogen content in sewage. So we can take measures to increase the amount of water supply in the region. Finally, we adjust the charging standard of living water and together with logistic regression, which can improve the water-saving awareness of local residents so as to effectively reduce the water consumption in the future.

  16. Analysis And Assessment Of The Security Method Against Incidental Contamination In The Collective Water Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpak Dawid

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main types of surface water incidental contaminations and the security method against incidental contamination in water sources. Analysis and assessment the collective water supply system (CWSS protection against incidental contamination was conducted. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA was used. The FMEA method allow to use the product or process analysis, identification of weak points, and implementation the corrections and new solutions for eliminating the source of undesirable events. The developed methodology was shown in application case. It was found that the risk of water contamination in water-pipe network of the analyzed CWSS caused by water source incidental contamination is at controlled level.

  17. Analysis of crowbar action of high voltage DC power supply in the LHD ICRF system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiaodong [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Mutoh, T.; Kumazawa, R.; Watari, T.; Seki, T.; Shimpo, F.; Nomura, G.; Saito, K.

    1999-04-01

    Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating will be applied to the Large Helical Device (LHD) at the 2nd experimental campaign in 1998. The LHD ICRF system is characterised by its high power (up to 12 MW at final stage) and steady state operation for more than 30 minutes. One of the main R and D items was a high power and steady state transmitter. The RF transmitter system having a wide frequency range from 25 to 95 MHz was designed and fabricated. This report describes the analysis of the DC power supply that contains the crowbar circuit protecting the tetrode from the arcing inside the tube. The DC power supply of the transmitter is fed from the commercial AC electric line which also supply the power to the LHD helical and poloidal coil power supplies. The voltage drop of the commercial line when the ICRF crowbar action happened is the serious problem for all experimental system. This paper analyses the crowbar effect on the commercial line with and without leakage transformer between the step-up transformer of transmitter and the commercial line. (author)

  18. Online channel operation mode: Game theoretical analysis from the supply chain power structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Huang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Dual-channels have been widely used in practice, and the pricing decisions and the online channel operation mode choice have been the core problems in dual-channel supply chain management. This paper focuses on the online channel operation mode choice from the supply chain power structures based on game theoretical analysis. Design/methodology/approach: This paper utilizes three kinds of game theoretical models to analyze the impact of supply chain power structures on the optimal pricing and online channel operation mode choice. Findings: Results derived in this paper indicate that when the self-price elasticity is large, the power structures have no direct impact on the decisions. However, when the self-price elasticity is small and customers’ preference for the online channel is low, then in the MS market, it is better for the retailer to operate the online channel, while in the RS market or in the VN market, it is better for the manufacturer to operate the online channel. Research limitations/implications: In this paper, we do not consider stochastic demand and asymmetric information, which may not well suit the reality. Originality/value: This paper provides a different perspective to analyze the impact of supply chain power structures on the pricing decisions and online channel operation mode choice. The comparison of these two online channel operation modes in this paper is also a unique point.

  19. Defense Inventory: Further Analysis and Enhanced Metrics Could Improve Service Supply and Depot Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    to be used up beyond recovery or repair—and provides these items to the services when requisitioned in support of approximately 2,400 weapon...distribution functions for depot maintenance operations varies across the services . For example, the Air Force and DLA have agreed to a local recovery ...DEFENSE INVENTORY Further Analysis and Enhanced Metrics Could Improve Service Supply and Depot Operations Report

  20. Analysis of Farmers' Financial Demand and Rural Financial Supply from a Sociological Viewpoint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YeJingzhong; ZhuYanjie; YangHongping

    2005-01-01

    After analysis of Baoshi Village farmers' financial demand, the loan supply from formal financial institutions and the current situation and causes of informal finance, we can draw the following conclusions: loans from formal financial institutions in the village have mainly gone to the farmers who are richer or enjoy higher social capital. Those farmers, relying on their own strengths and superior social networks, have access to formal loans. Ordinary farmers, especially those who are poorer or have inadequate human capital,

  1. Analysis of the educational objectives in the area of inventory management for Supply Corps officers attending the Naval Postgraduate School

    OpenAIRE

    Logue, Robert Louis Jr.; Gearey, Bruce Preston

    1988-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A supply corps officers' knowledge of inventory management principles serves as the keystone of his professional career development. This thesis is an analysis of the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) course titled Inventory Management (MN3377) that is required to be taken by the majority of Supply Corps officers who attend NPS. The thesis traces the development of the text for the course, (Naval Supply Systems Command (NAVSUP) Publicati...

  2. Estimating the Temperature Experienced by Biomass Particles during Fast Pyrolysis Using Microscopic Analysis of Biochars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Logan C. [National; Ciesielski, Peter N. [National; Jarvis, Mark W. [National; Mukarakate, Calvin [National; Nimlos, Mark R. [National; Donohoe, Bryon S. [National

    2017-07-12

    Biomass particles can experience variable thermal conditions during fast pyrolysis due to differences in their size and morphology, and from local temperature variations within a reactor. These differences lead to increased heterogeneity of the chemical products obtained in the pyrolysis vapors and bio-oil. Here we present a simple, high-throughput method to investigate the thermal history experienced by large ensembles of particles during fast pyrolysis by imaging and quantitative image analysis. We present a correlation between the surface luminance (darkness) of the biochar particle and the highest temperature that it experienced during pyrolysis. Next, we apply this correlation to large, heterogeneous ensembles of char particles produced in a laminar entrained flow reactor (LEFR). The results are used to interpret the actual temperature distributions delivered by the reactor over a range of operating conditions.

  3. Production of furfural from pentosan-rich biomass: analysis of process parameters during simultaneous furfural stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agirrezabal-Telleria, I; Gandarias, I; Arias, P L

    2013-09-01

    Among the furan-based compounds, furfural (FUR) shows interesting properties as building-block or industrial solvent. It is produced from pentosan-rich biomass via xylose cyclodehydration. The current FUR production makes use of homogeneous catalysts and excessive amounts of steam. The development of greener furfural production and separation techniques implies the use of heterogeneous catalysts and innovative separation processes. This work deals with the conversion of corncobs as xylose source to be dehydrated to furfural. The results reveal differences between the use of direct corncob hydrolysis and dehydration to furfural and the prehydrolysis and dehydration procedures. Moreover, this work focuses on an economical analysis of the main process parameters during N2-stripping and its economical comparison to the current steam-stripping process. The results show a considerable reduction of the annual utility costs due to use of recyclable nitrogen and the reduction of the furfural purification stages.

  4. Investigation of thermochemical biorefinery sizing and environmental sustainability impacts for conventional supply system and distributed preprocessing supply system designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, jr., David J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Langholtz, Matthew H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jacobson, Jacob [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schwab, Amy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wu, May [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Argo, Andrew [Sundrop Fuels, Golden, CO (United States); Brandt, Craig C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cafferty, Kara [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chiu, Yi-Wen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eaton, Laurence M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Searcy, Erin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-03-31

    The 2011 US Billion-Ton Update estimates that by 2030 there will be enough agricultural and forest resources to sustainably provide at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually, enough to displace approximately 30% of the country's current petroleum consumption. A portion of these resources are inaccessible at current cost targets with conventional feedstock supply systems because of their remoteness or low yields. Reliable analyses and projections of US biofuels production depend on assumptions about the supply system and biorefinery capacity, which, in turn, depend upon economic value, feedstock logistics, and sustainability. A cross-functional team has examined combinations of advances in feedstock supply systems and biorefinery capacities with rigorous design information, improved crop yield and agronomic practices, and improved estimates of sustainable biomass availability. A previous report on biochemical refinery capacity noted that under advanced feedstock logistic supply systems that include depots and pre-processing operations there are cost advantages that support larger biorefineries up to 10 000 DMT/day facilities compared to the smaller 2000 DMT/day facilities. This report focuses on analyzing conventional versus advanced depot biomass supply systems for a thermochemical conversion and refinery sizing based on woody biomass. The results of this analysis demonstrate that the economies of scale enabled by advanced logistics offsets much of the added logistics costs from additional depot processing and transportation, resulting in a small overall increase to the minimum ethanol selling price compared to the conventional logistic supply system. While the overall costs do increase slightly for the advanced logistic supply systems, the ability to mitigate moisture and ash in the system will improve the storage and conversion processes. In addition, being able to draw on feedstocks from further distances will decrease the risk of biomass supply to

  5. Analysis and evalution of selected future biofuel options on the basis of solid biomass; Analyse und Bewertung ausgewaehlter zukuenftiger Biokraftstoffoptionen auf der Basis fester Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Langer, Franziska

    2011-12-13

    The aim of this work is starting from the investigation of the technical development prospects along the fuel delivery chain to develop a suitable reproducible tool for the analysis and evaluation of future biofuel policies and on selected fuel options from solid biomass (1. bioethanol by biochemical fermentation, 2. Fischer-Tropsch-Diesel by thermochemical gasification, and 3. Bio-Synthetic Natural Gas (Bio-SNG) by thermochemical gasification). For this it is necessary for these biofuels in accordance with the current technology state the essential perspectives for the practical implementation taking into account the short, medium and long term (e.g. time horizon for implementation in up to 5 years, in about 10 to 15 years, or about 20 to 25 years) to identify possible technical options. [German] Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, ausgehend von der Untersuchung der technischen Entwicklungsperspektiven entlang der Kraftstoffbereitstellungskette ein geeignetes reproduzierbares Werkzeug fuer die Analyse und Bewertung zukuenftiger Biokraftstoffkonzepte zu entwickeln und auf ausgewaehlte Kraftstoffoptionen auf Basis fester Biomasse (hier Bioethanol ueber die biochemische Fermentation, Fischer-Tropsch-Diesel ueber die thermochemische Vergasung und Bio-Synthetic Natural Gas (Bio-SNG) ueber die thermochemische Vergasung) anzuwenden. Dazu gilt es fuer diese Biokraftstoffe unter Beachtung des aktuellen Technikstandes die wesentlichen Perspektiven fuer die praktische Umsetzung unter Beruecksichtigung der kurz-, mittel- bis langfristig (d.h. Zeithorizont fuer die Realisierung in bis zu 5 Jahren, in etwa 10 bis 15 Jahren bzw. in etwa 20 bis 25 Jahren) denkbaren technischen Moeglichkeiten zu identifizieren.

  6. Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass in a Spout-fluidized Bed Reactor--Analysis of Composition and Combustion Characteristics of Liquid Product from Biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明强; 王君; 王新运; 张学才; 张素平; 任铮伟; 颜涌捷

    2006-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the fast pyrolysis mechanism of biomass and the relationship between bio-oil composition and pyrolysis reaction conditions, to assess the possibility for the raw bio-oil to be used as fuel, and to evaluate the concept of spout-fluidized bed reactor as the reactor for fast pyrolysis of biomass to prepare fuel oil, the composition and combustion characteristics of bio-oil prepared in a spout-fluidized bed reactor with a designed maximum capacity 5 kg/h of sawdust as feeding material, were investigated by GC-MS and thermogravimetry. 14 aromatic series chemicals were identified. The thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the bio-oil was liable to combustion, the combustion temperature increased with the heating rate, and only minute ash was generated when it burned. The kinetics of the combustion reaction was studied and the kinetic parameters were calculated by both Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Popsecu methods. The results agree well with each other. The most probable combustion mechanism functions determined by Popescu method are f(α)=k(1-α)2(400~406 ℃), f(α)=1/2k(1-α)3 (406~416 ℃) and f( α)=2k(1-α)3/2 (416~430 ℃) respectively.

  7. Synthesis and analysis of biomass and net primary productivity in Chinese forests

    OpenAIRE

    Ni, Jian; Zhang, Xin-Shi; Scurlock, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    International audience; An extant dataset is presented on biomass and net primary productivity (NPP) of 6 forest biomes, including 690 stands from 17 forest types of China. Data on latitude, longitude, elevation, field measurements of stand age, leaf area index (LAI) and total biomass were collected for 29 provinces from forestry inventory data of the Forestry Ministry of China, as well as a wide range of published literature. The individual site-based NPP was estimated from field biomass mea...

  8. Estimation on the Total Quantity of Biomass Energy and Its Environmental Benefit Analysis in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to estimate the total quantity of biomass energy and analyze its environmental benefit in Shandong Province.[Method] Based on the data from the statistics yearbook of Shandong Province in 2010,the total quantity of biomass resources and biomass energy in Shandong Province in 2009 was estimated,and its environmental benefit was analyzed.[Result] Biomass resources in Shandong Province mainly refer to crop residues,forest residues,grassland changed from degraded land.If degraded land be...

  9. Empirical Analysis of Green Supply Chain Management Practices in Indian Automobile Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, S.; Garg, D.; Haleem, A.

    2014-04-01

    Environmental sustainability and green environmental issues have an increasing popularity among researchers and supply chain practitioners. An attempt has been made to identify and empirically analyze green supply chain management (GSCM) practices in Indian automobile industry. Six main GSCM practices (having 37 sub practices) and four expected performance outcomes (having 16 performances) have been identified by implementing GSCM practices from literature review. Questionnaire based survey has been made to validate these practices and performance outcomes. 123 complete questionnaires were collected from Indian automobile organizations and used for empirical analysis of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry. Descriptive statistics have been used to know current implementation status of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry and multiple regression analysis has been carried out to know the impact on expected organizational performance outcomes by current GSCM practices adopted by Indian automobile industry. The results of study suggested that environmental, economic, social and operational performances improve with the implementation of GSCM practices. This paper may play an important role to understand various GSCM implementation issues and help practicing managers to improve their performances in the supply chain.

  10. Impacts of Returning Unsold Products in Retail Outsourcing Fashion Supply Chain: A Sustainability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available l outsourcing with a return policy is quite commonly adopted in the fashion supply chain. Under the return policy, the supplier as a brand owner may focus on production, and then outsource retailing to the retailer. In the meanwhile, the retailer may receive some support money from the supplier for subsidizing the loss of unsold products at the end of the selling season and be asked for shipping back. Motivated by this real practice in the fashion industry, we examine a two-echelon supply chain with one supplier and one retailer under the return policy. Several interesting findings are obtained from our analysis. First, we find that when the supply chain achieves channel coordination, the cost of physical return is at least partially borne by the supplier, no matter who is responsible for it in reality. Second, we find that the cost of physical return is significantly affecting the sustainability factors such as the expected amount leftover (which represents environmental friendliness, the expected sales to expected goods leftover ratio (which implies both environmental friendliness and economic sustainability, and the rate of return on investment (which indicates economic sustainability. Third, from a sustainability perspective, we find that the pure wholesale price contract is more sustainable than the coordinating return policy. A numerical study by the real company data is conducted and managerial insights from analysis are discussed.

  11. Optimization of casting defects analysis with supply chain in cast iron foundry process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Narayanaswamy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Some of the foundries are in need of meeting production targets and due to the urgency they ignore the rejections. The objective of this paper is to analyze the various defects, [1] from molding process in a cast iron foundry. The Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA in quality control [2-6] with suitable supply chain for mold making process considering rejection rates are identified and analyzed in terms of Risk Priority Number (RPN to prioritize the attention for each of the problem. The optimum levels of selected parameters [7] are obtained in this analysis.

  12. Experimental Analysis of Linear Induction Motor under Variable Voltage Variable Frequency (VVVF Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasenjit D. Wakode

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the complete analysis of Linear Induction Motor (LIM under VVVF. The complete variation of LIM air gap flux under ‘blocked Linor’ condition and starting force is analyzed and presented when LIM is given VVVF supply. The analysis of this data is important in further understanding of the equivalent circuit parameters of LIM and to study the magnetic circuit of LIM. The variation of these parameters is important to know the LIM response at different frequencies. The simulation and application of different control strategies such as vector control thus becomes quite easy to apply and understand motor’s response under such strategy of control.

  13. COST ANALYSIS AND OPTIMIZATION IN THE LOGISTIC SUPPLY CHAIN USING THE SIMPROLOGIC PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona MAŃKA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to characterize the authorial SimProLOGIC program, version 2.1, which enables one to conduct a cost analysis of individual links, as well as the entire logistic supply chain (LSC. This article also presents an example of the analysis of the parameters, which characterize the supplier of subsystems in the examined logistic chain, and the results of the initial optimization, which makes it possible to improve the economic balance, as well as the level of customer service for a sample test task.

  14. Comparative analysis of food webs based on flow networks: effects of nutrient supply on structure and function of coastal plankton communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Yngvar; Reinertsen, Helge; Vadstein, Olav; Andersen, Tom; Gismervik, Ingrid; Duarte, Carlos; Agusti, Susana; Stibor, Herwig; Sommer, Ulrich; Lignell, Risto; Tamminen, Timo; Lancelot, Christiane; Rousseau, Veronique; Hoell, Espen; Sanderud, Knut Arvid

    2001-12-01

    The objective of COMWEB was to develop efficient analytical, numerical and experimental methods for assessing and predicting the effects of nutrient (N, P, Si) supply on the stability and persistence of pelagic food web structure and function in coastal waters. The experimental comparative work included a geographic gradient covering Baltic, Mediterranean, and NE Atlantic waters and a NE Atlantic gradient in state of eutrophication. COMWEB has been an experimental approach to coastal eutrophication, studying effects of enhanced nutrient supply on components and flows of the entire lower pelagic food web. Flow network representations of pelagic food webs has been a framework of data reduction and flows were established by sophisticated inverse modelling. Fundamental information on physiological properties of functional key species in the pelagic food web was used to constrain flow estimations. A main conclusion derived from the flow networks was that very little energy and materials were transferred from the microbial food web to the main food chain. The lower food web could therefore be described as two parallel food chains with relatively limited interaction between heterotrophic groups. Short-term effects of nutrient perturbations were examined in mesocosms along the geographic gradient. The response was comparable in all systems, with a stronger effect on the activity and biomass of autotrophic groups than those of heterotrophic ones. Mediterranean waters showed much lower autotrophic biomass response than Baltic and NE Atlantic waters, which responded almost equally. The response of primary production was, however, more comparable. High phytoplankton lysis rate explained this low accumulation of biomass in Mediterranean waters. The study of Atlantic coastal waters of different eutrophic states revealed that the ecological response was higher in the closed nutrient perturbed mesocosms than in open systems exposed for >4 summer months (summer/autumn season). The

  15. Assessment of forest biomass for use as energy. GIS-based analysis of geographical availability and locations of wood-fired power plants in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Viana; Warren B. Cohen; D. Lopes; J. Aranha

    2010-01-01

    Following the European Union strategy concerning renewable energy (RE), Portugal established in their national policy programmes that the production of electrical energy from RE should reach 45% of the total supply by 2010. Since Portugal has large forest biomass resources, a significant part of this energy will be obtained from this source. In addition to the two...

  16. Analysis and design of over-current limit control strategies applied in aeronautical power supplies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lin-bing; HE Xiang-ning

    2007-01-01

    Some Over-Current Limit Control strategies are analyzed and designed to meet the demands of high reliability and rapid dynamic response in the aeronautical power supply applications. The control schemes are both effective in DC-DC converters and DC-AC converters. Controller models are set up, and the over-current limit operation principles of analogy and digital control are analyzed too. An 800VA aeronautical power supply has been constructed to verify the performance of the proposed control strategy in various cases such as the sudden load change and the constant load. The analysis and experiments confirm the advantages of the proposed over-current limit strategies as follows: simple,effective and reliable.

  17. Feasibility analysis of stand-alone renewable energy supply options for a large hotel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, G.J.; Lockington, D.A.; Baldock, T.E. [School of Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2008-07-15

    This paper provides a feasibility analysis of renewable energy supply (RES) for a stand-alone supply large-scale tourist operation (with over 100 beds). The analysis utilises the power load data from a hotel located in a subtropical coastal area of Queensland, Australia. The assessment criteria of the analysis are net present cost, renewable factor and payback time. Due to the limited number of RES case studies in tourist operations and the absence of studies for large resorts, requiring facilities with a higher degree of comfort such as air-conditioning, it is not possible to establish with confidence the viability of RES in this industry. The specific operational characteristics of the tourism accommodation sector, such as 24-h operation, comfort provision and low tolerance for failure necessitates a separate assessment of RES viability for this sector, rather than relying on similar assessments from other commercial sectors. This study uses RES assessment software tools, HOMER (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, US) and HYBRIDS (Solaris Homes, Queensland, Australia), in order to compare diesel generator-only, RES-only and RES/diesel hybrid technologies. HOMER uses hourly load data, whilst HYBRIDS uses average daily energy demand for each month. The modelling results demonstrate that RES, in principle, has the potential to adequately and reliably meet power demand for a stand-alone large-scale tourist accommodation. Optimisation modelling demonstrates that 100% of power demand can be supplied by a RES-only configuration. A hybrid diesel/RES configuration provides the lowest NPC result with a resultant RF of 76%. In comparison to the diesel generator-only configuration, NPC is reduced by 50% and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions by 65%. The payback time of the hybrid RES scenario is 4.3 years. Results indicate that wind energy conversion systems (WECS), rather than photovoltaics, are the most economically viable RES for large-scale operations. Large-scale WECS

  18. Regional biomass burning trends in India: Analysis of satellite fire data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L K Sahu; Varun Sheel; Kumud Pandey; Ravi Yadav; P Saxena; Sachin Gunthe

    2015-10-01

    The results based on the analysis of satellite fire counts detected by the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) sensors over different regions of India during 1998–2009 have been presented. Generally, the activities of open biomass burning show large spatial and temporal variations in India. The highest and lowest values of monthly fire counts were detected during the periods of March–May and July–September, respectively over different regions of India. The activities of biomass burning in two central states of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra were the highest and together accounted for about 25–45% of total annual fire counts detected over India during the study period. However, in opposite phases, the rainfall and fire count data show strong seasonal variation. In addition to large regional and seasonal variations, the fire data also show significant year-to-year variation. The higher annual fire counts exceeding the mean of entire period by about 16% and 43% were detected during the two periods of 1998–2000 and 2007–2009, respectively. We have estimated normalized anomaly of annual fire count data which shows large positive departures from long-term mean for the years 1999, 2007, 2008 and 2009, while negative departures for the years 2002, 2003 and 2005. Consistently, the mixing ratio of carbon monoxide (CO) typical peaks during winter but extended to pre-monsoon season during extensive fire years. The annual data over the entire region of India show lesser positive trend of about 3% yr−1. The inter-annual variation of fire count over entire India follows the trend in the ENSO Precipitation Index (ESPI) but shows opposite trend to the multivariate ENSO Index (MEI).

  19. Energy Characterization and Gasification of Biomass Derived by Hazelnut Cultivation: Analysis of Produced Syngas by Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Monarca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern agriculture is an extremely energy intensive process. However, high agricultural productivities and the growth of green revolution has been possible only by large amount of energy inputs, especially those coming from fossil fuels. These energy resources have not been able to provide an economically viable solution for agricultural applications. Biomass energy-based systems had been extensively used for transportation and on farm systems during World War II: the most common and reliable solution was wood or biomass gasification. The latter means incomplete combustion of biomass resulting in production of combustible gases which mostly consist of carbon monoxide (CO, hydrogen (H2 and traces of methane (CH4. This mixture is called syngas, which can be successfully used to run internal combustion engines (both compression and spark ignition or as substitute for furnace oil in direct heat applications. The aim of the present paper is to help the experimentation of innovative plants for electric power production using agro-forest biomass derived by hazelnut cultivations. An additional purpose is to point out a connection among the chemical and physical properties of the outgoing syngas by biomass characterization and gas-chromatography analysis.

  20. A Site-Related Suitability Analysis for the Production of Biomass as a Contribution to Sustainable Regional Land-Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Michael; Helms, Yvonne; Herberg, Alfred; Köppen, Antje; Kunzmann, Kathrin; Radtke, Dörte; Ross, Lutz; Itzerott, Sibylle

    2008-04-01

    The use of renewable energy in Europe offers the possibility of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and contributes to energy security and independence. With the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and a variety of recently introduced national directives supporting renewable energy sources in the European Union, the economic attractiveness of bioenergy production has distinctly increased. This article combines an economic evaluation of biomass production with site-related natural conditions of the Havelland region, situated in the north-east area of Germany. Two methods for evaluating site-specific potential biomass yields were compared. For three example biomass crops, evaluations of yield estimations at agricultural lots for site-optimized suitability (SOS) and conventional suitability (CS) were carried out. Both modelling approaches were compared. The results of the GIS modelling indicate that the financial support for increasing the use of renewable energy with the German feed-in system, called Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG), will possibly lead to an increased cultivation of crops with high biomass output. This monocultural orientation of farming practices and the negative effects on the ecosystem could act in opposition to other environmental initiatives of the EU. The outputs of the SOS analysis show that high biomass production could be integrated into environmental policy proposals. Therefore, new EU policy should take modified subsidies into consideration in order to avoid developing conflicts between small-scale changes in landscape ecosystems caused by large-scale transformations in energy policy.

  1. A site-related suitability analysis for the production of biomass as a contribution to sustainable regional land-use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Michael; Helms, Yvonne; Herberg, Alfred; Köppen, Antje; Kunzmann, Kathrin; Radtke, Dörte; Ross, Lutz; Itzerott, Sibylle

    2008-04-01

    The use of renewable energy in Europe offers the possibility of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and contributes to energy security and independence. With the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and a variety of recently introduced national directives supporting renewable energy sources in the European Union, the economic attractiveness of bioenergy production has distinctly increased. This article combines an economic evaluation of biomass production with site-related natural conditions of the Havelland region, situated in the north-east area of Germany. Two methods for evaluating site-specific potential biomass yields were compared. For three example biomass crops, evaluations of yield estimations at agricultural lots for site-optimized suitability (SOS) and conventional suitability (CS) were carried out. Both modelling approaches were compared. The results of the GIS modelling indicate that the financial support for increasing the use of renewable energy with the German feed-in system, called Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG), will possibly lead to an increased cultivation of crops with high biomass output. This monocultural orientation of farming practices and the negative effects on the ecosystem could act in opposition to other environmental initiatives of the EU. The outputs of the SOS analysis show that high biomass production could be integrated into environmental policy proposals. Therefore, new EU policy should take modified subsidies into consideration in order to avoid developing conflicts between small-scale changes in landscape ecosystems caused by large-scale transformations in energy policy.

  2. Biomass for bioenergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott

    for displacing fossil resources and is perceived as one of the main pillars of a future low-carbon or no-carbon energy supply. However, biomass, renewable as it is, is for any relevant, time horizon to be considered a finite resource as it replenishes at a finite rate. Conscientious stewardship of this finite......Across the range of renewable energy resources, bioenergy is probably the most complex, as using biomass to support energy services ties into a number of fields; climate change, food production, rural development, biodiversity and environmental protection. Biomass offer several options...... the undesirable impacts of bioenergy done wrong. However, doing bioenergy right is a significant challenge due to the ties into other fields of society. Fundamentally plant biomass is temporary storage of solar radiation energy and chemically bound energy from nutrients. Bioenergy is a tool to harness solar...

  3. System model for gasification of biomass model compounds in supercritical water – a thermodynamic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withag, Jan A.M.; Smeets, Jules R.; Bramer, Eddy A.; Brem, Gerrit

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a system model for the process of gasification of biomass model compounds in supercritical water. Supercritical water gasification of wet biomass (water content of 70 wt% or more) has as the main advantage that conversion may take place without the costly drying step. The therm

  4. System model for gasification of biomass model compounds in supercritical water - A thermodynamic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withag, J.A.M.; Smeets, Jules R.; Bramer, E.A.; Brem, G.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a system model for the process of gasification of biomass model compounds in supercritical water. Supercritical water gasification of wet biomass (water content of 70 wt% or more) has as the main advantage that conversion may take place without the costly drying step. The therm

  5. Quantitative Analysis of Biomass in Three Types of Wood-Plastic Composites by FTIR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanli Lao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Biomass content greatly affects the properties of wood-plastic composites (WPCs. Determination of the biomass in WPCs is important for the development of WPCs. In this study, transmission Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy was used for biomass quantification in the following WPCs: Moso bamboo/polypropylene (PP composites, Chinese fir/PP composites, and poplar/PP composites. The bands in the region of 1060 to 1030 cm-1 were considered characteristic of biomass. The peak at 1377 cm-1 was typical of PP. The peak intensities ratios (PIRs of biomass to PP were determined, and the biomass contents were plotted against the PIRs. The achieved coefficients of determination (R2 of the calibration fits exceeded 0.96. The results of validation showed that the range of the relative prediction deviations for biomass within WPC species was lower than ± 5.0%. Additionally, all three WPC species were combined into one data set, and a mixed model was constructed that had a slight decrease in the quality of the correlation (R2 = 0.93. The range of the relative prediction deviations for biomass between WPC species did not exceed ± 9.0%.

  6. Chemical and thermal analysis of biomass ash from wooden chips and wheat straw combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovský, Ondřej; Sedmidubský, David; Luxa, Jan; Bartůněk, Vilém; Záleská, Martina; Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we would like to demonstrate that biomass ash with appropriate composition can be used for the fabrication of high performance composites. Biomass ash from wooden chips and packed wheat straw was characterized using XRF and XRD. While the biomass ash contained high amount of carbon, it was thermally treated in order to reduce carbon content. The chemical and phase composition of treated biomass ash was again analyzed in detail by XRF and XRD. Moreover, the thermal treatment process was analyzed using STA. In the next step, the pozzolanic activity was analyzed using Frattini test. Potentiometric method was used for pH measurement. Since the both biomass ashes were pozzolana active, they are potentially suitable as a pozzolana active admixture in the cement, lime and alkali activated aluminosilicate composites.

  7. Massive open online courses in higher education: A data analysis of the MOOC supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieth E. Ospina-Delgado

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to analyze the factors influencing the MOOC supply level. Specifically, this paper analyzes certain internal and strategic factors associated with universities, such as prestige, public or private status, age, size (measured by the number of faculty members or students and region. Design/methodology/approach: We apply a descriptive methodology and then use multivariate analysis to test five hypotheses related to the institutional profile of 151 universities in 29 countries. Empirical evidence is provided from universities offering MOOCs through the four of the most commonly used private global platforms that emerged as part of the booming MOOC movement (Udacity, Coursera, edX and MiríadaX. Findings: The findings show some differences when prestige is measured according to the Shanghai ranking (model 1 and the Webometrics ranking (model 2. In both cases, the private nature of the university and the region (North America are factors that have a significant influence on the MOOC university supply. Depending on both rankings, size and age are influential factors. It is important to emphasize that prestige is a significant factor according to model 2.    Research limitations/implications: MOOCs are a phenomenon with a growing trend, and for which the supply data change frequently. Therefore, the results of our empirical research are limited to a specific period.   Practical implications: This paper provides new empirical evidence for use in future studies to analyze and compare the behavior of the MOOC supply by different universities.  Social implications: This study contributes to the comprehension of the factors that influence the extent to which universities participate in the MOOC supply. It also suggests relevant aspects for innovation policies in university education, since universities must make strategic decisions in a competitive environment that affects their institutional philosophy. Originality

  8. U.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing and Supply Chain: A Competitiveness Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullenkamp, Patrick H; Holody, Diane S

    2014-06-15

    The goal of the project was to develop a greater understanding of the key factors determining wind energy component manufacturing costs and pricing on a global basis in order to enhance the competitiveness of U.S. manufacturers, and to reduce installed systems cost. Multiple stakeholders including DOE, turbine OEMs, and large component manufactures will all benefit by better understanding the factors determining domestic competitiveness in the emerging offshore and next generation land-based wind industries. Major objectives of this project were to: 1. Carry out global cost and process comparisons for 5MW jacket foundations, blades, towers, and permanent magnet generators; 2. Assess U.S. manufacturers’ competitiveness and potential for cost reduction; 3. Facilitate informed decision-making on investments in U.S. manufacturing; 4. Develop an industry scorecard representing the readiness of the U.S. manufacturers’ to produce components for the next generations of wind turbines, nominally 3MW land-based and 5MW offshore; 5. Disseminate results through the GLWN Wind Supply Chain GIS Map, a free website that is the most comprehensive public database of U.S. wind energy suppliers; 6. Identify areas and develop recommendations to DOE on potential R&D areas to target for increasing domestic manufacturing competitiveness, per DOE’s Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative (CEMI). Lists of Deliverables 1. Cost Breakdown Competitive Analyses of four product categories: tower, jacket foundation, blade, and permanent magnet (PM) generator. The cost breakdown for each component includes a complete Bill of Materials with net weights; general process steps for labor; and burden adjusted by each manufacturer for their process categories of SGA (sales general and administrative), engineering, logistics cost to a common U.S. port, and profit. 2. Value Stream Map Competitiveness Analysis: A tool that illustrates both information and material flow from the point of getting a

  9. Research and evaluation of biomass resources/conversion/utilization systems (market/experimental analysis for development of a data base for a fuels from biomass model). Quarterly technical progress report, Februray 1, 1980-April 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Y.K.; Chen, Y.C.; Chen, H.T.; Helm, R.W.; Nelson, E.T.; Shields, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    The project will result in two distinct products: (1) a biomass allocation model which will serve as a tool for the energy planner. (2) the experimental data is being generated to help compare and contrast the behavior of a large number of biomass material in thermochemical environments. Based on information in the literature, values have been developed for regional biomass costs and availabilities and for fuel costs and demands. This data is now stored in data banks and may be updated as better data become available. Seventeen biomass materials have been run on the small TGA and the results partially analyzed. Ash analysis has been performed on 60 biomass materials. The Effluent Gas Analyzer with its associated gas chromatographs has been made operational and some runs have been carried out. Using a computerized program for developing product costs, parametric studies on all but 1 of the 14 process configurations being considered have been performed. Background economic data for all the configuration have been developed. Models to simulate biomass gasifications in an entrained and fixed bed have been developed using models previously used for coal gasification. Runs have been carried out in the fluidized and fixed bed reactor modes using a variety of biomass materials in atmospheres of steam, O/sub 2/ and air. Check aout of the system continues using fabricated manufacturing cost and efficiency data. A users manual has been written.

  10. Spatial Analysis of Biomass Resources within a Socio-Ecologically Heterogeneous Region: Identifying Opportunities for a Mixed Feedstock Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirby Calvert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Local bioenergy will play a crucial role in national and regional sustainable energy strategies. Effective siting and feedstock procurement strategies are critical to the development and implementation of bioenergy systems. This paper aims to improve spatial decision-support in this domain by shifting focus from homogenous (forestry or agricultural regions toward heterogeneous regions—i.e., areas with a presence of both forestry and agricultural activities; in this case, eastern Ontario, Canada. Multiple land-cover and resource map series are integrated in order to produce a spatially distributed GIS-based model of resource availability. These data are soft-linked with spreadsheet-based linear models in order to estimate and compare the quantity and supply-cost of the full range of non-food bioenergy feedstock available to a prospective developer, and to assess the merits of a mixed feedstock stream relative to a homogenous feedstock stream. The method is applied to estimate bioenergy production potentials and biomass supply-cost curves for a number of cities in the study region. Comparisons of biomass catchment areas; supply-cost curves; resource density maps; and resource flow charts demonstrate considerable strategic and operational advantages to locating a facility within the region’s “transition zone” between forestry and agricultural activities. Existing and emerging bioenergy technologies that are feedstock agnostic and therefore capable of accepting a mixed-feedstock stream are reviewed with emphasis on “intermediates” such as wood pellets; biogas; and bio-oils, as well as bio-industrial clusters.

  11. Optimization Analysis of Supply Chain Resource Allocation in Customized Online Shopping Service Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For an online-shopping company, whether it can provide its customers with customized service is the key to enhance its customers’ experience value and its own competence. A good customized service requires effective integration and reasonable allocation of the company’s supply chain resources running in the background. Based on the analysis of the allocation of supply chain resources in the customized online shopping service mode and its operational characteristics, this paper puts forward an optimization model for the resource allocation and builds an improved ant algorithm to solve it. Finally, the effectiveness and feasibility of the optimization method and algorithm are demonstrated by a numerical simulation. This paper finds that the special online shopping environments lead to many dynamic and uncertain characters of the service demands. Different customized service patterns and their combination patterns should match with different supply chain resource allocations. The optimization model not only reflects the required service cost and delivery time in the objective function, but also considers the service scale effect optimization and the relations of integration benefits and risks. The improved ant algorithm has obvious advantages in flexibly balancing the multiobjective optimizations, adjusting the convergence speed, and adjusting the operation parameters.

  12. Energy from biomass and waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2001-01-01

    Biomass, a broad term for all organic matter of plants, trees and crops, is currently regarded as a renewable energy source which can contribute substantially to the world's energy supply in the future. Various scenarios for the development of energy supply and demand, such as compiled by the World

  13. Energy from biomass and waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    1997-01-01

    Biomass, a broad term for all organic matter of plants, trees and crops, is currently regarded as a renewable energy source which can contribute substantially to the world's energy supply in the future. Various scenarios for the development of energy supply and demand, such as compiled by the

  14. Agricultural Residues and Biomass Energy Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    There are many opportunities to leverage agricultural resources on existing lands without interfering with production of food, feed, fiber, or forest products. In the recently developed advanced biomass feedstock commercialization vision, estimates of potentially available biomass supply from agriculture are built upon the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) Long-Term Forecast, ensuring that existing product demands are met before biomass crops are planted. Dedicated biomass energy crops and agricultural crop residues are abundant, diverse, and widely distributed across the United States. These potential biomass supplies can play an important role in a national biofuels commercialization strategy.

  15. Guideline for sampling and analysis of 'tars' and particles in biomass producer gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeft, J.P.A. [ECN Biomass, Petten (Netherlands); Knoef, H.A.M. [Biomass Technology Group BTG, Enschede (Netherlands); Zielke, U. [DTI Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus (Denmark); Sjoestroem, K. [KTH Kungl Tekniska Hoegskolan, Stockholm (Sweden); Hasler, P. [Verenum, Zuerich (Switzerland); Simell, P.A.; Suomalainen, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Dorrington, M.A. [CRE Group, Cheltenham (United Kingdom); Greil, C. [Lurgi Envirotherm, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The further development of a Guideline (formerly Protocol) for sampling and analysis of 'tars' from biomass producer gases is reported. This Guideline is being developed as a project within the European Fifth Framework Programme with additional partners from Switzerland and North-America. In this paper an outline and the principle of the Guideline are given. The Guideline is based on isokinetic sampling of particles and 'tar' from the main producer gas duct, particle filtration at high temperature, gas cooling in a liquid quench, 'tar' absorption in a solvent at low temperatures, an optional backup adsorber, and flow measurement and control. The Guideline gives a definition for 'Gravimetric tar' which is the 'tar' number to be determined by the Guideline. Also, the Guideline gives procedures for compound analysis by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or gas chromatography - Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID). Moreover, in this paper the major choices that were made to reach the first version of the Guideline are explained. Finally, at the end of the paper it is described how and on what time scale the development of the Guideline will be completed. The full text of the Guideline is available on the Internet at www.tarweb.net. 11 refs.

  16. Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to the analysis of algal biomass for industrial biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porizka, P.; Prochazka, D. [X-ray micro CT and nano CT research group, CEITEC-Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, 616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Pilat, Z. [Institute of Scientific Instruments of the ASCR v.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Kralovopolska 147, Brno 61669 (Czech Republic); Krajcarova, L. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, Brno 611 37 (Czech Republic); Kaiser, J., E-mail: kaiser@fme.vutbr.cz [X-ray micro CT and nano CT research group, CEITEC-Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, 616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Malina, R.; Novotny, J. [X-ray micro CT and nano CT research group, CEITEC-Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, 616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Zemanek, P.; Jezek, J.; Sery, M.; Bernatova, S.; Krzyzanek, V.; Dobranska, K. [Institute of Scientific Instruments of the ASCR v.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Kralovopolska 147, Brno 61669 (Czech Republic); Novotny, K. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, Brno 611 37 (Czech Republic); Trtilek, M. [Photon Systems Instruments, Drasov 470, 664 24 Drasov (Czech Republic); Samek, O. [Institute of Scientific Instruments of the ASCR v.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Kralovopolska 147, Brno 61669 (Czech Republic)

    2012-08-15

    We report on the application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to the determination of elements distinctive in terms of their biological significance (such as potassium, magnesium, calcium, and sodium) and to the monitoring of accumulation of potentially toxic heavy metal ions in living microorganisms (algae), in order to trace e.g. the influence of environmental exposure and other cultivation and biological factors having an impact on them. Algae cells were suspended in liquid media or presented in a form of adherent cell mass on a surface (biofilm) and, consequently, characterized using their spectra. In our feasibility study we used three different experimental arrangements employing double-pulse LIBS technique in order to improve on analytical selectivity and sensitivity for potential industrial biotechnology applications, e.g. for monitoring of mass production of commercial biofuels, utilization in the food industry and control of the removal of heavy metal ions from industrial waste waters. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We realized laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis of algal biomass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We used water jet setup, bulk liquid arrangement and algal biofilms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LIBS analysis of macro- and micro-element concentrations in algae was shown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LIBS can be of assistance in research of sustainable biofuel generation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LIBS can be used in research of algal food applications and bioremediation.

  17. Health supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Rolf; Gallagher, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The actual application of supply chain practice and disciplines required for service delivery improvement within the current health environment. * A rationale for the application of Supply Chain Management (SCM) approaches to the Health sector. * The tools and methods available for supply chain analysis and benchmarking. * Key supply chain success factors.

  18. Analysis of results of biomass forest inventory in northeastern Amazon for development of REDD+ carbon project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONEL N.C. MELLO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Brazil, a significant reduction in deforestation rates occurred during the last decade. In spite of that fact, the average annual rates are still too high, approximately 400.000 ha/year (INPE/Prodes. The projects of emissions reduction through avoided deforestation (REED+ are an important tool to reduce deforestation rates in Brazil. Understanding the amazon forest structure, in terms of biomass stock is key to design avoided deforestation strategies. In this work, we analyze data results from aboveground biomass of 1,019.346,27 hectares in the state of Pará. It was collected data from 16,722 trees in 83 random independent plots. It was tested 4 allometric equations, for DBH > 10cm: Brown et al. (1989, Brown and Lugo (1999, Chambers et al. (2000, Higuchi et al. (1998. It revealed that the biggest carbon stock of above ground biomass is stocked on the interval at DBH between 30cm and 80cm. This biomass compartment stocks 75.70% of total biomass in Higuchi et al. (1998 equation, 75.56% of total biomass in Brown et al. (1989 equation, 78.83% of total biomass in Chambers et al. (2000 equation, and 73.22% in Brown and Lugo (1999 equation.

  19. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Power Plant Integrated with Fogging Inlet Cooling and a Biomass Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Athari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass energy and especially biofuels produced by biomass gasification are clean and renewable options for power plants. Also, on hot days the performance of gas turbines decreases substantially, a problem that can be mitigated by fog cooling. In the present paper, a biomass-integrated fogging steam injected gas turbine cycle is analyzed with energy and exergy methods. It is observed that (1 increasing the compressor pressure ratio raises the air flow rate in the plant but reduces the biomass flow rate; (2 increasing the gas turbine inlet temperature decreases the air and biomass flow rates; (3 increasing the compressor pressure ratio raises the energy and exergy efficiencies, especially at lower pressure ratios; (4 increasing the gas turbine inlet temperature raises both efficiencies; and (5 overspray increases the energy efficiency and net cycle power slightly. The gas turbine exhibits the highest exergy efficiency of the cycle components and the combustor the lowest. A comparison of the cycle with similar cycles fired by natural gas and differently configured cycles fueled by biomass shows that the cycle with natural gas firing has an energy efficiency 18 percentage points above the biomass fired cycle, and that steam injection increases the energy efficiency about five percentage points relative to the cycle without steam injection. Also, the influence of steam injection on energy efficiency is more significant than fog cooling.

  20. Thermogravimetric analysis and pyrolytic kinetic study on coal/biomass blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Hong-xiang; Li Hai-bin; Zhao Zeng-li [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion

    2009-07-01

    Three biomass and one lignite were co-pyrolyzed in a thermo gravimetric analyzer to investigate the pyrolysis performance of each material, as well as their mixtures. The lignite was blended with biomass at the percentage of 10%, 20%, 35% and 50% respectively. The results show that the initial volatile releasing temperature and the first maximum peak temperature of co-pyrolysis increase with increasing amount of lignite in blends. The position of the second maximum peak is shifted to lower temperature as the percentage of biomass is raised. Co-pyrolysis of coal/biomass blends produces more char than the summation of individual lignite and biomass pyrolysis. The pyrolysis of demineralization and devolatilization rice straw show that the alkali and alkaline earth metals promote pyrolysis of the blends at lower temperature, while Si inhibits the pyrolysis rate. Both volatile and mineral matter in biomass interact with lignite in co-pyrolysis. The synergistic effects in the co-pyrolysis of biomass and coal are suggested. 22 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil to Produce Hydrocarbon Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adom, Felix K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hartley, Damon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Searcy, Erin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jones, Sue [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technology Office (BETO) aims at developing and deploying technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2015). BETO and its national laboratory teams conduct in-depth techno-economic assessments (TEA) of technologies to produce biofuels. These assessments evaluate feedstock production, logistics of transporting the feedstock, and conversion of the feedstock to biofuel. There are two general types of TEAs. A design case is a TEA that outlines a target case for a particular biofuel pathway. It enables identification of data gaps and research and development needs, and provides goals and targets against which technology progress is assessed. On the other hand, a state of technology (SOT) analysis assesses progress within and across relevant technology areas based on actual experimental results relative to technical targets and cost goals from design cases, and includes technical, economic, and environmental criteria as available.

  2. Utility Analysis on Supply of Rural Public Policies in North Bay Economic Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changzhen; LI; Dafeng; YE

    2013-01-01

    From analysis on internal and external motive forces of development in North Bay Economic Zone, it indicates that public policies, as basic methods of government intervening against social and economic activities, are fundamental public goods produced by government. Effective supply of public policies brings rural economic growth, environmental protection and sustainable development, which greatly stimulates rural consumption, expands domestic demand and spurs economic growth, showing significant "multiplier effect". In this situation, this paper studies conditions for rural economic development and social transformation of the North Bay Economic Zone. Results show that social and economic development of rural areas of the North Bay Economic Zone needs scientific, reasonable and effective "public policies".

  3. Computer-assisted analysis of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectra for characterization of various treated and untreated agriculture biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siong Fong Sim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A computational approach was used to analyze the FTIR spectra of a wide range of treated and untreated lignocellulosic biomass (coconut husk, banana trunk, sago hampas, rice husk, and empty fruit bunch. The biomass was treated with strong sulphuric acid and NaOH, respectively. A total of 87 spectra were obtained in which the absorption bands were de-convoluted automatically, generating a peak table of 87 rows and 60 columns. Square roots were taken of the peak values, with further standardization prior to Principal Component Analysis (PCA for data exploration. In a scores plot, the treated and untreated biomass were distinguishable along the two main axes, PC1 and PC2. Examining the absorption bands corresponding to lignocellulosic components indicated that the acid pretreatment had resulted in dissolution and degradation of hemicelluloses and lignin, confirmed typically by disappearance of bands. The alkali treatment however was not as rigorous as the acid treatment, as some characteristic bands of hemicelluloses and lignin were enhanced, suggesting condensation of the degraded polysaccharides. The computer-assisted analysis of the FTIR spectra allowed efficient and simultaneous comparisons of lignocellulosic compositions present in various treated and untreated biomass. This represents an improvement relative to the conventional methods, since a large dataset can be handled efficiently and individual peaks can be examined.

  4. Allothermal gasification of biomass using micron size biomass as external heat source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gong; Li, Qian; Qi, Fangjie; Xiao, Bo; Liu, Shiming; Hu, Zhiquan; He, Piwen

    2012-03-01

    An allothermal biomass gasification system using biomass micron fuel (BMF) as external heat source was developed. In this system, heat supplied to gasifier was generated from combustion of BMF. Biomass feedstock was gasified with steam and then tar in the produced gas was decomposed in a catalytic bed with NiO/γ-Al(2)O(3) catalyst. Finally the production gas was employed as a substitute for civil fuel gas. An overall energy analysis of the system was also investigated. The results showed that the lower heating value of the product gas reached more than 12 MJ/Nm(3). The combusted BMF accounted for 26.8% of the total energy input. Allothermal gasification based on the substituted BMF for conventional energy was an efficient and economical technology to obtain bioenergy.

  5. Biomass gasification in Europe - status and perspectives; Vergasung von Biomasse in Europa - Stand und Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinkelbach, L.; Kaltschmitt, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER)

    1996-12-31

    Gasification of biomass is a promising option, especially in the fields of waste management and power generation, but there are considerable economic and technical problems that must be solved first. A critical analysis of biomass gasification in Europe today shows that this technology is not marketable today and cannot contribute to environmentally acceptable power supply on a short-term basis. (orig) [Deutsch] Von allen Moeglichkeiten einer energetischen Nutzung von Biomasse stellt die Technik der Vergasung insbesondere in den Bereichen Abfallentsorgung und Stromerzeugung eine vielversprechende Option dar. Einer weiteren Verbreitung dieser Technik stehen allerdings erhebliche wirtschaftliche und technische Probleme entgegen. Die kritische Analyse der derzeitigen Gegebenheiten der Biomassevergasung in Europa fuehrt zu dem Schluss, dass diese Technik noch nicht unmittelbar vor der Mrkteinfuehrung steht und somit kurzfristig keinen merklichen Beitrag zu einer umwelt- und klimavertraeglicheren Energieversorgung in Europa leisten kann. (orig)

  6. Biomass Assessment. Assessment of global biomass potentials and their links to food, water, biodiversity, energy demand and economy. Inventory and analysis of existing studies. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.; Verweij, P. [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Banse, M.; Van Diepen, K.; Van Keulen, H.; Langeveld, H.; Meeusen, M.; Van de Ven, G.; Wester, F. [Wageningen UR, Wageningen (Netherlands); Alkemade, R.; Ten Brink, B.; Van den Born, G.J.; Van Oorschot, M.; Ros, J.; Smout, F.; Van Vuuren, D.; Van den Wijngaart, R. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency NMP, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Aiking, H. [Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Londo, M.; Mozaffarian, H.; Smekens, K. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Lysen, E. (ed.); Van Egmond, S. (ed.) [Utrecht Centre for Energy research UCE, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2008-01-15

    The increased use and potential growth of biomass for energy has triggered a heated debate on the sustainability of those developments as biomass production is now also associated with increased competition with food and feed production, loss of forest cover and the like. Besides such competition, also the net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions is questioned in case land-use for biomass is associated with clearing forest, with conversion of peat land, as well as with high fossil energy inputs for machinery, fertilisers and other agrochemicals. Although available studies give a reasonable insight in the importance of various parameters, the integration between different arenas is still limited. This causes confusion in public as well as scientific debate, with conflicting views on the possibilities for sustainable use of biomass as a result. This study aims to tackle this problem by providing a more comprehensive assessment of the current knowledge with respect to biomass resource potentials.

  7. Biomass pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  8. Synthesis, Modeling and Exergy Analysis of Atmospheric Air Blown Biomass Gasification for Fischer-Tropsch Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Panopoulos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The main objective of the present work is to investigate the combination of an atmospheric and a pressurised air blown biomass gasifier towards Fischer-Tropsch (FT synthesis of second generation biofuels and co-production of power. The complete process was simulated in AspenPlusTM software including sub-models for the gasification, gas cleaning and conditioning as well as for the FT reactor. A sensitivity analysis on exergetic performance was performed mainly examining the recycling of FT-tail gas. For the base case of 80% FT CO conversion without any recirculation, the exergetic efficiency was found to be 34.3% with atmospheric gasification and 30.64% for pressurised gasification. Recirculation of the non-reacted CO, H2 as well as light gas products of the FT-reactor back to the atmospheric gasifier can increase the overall efficiency up to 48.1 %.

    • This paper is an updated version of a paper published in the ECOS'08 proceedings.

  9. Non-isothermal pyrolysis of de-oiled microalgal biomass: Kinetics and evolved gas analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Rahulkumar; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Saravaia, Hitesh; Paliwal, Chetan; Ghosh, Arup; Mishra, Sandhya

    2016-12-01

    Non-isothermal (β=5, 10, 20, 35°C/min) pyrolysis of de-oiled microalgal biomass (DMB) of Chlorella variabilis was investigated by TGA-MS (30-900°C, Argon atmosphere) to understand thermal decomposition and evolved gas analysis (EGA). The results showed that three-stage thermal decomposition and three volatilization zone (100-400°C, 400-550°C and 600-750°C) of organic matters during pyrolysis. The highest rate of weight-loss is 8.91%/min at 302°C for 35°C/min heating-rate. Kinetics of pyrolysis were investigated by iso-conversional (KAS, FWO) and model-fitting (Coats-Redfern) method. For Zone-1and3, similar activation energy (Ea) is found in between KAS (α=0.4), FWO (α=0.4) and Avrami-Erofe'ev (n=4) model. Using the best-fitted kinetic model Avrami-Erofe'ev (n=4), Ea values (R(2)=>0.96) are 171.12 (Zone-1), 404.65 (Zone-2) and 691.42kJ/mol (Zone-3). EGA indicate the abundance of most gases observed consequently between 200-300°C and 400-500°C. The pyrolysis of DMB involved multi-step reaction mechanisms for solid-state reactions having different Ea values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of grey relational analysis to assess and optimize small biomass boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J.; Granada, E.; Miguez, J.L.; Porteiro, J. [Universidad de Vigo E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales. Lagoas-Marcosende, s/n., Dpto. Ing. Mecanica Maquinas y Motores Termicos, 36200 Vigo (Pontevedra) (Spain)

    2006-01-15

    This paper presents a new methodology for the evaluation of the environmental and economic feasibility of combustion of different biomass fuels in small boilers. The study focuses on pellets as the basic co-firing product and forest residues as the complementary product. Although the co-firing of forest residues can be economically profin, it is difficult to evaluate the general economic advantages due to the worsening of combustion in terms of performance and emissions caused by the presence of the forest residues in the fuel mixture. The grey relational analysis of different energetic and emission variables and also residue prices allows for the definition of a new single variable called the grey relational grade. Thus, evaluation and optimization of complicated multiple responses can be converted into the optimization of a standardised single variable. Experimental analyses by means of the Grey theory of different forest residues have revealed the possibility of co-firing crust of pine combined with wood pellets as a way of reducing fuel costs, keeping performance and emissions within average standards in small pellet boilers. (author)

  11. Comparative genomic analysis of the thermophilic biomass-degrading fungi Myceliophthora thermophila and Thielavia terrestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berka, Randy M.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Otillar, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Grimwood, Jane; Reid, Ian; Ishmael, Nadeeza; John, Tricia; Darmond, Corinne; Moisan, Marie-Claude; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Lombard, Vincent; Natvig, Donald O.; Lindquist, Erika; Schmutz, Jeremy; Lucas, Susan; Harris, Paul; Powlowski, Justin; Bellemare, Annie; Taylor, David; Butler, Gregory; de Vries, Ronald P.; Allijn, Iris E.; van den Brink, Joost; Ushinsky, Sophia; Storms, Reginald; Powell, Amy J.; Paulsen, Ian T.; Elbourne, Liam D. H.; Baker, Scott. E.; Magnuson, Jon; LaBoissiere, Sylvie; Clutterbuck, A. John; Martinez, Diego; Wogulis, Mark; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Rey, Michael W.; Tsang, Adrian

    2011-05-16

    Thermostable enzymes and thermophilic cell factories may afford economic advantages in the production of many chemicals and biomass-based fuels. Here we describe and compare the genomes of two thermophilic fungi, Myceliophthora thermophila and Thielavia terrestris. To our knowledge, these genomes are the first described for thermophilic eukaryotes and the first complete telomere-to-telomere genomes for filamentous fungi. Genome analyses and experimental data suggest that both thermophiles are capable of hydrolyzing all major polysaccharides found in biomass. Examination of transcriptome data and secreted proteins suggests that the two fungi use shared approaches in the hydrolysis of cellulose and xylan but distinct mechanisms in pectin degradation. Characterization of the biomass-hydrolyzing activity of recombinant enzymes suggests that these organisms are highly efficient in biomass decomposition at both moderate and high temperatures. Furthermore, we present evidence suggesting that aside from representing a potential reservoir of thermostable enzymes, thermophilic fungi are amenable to manipulation using classical and molecular genetics.

  12. Comparative genomic analysis of the thermophilic biomass-degrading fungi Myceliophthora thermophila and Thielavia terrestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berka, Randy M.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Otillar, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Grimwood, Jane; Reid, Ian; Ishmael, Nadeeza; John, Tricia; Darmond, Corinne; Moisan, Marie-Claude; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Lombard, Vincent; Natvig, Donald O.; Lindquist, Erika; Schmutz, Jeremy; Lucas, Susan; Harris, Paul; Powlowski, Justin; Bellemare, Annie; Taylor, David; Butler, Gregory; de Vries, Ronald P.; Allijn, Iris E.; van den Brink, Joost; Ushinsky, Sophia; Storms, Reginald; Powell, Amy J.; Paulsen, Ian T.; Elbourne, Liam D. H.; Baker, Scott E.; Magnuson, Jon; LaBoissiere, Sylvie; Clutterbuck, A. John; Martinez, Diego; Wogulis, Mark; de Leon, Alfredo Lopez; Rey, Michael W.; Tsang, Adrian

    2011-10-02

    Thermostable enzymes and thermophilic cell factories may afford economic advantages in the production of many chemicals and biomass-based fuels. Here we describe and compare the genomes of two thermophilic fungi, Myceliophthora thermophila and Thielavia terrestris. To our knowledge, these genomes are the first described for thermophilic eukaryotes and the first complete telomere-to-telomere genomes for filamentous fungi. Genome analyses and experimental data suggest that both thermophiles are capable of hydrolyzing all major polysaccharides found in biomass. Examination of transcriptome data and secreted proteins suggests that the two fungi use shared approaches in the hydrolysis of cellulose and xylan but distinct mechanisms in pectin degradation. Characterization of the biomass-hydrolyzing activity of recombinant enzymes suggests that these organisms are highly efficient in biomass decomposition at both moderate and high temperatures. Furthermore, we present evidence suggesting that aside from representing a potential reservoir of thermostable enzymes, thermophilic fungi are amenable to manipulation using classical and molecular genetics.

  13. Optimization of biomass torrefaction conditions by the gain and loss method and regression model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Min; Lee, Jae-Won

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the optimal conditions for biomass torrefaction were determined by comparing the gain of energy content to the weight loss of biomass from the final products. Torrefaction experiments were performed at temperatures ranging from 220 to 280°C using 20-80min reaction times. Polynomial regression models ranging from the 1st to the 3rd order were used to determine a relationship between the severity factor (SF) and calorific value or weight loss. The intersection of two regression models for calorific value and weight loss was determined and assumed to be the optimized SF. The optimized SFs on each biomass ranged from 6.056 to 6.372. Optimized torrefaction conditions were determined at various reaction times of 15, 30, and 60min. The average optimized temperature was 248.55°C in the studied biomass when torrefaction was performed for 60min.

  14. Comparative genomic analysis of the thermophilic biomass-degrading fungi Myceliophthora thermophila and Thielavia terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berka, Randy M; Grigoriev, Igor V; Otillar, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Grimwood, Jane; Reid, Ian; Ishmael, Nadeeza; John, Tricia; Darmond, Corinne; Moisan, Marie-Claude; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M; Lombard, Vincent; Natvig, Donald O; Lindquist, Erika; Schmutz, Jeremy; Lucas, Susan; Harris, Paul; Powlowski, Justin; Bellemare, Annie; Taylor, David; Butler, Gregory; de Vries, Ronald P; Allijn, Iris E; van den Brink, Joost; Ushinsky, Sophia; Storms, Reginald; Powell, Amy J; Paulsen, Ian T; Elbourne, Liam D H; Baker, Scott E; Magnuson, Jon; Laboissiere, Sylvie; Clutterbuck, A John; Martinez, Diego; Wogulis, Mark; de Leon, Alfredo Lopez; Rey, Michael W; Tsang, Adrian

    2011-10-02

    Thermostable enzymes and thermophilic cell factories may afford economic advantages in the production of many chemicals and biomass-based fuels. Here we describe and compare the genomes of two thermophilic fungi, Myceliophthora thermophila and Thielavia terrestris. To our knowledge, these genomes are the first described for thermophilic eukaryotes and the first complete telomere-to-telomere genomes for filamentous fungi. Genome analyses and experimental data suggest that both thermophiles are capable of hydrolyzing all major polysaccharides found in biomass. Examination of transcriptome data and secreted proteins suggests that the two fungi use shared approaches in the hydrolysis of cellulose and xylan but distinct mechanisms in pectin degradation. Characterization of the biomass-hydrolyzing activity of recombinant enzymes suggests that these organisms are highly efficient in biomass decomposition at both moderate and high temperatures. Furthermore, we present evidence suggesting that aside from representing a potential reservoir of thermostable enzymes, thermophilic fungi are amenable to manipulation using classical and molecular genetics.

  15. A global analysis of soil microbial biomass carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in terrestrial ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xiaofeng [ORNL; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Soil microbes play a pivotal role in regulating land-atmosphere interactions; the soil microbial biomass carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and C:N:P stoichiometry are important regulators for soil biogeochemical processes; however, the current knowledge on magnitude, stoichiometry, storage, and spatial distribution of global soil microbial biomass C, N, and P is limited. In this study, 3087 pairs of data points were retrieved from 281 published papers and further used to summarize the magnitudes and stoichiometries of C, N, and P in soils and soil microbial biomass at global- and biome-levels. Finally, global stock and spatial distribution of microbial biomass C and N in 0-30 cm and 0-100 cm soil profiles were estimated. The results show that C, N, and P in soils and soil microbial biomass vary substantially across biomes; the fractions of soil nutrient C, N, and P in soil microbial biomass are 1.6% in a 95% confidence interval of (1.5%-1.6%), 2.9% in a 95% confidence interval of (2.8%-3.0%), and 4.4% in a 95% confidence interval of (3.9%-5.0%), respectively. The best estimates of C:N:P stoichiometries for soil nutrients and soil microbial biomass are 153:11:1, and 47:6:1, respectively, at global scale, and they vary in a wide range among biomes. Vertical distribution of soil microbial biomass follows the distribution of roots up to 1 m depth. The global stock of soil microbial biomass C and N were estimated to be 15.2 Pg C and 2.3 Pg N in the 0-30 cm soil profiles, and 21.2 Pg C and 3.2 Pg N in the 0-100 cm soil profiles. We did not estimate P in soil microbial biomass due to data shortage and insignificant correlation with soil total P and climate variables. The spatial patterns of soil microbial biomass C and N were consistent with those of soil organic C and total N, i.e. high density in northern high latitude, and low density in low latitudes and southern hemisphere.

  16. An analysis of disruptions in aerospace/defense organizations that affect the supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Toscha L.

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine whether or not functions of procurement organizations structures' and aerospace suppliers were perceived as disruptions and to identify their effects on lead time and costs within a supply chain. An analysis of employees' perception of centralized and decentralized procurement functions, aerospace and defense suppliers, lead times of goods and services, price increases, and schedule delays was conducted. Prior studies are limited in regards to understanding how specific procurement functions affects an organization procurement structure. This non-experimental quantitative study allowed for a survey to be administered to aerospace and defense companies throughout the United States to obtain information from sourcing and procurement professionals with 5 or more years of experience. The current study utilized a 10 question survey based on the 5- point Likert -type scale to determine the findings. Through descriptive and inferential statistics, using regression analysis, standard deviation, and P-value; findings indicated that the majority of the participants surveyed perceived both centralized and decentralized procurement functions affected lead time and cost of goods and services resulted in a positive effect and were considered as supply chain disruptions.

  17. Analysis of Romania’s and Transylvania’s Tourist Supply Development and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Maria Coros

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper’s premise is that a strong link exists between Romania’s poor tourism performance and the quality of its hospitality supply. In this respect, a comparative analysis of Romania’s and Transylvania’s tourist offering is carried out aiming at identifying the particularities of their development and the causes of their poor performance. The motivation for having chosen Transylvania resides in this region’s attractiveness among foreign tourists; it is a destination with a high potential favoring the development of some tourist products competitive on the international market. Thus, based on a comprehensive secondary data analysis regarding the public lodging facilities, the paper presents their geographic dispersion, the development of the accommodation capacity by levels of classification, the number of available beds, the types of units, the structures’ international affiliation, the main Romanian owners, etc. The dispersion by levels of classification, together with the net usage indexes of the accommodation capacity, characterize the performance of this industry. The research study emphasizes the fact that despite a high tourist potential, the present-day hospitality supply cannot support a healthy development of the tourist activity, and presents some possible causes.

  18. (abstract) Sensitivity to Forest Biomass Based on Analysis of Scattering Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, JoBea; Bachman, Jennifer E.; Paige, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The estimation of forest biomass on a global scale is an important input to global climate and carbon cycle models. Remote sensing using synthetic aperture radar offers a means to obtain such a data set. Although it has been clear for some time that radar signals penetrate forest canopies, only recently has it been demonstrated that these signals are indeed sensitive to biomass. Inasmuch as the majority of a forest's biomass is in the trunks, it is important that the radar is sensing the trunk biomass as opposed to the branch or leaf biomass. In this study we use polarimetric AIRSAR P- and L-band data from a variety of forests to determine if the radar penetrates to the trunk by examining the scattering mechanism as determined using van Zyl's scattering interaction model, and the levels at which saturation occurs with respect to sensitivity of radar backscatter to total biomass. In particular, the added sensitivity of P-band relative to L-band is addressed. Results using data from the Duke Forest in North Carolina, the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest in Alaska, Shasta Forest in California, the Black Forest in Germany, the temporate/boreal transition forests in northern Michigan, and coastal forests along the Oregon Transect will be presented.

  19. Biomass burning losses of carbon estimated from ecosystem modeling and satellite data analysis for the Brazilian Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher; Brooks Genovese, Vanessa; Klooster, Steven; Bobo, Matthew; Torregrosa, Alicia

    To produce a new daily record of gross carbon emissions from biomass burning events and post-burning decomposition fluxes in the states of the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE), 1991. Anuario Estatistico do Brasil, Vol. 51. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil pp. 1-1024). We have used vegetation greenness estimates from satellite images as inputs to a terrestrial ecosystem production model. This carbon allocation model generates new estimates of regional aboveground vegetation biomass at 8-km resolution. The modeled biomass product is then combined for the first time with fire pixel counts from the advanced very high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) to overlay regional burning activities in the Amazon. Results from our analysis indicate that carbon emission estimates from annual region-wide sources of deforestation and biomass burning in the early 1990s are apparently three to five times higher than reported in previous studies for the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Houghton et al., 2000. Nature 403, 301-304; Fearnside, 1997. Climatic Change 35, 321-360), i.e., studies which implied that the Legal Amazon region tends toward a net-zero annual source of terrestrial carbon. In contrast, our analysis implies that the total source fluxes over the entire Legal Amazon region range from 0.2 to 1.2 Pg C yr -1, depending strongly on annual rainfall patterns. The reasons for our higher burning emission estimates are (1) use of combustion fractions typically measured during Amazon forest burning events for computing carbon losses, (2) more detailed geographic distribution of vegetation biomass and daily fire activity for the region, and (3) inclusion of fire effects in extensive areas of the Legal Amazon covered by open woodland, secondary forests, savanna, and pasture vegetation. The total area of rainforest estimated annually to be deforested did not differ substantially among the previous analyses cited and our own.

  20. Analysis of the influence of the lot sizing on the efficiency of material flow in the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Domański

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the rapidly changing needs of suppliers and customers classic methods of lot sizing do not work. Meanwhile, the target for logistics remains all the time the same: to realize the flow of materials in the supply chain as efficiently as possible. Today, efficiency is understood as the sum of two components: the effectiveness - understood as the degree of achieving the objective (i.e.  customer service level indicator and efficiency - understood as a way to achieve the objective, (i.e. total cost of the material flow in the supply chain. Simulation studies developed by authors was focused on the identification and analysis of both global and local conditions, the efficiency of material flow in the supply chain. Methods: Simulation of material flow in the supply chain was carried out using the spreadsheet. In the analysis of results, statistical software Minitab 17 was used. Using correlation analysis examined the relationship between the cost of the material flow and the realized customer service level. On the base of methods ANOVA and Tukey Pairwise Comparisons determined whether there is a statistically significant relationship between the lot size in flow between companies in supply chain and the cost of that flow through the whole chain. Results: The objective of the article is to identify the relations between the material flow lot size between particular companies in the supply chain and the flow costs and to identify the link in the supply chain that has the greatest impact on the customer service level and the flow total costs in the supply chain. Distribution of demand (category of goods has an impact on the cost of the material flow in the supply chain. In both analysed distributions of demand (normal and exponential was observed relationships proportional (what is beneficial for the whole supply chain is also beneficial to the each company in supply chain as well as the relationship inversely proportional (that which

  1. Analysis on the influence of supply method on a workstation with the help of dynamic simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavriluță Alin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the need of flexibility in any manufacturing process, the choice of the supply method of an assembly workstation can be a decision with instead influence on its performances. Using dynamic simulation, this article wants to compare the effect on a workstation cycle time of three different supply methods: supply on stock, supply in “Strike Zone” and synchronous supply. This study is part of an extended work that has the aim of compering by 3D layout design and dynamic simulation, different supply methods on an assembly line performances.

  2. Flux balance analysis of genome-scale metabolic model of rice (Oryza sativa): Aiming to increase biomass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahul Shaw; Sudip Kundu

    2015-10-01

    Due to socio-economic reasons, it is essential to design efficient stress-tolerant, more nutritious, high yielding rice varieties. A systematic understanding of the rice cellular metabolism is essential for this purpose. Here, we analyse a genome-scale metabolic model of rice leaf using Flux Balance Analysis to investigate whether it has potential metabolic flexibility to increase the biosynthesis of any of the biomass components. We initially simulate the metabolic responses under an objective to maximize the biomass components. Using the estimated maximum value of biomass synthesis as a constraint, we further simulate the metabolic responses optimizing the cellular economy. Depending on the physiological conditions of a cell, the transport capacities of intracellular transporters (ICTs) can vary. To mimic this physiological state, we randomly vary the ICTs’ transport capacities and investigate their effects. The results show that the rice leaf has the potential to increase glycine and starch in a wide range depending on the ICTs’ transport capacities. The predicted biosynthesis pathways vary slightly at the two different optimization conditions. With the constraint of biomass composition, the cell also has the metabolic plasticity to fix a wide range of carbon-nitrogen ratio.

  3. Analysis of public consciousness structure and consideration of information supply against the nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimooka, Hiroshi [Institute of Applied Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    The Energy Engineering Research Institute carried out six times of questionnaire on analysis of public consciousness structure for fiscal years for 1986 to 1999, to obtain a lot of informations on public recognition against the nuclear power generation. In recent, as a feasibility on change of consciousness against the power generation was supposed by occurrence of the JCO critical accident forming the first victim in Japan on September, 1999 after investigation in fiscal year 1998, by carrying out the same questionnaire as one in previous fiscal year to the same objects after the accident, to analyze how evaluation, behavior determining factor and so forth on the power generation changed by the accident. In this paper, on referring to results of past questionnaires, were introduced on the questionnaire results and their analysis carried out before and after the JCO critical accident, to consider on information supply referred by them. (G.K.)

  4. Manual-control Analysis Applied to the Money-supply Control Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingrove, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    The recent procedure implemented by the Federal Reserve Board to control the money supply is formulated in the form of a tracking model as used in the study of manual-control tasks. Using this model, an analysis is made to determine the effect of monetary control on the fluctuations in economic output. The results indicate that monetary control can reduce the amplitude of fluctuations at frequencies near the region of historic business cycles. However, with significant time lags in the control loop, monetary control tends to increase the amplitude of the fluctuations at the higher frequencies. How the investigator or student can use the tools developed in the field of manual-control analysis to study the nature of economic fluctuations and to examine different strategies for stabilization is examined.

  5. Performance Analysis of Joule-Thomson Cooler Supplied with Gas Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, A.; Chorowski, M.; Dorosz, P.

    2017-02-01

    Joule-Thomson (J-T) cryo-coolers working in closed cycles and supplied with gas mixtures are the subject of intensive research in different laboratories. The replacement of pure nitrogen by nitrogen-hydrocarbon mixtures allows to improve both thermodynamic parameters and economy of the refrigerators. It is possible to avoid high pressures in the heat exchanger and to use standard refrigeration compressor instead of gas bottles or high-pressure oil free compressor. Closed cycle and mixture filled Joule-Thomson cryogenic refrigerator providing 10-20 W of cooling power at temperature range 90-100 K has been designed and manufactured. Thermodynamic analysis including the optimization of the cryo-cooler mixture has been performed with ASPEN HYSYS software. The paper describes the design of the cryo-cooler and provides thermodynamic analysis of the system. The test results are presented and discussed.

  6. Genome-Wide Analysis of miRNA targets in Brachypodium and Biomass Energy Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Pamela J. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2015-08-11

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to the control of numerous biological processes through the regulation of specific target mRNAs. Although the identities of these targets are essential to elucidate miRNA function, the targets are much more difficult to identify than the small RNAs themselves. Before this work, we pioneered the genome-wide identification of the targets of Arabidopsis miRNAs using an approach called PARE (German et al., Nature Biotech. 2008; Nature Protocols, 2009). Under this project, we applied PARE to Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), a model plant in the Poaceae family, which includes the major food grain and bioenergy crops. Through in-depth global analysis and examination of specific examples, this research greatly expanded our knowledge of miRNAs and target RNAs of Brachypodium. New regulation in response to environmental stress or tissue type was found, and many new miRNAs were discovered. More than 260 targets of new and known miRNAs with PARE sequences at the precise sites of miRNA-guided cleavage were identified and characterized. Combining PARE data with the small RNA data also identified the miRNAs responsible for initiating approximately 500 phased loci, including one of the novel miRNAs. PARE analysis also revealed that differentially expressed miRNAs in the same family guide specific target RNA cleavage in a correspondingly tissue-preferential manner. The project included generation of small RNA and PARE resources for bioenergy crops, to facilitate ongoing discovery of conserved miRNA-target RNA regulation. By associating specific miRNA-target RNA pairs with known physiological functions, the research provides insights about gene regulation in different tissues and in response to environmental stress. This, and release of new PARE and small RNA data sets should contribute basic knowledge to enhance breeding and may suggest new strategies for improvement of biomass energy crops.

  7. An analysis of the variables that provide a supply chain with sustainable competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván A. Arana-Solares

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: An agile, adaptable and aligned (Triple A supply chain (SC would seem to be key to obtaining sustainable competitive advantages. Little previous research has been done into the topic, however, and there are even discrepancies on the conceptual level. For this reason this study aims to propose a reference framework to determine the dimensions and factors that define agility, adaptability and alignment in the SC and to facilitate both the evaluation of its state by managers and researchers with respect to these variables and also the development of empirical research that determines its impact on performance.Design/methodology: A systematic literature review was carried out of specialist Operations Management, Logistics, Management and Supply Chain Management journals using the ProQuest (Abi/Inform Global database. The articles retrieved were examined and those that were relevant for this study were selected. Using these, a qualitative analysis was done that led to the proposed goal being achieved. Findings: This study sets out the definitions, dimensions and factors of the three variables and groups them together for the first time, thus providing a solid conceptual frame. Although the number of articles that analyse one or other of the variables is growing, it is still low. Agility is the variable on which most research has been done, while adaptability is the least analysed.Research limitations/implications: A theoretical reference framework is proposed for the Triple A in the SC based on earlier studies which do not discuss the joint effect of three variables, as a result of which there is no tested theoretical base. The model will be analysed empirically in future research.Originality/value: The lack of papers on agility, adaptability and alignment in the supply chain and the lack of a consensus regarding the dimensions and factors to define them reveal a need for studies such as this.

  8. Hydraulic analysis of water supply networks and controlling the leak using WATER GEMS model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Motevalizadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Given that the discussion on water is strategic in terms of economic and social aspects as well as environmental impact, water leak in urban water-supply systems is very important, so, dealing with it is necessary and inevitable. Controlling and reducing water leak are of the main goals of water supplier organization due to limitations in terms of water resources, especially in dry lands which have few water resources. Pressure management is an efficient tool to reduce costs, enhance the operation of the network and therefore, it reduces the leak and increases the life of facilities and equipment and reduces the number of accidents. Smart pressure containment is a good way to prevent excess pressure in network to control undesirable phenomenon of leak which is directly related to pressure. In this study, Badamuiyeh water supply complex in Kerman City was selected to study on adjusting the pressure to control the leak of water and the hydraulic analysis was performed with demand-based method (DDSM, which is common technique and demand is constant, by Water GEMS software. For this end, the pressure reducing valves (prv were installed in critical point and they were timed to provide standard pressure in all nodes of the network and then, the impact of smart pressure management on water supply system has been investigated. Then its impact on the leak was examined and the results show that smart pressure control through pressure-reducing valve is a proper method for optimal management of water and reducing the leak significantly that with 45.15% reduction in average pressure, one can reduce the leak as much as 25.67% that as its result, 15380 m3 of water is annually saved in this region which is equal to 27.18% of consuming water.

  9. Analysis of the Impact of Decreasing District Heating Supply Temperature on Combined Heat and Power Plant Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolonina Alona

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available District heating systems are widely used to supply heat to different groups of heat consumers. The district heating system offers great opportunities for combined heat and power production. In this paper decreasing district heating supply temperature is analysed in the context of combined heat and power plant operation. A mathematical model of a CHP plant is developed using both empirical and theoretical equations. The model is used for analysis of modified CHP plant operation modes with reduced district heating supply temperature. Conclusions on the benefits of new operation modes are introduced.

  10. Process analysis of the conversion of styrene to biomass and medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoate in a two-phase bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Casey, Eoin; Duane, Gearoid F; Mitic, Dragana; Hume, Aisling R; Kenny, Shane T; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2011-10-01

    The improvement and modeling of a process for the supply of the volatile aromatic hydrocarbon, styrene, to a fermentor for increased biomass production of the medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA) accumulating bacterium Pseudomonas putida CA-3 was investigated. Fed-batch experiments were undertaken using different methods to provide the styrene. Initial experiments where styrene was supplied as a liquid to the bioreactor had detrimental effects on cell growth and inhibited PHA polymer accumulation. By changing the feed of gaseous styrene to liquid styrene through the air sparger a 5.4-fold increase in cell dry-weight was achieved (total of 10.56 g L(-1)) which corresponds to a fourfold improvement in PHA production (3.36 g L(-1)) compared to previous studies performed in our laboratory (0.82 g L(-1)). In addition this final improved feeding strategy reduced the release of styrene from the fermentor 50-fold compared to initial experiments (0.12 mL total styrene released per 48 h run). An unstructured kinetic model was developed to describe cell growth along with substrate and oxygen utilization. The formation of dispersed gas (air) and liquid (styrene) phases in the medium and the transfer of styrene between the aqueous and dispersed liquid droplet phases was also modeled. The model provided a detailed description of these phase transitions and helped explain how the feeding strategy led to improved process performance in terms of final biomass levels. It also highlighted the key factors to be considered during further process improvement.

  11. Canonical Correlation Analysis Between Supply Chain Quality Management And Competitive Advantages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahmad Jafarnejad Chaghooshi; Mahsa Soltani-Neshan; Mohsen Moradi-Moghadam

    2015-01-01

    .... Supply chain quality management (SCQM) is a systematic approach to improve the performance that integrates supply chain partners and uses the opportunity in the best way, establish linkages between upstream and downstream flows...

  12. Traceability and Risk Analysis Strategies for Addressing Counterfeit Electronics in Supply Chains for Complex Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMase, Daniel; Collier, Zachary A; Carlson, Jinae; Gray, Robin B; Linkov, Igor

    2016-10-01

    Within the microelectronics industry, there is a growing concern regarding the introduction of counterfeit electronic parts into the supply chain. Even though this problem is widespread, there have been limited attempts to implement risk-based approaches for testing and supply chain management. Supply chain risk management tends to focus on the highly visible disruptions of the supply chain instead of the covert entrance of counterfeits; thus counterfeit risk is difficult to mitigate. This article provides an overview of the complexities of the electronics supply chain, and highlights some gaps in risk assessment practices. In particular, this article calls for enhanced traceability capabilities to track and trace parts at risk through various stages of the supply chain. Placing the focus on risk-informed decision making through the following strategies is needed, including prioritization of high-risk parts, moving beyond certificates of conformance, incentivizing best supply chain management practices, adoption of industry standards, and design and management for supply chain resilience.

  13. Exergy analysis of the woody biomass Stirling engine and PEM-FC combined system with exhaust heat reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obara, Shin' ya; Tanno, Itaru [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tomakomai National College of Technology, 443 Nishikioka, Tomakomai, Hokkaido 0591275 (Japan); Kito, Shunsuke [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyota National College of Technology, Eisei-cho, 2-1 Toyota, Aichi 4718525 (Japan); Hoshi, Akira; Sasaki, Seizi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ichinoseki National College of Technology, Takanashi, Hagisho, Ichinoseki, Iwate 0218511 (Japan)

    2008-05-15

    The woody biomass Stirling engine (WB-SEG) is an external combustion engine that outputs high-temperature exhaust gases. It is necessary to improve the exergy efficiency of WB-SEG from the viewpoint of energy cascade utilization. So, a combined system that uses the exhaust heat of WB-SEG for the steam reforming of city gas and that supplies the produced reformed gas to a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM-FC) is proposed. The energy flow and the exergy flow were analyzed for each WB-SEG, PEM-FC, and WB-SEG/PEM-FC combined system. Exhaust heat recovery to preheat fuel and combustion air was investigated in each system. As a result, (a) improvement of the heat exchange performance of the woody biomass combustion gas and engine is observed, (b) reduction in difference in the reaction temperature of each unit, and (c) removal of rapid temperature change of reformed gas are required in order to reduce exergy loss of the system. The exergy efficiency of the WB-SEG/PEM-FC combined system is superior to EM-FC. (author)

  14. Techno-Economic Analysis of Liquid Fuel Production from Woody Biomass via Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2014-09-15

    A series of experimental work was conducted to convert woody biomass to gasoline and diesel range products via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and catalytic hydroprocessing. Based on the best available test data, a techno-economic analysis (TEA) was developed for a large scale woody biomass based HTL and upgrading system to evaluate the feasibility of this technology. In this system, 2000 dry metric ton per day woody biomass was assumed to be converted to bio-oil in hot compressed water and the bio-oil was hydrotreated and/or hydrocracked to produce gasoline and diesel range liquid fuel. Two cases were evaluated: a stage-of-technology (SOT) case based on the tests results, and a goal case considering potential improvements based on the SOT case. Process simulation models were developed and cost analysis was implemented based on the performance results. The major performance results included final products and co-products yields, raw materials consumption, carbon efficiency, and energy efficiency. The overall efficiency (higher heating value basis) was 52% for the SOT case and 66% for the goal case. The production cost, with a 10% internal rate of return and 2007 constant dollars, was estimated to be $1.29 /L for the SOT case and $0.74 /L for the goal case. The cost impacts of major improvements for moving from the SOT to the goal case were evaluated and the assumption of reducing the organics loss to the water phase lead to the biggest reduction in the production cost. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the final products yields had the largest impact on the production cost compared to other parameters. Plant size analysis demonstrated that the process was economically attractive if the woody biomass feed rate was over 1,500 dry tonne/day, the production cost was competitive with the then current petroleum-based gasoline price.

  15. Cost analysis of ground-water supplies in the North Atlantic region, 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederstrom, Dagfin John

    1973-01-01

    report includes an analysis of test drilling costs leading to a production well field. The discussion shows that test drilling is a relatively low cost item and that more than a minimum of test holes in a previously unexplored area is, above all, simple insurance in keeping down costs and may easily result in final lower costs for the system. Use of the jet drill for testing is considered short sighted and may result in higher total costs and possibly failure to discover good aquifers. Economic development of ground water supplies will depend on obtaining qualified hydrologic and engineering advice, on carrying out adequate test drilling, and on utilizing high-quality (at times, more costly) material.

  16. Analysis of the Impact of Decreasing District Heating Supply Temperature on Combined Heat and Power Plant Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Bolonina Alona; Bolonins Genadijs; Blumberga Dagnija

    2014-01-01

    District heating systems are widely used to supply heat to different groups of heat consumers. The district heating system offers great opportunities for combined heat and power production. In this paper decreasing district heating supply temperature is analysed in the context of combined heat and power plant operation. A mathematical model of a CHP plant is developed using both empirical and theoretical equations. The model is used for analysis of modified CHP plant operation modes with redu...

  17. Genetic algorithms in supply chain management: A critical analysis of the literature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SUNIL KUMAR JAUHAR; MILLIE PANT

    2016-09-01

    Genetic algorithms (GAs) are perhaps the oldest and most frequently used search techniques for dealing with complex and intricate real-life problems that are otherwise difficult to solve by the traditional methods. The present article provides an extensive literature review of the application of GA on supply chain management (SCM). SCM consists of several intricate processes and each process is equally important formaintaining a successful supply chain. In this paper, eight processes (where each process has a set of subprocesses) as given by Council of SCM Professionals (CSCMF) are considered. The idea is to review the application of GA on these aspects and to provide the readers a detailed study in this area. The authors have considered more than 220 papers covering a span of nearly two decades for this study. The analysis is shown in detail with the help of graphs and tables. It is expected that such an extensive study will encourage and motivate the fellow researchers working in related area; to identify the gaps and to come up with innovative ideas.

  18. In silico analysis of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 metabolic response to an external electron supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Roberto; Acevedo, Alejandro; Quintero, Julián; Paredes, Ivan; Conejeros, Raúl; Aroca, Germán

    2016-02-01

    The biological production of butanol has become an important research field and thanks to genome sequencing and annotation; genome-scale metabolic reconstructions have been developed for several Clostridium species. This work makes use of the iCAC490 model of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 to analyze its metabolic capabilities and response to an external electron supply through a constraint-based approach using the Constraint-Based Reconstruction Analysis Toolbox. Several analyses were conducted, which included sensitivity, production envelope, and phenotypic phase planes. The model showed that the use of an external electron supply, which acts as co-reducing agent along with glucose-derived reducing power (electrofermentation), results in an increase in the butanol-specific productivity. However, a proportional increase in the butyrate uptake flux is required. Besides, the uptake of external butyrate leads to the coupling of butanol production and growth, which coincides with results reported in literature. Phenotypic phase planes showed that the reducing capacity becomes more limiting for growth at high butyrate uptake fluxes. An electron uptake flux allows the metabolism to reach the growth optimality line. Although the maximum butanol flux does not coincide with the growth optimality line, a butyrate uptake combined with an electron uptake flux would result in an increased butanol volumetric productivity, being a potential strategy to optimize the production of butanol by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824.

  19. Understanding influential factors on implementing green supply chain management practices: An interpretive structural modelling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agi, Maher A N; Nishant, Rohit

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we establish a set of 19 influential factors on the implementation of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) practices and analyse the interaction between these factors and their effect on the implementation of GSCM practices using the Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) method and the "Matrice d'Impacts Croisés Multiplication Appliquée à un Classement" (MICMAC) analysis on data compiled from interviews with supply chain (SC) executives based in the Gulf countries (Middle East region). The study reveals a strong influence and driving power of the nature of the relationships between SC partners on the implementation of GSCM practices. We especially found that dependence, trust, and durability of the relationship with SC partners have a very high influence. In addition, the size of the company, the top management commitment, the implementation of quality management and the employees training and education exert a critical influence on the implementation of GSCM practices. Contextual elements such as the industry sector and region and their effect on the prominence of specific factors are also highlighted through our study. Finally, implications for research and practice are discussed.

  20. Evaluation of Supply Chain Efficiency Based on a Novel Network of Data Envelopment Analysis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Li Fang; Meng, Jun; Liu, Ying

    2015-12-01

    Performance evaluation of supply chain (SC) is a vital topic in SC management and inherently complex problems with multilayered internal linkages and activities of multiple entities. Recently, various Network Data Envelopment Analysis (NDEA) models, which opened the “black box” of conventional DEA, were developed and applied to evaluate the complex SC with a multilayer network structure. However, most of them are input or output oriented models which cannot take into consideration the nonproportional changes of inputs and outputs simultaneously. This paper extends the Slack-based measure (SBM) model to a nonradial, nonoriented network model named as U-NSBM with the presence of undesirable outputs in the SC. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the model in quantifying the efficiency and ranking the supply chain performance. By comparing with the CCR and U-SBM models, it is shown that the proposed model has higher distinguishing ability and gives feasible solution in the presence of undesirable outputs. Meanwhile, it provides more insights for decision makers about the source of inefficiency as well as the guidance to improve the SC performance.

  1. Identification and analysis of demands by nature protection at the supply of electricity and heat from energy crop; Identifikation und Analyse naturschutzseitiger Anforderungen an die Strom- und Waermebereitstellung aus Energieholz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirkner, Ronny [Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum g GmbH (DBFZ), Leipzig (Germany). Bereich Bioenergiesysteme

    2013-10-01

    The energetic use of biomass is currently a dominating part concerning the use of renewable energies and both federal and country-specific strategies will be continuously expanded in the course. However, energy and environmental policy objectives need viable sustainability requirements (ecological, economic, social), which is not always consistent due partly contradictory approaches. The article ''Identification and analysis of conservation-sided demands on the electricity and heat supply from energy wood'' is primarily devoted to the environmental analysis from the perspective of nature conservation and landscape management (SRC/woody biomass from landscape planning). The focus of the analysis is the amended Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG 2012), where you can find also in the field of solid fuels new requirements and levels of compensation which increase the attractiveness of selected material flows for the system operator and the resulting consequences for the nature protection and landscape conservation. These arise primarily from a change in the type and intensity of agricultural and forestry land use systems, but also the final form of the energy use of biomass itself. (orig.)

  2. Residue distribution and biomass recovery following biomass harvest of plantation pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnny Grace III; John Klepac; S. Taylor; Dana Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Forest biomass is anticipated to play a significant role in addressing an alternative energy supply. However, the efficiencies of current state-of-the-art recovery systems operating in forest biomass harvests are still relatively unknown. Forest biomass harvest stands typically have higher stand densities and smaller diameter trees than conventional stands which may...

  3. Mobilizing Sustainable Bioenergy Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Tat; Lattimore, Brenna; Berndes, Göran

    This report summarizes the results of an IEA Bioenergy inter-Task project involving collaborators from Tasks 37 (Energy from Biogas), 38 (Climate Change Effects of Biomass and Bioenergy Systems), 39 (Commercialising Conventional and Advanced Liquid Biofuels from Biomass), 40 (Sustainable...... International Bioenergy Trade: Securing Supply and Demand), 42 (Biorefining – Sustainable Processing of Biomass into a Spectrum of Marketable Bio-based Products and Bioenergy), and 43 (Biomass Feedstocks for Energy Markets). The purpose of the collaboration has been to analyze prospects for large...

  4. Fiscalini Farms Biomass Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Stringfellow; Mary Kay Camarillo; Jeremy Hanlon; Michael Jue; Chelsea Spier

    2011-09-30

    In this final report describes and documents research that was conducted by the Ecological Engineering Research Program (EERP) at the University of the Pacific (Stockton, CA) under subcontract to Fiscalini Farms LP for work under the Assistance Agreement DE-EE0001895 'Measurement and Evaluation of a Dairy Anaerobic Digestion/Power Generation System' from the United States Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory. Fiscalini Farms is operating a 710 kW biomass-energy power plant that uses bio-methane, generated from plant biomass, cheese whey, and cattle manure via mesophilic anaerobic digestion, to produce electricity using an internal combustion engine. The primary objectives of the project were to document baseline conditions for the anaerobic digester and the combined heat and power (CHP) system used for the dairy-based biomass-energy production. The baseline condition of the plant was evaluated in the context of regulatory and economic constraints. In this final report, the operation of the plant between start-up in 2009 and operation in 2010 are documented and an interpretation of the technical data is provided. An economic analysis of the biomass energy system was previously completed (Appendix A) and the results from that study are discussed briefly in this report. Results from the start-up and first year of operation indicate that mesophilic anaerobic digestion of agricultural biomass, combined with an internal combustion engine, is a reliable source of alternative electrical production. A major advantage of biomass energy facilities located on dairy farms appears to be their inherent stability and ability to produce a consistent, 24 hour supply of electricity. However, technical analysis indicated that the Fiscalini Farms system was operating below capacity and that economic sustainability would be improved by increasing loading of feedstocks to the digester. Additional operational modifications, such as increased utilization of

  5. In vitro cultures of Bacopa monnieri and an analysis of selected groups of biologically active metabolites in their biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyńska, Bożena; Łojewski, Maciej; Sułkowska-Ziaja, Katarzyna; Szewczyk, Agnieszka; Gdula-Argasińska, Joanna; Hałaszuk, Patrycja

    2016-11-01

    Bacopa monnieri L. Pennell (Scrophulariaceae) is one of the most important plants in the system of Indian medicine (Ayurveda). This paper studies the optimal growth of B. monnieri for effective accumulation of metabolites. Biomass growth of this plant could be accomplished in liquid cultures on Murashige & Skoog medium. Powdered shoots of in vitro cultures of B. monnieri were extracted by methanol for indole compounds, phenolic compounds and bacosides for RP-HPLC analysis. Fatty acid analysis was performed via gas chromatography. Anti-inflammatory effect of B. monnieri extracts was evaluated in the A549 cells. COX-2 and cPGES expression was analyzed using Western blots. l-Tryptophan and serotonin were found in biomass from in vitro cultures of B. monnieri on MS medium and in biomass from the MS mediums enriched with the different additions such as of 0.1 g/L magnesium sulphate, 0.1 g/L zinc hydroaspartate, 0.1 g/L l-tryptophan, 0.25 g/L serine, 0.5 g/L serine and 0.5 mg/L anthranilic acid. The content of l-tryptophan and serotonin compounds was significant in biomass from medium with the addition of 0.1 g/L zinc hydroaspartate (0.72 mg/g dry weight and 1.19, respectively). Phenolic compounds identified in biomass from the same variants of MS medium were chlorogenic acid (ranging from 0.20 to 0.70 mg/g dry weight), neochlorogenic acid (ranging from 0.11 to 0.40 mg/g dry weight) and caffeic acid (ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 mg/g dry weight). The main group of fatty acids in biomass was saturated fatty acids (53.4%). The predominant fatty acid was palmitic acid. A significant decrease of COX-2 and cPGES expression was observed in the A549 cells activated with LPS and treated with B. monnieri extracts. As far as we know, this is the first analysis of indole compounds and phenolic acids in this plant. The multi-therapeutic effect of B. monnieri is expressed by the activity of bacosides. Information about the presence of indole and phenolic compounds

  6. Biomass for bioenergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott

    Across the range of renewable energy resources, bioenergy is probably the most complex, as using biomass to support energy services ties into a number of fields; climate change, food production, rural development, biodiversity and environmental protection. Biomass offer several options...... for displacing fossil resources and is perceived as one of the main pillars of a future low-carbon or no-carbon energy supply. However, biomass, renewable as it is, is for any relevant, time horizon to be considered a finite resource as it replenishes at a finite rate. Conscientious stewardship of this finite...... resource requires not only disciplined research, but also a multidisciplinary approach in the development of viable solutions. It has been suggested that society can neither afford to miss out on global climate change mitigation and local development offered by bioenergy done right nor accept...

  7. Materials Supply System Analysis Under Simulation Scenarios in a Lean Manufacturing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Jiménez-García

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the most efficient supply system for a company working under Lean Manufacturing practices was possible with the support of this work. Promodel software was used to develop simulation model depicting a constant velocity joints (CVJ production system, where two different supply methods were assessed. According to results herein obtained, better performance is achieved under random supply method in comparison with a clustering supply method. The company’s goal is to keep 1% losses due to lack of material. In the actual process, this essential parameter was reduced from 2.73% to 1.177%, if random supply method is properly implemented.

  8. Sustainability Analysis and Buy-Back Coordination in a Fashion Supply Chain with Price Competition and Demand Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain sustainability has become significantly important in the fashion industry, and more and more fashion brands have invested in developing sustainable supply chains. We note that dual channel system comprising a brand-owned direct channel and retail outsourcing channel is quite common in the fashion industry, and in the latter, buy-back contract is popular between brands and retailers. Therefore, we build a stylized dual channel model with price competition and demand uncertainty to characterize the main properties of a fashion supply chain. Our foci are the sustainability analysis and the channel coordination mechanism. We first design a buy-back contract with return cost to coordinate the channel. We then study supply chain sustainability and examine the effect of two key influencing factors, i.e., price competition and demand uncertainty. Interestingly, we find that a fiercer price competition will lead to a more sustainable supply chain. From the perspective of supply chain managers, we conclude that (1 if managers care about environmental sustainability, fierce price competition is not a suggested strategy; (2 if managers care about economic sustainability, fierce price competition is an advantageous strategy. We also find that high demand uncertainty results in a less sustainable supply chain, in both an environmental and economic sustainability sense.

  9. Applying Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and Grey Relation Analysis to Evaluate the Supply Chain Performance of the Wafer Testing House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Chin Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In the information age, the process of E-Commerce (EC operates quickly and the present enterprises of Taiwan have to face the Free Cross-Strait Market (FCSM with Mainland China, which will definitely change the model as well as the performance of the supply chain. Hence, this study focuses on the issue of supply chain performance evaluation of the wafer testing house in Taiwan. Approach: This investigation applied the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP to derive the weights of influential indicators for evaluating the supply chain performance of the wafer testing house and the Grey Relation Analysis (GRA was used to evaluate the performance between the FCSM and EC aspects. Results: The analyzed results had identified the indicator weight of the supply chain performance evaluation in the wafer testing house and the indicator performances between different aspects were compared. The research results indicated that the FCSM aspect had better performance than EC aspect of the supply chain evaluation in the wafer testing house. Conclusion/Recommendations: Based on the analyzed results, the managers can find out the problems and improve the supply chain performance of the wafer testing house. This study not only can be a good basis for improvements of the case company, but also can be the reference for evaluating the supply chain performance of the wafer testing house.

  10. Modeling and Dynamical Analysis of the Water Resources Supply-Demand System: A Case Study in Haihe River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongli Di

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between water resources supply and demand is very complex and exhibits nonlinear characteristics, which leads to fewer models that can adequately manage the dynamic evolution process of the water resources supply-demand system. In this paper, we propose a new four-dimensional dynamical model to simulate the internal dynamic evolution process and predict future trends of water supply and demand. At the beginning, a new four-dimensional dynamical model with uncertain parameters is established. Then, the gray code hybrid accelerating genetic algorithm (GHAGA is adopted to identify the unknown parameters of the system based on the statistic data (1998–2009. Finally, the dynamical analysis of the system is further studied by Lyapunov-exponent, phase portraits, and Lyapunov exponent theory. Numerical simulation results demonstrate that the proposed water resources supply-demand system is in a steady state and is suitable for simulating the dynamical characteristics of a complex water supply and demand system. According to the trends of the water supply and demand of several nonlinear simulation cases, the corresponding measures can be proposed to improve the steady development of the water resources supply-demand system.

  11. Comparative Study of Coal and Biomass Co-Combustion With Coal Burning Separately Through Emissions Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Siddique

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate eco-friendly methods to mitigate the problem of emissions from combustion of fossil fuel are highly demanded. The current study was focused on the effect of using coal & coal-biomass co-combustion on the gaseous emissions. Different biomass' were used along with coal. The coal used was lignite coal and the biomass' were tree waste, cow dung and banana tree leaves. Various ratios of coal and biomass were used to investigate the combustion behavior of coal-biomass blends and their emissions. The study revealed that the ratio of 80:20 of coal (lignite-cow dung and 100% banana tree leaves emits less emissions of CO, CO2, NOx and SO2 as compared to 100% coal. Maximum amount of CO emissions were 1510.5 ppm for banana tree waste and minimum amount obtained for lakhra coal and cow dung manure (70:30 of 684.667 ppm. Maximum percentage of SO2 (345.33 ppm was released from blend of lakhra coal and tree leaves (90:10 and minimum amount of SO2 present in samples is in lakhra coal-banana tree waste (80:20. The maximum amount of NO obtained for banana tree waste were 68 ppm whereas maximum amount of NOx was liberated from lakhra coal-tree leaves (60:40 and minimum amount from cow dung manure (30.83 ppm. The study concludes that utilization of biomass with coal could make remedial action against environment pollution.

  12. Parametric Optimization of Biomass Steam-and-Gas Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sednin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a parametric analysis of the simplest scheme of a steam-and gas plant for the conditions required for biomass burning. It has been shown that application of gas-turbine and steam-and-gas plants can significantly exceed an efficiency of steam-power supply units which are used at the present moment. Optimum thermo-dynamical conditions for application of steam-and gas plants with the purpose to burn biomass require new technological solutions in the field of heat-exchange equipment designs.

  13. Rural water supply and related services in developing countries — Comparative analysis of several approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajard, Y.; Draper, M.; Viens, P.

    1981-05-01

    The proposed paper deals with a comparative analysis of several approaches possible and actually used for a joint action of local institutions and foreign aid in the field of water supply and related services such as sanitation to villages and small rural agglomerations (market towns, etc.) in developing countries. This comparative analysis is based on examples of actual programmes in this field. The authors have participated in most of the programmes selected as examples, at various levels and in various capacities, from conception to design, implementation and/or evaluation (i.e. rural development programmes in Ivory Coast, Ghana (upper region), Benin and Ethiopia. The authors were not involved in other examples such as water supply and/or sanitation to small urban centres in Benin, Ivory Coast, etc. They have, however, witnessed them directly and have obtained, therefore, first-hand information on their organization, execution and results. Several typical examples of actual projects are briefly defined and characterized. The paper undertakes, then, to compare, in a clinical fashion, the advantages and drawbacks of the approaches taken in the various examples presented. The paper finally proposes a recommendation for a realistic approach to joint action between local/domestic and foreign financing/assistance agencies and executing bodies (consultants, contractors) in the field of rural water supply, sanitation, and more generally, health improvement. The definition of this line of approach is made in terms of logical framework, i.e. goals, purposes, outputs and inputs at the various stages of the project, up to actual evaluation of execution and impact if possible; description of practical indicators of the two types of evaluation. A particular attention is given to the problems of technological choices, in view of the constraints imposed by the natural environment, by the human and social patterns; in view also of the institutions and the economy. Another point

  14. Energy Demand and Supply Analysis and Outlook - Energy Forecast for 2001 and Policy Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, In Gang; Ryu, Ji Chul [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The energy consumption in Korea has grown at impressive rates during the last 3 decades, along with the economic growth. The global concern about the environment issue and the restructuring in Korea energy industry has an effect on the pattern and trend of energy demand in Korea. Under the situation, this research are focusing on the analysis of energy consumption and forecast of energy demand. First of all, we analyze the trends and major characteristics of energy consumption, beginning with 1970s and up to the third quarter of 2000. In the analysis of energy consumption by energy types, we also perform qualitative analysis on the trends and characteristics of each energy types, including institutional analysis. In model section, we start with the brief description of synopsis and outline the survey on empirical models for energy demand. The econometric model used in KEEI's short-term energy forecast is outlined, followed by the result of estimations. The 2001 energy demand forecast is predicted in detail by sectors and energy types. In the year 2001, weak demand is projected to continue through the First Half, and pick up its pace of growth only in the Second Half. Projected total demand is 201.3 million TOE or 4.4% growth. In the last section, the major policy issues are summarized in three sub-sections: the restructuring in energy industry, the security of energy demand and supply, international energy cooperation including south-north energy cooperation. (author). 86 refs., 43 figs., 73 tabs.

  15. Multi-criteria analysis as a support for national energy policy regarding the use of biomass: Case study of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đaković Damir D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision makers make decisions taking into account many different factors. That is why different experiences, living standard and other „non-technical“ conditions may lead to different decisions in different countries, or even regions of the same country. This paper deals with information gathered through a survey made among experts already dealing with different aspects of biomass use. Recognized factors influencing the wider use of biomass are arranged in a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats matrix. This matrix is used as a base to gather the opinions of the experts interviewed. Conclusions were made taking into account the most influential factors on the decision making process in biomass use according to the results. The questions of the survey were chosen according to existing results, as well as based on the authors’ own experience and estimated relevance to the situation of the country analyzed (Republic of Serbia. The survey analysis covered the responses of 62 national experts in this field. Based on the gathered data, a proper multi-criteria analysis was done using the AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process and ANP (Analytic Network Process methods. Afterwards, recommendations and comments to the decision makers and developers of national energy strategies are presented.

  16. Harvesting forest biomass for energy in Minnesota: An assessment of guidelines, costs and logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Dalia El Sayed Abbas Mohamed

    The emerging market for renewable energy in Minnesota has generated a growing interest in utilizing more forest biomass for energy. However, this growing interest is paralleled with limited knowledge of the environmental impacts and cost effectiveness of utilizing this resource. To address environmental and economic viability concerns, this dissertation has addressed three areas related to biomass harvest: First, existing biomass harvesting guidelines and sustainability considerations are examined. Second, the potential contribution of biomass energy production to reduce the costs of hazardous fuel reduction treatments in these trials is assessed. Third, the logistics of biomass production trials are analyzed. Findings show that: (1) Existing forest related guidelines are not sufficient to allow large-scale production of biomass energy from forest residue sustainably. Biomass energy guidelines need to be based on scientific assess