WorldWideScience

Sample records for biomass supply analysis

  1. Increasing biomass resource availability through supply chain analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welfle, Andrew; Gilbert, Paul; Thornley, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Increased inclusion of biomass in energy strategies all over the world means that greater mobilisation of biomass resources will be required to meet demand. Strategies of many EU countries assume the future use of non-EU sourced biomass. An increasing number of studies call for the UK to consider alternative options, principally to better utilise indigenous resources. This research identifies the indigenous biomass resources that demonstrate the greatest promise for the UK bioenergy sector and evaluates the extent that different supply chain drivers influence resource availability. The analysis finds that the UK's resources with greatest primary bioenergy potential are household wastes (>115 TWh by 2050), energy crops (>100 TWh by 2050) and agricultural residues (>80 TWh by 2050). The availability of biomass waste resources was found to demonstrate great promise for the bioenergy sector, although are highly susceptible to influences, most notably by the focus of adopted waste management strategies. Biomass residue resources were found to be the resource category least susceptible to influence, with relatively high near-term availability that is forecast to increase – therefore representing a potentially robust resource for the bioenergy sector. The near-term availability of UK energy crops was found to be much less significant compared to other resource categories. Energy crops represent long-term potential for the bioenergy sector, although achieving higher limits of availability will be dependent on the successful management of key influencing drivers. The research highlights that the availability of indigenous resources is largely influenced by a few key drivers, this contradicting areas of consensus of current UK bioenergy policy. - Highlights: • As global biomass demand increases, focus is placed indigenous resources. • A Biomass Resource Model is applied to analyse UK biomass supply chain dynamics. • Biomass availability is best increased

  2. Biomass Feedstock and Conversion Supply System Design and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Jacob J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Roni, Mohammad S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lamers, Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cafferty, Kara G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy’s bioenergy research program. As part of the research program INL investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. A series of reports were published between 2000 and 2013 to demonstrate the feedstock logistics cost. Those reports were tailored to specific feedstock and conversion process. Although those reports are different in terms of conversion, some of the process in the feedstock logistic are same for each conversion process. As a result, each report has similar information. A single report can be designed that could bring all commonality occurred in the feedstock logistics process while discussing the feedstock logistics cost for different conversion process. Therefore, this report is designed in such a way that it can capture different feedstock logistics cost while eliminating the need of writing a conversion specific design report. Previous work established the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $55/dry ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, low-cost feedstock. The 2017 programmatic target is to supply feedstock to the conversion facility that meets the in-feed conversion process quality specifications at a total logistics cost of $80/dry T. The $80/dry T. target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all conversion in-feed quality targets

  3. Opportunities and Challenges in the Design and Analysis of Biomass Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautala, Pasi T.; Hilliard, Michael R.; Webb, Erin; Busch, Ingrid; Richard Hess, J.; Roni, Mohammad S.; Hilbert, Jorge; Handler, Robert M.; Bittencourt, Roger; Valente, Amir; Laitinen, Tuuli

    2015-12-01

    The biomass supply chain is one of the most critical elements of large-scale bioenergy production and in many cases a key barrier for procuring initial funding for new developments on specific energy crops. Most productions rely on complex transforming chains linked to feed and food markets. The term `supply chain' covers various aspects from cultivation and harvesting of the biomass, to treatment, transportation, and storage. After energy conversion, the product must be delivered to final consumption, whether it is in the form of electricity, heat, or more tangible products, such as pellets and biofuels. Effective supply chains are of utmost importance for bioenergy production, as biomass tends to possess challenging seasonal production cycles and low mass, energy and bulk densities. Additionally, the demand for final products is often also dispersed, further complicating the supply chain. The goal of this paper is to introduce key components of biomass supply chains, examples of related modeling applications, and if/how they address aspects related to environmental metrics and management. The paper will introduce a concept of integrated supply systems for sustainable biomass trade and the factors influencing the bioenergy supply chain landscape, including models that can be used to investigate the factors. The paper will also cover various aspects of transportation logistics, ranging from alternative modal and multi-modal alternatives to introduction of support tools for transportation analysis. Finally gaps and challenges in supply chain research are identified and used to outline research recommendations for the future direction in this area of study.

  4. Opportunities and Challenges in the Design and Analysis of Biomass Supply Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautala, Pasi T; Hilliard, Michael R; Webb, Erin; Busch, Ingrid; Richard Hess, J; Roni, Mohammad S; Hilbert, Jorge; Handler, Robert M; Bittencourt, Roger; Valente, Amir; Laitinen, Tuuli

    2015-12-01

    The biomass supply chain is one of the most critical elements of large-scale bioenergy production and in many cases a key barrier for procuring initial funding for new developments on specific energy crops. Most productions rely on complex transforming chains linked to feed and food markets. The term 'supply chain' covers various aspects from cultivation and harvesting of the biomass, to treatment, transportation, and storage. After energy conversion, the product must be delivered to final consumption, whether it is in the form of electricity, heat, or more tangible products, such as pellets and biofuels. Effective supply chains are of utmost importance for bioenergy production, as biomass tends to possess challenging seasonal production cycles and low mass, energy and bulk densities. Additionally, the demand for final products is often also dispersed, further complicating the supply chain. The goal of this paper is to introduce key components of biomass supply chains, examples of related modeling applications, and if/how they address aspects related to environmental metrics and management. The paper will introduce a concept of integrated supply systems for sustainable biomass trade and the factors influencing the bioenergy supply chain landscape, including models that can be used to investigate the factors. The paper will also cover various aspects of transportation logistics, ranging from alternative modal and multi-modal alternatives to introduction of support tools for transportation analysis. Finally gaps and challenges in supply chain research are identified and used to outline research recommendations for the future direction in this area of study.

  5. Estimating Swedish biomass energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, J.; Lundqvist, U.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass is suggested to supply an increasing amount of energy in Sweden. There have been several studies estimating the potential supply of biomass energy, including that of the Swedish Energy Commission in 1995. The Energy Commission based its estimates of biomass supply on five other analyses which presented a wide variation in estimated future supply, in large part due to differing assumptions regarding important factors. In this paper, these studies are assessed, and the estimated potential biomass energy supplies are discusses regarding prices, technical progress and energy policy. The supply of logging residues depends on the demand for wood products and is limited by ecological, technological, and economic restrictions. The supply of stemwood from early thinning for energy and of straw from cereal and oil seed production is mainly dependent upon economic considerations. One major factor for the supply of willow and reed canary grass is the size of arable land projected to be not needed for food and fodder production. Future supply of biomass energy depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities. Biomass energy has to compete with other energy sources as well as with alternative uses of biomass such as forest products and food production. Technical progress may decrease the costs of biomass energy and thus increase the competitiveness. Economic instruments, including carbon taxes and subsidies, and allocation of research and development resources, are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of biomass energy

  6. A Supply-Chain Analysis Framework for Assessing Densified Biomass Solid Fuel Utilization Policies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Densified Biomass Solid Fuel (DBSF is a typical solid form of biomass, using agricultural and forestry residues as raw materials. DBSF utilization is considered to be an alternative to fossil energy, like coal in China, associated with a reduction of environmental pollution. China has abundant biomass resources and is suitable to develop DBSF. Until now, a number of policies aimed at fostering DBSF industry have been proliferated by policy makers in China. However, considering the seasonality and instability of biomass resources, these inefficiencies could trigger future scarcities of biomass feedstocks, baffling the resilience of biomass supply chains. Therefore, this review paper focuses on DBSF policies and strategies in China, based on the supply chain framework. We analyzed the current developing situation of DBSF industry in China and developed a framework for policy instruments based on the supply chain steps, which can be used to identify and assess the deficiencies of current DBSF industry policies, and we proposed some suggestions. These findings may inform policy development and identify synergies at different steps in the supply chain to enhance the development of DBSF industry.

  7. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Indirect Liquefaction of Blended Biomass to Produce High Octane Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Canter, Christina E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartley, Damon S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) aims at developing and deploying technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2015). BETO also performs a supply chain sustainability analysis (SCSA). This report describes the SCSA of the production of renewable high octane gasoline (HOG) via indirect liquefaction (IDL) of lignocellulosic biomass. This SCSA was developed for the 2017 design case for feedstock logistics (INL, 2014) and for the 2022 target case for HOG production via IDL (Tan et al., 2015). The design includes advancements that are likely and targeted to be achieved by 2017 for the feedstock logistics and 2022 for the IDL conversion process. The 2017 design case for feedstock logistics demonstrated a delivered feedstock cost of $80 per dry U.S. short ton by the year 2017 (INL, 2014). The 2022 design case for the conversion process, as modeled in Tan et al. (2015), uses the feedstock 2017 design case blend of biomass feedstocks consisting of pulpwood, wood residue, switchgrass, and construction and demolition waste (C&D) with performance properties consistent with a sole woody feedstock type (e.g., pine or poplar). The HOG SCSA case considers the 2017 feedstock design case (the blend) as well as individual feedstock cases separately as alternative scenarios when the feedstock blend ratio varies as a result of a change in feedstock availability. These scenarios could be viewed as bounding SCSA results because of distinctive requirements for energy and chemical inputs for the production and logistics of different components of the blend feedstocks.

  8. An exploratory game-theoretic analysis of biomass electricity generation supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasiri, Fuzhan; Zaccour, Georges

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes a game-theoretic approach to model and analyze the process of utilizing biomass for power generation considering three players: distributor, facility developer, and participating farmer. We characterize the Nash equilibrium of the sequential game and discuss its features. A special attention is devoted to the analysis of the impact of incentives and initial target on the equilibrium, in which the biomass is part of electricity production.

  9. Geographical cost-supply analysis forest biomass for distributed generation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The article presents a study which uses geographical information system (GIS) to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production.......The article presents a study which uses geographical information system (GIS) to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production....

  10. A supply chain analysis framework for assessing state-level forest biomass utilization policies in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Dennis R.; Moseley, Cassandra; Lee, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The number of state policies aimed at fostering biomass utilization has proliferated in recent years in the United States. Several states aim to increase the use of forest and agriculture biomass through renewable energy production. Several more indirectly encourage utilization by targeting aspects of the supply chain from trees standing in the forest to goods sold. This research classifies 370 state policies from across the United States that provides incentives for forest biomass utilization. We compare those policies by types of incentives relative to the supply chain and geographic clustering. We then develop a framework for policy evaluation building on the supply chain steps, which can be used to assess intended and unintended consequences of policy interactions. These findings may inform policy development and identify synergies at different steps in the supply chain to enhance forest biomass utilization.

  11. Ethanol distribution, dispensing, and use: analysis of a portion of the biomass-to-biofuels supply chain using system dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J; Bush, Brian; Peterson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 targets use of 36 billion gallons of biofuels per year by 2022. Achieving this may require substantial changes to current transportation fuel systems for distribution, dispensing, and use in vehicles. The U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory designed a system dynamics approach to help focus government action by determining what supply chain changes would have the greatest potential to accelerate biofuels deployment. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed the Biomass Scenario Model, a system dynamics model which represents the primary system effects and dependencies in the biomass-to-biofuels supply chain. The model provides a framework for developing scenarios and conducting biofuels policy analysis. This paper focuses on the downstream portion of the supply chain-represented in the distribution logistics, dispensing station, and fuel utilization, and vehicle modules of the Biomass Scenario Model. This model initially focused on ethanol, but has since been expanded to include other biofuels. Some portions of this system are represented dynamically with major interactions and feedbacks, especially those related to a dispensing station owner's decision whether to offer ethanol fuel and a consumer's choice whether to purchase that fuel. Other portions of the system are modeled with little or no dynamics; the vehicle choices of consumers are represented as discrete scenarios. This paper explores conditions needed to sustain an ethanol fuel market and identifies implications of these findings for program and policy goals. A large, economically sustainable ethanol fuel market (or other biofuel market) requires low end-user fuel price relative to gasoline and sufficient producer payment, which are difficult to achieve simultaneously. Other requirements (different for ethanol vs. other biofuel markets) include the need for infrastructure for distribution and dispensing and

  12. Ethanol Distribution, Dispensing, and Use: Analysis of a Portion of the Biomass-to-Biofuels Supply Chain Using System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J.; Bush, Brian; Peterson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 targets use of 36 billion gallons of biofuels per year by 2022. Achieving this may require substantial changes to current transportation fuel systems for distribution, dispensing, and use in vehicles. The U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory designed a system dynamics approach to help focus government action by determining what supply chain changes would have the greatest potential to accelerate biofuels deployment. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed the Biomass Scenario Model, a system dynamics model which represents the primary system effects and dependencies in the biomass-to-biofuels supply chain. The model provides a framework for developing scenarios and conducting biofuels policy analysis. This paper focuses on the downstream portion of the supply chain–represented in the distribution logistics, dispensing station, and fuel utilization, and vehicle modules of the Biomass Scenario Model. This model initially focused on ethanol, but has since been expanded to include other biofuels. Some portions of this system are represented dynamically with major interactions and feedbacks, especially those related to a dispensing station owner’s decision whether to offer ethanol fuel and a consumer’s choice whether to purchase that fuel. Other portions of the system are modeled with little or no dynamics; the vehicle choices of consumers are represented as discrete scenarios. This paper explores conditions needed to sustain an ethanol fuel market and identifies implications of these findings for program and policy goals. A large, economically sustainable ethanol fuel market (or other biofuel market) requires low end-user fuel price relative to gasoline and sufficient producer payment, which are difficult to achieve simultaneously. Other requirements (different for ethanol vs. other biofuel markets) include the need for infrastructure for distribution and dispensing and

  13. Bioenergy Project Development and Biomass Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Modern biomass, and the resulting useful forms of bioenergy produced from it, are anticipated by many advocates to provide a significant contribution to the global primary energy supply of many IEA member countries during the coming decades. For non-member countries, particularly those wishing to achieve economic growth as well as meet the goals for sustainable development, the deployment of modern bioenergy projects and the growing international trade in biomass-based energy carriers offer potential opportunities.

  14. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Indirect Liquefaction of Blended Biomass to Produce High Octane Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Canter, Christina E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartley, Damon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Searcy, Erin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the SCSA of the production of renewable high octane gasoline (HOG) via indirect liquefaction (IDL) of lignocellulosic biomass. This SCSA was developed for both the 2015 SOT (Hartley et al., 2015; ANL, 2016; DOE, 2016) and the 2017 design case for feedstock logistics (INL, 2014) and for both the 2015 SOT (Tan et al., 2015a) and the 2022 target case for HOG production via IDL (Tan et al., 2015b). The design includes advancements that are likely and targeted to be achieved by 2017 for the feedstock logistics and 2022 for the IDL conversion process. In the SCSA, the 2015 SOT case for the conversion process, as modeled in Tan et al. (2015b), uses the 2015 SOT feedstock blend of pulpwood, wood residue, and construction and demolition waste (C&D). Moreover, the 2022 design case for the conversion process, as described in Tan et al. (2015a), uses the 2017 design case blend of pulpwood, wood residue, switchgrass, and C&D. The performance characteristics of this blend are consistent with those of a single woody feedstock (e.g., pine or poplar). We also examined the influence of using a single feedstock type on SCSA results for the design case. These single feedstock scenarios could be viewed as bounding SCSA results given that the different components of the feedstock blend have varying energy and material demands for production and logistics.

  15. Biomass Supply Chain and Conversion Economics of Cellulosic Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ronalds W.

    2011-12-01

    Cellulosic biomass is a potential and competitive source for bioenergy production, reasons for such acclamation include: biomass is one the few energy sources that can actually be utilized to produce several types of energy (motor fuel, electricity, heat) and cellulosic biomass is renewable and relatively found everywhere. Despite these positive advantages, issues regarding cellulosic biomass availability, supply chain, conversion process and economics need a more comprehensive understanding in order to identify the near short term routes in biomass to bioenergy production. Cellulosic biomass accounts for around 35% to 45% of cost share in cellulosic ethanol production, in addition, different feedstock have very different production rate, (dry ton/acre/year), availability across the year, and chemical composition that affect process yield and conversion costs as well. In the other hand, existing and brand new conversion technologies for cellulosic ethanol production offer different advantages, risks and financial returns. Ethanol yield, financial returns, delivered cost and supply chain logistic for combinations of feedstock and conversion technology are investigated in six studies. In the first study, biomass productivity, supply chain and delivered cost of fast growing Eucalyptus is simulated in economic and supply chain models to supply a hypothetic ethanol biorefinery. Finding suggests that Eucalyptus can be a potential hardwood grown specifically for energy. Delivered cost is highly sensitive to biomass productivity, percentage of covered area. Evaluated at different financial expectations, delivered cost can be competitive compared to current forest feedstock supply. In the second study, Eucalyptus biomass conversion into cellulosic ethanol is simulated in the dilute acid pretreatment, analysis of conversion costs, cost share, CAPEX and ethanol yield are examined. In the third study, biomass supply and delivered cost of loblolly pine is simulated in economic

  16. Efficient Methods of Estimating Switchgrass Biomass Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is being developed as a biofuel feedstock for the United States. Efficient and accurate methods to estimate switchgrass biomass feedstock supply within a production area will be required by biorefineries. Our main objective was to determine the effectiveness of in...

  17. Determining switchgrass biomass supplies for cellulosic biorefineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is being developed into a bioenergy crop for use in temperate regions of the USA. Information on spatial and temporial variation for stands and biomass yield among and within fields in large agroecoregions is not available. A reliable feedstock supply will be essent...

  18. Transport and supply logistics of biomass fuels: Vol. 1. Supply chain options for biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J; Browne, M; Palmer, H; Hunter, A; Boyd, J

    1996-10-01

    The study which forms part of a wider project funded by the Department of Trade and Industry, looks at the feasibility of generating electricity from biomass-fuelled power stations. Emphasis is placed on supply availabilty and transport consideration for biomass fuels such as wood wastes from forestry, short rotation coppice products, straw, miscanthus (an energy crop) and farm animal slurries. The study details the elements of the supply chain for each fuel from harvesting to delivery at the power station. The delivered cost of each fuel, the environmental impact of the biomass fuel supply and other relevant non-technical issues are addressed. (UK)

  19. Simulation and assessment of agricultural biomass supply chain systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pavlou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural biomass supply chain consists of a number of interacted sequential operations affected by various variables, such as weather conditions, machinery systems, and biomass features. These facts make the process of biomass supply chain as a complex system that requires computational tools, e.g. simulation and mathematical models, for their assessment and analysis. A biomass supply chain simulation model developed on the ExtendSim 8 simulation environment is presented in this paper. A number of sequential operations are applied in order biomass to be mowed, harvested, and transported to a biorefinery facility. Different operational scenarios regarding the travel distance between field and biorefinery facility, number of machines, and capacity of machines are analyzed showing how different parameters affect the processes within biomass supply chain in terms of time and cost. The results shown that parameters such as area of the field, travel distance, number of available machines, capacity of the machines, etc. should be taken into account in order a less time and/ or cost consuming machinery combination to be selected.

  20. Analysing biomass torrefaction supply chain costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanberg, Martin; Olofsson, Ingemar; Flodén, Jonas; Nordin, Anders

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop a techno-economic system model to evaluate how logistics and production parameters affect the torrefaction supply chain costs under Swedish conditions. The model consists of four sub-models: (1) supply system, (2) a complete energy and mass balance of drying, torrefaction and densification, (3) investment and operating costs of a green field, stand-alone torrefaction pellet plant, and (4) distribution system to the gate of an end user. The results show that the torrefaction supply chain reaps significant economies of scale up to a plant size of about 150-200 kiloton dry substance per year (ktonDS/year), for which the total supply chain costs accounts to 31.8 euro per megawatt hour based on lower heating value (€/MWhLHV). Important parameters affecting total cost are amount of available biomass, biomass premium, logistics equipment, biomass moisture content, drying technology, torrefaction mass yield and torrefaction plant capital expenditures (CAPEX). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Integrated strategic and tactical biomass-biofuel supply chain optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Rodríguez, Luis F; Shastri, Yogendra N; Hansen, Alan C; Ting, K C

    2014-03-01

    To ensure effective biomass feedstock provision for large-scale biofuel production, an integrated biomass supply chain optimization model was developed to minimize annual biomass-ethanol production costs by optimizing both strategic and tactical planning decisions simultaneously. The mixed integer linear programming model optimizes the activities range from biomass harvesting, packing, in-field transportation, stacking, transportation, preprocessing, and storage, to ethanol production and distribution. The numbers, locations, and capacities of facilities as well as biomass and ethanol distribution patterns are key strategic decisions; while biomass production, delivery, and operating schedules and inventory monitoring are key tactical decisions. The model was implemented to study Miscanthus-ethanol supply chain in Illinois. The base case results showed unit Miscanthus-ethanol production costs were $0.72L(-1) of ethanol. Biorefinery related costs accounts for 62% of the total costs, followed by biomass procurement costs. Sensitivity analysis showed that a 50% reduction in biomass yield would increase unit production costs by 11%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sustainability of biomass in a bio-based economy. A quick-scan analysis of the biomass demand of a bio-based economy in 2030 compared to the sustainable supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, J.; Olivier, J.; Notenboom, J. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Croezen, H.; Bergsma, G. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    The conversion of a fossil fuel-based economy into a bio-based economy will probably be restricted in the European Union (EU) by the limited supply of ecologically sustainable biomass. It appears realistic that, for the EU, the sustainable biomass supply will be enough to meet about 10% of the final energy and feedstock consumption in 2030. Under optimistic assumptions, this supply might increase to 20%. EU Member States, in their Renewable Energy Action Plans for 2020, already aim to apply an amount of biomass that already approaches this 10%. Therefore, from a sustainability perspective, there is an urgent need to guarantee ecologically sustainable biomass production. In considering sustainable biomass production, land use is the most critical issue, especially the indirect land-use impacts on greenhouse gas emissions and biodiversity. The use of waste resources and agricultural and forestry residues, that does not involve additional land use, therefore, would be a sustainable option. Technically, it is possible to use these types of resources for most applications in a bio-based economy. However, it seems unlikely that, by 2030, waste and residue resources will contribute more than three to four per cent to the final energy and feedstock consumption in Europe. Moreover, many waste and residue resources currently already have useful applications; for instance, as feed or soil improvers. These are the main findings of a quick-scan analysis carried out by the PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency and CE Delft on the sustainability of a bio-based economy. Three priorities can be distinguished in the transition to an ecologically sustainable bio-based economy that aims to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels: (1) develop new technologies, procedures and infrastructure to collect or to produce more biomass without using directly or indirectly valuable natural land; (2) develop technologies to produce hydrocarbons from types of biomass that have potentially

  3. Cost of Oil and Biomass Supply Shocks under Different Biofuel Supply Chain Configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uria Martinez, Rocio [ORNL; Leiby, Paul Newsome [ORNL; Brown, Maxwell L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2018-04-01

    This analysis estimates the cost of selected oil and biomass supply shocks for producers and consumers in the light-duty vehicle fuel market under various supply chain configurations using a mathematical programing model, BioTrans. The supply chain configurations differ by whether they include selected flexibility levers: multi-feedstock biorefineries; advanced biomass logistics; and the ability to adjust ethanol content of low-ethanol fuel blends, from E10 to E15 or E05. The simulated scenarios explore market responses to supply shocks including substitution between gasoline and ethanol, substitution between different sources of ethanol supply, biorefinery capacity additions or idling, and price adjustments. Welfare effects for the various market participants represented in BioTrans are summarized into a net shock cost measure. As oil accounts for a larger fraction of fuel by volume, its supply shocks are costlier than biomass supply shocks. Corn availability and the high cost of adding biorefinery capacity limit increases in ethanol use during gasoline price spikes. During shocks that imply sudden decreases in the price of gasoline, the renewable fuel standard (RFS) biofuel blending mandate limits the extent to which flexibility can be exercised to reduce ethanol use. The selected flexibility levers are most useful in response to cellulosic biomass supply shocks.

  4. EUBIONET II. Efficient trading of biomass fuels and analysis of fuel supply chains and business models for market actors by networking. Final result-oriented report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E.; Wiik, C.; Vesterinen, P. (and others)

    2008-02-15

    The project aimed to increase deployment of biomass fuels into European market and match technology uptake by means of market and policy analysis and other well-defined tasks to meet European policy targets in renewable energy sector. The project is to result as increased use of biomass fuels and market uptake of innovative bioenergy technologies. The objectives of the project were the following: 1) To give a clear outlook on current and future biomass fuel market trends. 2) To give feedback on the suitability of CEN 335 biofuel standard for trading of solid biofuels. 3) To provide well-analysed estimation on techno-economic potential of the biomass fuel volumes until 2010 based on the existing studies and experts opinions. Regarding the forest biomass sector, co-operation will be done with forest industry stakeholders to find proper balance between forest industry raw material and bioenergy usage. 4) To enhance biomass fuel trade and technology transfer by networking among different actors. 5) To analyse, select and describe the most suitable trading and business models for small- and largescale biofuel supply chains for heat and power production by taking into account the environmental aspects and sustainability. 6) To enhance biomass usage by the means of co-operation and information dissemination among different market actors in the fuel-utilisation chain. Target groups were biomass fuel traders and users, fuel producers and suppliers of different scales, policy makers in both current and new member states. Key associations, i.e. AEBIOM and CEPI, were participating in the project and disseminating information to various groups. The project has been structured in 5 workpackages. Project was carried out by 16 partners, which are the key national bioenergy organisations in the European countries and have a long co-operation relationship in previous bioenergy networks. The project has published summary reports and national report of each WP and this report is

  5. Role of biomass in global energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, G.; Christensen, R.; Christensen, J.

    2003-01-01

    Bioenergy is energy of biological and renewable origin, normally in the form of purpose-grown energy crops or by-products from agriculture, forestry or fisheries. Biomass provides approximately 11-14% of the world's energy, but there are significant differences between industrialised and developing countries. In many developing countries biomass is the most important energy source. As a global average, biomass provides approximately 35% of developing countries' energy, but there are large regional differences. Many sub-Saharan African countries depend on biomass for up to 90% of their energy indicating that they have little in the way of industry or other modern activities. In the last decade interest in bioenergy has increased in industrialised countries partly due to growing concern about climate change, technological advances in biomass conversion, increasing focus on security of energy supply, and increasing interest in renewable energy generally. Two trends emerge: The developing countries will in general aim to reduce their dependence on traditional bioenergy. The relative share of bioenergy in the energy balance will therefore go down, though the number of people depending on traditional bioenergy probably will remain constant, with corresponding consequences for health and resources. Industrialised countries, plus a number of developing countries, will aim to increase their use of modern bioenergy technologies. With the traditional association of bioenergy as old fashioned and for the poor, the recent interest in biomass resources has invented a new term 'modern bioenergy' which covers a number of technological areas from combustion at domestic, industrial or power plant scale, gasification, hydrolysis, pyrolysis, extraction, digestion etc. There are some barriers to the increased use of bioenergy, but they can be overcome through dedicated interventions by public and private sector entities. (BA)

  6. Modeling of biomass-to-energy supply chain operations: Applications, challenges and research directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mafakheri, Fereshteh; Nasiri, Fuzhan

    2014-01-01

    Reducing dependency on fossil fuels and mitigating their environmental impacts are among the most promising aspects of utilizing renewable energy sources. The availability of various biomass resources has made it an appealing source of renewable energy. Given the variability of supply and sources of biomass, supply chains play an important role in the efficient provisioning of biomass resources for energy production. This paper provides a comprehensive review and classification of the excising literature in modeling of biomass supply chain operations while linking them to the wider strategic challenges and issues with the design, planning and management of biomass supply chains. On that basis, we will present an analysis of the existing gaps and the potential future directions for research in modeling of biomass supply chain operations. - Highlights: • An extensive review of biomass supply chain operations management models presented in the literature is provided. • The models are classified in line with biomass supply chain activities from harvesting to conversion. • The issues surrounding biomass supply chains are investigated manifesting the need to novel modeling approaches. • Our gap analysis has identified a number of existing shortcomings and opportunities for future research

  7. Supply Chain Analysis, Delivered Cost, and Life Cycle Assessment of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Biomass for Green Chemical Production in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Walker Reeb

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Financial, environmental, and supply chain analyses of empty fruit bunch (EFB biomass are needed for the development of a sustainable green chemicals industry in Malaysia. Herein, holistic analysis of the supply system and EFB life cycle cradle-to-gate are analyzed in an effort to make recommendations for the commercial-scale collection and delivery of EFB from crude palm oil (CPO extraction facilities to biorefineries in Malaysia. Supply chain modeling tracked inputs and outputs for financial analysis. The openLCA software was used for life cycle assessment (LCA. Allocation scenarios were used to explore the impact of accounting methodologies on the competitiveness of EFB compared to other feedstocks. Sensitivity analysis on the effect of transportation distance, emission flows, and allocation methods on resulting environmental impacts were conducted. The No Burden, Economic, and Mass allocation scenarios resulted in 17, -2.3, and -265 kg CO2-eq. BD tonne-1 EFB global warming impacts (GW, respectively. Delivered cost for EFB was calculated to be approximately 45 US$ BD tonne-1. Environmental burdens were sensitive to allocation scenario, covered area, and land use change. Delivered cost was sensitive to transport distance, covered area, and yield. It was shown that there is sufficient Malaysia EFB available for between 9 and 28 biorefineries, depending upon the scale of production.

  8. Cost/benefit analysis of biomass energy supply options for rural smallholders in the semi-arid eastern part of Shinyanga Region in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiskerke, W.T.; Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.P.C. [Department of Science, Technology and Society, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rubanza, C.D.K. [Tanzania Forestry Research Institute (TAFORI)/National Forest Resource Management and Agroforestry Centre (NACRAF), P.O. Box 1257, Shinyanga (Tanzania); Malimbwi, R.E. [Faculty of Forestry and Natural Resources, Sokoine University, P.O. Box 3010, Morogoro (Tanzania)

    2010-01-15

    This study analyzes the economic feasibility of sustainable smallholder bio-energy production under semi-arid conditions. The eastern part of Shinyanga region in Tanzania was chosen as a case study area. Three different sustainable biomass energy supply systems were compared by means of cost/benefit analysis: a small-scale forestation project for carbon sequestration, a short rotation woodlot and a Jatropha plantation, thereby using the produced Jatropha oil as a substitute for fuelwood or diesel. Rotational woodlots are most profitable with a Net Present Value of up to US${sub 2007} 1165/ha, a return on labour of up to US${sub 2007} 6.69/man-day and a fuelwood production cost of US${sub 2007} 0.53/GJ, compared to a local market price of US${sub 2007} 1.95/GJ. With a production cost of US${sub 2007} 19.60/GJ, Jatropha oil is too expensive to be used as an alternative for fuelwood. Instead it can be utilized economically as a diesel substitute, at an observed diesel cost of US${sub 2007} 1.49/l. The mean annual biomass increment (MAI) in semi-arid East Shinyanga is too low to collect sufficient benefits from trading forestation carbon credits under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) to cover the costs of forestation and forest management. (author)

  9. Understanding forest-derived biomass supply with GIS modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hock, B. K.; Blomqvist, L.; Hall, P.

    2012-01-01

    distribution, and the cost of delivery as forests are frequently remote from energy users. A GIS-based model was developed to predict supply curves of forest biomass material for a site or group of sites, both now and in the future. The GIS biomass supply model was used to assist the New Zealand Energy...... Efficiency and Conservation Authority's development of a national target for biomass use for industrial heat production, to determine potential forest residue volumes for industrial heat and their delivery costs for 19 processing plants of the dairy company Fonterra, and towards investigating options...

  10. Biomass energy consumption in Nigeria: integrating demand and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoh, S.; Soaga, J.

    1999-01-01

    The study examined the present and future consumption of biomass energy in Nigeria. Direct consumption of fire wood for domestic purposes is the predominant form of biomass energy consumption. Charcoal plays minot roles in biomass energy supply. The current and expected demand for fuelwood is projected to increase by 399% whereas supply is expected to decrease by 17.2% between 1995 and year 2010. Resource adequacy in terms of planned supply is on the decline. Forest estates which is the only planned strategy for fuelwood and wood production is projected to decline from 6.37 million ha. in 1990 to 2.4 million ha, in year 2010. The possibilities of meeting the fuelwood demand in the future is precarious. Policy measures aimed at increasing forest estates. reduction of loss of forest lands to other uses and encouragement of private forestry are recommended

  11. Biomass supply management for advanced energy: applications in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranney, J W [Joint Institute for Energy and Environment, Knoxville, TN (United States); Perlack, R D [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Advanced biomass energy systems, including new biomass resource enhancement technologies, should be developed only where compelling situations for investors or communities exist to economically do so. These situations, or minimum viable operating conditions, are assessed from a pragmatic perspective. They are determined by specific circumstances and divergent interests that take time to define and integrate. Customized solutions are necessary and can change quickly with geography and market circumstances New technologies offer more options but are not necessarily the best. The example of energy crop technology is used to demonstrate the interdependencies that exist between new resource enhancement technology and biomass energy systems operations. The ability to genetically increase the energy density of energy crops is compared to other enhancement measures such as increasing the number of tonnes grown per hectare-year, reducing costs per tonne and improving other characteristics. Issues that need to be considered include significant knowledge gaps, lack of commitments in R and D, specificity of conversion system requirements, handling capabilities and opportunity costs. Broader biomass procurement strategies, which may be more important than resource enhancement technologies, are discussed. Biomass cost-supply is utilized as a strong analytical feature to evaluate the effectiveness of biomass procurement strategies and new biomass production technologies. Some past experiences are reviewed. Cost-supply is assessed from the perspective of the whole biomass energy system to expose the interdependencies between production operations, conversion scale and technologies, and community markets and service. Investment limits, for example, may be as important a determinant as the cost-efficiency of a new technology, which, in turn, affects biomass cost-supply-quality requirements. The cost of new technologies can then be compared to the changed performance of the overall

  12. Biomass supply management for advanced energy: applications in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranney, J.W.; Perlack, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    Advanced biomass energy systems, including new biomass resource enhancement technologies, should be developed only where compelling situations for investors or communities exist to economically do so. These situations, or minimum viable operating conditions, are assessed from a pragmatic perspective. They are determined by specific circumstances and divergent interests that take time to define and integrate. Customized solutions are necessary and can change quickly with geography and market circumstances New technologies offer more options but are not necessarily the best. The example of energy crop technology is used to demonstrate the interdependencies that exist between new resource enhancement technology and biomass energy systems operations. The ability to genetically increase the energy density of energy crops is compared to other enhancement measures such as increasing the number of tonnes grown per hectare-year, reducing costs per tonne and improving other characteristics. Issues that need to be considered include significant knowledge gaps, lack of commitments in R and D, specificity of conversion system requirements, handling capabilities and opportunity costs. Broader biomass procurement strategies, which may be more important than resource enhancement technologies, are discussed. Biomass cost-supply is utilized as a strong analytical feature to evaluate the effectiveness of biomass procurement strategies and new biomass production technologies. Some past experiences are reviewed. Cost-supply is assessed from the perspective of the whole biomass energy system to expose the interdependencies between production operations, conversion scale and technologies, and community markets and service. Investment limits, for example, may be as important a determinant as the cost-efficiency of a new technology, which, in turn, affects biomass cost-supply-quality requirements. The cost of new technologies can then be compared to the changed performance of the overall

  13. Tactical supply chain planning for a forest biomass power plant under supply uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabani, Nazanin; Sowlati, Taraneh; Ouhimmou, Mustapha; Rönnqvist, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainty in biomass supply is a critical issue that needs to be considered in the production planning of bioenergy plants. Incorporating uncertainty in supply chain planning models provides improved and stable solutions. In this paper, we first reformulate a previously developed non-linear programming model for optimization of a forest biomass power plant supply chain into a linear programming model. The developed model is a multi-period tactical-level production planning problem and considers the supply and storage of forest biomass as well as the production of electricity. It has a one-year planning horizon with monthly time steps. Next, in order to incorporate uncertainty in monthly available biomass into the planning, we develop a two-stage stochastic programming model. Finally, to balance the risk and profit, we propose a bi-objective model. The results show that uncertainty in availability of biomass has an additional cost of $0.4 million for the power plant. Using the proposed stochastic optimization model could reduce this cost by half. - Highlights: • Developed a two-stage stochastic optimization model to consider supply uncertainty. • Maximized the profit of a forest biomass power plant value chain. • Minimized two risk measures, variability index and downside risk, to manage risks. • Stochastic optimization model provided feasible solution for all scenarios. • Results showed a trade-off between profit and risk management

  14. Feedstock quality : an important consideration in forest biomass supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryans, M. [FP Innovations, Vancouver, BC (Canada). FERIC

    2009-07-01

    The move to forest-based sources of biomass requires an emphasis on the quality of forest residues. Customers set the feedstock requirements, and demand homogeneous and predictable quality. The top quality factors are appropriate moisture content, consistent particle size, chlorine content, and clean material. The seasonal variability of the resource means that suppliers must determine how to deliver a year-round supply with appropriate moisture content. Methods such as pre-piling and covering with a tarp are being tested. Although mills tailored for biomass deliveries have modernized boilers capable of burning a variety of biomass feedstocks at varying moisture contents, a 10 per cent reduction in moisture content can offer a good return on investment because suppliers could transports more energy content and less water per tonne of biomass. This presentation also discussed the range of equipment choices available for delivering the right-sized biomass, and outlined the right and wrong practices that influence biomass quality along the supply chain. figs.

  15. Influence of Trust on Biomass Supply Decision-Making in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the abundant straw resources in Northeast China and the huge external costs associated with fossil fuels, straw-based biomass power plants have emerged as a popular alternative to coal-fired power plants. The sustainability of these green alternatives depends on straw supply from farmers, yet little is known about their perceptions regarding such supply because of a lack of cooperation in the supply chain. To better understand farmers’ opinions on supplying straw, this study examined their trust in middlemen, perceptions regarding risk in straw supply, the possibility of reducing transaction costs, and their willingness to supply straw. Data were collected from 275 farmers in the national bioenergy industry area in Wangkui County, Northeast China. We investigated the theoretical and empirical connections between trust and risk perception, trust and the possibility of reducing transaction costs, and trust and willingness to supply straw. The results indicated that education, income, and trust factors explained farmers’ risk perceptions, the possibility that they will reduce transaction costs, and their willingness to supply straw. On the basis of the analysis, a model of the influence of trust on straw supply was established. The overall findings indicated that biomass power plants and middlemen must build trusting relationships with farmers to ensure sustainable biomass supply.

  16. Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory Procedures | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory Procedures Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory Procedures NREL develops laboratory analytical procedures (LAPs) for standard biomass analysis. These procedures help scientists and analysts understand more about the chemical composition of raw biomass

  17. WATER SUPPLY ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    This analysis defines and evaluates the surface water supply system from the existing J-13 well to the North Portal. This system includes the pipe running from J-13 to a proposed Booster Pump Station at the intersection of H Road and the North Portal access road. Contained herein is an analysis of the proposed Booster Pump Station with a brief description of the system that could be installed to the South Portal and the optional shaft. The tanks that supply the water to the North Portal are sized, and the supply system to the North Portal facilities and up to Topopah Spring North Ramp is defined

  18. Waste biomass toward hydrogen fuel supply chain management for electricity: Malaysia perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Izatul Husna; Ibrahim, Jafni Azhan; Othman, Abdul Aziz

    2016-08-01

    Green energy is becoming an important aspect of every country in the world toward energy security by reducing dependence on fossil fuel import and enhancing better life quality by living in the healthy environment. This conceptual paper is an approach toward determining physical flow's characteristic of waste wood biomass in high scale plantation toward producing gas fuel for electricity using gasification technique. The scope of this study is supply chain management of syngas fuel from wood waste biomass using direct gasification conversion technology. Literature review on energy security, Malaysia's energy mix, Biomass SCM and technology. This paper uses the theoretical framework of a model of transportation (Lumsden, 2006) and the function of the terminal (Hulten, 1997) for research purpose. To incorporate biomass unique properties, Biomass Element Life Cycle Analysis (BELCA) which is a novel technique develop to understand the behaviour of biomass supply. Theoretical framework used to answer the research questions are Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) framework and Sustainable strategy development in supply chain management framework

  19. Biomass supply chain optimisation for Organosolv-based biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarola, Sara; Patel, Mayank; Shah, Nilay

    2014-05-01

    This work aims at providing a Mixed Integer Linear Programming modelling framework to help define planning strategies for the development of sustainable biorefineries. The up-scaling of an Organosolv biorefinery was addressed via optimisation of the whole system economics. Three real world case studies were addressed to show the high-level flexibility and wide applicability of the tool to model different biomass typologies (i.e. forest fellings, cereal residues and energy crops) and supply strategies. Model outcomes have revealed how supply chain optimisation techniques could help shed light on the development of sustainable biorefineries. Feedstock quality, quantity, temporal and geographical availability are crucial to determine biorefinery location and the cost-efficient way to supply the feedstock to the plant. Storage costs are relevant for biorefineries based on cereal stubble, while wood supply chains present dominant pretreatment operations costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Forestland owners’ willingness to consider multiple ways of supplying biomass simultaneously: Implications for biofuel incentive policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolde, Bernabas; Lal, Pankaj; Burli, Pralhad

    2017-01-01

    Because socioeconomic based approaches account for relevant limiting and motivating factors, they provide a more realistic measurement of forestland owners’ willingness to supply biomass for bioenergy production- information useful to policy makers in setting production targets and in designing relevant incentive programs. Although forestland owners can supply biomass using different means, including supplying biomass from existing stands and changing land use to establish feedstock plantation, among others, previous studies mostly focus only on a given way of supplying biomass at a time. This produces incomplete information that adversely affects its use. By presenting survey takers in Virginia and Texas three different ways of supplying biomass at the same time, we determine forestland owners’ willingness to consider multiple ways of supplying biomass simultaneously and identify the factors that predict such behavior, assess overlap in forestland owners across the different ways of supplying biomass, and assess if and how respondents’ forest management plans and sustainability concerns correspond with their supply decision. Our results show a higher and more articulated rate of willingness to supply biomass than reported in previous studies. The results also suggest that opportunities exist for synergizing programs that incentivize disparate ways of supplying biomass. - Highlights: • Forestland owners are more willing to supply biomass than previous estimated. • Forestland owners will consider multiple ways of supplying biomass simultaneously. • Socioeconomics, sustainability concerns, and management plans predict this behavior. • Incentive programs can target multiple means of supplying biomass simultaneously. • Considerable mismatches exist between the suppliers’ preferences and existing policies.

  1. Biomass supply in EU27 from 2010 to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panoutsou, Calliope; Eleftheriadis, John; Nikolaou, Anastasia

    2009-01-01

    With biomass staying high in the EU political agenda and most of the recent documents acknowledging that it has the potential to make a very significant contribution to reaching the 20% target [], the issue of supply in terms of feedstock types, availability constraints and costs in different Member States is set to determine the future technology uptake and market deployment prospects. This paper is based on one of the initial studies, 'Bioenergy's role in the EU market. A view of developments until 2020', and presents a structured review for EU biomass resources, aiming to map technical potentials and provide detailed information on availability, costs and future trends for biomass potentials of different residual feedstocks in EU27. (author)

  2. Estimating GHG emission mitigation supply curves of large-scale biomass use on a country level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornburg, Veronika; Dam, Jinke van; Faaij, Andre

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the possible influences of a large-scale introduction of biomass material and energy systems and their market volumes on land, material and energy market prices and their feedback to greenhouse gas (GHG) emission mitigation costs. GHG emission mitigation supply curves for large-scale biomass use were compiled using a methodology that combines a bottom-up analysis of biomass applications, biomass cost supply curves and market prices of land, biomaterials and bioenergy carriers. These market prices depend on the scale of biomass use and the market volume of materials and energy carriers and were estimated using own-price elasticities of demand. The methodology was demonstrated for a case study of Poland in the year 2015 applying different scenarios on economic development and trade in Europe. For the key technologies considered, i.e. medium density fibreboard, poly lactic acid, electricity and methanol production, GHG emission mitigation costs increase strongly with the scale of biomass production. Large-scale introduction of biomass use decreases the GHG emission reduction potential at costs below 50 Euro /Mg CO 2eq with about 13-70% depending on the scenario. Biomaterial production accounts for only a small part of this GHG emission reduction potential due to relatively small material markets and the subsequent strong decrease of biomaterial market prices at large scale of production. GHG emission mitigation costs depend strongly on biomass supply curves, own-price elasticity of land and market volumes of bioenergy carriers. The analysis shows that these influences should be taken into account for developing biomass implementations strategies

  3. Waste Biomass Based Energy Supply Chain Network Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Güneş Yıldız

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing dependence on fossil fuels, alleviating environmental impacts and ensuring sustainable economic growth are among the most promising aspects of utilizing renewable energy resources. Biomass is a major renewable energy resource that has the potential for creating sustainable energy systems that are critical in terms of social welfare. Utilization of biomass for bioenergy production is an efficient alternative for meeting rising energy demands, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and thus alleviating climate change. A supply chain for such an energy source is crucial for assisting deliverance of a competitive end product to end-user markets. Considering the existing constraints, a mixed integer linear programming (MILP model for waste biomass based supply chain was proposed in this study for economic performance optimization. Performance of the proposed modelling approach was demonstrated with a real life application study realized in İstanbul. Moreover, sensitivity analyses were conducted which would serve as a foresight for efficient management of the supply chain as a whole

  4. Projecting demand and supply of forest biomass for heating in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tromborg, Erik; Havskjold, Monica; Lislebo, Ole; Rorstad, Per Kristian

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the increase in demand and supply for forest biomass for heating in Norway in 2020. By then there is a political aim to double the national production of bioenergy from the level in 2008. The competitiveness of woody biomass in central and district heating is analyzed in a model selecting the least-cost heating technology and scale in municipalities given a set of constraints and under different fuels price scenarios. The supply of forest biomass from roundwood is estimated based on data of forest inventories combined with elasticities regarding price and standing volumes. The supply of biomass from harvesting residues is estimated in an engineering approach based on data from the national forest inventories and roundwood harvest. The results show how the production of bioenergy is affected by changes in energy prices and support schemes for bioenergy. One conclusion from the analyses is that the government target of 14 TWh more bioenergy by 2020 is not likely to be met by current technologies and policy incentives. The contribution of the analysis is the detailed presentation of the heat market potentials and technology choices combined with supply functions for both roundwood and harvesting residues. - Highlights: → This paper accesses the demand and supply for forest biomass for heating in Norway in 2020. → Market share for wood in central and new district heating is analyzed in a cost-minimizing model. → The supply of forest biomass includes wood chips from import, roundwood and harvesting residues. → The production of bioenergy is affected by changes in energy prices and support schemes. → The government target for bioenergy is not met by current technologies and policy incentives.

  5. Integrated supply chain design for commodity chemicals production via woody biomass fast pyrolysis and upgrading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanan; Hu, Guiping; Brown, Robert C

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the optimal supply chain design for commodity chemicals (BTX, etc.) production via woody biomass fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing pathway. The locations and capacities of distributed preprocessing hubs and integrated biorefinery facilities are optimized with a mixed integer linear programming model. In this integrated supply chain system, decisions on the biomass chipping methods (roadside chipping vs. facility chipping) are also explored. The economic objective of the supply chain model is to maximize the profit for a 20-year chemicals production system. In addition to the economic objective, the model also incorporates an environmental objective of minimizing life cycle greenhouse gas emissions, analyzing the trade-off between the economic and environmental considerations. The capital cost, operating cost, and revenues for the biorefinery facilities are based on techno-economic analysis, and the proposed approach is illustrated through a case study of Minnesota, with Minneapolis-St. Paul serving as the chemicals distribution hub. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Regional biomass supply: three case studies in the Midwest, US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, B.C.; Dillivan, K.D.; Ojo, M.A.; Alexander, R.R.; Graham, R.L. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Increased interest in the development and utilization of alternative energy sources has generated research demonstrating that fuels developed from energy crops (biofuels) can be a viable substitute for fossil fuels. A national energy program dedicated to the advancement of fuel derived from lignocellulosic crops could have major impacts on conventional energy supplied in the United States. Sufficient biofuel demand would allow conversion of croplands, as well as some pasture and forest lands, into biomass producing lands and possibly return to production acres formerly idled. A shift from crop, pasture or forest production activities to biomass production would likely require changes in the levels of inputs, outputs, and costs associated with these activities, which would impact producers and ultimately consumers. The conversion of cropland or idled land to biomass production will also have impacts on the physical characteristics of the soil. Soil erosion levels, soil chemical composition, soil structure, and organic matter content are some of the many soil attributes which will be impacted as a result of conversion. Research is needed to estimate the impact conversion activities have on these variables.

  7. Waste biomass-to-energy supply chain management: a critical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovou, E; Karagiannidis, A; Vlachos, D; Toka, A; Malamakis, A

    2010-10-01

    The development of renewable energy sources has clearly emerged as a promising policy towards enhancing the fragile global energy system with its limited fossil fuel resources, as well as for reducing the related environmental problems. In this context, waste biomass utilization has emerged as a viable alternative for energy production, encompassing a wide range of potential thermochemical, physicochemical and bio-chemical processes. Two significant bottlenecks that hinder the increased biomass utilization for energy production are the cost and complexity of its logistics operations. In this manuscript, we present a critical synthesis of the relative state-of-the-art literature as this applies to all stakeholders involved in the design and management of waste biomass supply chains (WBSCs). We begin by presenting the generic system components and then the unique characteristics of WBSCs that differentiate them from traditional supply chains. We proceed by discussing state-of-the-art energy conversion technologies along with the resulting classification of all relevant literature. We then recognize the natural hierarchy of the decision-making process for the design and planning of WBSCs and provide a taxonomy of all research efforts as these are mapped on the relevant strategic, tactical and operational levels of the hierarchy. Our critical synthesis demonstrates that biomass-to-energy production is a rapidly evolving research field focusing mainly on biomass-to-energy production technologies. However, very few studies address the critical supply chain management issues, and the ones that do that, focus mainly on (i) the assessment of the potential biomass and (ii) the allocation of biomass collection sites and energy production facilities. Our analysis further allows for the identification of gaps and overlaps in the existing literature, as well as of critical future research areas. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Indian Farmers’ Perceptions and Willingness to Supply Surplus Biomass to an Envisioned Biomass-Based Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Zyadin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this socio-technical study are to investigate the Indian farmers’ biomass production capacities and their perceptions and willingness to supply their surplus biomass to fuel an envisioned biomass-based power plant in three selected Indian states: Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. For doing so, 471 farmers (about one-third from each state have been interviewed in the field with info-sheet filled in by the field investigators. The farmers from all of the states appeared very much willing to sell their surplus biomass directly to a power plant. The farmers seem to depreciate the involvement of a middleman in the biomass procurement process. The farmers, however, appeared to highly appreciate a community-based association to regulate the biomass prices, with varying perceptions regarding government intervention. The majority of the farmers perceived the establishment of a biomass-based power plant in their region with positive economic outcomes. The farmers identified several barriers to supply biomass to a power plant where transportation logistics appeared to be the main barrier. The study recommends considering biomass collection, storage and transportation logistics as a fundamental segment of any envisioned investment in a biomass-based power plant. Biomass processing, such as pelletization or briquetting is recommended for efficient transportation of biomass at longer distances to reduce the transportation costs. The study further encourages the establishment of a farmers’ association aimed at collecting and selling biomass in agriculture areas predominant for small land holdings.

  9. Rwanda after the war: supply and rational management of biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategeka, A.

    1997-01-01

    This chapter discusses the effects of the war in Rwanda on biomass energy and biomass energy supply. Seven projects identified to be carried out immediately involve rationalisation of biomass energy use in urban and rural areas, supplying charcoal from forest thinnings, rehabilitation of damaged forests, examination of the feasibility of peat extraction, urban supply of peat, wood energy conservation, and pilot production of papyrus briquettes. (UK)

  10. Scenario optimization modeling approach for design and management of biomass-to-biorefinery supply chain system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhavna; Ingalls, Ricki G; Jones, Carol L; Huhnke, Raymond L; Khanchi, Amit

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a scenario optimization model to address weather uncertainty in the Biomass Supply Chain (BSC). The modeling objective was to minimize the cost of biomass supply to biorefineries over a one-year planning period using monthly time intervals under different weather scenarios. The model is capable of making strategic, tactical and operational decisions related to BSC system. The performance of the model was demonstrated through a case study developed for Abengoa biorefinery in Kansas. Sensitivity analysis was done to demonstrate the effect of input uncertainty in yield, land rent and storage dry matter loss on the model outputs. The model results show that available harvest work hours influence major cost-related decisions in the BSC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Design of Sustainable Biomass Value Chains – Optimising the supply logistics and use of biomass over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, B.

    2013-01-01

    Modern bioenergy systems have significant potential to cost-effectively substitute fossil energy carriers with substantial GHG emissions reduction benefits. To mobilise large-scale biomass supplies, large volumes of biomass feedstock need to be secured, and competitive feedstock value chains need to

  12. Macroalgae as a Biomass Feedstock: A Preliminary Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesijadi, Guritno; Jones, Susanne B.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2010-09-26

    A thorough of macroalgae analysis as a biofuels feedstock is warranted due to the size of this biomass resource and the need to consider all potential sources of feedstock to meet current biomass production goals. Understanding how to harness this untapped biomass resource will require additional research and development. A detailed assessment of environmental resources, cultivation and harvesting technology, conversion to fuels, connectivity with existing energy supply chains, and the associated economic and life cycle analyses will facilitate evaluation of this potentially important biomass resource.

  13. Integrated design and sustainable assessment of innovative biomass supply chains: A case-study on miscanthus in France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrin, Aurelie; Wohlfahrt, Julie; Morandi, Fabiana

    2017-01-01

    economically optimized across the whole supply chain (from field to plant gate) by considering potential feedstock production (from a high-resolution map), costs, logistical constraints and product prices. Then sustainability assessment was conducted by combining recognized methodologies: economic analysis......Cost-efficient, environmental-friendly and socially sustainable biomass supply chains are urgently needed to achieve the 2020 targets of the Strategic Energy Technologies-Plan of the European Union. This paper investigated technical, social, economic, and environmental barriers to the development......, multi-regional input-output analysis, emergy assessment, and life-cycle assessment. The analysis of the case study scenarios found that expanding biomass supply from 6,000 to 30,000tons of dry matter per year did not impact the profitability, which remained around 20€perton of biomass procured...

  14. Regional supply, demand and utilization of forest biomass in South-East Finland; Metsaeenergian kaeytoen kasvun liiketoimintamahdollisuudet Kaakkois-Suomessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laihanen, M.; Karhunen, A.; Ranta, T.

    2011-07-01

    Rising demand of forest biomass in South-East Finland has created need to evaluate the impact for different energy users and producers. The aim of this study is to settle the current demand and availability of forest biomass and to evaluate the opportunities the growth offers. Initial data of study base on current structure of energy supply and on current energy demand. The information can be used as a guideline when evaluating local sufficiency of energy wood and business opportunities for local actors such as energy producers and forest fuel suppliers. Main aim of the study is to create prosperity and entrepreneurship to South-East Finland. Analysis included following tasks: gathering data about the current and potential use and users of forest biomass (logging residues, stumps and small diameter energy wood), settling local availability of forest fuels, creating forest biomass balance to indicate the sufficiency of local resources and to identify the effects of current business opportunities around forest biomass sector. Results of the study illustrate local balance between use and availability of energy wood, need for labor and revenue of forest biomass supply in South-East Finland. Evaluation analysis constructed for regional and local needs combine the current and potential use of forest biomass with local availability. Analysis represents model for evaluating local possibilities of utilization of forest biomass. Co-operation with Forestry Centre of South-East Finland was productive through entire study. (orig.)

  15. Bridging gaps in bioenergy: Deploying system analysis to investigate potential biomass supply, demand and greenhouse gas mitigation scenarios from a national, European and global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, E.T.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313935998

    2014-01-01

    In transition towards a sustainable energy system with deep reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reduced consumption of fossil fuels, substitution of fossil energy carriers with biomass is considered one of the most important options. In the last decade, fossil energy and GHG mitigation

  16. Biomass supply from alternative cellulosic crops and crop residues: A spatially explicit bioeconomic modeling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egbendewe-Mondzozo, Aklesso; Swinton, Scott M.; Izaurralde, César R.; Manowitz, David H.; Zhang, Xuesong

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a spatially-explicit bioeconomic model for the study of potential cellulosic biomass supply. For biomass crops to begin to replace current crops, farmers must earn more from them than from current crops. Using weather, topographic and soil data, the terrestrial ecosystem model, EPIC, dynamically simulates multiple cropping systems that vary by crop rotation, tillage, fertilization and residue removal rate. EPIC generates predicted crop yield and environmental outcomes over multiple watersheds. These EPIC results are used to parameterize a regional profit-maximization mathematical programming model that identifies profitable cropping system choices. The bioeconomic model is calibrated to 2007–09 crop production in a 9-county region of southwest Michigan. A simulation of biomass supply in response to rising biomass prices shows that cellulosic residues from corn stover and wheat straw begin to be supplied at minimum delivered biomass:corn grain price ratios of 0.15 and 0.18, respectively. At the mean corn price of $162.6/Mg ($4.13 per bushel) at commercial moisture content during 2007–2009, these ratios correspond to stover and straw prices of $24 and $29 per dry Mg. Perennial bioenergy crops begin to be supplied at price levels 2–3 times higher. Average biomass transport costs to the biorefinery plant range from $6 to $20/Mg compared to conventional crop production practices in the area, biomass supply from annual crop residues increased greenhouse gas emissions and reduced water quality through increased nutrient loss. By contrast, perennial cellulosic biomass crop production reduced greenhouse gas emissions and improved water quality. -- Highlights: ► A new bioeconomic model predicts biomass supply and its environmental impacts. ► The model captures the opportunity cost of switching to new cellulosic crops. ► Biomass from crop residues is supplied at lower biomass price than cellulosic crops. ► Biomass from cellulosic crops has

  17. Optimal grid design and logistic planning for wind and biomass based renewable electricity supply chains under uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmani, Atif; Zhang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the grid design and optimal allocation of wind and biomass resources for renewable electricity supply chains under uncertainties is studied. Due to wind intermittency, generation of wind electricity is not uniform and cannot be counted on to be readily available to meet the demand. Biomass represents a type of stored energy and is the only renewable resource that can be used for producing biofuels and generating electricity whenever required. However, amount of biomass resources are finite and might not be sufficient to meet the demand for electricity and biofuels. Potential of wind and biomass resources is therefore jointly analyzed for electricity generation. Policies are proposed and evaluated for optimal allocation of finite biomass resources for electricity generation. A stochastic programming model is proposed that optimally balances the electricity demand across the available supply from wind and biomass resources under uncertainties in wind speed and electricity sale price. A case study set in the American Midwest is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model by determining the optimal decisions for generation and transmission of renewable electricity. Sensitivity analysis shows that level of subsidy for renewable electricity production has a major impact on the decisions. - Highlights: • Stochastic optimization model for wind/biomass renewable electricity supply chain. • Multiple uncertainties in wind speeds and electricity sale price. • Proposed stochastic model outperforms the deterministic model under uncertainties. • Uncertainty affects grid connectivity and allocation of power generation capacity. • Location of wind farms is found to be insensitive to the stochastic environment

  18. Life cycle assessment of biomass-to-energy systems in Ireland modelled with biomass supply chain optimisation based on greenhouse gas emission reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Fionnuala; Sosa, Amanda; McDonnell, Kevin; Devlin, Ger

    2016-01-01

    The energy sector is the major contributor to GHG (greenhouse gas emissions) in Ireland. Under EU Renewable energy targets, Ireland must achieve contributions of 40%, 12% and 10% from renewables to electricity, heat and transport respectively by 2020, in addition to a 20% reduction in GHG emissions. Life cycle assessment methodology was used to carry out a comprehensive, holistic evaluation of biomass-to-energy systems in 2020 based on indigenous biomass supply chains optimised to reduce production and transportation GHG emissions. Impact categories assessed include; global warming, acidification, eutrophication potentials, and energy demand. Two biomass energy conversion technologies are considered; co-firing with peat, and biomass CHP (combined heat and power) systems. Biomass is allocated to each plant according to a supply optimisation model which ensures minimal GHG emissions. The study shows that while CHP systems produce lower environmental impacts than co-firing systems in isolation, determining overall environmental impacts requires analysis of the reference energy systems which are displaced. In addition, if the aims of these systems are to increase renewable energy penetration in line with the renewable electricity and renewable heat targets, the optimal scenario may not be the one which achieves the greatest environmental impact reductions. - Highlights: • Life cycle assessment of biomass co-firing and CHP systems in Ireland is carried out. • GWP, acidification and eutrophication potentials, and energy demand are assessed. • Biomass supply is optimised based on minimising GHG emissions. • CHP systems cause lower environmental impacts than biomass co-firing with peat. • Displacing peat achieves higher GHG emission reductions than replacing fossil heat.

  19. Spatial Analysis of Depots for Advanced Biomass Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilliard, Michael R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brandt, Craig C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Webb, Erin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eaton, Laurence M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinez Gonzalez, Maria I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this work was to perform a spatial analysis of the total feedstock cost at the conversion reactor for biomass supplied by a conventional system and an advanced system with depots to densify biomass into pellets. From these cost estimates, the conditions (feedstock cost and availability) for which advanced processing depots make it possible to achieve cost and volume targets can be identified.

  20. Harvesting and transport operations to optimise biomass supply chain and industrial biorefinery processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Matindi

    2018-10-01

    Full Text Available In Australia, Bioenergy plays an important role in modern power systems, where many biomass resources provide greenhouse gas neutral and electricity at a variety of scales. By 2050, the Biomass energy is projected to have a 40-50 % share as an alternative source of energy. In addition to conversion of biomass, barriers and uncertainties in the production, supply may hinder biomass energy development. The sugarcane is an essential ingredient in the production of Bioenergy, across the whole spectrum ranging from the first generation to second generation, e.g., production of energy from the lignocellulosic component of the sugarcane initially regarded as waste (bagasse and cane residue. Sustainable recovery of the Lignocellulosic component of sugarcane from the field through a structured process is largely unknown and associated with high capital outlay that have stifled the growth of bioenergy sector. In this context, this paper develops a new scheduler to optimise the recovery of lignocellulosic component of sugarcane and cane, transport and harvest systems with reducing the associated costs and operational time. An Optimisation Algorithm called Limited Discrepancy Search has been adapted and integrated with the developed scheduling transport algorithms. The developed algorithms are formulated and coded by Optimization Programming Language (OPL to obtain the optimised cane and cane residues transport schedules. Computational experiments demonstrate that high-quality solutions are obtainable for industry-scale instances. To provide insightful decisions, sensitivity analysis is conducted in terms of different scenarios and criteria.

  1. Uncertainties in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Advanced Biomass Feedstock Logistics Supply Chains in Kansas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Nguyen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To meet Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA cellulosic biofuel mandates, the United States will require an annual domestic supply of about 242 million Mg of biomass by 2022. To improve the feedstock logistics of lignocellulosic biofuels in order to access available biomass resources from areas with varying yields, commodity systems have been proposed and designed to deliver quality-controlled biomass feedstocks at preprocessing “depots”. Preprocessing depots densify and stabilize the biomass prior to long-distance transport and delivery to centralized biorefineries. The logistics of biomass commodity supply chains could introduce spatially variable environmental impacts into the biofuel life cycle due to needing to harvest, move, and preprocess biomass from multiple distances that have variable spatial density. This study examines the uncertainty in greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of corn stover logistics within a bio-ethanol supply chain in the state of Kansas, where sustainable biomass supply varies spatially. Two scenarios were evaluated each having a different number of depots of varying capacity and location within Kansas relative to a central commodity-receiving biorefinery to test GHG emissions uncertainty. The first scenario sited four preprocessing depots evenly across the state of Kansas but within the vicinity of counties having high biomass supply density. The second scenario located five depots based on the shortest depot-to-biorefinery rail distance and biomass availability. The logistics supply chain consists of corn stover harvest, collection and storage, feedstock transport from field to biomass preprocessing depot, preprocessing depot operations, and commodity transport from the biomass preprocessing depot to the biorefinery. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the spatial uncertainty in the feedstock logistics gate-to-gate sequence. Within the logistics supply chain GHG emissions are most sensitive to the

  2. Global patterns of socioeconomic biomass flows in the year 2000. A comprehensive assessment of supply, consumption and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausmann, Fridolin; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Gingrich, Simone; Lauk, Christian; Haberl, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    Human use of biomass has become a major component of the global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nitrogen. The use of land for biomass production (e.g. cropland) is among the most important pressures on biodiversity. At the same time, biomass is indispensable for humans as food, animal feed, raw material and energy source. In order to support research into these complex issues, we here present a comprehensive assessment of global socioeconomic biomass harvest, use and trade for the year 2000. We developed country-level livestock balances and a consistent set of factors to estimate flows of used biomass not covered by international statistics (e.g. grazed biomass, crop residues) and indirect flows (i.e. biomass destroyed during harvest but not used). We found that current global terrestrial biomass appropriation amounted to 18.7 billion tonnes dry matter per year (Pg/yr) or 16% of global terrestrial NPP of which 6.6 Pg/yr were indirect flows. Only 12% of the economically used plant biomass (12.1 Pg/yr) directly served as human food, while 58% were used as feed for livestock, 20% as raw material and 10% as fuelwood. There are considerable regional variations in biomass supply and use. Distinguishing 11 world regions, we found that extraction of used biomass ranged from 0.3 to 2.8 t/ha/yr, per-capita values varied between 1.2 and 11.7 t/cap/yr (dry matter). Aggregate global biomass trade amounted to 7.5% of all extracted biomass. An analysis of these regional patterns revealed that the level of biomass use per capita is determined by historically evolved patterns of land use and population density rather than by affluence or economic development status. Regions with low population density have the highest level of per-capita biomass use, high-density regions the lowest. Livestock, consuming 30-75% of all harvested biomass, is another important factor explaining regional variations in biomass use. Global biomass demand is expected to grow during the next decades

  3. Biomass Supply and Trade Opportunities of Preprocessed Biomass for Power Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, B.; Junginger, M.; Klemm, M.; Schipfer, F.; Thrän, D.

    2016-01-01

    International trade of solid biomass is expected to increase significantly given the global distribution of biomass resources and anticipated expansion of bioenergy deployment in key global power markets. Given the unique characteristics of biomass, its long-distance trade requires optimized

  4. Analyzing and Comparing Biomass Feedstock Supply Systems in China: Corn Stover and Sweet Sorghum Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lantian Ren

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the rural Chinese biomass supply system and models supply chain operations according to U.S. concepts of logistical unit operations: harvest and collection, storage, transportation, preprocessing, and handling and queuing. In this paper, we quantify the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum in China under different scenarios. We analyze three scenarios of corn stover logistics from northeast China and three scenarios of sweet sorghum stalks logistics from Inner Mongolia in China. The case study estimates that the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk to be $52.95/dry metric ton and $52.64/dry metric ton, respectively, for the current labor-based biomass logistics system. However, if the feedstock logistics operation is mechanized, the cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk decreases to $36.01/dry metric ton and $35.76/dry metric ton, respectively. The study also includes a sensitivity analysis to identify the cost factors that cause logistics cost variation. Results of the sensitivity analysis show that labor price has the most influence on the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk, with a variation of $6 to $12/dry metric ton.

  5. Potential and possibilities of supplying energy from biomass and biogas; Potentiale und Moeglichkeiten der Energiebereitstellung durch Biomasse und Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnenberg, H. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Betriebstechnik; Weiland, P.; Ahlgrimm, H.J. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (FAL), Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Technologie

    1998-06-01

    Agriculture`s potential contribution to the energy supply of the ``town of the future`` through the conversion of biomass to energy, including biogas production, is a rather modest one. Supposing that the share of total renewable energy in Germany`s primary energy demand rises to approximately 4%, then the proportion of biomass from biotic raw materials especially produced for the purpose will at the most make up an eighth of this amount. Beyond this, biomass is burdened with other drawbacks such as low supply efficiency, limited availability, and weather-dependent reliability. On the other hand, biomass is well suited for conversion to solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels, including inexpensive ones with low energy density (solid fuels), mostly used for stationary heating applications, as well as more expensive ones such as liquid fuels with a high energy density for mobile applications in the automotive sector. Thanks to its capacity to regenerate, biomass is an inexhaustible resource. Moreover, its natural life cycle has a small impact on the environment. [Deutsch] Der Beitrag, den die Landwirtschaft durch energetische Nutzung von Biomasse, z.B. auch mit der Erzeugung von Biogas, zur Energieversorgung der `Stadt der Zukunft` leisten kann, nimmt sich bescheiden aus. Wird erwartet, dass innerhalb des naechsten Jahrzehnts der Anteil regenerativer Energien insgesamt auf etwa 4% des Primaerenergie-Verbrauchs Deutschlands ansteigen koennte, so duerfte Biomasse als speziell zur Energiegewinnung angebaute nachwachsende Rohstoffe mit bestensfalls 0,5 Prozentpunkten daran beteiligt sein. Es beduerfen darueber hinaus auch Nachteile, wie geringe Bereitstellungseffizienz, beschraenkte Verfuegbarkeit und witterungsabhaengige Zuverlaessigkeit, der Beachtung. Die Biomasse kann jedoch mit Erfolg in feste, fluessige und gasfoermige Energietraeger konvertiert werden, sowohl in preiswerte mit geringer Energiedichte (Festbrennstoffe) fuer bevorzugt stationaeren Heizungs-Einsatz als auch

  6. Single and multiple objective biomass-to-biofuel supply chain optimization considering environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles Sosa, Claudia Evangelina

    Bioenergy has become an important alternative source of energy to alleviate the reliance on petroleum energy. Bioenergy offers diminishing climate change by reducing Green House Gas Emissions, as well as providing energy security and enhancing rural development. The Energy Independence and Security Act mandate the use of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels including 16 billion gallons of cellulosic biofuels by the year 2022. It is clear that Biomass can make a substantial contribution to supply future energy demand in a sustainable way. However, the supply of sustainable energy is one of the main challenges that mankind will face over the coming decades. For instance, many logistical challenges will be faced in order to provide an efficient and reliable supply of quality feedstock to biorefineries. 700 million tons of biomass will be required to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually to meet the projected use of biofuels by the year of 2022. Approaching this complex logistic problem as a multi-commodity network flow structure, the present work proposes the use of a genetic algorithm as a single objective optimization problem that considers the maximization of profit and the present work also proposes the use of a Multiple Objective Evolutionary Algorithm to simultaneously maximize profit while minimizing global warming potential. Most transportation optimization problems available in the literature have mostly considered the maximization of profit or the minimization of total travel time as potential objectives to be optimized. However, on this research work, we take a more conscious and sustainable approach for this logistic problem. Planners are increasingly expected to adopt a multi-disciplinary approach, especially due to the rising importance of environmental stewardship. The role of a transportation planner and designer is shifting from simple economic analysis to promoting sustainability through the integration of environmental objectives. To

  7. Roadmap for Agriculture Biomass Feedstock Supply in the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    ...% of the current petroleum consumption. The benefits of a robust biorefinery industry supplying this amount of domestically produced power fuels and products is considerable including decreased demand for imported oil revenue...

  8. Biomass Supply Planning for Combined Heat and Power Plants using Stochastic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guericke, Daniela; Blanco, Ignacio; Morales González, Juan Miguel

    method using stochastic optimization to support the biomass supply planning for combined heat and power plants. Our two-phase approach combines mid-term decisions about biomass supply contracts with the short-term decisions regarding the optimal market participation of the producer to ensure......During the last years, the consumption of biomass to produce power and heat has increased due to the new carbon neutral policies. Nowadays, many district heating systems operate their combined heat and power (CHP) plants using different types of biomass instead of fossil fuel, especially to produce......, and heat demand and electricity prices vary drastically during the planning period. Furthermore, the optimal operation of combined heat and power plants has to consider the existing synergies between the power and heating systems while always fulfilling the heat demand of the system. We propose a solution...

  9. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, Mark [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL; Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Langholtz, Matthew H [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Stokes, Bryce [Navarro Research & Engineering; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL

    2011-08-01

    The report, Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply (generally referred to as the Billion-Ton Study or 2005 BTS), was an estimate of 'potential' biomass based on numerous assumptions about current and future inventory, production capacity, availability, and technology. The analysis was made to determine if conterminous U.S. agriculture and forestry resources had the capability to produce at least one billion dry tons of sustainable biomass annually to displace 30% or more of the nation's present petroleum consumption. An effort was made to use conservative estimates to assure confidence in having sufficient supply to reach the goal. The potential biomass was projected to be reasonably available around mid-century when large-scale biorefineries are likely to exist. The study emphasized primary sources of forest- and agriculture-derived biomass, such as logging residues, fuel treatment thinnings, crop residues, and perennially grown grasses and trees. These primary sources have the greatest potential to supply large, reliable, and sustainable quantities of biomass. While the primary sources were emphasized, estimates of secondary residue and tertiary waste resources of biomass were also provided. The original Billion-Ton Resource Assessment, published in 2005, was divided into two parts-forest-derived resources and agriculture-derived resources. The forest resources included residues produced during the harvesting of merchantable timber, forest residues, and small-diameter trees that could become available through initiatives to reduce fire hazards and improve forest health; forest residues from land conversion; fuelwood extracted from forests; residues generated at primary forest product processing mills; and urban wood wastes, municipal solid wastes (MSW), and construction and demolition (C&D) debris. For these forest resources, only residues, wastes, and small

  10. MODEL BASED BIOMASS SYSTEM DESIGN OF FEEDSTOCK SUPPLY SYSTEMS FOR BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Muth, Jr.; Jacob J. Jacobson; Kenneth M. Bryden

    2013-08-01

    Engineering feedstock supply systems that deliver affordable, high-quality biomass remains a challenge for the emerging bioenergy industry. Cellulosic biomass is geographically distributed and has diverse physical and chemical properties. Because of this feedstock supply systems that deliver cellulosic biomass resources to biorefineries require integration of a broad set of engineered unit operations. These unit operations include harvest and collection, storage, preprocessing, and transportation processes. Design decisions for each feedstock supply system unit operation impact the engineering design and performance of the other system elements. These interdependencies are further complicated by spatial and temporal variances such as climate conditions and biomass characteristics. This paper develops an integrated model that couples a SQL-based data management engine and systems dynamics models to design and evaluate biomass feedstock supply systems. The integrated model, called the Biomass Logistics Model (BLM), includes a suite of databases that provide 1) engineering performance data for hundreds of equipment systems, 2) spatially explicit labor cost datasets, and 3) local tax and regulation data. The BLM analytic engine is built in the systems dynamics software package PowersimTM. The BLM is designed to work with thermochemical and biochemical based biofuel conversion platforms and accommodates a range of cellulosic biomass types (i.e., herbaceous residues, short- rotation woody and herbaceous energy crops, woody residues, algae, etc.). The BLM simulates the flow of biomass through the entire supply chain, tracking changes in feedstock characteristics (i.e., moisture content, dry matter, ash content, and dry bulk density) as influenced by the various operations in the supply chain. By accounting for all of the equipment that comes into contact with biomass from the point of harvest to the throat of the conversion facility and the change in characteristics, the

  11. An evaluation of the regional supply of biomass at three midwestern sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, B.C.; Dillivan, K.D.; Ojo, M.A.; Alexander, R.R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Graham, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Research has been conducted on both the agronomy and the conversion of biomass. However, few studies have been initiated that combine the knowledge of growing biomass with site specific resource availability information. An economic appraisal of how much biomass might be grown in a specific area for a given price has only just been initiated. This paper examines the economics of introducing biomass production to three midwest representative areas centered on the following counties, Orange County, Indiana; Olmsted County, Minnesota; and Cass County, North Dakota. Using a regional linear programming model, estimates of economic feasibility as well as environmental impacts are made. At a price of $53 per metric ton the biomass supplied to the plant gate is equal to 183,251 metric tons. At $62 per metric ton the biomass supply has increased to almost 1 million metric tons. The model predicts a maximum price of $88 per metric ton and at this price, 2,748,476 metric tons of biomass are produced.

  12. Socio-economic drivers of large urban biomass cogeneration: Sustainable energy supply for Austria's capital Vienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madlener, Reinhard; Bachhiesl, Mario

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed case study on Austria's by far largest biomass cogeneration plant. The plant is located in the city of Vienna and scheduled to be put into operation by mid-2006. Given the urban location of the plant and its significant biomass fuel input requirements, fuel delivery logistics play an important role-not only from an economic point of view, but also in relation to supply security and environmental impact. We describe and analyse the history of the project, putting particular emphasis on the main driving forces and actors behind the entire project development process. From this analysis we deduce the following main socio-economic drivers and success factors for the realisation of large bioenergy projects in urban settings: (1) a critical mass of actors; (2) a priori political consensus; (3) the existence of a problem (and problem awareness) that calls for decisive steps to be taken; (4) institutional innovation and changes in the mindset of the main decision makers; (5) favourable economic conditions; (6) change agents that are actively engaged from an early stage of development; (7) intra-firm supporters at different hierarchical levels and from different departments; and (8) targeted study tours that help to reduce uncertainty, to enable leapfrogging in project planning and design, and to build up confidence in the project's feasibility and chance of success

  13. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haq, Zia [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Analysis Platform Review meeting.

  14. Model collaboration for the improved assessment of biomass supply, demand, and impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, Birka; van der Hilst, Floortje; Daioglou, Vasileios; Banse, Martin; Beringer, Tim; Gerssen - Gondelach, Sarah; Heijnen, Sanne; Karssenberg, Derek; Laborde, David; Lippe, Melvin; van Meijl, Hans; Nassar, André; Powell, Jeff; Prins, Anne Gerdien; Rose, Steve N K; Smeets, Edward M W; Stehfest, Elke; Tyner, Wallace E.; Verstegen, Judith A.; Valin, Hugo; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Yeh, Sonia; Faaij, André P C

    Existing assessments of biomass supply and demand and their impacts face various types of limitations and uncertainties, partly due to the type of tools and methods applied (e.g., partial representation of sectors, lack of geographical details, and aggregated representation of technologies

  15. Model collaboration for improved assessment of biomass supply, demand and impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, B.; et al, .

    2014-01-01

    Existing assessments of biomass supply and demand and their impacts face various types of limitations and uncertainties, partly due to the type of tools and methods applied (e.g., partial representation of sectors, lack of geographical details, and aggregated representation of technologies

  16. Model collaboration for the improved assessment of biomass supply, demand, and impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, B.; Hilst, van der F.; Daioglou, V.; Banse, M.; Beringer, T.; Gerssen-Gondelach, S.; Heijnen, S.; Karssenberg, D.; Laborde, D.; Lippe, M.; Meijl, van H.; Nassar, A.; Powell, J.P.; Prins, A.G.; Rose, S.N.K.; Smeets, E.M.W.; Stehfest, E.; Tyner, W.E.; Verstegen, J.A.; Valin, H.; Vuuren, van D.P.; Yeh, S.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Existing assessments of biomass supply and demand and their impacts face various types of limitations and uncertainties, partly due to the type of tools and methods applied (e.g., partial representation of sectors, lack of geographical details, and aggregated representation of technologies

  17. Reliable Biomass Supply Chain Design under Feedstock Seasonality and Probabilistic Facility Disruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixue Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available While biomass has been recognized as an important renewable energy source which has a range of positive impacts on the economy, environment, and society, the existence of feedstock seasonality and risk of service disruptions at collection facilities potentially compromises the efficiency and reliability of the energy supply system. In this paper, we consider reliable supply chain design for biomass collection against feedstock seasonality and time-varying disruption risks. We optimize facility location, inventory, biomass quantity, and shipment decisions in a multi-period planning horizon setting. A real-world case in Hubei, China is studied to offer managerial insights. Our computational results show that: (1 the disruption risk significantly affects both the optimal facility locations and the supply chain cost; (2 no matter how the failure probability changes, setting backup facilities can significantly decrease the total cost; and (3 the feedstock seasonality does not affect locations of the collection facilities, but it affects the allocations of collection facilities and brings higher inventory cost for the biomass supply chain.

  18. TG-FTIR analysis of biomass pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassilakis, R.; Carangelo, R.M.; Wojtowicz, M.A. [Advanced Fuel Research Inc., Hartford, CT (United States)

    2001-10-09

    A great need exists for comprehensive biomass-pyrolysis models that could predict yields and evolution patterns of selected volatile products as a function of feedstock characteristics and process conditions. A thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared analysis of evolving products (TG-FTIR) can provide useful input to such models in the form of kinetic information obtained under low heating rate conditions. In this work, robust TG-FTIR quantification routes were developed for infrared analysis of volatile products relevant to biomass pyrolysis. The analysis was applied to wheat straw, three types of tobacco (Burley, Oriental, and Bright) and three biomass model compounds (xylan, chlorogenic acid, and D-glucose). Product yields were compared with literature data, and species potentially quantifiable by FT-IR are reviewed. Product-evolution patterns are reported for all seven biomass samples. 41 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Forest biomass supply chains in Ireland: A life cycle assessment of GHG emissions and primary energy balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Fionnuala; Devlin, Ger; McDonnell, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Wood energy supply chains are analysed for energy requirements and GHG emissions. • Use of residues and stumps for energy is evaluated for Irish conditions. • Results highlight transportation as the most energy and GHG emission intensive step. • Wood energy compares favourably with other biomass sources and fossil fuels. - Abstract: The demand for wood for energy production in Ireland is predicted to double from 1.5 million m 3 over bark (OB) in 2011 to 3 million m 3 OB by 2020. There is a large potential for additional biomass recovery for energetic purposes from both thinning forest stands and by harvesting of tops and branches, and stumps. This study builds on research within the wood-for-energy concept in Ireland by analysing the energy requirements and greenhouse gas emissions associated with thinning, residue bundling and stump removal for energy purposes. To date there have been no studies on harvesting of residues and stumps in terms of energy balances and greenhouse gas emissions across the life cycle in Ireland. The results of the analysis on wood energy supply chains highlights transport as the most energy and greenhouse gas emissions intensive step in the life cycle. This finding illustrates importance of localised production and use of forest biomass. Production of wood chip, and shredded bundles and stumps, compares favourably with both other sources of biomass in Ireland and fossil fuels

  20. A decision model for cost effective design of biomass based green energy supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz Balaman, Şebnem; Selim, Hasan

    2015-09-01

    The core driver of this study is to deal with the design of anaerobic digestion based biomass to energy supply chains in a cost effective manner. In this concern, a decision model is developed. The model is based on fuzzy multi objective decision making in order to simultaneously optimize multiple economic objectives and tackle the inherent uncertainties in the parameters and decision makers' aspiration levels for the goals. The viability of the decision model is explored with computational experiments on a real-world biomass to energy supply chain and further analyses are performed to observe the effects of different conditions. To this aim, scenario analyses are conducted to investigate the effects of energy crop utilization and operational costs on supply chain structure and performance measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Modeling and analysing storage systems in agricultural biomass supply chain for cellulosic ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, Mahmood; Sowlati, Taraneh; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Townley-Smith, Lawrence; Stumborg, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Studied the agricultural biomass supply chain for cellulosic ethanol production. ► Evaluated the impact of storage systems on different supply chain actors. ► Developed a combined simulation/optimization model to evaluate storage systems. ► Compared two satellite storage systems with roadside storage in terms of costs and emitted CO 2 . ► SS would lead to a more cost-efficient supply chain compared to roadside storage. -- Abstract: In this paper, a combined simulation/optimization model is developed to better understand and evaluate the impact of the storage systems on the costs incurred by each actor in the agricultural biomass supply chain including farmers, hauling contractors and the cellulosic ethanol plant. The optimization model prescribes the optimum number and location of farms and storages. It also determines the supply radius, the number of farms required to secure the annual supply of biomass and also the assignment of farms to storage locations. Given the specific design of the supply chain determined by the optimization model, the simulation model determines the number of required machines for each operation, their daily working schedule and utilization rates, along with the capacities of storages. To evaluate the impact of the storage systems on the delivered costs, three storage systems are molded and compared: roadside storage (RS) system and two satellite storage (SS) systems including SS with fixed hauling distance (SF) and SS with variable hauling distance (SV). In all storage systems, it is assumed the loading equipment is dedicated to storage locations. The obtained results from a real case study provide detailed cost figures for each storage system since the developed model analyses the supply chain on an hourly basis and considers time-dependence and stochasticity of the supply chain. Comparison of the storage systems shows SV would outperform SF and RS by reducing the total delivered cost by 8% and 6%, respectively

  2. Linking state-and-transition simulation and timber supply models for forest biomass production scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K. Costanza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We linked state-and-transition simulation models (STSMs with an economics-based timber supply model to examine landscape dynamics in North Carolina through 2050 for three scenarios of forest biomass production. Forest biomass could be an important source of renewable energy in the future, but there is currently much uncertainty about how biomass production would impact landscapes. In the southeastern US, if forests become important sources of biomass for bioenergy, we expect increased land-use change and forest management. STSMs are ideal for simulating these landscape changes, but the amounts of change will depend on drivers such as timber prices and demand for forest land, which are best captured with forest economic models. We first developed state-and-transition model pathways in the ST-Sim software platform for 49 vegetation and land-use types that incorporated each expected type of landscape change. Next, for the three biomass production scenarios, the SubRegional Timber Supply Model (SRTS was used to determine the annual areas of thinning and harvest in five broad forest types, as well as annual areas converted among those forest types, agricultural, and urban lands. The SRTS output was used to define area targets for STSMs in ST-Sim under two scenarios of biomass production and one baseline, business-as-usual scenario. We show that ST-Sim output matched SRTS targets in most cases. Landscape dynamics results indicate that, compared with the baseline scenario, forest biomass production leads to more forest and, specifically, more intensively managed forest on the landscape by 2050. Thus, the STSMs, informed by forest economics models, provide important information about potential landscape effects of bioenergy production.

  3. Linking state-and-transition simulation and timber supply models for forest biomass production scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Jennifer; Abt, Robert C.; McKerrow, Alexa; Collazo, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    We linked state-and-transition simulation models (STSMs) with an economics-based timber supply model to examine landscape dynamics in North Carolina through 2050 for three scenarios of forest biomass production. Forest biomass could be an important source of renewable energy in the future, but there is currently much uncertainty about how biomass production would impact landscapes. In the southeastern US, if forests become important sources of biomass for bioenergy, we expect increased land-use change and forest management. STSMs are ideal for simulating these landscape changes, but the amounts of change will depend on drivers such as timber prices and demand for forest land, which are best captured with forest economic models. We first developed state-and-transition model pathways in the ST-Sim software platform for 49 vegetation and land-use types that incorporated each expected type of landscape change. Next, for the three biomass production scenarios, the SubRegional Timber Supply Model (SRTS) was used to determine the annual areas of thinning and harvest in five broad forest types, as well as annual areas converted among those forest types, agricultural, and urban lands. The SRTS output was used to define area targets for STSMs in ST-Sim under two scenarios of biomass production and one baseline, business-as-usual scenario. We show that ST-Sim output matched SRTS targets in most cases. Landscape dynamics results indicate that, compared with the baseline scenario, forest biomass production leads to more forest and, specifically, more intensively managed forest on the landscape by 2050. Thus, the STSMs, informed by forest economics models, provide important information about potential landscape effects of bioenergy production.

  4. Nutrient fertilizer requirements for sustainable biomass supply to meet U.S. bioenergy goal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Fengxiang X.; King, Roger L.; Lindner, Jeffrey S.; Monts, David L.; Su, Yi; Luthe, John C. [Institute for Clean Energy Technology, Mississippi State University, 205 Research Blvd., Starkville, MS 39759 (United States); Yu, Tzu-Yi [Department of Information Management, National Chi-Nan University, 470 University Rd., Puli, Nantou, 54561 Taiwan (China); Durbha, Surya S.; Younan, Nicolas H. [GeoResources Institute, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS 39759 (United States); Plodinec, M. John [Savannah River National Laboratory, Bldg 773-A, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    The U.S. Biomass Roadmap set forth a goal that, by the year 2030, biomass will supply energy approximately equivalent to 30% of current petroleum consumption. Here we report on the amount of nutrient fertilizers required to meet the proposed 1-billion tons of sustainable bioenergy biomass production annually. To meet this goal, U.S. agriculture (assuming a scenario with high yield increase and land use change) will have net removals of 40.3, 12.7, and 36.2 Tg (million tons) of N, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and K{sub 2}O, respectively. The 1-billion tons of bioenergy biomass production alone will remove 16.9, 5.2, and 18.2 Tg of N, P{sub 2}O{sub 5,} and K{sub 2}O, respectively, from U.S. agricultural land. Considering the efficiencies of fertilizers in soils and the contribution of biomass residuals in fields, the overall bioenergy-focused agriculture would require 58.2, 27.3, and 31.7 Tg of N, P{sub 2}O{sub 5,} and K{sub 2}O fertilizers, respectively; this corresponds to an overall nutrient fertilizer application increase by a factor of 5.5 over the base line (1997). This study indicates an increased need for domestic and/or international production facilities for fertilizers if the goal of the Biomass Roadmap is to be attained. (author)

  5. Biofuel supply chain, market, and policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei

    Renewable fuel is receiving an increasing attention as a substitute for fossil based energy. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has employed increasing effort on promoting the advanced biofuel productions. Although the advanced biofuel remains at its early stage, it is expected to play an important role in climate policy in the future in the transportation sector. This dissertation studies the emerging biofuel supply chain and markets by analyzing the production cost, and the outcomes of the biofuel market, including blended fuel market price and quantity, biofuel contract price and quantity, profitability of each stakeholder (farmers, biofuel producers, biofuel blenders) in the market. I also address government policy impacts on the emerging biofuel market. The dissertation is composed with three parts, each in a paper format. The first part studies the supply chain of emerging biofuel industry. Two optimization-based models are built to determine the number of facilities to deploy, facility locations, facility capacities, and operational planning within facilities. Cost analyses have been conducted under a variety of biofuel demand scenarios. It is my intention that this model will shed light on biofuel supply chain design considering operational planning under uncertain demand situations. The second part of the dissertation work focuses on analyzing the interaction between the key stakeholders along the supply chain. A bottom-up equilibrium model is built for the emerging biofuel market to study the competition in the advanced biofuel market, explicitly formulating the interactions between farmers, biofuel producers, blenders, and consumers. The model simulates the profit maximization of multiple market entities by incorporating their competitive decisions in farmers' land allocation, biomass transportation, biofuel production, and biofuel blending. As such, the equilibrium model is capable of and appropriate for policy analysis, especially for those policies

  6. Simulating Pelletization Strategies to Reduce the Biomass Supply Risk at America’s Biorefineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Shane Carnohan; Andrew Ford; Allyson Beall

    2014-07-01

    Demand for cellulosic ethanol and other advanced biofuels has been on the rise, due in part to federal targets enacted in 2005 and extended in 2007. The industry faces major challenges in meeting these worthwhile and ambitious targets. The challenges are especially severe in the logistics of timely feedstock delivery to biorefineries. Logistical difficulties arise from seasonal production that forces the biomass to be stored in uncontrolled field-side environments. In this storage format physical difficulties arise; transportation is hindered by the low bulk density of baled biomass and the unprotected material can decay leading to unpredictable losses. Additionally, uncertain yields and contractual difficulties can exacerbate these challenges making biorefineries a high-risk venture. Investors’ risk could limit business entry and prevent America from reaching the targets. This paper explores pelletizer strategies to convert the lignocellulosic biomass into a denser form more suitable for storage. The densification of biomass would reduce supply risks, and the new system would outperform conventional biorefinery supply systems. Pelletizer strategies exhibit somewhat higher costs, but the reduction in risk is well worth the extra cost if America is to grow the advanced biofuels industry in a sustainable manner.

  7. Solar-Biomass hybrid system for process heat supply in medium scale hotels in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Abeywardana, Asela M.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating and demonstrating the feasibility of using Concentrated Solar Thermal technology combined with biomass energy technology as a hybrid renewable energy system to supply the process heat requirements in small scale industries in Sri Lanka. Particularly, the focus was to apply the concept to the expanding hotel industry, for covering the thermal energy demand of a medium scale hotel. Solar modules utilize the rooftop area of the building to a valuable application. L...

  8. Trade-Offs between Economic and Environmental Optimization of the Forest Biomass Generation Supply Chain in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of forest residue to produce forest biomass energy can mitigate CO2 emissions and generate additional revenue for related eco-enterprises and farmers. In China, however, the benefit of this utilization is still in question because of high costs and CO2 emissions in the entire supply chain. In this paper, a multi-objective linear programming model (MLP is employed to analyze the trade-offs between the economic and environmental benefits of all nodes within the forest biomass power generation supply chain. The MLP model is tested in the Mao Wu Su biomass Thermoelectric Company. The optimization results show that (1 the total cost and CO2 emissions are decreased by US$98.4 thousand and 60.6 thousand kg, respectively; 3750 thousand kg of waste-wood products is reduced and 3750 thousand kg of sandy shrub stubble residue is increased; (2 64% of chipped sandy shrub residue is transported directly from the forestland to the power plant, 36% of non-chipped sandy shrub residue is transported from the forestland to the power plant via the chipping plant; (3 transportation and chipping play a significant role in the supply chain; and (4 the results of a sensitivity analysis show that the farmer’s average transportation distance should be 84.13 km and unit chipping cost should be $0.01022 thousand for the optimization supply cost and CO2 emissions. Finally, we suggest the following: (1 develop long-term cooperation with farmers; (2 buy chain-saws for regularly used farmers; (3 build several chipping plants in areas that are rich in sandy shrub.

  9. A GENERIC TACTICAL PLANNING MODEL TO SUPPLY A BIOREFINERY WITH BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birome Holo Ba

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The supply chains which bring biomass to biorefineries play a critical role in biofuel production. Optimization models can help decision makers to design more efficient chains and minimize the cost of biomass delivered to the refineries. This article based on a French national research project on biomass logistics considers one refinery, able to process several crops and several parts of the same crop, over a one-year horizon divided into days or weeks. A network model and a data model are first developed to let the decision maker describe the supply chain structure and its data, without affecting the underlying mathematical model. The latter is a mixed integer linear program which combines for the first time various features, either original or tackled separately in the literature. Knowing the refinery demands, it determines the activity levels in the network (amounts harvested, baled, transported, stored, etc. and the required equipment, in order to minimize a total cost including harvesting costs, transport costs and storage costs. Numerical evaluations based on real data show that the proposed model can optimize large supply chains in reasonable running times.

  10. Sustainable Biomass Resource Development and Use | Energy Analysis | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Biomass Resource Development and Use Sustainable Biomass Resource Development and Use A sustainability analysis includes biomass resource use and impact assessment. This analysis examines how we can biomass resource development. They look at whether there is available land to support bioenergy. They also

  11. Herbaceous biomass supply chains : assessing the greenhouse gas balance, economics and ILUC effects of Ukrainian biomass for domestic and Dutch energy markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppens, R.P.; Lesschen, J.P.; Galytska, M.; Jamblinne, de P.; Kraisvitnii, P.; Elbersen, H.W.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the supply chain performance for three types of biomass feedstock (reed, straw and switchgrass) and for three sustainability aspects, i.e. the greenhouse gas balance, economics and Indirect Land Use change effects (ILUC). Calculations are based on a fictional supply chain

  12. Putney Basketville Site Biomass CHP Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsberger, Randolph [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mosey, Gail [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Center for Program Analysis developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to reuse contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The Putney, Vermont, Basketville site, formerly the location of a basket-making facility and a paper mill andwoolen mill, was selected for a feasibility study under the program. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource based on abundant woody-biomass resources available in the area. Biomass combined heat and power (CHP) was selected as the technology due to nearby loads, including Putney Paper and Landmark College.

  13. Enhancement of Cunninghamella elegans UCP/WFCC 0542 Biomass and Chitosan with Amino Acid Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galba M. Campos-Takaki

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out with Cunninghamella elegans UCP/WFCC 0542 to evaluate the effects of an abundant supply of amino acids, asparagine and corn steep liquor associated with sucrose on the production of biomass and chitosan by submerged fermentation. The concentrations of the components of the culture medium which were determined by a 23 full factorial design evaluated the interactions and effects of the independent variables of the sucrose, asparagine and corn steep liquor in relation to carbon and nitrogen sources, on the production of chitosan regarding biomass. The best results were observed at the central point [asparagine 0.025%, sucrose 0.15% and 0.45% of corn steep liquor, ratio C:N=2:6], and produced maximum yields of 16.95 g/L biomass and 2.14 g/L chitosan, after 96 h of submerged fermentation. However, the lowest level of sucrose, asparagine and corn steep liquor produced a low amount of biomass (10.83 g/L and chitosan (0.60g/L. The infrared spectrum absorption of the chitosan produced by C. elegans showed bands regarding OH-axial stretching between 3406 and 3432 cm−1, superimposed on the NH stretching band with axial deformation of the amide C=O group at about 1639 cm−1, NH angular deformation at approximately 1560 cm−1; axial deformation of amide-CN at around 1421 cm−1, symmetrical angular deformation in CH3 at 1379 cm−1, -CN axial deformation of amino groups from 1125 to 1250 cm−1 and polysaccharide structure bands in the range of between 890–1150 cm−1. The crystallinity index of chitosan was 60.92%, and its degree of deacetylation was 75.25%. A low percentage of a supply of sucrose and asparagine with corn steep liquor offered higher yields of biomass and chitosan production at low cost.

  14. Biomass as feedstock for a bioenergy and bioproducts industry: The technical feasibility of a billion-ton annual supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, Robert D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wright, Lynn L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Turhollow, Anthony F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Graham, Robin L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stokes, Bryce J. [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. (United States); Erbach, Donald C. [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30% or more of the country's present petroleum consumption.

  15. Pinch analysis for bioethanol production process from lignocellulosic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, S.; Yanagida, T.; Nakaiwa, M.; Tatsumi, H.; Minowa, T.

    2011-01-01

    Bioethanol produced from carbon neutral and renewable biomass resources is an attractive process for the mitigation of greenhouse gases from vehicle exhaust. This study investigated energy utilization during bioethanol production from lignocellulose while avoiding competition with food production from corn and considering the potential mitigation of greenhouse gases. Process design and simulations were performed for bioethanol production using concentrated sulfuric acid. Mass and heat balances were obtained by process simulations, and the heat recovery ratio was determined by pinch analysis. An energy saving of 38% was achieved. However, energy supply and demand were not effectively utilized in the temperature range from 95 to 100 o C. Therefore, a heat pump was used to improve the temperature range of efficient energy supply and demand. Results showed that the energy required for the process could be supplied by heat released during the process. Additionally, the power required was supplied by surplus power generated during the process. Thus, pinch analysis was used to improve the energy efficiency of the process. - Highlights: → Effective energy utilization of bioethanol production was studied by using pinch analysis. → It was found that energy was not effectively utilized in the temperature range from 95 to 100 o C. → Use of a heat pump was considered to improve the ineffective utilization. → Then, remarkable energy savings could be achieved by it. → Pinch analysis effectively improved the energy efficiency of the bioethanol production.

  16. Biomass Scenario Model | Energy Analysis | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass Scenario Model Biomass Scenario Model The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a unique range of lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks into biofuels. Over the past 25 years, the corn ethanol plant matter (lignocellulosic biomass) to fermentable sugars for the production of fuel ethanol

  17. Corn Stover Availability for Biomass Conversion: Situation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, J. Richard; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Perlack, Robert; Turhollow, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    As biorefining conversion technologies become commercial, feedstock availability, supply system logistics, and biomass material attributes are emerging as major barriers to the availability of corn stover for biorefining. While systems do exist to supply corn stover as feedstock to biorefining facilities, stover material attributes affecting physical deconstruction, such as densification and post-harvest material stability, challenge the cost-effectiveness of present-day feedstock logistics systems. In addition, the material characteristics of corn stover create barriers with any supply system design in terms of equipment capacity/efficiency, dry matter loss, and capital use efficiency. However, this study of a large, square-bale corn stover feedstock supply system concludes that (1) where other agronomic factors are not limiting, corn stover can be accessed and supplied to a biorefinery using existing bale-based technologies, (2) technologies and new supply system designs are necessary to overcome biomass bulk density and moisture material property challenges, and (3) major opportunities to improve conventional-bale biomass feedstock supply systems include improvements in equipment efficiency and capacity and reducing biomass losses in harvesting and collection and storage. Finally, the backbone of an effective stover supply system design is the optimization of intended and minimization of unintended material property changes as the corn stover passes through the individual supply system processes from the field to the biorefinery conversion processes

  18. Biomass as fuel: Some general supply and demand considerations for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barron, W.F.

    1992-01-01

    A major expansion of biomass energy is probably only possible where several factors jointly hold: (1) fossil fuels are priced well above their current international market prices (e.g., to reflect environmental externalities) or otherwise limited in availability, and (2) there is not serious competition for growing sites with food and other non-energy biomass production regimes, and (3) investment resources are available at opportunity costs which make their application to biofuel development an attractive local option. Obvious policy recommendations include: (1) provide expanded support to small-scale biofuel supply and demand programs in areas where wood resources are being mined to satisfy energy needs, and (2) fund SRIC-type experiments in selected areas (e.g., where they may be financially attractive today, where the ecosystems are of particular interest) so as to begin to build-up developing country databases on species, plantation establishment techniques and cost-effective operational activities in support of possible future expansion of industrial-scale biofuels supply systems

  19. Social network analysis and supply chain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with social network analysis and how it could be integrated within supply chain management from a decision-making point of view. Even though the benefits of using social analysis have are widely accepted at both academic and industry/services context, there is still a lack of solid frameworks that allow decision-makers to connect the usage and obtained results of social network analysis – mainly both information and knowledge flows and derived results- with supply chain management objectives and goals. This paper gives an overview of social network analysis, the main social network analysis metrics, supply chain performance and, finally, it identifies how future frameworks could close the gap and link the results of social network analysis with the supply chain management decision-making processes.

  20. Cob biomass supply for combined heat and power and biofuel in the north central USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmer, Marty R.; Dose, Heather L.

    2014-01-01

    Corn (Zea mays L.) cobs are being evaluated as a potential bioenergy feedstock for combined heat and power generation (CHP) and conversion into a biofuel. The objective of this study was to determine corn cob availability in north central United States (Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota) using existing corn grain ethanol plants as a proxy for possible future co-located cellulosic ethanol plants. Cob production estimates averaged 6.04 Tg and 8.87 Tg using a 40 km radius area and 80 km radius area, respectively, from existing corn grain ethanol plants. The use of CHP from cobs reduces overall GHG emissions by 60%–65% from existing dry mill ethanol plants. An integrated biorefinery further reduces corn grain ethanol GHG emissions with estimated ranges from 13.9 g CO 2  equiv MJ −1 to 17.4 g CO 2  equiv MJ −1 . Significant radius area overlap (53% overlap for 40 km radius and 86% overlap for 80 km radius) exists for cob availability between current corn grain ethanol plants in this region suggesting possible cob supply constraints for a mature biofuel industry. A multi-feedstock approach will likely be required to meet multiple end user renewable energy requirements for the north central United States. Economic and feedstock logistics models need to account for possible supply constraints under a mature biofuel industry. - Highlights: • Corn cob biomass was estimated for the north central United States region. • Cobs were evaluated for combined heat and power generation and bioethanol. • Co-located ethanol plants showed a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. • Biomass supply constraints may occur under a mature cellulosic ethanol scenario

  1. Hydropower Manufacturing and Supply Chain Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotrell, Jason R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    Hydropower Manufacturing and Supply Chain Analysis presentation from the WPTO FY14-FY16 Peer Review. The project objective is to provide data and insights to inform investment strategies, policy, and other decisions to promote economic growth and manufacturing.

  2. Insight on Biomass Supply and Feedstock Definition for Fischer-Tropsch Based BTL Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coignac, Julien

    2013-01-01

    as relevant quantities of agricultural residues (notably from palm oil cropping systems). To a lesser extent, Europe also presents significant amounts of agricultural co-products and forestry residues which could be available for bio-energy. Nevertheless an improvement of biomass supply structure is necessary to be in the position to answer the demand for BtL (Biomass to Liquid) industry. Mineral composition is also a relevant parameter to be considered for the thermochemical conversion process, since the Fischer-Tropsch catalysis - last step of the conversion process - is very sensitive to mineral elements of biomass. Concerning mineral composition of biomass, five public databases were analysed to collect relevant characteristics and the information was aggregated in one large database dedicated to the project. Nitrogen, chlorine, phosphorus, sulphur, ash and energy contents are the major parameters collected. By analysing these data, we observe that fast-growing plants (typically agricultural co-products) contain much more minerals than low-growing crops (typically forest residues). This is mostly due to the fertilizers spread in the fields for the growth of agricultural crops. Consequently, agricultural by-products appear as the most constraining biomass in terms of mineral contents. Regarding costs, a literature review was also carried out, with a special focus on the French case. Most data come from REGIX Programme and French organisms (FCBA, Association AILE, etc.). This allowed us to observe that agricultural by-products are the cheapest biomass (10 to 15 euro/MWh, equivalent to 50 to 75 euro/TDM), as they are still considered as sub-products of grains. Their price is only driven by conditioning and transport costs. (Very) short rotation forestry bio- masses are slightly more expensive (13 to 17 euro/MWh, equivalent to 70 to 90 euro/TDM), due to harvest costs, but they remain cheaper than energy crops (20 to 22 euro/MWh, equivalent to 95 to 110 euro

  3. Evaluation of the ecological efficiency of a logistics system using the biomass supply as an example; Bewertung der Oekoeffizienz von Logistiksystemen am Beispiel der Biomassebereitstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobers, Kerstin

    2011-07-01

    The realization of eco-efficient logistics systems and logistics processes offer companies the chance to prepare for future market developments and market requirements, and further, actively help in the own field of activity in a more eco-friendly economic manner. At the same time, the expansion of bioenergy is yet another control lever to reduce greenhouse gas emissions or to at least slow down its increase. In the present thesis, both approaches are linked together and a basis is established to evaluate the eco-efficiency of biomass provisioning systems and derive precise potential improvements. For this purpose, the status quo in science for economic and ecological assessments of biomass supply systems is presented initiatively. Within the scope of a system analysis typical process chains of the biomass supply are worked out and the system boundaries defined. At this, a main focus is laid on wooden fuels from landscape conservation as well as conservation measures are described in detail. A uniform and universal illustration of entire biomass supply systems, for both economic and ecological assessment is lacking so far. With the current method this gap is being closed: The relevant processes (transport, handling, warehousing and processing) are illustrated according to the current state of science for economic-ecological assessment. The costs of the supply system as well as the greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents) serve as assessment parameters. Further, existing records on consumption and emission factors are checked for their usability, and are selected for biomass logistics. The developed method is transferred in a practice-oriented model and is implemented in a computerized assessment tool within the scope of the thesis. By means of this tool, specific biomass supply systems are illustrated and evaluated concerning their eco-efficiency. Based on the calculations the relevance of transport capacities is made clear within the

  4. Techno-economic analysis of a biomass depot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Jacob Jordan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lamers, Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Roni, Mohammad Sadekuzzaman [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cafferty, Kara Grace [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kenney, Kevin Louis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Heath, Brendi May [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hansen, Jason K [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) promotes the production of an array of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the technical, economic, and environmental performance of different feedstock supply systems and their impacts on the downstream conversion processes.

  5. Analysis of uranium supply to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underhill, D.H.

    2002-01-01

    The 1999 uranium mine production was about 55% of the 61 500 tonnes uranium (t U) used by the nuclear industry, with the balance met by secondary supply. Based on a recent WEC-IIASA study which defines a wide range of possible future levels of nuclear electricity generation, it is estimated that by 2050 annual uranium requirements could increase to 177 000 and 283 000 t U respectively, in the mid and high cases, or fall to 52 000 t U in the low case. Cumulative requirements to 2050 for the low, mid and high cases are, respectively 3.39, 5.35 and 7.58 million t U. A new IAEA analysis describes how known uranium resources (RAR and EAR-1) plus undiscovered resources (EAR-II and SR), supplemented by secondary supplies, could be utilized to supply reactors to 2050. Secondary supplies include: existing inventories, blended down warhead material (LEU blended from HEU), MOX, Repu, and re-enrichment of tails. The methodology of this analysis estimates the amounts and annual deliveries of the secondary supply, plus non-market supply. The balance of demand is met from Market Based Production (MBP) or: 'Uranium produced at or below market price to satisfy requirements not met by other supply sources'. The analysis then evaluates the production role for 125 uranium deposits, which supply MBP considering individual deposit resources, production cost and capability, and timing. Production costs are classified from low ( $130/kgU). Annual supply and demand balancing is used to allocate the resources on an individual deposit basis, assuming use of the next lowest available cost production. Secondary supplies will continue to supplement mine production to about 2025, but their relative importance will decrease over the period. An analysis of the benefit of lowering the enrichment tails assay from 0.30% 235 U to 0.15% 235 U, when economically justified is also discussed. The report also discusses projected production cost trends to 2025 under the mid and high cases. The final

  6. Enhanced production of green tide algal biomass through additional carbon supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Silva, Pedro H; Paul, Nicholas A; de Nys, Rocky; Mata, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Intensive algal cultivation usually requires a high flux of dissolved inorganic carbon (Ci) to support productivity, particularly for high density algal cultures. Carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment can be used to overcome Ci limitation and enhance productivity of algae in intensive culture, however, it is unclear whether algal species with the ability to utilise bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)) as a carbon source for photosynthesis will benefit from CO2 enrichment. This study quantified the HCO3 (-) affinity of three green tide algal species, Cladophora coelothrix, Cladophora patentiramea and Chaetomorpha linum, targeted for biomass and bioenergy production. Subsequently, we quantified productivity and carbon, nitrogen and ash content in response to CO2 enrichment. All three species had similar high pH compensation points (9.7-9.9), and grew at similar rates up to pH 9, demonstrating HCO3 (-) utilization. Algal cultures enriched with CO2 as a carbon source had 30% more total Ci available, supplying twenty five times more CO2 than the control. This higher Ci significantly enhanced the productivity of Cladophora coelothrix (26%), Chaetomorpha linum (24%) and to a lesser extent for Cladophora patentiramea (11%), compared to controls. We demonstrated that supplying carbon as CO2 can enhance the productivity of targeted green tide algal species under intensive culture, despite their clear ability to utilise HCO3 (-).

  7. Enhanced production of green tide algal biomass through additional carbon supply.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro H de Paula Silva

    Full Text Available Intensive algal cultivation usually requires a high flux of dissolved inorganic carbon (Ci to support productivity, particularly for high density algal cultures. Carbon dioxide (CO2 enrichment can be used to overcome Ci limitation and enhance productivity of algae in intensive culture, however, it is unclear whether algal species with the ability to utilise bicarbonate (HCO3 (- as a carbon source for photosynthesis will benefit from CO2 enrichment. This study quantified the HCO3 (- affinity of three green tide algal species, Cladophora coelothrix, Cladophora patentiramea and Chaetomorpha linum, targeted for biomass and bioenergy production. Subsequently, we quantified productivity and carbon, nitrogen and ash content in response to CO2 enrichment. All three species had similar high pH compensation points (9.7-9.9, and grew at similar rates up to pH 9, demonstrating HCO3 (- utilization. Algal cultures enriched with CO2 as a carbon source had 30% more total Ci available, supplying twenty five times more CO2 than the control. This higher Ci significantly enhanced the productivity of Cladophora coelothrix (26%, Chaetomorpha linum (24% and to a lesser extent for Cladophora patentiramea (11%, compared to controls. We demonstrated that supplying carbon as CO2 can enhance the productivity of targeted green tide algal species under intensive culture, despite their clear ability to utilise HCO3 (-.

  8. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasability of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D.

    2005-12-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) are both strongly committed to expanding the role of biomass as an energy source. In particular, they support biomass fuels and products as a way to reduce the need for oil and gas imports; to support the growth of agriculture, forestry, and rural economies; and to foster major new domestic industries--biorefineries--making a variety of fuels, chemicals, and other products. As part of this effort, the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee, a panel established by the Congress to guide the future direction of federally funded biomass R&D, envisioned a 30 percent replacement of the current U.S. petroleum consumption with biofuels by 2030. Biomass--all plant and plant-derived materials including animal manure, not just starch, sugar, oil crops already used for food and energy--has great potential to provide renewable energy for America's future. Biomass recently surpassed hydropower as the largest domestic source of renewable energy and currently provides over 3 percent of the total energy consumption in the United States. In addition to the many benefits common to renewable energy, biomass is particularly attractive because it is the only current renewable source of liquid transportation fuel. This, of course, makes it invaluable in reducing oil imports--one of our most pressing energy needs. A key question, however, is how large a role could biomass play in responding to the nation's energy demands. Assuming that economic and financial policies and advances in conversion technologies make biomass fuels and products more economically viable, could the biorefinery industry be large enough to have a significant impact on energy supply and oil imports? Any and all contributions are certainly needed, but would the biomass potential be sufficiently large to justify the necessary capital replacements in the fuels and automobile sectors? The purpose of this report is to determine

  9. Methanol from biomass: A technoeconomic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    Biomass-derived methanol offers significant potential as an alternative transportation fuel. Methanol is cleaner burning and has a lower flame temperature than gasoline. These characteristics can result in lower carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide emissions when methanol is used as a fuel. Methanol produced from biomass offers potential advantages over that from other sources. When produced from biomass which is subsequently regrown, methanol does not contribute net emissions of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, to the atmosphere. The introduction of alternative fuels will likely be driven by a number of political and economic decisions. The ability of biomass to compete with other resources will be determined in part by the economics of the production systems. In this paper, recent technoeconomic analyses of biomass-methanol systems are presented. The results are compared with methanol production from coal and natural gas

  10. Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol

    2001-01-01

    Biomass, the contraction for biological mass, is the amount of living material provided by a given area or volume of the earth's surface, whether terrestrial or aquatic. Biomass is important for commercial uses (e.g., fuel and fiber) and for national development planning, as well as for scientific studies of ecosystem productivity, energy and nutrient flows, and...

  11. Biomass saccharification is largely enhanced by altering wall polymer features and reducing silicon accumulation in rice cultivars harvested from nitrogen fertilizer supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor; Sun, Dan; Li, Ying; Wang, Jing; Tu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yanting; Hu, Zhen; Zhou, Shiguang; Wang, Lingqiang; Xie, Guosheng; Huang, Jianliang; Alam, Aftab; Peng, Liangcai

    2017-11-01

    In this study, two rice cultivars were collected from experimental fields with seven nitrogen fertilizer treatments. All biomass samples contained significantly increased cellulose contents and reduced silica levels, with variable amounts of hemicellulose and lignin from different nitrogen treatments. Under chemical (NaOH, CaO, H 2 SO 4 ) and physical (hot water) pretreatments, biomass samples exhibited much enhanced hexoses yields from enzymatic hydrolysis, with high bioethanol production from yeast fermentation. Notably, both degree of polymerization (DP) of cellulose and xylose/arabinose (Xyl/Ara) ratio of hemicellulose were reduced in biomass residues, whereas other wall polymer features (cellulose crystallinity and monolignol proportion) were variable. Integrative analysis indicated that cellulose DP, hemicellulosic Xyl/Ara and silica are the major factors that significantly affect cellulose crystallinity and biomass saccharification. Hence, this study has demonstrated that nitrogen fertilizer supply could largely enhance biomass saccharification in rice cultivars, mainly by reducing cellulose DP, hemicellulosic Xyl/Ara and silica in cell walls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply, April 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30 percent or more of the country’s present petroleum consumption – the goal set by the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee in their vision for biomass technologies. Accomplishing this goal would require approximately 1 billion dry tons of biomass feedstock per year.

  13. Biomass gasifier projects for decentralized power supply in India: A financial evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouni, M.R.; Mullick, S.C.; Kandpal, T.C.

    2007-01-01

    Results of a techno-economic evaluation of biomass gasifier based projects for decentralized power supply for remote locations in India are presented. Contributions of different components of diesel engine generator (DG) sets, dual fuel (DF) engine generator sets and 100% producer gas (HPG) engine generator sets to their capital costs as well as to the levelized unit cost of electricity (LUCE) delivered by the same have been analyzed. LUCE delivered to the consumers has been estimated to be varying in the range of Rs. 13.14-24.49/kWh (US$ 0.30-0.55/kWh) for DF BGPP. LUCE increases significantly if BGPP is operated at part loads. Presently available 40kW capacity HPG systems in India are expected to be financially competitive with a DG set of equivalent capacity beyond a break-even diesel price of Rs. 34.70/l. It is expected to be financially more attractive than an equivalent capacity DF BGPP for diesel prices of more than Rs. 44.29/l. In certain specific conditions operating two smaller capacity systems has been found to be attractive as against a single larger capacity system

  14. Energetic use of renewable fuels. Logistics of energy carrier supply, technologies of usage, boundary conditions for economically efficient use of biomass. Proceedings; Energetische Nutzung nachwachsender Rohstoffe - Logistik der Energietraegerbereitstellung, Technologien der Energietraegernutzung, Rahmenbedinungen fuer den wirtschaftlichen Einsatz von Biomasse. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Within the 14th international conference 'Energetical use of renewable fuels' at Freiberg (Federal Republic of Germany) at 11th and 12th September, 2008, the following lectures were held: (a) State of the legislation procedure for the revision of the Renewable Energy Resources Act and Renewable Energy Resources Heat Act (Bernhard Dreher); (b) Power generation from biomass - A task of investigation? (Martin Kaltschmitt); (c) A physical-chemical online analysis of fine dust emissions from wood furnaces (Michael Sattler, Christian Gaegauf, Nicolas Meyer, Maaren Heringa); (d) Actual state of standardization of biogenic solid fuels (Andreas Neff, Frank Baur); (e) Combined heat and power coupling with thermal gasification of biomass - State of the art and actual developments (Juergen Karl); (f) Wood power generation in the practice - Possibilities and potentials (Michael Hoeffling); (g) Biological natural gas - An analysis and evaluation (Alexander Vogel, Stephan Ramesohl); (h) Digestion of biomass ensures a high yield of biogas (Thilo Lehmann, Christina Dornack); (i) Market for wood pellets in the Federal Republic of Germany - State of the art, development, perspectives (Martin Bentele); (j) Report on the expert opinion ''Utilization of biomass for power generation'' of the Scientific Advisory Council agrarian policy at BMELV (Thomas De Witte); (k) About the ecology of short rotation plants (Heino Wolf); (l) Generation of electricity and heat on the basis of straw - The first straw-fired heating plant in Germany (Rainer Knieper); (m) Standardization of liquid fuels in European context (Thomas Brehmer, Franz Heger); (n) Bio fuels of the second generation: Production, quantities of biomass and strategies of supply (Lutz Freytag); (o) Biomass-fired heating plant Simmering (Ludwig Gockner); (p) Industrial network Renewably Energy in the Free State of Saxony (Klaus Beumler); (q) Exemplary regional conversion of an intelligent, decentralised

  15. Efficiency analysis of hydrogen production methods from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ptasinski, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: Hydrogen is considered as a universal energy carrier for the future, and biomass has the potential to become a sustainable source of hydrogen. This article presents an efficiency analysis of hydrogen production processes from a variety of biomass feedstocks by a thermochemical method –

  16. A perspective on competitiveness of Brazil in the global supply of biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Cárcel Carrasco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we intend to present an integrated view of biomass production in Brazil. By analyzing biomass potential and biomass production costs we seek to present a broad view of Brazilian competitiveness in the domestic and global energy markets. By mapping out this potential, we want to present the main opportunities for Brazil in its quest for cleaner, more competitive and more sustainable fuel sources. Our estimate of the potential represents almost double the volume that the country produced in 2010. This should enable Brazil to meet 30% of global demand for biomass by 2035. As regards production costs and profits, dedicated biomass has trading conditions to yield the same or more than the most profitable products in the sector such as sugarcane, soybeans or wood. Compared with fossil fuels, the cost of biomass is equivalent to an oil barrel below R$ 40.00, although adequate logistics is crucial for the economic feasibility of biomass utilization. Global demand for biomass will increase in the coming years, both for conventional and modern uses, such as second generation biofuels or biomass gasification. Due to its agricultural potential, Brazil could become a major biomass producer, with great economic and environmental advantages in a world increasingly concerned with sustainability and climate change.

  17. Effect of Nutrient Supply on Chemical and Energetic Characteristics of Fiber Sorghum Biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciria, P.; Gonzalez, E.; Negro, M. J.; Solano, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of the present work, is to study the effect of the addition of different nutrients and irrigation doses on the chemical and energetic characteristics of the Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench ssp. bicolor biomass. The effect of compost addition is compared with the mineral fertilisation in two different irrigation doses . The experimental parcel, is located at CIEMAT-CEDER (Soria), at 1000 m above sea level, with a extremely weather and a loam sandy soil texture. The results obtained in the tested conditions show: a) the average biomass productivity was 9.81 d.m./ha, and no significant differences between treatments were observed. b) Mean values of the proximate analysis were 72.6 volatile matter, 6.2% ashes and 21.2 % fixed carbon. The volatile matter increases (1.1 %) and the ashes decreases (1.4 %) for the highest irrigation dose both in plots with no addition and in plots amended with compost. c) The N, S and Cl contents decreases for the highest irrigation dose in the same cases above mentioned. Mean values of the elemental analysis were: 45.0 % C, 6.3 % H, 1.4 % N, 0.15 % S and 0.49 % Cl. d) The average High Heating Value was 18071 kJ/kg d.m. and no significant differences between treatments were observed e) For the highest irrigation doses, a reduction in the K 2 O, P 2 O 5 , Mg and Si content, and a increase in the Al, Fe and Ti in ashes were detected. (Author) 13 refs

  18. Carbon-nitrogen interactions and biomass partitioning of Carex rostrata grown at three levels of nitrogen supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, T [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Systematics

    1997-12-31

    Biomass and production of vascular plants constitutes a major source of carbon input in peatlands. As rates of decomposition vary considerably with depth, the vertical distribution of biomass may substantially affect accumulation of carbon in peatlands. Therefore, allocation patterns between shoot and roots are particularly important when considering carbon balance of peatland ecosystems. The stimulatory effect of increasing atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2} or photosynthesis may increase availability of carbon to most C3 plants. Availability of nitrogen may also alter both due to increased atmospheric deposition and changer in mineralisation rates associated with climate change. Most root-shoot partitioning models predict that allocation of biomass is dependent of the availability and uptake of carbon and nitrogen. A decrease in supply of carbon would favour allocation to shoots and a decrease in supply of nitrogen would increase allocation to roots. At a cellular level, non structural carbohydrates and free amino acids are thought to represent the biochemically available fraction of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. The aim of this work is study the long-term growth responses of Carex rostrata to changes in the availability of nitrogen. Special attention is paid to soluble sugars ant free amino acids, which may control partitioning of biomass. (10 refs.)

  19. Carbon-nitrogen interactions and biomass partitioning of Carex rostrata grown at three levels of nitrogen supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Systematics

    1996-12-31

    Biomass and production of vascular plants constitutes a major source of carbon input in peatlands. As rates of decomposition vary considerably with depth, the vertical distribution of biomass may substantially affect accumulation of carbon in peatlands. Therefore, allocation patterns between shoot and roots are particularly important when considering carbon balance of peatland ecosystems. The stimulatory effect of increasing atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2} or photosynthesis may increase availability of carbon to most C3 plants. Availability of nitrogen may also alter both due to increased atmospheric deposition and changer in mineralisation rates associated with climate change. Most root-shoot partitioning models predict that allocation of biomass is dependent of the availability and uptake of carbon and nitrogen. A decrease in supply of carbon would favour allocation to shoots and a decrease in supply of nitrogen would increase allocation to roots. At a cellular level, non structural carbohydrates and free amino acids are thought to represent the biochemically available fraction of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. The aim of this work is study the long-term growth responses of Carex rostrata to changes in the availability of nitrogen. Special attention is paid to soluble sugars ant free amino acids, which may control partitioning of biomass. (10 refs.)

  20. Biomass or biomess? - a comment on the paper by Anders Lunnan (Agriculture-based biomass energy supply - a survey of economics issues)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolin, Olof

    1997-01-01

    A response to Lunnan's paper (Energy Policy, Vol. 25, No. 6, 1997), on economic issues surrounding agriculture-based biomass energy supplies is presented. This author argues that, despite Lunnan's gloomy forecasts for the economic prospects of agriculture-based bioenergy, the future of the industry will be decided in the political arena based on agricultural policy. Bioenergy production can best be promoted, it is argued, by reducing farmland prices. Caution is urged in placing too great a financial burden on farmers, however, and consumers of food or energy and tax-payers must share the risk of investment in these new technologies. (UK)

  1. A mixed biomass-based energy supply chain for enhancing economic and environmental sustainability benefits: A multi-criteria decision making framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirkouei, Amin; Haapala, Karl R.; Sessions, John; Murthy, Ganti S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A mixed supply chain is developed to enhance sustainability benefits of bioenergy. •A decision-making framework is constructed to balance sustainability dimensions. •A stochastic optimization model is developed to explore the effects of uncertainty. •This study provides insights on bio-oil production processes and system structure. -- Abstract: Bioenergy sources have been introduced as a means to address challenges of conventional energy sources. The uncertainties of supply-side (upstream) externalities (e.g., collection and logistics) represent the key challenges in bioenergy supply chains and lead to reduce cross-cutting sustainability benefits. We propose a mixed biomass-based energy supply chain (consisting of mixed-mode bio-refineries and mixed-pathway transportation) and a multi-criteria decision making framework to address the upstream challenges. Our developed framework supports decisions influencing the economic and environmental dimensions of sustainability. Economic analysis employs a support vector machine technique, to predict the pattern of uncertainty parameters, and a stochastic optimization model, to incorporate uncertainties into the model. The stochastic model minimizes the total annual cost of the proposed mixed supply chain network by using a genetic algorithm. Environmental impact analysis employs life cycle assessment to evaluate the global warming potential of the cost-effective supply chain network. Our presented approach is capable of enhancing sustainability benefits of bioenergy industry infrastructure. A case study for the Pacific Northwest is used to demonstrate the application of the methodology and to verify the models. The results indicate that mixed supply chains can improve sustainability performance over traditional supply infrastructures by reducing costs (up to 24%) and environmental impacts (up to 5%).

  2. Energy study of the energy supply systems for isolated communities in Cuba from the use of biomass gasifiers downdraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla Duparté, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    At work a comprehensive energy analysis of plants generating electricity from the gasification of various biomass that currently conceived by the management of the Electric Union for the electrification of isolated communities in the fields of Cuba is made. For this, based on the properties of the main biomass available, the calculations needed are performed to evaluate the efficiency of the gasifier and other components of energy transformation system. The power generation are taken into consideration and an assessment of the needs of biomass in each case is made. (full text)

  3. Exergy analysis of biomass-to-synthetic natural gas (SNG) process via indirect gasification of various biomass feedstock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitasari, C.R.; Jurascik, M.; Ptasinski, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an exergy analysis of SNG production via indirect gasification of various biomass feedstock, including virgin (woody) biomass as well as waste biomass (municipal solid waste and sludge). In indirect gasification heat needed for endothermic gasification reactions is produced by

  4. Gas generation from biomass for decentralized power supply systems; Gaserzeugung fuer dezentrale Energiesysteme auf der Basis von Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubiak, H.; Papamichalis, A.; Heek, K.H. van [DMT-Inst. fuer Kokserzeugung und Brennstofftechnik, Essen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    By a reaction with steam, bioresidues and plants can be converted into a gas consisting mainly of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane which can be used for electric power generation in gas engines, gas turbins and fuel cells. The conversion processes, especially the fuel cell process, are environment-friendly and efficient. For decentralized applications (i.e. for biomass volumes of 0.5 to 1 t/h), an allothermal process is recommended which is described in detail. (orig) [Deutsch] Durch Reaktion mit Wasserdampf lassen sich Bioreststoffe und Energiepflanzen zu einem Gas umsetzen, das im wesentlichen aus Wasserstoff, Kohlenmonoxid und Methan besteht und z.B. ueber Gasmotoren, Gasturbinen, vorzugsweise aber Brennstoffzellen zu Strom umgewandelt werden kann. Die Umwandlungsverfahren, insbesondere unter Benutzung von Brennstoffzellen, sind umweltfreundlich und haben einen hohen Wirkungsgrad. Als Vergasungsverfahren eignet sich fuer die dezentrale Anwendung. - d.h. fuer eine Biomassemenge von 0,5 bis 1 t/h - insbesondere das hier beschriebene allotherme Verfahren. (orig)

  5. Gas generation from biomass for decentralized power supply systems; Gaserzeugung fuer dezentrale Energiesysteme auf der Basis von Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubiak, H; Papamichalis, A; Heek, K.H. van [DMT-Inst. fuer Kokserzeugung und Brennstofftechnik, Essen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    By a reaction with steam, bioresidues and plants can be converted into a gas consisting mainly of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane which can be used for electric power generation in gas engines, gas turbins and fuel cells. The conversion processes, especially the fuel cell process, are environment-friendly and efficient. For decentralized applications (i.e. for biomass volumes of 0.5 to 1 t/h), an allothermal process is recommended which is described in detail. (orig) [Deutsch] Durch Reaktion mit Wasserdampf lassen sich Bioreststoffe und Energiepflanzen zu einem Gas umsetzen, das im wesentlichen aus Wasserstoff, Kohlenmonoxid und Methan besteht und z.B. ueber Gasmotoren, Gasturbinen, vorzugsweise aber Brennstoffzellen zu Strom umgewandelt werden kann. Die Umwandlungsverfahren, insbesondere unter Benutzung von Brennstoffzellen, sind umweltfreundlich und haben einen hohen Wirkungsgrad. Als Vergasungsverfahren eignet sich fuer die dezentrale Anwendung. - d.h. fuer eine Biomassemenge von 0,5 bis 1 t/h - insbesondere das hier beschriebene allotherme Verfahren. (orig)

  6. Novel Role of Rural Official Organization in the Biomass-Based Power Supply Chain in China: A Combined Game Theory and Agent-Based Simulation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyan Luo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Developing biomass-based power generation is helpful for China to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and to release the targets of carbon emission peak. The decentralized farming method leads to Chinese farmers’ weak willingness to collect and sell crop residues to biomass-based power plants. The purpose of this paper is to solve the issue by proposing a novel biomass feedstock supply model with China’s rural official organization—villagers’ committee, which has great influence on villagers’ decision making. Introducing it into the biomass-based power supply chain is beneficial to motivating farmers’ supplying enthusiasm. A combined game theory and agent-based simulation approach is applied to study the effectiveness of this new supply model. Multiple simulation scenarios are built to study impacts of different simulation parameters, and results show that farmers tend to supply more biomass material for electricity production in the proposed villagers’ committee model, compared with the two conventional supply models, direct-deal and broker models. The supply model incorporating the rural official organization can ensure the feedstock sufficiency for plants. A proper model design depends on the feed-in tariff subsidy for biomass-based electricity, feedstock shipping distance, performance appraisal system of the villagers’ committee, as well as farmers’ utility weights on net income and public service improvement.

  7. Analysis of supply chain management of N1-EAM project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jize; Liu Xujia; Liu Huanhuan

    2014-01-01

    Supply chain management directly affect the safe and stable operation of nuclear power plants. China's nuclear power production management information system N1-EAM covers supply chain management business. This paper firstly N1-EAM supply chain management functions, advanced analysis of business processes, Qinshan area combined with supply chain management situation, the initial application of the proposed solutions. (authors)

  8. Fort Carson Building 1860 Biomass Heating Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsberger, Randolph [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tomberlin, Gregg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gaul, Chris [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    As part of the Army Net-Zero Energy Installation program, the Fort Carson Army Base requested that NREL evaluate the feasibility of adding a biomass boiler to the district heating system served by Building 1860. We have also developed an Excel-spreadsheet-based decision support tool--specific to the historic loads served by Building 1860--with which users can perform what-if analysis on gas costs, biomass costs, and other parameters. For economic reasons, we do not recommend adding a biomass system at this time.

  9. The effects of location, feedstock availability, and supply-chain logistics on the greenhouse gas emissions of forest-biomass energy utilization in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jappinen, E,

    2013-11-01

    Forest biomass represents a geographically distributed feedstock, and geographical location affects the greenhouse gas (GHG) performance of a given forest-bioenergy system in several ways. For example, biomass availability, forest operations, transportation possibilities and the distances involved, biomass end-use possibilities, fossil reference systems, and forest carbon balances all depend to some extent on location. The overall objective of this thesis was to assess the GHG emissions derived from supply and energy-utilization chains of forest biomass in Finland, with a specific focus on the effect of location in relation to forest biomass's availability and the transportation possibilities. Biomass availability and transportation-network assessments were conducted through utilization of geographical information system methods, and the GHG emissions were assessed by means of lifecycle assessment. The thesis is based on four papers in which forest biomass supply on industrial scale was assessed. The feedstocks assessed in this thesis include harvesting residues, smalldiameter energy wood and stumps. The principal implication of the findings in this thesis is that in Finland, the location and availability of biomass in the proximity of a given energyutilization or energy-conversion plant is not a decisive factor in supply-chain GHG emissions or the possible GHG savings to be achieved with forest-biomass energy use. Therefore, for the greatest GHG reductions with limited forest-biomass resources, energy utilization of forest biomass in Finland should be directed to the locations where most GHG savings are achieved through replacement of fossil fuels. Furthermore, one should prioritize the types of forest biomass with the lowest direct supply-chain GHG emissions (e.g., from transport and comminution) and the lowest indirect ones (in particular, soil carbon-stock losses), regardless of location. In this respect, the best combination is to use harvesting residues

  10. An Innovative Agro-Forestry Supply Chain for Residual Biomass: Physicochemical Characterisation of Biochar from Olive and Hazelnut Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Zambon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about climate change and food productivity have spurred interest in biochar, a form of charred organic material typically used in agriculture to improve soil productivity and as a means of carbon sequestration. An innovative approach in agriculture is the use of agro-forestry waste for the production of soil fertilisers for agricultural purposes and as a source of energy. A common agricultural practice is to burn crop residues in the field to produce ashes that can be used as soil fertilisers. This approach is able to supply plants with certain nutrients, such as Ca, K, Mg, Na, B, S, and Mo. However, the low concentration of N and P in the ashes, together with the occasional presence of heavy metals (Ni, Pb, Cd, Se, Al, etc., has a negative effect on soil and, therefore, crop productivity. This work describes the opportunity to create an innovative supply chain from agricultural waste biomass. Olive (Olea europaea and hazelnut (Corylus avellana pruning residues represent a major component of biomass waste in the area of Viterbo (Italy. In this study, we evaluated the production of biochar from these residues. Furthermore, a physicochemical characterisation of the produced biochar was performed to assess the quality of the two biochars according to the standards of the European Biochar Certificate (EBC. The results of this study indicate the cost-effective production of high-quality biochar from olive and hazelnut biomass residues.

  11. Feedstock and Conversion Supply System Design and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mohammad, R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cafferty, K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kenney, K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Searcy, E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hansen, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The success of the earlier logistic pathway designs (Biochemical and Thermochemical) from a feedstock perspective was that it demonstrated that through proper equipment selection and best management practices, conventional supply systems (referred to in this report as “conventional designs,” or specifically the 2012 Conventional Design) can be successfully implemented to address dry matter loss, quality issues, and enable feedstock cost reductions that help to reduce feedstock risk of variable supply and quality and enable industry to commercialize biomass feedstock supply chains. The caveat of this success is that conventional designs depend on high density, low-cost biomass with no disruption from incremental weather. In this respect, the success of conventional designs is tied to specific, highly productive regions such as the southeastern U.S. which has traditionally supported numerous pulp and paper industries or the Midwest U.S for corn stover.

  12. Risk analysis of a biomass combustion process using MOSAR and FMEA methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivel, P-X; Bultel, Y; Delpech, F

    2008-02-28

    Thermal and chemical conversion processes that convert in energy the sewage sludge, pasty waste and other pre-processed waste are increasingly common, for economic and ecological reasons. Fluidized bed combustion is currently one of the most promising methods of energy conversion, since it burns biomass very efficiently, and produces only very small quantities of sulphur and nitrogen oxides. The hazards associated with biomass combustion processes are fire, explosion and poisoning from the combustion gases (CO, etc.). The risk analysis presented in this paper uses the MADS-MOSAR methodology, applied to a semi-industrial pilot scheme comprising a fluidization column, a conventional cyclone, two natural gas burners and a continuous supply of biomass. The methodology uses a generic approach, with an initial macroscopic stage where hazard sources are identified, scenarios for undesired events are recognized and ranked using a grid of SeverityxProbability and safety barriers suggested. A microscopic stage then analyzes in detail the major risks identified during the first stage. This analysis may use various different tools, such as HAZOP, FMEA, etc.: our analysis is based on FMEA. Using MOSAR, we were able to identify five subsystems: the reactor (fluidized bed and centrifuge), the fuel and biomass supply lines, the operator and the environment. When we drew up scenarios based on these subsystems, we found that malfunction of the gas supply burners was a common trigger in many scenarios. Our subsequent microscopic analysis, therefore, focused on the burners, looking at the ways they failed, and at the effects and criticality of those failures (FMEA). We were, thus, able to identify a number of critical factors such as the incoming gas lines and the ignition electrode.

  13. Risk analysis of a biomass combustion process using MOSAR and FMEA methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thivel, P.-X.; Bultel, Y.; Delpech, F.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal and chemical conversion processes that convert in energy the sewage sludge, pasty waste and other pre-processed waste are increasingly common, for economic and ecological reasons. Fluidized bed combustion is currently one of the most promising methods of energy conversion, since it burns biomass very efficiently, and produces only very small quantities of sulphur and nitrogen oxides. The hazards associated with biomass combustion processes are fire, explosion and poisoning from the combustion gases (CO, etc.). The risk analysis presented in this paper uses the MADS-MOSAR methodology, applied to a semi-industrial pilot scheme comprising a fluidization column, a conventional cyclone, two natural gas burners and a continuous supply of biomass. The methodology uses a generic approach, with an initial macroscopic stage where hazard sources are identified, scenarios for undesired events are recognized and ranked using a grid of Severity x Probability and safety barriers suggested. A microscopic stage then analyzes in detail the major risks identified during the first stage. This analysis may use various different tools, such as HAZOP, FMEA, etc.: our analysis is based on FMEA. Using MOSAR, we were able to identify five subsystems: the reactor (fluidized bed and centrifuge), the fuel and biomass supply lines, the operator and the environment. When we drew up scenarios based on these subsystems, we found that malfunction of the gas supply burners was a common trigger in many scenarios. Our subsequent microscopic analysis, therefore, focused on the burners, looking at the ways they failed, and at the effects and criticality of those failures (FMEA). We were, thus, able to identify a number of critical factors such as the incoming gas lines and the ignition electrode

  14. Paths to bioenergy villages. A guideline for a independent supply of heat and electricity based on biomass in rural area. 3. ed.; Wege zum Bioenergiedorf. Leitfaden fuer eine eigenstaendige Waerme- und Stromversrogung auf Basis von Biomasse im laendlichen Raum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, Hans; Eigner-Thiel, Swantje; Girschner, Walter; Karpenstein-Machan, Marianne; Roland, Folker; Ruwisch, Volker; Sauer, Benedikt; Schmuck, Peter

    2010-12-15

    Bioenergy villages are one component for the sustainable energy supply in rural areas. The guideline under consideration is intended to encourage people in villages to switch their heat supply and electricity supply on the bases of biomass. The focus of this process-oriented guideline is on: (1) A presentation of the social feasibility, especially the involvement, motivation and encouragement of the population; (2) The presentation of concepts for a nature-friendly cultivation of the required biomass; (3) The treatment of economic and legal issues from the perspective of the people involved.

  15. Analysis of natural gas supply strategies at Fort Drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stucky, D.J.; Shankle, S.A.; Anderson, D.M.

    1992-07-01

    This analysis investigates strategies for Fort Drum to acquire a reliable natural gas supply while reducing its gas supply costs. The purpose of this study is to recommend an optimal supply mix based on the life-cycle costs of each strategy analyzed. In particular, this study is intended to provide initial guidance as to whether or not the building and operating of a propane-air mixing station is a feasible alternative to the current gas acquisition strategy. The analysis proceeded by defining the components of supply (gas purchase, gas transport, supplemental fuel supply); identifying alternative options for each supply component; constructing gas supply strategies from different combinations of the options available for each supply component and calculating the life-cycle costs of each supply strategy under a set of different scenarios reflecting the uncertainty of future events

  16. Biomass Assessment. Assessment of global biomass potentials and their links to food, water, biodiversity, energy demand and economy. Inventory and analysis of existing studies. Supporting document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.; Verweij, P.; Banse, M.; Van Diepen, K.; Van Keulen, H.; Langeveld, H.; Meeusen, M.; Van de Ven, G.; Wester, F.; Alkemade, R.; Ten Brink, B.; Van den Born, G.J.; Van Oorschot, M.; Ros, J.; Smout, F.; Van Vuuren, D.; Van den Wijngaart, R.; Aiking, H.; Londo, M.; Mozaffarian, H.; Smekens, K.; Lysen, E.

    2008-01-01

    This supporting document contains the result from the inventory phase of the biomass assessment of global biomass potentials and their links to food, water, biodiversity, energy demand and economy. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of global biomass potential estimates, focusing on the various factors affecting these potentials, such as food supplies, water use, biodiversity, energy demands and agro-economics

  17. Multi-Criteria Analysis of Alternative Energy Supply Solutions to Public Nearly Zero Energy Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrius Šiupšinskas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes energy supply alternatives for modernised public nearly zero energy buildings. The paper examines alternative energy production systems such as heat pumps (air-water and ground-water, solar collectors, adsorption cooling, biomass boiler, solar photovoltaic, wind turbines and combinations of these systems. The simulation of the analysed building energy demand for different energy production alternatives has been performed using TRNSYS modelling software. In order to determine an optimal energy supply variant, the estimated results of energy, environmental, and economic evaluation have been converted into non-dimensional variables (3E using multi-criteria analysis.Article in Lithuanian

  18. Effect of nutrient supply status on biomass composition of eukaryotic green microalgae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházková, G.; Brányiková, Irena; Zachleder, Vilém; Brányik, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2014), s. 1359-1377 ISSN 0921-8971 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/10/1270 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : nutrient * biomass * green microalgae Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.559, year: 2014

  19. Processing Cost Analysis for Biomass Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, P.C.

    2002-11-20

    The receiving, handling, storing, and processing of woody biomass feedstocks is an overlooked component of biopower systems. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to identify and characterize all the receiving, handling, storing, and processing steps required to make woody biomass feedstocks suitable for use in direct combustion and gasification applications, including small modular biopower (SMB) systems, and (2) to estimate the capital and operating costs at each step. Since biopower applications can be varied, a number of conversion systems and feedstocks required evaluation. In addition to limiting this study to woody biomass feedstocks, the boundaries of this study were from the power plant gate to the feedstock entry point into the conversion device. Although some power plants are sited at a source of wood waste fuel, it was assumed for this study that all wood waste would be brought to the power plant site. This study was also confined to the following three feedstocks (1) forest residues, (2) industrial mill residues, and (3) urban wood residues. Additionally, the study was confined to grate, suspension, and fluidized bed direct combustion systems; gasification systems; and SMB conversion systems. Since scale can play an important role in types of equipment, operational requirements, and capital and operational costs, this study examined these factors for the following direct combustion and gasification system size ranges: 50, 20, 5, and 1 MWe. The scope of the study also included: Specific operational issues associated with specific feedstocks (e.g., bark and problems with bridging); Opportunities for reducing handling, storage, and processing costs; How environmental restrictions can affect handling and processing costs (e.g., noise, commingling of treated wood or non-wood materials, emissions, and runoff); and Feedstock quality issues and/or requirements (e.g., moisture, particle size, presence of non-wood materials). The study found that over the

  20. Simultaneous effect of nitrate (NO3- concentration, carbon dioxide (CO2 supply and nitrogen limitation on biomass, lipids, carbohydrates and proteins accumulation in Nannochloropsis oculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarón Millán-Oropeza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel from microalgae is a promising technology. Nutrient limitation and the addition of CO2 are two strategies to increase lipid content in microalgae. There are two different types of nitrogen limitation, progressive and abrupt limitation. In this work, the simultaneous effect of initial nitrate concentration, addition of CO2, and nitrogen limitation on biomass, lipid, protein and carbohydrates accumulation were analyzed. An experimental design was established in which initial nitrogen concentration, culture time and CO2 aeration as independent numerical variables with three levels were considered. Nitrogen limitation was taken into account as a categorical independent variable. For the experimental design, all the experiments were performed with progressive nitrogen limitation. The dependent response variables were biomass, lipid production, carbohydrates and proteins. Subsequently, comparison of both types of limitation i.e. progressive and abrupt limitation, was performed. Nitrogen limitation in a progressive mode exerted a greater effect on lipid accumulation. Culture time, nitrogen limitation and the interaction of initial nitrate concentration with nitrogen limitation had higher influences on lipids and biomass production. The highest lipid production and productivity were at 582 mgL-1 (49.7 % lipid, dry weight basis and 41.5 mgL-1d-1, respectively; under the following conditions: 250 mgL-1 of initial nitrate concentration, CO2 supply of 4% (v/v, 12 d of culturing and 2 d in state of nitrogen starvation induced by progressive limitation. This work presents a novel way to perform simultaneous analysis of the effect of the initial concentration of nitrate, nitrogen limitation, and CO2 supply on growth and lipid production of Nannochloropsis oculata, with the aim to produce potential biofuels feedstock.

  1. Analysis of uranium supply to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underhill, D.H.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power is expected to be an important part of the world-wide energy mix at least through the next 50 years and by most projections well beyond. That is, of course, provided an adequate supply of uranium is available to sustain the nominal growth rate for nuclear power of 1 to 3% per year that is projected by many analysts. The importance that a reliable supply will have on the future of nuclear power led the IAEA to undertake a study of uranium supply-demand relationships through 2050. The ultimate goal of the study is to evaluate the adequacy of supply to meet demand, and to characterize the level of confidence that can be placed in the projected supply. This report describes key conclusions of the study. A detailed report describing the results of the study is available as an IAEA Special Publication

  2. Supply Chain Visibility with Linked Open Data for Supply Chain Risk Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Current customs applications are declaration based to support the various customs procedures based on (inter)national laws and regulations. To be able to perform a proper supply chain risk analysis, customs requires to have all data in supply chains. The current declaration procedures are not

  3. Analysis of environmental and economic aspects of international pellet supply chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrig, Rita

    2014-01-17

    Biomass plays a key role to achieve the EU's 20-20-20 energy and climate targets. Because of rising European demand and limited domestic resources, the EU relies on worldwide imports. Given this framework, the present thesis explores the influences on wood pellet supply chains considering different environmental policies, price risks and the effect of torrefaction pretreatment. The examinations refer to three real case studies for pellet trade from Australia, Canada, and Russia to Europe. In the first investigation, the efficiency of co-firing imported wood pellets in terms of CO{sub 2} savings and related subsidy schemes is analysed. Scenarios show that co-firing biomass is efficient to contribute to the EU energy targets. Though, policy makers could use these instruments more effective when directing sourcing decision towards options with even less environmental impacts. The second analysis explores the influence of statistically derived price risks on total supply chain economics. It is shown that price risks can effect strong fluctuations in the short term, which seriously affect the profitability of individual trade routes. Securing the supply chain is mainly based on individual producer-buyer agreements, personal branch experiences and fast reactions on the subsidy system. Systematic evaluation of supply chains could contribute to a more reliable market and thus foster investment decisions. In the last investigation, the economic and environmental performance of potential torrefaction-based supply chains is assessed. As a result, torrefaction-based supply chains turn out to be a certain alternative to conventional ones. Though, still huge research efforts and industrial demonstration are required to make torrefied biomass a real alternative on the market.

  4. Analysis of environmental and economic aspects of international pellet supply chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrig, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Biomass plays a key role to achieve the EU's 20-20-20 energy and climate targets. Because of rising European demand and limited domestic resources, the EU relies on worldwide imports. Given this framework, the present thesis explores the influences on wood pellet supply chains considering different environmental policies, price risks and the effect of torrefaction pretreatment. The examinations refer to three real case studies for pellet trade from Australia, Canada, and Russia to Europe. In the first investigation, the efficiency of co-firing imported wood pellets in terms of CO 2 savings and related subsidy schemes is analysed. Scenarios show that co-firing biomass is efficient to contribute to the EU energy targets. Though, policy makers could use these instruments more effective when directing sourcing decision towards options with even less environmental impacts. The second analysis explores the influence of statistically derived price risks on total supply chain economics. It is shown that price risks can effect strong fluctuations in the short term, which seriously affect the profitability of individual trade routes. Securing the supply chain is mainly based on individual producer-buyer agreements, personal branch experiences and fast reactions on the subsidy system. Systematic evaluation of supply chains could contribute to a more reliable market and thus foster investment decisions. In the last investigation, the economic and environmental performance of potential torrefaction-based supply chains is assessed. As a result, torrefaction-based supply chains turn out to be a certain alternative to conventional ones. Though, still huge research efforts and industrial demonstration are required to make torrefied biomass a real alternative on the market.

  5. Analysis of uranium supply to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    The central theme of this report is to assess the adequacy of uranium resources to meet future requirements based on a range of opinions as to the future of nuclear power. The report discusses three demand cases that project uranium requirements from 2000 to 2050. The report also reviews the supply sources that are expected to be available to meet reactor uranium demand through to 2050. Supply is divided into two broad categories: secondary and primary supply. The report also assesses the adequacy of uranium resources to satisfy market based production requirements

  6. Estimating annual bole biomass production using uncertainty analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis J. Woolley; Mark E. Harmon; Kari B. O' Connell

    2007-01-01

    Two common sampling methodologies coupled with a simple statistical model were evaluated to determine the accuracy and precision of annual bole biomass production (BBP) and inter-annual variability estimates using this type of approach. We performed an uncertainty analysis using Monte Carlo methods in conjunction with radial growth core data from trees in three Douglas...

  7. ANALYSIS OF THERMAL-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOMASS ENERGY PELLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Gluvakov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern life conditions, when emphasis is on environmental protection and sustainable development, fuels produced from biomass are increasingly gaining in importance, and it is necessary to consider the quality of end products obtained from biomass. Based on the existing European standards, collected literature and existing laboratory methods, this paper presents results of testing individual thermal - chemical properties of biomass energy pellets after extrusion and cooling the compressed material. Analysing samples based on standard methods, data were obtained on the basis of which individual thermal-chemical properties of pellets were estimated. Comparing the obtained results with the standards and literature sources, it can be said that moisture content, ash content and calorific values are the most important parameters for quality analysis which decide on applicability and use-value of biomass energy pellets, as biofuel. This paper also shows the impact of biofuels on the quality of environmental protection. The conclusion provides a clear statement of quality of biomass energy pellets.

  8. ISABELLE magnet power supply system performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The power supply system that will energize the superconducting magnets in the ISABELLE 400 x 400 GeV accelerator must supply various voltages and currents. The voltages for the correction winding range from ten to one hundred twenty-five volts unipolar and bipolar with current rating of 50 to 300 amperes. The main field winding requires voltages from 90V (at flattop) to 600V during maximum ramp rate or acceleration cycle. The power supplies are programmable over their full range of output current with a reproducibility error varying from +- 10 ppM to +- 400 ppM of full scale. Included within the reproducibility error are the long and short term stability requirements of the power supplies. The purpose of this paper is to define some of the design goals and outline the approach taken in reaching these goals

  9. Dynamic Analysis & Characterization of Conventional Hydraulic Power Supply Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Liedhegener, Michael; Bech, Michael Møller

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic power units operated as constant supply pres-sure systems remain to be widely used in the industry, to supply valve controlled hydraulic drives etc., where the hydraulic power units are constituted by variable pumps with mechanical outlet pressure control, driven by induction motors....... In the analysis of supplied drives, both linear and rotary, emphasis is commonly placed on the drives themselves and the related loads, and the supply system dynamics is often given only little attention, and usually neglected or taken into account in a simplified fashion. The simplified supply system dynamics...... and drives will reduce the flow-to-pressure gain of the supply system, and hence increase the time constant of the sup-ply pressure dynamics. A consequence of this may be large vari-ations in the supply pressure, hence large variations in the pump shaft torque, and thereby the induction motor load torque...

  10. Uranium supply analysis: Evolution of concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Considerable effort has been expended during the last 15 years to develop improved methods of analysing current and future mineral supply, with the objectives of providing illustrations of mineral supply possibilities that are more meaningful and easily understood. Significant contributions toward these objectives have been made in the course of studies on world uranium supply, which took place in the 1970s prompted by concern about the future availability of mineral fuels. The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have played a key role in these efforts, through their biennial assessments of world uranium supply. There has been a pronounced shift in emphasis in the NEA/IAEA assessments away from resource estimates by themselves as a measure of supply, because of a growing awareness that, in isolation, resource estimates cannot provide a truly meaningful illustration of uranium availability. Indeed, resource estimates taken out of context can lead to false conclusions about resource adequacy. Successive NEA/IAEA studies have made increasing use of projections of production capability that show the possible availability of uranium from different categories of resources and production centres over specified time-frames. It is believed that such supply scenarios provide a much more meaningful illustration of uranium availability for both short and long-term planning purposes. As part of the effort to introduce such an approach to NEA/IAEA uranium supply analyses, the IAEA has prepared a manual which provides general guidelines for preparing projections of production capability. It is hoped that these efforts will contribute to a better understanding of the constraints on uranium supply and to the wider acceptance of projections of production capability as measures of resource adequacy. (author)

  11. Analysis of supply chain management of shallots in Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M. C.; Supriana, T.

    2018-02-01

    Supply chain is important for business. One of supply chain that needs to be studied is the shallots supply chain. Medan have high demand while the supply of shallots is limited. This study aims to analyze the flow of shallots supply chain distribution in Medan. The method used was survey by using questionnaires to shallots producers, collecting traders, distributors, traders as well as government involved in shallots supply chain. Descriptive analysis was used to explain the shallots supply chain distribution flow. The results showed that there are two shallots supply chain model in Medan that was local shallots model and imported shallots model. Local shallots model could be distinguished based on three producer area, those were models of Medan Marelan, Samosir, and Simalungun. Medan Marelan and Simalungun models have seven supply chains, while the Samosir Model has eight supply chains. This condition indicates that the local shallots supply chain management in Medan was not efficient because of the length of the distribution channel. Supply chain imported shallots was more efficient because it had a shorter distribution flow with five supply chains.

  12. Sustainable synthesis gas from biomass. A bridge to a sustainable supply of energy and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Uil, H.; Van Ree, R.; Van der Drift, A.; Boerrigter, H.

    2004-04-01

    Synthesis gas is currently primarily used in the (petro)chemical industry and for the production of liquid fuels. Smaller amounts are being used for electricity and synthetic natural gas (=SNG) production. Finite fossil resources, the dependence on political instable regimes and the Kyoto-protocol are drivers for the attention for renewable synthesis gas. In this report the market for, production of, use of and economy of renewable synthesis gas are analysed. Current synthesis gas use is limited to about 3% of the Dutch primary energy consumption; worldwide this is about 2%. Driven by the targets for renewable energy and the wide range of possible uses, the market for renewable synthesis gas has a large potential. When using synthesis gas for the production of SNG, electricity, liquid fuels and chemicals, the Dutch market for renewable synthesis gas can be 150 PJ in 2010, doubling about every decade to 1500 PJ in 2040. SNG and electricity, together about 80%. To reach these market volumes, import of biomass will be required due to the limited availability of local biomass resources in the Netherlands. The specifications for synthesis gas are dependent on the application. For (petro)chemical use and the production of liquid fuels high H2 and CO concentrations are required, for SNG and electricity production high CH4 concentrations are preferred. Due to the different specifications the names synthesis gas and product gas are used in this study. The name synthesis gas is claimed for a large number of gasification processes under development. But only for a number of processes this claim is justified. The gasification temperature determines the type of gas produced. At high temperatures, above 1300C, synthesis gas is produced, at low temperatures, 700-1000C, so-called product gas is being produced. Entrained-flow gasification is the only possibility for large-scale synthesis gas production in one step. For this process the particle size of the feed has to be small

  13. Biomass Thermogravimetric Analysis: Uncertainty Determination Methodology and Sampling Maps Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazó, Jose A.; Granada, Enrique; Saavedra, Ángeles; Eguía, Pablo; Collazo, Joaquín

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a methodology for the determination of the maximum sampling error and confidence intervals of thermal properties obtained from thermogravimetric analysis (TG), including moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash content. The sampling procedure of the TG analysis was of particular interest and was conducted with care. The results of the present study were compared to those of a prompt analysis, and a correlation between the mean values and maximum sampling errors of the methods were not observed. In general, low and acceptable levels of uncertainty and error were obtained, demonstrating that the properties evaluated by TG analysis were representative of the overall fuel composition. The accurate determination of the thermal properties of biomass with precise confidence intervals is of particular interest in energetic biomass applications. PMID:20717532

  14. Optimizing the supply chain of biomass and biogas for a single plant considering mass and energy losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ida Græsted; Münster, Marie; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    plants. In this paper, a mixed integer programming (MIP) model for finding the optimal production and investment plan for a biogas supply chain is presented to ensure better economy for the full chain hopefully stimulating future investments in biogas. The model makes use of step-wise linear functions...... to represent capital and operational expenditures at the biogas plant; considers the chain from the farmer to the end market; and includes changes of mass and energy content along the chain by modeling the losses and gains for all processes in the chain. Biomass inputs are scheduled on a weekly basis whereas...... energy outputs are scheduled on an hourly basis to better capture the changes of energy prices and potentially take advantage of these changes. The model is tested on a case study with co-digestion of straw, sugar beet and manure, considering natural gas, heat, and electricity as end products. The model...

  15. Technoeconomic analysis of a biomass based district heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Ugursal, V.I.; Fung, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discussed a proposed biomass-based district heating system to be built for the Pictou Landing First Nation Community in Nova Scotia. The community centre consists of 6 buildings and a connecting arcade. The methodology used to size and design heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, as well as biomass district energy systems (DES) were discussed. Annual energy requirements and biomass fuel consumption predictions were presented, along with cost estimates. A comparative assessment of the system with that of a conventional oil fired system was also conducted. It was suggested that the design and analysis methodology could be used for any similar application. The buildings were modelled and simulated using the Hourly Analysis Program (HAP), a detailed 2-in-1 software program which can be used both for HVAC system sizing and building energy consumption estimation. A techno-economics analysis was conducted to justify the viability of the biomass combustion system. Heating load calculations were performed assuming that the thermostat was set constantly at 22 degrees C. Community centre space heating loads due to individual envelope components for 3 different scenarios were summarized, as the design architecture for the buildings was not yet finalized. It was suggested that efforts should be made to ensure air-tightness and insulation levels of the interior arcade glass wall. A hydronic distribution system with baseboard space heating units was selected, comprising of a woodchip boiler, hot water distribution system, convective heating units and control systems. The community has its own logging operation which will provide the wood fuel required by the proposed system. An outline of the annual allowable harvest covered by the Pictou Landing Forestry Management Plan was presented, with details of proposed wood-chippers for the creation of biomass. It was concluded that the woodchip combustion system is economically preferable to the

  16. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01

    general term, and includes heating as well as the injection of other ''ingredients'' such as oxygen and water. Pyrolysis alone is a useful first step in creating vapors from coal or biomass that can then be processed in subsequent steps to make liquid fuels. Such products are not the objective of this project. Therefore pyrolysis was not included in the process design or in the economic analysis. High-pressure, fluidized bed gasification is best known to GTI through 30 years of experience. Entrained flow, in contrast to fluidized bed, is a gasification technology applied at much larger unit sizes than employed here. Coal gasification and residual oil gasifiers in refineries are the places where such designs have found application, at sizes on the order of 5 to 10 times larger than what has been determined for this study. Atmospheric pressure gasification is also not discussed. Atmospheric gasification has been the choice of all power system pilot plants built for biomass to date, except for the Varnamo plant in Sweden, which used the Ahlstrom (now Foster Wheeler) pressurized gasifier. However, for fuel production, the disadvantage of the large volumetric flows at low pressure leads to the pressurized gasifier being more economical.

  17. Review and analysis of biomass gasification models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Bruno, Joan Carles; Coronas, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    , and the design, simulation, optimisation and process analysis of gasifiers have been carried out. This paper presents and analyses several gasification models based on thermodynamic equilibrium, kinetics and artificial neural networks. The thermodynamic models are found to be a useful tool for preliminary...... comparison and for process studies on the influence of the most important fuel and process parameters. They have the advantage of being independent of gasifier design, but they cannot give highly accurate results for all cases. The kinetic-based models are computationally more intensive but give accurate...

  18. Supply reliability and dynamic safety analysis of an alternative energy supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Markert, Frank; Jacobsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the integration of risk and supply chain modelling by means of analysing a case concerning a Hydrogen Refuelling Station in Berlin. It presents a framework that can analyse an energy supply chain and at the same time enables easy reporting and presentation of various results...... by utilizing Dis-crete Event Simulation (DES). The industrial implication of this work is to provide practitioners with an anal-ysis framework for improved decision support. The novelty of this paper is the approach to model a supply chain together with a dynamically modelled event tree-based approach...

  19. Global Carbon Fiber Composites Supply Chain Competitiveness Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujit Das, Josh Warren, Devin West, Susan M. Schexnayder

    2016-05-01

    This analysis identifies key opportunities in the carbon fiber supply chain where resources and investments can help advance the clean energy economy. The report focuses on four application areas — wind energy, aerospace, automotive, and pressure vessels — that top the list of industries using carbon fiber and carbon fiber reinforced polymers. For each of the four application areas, the report addresses the supply and demand trends within that sector, supply chain, and costs of carbon fiber and components.

  20. Energy analysis of Organic Rankine Cycles for biomass applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algieri Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at analysing the performances of Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs adopted for the exploitation of the biomass resulting from the pruning residues in a 3000 hectares district in Southern Italy. A parametric energy analysis has been carried out to define the influence of the main plant operating conditions. To this purpose, both subcritical and transcritical power plants have been examined and saturated and superheated conditions at the turbine inlet have been imposed. Moreover, the effect of the working fluid, condensation temperature, and internal regeneration on system performances has been investigated. The results show that ORC plants represent an interesting and sustainable solution for decentralised and small-scale power production. Furthermore, the analysis highlights the significant impact of the maximum temperature and the noticeable effect of internal regeneration on the performances of the biomass power plants.

  1. Technical and economic analysis of using biomass energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piaskowska-Silarska Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the article were presented the technical possibilities of obtaining solid biomass, biogas, landfill gas, a biogas from wastewater treatment plants, bioethanol and biodiesel. Then processes was described, allowing use of energy from biomass. As first was discussed the incineration which includes drying and degassing of the wood materials, wood gas burning at 1200°C, post-combustion gas and heat transfer in the heat exchanger. Then had been described gasification, or thermochemical conversion process, occurring at high temperature. It is two-stage process. In the first chamber at deficiency of air and at relatively low temperatures (450–800°C, the fuel is being degasified, resulting in creating combustible gas and a mineral residue (charcoal. In the second stage, secondary combustion chamber and at a temperature of about 1000–1200°C and in the presence of excess of oxygen resultant gas is burned. A further process is pyrolysis. It consists of the steps of drying fuel to a moisture level below 10%, milling the biomass into very small particles, the pyrolysis reaction, separation of solid products, cooling and collecting bio-oil. Then discusses co-generation, which is combined production of heat and electricity. In this situation where the biomass contains too much water it can be used for energy purposes through biochemical processes. The alcoholic fermentation results in decomposition of carbohydrates taking place under anaerobic conditions, and the product is bioethanol. Another biochemical process used for the production of liquid biofuels is esterification of vegetable oils. Methane fermentation in turn causes a decomposition of macromolecular organic substances with limited oxygen available. As a result, we obtain alcohols, lower organic acids, methane, carbon dioxide and water. There was analysis of economic increasing of solid biomass energy, biogas and liquid biofuels in the following article.

  2. Functional Group Analysis of Biomass Burning Particles Using Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrell, K.; Lau, A.; Bond, T.; Iraci, L. T.

    2008-12-01

    Biomass burning is a significant source of particulate organic carbon in the atmosphere. These particles affect the energy balance of the atmosphere directly by absorbing and scattering solar radiation, and indirectly through their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The chemical composition of biomass burning particles influences their ability to act as CCN, thus understanding the chemistry of these particles is required for understanding their effects on climate and air quality. As climate change influences the frequency and severity of boreal forest fires, the influence of biomass burning aerosols on the atmosphere may become significantly greater. Only a small portion of the organic carbon (OC) fraction of these particles has been identified at the molecular level, although several studies have explored the general chemical classes found in biomass burning smoke. To complement those studies and provide additional information about the reactive functional groups present, we are developing a method for polarity-based separation of compound classes found in the OC fraction, followed by infrared (IR) spectroscopic analysis of each polarity fraction. It is our goal to find a simple, relatively low-tech method which will provide a moderate chemical understanding of the entire suite of compounds present in the OC fraction of biomass burning particles. Here we present preliminary results from pine and oak samples representative of Midwestern United States forests burned at several different temperatures. Wood type and combustion temperature are both seen to affect the composition of the particles. The latter seems to affect relative contributions of certain functional groups, while oak demonstrates at least one additional chemical class of compounds, particularly at lower burning temperatures, where gradual solid-gas phase reactions can produce relatively large amounts of incompletely oxidized products.

  3. Meeting renewable energy and land use objectives through public–private biomass supply partnerships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galik, Christopher S.; Abt, Robert C.; Latta, Gregory; Méley, Andréanne; Henderson, Jesse D.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Reducing encroachment and increased use of renewable energy are U.S. military goals. • Strong forest markets and high forest land rent can affect land use change patterns. • Military bioenergy demand may stimulate forest markets and expand forest area. • GHG benefits of increased bioenergy demand accrue regionally but not nationally. • Targeted bioenergy market development may be preferable to region-wide deployment. - Abstract: Bioenergy is a significant source of renewable energy in the U.S. and internationally. We explore whether creation of localized bioenergy markets near existing military installations in the southeastern U.S. could simultaneously address military renewable energy generation objectives while reducing urban encroachment. We model the use of public–private partnerships to stimulate the creation of these markets, in which stable installation demand is paired with stable supply from surrounding landowners. We employ two economic models – the SubRegional Timber Supply (SRTS) model and the Forest and Agricultural Sector Model with Greenhouse Gases (FASOMGHG) – to assess how markets influence forest and agriculture land use, renewable energy production, and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation at the regional and national levels. When all selected installations increase bioenergy capacity simultaneously, we find increased preservation of forest land area, increased forest carbon storage in the region, and increased renewable energy generation at military installations. Nationally, however, carbon stocks are depleted as harvests increase, increasing GHG emissions even after accounting for potential displaced emissions from coal- or natural gas-fired generation. Increasing bioenergy generation on a single installation within the southeast has very different effects on forest area and composition, yielding greater standing timber volume and higher forest carbon stock. In addition to demonstrating the benefits of linking two

  4. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels Conversion Pathway: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil Pathway "The 2017 Design Case"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin L. Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J. Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; J. Richard Hess; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass sustainable supply, logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL quantified and the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from the field or stand to the throat of the conversion process using conventional equipment and processes. All previous work to 2012 was designed to improve the efficiency and decrease costs under conventional supply systems. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a biomass logistics cost of $55/dry Ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model.

  5. Elemental analysis of various biomass solid fractions in biorefineries by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Duy Michael; Sorensen, Hanne R.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2017-01-01

    , poplar) followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. For all the different biomasses, the biorefinery process concentrated silicon, aluminium, and calcium in the solid fraction, while potassium and magnesium were solubilised in the process and removed from the solid fraction. Sodium concentrations....... Based on ultimate elemental analysis of all biomasses, the formula for biomass was C6H8.4O3.5, which was used for all types of samples (raw biomass, pretreated biomass, and lignin residue) and can be used in future XRF analysis of samples of similar process and biomass feedstock as those used...

  6. Exergy analysis of biomass organic Rankine cycle for power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, T. B.; Sunoto

    2018-02-01

    The study examines proposed small biomass-fed Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power plant through exergy analysis. The system consists of combustion burner unit to utilize biomass as fuel, and organic Rankine cycle unit to produce power from the expander. The heat from combustion burner was transfered by thermal oil heater to evaporate ORC working fluid in the evaporator part. The effects of adding recuperator into exergy destruction were investigated. Furthermore, the results of the variations of system configurations with different operating parameters, such as the evaporating pressures, ambient temperatures, and expander pressures were analyzed. It was found that the largest exergy destruction occurs during processes are at combustion part, followed by evaporator, condenser, expander, and pump. The ORC system equipped with a recuperator unit exhibited good operational characteristics under wide range conditions compared to the one without recuperator.

  7. Performance analysis of Supply Chain Management with Supply Chain Operation reference model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasibuan, Abdurrozzaq; Arfah, Mahrani; Parinduri, Luthfi; Hernawati, Tri; Suliawati; Harahap, Bonar; Rahmah Sibuea, Siti; Krianto Sulaiman, Oris; purwadi, Adi

    2018-04-01

    This research was conducted at PT. Shamrock Manufacturing Corpora, the company is required to think creatively to implement competition strategy by producing goods/services that are more qualified, cheaper. Therefore, it is necessary to measure the performance of Supply Chain Management in order to improve the competitiveness. Therefore, the company is required to optimize its production output to meet the export quality standard. This research begins with the creation of initial dimensions based on Supply Chain Management process, ie Plan, Source, Make, Delivery, and Return with hierarchy based on Supply Chain Reference Operation that is Reliability, Responsiveness, Agility, Cost, and Asset. Key Performance Indicator identification becomes a benchmark in performance measurement whereas Snorm De Boer normalization serves to equalize Key Performance Indicator value. Analiytical Hierarchy Process is done to assist in determining priority criteria. Measurement of Supply Chain Management performance at PT. Shamrock Manufacturing Corpora produces SC. Responsiveness (0.649) has higher weight (priority) than other alternatives. The result of performance analysis using Supply Chain Reference Operation model of Supply Chain Management performance at PT. Shamrock Manufacturing Corpora looks good because its monitoring system between 50-100 is good.

  8. Decision analysis for the determination of biomass in the territory Tuscia Romana by geographic information system and forest management plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Colantoni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in the development of chains for the use of agroforestry biomass for energy demand, is due to the awareness they are a crucial element to mitigate the global climatic change effects. The true effort is to have a reliable estimation of biomass availability by some instruments like forest management plans, which allow to locate the forest supply and to know the forest biomass availability in a medium period. In this paper we carried out a decision analysis by geographic information system, in Tuscia Romana area comprising 11 municipalities for a total amount of 813 km2. An estimation was carried out taking into account the bibliographic data on the analyzed species, reporting the biomass in weight taken out by the forest cut utilization. A comparison was also performed in field on chestnut trees cut in a sampling area near Bracciano and in a close sawmill. The results show long, medium and short-term dynamics, but some critical points were found related to the process of estimation and to the real procurement of biomass in some years. The results suggest to be care in a possible project of a biomass plant.

  9. An analysis of the feasibility for increasing woody biomass production from pine plantations in the southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munsell, John F.; Fox, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    In the near future, wood from the 130 000 km 2 of pine plantations in the southern United States could provide much of the feedstock for emerging bioenergy industries. Research and operational experience show that total plantation biomass productivity exceeding 22.4 Mg ha -1 y -1 green weight basis with rotations less than 25 years are biologically possible, financially attractive, and environmentally sustainable. These gains become possible when intensively managed forest plantations are treated as agro-ecosystems where both the crop trees and the soil are managed to optimize productivity and value. Intensive management of southern US pine plantations could significantly increase the amount of biomass available to supply bioenergy firms. Results from growth and yield simulations using models and a financial analysis suggest that if the 130 000 km 2 of cutover pine plantations and an additional 20 000 km 2 of planted idle farmland are intensively managed in the most profitable regimes, up to 77.5 Tg green weight basis of woody biomass could be produced annually. However, questions exist about the extent to which intensive management for biomass production can improve financial returns to owners and whether they would adopt these systems. The financial analysis suggests providing biomass for energy from pine plantations on cutover sites is most profitable when intensive management is used to produce a mixture of traditional forest products and biomass for energy. Returns from dedicated biomass plantations on cutover sites and idle farmland will be lower than integrated product plantations unless prices for biomass increase or subsidies are available. (author)

  10. Analysis of proteins involved in biodegradation of crop biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Kamau; Trotman, Audrey

    1998-01-01

    The biodegradation of crop biomass for re-use in crop production is part of the bioregenerative life support concept proposed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for long duration, manned space exploration. The current research was conducted in the laboratory to evaluate the use of electrophoretic analysis as a means of rapidly assaying for constitutive and induced proteins associated with the bacterial degradation of crop residue. The proteins involved in crop biomass biodegradation are either constitutive or induced. As a result, effluent and cultures were examined to investigate the potential of using electrophoretic techniques as a means of monitoring the biodegradation process. Protein concentration for optimum banding patterns was determined using the Bio-Rad Protein Assay kit. Four bacterial soil isolates were obtained from the G.W. Carver research Farm at Tuskegee University and used in the decomposition of components of plant biomass. The culture, WDSt3A was inoculated into 500 mL of either Tryptic Soy Broth or Nutrient Broth. Incubation, with shaking of each flask was for 96 hours at 30 C. The cultures consistently gave unique banding patterns under denaturing protein electrophoresis conditions, The associated extracellular enzymes also yielded characteristic banding patterns over a 14-day period, when native electrophoresis techniques were used to examine effluent from batch culture bioreactors. The current study evaluated sample preparation and staining protocols to determine the ease of use, reproducibility and reliability, as well as the potential for automation.

  11. Transpiration and biomass production of the bioenergy crop Giant Knotweed Igniscum under various supplies of water and nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantovani Dario

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil water availability, nutrient supply and climatic conditions are key factors for plant production. For a sustainable integration of bioenergy plants into agricultural systems, detailed studies on their water uses and growth performances are needed. The new bioenergy plant Igniscum Candy is a cultivar of the Sakhalin Knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis, which is characterized by a high annual biomass production. For the determination of transpiration-yield relations at the whole plant level we used wicked lysimeters at multiple irrigation levels associated with the soil water availability (25, 35, 70, 100% and nitrogen fertilization (0, 50, 100, 150 kg N ha-1. Leaf transpiration and net photosynthesis were determined with a portable minicuvette system. The maximum mean transpiration rate was 10.6 mmol m-2 s-1 for well-watered plants, while the mean net photosynthesis was 9.1 μmol m-2 s-1. The cumulative transpiration of the plants during the growing seasons varied between 49 l (drought stressed and 141 l (well-watered per plant. The calculated transpiration coefficient for Fallopia over all of the treatments applied was 485.6 l kg-1. The transpiration-yield relation of Igniscum is comparable to rye and barley. Its growth performance making Fallopia a potentially good second generation bioenergy crop.

  12. Modeling methodology for supply chain synthesis and disruption analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Teresa; Blackhurst, Jennifer

    2004-11-01

    The concept of an integrated or synthesized supply chain is a strategy for managing today's globalized and customer driven supply chains in order to better meet customer demands. Synthesizing individual entities into an integrated supply chain can be a challenging task due to a variety of factors including conflicting objectives, mismatched incentives and constraints of the individual entities. Furthermore, understanding the effects of disruptions occurring at any point in the system is difficult when working toward synthesizing supply chain operations. Therefore, the goal of this research is to present a modeling methodology to manage the synthesis of a supply chain by linking hierarchical levels of the system and to model and analyze disruptions in the integrated supply chain. The contribution of this research is threefold: (1) supply chain systems can be modeled hierarchically (2) the performance of synthesized supply chain system can be evaluated quantitatively (3) reachability analysis is used to evaluate the system performance and verify whether a specific state is reachable, allowing the user to understand the extent of effects of a disruption.

  13. 300 Area fuel supply facilities deactivation mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of the 300 Area fuel supply facilities (formerly call ''N reactor fuel fabrication facilities'') Deactivation Project mission analysis. Hanford systems engineering (SE) procedures call for a mission analysis. The mission analysis is an important first step in the SE process

  14. Summative Mass Analysis of Algal Biomass - Integration of Analytical Procedures: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurens, Lieve M. L.

    2016-01-13

    This procedure guides the integration of laboratory analytical procedures to measure algal biomass constituents in an unambiguous manner and ultimately achieve mass balance closure for algal biomass samples. Many of these methods build on years of research in algal biomass analysis.

  15. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Renewable Hydrocarbon Fuels via Indirect Liquefaction, Fast Pyrolysis, and Hydrothermal Liquefaction: Update of the 2016 State-of-Technology Cases and Design Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Dunn, Jennifer [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Pegallapati, Ambica [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Li, Qianfeng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Canter, Christina [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davis, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markham, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartley, Damon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thompson, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Meyer, Pimphan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhu, Yunhua [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Susanne [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) aims to develop and deploy technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2016). BETO and its national laboratory teams conduct in-depth technoeconomic assessments (TEA) of biomass feedstock supply and logistics and conversion technologies to produce biofuels, and life-cycle analysis of overall system sustainability.

  16. Practical computer analysis of switch mode power supplies

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, Johnny C

    2006-01-01

    When designing switch-mode power supplies (SMPSs), engineers need much more than simple "recipes" for analysis. Such plug-and-go instructions are not at all helpful for simulating larger and more complex circuits and systems. Offering more than merely a "cookbook," Practical Computer Analysis of Switch Mode Power Supplies provides a thorough understanding of the essential requirements for analyzing SMPS performance characteristics. It demonstrates the power of the circuit averaging technique when used with powerful computer circuit simulation programs. The book begins with SMPS fundamentals and the basics of circuit averaging models, reviewing most basic topologies and explaining all of their various modes of operation and control. The author then discusses the general analysis requirements of power supplies and how to develop the general types of SMPS models, demonstrating the use of SPICE for analysis. He examines the basic first-order analyses generally associated with SMPS performance along with more pra...

  17. Impact of rhizobial inoculation and reduced N supply on biomass production and biological N2 fixation in common bean grown hydroponically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontopoulou, Charis-Konstantina; Liasis, Epifanios; Iannetta, Pietro Pm; Tampakaki, Anastasia; Savvas, Dimitrios

    2017-10-01

    Testing rhizobial inoculation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in hydroponics enables accurate quantification of biological N 2 fixation (BNF) and provides information about the potential of reducing inorganic N fertilizer use. In view of this background, common bean grown on pumice was inoculated with Rhizobium tropici CIAT899 (Rt) and supplied with either full-N (total nitrogen 11.2 mmol L -1 ), 1/3 of full-N or N-free nutrient solution (NS). BNF was quantified at the early pod-filling stage using the 15 N natural abundance method. Full-N supply to Rt-inoculated plants resulted in markedly smaller nodules than less- or zero-N supply, and no BNF. Rt inoculation of full-N-treated plants did not increase biomass and pod yield compared with non-inoculation. Restriction (1/3 of full-N) or omission of inorganic N resulted in successful nodulation and BNF (54.3 and 49.2 kg N ha -1 , corresponding to 58 and 100% of total plant N content respectively) but suppressed dry shoot biomass from 191.7 (full-N, +Rt) to 107.4 and 43.2 g per plant respectively. Nutrient cation uptake was reduced when inorganic N supply was less or omitted. Rt inoculation of hydroponic bean provides no advantage when full-N NS is supplied, while 1/3 of full-N or N-free NS suppresses plant biomass and yield, partly because the restricted NO 3 - supply impairs cation uptake. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Biomass Scenario Model: BETO Analysis Platform Peer Review; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, B.

    2015-03-23

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a unique, carefully validated, state-of-the-art fourth-generation model of the domestic bioenergy supply chain which explicitly focuses on policy issues and their potential side effects. It integrates resource availability, behavior, policy, and physical, technological, and economic constraints. The BSM uses system-dynamics simulation to model dynamic interactions across the supply chain; it tracks the deployment of biofuels given technological development and the reaction of the investment community to those technologies in the context of land availability, the competing oil market, consumer demand for biofuels, and government policies over time. It places a strong emphasis on the behavior and decision-making of various economic agents. The model treats the major infrastructure-compatible fuels. Scenario analysis based on the BSM shows that the biofuels industry tends not to rapidly thrive without significant external actions in the early years of its evolution. An initial focus for jumpstarting the industry typically has strongest results in the BSM in areas where effects of intervention have been identified to be multiplicative. In general, we find that policies which are coordinated across the whole supply chain have significant impact in fostering the growth of the biofuels industry and that the production of tens of billions of gallons of biofuels may occur under sufficiently favorable conditions.

  19. Hybrid modeling and empirical analysis of automobile supply chain network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun-yan; Tang, Jian-ming; Fu, Wei-ping; Wu, Bing-ying

    2017-05-01

    Based on the connection mechanism of nodes which automatically select upstream and downstream agents, a simulation model for dynamic evolutionary process of consumer-driven automobile supply chain is established by integrating ABM and discrete modeling in the GIS-based map. Firstly, the rationality is proved by analyzing the consistency of sales and changes in various agent parameters between the simulation model and a real automobile supply chain. Second, through complex network theory, hierarchical structures of the model and relationships of networks at different levels are analyzed to calculate various characteristic parameters such as mean distance, mean clustering coefficients, and degree distributions. By doing so, it verifies that the model is a typical scale-free network and small-world network. Finally, the motion law of this model is analyzed from the perspective of complex self-adaptive systems. The chaotic state of the simulation system is verified, which suggests that this system has typical nonlinear characteristics. This model not only macroscopically illustrates the dynamic evolution of complex networks of automobile supply chain but also microcosmically reflects the business process of each agent. Moreover, the model construction and simulation of the system by means of combining CAS theory and complex networks supplies a novel method for supply chain analysis, as well as theory bases and experience for supply chain analysis of auto companies.

  20. Uruguay Energy Supply Options Study: a Detailed Multi-Sector Integrated Energy Supply and Demand Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conzelmann, G.; Veselka, T.

    1997-01-01

    Uruguay is in the middle of making critical decisions affecting the design of its future energy supply system.Momentum for change is expected to come from several directions including recent and foreseeable upgrades and modifications to energy conversion facilities, the importation of natural gas from Argentina, the possibility for a stronger interconnection of regional electricity systems, the country s membership in MERCOSUR, and the potential for energy sector reforms by the Government of Uruguay.The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of several fuel diversification strategies on Uruguay s energy supply system.The analysis pays special attention to fuel substitution trends due to potential imports of natural gas via a gas pipeline from Argentina and increasing electricity ties with neighboring countries.The Government of Uruguay contracted Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to study several energy development scenario ns with the support of several Uruguayan Institutions.Specifically, ANL was asked to conduct a detailed energy supply and demand analysis, develop energy demand projections based on an analysis of past energy demand patterns with support from local institutions, evaluate the effects of potential natural gas imports and electricity exchanges, and determine the market penetration of natural gas under various scenarios

  1. Economic analysis of biomass crop production in Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani, M.; Hodges, A.W.; Stricker, J.A.; Kiker, C.F.

    1997-01-01

    Favorable soil and climate conditions for production of biomass crops in Florida, and a market for their use, provide the essentials for developing a biomass energy system in the State. Recent surveys showed that there is low opportunity cost land available and several high yield herbaceous and woody crops have potential as biomass crops. Comparison of biomass crop yields, farmgate costs, and costs of final products in Florida and other states show that Florida can be considered as one of the best areas for development of biomass energy systems in the United States. This paper presents facts and figures on biomass production and conversion in Florida and addresses issues of concern to the economics of biomass energy in the State. (author)

  2. Economic analysis of biomass crop production in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmani, M.; Hodges, A.W.; Stricker, J.A.; Kiker, C.F. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Favorable soil and climate conditions for production of biomass crops in Florida, and a market for their use, provide the essentials for developing a biomass energy system in the State. Recent surveys showed that there is low opportunity cost land available and several high yield herbaceous and woody crops have potential as biomass crops. Comparison of biomass crop yields, farmgate costs, and costs of final products in Florida and other states show that Florida can be considered as one of the best areas for development of biomass energy systems in the United States. This paper presents facts and figures on biomass production and conversion in Florida and addresses issues of concern to the economics of biomass energy in the State. (author)

  3. Finnish farmers' willingness to produce and supply biomass from energy crops and forest residues. A survey of landowners' attitudes and intentions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raemoe, A.-K.; Latvala, T. (Pellervo Economic Research Inst., Helsinki (Finland)), Email: anna-kaisa.ramo@ptt.fi; Silvennoinen, H. (Univ. of Joensuu (Finland)), Email: harri.silvennoinen@joensuu.fi

    2009-07-01

    According to EU's Climate and Energy Plan Finland is obliged to increase the proportion of renewable energy sources considerably by the year 2020. The obligation is challenging and requires among others a considerably increased use of biomass. Besides wood energy crop production provides a considerable potential as energy source in Finland. Farmer forest owners are one of the key groups regarding the supply of field energy crops and energy wood in Finland. Basically, farmers have a positive attitude towards the production of field energy crops and energy wood. Their interest in bio-energy related entrepreneurship has also increased in recent years. However, farmers do not find the business environment of biomass production satisfactory. Still the results indicate that the number of field crop producers would at least double by the year 2012. The increase is, however, considerably less than the estimated potential of recent scenarios. The results also imply that famer forest owners have not any intentions to increase their energy wood supplies in the next few years. This is mainly due to undeveloped energy wood markets and unsatisfactory energy wood prices. In order to enhance the biomass production and supply, both field energy crop and energy wood markets and extension need to be improved to meet farmers' needs. (orig.)

  4. Hyphenation of two simultaneously employed soft photo ionization mass spectrometers with thermal analysis of biomass and biochar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fendt, Alois; Geissler, Robert; Streibel, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► First simultaneous hyphenation of two time-of-flight mass spectrometers with different soft photo ionization techniques (SPI and REMPI) to Thermal Analysis using a newly developed prototype for EGA is presented. ► Resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) enables sensitive and selective analysis of aromatic species. ► Single photon ionization (SPI) using VUV light supplied by an innovative electron-beam pumped excimer light source (EBEL) comprehensively ionizes (nearly) all organic molecules. ► The resulting mass spectra show distinct patterns for the evolved gases of the miscellaneous biomasses and chars thereof. ► The potential for detailed kinetic studies is apparent on account of the complex pyrolysis gas compositions. - Abstract: Evolved gas analysis (EGA) is a powerful and complementary tool for Thermal Analysis. In this context, two time-of-flight mass spectrometers with different soft photo-ionization techniques are simultaneously hyphenated to a thermo balance and applied in form of a newly developed prototype for EGA of pyrolysis gases from biomass and biochar. Resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) is applied for selective analysis of aromatic species. Furthermore, single photon ionization (SPI) using VUV light supplied by an electron-beam pumped excimer light source (EBEL) was used to comprehensively ionize (nearly) all organic molecules. The soft ionization capability of photo-ionization techniques allows direct and on-line analysis of the evolved pyrolysis gases. Characteristic mass spectra with specific patterns could be obtained for the miscellaneous biomass feeds used. Temperature profiles of the biochars reveal a desorption step, followed by pyrolysis as observed for the biomasses. Furthermore, the potential for kinetic studies is apparent for this instrumental setup.

  5. Hyphenation of two simultaneously employed soft photo ionization mass spectrometers with thermal analysis of biomass and biochar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendt, Alois [Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, Chair of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Rostock, 18059 Rostock (Germany); Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, Cooperation Group for Analysis of Complex Molecular Systems, Institute of Ecological Chemistry, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), IngolstaedterLandstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, 86159 Augsburg (Germany); Geissler, Robert [Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, Cooperation Group for Analysis of Complex Molecular Systems, Institute of Ecological Chemistry, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), IngolstaedterLandstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, 86159 Augsburg (Germany); Streibel, Thorsten, E-mail: thorsten.streibel@uni-rostock.de [Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, Chair of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Rostock, 18059 Rostock (Germany); Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, Cooperation Group for Analysis of Complex Molecular Systems, Institute of Ecological Chemistry, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), IngolstaedterLandstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); and others

    2013-01-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First simultaneous hyphenation of two time-of-flight mass spectrometers with different soft photo ionization techniques (SPI and REMPI) to Thermal Analysis using a newly developed prototype for EGA is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) enables sensitive and selective analysis of aromatic species. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single photon ionization (SPI) using VUV light supplied by an innovative electron-beam pumped excimer light source (EBEL) comprehensively ionizes (nearly) all organic molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The resulting mass spectra show distinct patterns for the evolved gases of the miscellaneous biomasses and chars thereof. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The potential for detailed kinetic studies is apparent on account of the complex pyrolysis gas compositions. - Abstract: Evolved gas analysis (EGA) is a powerful and complementary tool for Thermal Analysis. In this context, two time-of-flight mass spectrometers with different soft photo-ionization techniques are simultaneously hyphenated to a thermo balance and applied in form of a newly developed prototype for EGA of pyrolysis gases from biomass and biochar. Resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) is applied for selective analysis of aromatic species. Furthermore, single photon ionization (SPI) using VUV light supplied by an electron-beam pumped excimer light source (EBEL) was used to comprehensively ionize (nearly) all organic molecules. The soft ionization capability of photo-ionization techniques allows direct and on-line analysis of the evolved pyrolysis gases. Characteristic mass spectra with specific patterns could be obtained for the miscellaneous biomass feeds used. Temperature profiles of the biochars reveal a desorption step, followed by pyrolysis as observed for the biomasses. Furthermore, the potential for kinetic studies is apparent for this instrumental setup.

  6. Signal correlations in biomass combustion. An information theoretic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruusunen, M.

    2013-09-01

    Increasing environmental and economic awareness are driving the development of combustion technologies to efficient biomass use and clean burning. To accomplish these goals, quantitative information about combustion variables is needed. However, for small-scale combustion units the existing monitoring methods are often expensive or complex. This study aimed to quantify correlations between flue gas temperatures and combustion variables, namely typical emission components, heat output, and efficiency. For this, data acquired from four small-scale combustion units and a large circulating fluidised bed boiler was studied. The fuel range varied from wood logs, wood chips, and wood pellets to biomass residue. Original signals and a defined set of their mathematical transformations were applied to data analysis. In order to evaluate the strength of the correlations, a multivariate distance measure based on information theory was derived. The analysis further assessed time-varying signal correlations and relative time delays. Ranking of the analysis results was based on the distance measure. The uniformity of the correlations in the different data sets was studied by comparing the 10-quantiles of the measured signal. The method was validated with two benchmark data sets. The flue gas temperatures and the combustion variables measured carried similar information. The strongest correlations were mainly linear with the transformed signal combinations and explicable by the combustion theory. Remarkably, the results showed uniformity of the correlations across the data sets with several signal transformations. This was also indicated by simulations using a linear model with constant structure to monitor carbon dioxide in flue gas. Acceptable performance was observed according to three validation criteria used to quantify modelling error in each data set. In general, the findings demonstrate that the presented signal transformations enable real-time approximation of the studied

  7. Thermogravimetric and Kinetic Analysis of Raw and Torrefied Biomass Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopczyński Marcin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of torrefied biomass as a substitute for untreated biomass may decrease some technological barriers that exist in biomass co-firing technologies e.g. low grindability, high moisture content, low energy density and hydrophilic nature of raw biomass. In this study the TG-MS-FTIR analysis and kinetic analysis of willow (Salix viminalis L. and samples torrefied at 200, 220, 240, 260, 280 and 300 °C (TSWE 200, 220, 240, 260, 280 and 300, were performed. The TG-DTG curves show that in the case of willow and torrefied samples TSWE 200, 220, 240 and 260 there are pyrolysis and combustion stages, while in the case of TSWE 280 and 300 samples the peak associated with the pyrolysis process is negligible, in contrast to the peak associated with the combustion process. Analysis of the TG-MS results shows m/z signals of 18, 28, 29 and 44, which probably represent H2O, CO and CO2. The gaseous products were generated in two distinct ranges of temperature. H2O, CO and CO2 were produced in the 500 K to 650 K range with maximum yields at approximately 600 K. In the second range of temperature, 650 K to 800 K, only CO2 was produced with maximum yields at approximately 710 K as a main product of combustion process. Analysis of the FTIR shows that the main gaseous products of the combustion process were H2O, CO2, CO and some organics including bonds: C=O (acids, aldehydes and ketones, C=C (alkenes, aromatics, C-O-C (ethers and C-OH. Lignin mainly contributes hydrocarbons (3000-2800 cm−1, while cellulose is the dominant origin of aldehydes (2860-2770 cm−1 and carboxylic acids (1790-1650 cm−1. Hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ketones and various acids were also generated from hemicellulose (1790-1650 cm−1. In the kinetic analysis, the two-steps first order model (F1F1 was assumed. Activation energy (Ea values for the first stage (pyrolysis increased with increasing torrefaction temperature from 93 to 133 kJ/mol, while for the second stage (combustion it

  8. Global analysis of urban surface water supply vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padowski, Julie C; Gorelick, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a global analysis of urban water supply vulnerability in 71 surface-water supplied cities, with populations exceeding 750 000 and lacking source water diversity. Vulnerability represents the failure of an urban supply-basin to simultaneously meet demands from human, environmental and agricultural users. We assess a baseline (2010) condition and a future scenario (2040) that considers increased demand from urban population growth and projected agricultural demand. We do not account for climate change, which can potentially exacerbate or reduce urban supply vulnerability. In 2010, 35% of large cities are vulnerable as they compete with agricultural users. By 2040, without additional measures 45% of cities are vulnerable due to increased agricultural and urban demands. Of the vulnerable cities in 2040, the majority are river-supplied with mean flows so low (1200 liters per person per day, l/p/d) that the cities experience ‘chronic water scarcity’ (1370 l/p/d). Reservoirs supply the majority of cities facing individual future threats, revealing that constructed storage potentially provides tenuous water security. In 2040, of the 32 vulnerable cities, 14 would reduce their vulnerability via reallocating water by reducing environmental flows, and 16 would similarly benefit by transferring water from irrigated agriculture. Approximately half remain vulnerable under either potential remedy. (letter)

  9. Combined hydraulic and biomass power - an answer to economic and ecological adaptation pressure on the energy supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistauer, M.

    1991-01-01

    On the large scale, there will be an economic pressure in the European Communities on coal and oil from the CO 2 taxes. The economic and ecological advantages of a combination of hydraulic and biomass power in Austria are emphasized. In particular a biomass remote heating pilot project is announced. (Quittner)

  10. Preliminary analysis of biomass potentially useful for producing biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera Cifuentes, Gerardo; Burbano Jaramillo, Juan Carlos; Garcia Melo, Jose Isidro

    2011-01-01

    Given that biodiesel is emerging as a viable solution for some energy and environmental problems, research on raw materials appropriate for its production is a matter of growing interest. In this study we present the results of research devoted to preliminary analysis on several vegetable (biomass) species potentially useful for producing biodiesel. The bioprospection zone is a region on the Colombian Pacific coast. The candidate species collected underwent different standardized ASTM tests in order for us to define properties that facilitate their evaluation. Some of the species underwent a transesterification process. Comparisons between the thermo-physical properties of the biofuels obtained and the properties of commercial diesel were carried out. Also, performance tests for these biofuels were conducted in compression ignition engines, particularly evaluating efficiency, fuel consumption, and potency at different RPMs.

  11. Responses of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen to experimental warming: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W.; Yuan, W.

    2017-12-01

    Soil microbes play important roles in regulating terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycling and strongly influence feedbacks of ecosystem to global warming. However, the inconsistent responses of microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) to experimental warming have been observed, and the response on ratio between MBC and MBN (MBC:MBN) has not been identified. This meta-analysis synthesized the warming experiments at 58 sites globally to investigate the responses of MBC:MBN to climate warming. Our results showed that warming significantly increased MBC by 3.61 ± 0.80% and MBN by 5.85 ± 0.90% and thus decreased the MBC:MBN by 3.34 ± 0.66%. MBC showed positive responses to warming but MBN exhibited negative responses to warming at low warming magnitude (2°C) the results were inverted. The different effects of warming magnitude on microbial biomass resulted from the warming-induced decline in soil moisture and substrate supply. Moreover, MBC and MBN had strong positive responses to warming at the mid-term (3-4 years) or short-term (1-2 years) duration, but the responses tended to decrease at long-term (≥ 5 years) warming duration. This study fills the knowledge gap on the responses of MBC:MBN to warming and may benefit the development of coupled carbon and nitrogen models.

  12. Risk analysis of critical infrastructures emphasizing electricity supply and interdependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjølle, G.H.; Utne, I.B.; Gjerde, O.

    2012-01-01

    Failures in critical infrastructures can cause major damage to society. Wide-area interruptions (blackouts) in the electricity supply system have severe impacts on societal critical functions and other critical infrastructures, but there is no agreed-upon framework on how to analyze and predict the reliability of electricity supply. Thus, there is a need for an approach to cross-sector risk analyses, which facilitates risk analysis of outages in the electricity supply system and enables investigation of cascading failures and consequences in other infrastructures. This paper presents such an approach, which includes contingency analysis (power flow) and reliability analysis of power systems, as well as use of a cascade diagram for investigating interdependencies. A case study was carried out together with the Emergency Preparedness Group in the city of Oslo, Norway and the network company Hafslund Nett. The case study results highlight the need for cross-sector analyses by showing that the total estimated societal costs are substantially higher when cascading effects and consequences to other infrastructures are taken into account compared to only considering the costs of electricity interruptions as seen by the network company. The approach is a promising starting point for cross-sector risk analysis of electricity supply interruptions and consequences for dependent infrastructures.

  13. The bioenergy village. Prerequisites and consequences of an independent heat supply and power supply by biomass for the agriculture, ecology and lifestyle culture in the rural area; Das Bioenergiedorf. Voraussetzungen und Folgen einer eigenstaendigen Waerme- und Stromversorgung durch Biomasse fuer Landwirtschaft, Oekologie und Lebenskultur im laendlichen Raum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, Hans [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Geowissenschaftliches Zentrum; Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Interdisziplinaeres Zentrum fuer Nachhaltige Entwicklung; Schmuck, Peter (eds.) [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Interdisziplinaeres Zentrum fuer Nachhaltige Entwicklung; UMC Potsdam (Germany). Inst. fuer Nachhaltigkeit und Umweltpolitik

    2010-07-01

    The transformation of the power supply and heat supply in the bioenergy village Juende (Federal Republic of Germany) on the basis of the energy source biomass was completed in the autumn 2005. Within this flagship project it could be shown that new ways are passable if the persons concerned design the new concepts. The contribution under consideration reports on the results of the final phase of this project describing the socio-economic and ecologic impacts of the implementation of the energy supply on the biomass in Juende. Within this part of project the disciplines crop science, soil science, geosciences, economy, psychology and sociology interact. The most important results of the single disciplines are presented in this final report.

  14. Analysis of the use of biomass as an energy alternative for the Portuguese textile dyeing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, L.J.R.; Matias, J.C.O.; Catalão, J.P.S.

    2015-01-01

    The energy efficiency and the development of environmentally correct policies are current topics, especially when applied to the industrial sector with the objective of increasing the competitiveness of the enterprises. Portuguese textile dyeing sector, being a major consumer sector of primary energy, needs to adopt measures to improve its competitiveness. Biomass appears to be a viable and preferred alternative energy source for the sector, while simultaneously develops an entire forest industry devoted to the supply of forest solid fuels. This work carries out a comprehensive PEST (political, economic, social and technological) analysis, which analyses Political, Economic, Social and Technological aspects of the replacement of the fossil fuels traditionally used in this sector by biomass, providing a framework of environmental factors that influence the strategic management of the companies. The main advantages are the reduction of external dependence on imported fuel due to the use of an endogenous renewable resource, the creation and preservation of jobs, the increased competitiveness of the sector by reducing energy costs, the use of national technology and the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions. - Highlights: • The Portuguese textile dyeing sector, being a major consumer sector of primary energy, is addressed. • Biomass is a viable and preferred alternative energy source for the sector. • A PEST (political, economic, social and technological) analysis is carried out. • The implications of the replacement of fossil fuels with biomass are studied

  15. Analysis of potency and development of renewable energy based on agricultural biomass waste in Jambi province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devita, W. H.; Fauzi, A. M.; Purwanto, Y. A.

    2018-05-01

    Indonesia has the big potency of biomass. The source of biomass energy is scattered all over the country. The big potential in concentrated scale is on the island of Sumatera. Jambi province which is located in Sumatra Island has the potency of biomass energy due to a huge area for estate crop and agriculture. The Indonesian government had issued several policies which put a higher priority on the utilization of renewable energy. This study aimed to identify the conditions and distribution of biomass waste potential in Jambi province. The potential biomass waste in Jambi province was 27,407,183 tons per year which dominated of oil palm residue (46.16%), rice husk and straw (3.52%), replanting rubberwood (50.32%). The total power generated from biomass waste was 129 GWhth per year which is consisted of palm oil residue (56 GWhth per year), rice husk and straw (3.22 GWhth per year), rubberwood (70.56 GWhth per year). Based on the potential of biomass waste, then the province of Jambi could obtain supplies of renewable energy from waste biomass with electricity generated amount to 32.34 GWhe per year.

  16. Digital Biomass Accumulation Using High-Throughput Plant Phenotype Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Md Matiur; Ahsan, Md Asif; Gillani, Zeeshan; Chen, Ming

    2017-09-01

    Biomass is an important phenotypic trait in functional ecology and growth analysis. The typical methods for measuring biomass are destructive, and they require numerous individuals to be cultivated for repeated measurements. With the advent of image-based high-throughput plant phenotyping facilities, non-destructive biomass measuring methods have attempted to overcome this problem. Thus, the estimation of plant biomass of individual plants from their digital images is becoming more important. In this paper, we propose an approach to biomass estimation based on image derived phenotypic traits. Several image-based biomass studies state that the estimation of plant biomass is only a linear function of the projected plant area in images. However, we modeled the plant volume as a function of plant area, plant compactness, and plant age to generalize the linear biomass model. The obtained results confirm the proposed model and can explain most of the observed variance during image-derived biomass estimation. Moreover, a small difference was observed between actual and estimated digital biomass, which indicates that our proposed approach can be used to estimate digital biomass accurately.

  17. The influence of biomass supply chains and by-products on the greenhouse gas emissions from gasification-based bio-SNG production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, Kristina M.; Berntsson, Thore S.; Andersson, Eva; Rydberg, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses the impact on the GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions of the raw material supply chain, the utilisation of excess heat and CO 2 storage for a bio-SNG (biomass gasification-based synthetic natural gas) system by applying a consequential life cycle assessment approach. The impact of the biomass supply chain is analysed by assessing GHG emissions of locally produced woodchips and pellets with regional or transatlantic origin. Results show that the supply area for the gasification plant can be substantially increased with only modest increases in overall GHG emissions (3–5%) by using regionally produced pellets. The transatlantic pellet chains contribute to significantly higher GHG emissions. Utilising excess heat for power generation or steam delivery for industrial use contributes to lower emissions from the system, whereas delivery of district heating can contribute to either increased or decreased emissions. The production technology of the replaced heat and the carbon intensity of the reference power production were decisive for the benefits of the heat deliveries. Finally, the storage of CO 2 separated from the syngas upgrading and from the flue gases of the gasifier can nearly double the GHG emission reduction potential of the bio-SNG system. - Highlights: • Greenhouse gas emission evaluation of gasification-based bio-SNG system is made. • The impact of biomass supply chains and utilisation of excess heat is in focus. • Locally produced woodchips result in lowest overall greenhouse gas emissions. • Regionally produced pellets have small impact on overall greenhouse gas emissions. • Storing separated CO 2 from the bio-SNG process reduces the GHG impact significantly.

  18. GIS Methodology for Location of Biomass Power Plants Via Multi -Criteria Evaluation and Network Analysis. Location-Allocation Models for Forest Biomass Use; Metodologia SIG para la Localizacion de Centrales de Biomasa mediante Evaluacion Multicriterio y Analisis de Redes. Modelos de Localizacion-Asignacion para el Aprovechamiento de Biomasa Forestal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz, C de la; Dominguez, J; Perez, M E

    2013-02-01

    The main purpose of this study is to find optimal areas for the installation of Biomass Plants for electric generation and grid connected. In order to achieve this goal, a methodology based on Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) and implemented by means a Geographic Information System (GIS) has been developed. Factors and restrictions for biomass resource and power plants location of biomass have been obtained through the dataset. The methodology output includes maps of greater aptitude areas for resource use (forest biomass available), as well as suitable locations for the placement of Forest Biomass facilities. Both cartographic products have been related by means Network Analysis. It generates Location-Allocation Models which allows locating Forest Biomass Facilities according with an optimization of the supply chain from the resource areas. (Author)

  19. Global Carbon Fiber Composites Supply Chain Competitiveness Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sujit [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Warren, Josh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); West, Devin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schexnayder, Susan M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This study identifies key opportunities in the carbon fiber supply chain where the United States Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy resources and investments can help the United States achieve or maintain a competitive advantage. The report focuses on four application areas--wind energy, aerospace, automotive, and pressure vessels--that top the list of industries using carbon fiber and carbon fiber reinforced polymers and are also particularly relevant to EERE's mission. For each of the four application areas, the report addresses the supply and demand trends within that sector, supply chain, and costs of carbon fiber and components, all contributing to a competitiveness assessment that addresses the United States' role in future industry growth. This report was prepared by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of Tennessee for the Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center.

  20. Expert systems for space power supply: design, analysis, and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.S.; Thomson, M.K.; Hoshor, A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors evaluated the feasibility of applying expert systems to the conceptual design, analysis, and evaluation of space power supplies in particular, and complex systems in general. To do this, they analyzed the space power supply design process and in associated knowledge base, and characterized them in a form suitable for computer emulation of a human expert. The existing expert system tools and the results achieved with them were evaluated to assess their applicability to power system design. They applied some new concepts for combining program architectures (modular expert systems and algorithms) with information about the domain to create a deep system for handling the complex design problem. They authors developed, programmed and tested NOVICE, a code to solve a simplified version of a scoping study of a wide variety of power supply types for a broad range of missions, as a concrete feasibility demonstration

  1. Multilanguage Web application to assess biomass energy production: economic and energetic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berruto, Remigio; Busato, Patrizia; Piccarolo, Pietro [University of Turin (Italy). Dipt. di Economia e Ingegneria Agraria, Forestale e Ambientale (DEIAFA)], E-mail: remigio.berruto@unito.it

    2008-07-01

    One of the main difficulties in the development of biomass supply chains is the lack of reliable and complete information, which is needed to carry out a correct feasibility study. The aim of the research is contributing to knowledge which can be exploited in designing and evaluating biomass supply chains, within a standardized system approach. For this purpose has been implemented by DEIAFA a Web application - www.energyfarm.unito.it - to investigate the biomass supply chains under the technical, economic and energetic aspects. The first set of procedures allow the evaluation of field and logistic operations related to biomass cultivation, harvest and transport to the point of use. Another set of procedures refers to the feasibility study of biomass power plant. All procedures share a common database, ensuring their proper integration. EnergyFarm{sup R} represents a step toward the standardization of data and calculation procedures. In the future, it will be possible to foresee also in the same application the computing of the results with different standards (ASAE, EU, etc.). The interface to the application is provided in English and Italian languages. (author)

  2. Comparative analysis of large biomass & coal co-utilization units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liszka, M.; Nowak, G.; Ptasinski, K.J.; Favrat, D.; Marechal, F.

    2010-01-01

    The co-utilization of coal and biomass in large power units is considered in many countries (e.g. Poland) as fast and effective way of increasing renewable energy share in the fuel mix. Such a method of biomass use is especially suitable for power systems where solid fuels (hard coal, lignite) are

  3. Scenario analysis on future electricity supply and demand in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qi; Ishihara, Keiichi N.; Mclellan, Benjamin C.; Tezuka, Tetsuo

    2012-01-01

    Under continuing policies of CO 2 emissions reduction, it is crucial to consider scenarios for Japan to realize a safe and clean future electricity system. The development plans for nuclear power and renewable energy - particularly solar and wind power - are being reconsidered in light of the Fukushima nuclear accident. To contribute to this, in the present study, three electricity supply scenarios for 2030 are proposed according to different future nuclear power development policies, and the maximum penetration of renewable energy generation is pursued. On the other side of the equation, three electricity demand scenarios are also proposed considering potential energy saving measures. The purpose of the study is to demonstrate quantitatively the technological, economic and environmental impacts of different supply policy selections and demand assumptions on future electricity systems. The scenario analysis is conducted using an input–output hour-by-hour simulation model subject to constraints from technological, economic and environmental perspectives. The obtained installed capacity mix, power generation mix, CO 2 emissions, and generation cost of the scenarios were inter-compared and analyzed. The penetration of renewable energy generation in a future electricity system in Japan, as well as its relationship with nuclear power share was uncovered. -- Highlights: ► Scenario analysis is conducted on future electricity systems under different supply policies and demand assumptions. ► Scenario analysis is conducted using a input–output hour-by-hour simulation model for real-time demand-supply balance. ► The technological, economic and environmental impacts of supply policies and demand assumptions on future electricity systems are studied. ► The maximum penetration of renewable energy generation is pursued in the scenario analysis using the hour-by-hour simulation. ► The relationship between the penetration levels of renewable energy and nuclear power

  4. Competition between biomass and food production in the presence of energy policies: a partial equilibrium analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignaciuk, A.; Vöhringer, F.; Ruijs, A.J.W.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2006-01-01

    Bioenergy has several advantages over fossil fuels. For example, it delivers energy at low net CO2 emission levels and contributes to sustaining future energy supplies. The concern, however, is that an increase in biomass plantations will reduce the land available for agricultural production. The

  5. Petroleum labour market information supply demand analysis 2009-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Since 2006, the petroleum industry has been interested in collaboration to determine labour demand and supply/demand gaps for the upstream petroleum industry. In 2006, the petroleum industry experienced strong employment growth and was having difficulty finding workers. Comprehensive, up-to-date labour market information and analysis are the key foundation for addressing labour supply/demand issues. This document presented labour market information on the petroleum industry in order to inform company retention and recruitment offices; government departments involved in development of labour market policies and programs; education and training institutions; guidance counsellors, employment centres and organizations that work with youth and labour supply pools; and job seekers. Specific topics that were discussed included two industry scenarios (growth and base case) in determining the petroleum industry's medium-and long-term employment needs; labour supply/demand considerations for the industry as a whole and an industry-wide cost management; and an analysis of exploration and production, oil sands, services, and pipeline sectors to 2020. It was concluded that while new employment is not expected to lead to labour shortages within the pipeline sector, attrition due to requirements almost certainly would. In the growth scenario, it is likely the pipeline sector will be challenged by competition from the other petroleum industry sectors. tabs., figs., appendices.

  6. Petroleum labour market information supply demand analysis 2009-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    Since 2006, the petroleum industry has been interested in collaboration to determine labour demand and supply/demand gaps for the upstream petroleum industry. In 2006, the petroleum industry experienced strong employment growth and was having difficulty finding workers. Comprehensive, up-to-date labour market information and analysis are the key foundation for addressing labour supply/demand issues. This document presented labour market information on the petroleum industry in order to inform company retention and recruitment offices; government departments involved in development of labour market policies and programs; education and training institutions; guidance counsellors, employment centres and organizations that work with youth and labour supply pools; and job seekers. Specific topics that were discussed included two industry scenarios (growth and base case) in determining the petroleum industry's medium-and long-term employment needs; labour supply/demand considerations for the industry as a whole and an industry-wide cost management; and an analysis of exploration and production, oil sands, services, and pipeline sectors to 2020. It was concluded that while new employment is not expected to lead to labour shortages within the pipeline sector, attrition due to requirements almost certainly would. In the growth scenario, it is likely the pipeline sector will be challenged by competition from the other petroleum industry sectors. tabs., figs., appendices.

  7. Upgrading of syngas derived from biomass gasification: A thermodynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haryanto, Agus; Fernando, Sandun D.; Pordesimo, Lester O.; Adhikari, Sushil

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen yields in the syngas produced from non-catalytic biomass gasification are generally low. The hydrogen fraction, however, can be increased by converting CO, CH 4 , higher hydrocarbons, and tar in a secondary reactor downstream. This paper discusses thermodynamic limits of the synthesis gas upgrading process. The method used in this process is minimization of Gibbs free energy function. The analysis is performed for temperature ranges from 400 to 1300 K, pressure of 1-10 atm (0.1-1 MPa), and different carbon to steam ratios. The study concludes that to get optimum H 2 yields, with negligible CH 4 and coke formation, upgrading syngas is best practiced at a temperature range of 900-1100 K. At these temperatures, H 2 could be possibly increased by 43-124% of its generally observed values at the gasifier exit. The analysis revealed that increasing steam resulted in a positive effect. The study also concluded that increasing pressure from 1 to 3 atm can be applied at a temperature >1000 K to further increase H 2 yields.

  8. Upgrading of syngas derived from biomass gasification: A thermodynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haryanto, Agus [Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, Mississippi State University, 130 Creelman St., Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Agricultural Engineering Department, University of Lampung, Jl. Sumantri Brojonegoro No. 1, Bandar Lampung 35145 (Indonesia); Fernando, Sandun D. [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, Texas A and M University, 2117 TAMU College Station, TX 77843-2117 (United States); Pordesimo, Lester O. [Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, Mississippi State University, 130 Creelman St., Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Adhikari, Sushil [Biosystems Engineering Department, Auburn University, 215 Tom Corley Building, Auburn, AL 36849-5417 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Hydrogen yields in the syngas produced from non-catalytic biomass gasification are generally low. The hydrogen fraction, however, can be increased by converting CO, CH{sub 4}, higher hydrocarbons, and tar in a secondary reactor downstream. This paper discusses thermodynamic limits of the synthesis gas upgrading process. The method used in this process is minimization of Gibbs free energy function. The analysis is performed for temperature ranges from 400 to 1300 K, pressure of 1-10 atm (0.1-1 MPa), and different carbon to steam ratios. The study concludes that to get optimum H{sub 2} yields, with negligible CH{sub 4} and coke formation, upgrading syngas is best practiced at a temperature range of 900-1100 K. At these temperatures, H{sub 2} could be possibly increased by 43-124% of its generally observed values at the gasifier exit. The analysis revealed that increasing steam resulted in a positive effect. The study also concluded that increasing pressure from 1 to 3 atm can be applied at a temperature >1000 K to further increase H{sub 2} yields. (author)

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production from biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohce, M.K.; Dincer, I.; Rosen, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    'Full Text': Biomass resources have the advantage of being renewable and can therefore contribute to renewable hydrogen production. In this study, an overview is presented of hydrogen production methods in general, and biomass-based hydrogen production in particular. For two methods in the latter category (direct gasification and pyrolysis), assessments are carried out, with the aim of investigating the feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass and better understanding the potential of biomass as a renewable energy source. A simplified model is presented here for biomass gasification based on chemical equilibrium considerations, and the effects of temperature, pressure and the Gibbs free energy on the equilibrium hydrogen yield are studied. Palm oil (designated C 6 H 10 O 5 ), one of the most common biomass resources in the world, is considered in the analyses. The gasifier is observed to be one of the most critical components of a biomass gasification system, and is modeled using stoichiometric reactions. Various thermodynamic efficiencies are evaluated, and both methods are observed to have reasonably high efficiencies. (author)

  10. Systems Analysis of Ten Supply Chains for Whole Tree Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmer Belbo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Whole trees from energy thinnings constitute one of many forest fuel sources, yet ten widely applied supply chains could be defined for this feedstock alone. These ten represent only a subset of the real possibilities, as felling method was held constant and only a single market (combustion of whole tree chips was considered. Stages included in-field, roadside landing, terminal, and conversion plant, and biomass states at each of these included loose whole trees, bundled whole trees or chipped material. Assumptions on prices, performances, and conversion rates were based on field trials and published literature in similar boreal forest conditions. The economic outcome was calculated on the basis of production, handling, treatment and storage costs and losses. Outcomes were tested for robustness on a range of object volumes (50–350 m3solid, extraction distances (50–550 m and transport distances (10–70 km using simulation across a set of discrete values. Transport was calculated for both a standard 19.5 m and an extended 24 m timber truck. Results showed that the most expensive chain (roadside bundling, roadside storage, terminal storage and delivery using a 19.5 m timber truck at 158 € td−1 was 23% more costly than the cheapest chain (roadside chipping and direct transport to conversion plant with container truck, at 128 € td−1. Outcomes vary at specific object volumes and transport distances, highlighting the need to verify assumptions, although standard deviations around mean supply costs for each chain were small (6%–9%. Losses at all stages were modelled, with the largest losses (23 € td−1 occurring in the chains including bundles. The study makes all methods and assumptions explicit and can assist the procurement manager in understanding the mechanisms at work.

  11. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Conversion Pathway: Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons The 2017 Design Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL conducted a campaign to quantify the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from standing in the field or stand to the throat of the biomass conversion process. The goal of this program was to establish the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes, design improvements to the current system, and to mark annual improvements based on higher efficiencies or better designs. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $35/dry ton. This goal was successfully achieved in 2012 by implementing field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. Looking forward to 2017, the programmatic target is to supply biomass to the conversion facilities at a total cost of $80/dry ton and on specification with in-feed requirements. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, abundant, low-cost feedstock. If this goal is not achieved, biofuel plants are destined to be small and/or clustered in select regions of the country that have a lock on low-cost feedstock. To put the 2017 cost target into perspective of past accomplishments of the cellulosic ethanol pathway, the $80 target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all

  12. Information technology portfolio in supply chain management using factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jaafarnejad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of information technology (IT along with supply chain management (SCM has become increasingly a necessity among most businesses. This enhances supply chain (SC performance and helps companies achieve the organizational competitiveness. IT systems capture and analyze information and enable management to make decisions by considering a global scope across the entire SC. This paper reviews the existing literature on IT in SCM and considers pertinent criteria. Using principal component analysis (PCA of factor analysis (FA, a number of related criteria are divided into smaller groups. Finally, SC managers can develop an IT portfolio in SCM using mean values of few extracted components on the relevance –emergency matrix. A numerical example is provided to explain details of the proposed method.

  13. A key review on emergy analysis and assessment of biomass resources for a sustainable future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Gaijing; Long Weiding

    2010-01-01

    The present study comprehensively reviews emergy analysis and performance evaluation of biomass energy. Biomass resources utilization technologies include (a) bioethanol production, (b) biomass for bio-oil, (c) biodiesel production, (d) straw as fuel in district heating plants, (e) electricity from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) incineration power plant, (f) electricity from waste landfill gas. Systems diagrams of biomass, which are to conduct a critical inventory of processes, storage, and flows that are important to the system under consideration and are therefore necessary to evaluate, for biomasses are given. Emergy indicators, such as percent renewable (PR), emergy yield ratio (EYR), environmental load ratio (ELR) and environmental sustainability index (ESI) are shown to evaluate the environmental load and local sustainability of the biomass energy. The emergy indicators show that bio-fuels from crop are not sustainable and waste management for fuels provides an emergy recovery even lower than mining fossil fuel.

  14. Analysis of Supply Chain Risk Management Strategies: Case Study of Supply Chain Disruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Dias Carvalho; Leticia Ishikawa

    2016-01-01

    Supply Chain Risk Management refers to a set of strategies used by companies to avoid supply chain disruption caused by damage at production facilities, natural disasters, capacity issues, inventory problems, incorrect forecasts, and delays. Many companies use the techniques of the Toyota Production System, which in a way goes against a better management of supply chain risks. This paper studies key events in some multinationals to analyze the trade-off between the best supply chain risk mana...

  15. Analysis of supply adventure tourism in the South Bohemian Region

    OpenAIRE

    Klečacká, Simona

    2009-01-01

    The thesis, entitled "Analysis of supply adventure tourism in the South Bohemian Region" is to describe and analyze the options and instruments of tourism in selected destination. Work processes typology adventure tourism and also defines key terms related to this topic. It then focuses on identifying different types of adventure tourism, cooperation in the design of an appropriate design and implementation of a new product in the field of adventure tourism.

  16. Exergy analysis of thermochemical ethanol production via biomass gasification and catalytic synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, H.H.J.L.; Ptasinski, K.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper an exergy analysis of thermochemical ethanol production from biomass is presented. This process combines a steam-blown indirect biomass gasification of woody feedstock, with a subsequent conversion of produced syngas into ethanol. The production process involves several process

  17. Profit Analysis and Supply Chain Planning Model for Closed-Loop Supply Chain in Fashion Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisoo Oh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, due to market growth and use of synthetic fiber, the fashion industry faces a rapid increase of CO2 emission throughout the production cycle and raises environmental issues in recovery processing. This study proposes a closed-loop supply chain (CLSC structure in fashion industry and develops its planning model as multi-objective mixed integer linear programming to find an optimal trade-off between CLSC profit and CO2 emission. The planning model is associated with the profit analysis of each member in CLSC to find the optimal price of products on CLSC network. The model determines optimal production, transportation, and inventory quantities on CLSC network. The proposed models are validated using numerical experiments and sensitivity analyses, and from the results some managerial insights are addressed.

  18. Commercialization analysis for fuels from Pinyon-Juniper biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, G.P.

    1993-01-01

    Pinyon-Juniper (P-J) is a predominant forest type in the Southwestern US, and in many areas it is considered a hinderance to optimal land use management. There is only limited commercial demand for the traditional products that are produced from PJ biomass, like Christmas trees, fence poles, and firewood, and their production does not always promote overall land-management goals. This research effort, which is supported by the DOE through the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program, identifies commercially feasible energy markets to promote sustainable land clearing operations for alternative land uses of P-J woodlands in Eastern Nevada. All of the woodlands under consideration are federal lands managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, which is supportive of our concept. Three possible markets are available or could reasonably be developed to use fuels derived from PJ biomass in Nevada: (1) The existing market for biomass power-plant fuels in California. (2) The emerging market for fuels for residential pellet-burning stoves. (3) The development of a biomass-fired power plant in the Eastern Nevada Area. The study analyzes the cost of harvesting, processing, transporting, and delivering fuels derived from P-J biomass, and identifies commercialization strategies for bringing these fuels to market. The best opportunity for near term commercial conversion of P-J biomass to fuel lies in the area of entering the pellet-stove fuel market, establishing a 10,000 ton per year pelletizing facility in Lincoln County. Such a facility would have excellent access to markets in Las Vegas, Phoenix, Denver, and Salt Lake City

  19. Modelling and analysis of workflow for lean supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinping; Wang, Kanliang; Xu, Lida

    2011-11-01

    Cross-organisational workflow systems are a component of enterprise information systems which support collaborative business process among organisations in supply chain. Currently, the majority of workflow systems is developed in perspectives of information modelling without considering actual requirements of supply chain management. In this article, we focus on the modelling and analysis of the cross-organisational workflow systems in the context of lean supply chain (LSC) using Petri nets. First, the article describes the assumed conditions of cross-organisation workflow net according to the idea of LSC and then discusses the standardisation of collaborating business process between organisations in the context of LSC. Second, the concept of labelled time Petri nets (LTPNs) is defined through combining labelled Petri nets with time Petri nets, and the concept of labelled time workflow nets (LTWNs) is also defined based on LTPNs. Cross-organisational labelled time workflow nets (CLTWNs) is then defined based on LTWNs. Third, the article proposes the notion of OR-silent CLTWNS and a verifying approach to the soundness of LTWNs and CLTWNs. Finally, this article illustrates how to use the proposed method by a simple example. The purpose of this research is to establish a formal method of modelling and analysis of workflow systems for LSC. This study initiates a new perspective of research on cross-organisational workflow management and promotes operation management of LSC in real world settings.

  20. Renewable energies: the choice of invitation to tender candidates for the electric power plants supplied by biomass or biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    To contribute to the french objectives of renewable energies development, the Ministry of Industry proposed an invitation to tender for the realization at the first of january 2007 of electric power plants (more than 12 MW) from biomass and biogas. This document presents the selected projects. (A.L.B.)

  1. Analysis of policy options and implementation measures promoting electricity from renewable biomass in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kautto, N.

    2005-04-01

    evidently shows that bioenergy development is coupled with several success factors and not a single instrument is responsible for favourable development. The outcome also supports the fact that the design of the promoting mechanism rather than the type determines the success of policies. In general, the most important bioenergy barriers in the EU are the cost of bioenergy, political framework and public acceptability. The multidisciplinary nature of actions needed to be taken requires, among other things, integration of bioenergy-related policies and understanding the socio-economic benefits of bioenergy as well as more focused support on the technological needs of the entire biomass supply chain and adequate financial incentives. The outlook in the form of a 'snapshot analysis' for the near future showed that great potentials for bioelectricity implementation exist in the mid-term: France, Germany and Spain hold the largest potentials, meanwhile the lowest exploited potentials occur in Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania. Biomass co-firing and biogas development are estimated to continue, but energy crop potential, especially prevailing in the new Member States, might not be implemented in the short term

  2. Ecology, Economy and security of supply of the Dutch Electricity Supply System. A scenario based future analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedel, J.G.

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch electricity sector has been transformed into a liberalized international energy market. Market players are free to choose from various electricity generation options when replacing or expanding production capacity. However, choices that are made now will influence emissions (ecology), integral costs (economy) and availability (security of supply) for the next 25 - 40 years. This thesis shows if and how, based on the current electricity supply system, an optimal balance of ecology, economy and security of supply can be achieved. First, the current electricity supply system is described to create a frame of reference. Then, future technological developments are described for electricity production options. Four potential scenarios are constructed featuring various uncertainties: the globalising versus the local economy; priority versus subordination for the environment; and the security/insecurity of the fuel supply. These four scenarios are worked out with a specially developed techno-economic simulation model; the results are analysed in terms of ecology, economy and security of supply. The findings indicate that it is impossible to arrive at an optimal balance for the defined scenarios. Scenarios with a low environmental impact lead to high integral costs and vice versa. However, by applying a smart combination of various modern generation technologies, CO2 capture and storage, the deployment of biomass and the re-use of residual heat it is possible to reach an optimal balance whereby the additional integral costs can be kept under control compared with the lowest-cost scenarios. To achieve this, clear growth and incentive guidelines need to be established for the various production options. This thesis will form a good starting point for that exercise

  3. Biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasztor, J.; Kristoferson, L.

    1992-01-01

    Bioenergy systems can provide an energy supply that is environmentally sound and sustainable, although, like all energy systems, they have an environmental impact. The impact often depends more on the way the whole system is managed than on the fuel or on the conversion technology. The authors first describe traditional biomass systems: combustion and deforestation; health impact; charcoal conversion; and agricultural residues. A discussion of modern biomass systems follows: biogas; producer gas; alcohol fuels; modern wood fuel resources; and modern biomass combustion. The issue of bioenergy and the environment (land use; air pollution; water; socioeconomic impacts) and a discussion of sustainable bioenergy use complete the paper. 53 refs., 9 figs., 14 tabs

  4. Stability analysis and stabilization strategies for linear supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi; Helbing, Dirk

    2004-04-01

    Due to delays in the adaptation of production or delivery rates, supply chains can be dynamically unstable with respect to perturbations in the consumption rate, which is known as “bull-whip effect”. Here, we study several conceivable production strategies to stabilize supply chains, which is expressed by different specifications of the management function controlling the production speed in dependence of the stock levels. In particular, we will investigate, whether the reaction to stock levels of other producers or suppliers has a stabilizing effect. We will also demonstrate that the anticipation of future stock levels can stabilize the supply system, given the forecast horizon τ is long enough. To show this, we derive linear stability conditions and carry out simulations for different control strategies. The results indicate that the linear stability analysis is a helpful tool for the judgement of the stabilization effect, although unexpected deviations can occur in the non-linear regime. There are also signs of phase transitions and chaotic behavior, but this remains to be investigated more thoroughly in the future.

  5. Electrical performance analysis and economic evaluation of combined biomass cook stove thermoelectric (BITE) generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertsatitthanakorn, C

    2007-05-01

    The use of biomass cook stoves is widespread in the domestic sector of developing countries, but the stoves are not efficient. To advance the versatility of the cook stove, we investigated the feasibility of adding a commercial thermoelectric (TE) module made of bismuth-telluride based materials to the stove's side wall, thereby creating a thermoelectric generator system that utilizes a proportion of the stove's waste heat. The system, a biomass cook stove thermoelectric generator (BITE), consists of a commercial TE module (Taihuaxing model TEP1-1264-3.4), a metal sheet wall which acts as one side of the stove's structure and serves as the hot side of the TE module, and a rectangular fin heat sink at the cold side of the TE module. An experimental set-up was built to evaluate the conversion efficiency at various temperature ranges. The experimental set-up revealed that the electrical power output and the conversion efficiency depended on the temperature difference between the cold and hot sides of the TE module. At a temperature difference of approximately 150 degrees C, the unit achieved a power output of 2.4W. The conversion efficiency of 3.2% was enough to drive a low power incandescent light bulb or a small portable radio. A theoretical model approximated the power output at low temperature ranges. An economic analysis indicated that the payback period tends to be very short when compared with the cost of the same power supplied by batteries. Therefore, the generator design formulated here could be used in the domestic sector. The system is not intended to compete with primary power sources but serves adequately as an emergency or backup source of power.

  6. Fault Analysis of ITER Coil Power Supply System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, In Ho; Jun, Tao; Benfatto, Ivone

    2009-01-01

    The ITER magnet coils are all designed using superconductors with high current carrying capability. The Toroidal Field (TF) coils operate in a steadystate mode with a current of 68 kA and discharge the stored energy in case of quench with using 9 interleaved Fast Discharge Units (FDUs). The Central Solenoid (CS) coils and Poloidal Field (PF) coils operate in a pulse mode with currents of up to 45 kA and require fast variation of currents inducing more than 10 kV during normal operation on the coil terminals using Switching Network (SN) systems (CSs, PF1 and 6) and Booster and VS converters (PF2 to 5), which are series connected to Main converters. SN and FDU systems comprise high current DC circuit breakers and resistors for generating high voltage (SN) and to dissipate magnetic energy (FDUs). High transient voltages can arise due to the switching operation of SN and FD and the characteristics of resistors and stray components of DC distribution systems. Also, faults in power supply control such as shorts or grounding faults can produce higher voltages between terminals and between terminal and ground. Therefore, the design of the coil insulation, coil terminal regions, feeders, feed throughs, pipe breaks and instrumentation must take account of these high voltages during normal and abnormal conditions. Voltage insulation level can be defined and it is necessary to test the coils at higher voltages, to be sure of reliable performance during the lifetime of operation. This paper describes the fault analysis of the TF, CS and PF coil power supply systems, taking account of the stray parameter of the power supply and switching systems and inductively coupled superconducting coil models. Resistor grounding systems are included in the simulation model and all fault conditions such as converter hardware and software faults, switching system hardware and software faults, DC short circuits and single grounding faults are simulated. The occurrence of two successive faults

  7. Genetic architecture and temporal patterns of biomass accumulation in spring barley revealed by image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Kerstin; Zhao, Yusheng; Chu, Jianting; Keilwagen, Jens; Reif, Jochen C; Kilian, Benjamin; Graner, Andreas

    2017-08-10

    Genetic mapping of phenotypic traits generally focuses on a single time point, but biomass accumulates continuously during plant development. Resolution of the temporal dynamics that affect biomass recently became feasible using non-destructive imaging. With the aim to identify key genetic factors for vegetative biomass formation from the seedling stage to flowering, we explored growth over time in a diverse collection of two-rowed spring barley accessions. High heritabilities facilitated the temporal analysis of trait relationships and identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL). Biomass QTL tended to persist only a short period during early growth. More persistent QTL were detected around the booting stage. We identified seven major biomass QTL, which together explain 55% of the genetic variance at the seedling stage, and 43% at the booting stage. Three biomass QTL co-located with genes or QTL involved in phenology. The most important locus for biomass was independent from phenology and is located on chromosome 7HL at 141 cM. This locus explained ~20% of the genetic variance, was significant over a long period of time and co-located with HvDIM, a gene involved in brassinosteroid synthesis. Biomass is a dynamic trait and is therefore orchestrated by different QTL during early and late growth stages. Marker-assisted selection for high biomass at booting stage is most effective by also including favorable alleles from seedling biomass QTL. Selection for dynamic QTL may enhance genetic gain for complex traits such as biomass or, in the future, even grain yield.

  8. Supply reliability and dynamic safety analysis of an alternative energy supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Markert, Frank; Jacobsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the integration of risk and supply chain modelling by means of analysing a case concerning a Hydrogen Refuelling Station in Berlin. It presents a framework that can analyse an energy supply chain and at the same time enables easy reporting and presentation of various results...

  9. Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol via Acetic Acid Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Jones, Susanne B.

    2009-04-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). This study performs a techno-economic analysis of the thermo chemical conversion of biomass to ethanol, through methanol and acetic acid, followed by hydrogenation of acetic acid to ethanol. The conversion of syngas to methanol and methanol to acetic acid are well-proven technologies with high conversions and yields. This study was undertaken to determine if this highly selective route to ethanol could provide an already established economically attractive route to ethanol. The feedstock was assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two types of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. Process models were developed and a cost analysis was performed. The carbon monoxide used for acetic acid synthesis from methanol and the hydrogen used for hydrogenation were assumed to be purchased and not derived from the gasifier. Analysis results show that ethanol selling prices are estimated to be $2.79/gallon and $2.81/gallon for the indirectly-heated gasifier and the directly-heated gasifier systems, respectively (1stQ 2008$, 10% ROI). These costs are above the ethanol market price for during the same time period ($1.50 - $2.50/gal). The co-production of acetic acid greatly improves the process economics as shown in the figure below. Here, 20% of the acetic acid is diverted from ethanol production and assumed to be sold as a co-product at the prevailing market prices ($0.40 - $0.60/lb acetic acid), resulting in competitive ethanol production costs.

  10. Biomass refining for sustainable development : analysis and directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Lin

    2010-01-01

    To understand the contribution of biomass refining to sustainable development, the technical, environmental and economic aspects are summarized in this thesis. This work begins from life cycle assessment (LCA) of bioethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks such as corn stover, sugarcane and bagasse,

  11. Energy analysis of biochemical conversion processes of biomass to bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakari, M.; Ngadi, M.; Bergthorson, T. [McGill Univ., Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Bioresource Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Bioethanol is among the most promising of biofuels that can be produced from different biomass such as agricultural products, waste and byproducts. This paper reported on a study that examined the energy conversion of different groups of biomass to bioethanol, including lignocelluloses, starches and sugar. Biochemical conversion generally involves the breakdown of biomass to simple sugars using different pretreatment methods. The energy needed for the conversion steps was calculated in order to obtain mass and energy efficiencies for the conversions. Mass conversion ratios of corn, molasses and rice straw were calculated as 0.3396, 0.2300 and 0.2296 kg of bioethanol per kg of biomass, respectively. The energy efficiency of biochemical conversion of corn, molasses and rice straw was calculated as 28.57, 28.21 and 31.33 per cent, respectively. The results demonstrated that lignocelluloses can be efficiently converted with specific microorganisms such as Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae using the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) methods.

  12. Research on biomass energy and environment from the past to the future: A bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Guozhu; Huang, Ning; Chen, Lu; Wang, Hongmei

    2018-09-01

    The development and utilization of biomass energy can help to change the ways of energy production and consumption and establish a sustainable energy system that can effectively promote the development of the national economy and strengthen the protection of the environment. Here,we perform a bibliometric analysis of 9514 literature reports in the Web of Science Core Collection searched with the key words "Biomass energy" and "Environment*" date from 1998 to 2017; hot topics in the research and development of biomass energy utilization, as well as the status and development trends of biomass energy utilization and the environment, were analyzed based on content analysis and bibliometrics. The interaction between biomass energy and the environment began to become a major concern as the research progressively deepened. This work is of great significance for the development and utilization of biomass energy to put forward specific suggestions and strategies based on the analysis and demonstration of relationships and interactions between biomass energy utilization and environment. It is also useful to researchers for selecting the future research topics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An analysis of international nuclear fuel supply options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J'tia Patrice

    As the global demand for energy grows, many nations are considering developing or increasing nuclear capacity as a viable, long-term power source. To assess the possible expansion of nuclear power and the intricate relationships---which cover the range of economics, security, and material supply and demand---between established and aspirant nuclear generating entities requires models and system analysis tools that integrate all aspects of the nuclear enterprise. Computational tools and methods now exist across diverse research areas, such as operations research and nuclear engineering, to develop such a tool. This dissertation aims to develop methodologies and employ and expand on existing sources to develop a multipurpose tool to analyze international nuclear fuel supply options. The dissertation is comprised of two distinct components: the development of the Material, Economics, and Proliferation Assessment Tool (MEPAT), and analysis of fuel cycle scenarios using the tool. Development of MEPAT is aimed for unrestricted distribution and therefore uses publicly available and open-source codes in its development when possible. MEPAT is built using the Powersim Studio platform that is widely used in systems analysis. MEPAT development is divided into three modules focusing on: material movement; nonproliferation; and economics. The material movement module tracks material quantity in each process of the fuel cycle and in each nuclear program with respect to ownership, location and composition. The material movement module builds on techniques employed by fuel cycle models such as the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) code developed at the Idaho National Laboratory under the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) for the analysis of domestic fuel cycle. Material movement parameters such as lending and reactor preference, as well as fuel cycle parameters such as process times and material factors are user-specified through a Microsoft Excel(c) data spreadsheet

  14. Techno economic analysis of a wind-photovoltaic-biomass hybrid renewable energy system for rural electrification: A case study of Kallar Kahar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Jameel; Imran, Muhammad; Khalid, Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    . The comprehensive resource assessment of wind, biomass and solar energy is carried out for grid integration. Homer Pro software is used to model a hybrid microgrid system. Optimization results and sensitivity analysis is carried out to ensure the robustness and cost-effectiveness of the proposed hybrid microgrid......This paper focuses on the techno-economic feasibility of a grid-tied hybrid microgrid system for local inhabitants of Kallar Kahar near Chakwal city of Punjab province in Pakistan and investigates the potential for electricity generation through hybrid wind, photovoltaic and biomass system...... system. The total load has been optimally shared among generated power through wind, photovoltaic and biomass resources and surplus power is supplied to the national grid in case of low local demand of the load. The results of techno-economic feasibility study show that hybrid power system can generate...

  15. A microeconomic analysis of decentralized small scale biomass based CHP plants—The case of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittmann, Nadine; Yildiz, Özgür

    2013-01-01

    Alternative energy sources, such as biomass CHP plants, have recently gained significantly in importance and action is due both on the large scale corporate level and on the small scale. Hence, making the scope and economic outline of such projects easily intelligible without losing relevant details seems a key factor to further promote the necessary developments. The model setup presented in this paper may therefore serve as a starting point for generating numerical results based on real life cases or scenarios. Its focus lies on the economic analysis of decentralized biomass CHP plants. It presents a new approach to analyzing the economic aspects of biomass CHP plants implementing a formal microeconomic approach. As Germany claims a leading role in the market for renewable energy production, the paper also takes a closer look on the effects of German energy policy with respect to biomass CHP plants. - Highlights: • A formal microeconomic model is used to analyse a decentralized biomass CHP plant. • Model setup is used to generate numerical results based on real life scenarios. • Nested CES production function is a new approach to model economics of biomass CHP. • Analysis presents insight into microeconomics and cost drivers of biomass CHP. • Evaluation of energy policy design with respect to environmental policy goals

  16. Research in biomass production and utilization: Systems simulation and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Albert Stewart

    There is considerable public interest in developing a sustainable biobased economy that favors support of family farms and rural communities and also promotes the development of biorenewable energy resources. This study focuses on a number of questions related to the development and exploration of new pathways that can potentially move us toward a more sustainable biobased economy. These include issues related to biomass fuels for drying grain, economies-of-scale, new biomass harvest systems, sugar-to-ethanol crop alternatives for the Upper Midwest U.S., biomass transportation, post-harvest biomass processing and double cropping production scenarios designed to maximize biomass feedstock production. The first section of this study considers post-harvest drying of shelled corn grain both at farm-scale and at larger community-scaled installations. Currently, drying of shelled corn requires large amounts of fossil fuel energy. To address future energy concerns, this study evaluates the potential use of combined heat and power systems that use the combustion of corn stover to produce steam for drying and to generate electricity for fans, augers, and control components. Because of the large capital requirements for solid fuel boilers and steam turbines/engines, both farm-scale and larger grain elevator-scaled systems benefit by sharing boiler and power infrastructure with other processes. The second and third sections evaluate sweet sorghum as a possible "sugarcane-like" crop that can be grown in the Upper Midwest. Various harvest systems are considered including a prototype mobile juice harvester, a hypothetical one-pass unit that separates grain heads from chopped stalks and traditional forage/silage harvesters. Also evaluated were post-harvest transportation, storage and processing costs and their influence on the possible use of sweet sorghum as a supplemental feedstock for existing dry-grind ethanol plants located in the Upper Midwest. Results show that the concept

  17. Biomass analysis at palm oil factory as an electric power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusniati; Parinduri, Luthfi; Krianto Sulaiman, Oris

    2018-04-01

    Biomassa found in palm oil mill industryis a by-product such as palm shell, fiber, empty fruit bunches and pome. The material can be used as an alternative fuel for fossil fuel. On PTPN IVpalm oil millDolokSinumbah with a capacity of 30 tons tbs/hour of palm fruit fiber and palm shells has been utilized as boiler fuel to produce steam to supplyboilers power plant. With this utilization, the use of generators that using fossil fuel can be reduced, this would provide added value for the company. From the analysis, the fiber and shell materials were sufficient to supply 18 tons/hoursteam for the boiler. Shell material even excess as much as 441,5 tons per month. By utilizing the 2 types of biomass that is available alone, the electricity needs of the factory of 734 Kwh can be met. While other materials such as empty bunches and pome can be utilized to increase the added value and profitability for the palm oil mill.

  18. Biomass energy production in agriculture: A weighted goal programming analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballarin, A.; Vecchiato, D.; Tempesta, T.; Marangon, F.; Troiano, S.

    2011-01-01

    Energy production from biomasses can be an important resource that, when combined with other green energies such as wind power and solar plants, can contribute to reduce dependency on fossil fuels. The aim of this study is to assess how agriculture could contribute to the production of bio-energy. A multi-period Weighted Goal Programming model (MpWGP) has been applied to identify the optimal land use combinations that simultaneously maximise farmers' income and biomass energy production under three concurrent constraints: water, labour and soil availability. Alternative scenarios are considered that take into account the effect of climate change and social change. The MpWGP model was tested with data from the Rovigo county area (Italy) over a 15-year time period. Our findings show that trade-off exists between the two optimisation targets considered. Although the optimisation of the first target requires traditional agricultural crops, which are characterised by high revenue and a low production of biomass energy, the latter would be achievable with intensive wood production, namely, high-energy production and low income. Our results also show the importance of the constraints imposed, particularly water availability; water scarcity has an overall negative effect and specifically affects the level of energy production. - Research Highlights: → The aim of this study is to assess how agriculture could contribute to the production of bio-energy. → A multi-period (15-year) Weighted Goal Programming model (MpWGP) has been applied. → We identify the optimal land use combinations that simultaneously maximise farmers' income and biomass energy production. → Three concurrent constraints have been considered: water, labour and soil availability.→ Water scarcity has an overall negative effect and specifically affects the level of energy production.

  19. Quantitative analysis of microbial biomass yield in aerobic bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Osamu; Isoda, Satoru

    2013-12-01

    We have studied the integrated model of reaction rate equations with thermal energy balance in aerobic bioreactor for food waste decomposition and showed that the integrated model has the capability both of monitoring microbial activity in real time and of analyzing biodegradation kinetics and thermal-hydrodynamic properties. On the other hand, concerning microbial metabolism, it was known that balancing catabolic reactions with anabolic reactions in terms of energy and electron flow provides stoichiometric metabolic reactions and enables the estimation of microbial biomass yield (stoichiometric reaction model). We have studied a method for estimating real-time microbial biomass yield in the bioreactor during food waste decomposition by combining the integrated model with the stoichiometric reaction model. As a result, it was found that the time course of microbial biomass yield in the bioreactor during decomposition can be evaluated using the operational data of the bioreactor (weight of input food waste and bed temperature) by the combined model. The combined model can be applied to manage a food waste decomposition not only for controlling system operation to keep microbial activity stable, but also for producing value-added products such as compost on optimum condition. Copyright © 2013 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A fluidized bed furnace fired with biomass waste to supply heat for a spray dryer in a plant producing floortiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulyurtlu, I.; Andre, R.; Mendes, J.; Monteiro, A.; Cabrita, I. [Instituto Nacional de Engenharia e Tecnologia Industrial, Lisboa (Portugal)

    1993-12-31

    This project has been implemented at a factory producing floortiles for domestic use. The project consists of a fluidized bed combustion system burning coal or wood or a mixture of both to produce hot combustion gases to provide heat for spray drying process. The system was designed by INETI for a maximum output of 8 MW thermal energy and all the engineering calculations were carried out to dimension the furnace to provide this amount of heat. Shallow bed concept was used for complete burning of the biomass particles which contained volatiles up to 75% by weight. The sand bed was used as a flame stabilizer for the combustion of volatiles. The combustion of volatiles in the freeboard was mainly controlled by mixing ashes and other impurities. The combustion temperature had to be maintained in the range 700--800{degrees}C to achieve combustion efficiencies of 85% or more. The combustion efficiency (1) did not increase substantially above 90% of excess air although levels of up to 120% were used during combustion and (2) was found to increase through air staging in the order of 20 to 25%, by simply adding 45 to 55% of the air required to the freeboard zone. No SO{sub 2} was observed in flue gases when burning only biomass but there was some NO{sub x} formed and the level of conversion of fuel-N to NO{sub x} was found to be about 25--30%.

  1. An analysis of electric utility embedded power supply costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahal, M.; Brown, D.

    1998-01-01

    There is little doubt that for the vast majority of electric utilities the embedded costs of power supply exceed market prices, giving rise to the stranded cost problem. Beyond that simple generalization, there are a number of crucial questions, which this study attempts to answer. What are the regional patterns of embedded cost differences? To what extent is the cost problem attributable to nuclear power? How does the cost of purchased power compare to the cost of utility self-generation? What is the breakdown of utility embedded generation costs between operating costs - which are potentially avoidable--and ownership costs, which by definition are ''sunk'' and therefore not avoidable? How will embedded generation costs and market prices compare over time? These are the crucial questions for states as they address retail-restructuring proposal. This study presents an analysis of generation costs, which addresses these key questions. A computerized costing model was developed and applied using FERC Form 1 data for 1995. The model analyzed embedded power supply costs (i.e.; self-generation plus purchased power) for two groups of investor-owned utilities, 49 non-nuclear vs. 63 nuclear. These two subsamples represent substantially the entire US investor-owned electric utility industry. For each utility, embedded cost is estimated both at busbar and at meter

  2. Analysing the economy-wide impact of the supply chains activated by a new biomass power plant. The case of cardoon in Sardinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bonfiglio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact on the economy of Sardinia (Italy generated by a new biomass power plant fed by locally cultivated cardoon. The cardoon also serves the production of biopolymers. The impact is assessed at an economy-wide level using two multiregional closed Input-Output models, which allow us to take into account the entire supply chain activated and the supra-local effects generated by trade across local industries. The effects are computed under alternative scenarios simulating different levels of substitution of existing agricultural activities with the new activity (cardoon. Results show positive and locally significant impacts in terms of value added and employment. However, these impacts are substantially influenced by the degree of substitution. Results also suggest that there are specific territorial areas that are more sensitive to negative effects induced by substitution.

  3. Above-ground biomass of mangrove species. I. Analysis of models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Mário Luiz Gomes; Schaeffer-Novelli, Yara

    2005-10-01

    This study analyzes the above-ground biomass of Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa located in the mangroves of Bertioga (SP) and Guaratiba (RJ), Southeast Brazil. Its purpose is to determine the best regression model to estimate the total above-ground biomass and compartment (leaves, reproductive parts, twigs, branches, trunk and prop roots) biomass, indirectly. To do this, we used structural measurements such as height, diameter at breast-height (DBH), and crown area. A combination of regression types with several compositions of independent variables generated 2.272 models that were later tested. Subsequent analysis of the models indicated that the biomass of reproductive parts, branches, and prop roots yielded great variability, probably because of environmental factors and seasonality (in the case of reproductive parts). It also indicated the superiority of multiple regression to estimate above-ground biomass as it allows researchers to consider several aspects that affect above-ground biomass, specially the influence of environmental factors. This fact has been attested to the models that estimated the biomass of crown compartments.

  4. The biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viterbo, J.

    2011-01-01

    Biomass comes mainly from forests and agriculture and is considered as a clean alternative energy that can be valorized as heat, power, bio-fuels and chemical products but its mass production is challenging in terms of adequate technology but also in terms of rethinking the use of lands. Forests can be managed to produce biomass but bio-fuels can also be generated from sea-weeds. Biomass appears very promising but on one hand we have to secure its supplying and assure its economical profitability and on another hand we have to assure a reasonable use of lands and a limited impact on the environment. The contribution of biomass to sustainable development depends on the balance between these 2 ends. (A.C.)

  5. Appreciation analysis for power supply companies; Wertsteigerungsanalyse fuer Energieversorgungsunternehmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muche, T. [Hochschule Zittau/Goerlitz (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    In view of the probable future consolidation in the energy economy with municipal undertakings increasingly becoming subject to takeovers and participations issues of shareholder value are a matter of growing interest for power supply companies. Amongst other advantages, having a high shareholder value guards against unwanted takeovers. However, it is not enough for companies merely to know their shareholder value; they must rather have their entire operative and strategic planning and control instruments geared to it. This forms the background to a pilot project at Goerlitz/Zittau University which was dedicated to an analysis of the shareholder value of municipal undertakings on the basis of year-end financial and capital market data.

  6. Biomass boiler energy conversion system analysis with the aid of exergy-based methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Changchun; Gillum, Craig; Toupin, Kevin; Donaldson, Burl

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Conventional exergy analysis and advanced exergy analysis are performed. • The combustion process dominates the exergy destruction. • Increase excess air will decrease the overall boiler exergy efficiency. • Increase the SH temperatures will increase the overall boiler exergy efficiency. • The avoidable exergy destructions in the air heaters are very small. - Abstract: The objective of this paper is to establish a theoretical framework for the exergy analysis and advanced exergy analysis of a real biomass boiler. These analyses can be used for both the diagnosis and optimization of a biomass boiler as well as for the design of a new biomass boiler. Conventional exergy analysis is performed to recognize the source(s) of inefficiency and irreversibility and identify exergy destruction in different components of the biomass boiler. An advanced exergy analysis is performed to provide comprehensive information about the avoidable exergy destruction and real fuel-saving potential for each component, as well as the overall system. Sensitivity studies of several design parameters including the excess air, biomass moisture and steam parameters were evaluated. The results show that the maximum exergy destruction occurs in the combustion process, followed by the Water Walls (WW) & Radiant Superheater (RSH) and the Low Temperature Superheater (LTSH). The fuel-saving and exergy efficiency improvement strategies for different components are discussed in this paper

  7. Biomass recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes - this co......Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes...... - this collective resistance is known as "biomass recalcitrance." Breakthrough technologies are needed to overcome barriers to developing cost-effective processes for converting biomass to fuels and chemicals. This book examines the connection between biomass structure, ultrastructure, and composition......, to resistance to enzymatic deconstruction, with the aim of discovering new cost-effective technologies for biorefineries. It contains chapters on topics extending from the highest levels of biorefinery design and biomass life-cycle analysis, to detailed aspects of plant cell wall structure, chemical treatments...

  8. Explaining the failure of the Dutch innovation system for biomass digestion-A functional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negro, Simona O.; Hekkert, Marko P.; Smits, Ruud E.

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1970s research on energy conversion technologies, such as biomass digestion, has been carried out in the Netherlands. However, after 30 years biomass digestion has not been implemented on large scale. The aim of this paper is to create insight into the underlying factors of this troublesome trajectory by applying the 'Functions of Innovation Systems' framework. This results in clear understanding of the (lack of) activities that took place in the innovation system of biomass digestion and the role of government policy in both inducing and blocking this development. The analysis provides several lessons to take into account when developing policies for the acceleration of the development and diffusion of biomass energy

  9. SUSTAINABILITY OF SHORT FOOD SUPPLY CHAINS: ANALYSIS OF RAW MATERIAL SUPPLY IN MILAN PUBLIC SCHOOL CATERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D’Anna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand of short food supply chains is becoming more pressing by consumers, especially in the largest school catering. The implementation of the short chain in a large catering company of Milan, is described in this practical contribution. Several aspects of short food chains sustainability: legal, commercial and economic sustainability, hygienic and gastronomic sustainability, are discussed.

  10. Analysis of Competitiveness and Support Instruments for Heat and Electricity Production from Wood Biomass in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavs, G.; Kudrenickis, I.; Kundzina, A.

    2012-01-01

    Utilisation of renewable energy sources is one of the key factors in a search for efficient ways of reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases and improving the energy supply security. So far, the district heating supply in Latvia has been based on natural gas, with the wood fuel playing a minor role; the same is true for decentralised combined heat-power (CHP) production. The paper describes a method for evaluation of the economic feasibility of heat and electricity production from wood biomass under the competition between different fuel types and taking into account the electricity market. For the simulation, a cost estimation model is applied. The results demonstrate that wood biomass can successfully be utilised for competitive heat production by boiler houses, while for electricity production by CHP utilities it cannot compete on the market (even despite the low prices on wood biomass fuel) unless particular financial support instruments are applied. The authors evaluate the necessary support level and the impact of two main support instruments - the investment subsidies and the feed-in tariff - on the economic viability of wood-fuelled CHP plants, and show that the feed-in tariff could be considered as an instrument strongly affecting the competitiveness of such type CHP. Regarding the feed-in tariff determination, a compromise should be found between the economy-dictated requirement to develop CHP projects concerning capacities above 5 MWel - on the one hand, and the relatively small heat loads in many Latvian towns - on the other.

  11. Analysis of the availability of biomass in Cuba with energy ends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padron Perez, Rolando; Paredes Morejon, Lizeyda; Leyva Canavaciolo, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    The sugar Power stations commonly are endowed with an area water heater energetics with I upset generators to burn biomass and to generate electricity, alone that make it in the period of harvest, the trash that generate in its industrial process for electricity to be self-sufficient in burning. For to continue generating the whole year is necessary the supply of other solid fuels (biomasses not sugar). In this case the supply of marabou biomass with more caloric power and smaller content of humidity that the trash, converts it in a more efficient fuel in this industry. This project opens a road for the use of more than 900.000 hectares today infested by marabou, some will be been able to use again, after more than disabled 25 years, for the agricultural production and others will be able to be reforested with energy forests that allow the sustainable of the project. These studies are guided to contribute to the increment and sustainable of the security electro-energetics in Cuba, facilitating the environmental recovery and the agricultural use of the floors, facilitating the adoption of systems that achieve an in agreement generation with the strategy approved in the principles of the Energy Revolution and proposal in the limits of the 6. Congress of Party. (author)

  12. Pyrolysis of coal, biomass and their blends: performance assessment by thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Francesca; Orsini, Alessandro; Plaisant, Alberto; Pettinau, Alberto

    2014-11-01

    With the aim to support the experimental tests in a gasification pilot plant, the thermal decomposition of coal, biomass and their mixtures has been carried out through a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and a simplified kinetic analysis. The TGA of pure fuels indicates the low reactivity of South African coal and the relatively high reactivity of Sardinian Sulcis coal during pyrolysis. Among the tested fuels, biomass (stone pine wood chips) is the most reactive one. These results fully confirm those obtained during the experimental tests in the gasification pilot plant. As for the fuel blends, the analysis shows that the synergic effects between the considered coals and biomass are negligible when they are co-pyrolyzed. The results of the analysis confirm that TGA could be very useful to generally predict the gasification performance and to optimize the experimental campaigns in pilot-scale gasification plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, James F [Livermore, CA; Yee, Daniel D [Dublin, CA

    2008-07-15

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC-DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC-DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  14. Exergoeconomic analysis of small-scale biomass steam cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Sotomonte, Cesar Adolfo; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], e-mails: c.rodriguez32@unifei.edu.br, electo@unifei.edu.br; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Escobar, Jose Carlos [Universidad Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: osvaldo@unifei.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    The principal objective of this work is to develop a calculation process, based on the second law of thermodynamics, for evaluating the thermoeconomic potential of a small steam cogeneration plant using waste from pulp processing and/or sawmills as fuel. Four different configurations are presented and assessed. The exergetic efficiency of the cycles that use condensing turbines is found to be around 11%, which has almost 3 percent higher efficiency than cycles with back pressure turbines. The thermoeconomic equations used in this paper estimated the production costs varying the fuel price. The main results show that present cost of technologies in a small-scale steam cycle cogeneration do not justify the implementation of more efficient systems for biomass prices less than 100 R$/t. (author)

  15. Overview of the South American biomass burning analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, W. T.; Allan, J. D.; Flynn, M.; Darbyshire, E.; Hodgson, A.; Johnson, B. T.; Haywood, J. M.; Freitas, S.; Longo, K.; Artaxo, P.; Coe, H.

    2013-05-01

    Biomass burning represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, which results in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious negative impacts on public health. Globally, biomass burning aerosols are thought to exert a small warming effect of 0.03 Wm-2, however the uncertainty is 4 times greater than the central estimate. On regional scales, the impact is substantially greater, particularly in areas such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent burning occurs on an annual basis for several months (usually from August-October). Furthermore, a growing number of people live within the Amazon region, which means that they are subject to the deleterious effects on their health from exposure to substantial volumes of polluted air. Initial results from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil, are presented here. A suite of instrumentation was flown on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft and was supported by ground based measurements, with extensive measurements made in Porto Velho, Rondonia. The aircraft sampled a range of conditions with sampling of fresh biomass burning plumes, regional haze and elevated biomass burning layers within the free troposphere. The physical, chemical and optical properties of the aerosols across the region will be characterized in order to establish the impact of biomass burning on regional air quality, weather and climate.

  16. Feasibility of waste to Bio-diesel production via Nuclear-Biomass hybrid model. System dynamics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Hoseok; Kasada, Ryuta; Konishi, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear-Biomass hybrid system which takes waste biomass from municipal, agricultural area, and forest as feedstock produces Bio-diesel fuel from synthesis gas generated by endothermic pyrolytic gasification using high temperature nuclear heat. Over 900 degree Celsius of exterior thermal heat from nuclear reactors, Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) and some other heat sources, bring about waste biomass gasification to produce maximum amount of chemical energy from feedstock. Hydrogen from Biomass gasification or Bio-diesel as the product of Fischer-Tropsch reaction following it provide fuels for transport sector. Nuclear-Biomass hybrid system is a new alternatives to produce more energy generating synergy effects by efficiently utilizing the high temperature heat from nuclear reactor that might be considerably wasted by thermal cycle, and also energy loss from biomass combustion or biochemical processes. System Dynamics approach is taken to analyze low-carbon synthesis fuel, Bio-diesel, production with combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen from biomass gasification. Feedstock cost considering collection, transportation, storage and facility for biomass gasification impacts the economic feasibility of this model. This paper provides the implication of practical nuclear-biomass hybrid system application with feedstock supply chain through evaluation of economic feasibility. (author)

  17. Aggravated phosphorus limitation on biomass production under increasing nitrogen loading: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Niu, Shuli; Yu, Guirui

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), either individually or in combination, have been demonstrated to limit biomass production in terrestrial ecosystems. Field studies have been extensively synthesized to assess global patterns of N impacts on terrestrial ecosystem processes. However, to our knowledge, no synthesis has been done so far to reveal global patterns of P impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, especially under different nitrogen (N) levels. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of impacts of P addition, either alone or with N addition, on aboveground (AGB) and belowground biomass production (BGB), plant and soil P concentrations, and N : P ratio in terrestrial ecosystems. Overall, our meta-analysis quantitatively confirmed existing notions: (i) colimitation of N and P on biomass production and (ii) more P limitation in tropical forest than other ecosystems. More importantly, our analysis revealed new findings: (i) P limitation on biomass production was aggravated by N enrichment and (ii) plant P concentration was a better indicator of P limitation than soil P availability. Specifically, P addition increased AGB and BGB by 34% and 13%, respectively. The effect size of P addition on biomass production was larger in tropical forest than grassland, wetland, and tundra and varied with P fertilizer forms, P addition rates, or experimental durations. The P-induced increase in biomass production and plant P concentration was larger under elevated than ambient N. Our findings suggest that the global limitation of P on biomass production will become severer under increasing N fertilizer and deposition in the future. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Analysis of acetal toilet fill valve supply line nut failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Timpanaro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a rise in the number of product liability cases involving the failure of toilet water supply line acetal plastic nuts. These nuts can fail in service, causing water leaks that result in significant property and financial losses. This study examines three possible failure modes of acetal plastic toilet water supply nuts. The three failure modes tested were all due to over load failure of the acetal nut and are as follows: (1 Overtightening of the supply line acetal nut, (2 Supply line lateral pull and, (3 Embrittled supply line lateral pull. Additionally, a “hand-tight” torque survey was conducted. The fracture surfaces and characteristics of these failure tests were examined with Stereo Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The failure modes were compared and contrasted to provide guidance in determination of cause in these investigations.

  19. Comparative analysis of heat pump and biomass boiler for small detached house heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olkowski Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to answer the question - which of the two selected heat sources is more economically beneficial for small detached house: heat pump or biomass boiler fuelled with wood-pellets? The comparative analysis of these sources was carried out to discuss the issue. First, cost of both, equipment and operation of selected heat systems were analysed. Additionally, CO2 emission levels associated with these heat systems were determined. The comparative analysis of the costs of both considered heat systems showed that equipment cost of heat pump system is considerably bigger than the cost of biomass boiler system. The comparison of annual operation costs showed that heat pump operation cost is slightly lower than operation cost of biomass boiler. The analysis of above results shows that lower operation cost of heat pump in comparison with biomass boiler cost lets qualify heat pump as more economically justified only after 38 years of work. For both analysed devices, CO2 emission levels were determined. The considerations take into account the fact that heat pump consumes electricity. It is mostly generated through combustion of coal in Poland. The results show that in Poland biomass boiler can be described as not only more economically justified system but also as considerably more ecological.

  20. Comparative analysis of heat pump and biomass boiler for small detached house heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkowski, Tomasz; Lipiński, Seweryn; Olędzka, Aneta

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the work is to answer the question - which of the two selected heat sources is more economically beneficial for small detached house: heat pump or biomass boiler fuelled with wood-pellets? The comparative analysis of these sources was carried out to discuss the issue. First, cost of both, equipment and operation of selected heat systems were analysed. Additionally, CO2 emission levels associated with these heat systems were determined. The comparative analysis of the costs of both considered heat systems showed that equipment cost of heat pump system is considerably bigger than the cost of biomass boiler system. The comparison of annual operation costs showed that heat pump operation cost is slightly lower than operation cost of biomass boiler. The analysis of above results shows that lower operation cost of heat pump in comparison with biomass boiler cost lets qualify heat pump as more economically justified only after 38 years of work. For both analysed devices, CO2 emission levels were determined. The considerations take into account the fact that heat pump consumes electricity. It is mostly generated through combustion of coal in Poland. The results show that in Poland biomass boiler can be described as not only more economically justified system but also as considerably more ecological.

  1. Energy supply options for Lithuania: A detailed multi-sector integrated energy demand, supply and environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    The Technical Co-operation (TC) project Energy Supply Options for Lithuania: A Detailed Multi-Sector Integrated Energy Demand, Supply and Environmental Analysis (LIT/0/004) was implemented 2001-2002 by a national team with support from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The principal objective of the project was to conduct a comprehensive assessment of Lithuania's future energy supply options taking into consideration the early closure of the Ignalina nuclear power plant (Ignalina NPP). Lithuania, a country in transition to full membership of the European Union, has to comply with the energy acquis (Chapter 14). The 'acquis communautaire' (the body of common rights and obligations which bind all the Member States together) must be adopted by all applicant countries. Implementing the acquis requires not only adequate legislation, well functioning institutions (e.g. a regulatory body as required in the electricity and gas directives) or schedules for restructuring the energy sector but also measures to enhance energy supply security, improvement of energy networks, efficiency improvements throughout the energy system and compliance with European environmental standards. Within the overall context of the transition to EU membership, this study focuses on the future development of the electricity sector and the impacts on energy supply security and environmental performance of a closure of Ignalina NPP by 2009, a pre-condition for accession stipulated by the European Union. The project coincided with the preparation of the new National Energy Strategy for Lithuania and therefore was set up to support the strategy formulation process

  2. Managing a live music performance: A supply-side analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Manners

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and objective: The purpose of this research is to determine what managers regard as important critical success factors in ensuring a memorable visitor experience at a live music performance. Problem investigated: When organising a live music performance, it is evident that the various characteristics that form part of the visitor experience have to be considered. The critical success factors of live music performances from the supply side are fundamental, since the costs of organising live music performances are high, the needs of the visitors are constantly changing and competition plays a major role in the success of such events. Management furthermore constantly needs to be aware of the ever-changing external environment by determining what factors visitors consider to be vital for a rewarding experience at a major music event. This is extremely important since the concept of experience has become more pervasive, mainly given that the event sector, such as live music performances, has adopted experience as a tool to make individual businesses more competitive, as the organisations operating within this sector exist to provide consumers with an experience. Design and/or methodology and/or approach: A qualitative research method, by means of interviews, was used to obtain the relevant information from the selected participants. All the data collected in the process were transcribed into text and presented in narrative form. The six steps of data analysis and interpretation were applied to analyse the data. Findings and impications: The following four major themes emerged from the analysis; each theme was differentiated in terms of various categories and subcategories. Theme 1:The most important aspects for a memorable visitor experience; Theme 2:Main purpose when organising a live music performance; Theme 3:Important aspects regarding the management of a live music performance; Theme 4:Timing of event management

  3. Improving North American forest biomass estimates from literature synthesis and meta-analysis of existing biomass equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Chojnacky; Jennifer C. Jenkins; Amanda K. Holland

    2009-01-01

    Thousands of published equations purport to estimate biomass of individual trees. These equations are often based on very small samples, however, and can provide widely different estimates for trees of the same species. We addressed this issue in a previous study by devising 10 new equations that estimated total aboveground biomass for all species in North America (...

  4. A Scalable Gaussian Process Analysis Algorithm for Biomass Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandola, Varun [ORNL; Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Biomass monitoring is vital for studying the carbon cycle of earth's ecosystem and has several significant implications, especially in the context of understanding climate change and its impacts. Recently, several change detection methods have been proposed to identify land cover changes in temporal profiles (time series) of vegetation collected using remote sensing instruments, but do not satisfy one or both of the two requirements of the biomass monitoring problem, i.e., {\\em operating in online mode} and {\\em handling periodic time series}. In this paper, we adapt Gaussian process regression to detect changes in such time series in an online fashion. While Gaussian process (GP) have been widely used as a kernel based learning method for regression and classification, their applicability to massive spatio-temporal data sets, such as remote sensing data, has been limited owing to the high computational costs involved. We focus on addressing the scalability issues associated with the proposed GP based change detection algorithm. This paper makes several significant contributions. First, we propose a GP based online time series change detection algorithm and demonstrate its effectiveness in detecting different types of changes in {\\em Normalized Difference Vegetation Index} (NDVI) data obtained from a study area in Iowa, USA. Second, we propose an efficient Toeplitz matrix based solution which significantly improves the computational complexity and memory requirements of the proposed GP based method. Specifically, the proposed solution can analyze a time series of length $t$ in $O(t^2)$ time while maintaining a $O(t)$ memory footprint, compared to the $O(t^3)$ time and $O(t^2)$ memory requirement of standard matrix manipulation based methods. Third, we describe a parallel version of the proposed solution which can be used to simultaneously analyze a large number of time series. We study three different parallel implementations: using threads, MPI, and a

  5. Multi-perspective analysis of China's energy supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Jiang-Bo; Ji, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    China's energy supply security has faced many challenges such as the drastic change of the international energy environment and the domestic energy situation and so on. This paper constructs a multi-dimensional indicator system for the main risks deriving from four aspects to evaluate the situation of China's energy supply security and analyze its evolution characteristics from 1994 to 2011. The results indicate that the situation of China's energy supply security generally presented a downtrend during 1994–2008, as a result of increasing international energy market monopoly and high volatility of international crude oil prices. After 2008, the overall level of China's energy supply security has improved to the level of 2003, which is attributed to the relatively stable international energy environment as well as the effective implementation of energy policies. - Highlights: • A multi-dimensional index system for energy supply security is constructed. • The dynamic influences of external and internal risks are analyzed. • China's energy supply security presents a downward trend during 1994–2008. • The level of China's energy supply security has improved since 2009

  6. Competition around biomass. Development of a land use model for the derivative of possible future developments of the agriculture regarding the supply of food and energy biomass; Konkurrenz um Biomasse. Entwicklung eines Landnutzungsmodells zur Ableitung moeglicher zukuenftiger Entwicklungen in der Landwirtschaft hinsichtlich der Bereitstellung von Nahrungsmitteln und Energiebiomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauh, Stefan Markus

    2010-08-23

    In this work a land use model is developed, which derives possible developments of the agriculture regarding the supply from food and energy biomass. The comparative static model LaNuOpt is based on an optimization of the total land rent using linear optimization. The results are determined in scenarios with different market situations and political basic conditions. With a continuance of the current basic conditions the model computes a doubling of the biogas capacities. Classic procedures of the food production are displaced, depending upon accepted market price.As side effect greenhouse gas emissions are saved. With the help of the model further questions can be examined. (orig.)

  7. Global Carbon Fiber Composites. Supply Chain Competitiveness Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sujit [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Warren, Joshua A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); West, Devin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schexnayder, Susan M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study is to identify key opportunities in the carbon fiber (CF) supply chain where resources and investments can help advance the clean energy economy. The report focuses on four application areas—wind energy, aerospace, automotive, and pressure vessels—that top the list of industries using CF and carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) and are particularly relevant to the mission of U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE EERE). For each of the four application areas, the report addresses the supply and demand trends within that sector, supply chain, and costs of carbon fiber and components.

  8. Electricity supply: Supporting analysis for the National Energy Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report has been prepared by the Energy Information Administration at the request of the Department of Energy's Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis. The results are based on assumptions provided by the Department of Energy's Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy, the Office of Nuclear Energy, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis. This report serves as an auxiliary document to the publication, Improving Technology: Modeling Energy Futures for the National Energy Strategy, prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to be used as input to the development of a National Energy Strategy. The excursions discussed in this report are not necessarily the policy options which will be selected for inclusion in the National Energy Strategy (NES). This report examines the effects of various supply side options for electric utilities. The three excursions presented are: (1) Effects of the Clean Air Act Amendments on Reducing SO 2 /NO x Emissions which evaluates the impacts of proposed legislation to amend the Clean Air Act (Title V of H.R. 3030 as amended on May 23, 1990); (2) Nuclear Life Extension/New Nuclear Orders which illustrates the impact of new nuclear power plant orders and the life extension of existing nuclear plants; and (3) Nuclear and Accelerated Fossil-Fueled Generating Technologies which portrays accelerated research and development of advanced fossil-fueled generating technologies, making them commercially available earlier, with the inclusion of the nuclear option. The baseline case of this report is an update and an extension of the base case projections in the Energy Information Administration (EIA) publication, the Annual Energy Outlook 1990 (AEO), extending that forecast an additional 20 years to 2030. It represents the baseline case as it was on July 1990. 29 refs., 9 figs., 19 tabs. (JF)

  9. Evaluating a biomass resource: The TVA region-wide biomass resource assessment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downing, M.; Graham, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Wood is an alterative fuel for electric power generation at coal-fired plants in the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) region. Short rotation wood energy crops (SRWC) could provide a source of this woody biomass. However, the economic and supply structures of SRWC markets have not been established. Establishing the likely price and supply of SRWC biomass in a region is a complex task because biomass is not an established commodity as are oil, natural gas and coal. In this study we project the cost and supply of short-rotation woody biomass for the TVA region -- a 276 county area that includes all of Tennessee and portions of 10 contiguous states in the southeastern United States. Projected prices and quantities of SRWC are assumed to be a function of the amount and quality of crop and pasture land available in a region. expected SRWC yields and production costs on differing soils and land types, and the profit that could be obtained from current conventional crop production on these same lands. Results include the supply curve of SRWC biomass that is projected to be available from the entire region, the amount and location of crop and pasture land that would be used, and the conventional agricultural crops that would be displaced as a function of SRWC production. Finally, we show the results of sensitivity analysis on the projected cost and supply of SRWC biomass. In particular, we examine the separate impacts of varying SRWC production yields

  10. 300 Area fuel supply facilities deactivation function analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-09-01

    The document contains the functions, function definitions, function interfaces, function interface definitions, Input Computer Automated Manufacturing Definition (IDEFO) diagrams, and a function hierarchy chart that describe what needs to be performed to deactivate the 300 Area Fuel Supply Facilities

  11. Biomass potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Biomass resources of the industrialised countries are enormous, if only a small fraction of set-aside fields were used for energy crops. Forest resources could also be utilised more efficiently than at present for large-scale energy production. The energy content of the annual net growth of the total wood biomass is estimated to be 180 million toe in Europe without the former USSR, and about 50 million toe of that in the EC area, in 1990. Presently, the harvesting methods of forest biomass for energy production are not yet generally competitive. Among the most promising methods are integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to the industry and wood fuel for energy production. Several new methods for separate harvesting of energy wood are being developed in many countries. (orig.)

  12. Biomass potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Biomass resources of the industrialised countries are enormous, if only a small fraction of set-aside fields were used for energy crops. Forest resources could also be utilised more efficiently than at present for large-scale energy production. The energy content of the annual net growth of the total wood biomass is estimated to be 180 million toe in Europe without the former USSR, and about 50 million toe of that in the EC area, in 1990. Presently, the harvesting methods of forest biomass for energy production are not yet generally competitive. Among the most promising methods are integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to the industry and wood fuel for energy production. Several new methods for separate harvesting of energy wood are being developed in many countries. (orig.)

  13. Information technology portfolio in supply chain management using factor analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Jaafarnejad; Davood Rafierad; Masoumeh Gardeshi

    2013-01-01

    The adoption of information technology (IT) along with supply chain management (SCM) has become increasingly a necessity among most businesses. This enhances supply chain (SC) performance and helps companies achieve the organizational competitiveness. IT systems capture and analyze information and enable management to make decisions by considering a global scope across the entire SC. This paper reviews the existing literature on IT in SCM and considers pertinent criteria. Using principal comp...

  14. A global water supply reservoir yield model with uncertainty analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuria, Faith W; Vogel, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the reliability and uncertainty associated with water supply yields derived from surface water reservoirs is central for planning purposes. Using a global dataset of monthly river discharge, we introduce a generalized model for estimating the mean and variance of water supply yield, Y, expected from a reservoir for a prespecified reliability, R, and storage capacity, S assuming a flow record of length n. The generalized storage–reliability–yield (SRY) relationships reported here have numerous water resource applications ranging from preliminary water supply investigations, to economic and climate change impact assessments. An example indicates how our generalized SRY relationship can be combined with a hydroclimatic model to determine the impact of climate change on surface reservoir water supply yields. We also document that the variability of estimates of water supply yield are invariant to characteristics of the reservoir system, including its storage capacity and reliability. Standardized metrics of the variability of water supply yields are shown to depend only on the sample size of the inflows and the statistical characteristics of the inflow series. (paper)

  15. Biomass to levulinic acid: A techno-economic analysis and sustainability of biorefinery processes in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoni, V; Kumbang, D; Sharratt, P N; Khoo, H H

    2018-05-15

    Aligned with Singapore's commitment to sustainable development and investment in renewable resources, cleaner energy and technology (Sustainable Singapore Blueprint), we report a techno-economic analysis of the biorefinery process in Southeast Asia. The considerations in this study provide an overview of the current and future challenges in the biomass-to-chemical processes with life-cycle thinking, linking the land used for agriculture and biomass to the levulinic acid production. 7-8 kg of lignocellulosic feedstock (glucan content 30-35 wt%) from agriculture residues empty fruit bunches (EFB) or rice straw (RS) can be processed to yield 1 kg of levulinic acid. Comparisons of both traditional and "green" alternative solvents and separation techniques for the chemical process were modelled and their relative energy profiles evaluated. Using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MeTHF) as the process solvent showed to approx. 20 fold less energy demand compared to methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) or approx. 180 fold less energy demand compared to direct distillation from aqueous stream. Greenhouse gases emissions of the major operations throughout the supply chain (energy and solvent use, transport, field emissions) were estimated and compared against the impact of deforestation to make space for agriculture purposes. A biorefinery process for the production of 20 ktonne/year of levulinic acid from two different types of lignocellulosic feedstock was hypothesized for different scenarios. In one scenario the chemical plant producing levulinic acid was located in Singapore whereas in other scenarios, its location was placed in a neighboring country, closer to the biomass source. Results from this study show the importance of feedstock choices, as well as the associated plant locations, in the quest for sustainability objectives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. IMPROVING BIOMASS LOGISTICS COST WITHIN AGRONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY CONSTRAINTS AND BIOMASS QUALITY TARGETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Richard Hess; Kevin L. Kenney; Christopher T. Wright; David J. Muth; William Smith

    2012-10-01

    Equipment manufacturers have made rapid improvements in biomass harvesting and handling equipment. These improvements have increased transportation and handling efficiencies due to higher biomass densities and reduced losses. Improvements in grinder efficiencies and capacity have reduced biomass grinding costs. Biomass collection efficiencies (the ratio of biomass collected to the amount available in the field) as high as 75% for crop residues and greater than 90% for perennial energy crops have also been demonstrated. However, as collection rates increase, the fraction of entrained soil in the biomass increases, and high biomass residue removal rates can violate agronomic sustainability limits. Advancements in quantifying multi-factor sustainability limits to increase removal rate as guided by sustainable residue removal plans, and mitigating soil contamination through targeted removal rates based on soil type and residue type/fraction is allowing the use of new high efficiency harvesting equipment and methods. As another consideration, single pass harvesting and other technologies that improve harvesting costs cause biomass storage moisture management challenges, which challenges are further perturbed by annual variability in biomass moisture content. Monitoring, sampling, simulation, and analysis provide basis for moisture, time, and quality relationships in storage, which has allowed the development of moisture tolerant storage systems and best management processes that combine moisture content and time to accommodate baled storage of wet material based upon “shelf-life.” The key to improving biomass supply logistics costs has been developing the associated agronomic sustainability and biomass quality technologies and processes that allow the implementation of equipment engineering solutions.

  17. Algal Biomass Analysis by Laser-Based Analytical Techniques—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Pořízka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Algal biomass that is represented mainly by commercially grown algal strains has recently found many potential applications in various fields of interest. Its utilization has been found advantageous in the fields of bioremediation, biofuel production and the food industry. This paper reviews recent developments in the analysis of algal biomass with the main focus on the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and partly Laser-Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma techniques. The advantages of the selected laser-based analytical techniques are revealed and their fields of use are discussed in detail.

  18. Pyrolysis kinetics investigation of Malaysian based biomass with non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyed Shahabeddin Nehzati; Dayang Radiah Awang Biak; Wan Azlina Wan Abdul Karim Ghani; Mohd Amran Mohd Salleh

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Biomass is currently being used as a sustainable energy source. Otherwise the scarceness of fossil fuel sources and the demand for environmental responsibility force the industries to use biomass as an alternate source of energy. Pyrolysis is the first step of biomass conversion and well understanding of this process can develop the biomass conversion such as gasification, liquefaction, carbonization and combustion .TGA studies of Malaysian based biomass have been carried out. TGA studies provide important insight on the thermochemical behavior of specific solid waste. The results of non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis of palm kernel shell, coconut shell and bagasse, carried out at heating rates of 10 degree Celsius/ min, 20 degree Celsius/ min and 50 degree Celsius/ min, to ramp the temperature from 30 to 1000 were analysed. The TGA studies were carried out in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen. Arrhenius parameters were estimated by 3 different models namely Kissinger model, three-pseudo component and DEAM model the estimated values and the models were compared. The results show that the three-pseudo component model has a good agreement with the experimental results, indicating that ligno celluloses components in the mixture behave in the same way as they do separately. Also it is seen that the decomposition process shifts to higher temperatures at higher heating rates as a result of the competing effects of heat and mass transfer to the material. (Author)

  19. Qualitative and kinetic analysis of torrefaction of lignocellulosic biomass using DSC-TGA-FTIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimal Acharya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Torrefaction is a thermochemical conversion technique to improve the fuel properties of lignocellulosic biomass by treating at temperature 200 ℃-300 ℃ in the minimum oxygen environment for a reasonable residence time. In this study, thermal decomposition and thermal activities of miscanthus and wheat straw during the torrefaction at 200 ℃, 275 ℃, and 300 ℃ in a nitrogen environment for 45 minutes of residence time are analyzed in a simultaneous thermogravimetric analyzer (micro TGA with a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and a macro-TGA. The output of the micro TGA is fed into the Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR and qualitative analysis of the gaseous product is carried out. The composition of different gas products during the torrefaction of biomass are compared critically and kinetics were analyzed. It is found that the weight loss due to degradation of initial biomass in second stage (torrefaction process is a much faster conversion process than the weight loss process in the first stage (drying process. The weight loss of biomass increases with increase in the residence time and torrefaction treatment temperatures. The yield after torrefaction is a solid bio-coal product. The torrefied product were less reactive and has nearly 25% better heating value than the raw biomass. Between the two feedstocks studied, torrefied miscanthus proved to be a more stable fuel than the torrefied wheat straw. The major gaseous components observed during torrefaction are water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, 1,2-Dibromethylene.

  20. Analysis of energetic and exergetic efficiency, and environmental benefits of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez, María; Jiménez, Angel; Rodríguez, Javier; González, Celina; López, Ignacio; Nieto, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    The problem of the high carbon dioxide emissions linked to power generation makes necessary active research on the use of biofuels in gas turbine systems as a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Gasification of biomass waste is particularly of interest in obtaining a fuel to be run in gas turbines, as it is an efficient biomass-to-biofuel conversion process, and an integration into a combined cycle power plant leads to a high performance with regard to energetic efficiency. The goal of this study was to carry out an energetic, exergetic and environmental analysis of the behaviour of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant fuelled with different kinds of biomass waste by means of simulations. A preliminary economic study is also included. Although a technological development in gasification technology is necessary, the results of simulations indicate a high technical and environmental interest in the use of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BioIGCC) systems for large-scale power generation from biomass waste.

  1. Analysis of Casein Biopolymers Adsorption to Lignocellulosic Biomass as a Potential Cellulase Stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckard, Anahita Dehkhoda; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan; Gibbons, William

    2012-01-01

    Although lignocellulosic materials have a good potential to substitute current feedstocks used for ethanol production, conversion of these materials to fermentable sugars is still not economical through enzymatic hydrolysis. High cost of cellulase has prompted research to explore techniques that can prevent from enzyme deactivation. Colloidal proteins of casein can form monolayers on hydrophobic surfaces that alleviate the de-activation of protein of interest. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and Kjeldahl and BSA protein assays were used to investigate the unknown mechanism of action of induced cellulase activity during hydrolysis of casein-treated biomass. Adsorption of casein to biomass was observed with all of the analytical techniques used and varied depending on the pretreatment techniques of biomass. FT-IR analysis of amides I and II suggested that the substructure of protein from casein or skim milk were deformed at the time of contact with biomass. With no additive, the majority of one of the cellulase mono-component, 97.1 ± 1.1, was adsorbed to CS within 24 h, this adsorption was irreversible and increased by 2% after 72 h. However, biomass treatment with skim-milk and casein reduced the adsorption to 32.9% ± 6.0 and 82.8% ± 6.0, respectively. PMID:23118515

  2. Analysis of casein biopolymers adsorption to lignocellulosic biomass as a potential cellulase stabilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckard, Anahita Dehkhoda; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan; Gibbons, William

    2012-01-01

    Although lignocellulosic materials have a good potential to substitute current feedstocks used for ethanol production, conversion of these materials to fermentable sugars is still not economical through enzymatic hydrolysis. High cost of cellulase has prompted research to explore techniques that can prevent from enzyme deactivation. Colloidal proteins of casein can form monolayers on hydrophobic surfaces that alleviate the de-activation of protein of interest. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and Kjeldahl and BSA protein assays were used to investigate the unknown mechanism of action of induced cellulase activity during hydrolysis of casein-treated biomass. Adsorption of casein to biomass was observed with all of the analytical techniques used and varied depending on the pretreatment techniques of biomass. FT-IR analysis of amides I and II suggested that the substructure of protein from casein or skim milk were deformed at the time of contact with biomass. With no additive, the majority of one of the cellulase mono-component, 97.1 ± 1.1, was adsorbed to CS within 24 h, this adsorption was irreversible and increased by 2% after 72 h. However, biomass treatment with skim-milk and casein reduced the adsorption to 32.9% ± 6.0 and 82.8% ± 6.0, respectively.

  3. Analysis of Casein Biopolymers Adsorption to Lignocellulosic Biomass as a Potential Cellulase Stabilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Dehkhoda Eckard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although lignocellulosic materials have a good potential to substitute current feedstocks used for ethanol production, conversion of these materials to fermentable sugars is still not economical through enzymatic hydrolysis. High cost of cellulase has prompted research to explore techniques that can prevent from enzyme deactivation. Colloidal proteins of casein can form monolayers on hydrophobic surfaces that alleviate the de-activation of protein of interest. Scanning electron microscope (SEM, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, capillary electrophoresis (CE, and Kjeldahl and BSA protein assays were used to investigate the unknown mechanism of action of induced cellulase activity during hydrolysis of casein-treated biomass. Adsorption of casein to biomass was observed with all of the analytical techniques used and varied depending on the pretreatment techniques of biomass. FT-IR analysis of amides I and II suggested that the substructure of protein from casein or skim milk were deformed at the time of contact with biomass. With no additive, the majority of one of the cellulase mono-component, 97.1 ± 1.1, was adsorbed to CS within 24 h, this adsorption was irreversible and increased by 2% after 72 h. However, biomass treatment with skim-milk and casein reduced the adsorption to 32.9% ± 6.0 and 82.8% ± 6.0, respectively.

  4. Incorporating uncertainty analysis into life cycle estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from biomass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, David R.; Willis, Henry H.; Curtright, Aimee E.; Samaras, Constantine; Skone, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Before further investments are made in utilizing biomass as a source of renewable energy, both policy makers and the energy industry need estimates of the net greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions expected from substituting biobased fuels for fossil fuels. Such GHG reductions depend greatly on how the biomass is cultivated, transported, processed, and converted into fuel or electricity. Any policy aiming to reduce GHGs with biomass-based energy must account for uncertainties in emissions at each stage of production, or else it risks yielding marginal reductions, if any, while potentially imposing great costs. This paper provides a framework for incorporating uncertainty analysis specifically into estimates of the life cycle GHG emissions from the production of biomass. We outline the sources of uncertainty, discuss the implications of uncertainty and variability on the limits of life cycle assessment (LCA) models, and provide a guide for practitioners to best practices in modeling these uncertainties. The suite of techniques described herein can be used to improve the understanding and the representation of the uncertainties associated with emissions estimates, thus enabling improved decision making with respect to the use of biomass for energy and fuel production. -- Highlights: → We describe key model, scenario and data uncertainties in LCAs of biobased fuels. → System boundaries and allocation choices should be consistent with study goals. → Scenarios should be designed around policy levers that can be controlled. → We describe a new way to analyze the importance of covariance between inputs.

  5. Environmental and socioeconomic aspects in the strategic analysis of a biomass power plant integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, M.; Lechon, Y.; Saez, R.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the work was to assess the potential weaknesses and threats of the integration of a biomass power plant proposed in a depressed area of Spain as well as to analyse the inherent strengths and opportunities that such a project could have in economic, technical or environmental terms. For this purpose an analysis of site, biomass resources, problems associated to fuel mix combustion, electricity production and connection were assessed. The socioeconomic (employment, GDP effects or tax revenue impact) and environmental (human health, soil erosion, fertiliser application) outcomes associated with the proposed biomass scheme have been evaluated. Finally, a list of actions to take into account for successful implementation of this proposed project has been defined. (author)

  6. Energy system analysis of marginal electricity supply in consequential LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Christensen, Per

    2010-01-01

    Background, aim and scope This paper discusses the identification of the environmental consequences of marginal electricity supplies in consequential life cycle assessments (LCA). According to the methodology, environmental characteristics can be examined by identifying affected activities, i...... in capacity but can be characterised as a complex set of affected electricity and heat supply technologies. A long-term YAM technology is identified for the Danish BAU2030 system in the case of three different long-term marginal changes in capacity, namely coal, natural gas or wind power. Discussion Four...... of four different situations are provided. We suggest that the technology mix with the installation of natural gas or coal power plant is applied as the marginal capacity. Conclusions The environmental consequences of marginal changes in electricity supply cannot always be represented solely by long...

  7. Hydro-methane and methanol combined production from hydroelectricity and biomass: Thermo-economic analysis in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivarolo, M.; Bellotti, D.; Mendieta, A.; Massardo, A.F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate H 2 /O 2 production from large hydraulic plant by water electrolysis. • We produce methanol and hydro-methane from H 2 /O 2 obtained. • We investigate two different configurations of the plant. • We perform a thermo-economic analysis for three scenarios in Paraguay. • We find plants optimal size using a time-dependent thermo-economic approach. - Abstract: A thermo-economic analysis regarding large scale hydro-methane and methanol production from renewable sources (biomass and renewable electricity) is performed. The study is carried out investigating hydrogen and oxygen generation by water electrolysis, mainly employing the hydraulic energy produced from the 14 GW Itaipu Binacional Plant, owned by Paraguay and Brazil. Oxygen is employed in biomass gasification to synthesize methanol; the significant amount of CO 2 separated in the process is mixed with hydrogen produced by electrolysis in chemical reactors to produce hydro-methane. Hydro-methane is employed to supply natural gas vehicles in Paraguay, methanol is sold to Brazil, that is the largest consumer in South America. The analysis is performed employing time-dependent hydraulic energy related to the water that would normally not be used by the plant, named “spilled energy”, when available; in the remaining periods, electricity is acquired at higher cost by the national grid. For the different plant lay-outs, a thermo-economic analysis has been performed employing two different software, one for the design point and one for the time-dependent one entire year optimization, since spilled energy is strongly variable throughout the year. Optimal sizes for the generation plants have been determined, investigating the influence of electricity cost, size and plant configuration

  8. Loss Performance Analysis of an Isolated Power Supply for Ultrafast Tracking Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen-Duy, Khiem; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the loss performance analysis of an isolated power supply that is designed for ultra-fast tracking converters. The results of the analysis provide insights into the operation of the proposed power supply, how each physical component contributes to the total loss, and how its...

  9. Aboveground Forest Biomass Estimation with Landsat and LiDAR Data and Uncertainty Analysis of the Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Dengsheng Lu; Qi Chen; Guangxing Wang; Emilio Moran; Mateus Batistella; Maozhen Zhang; Gaia Vaglio Laurin; David Saah

    2012-01-01

    Landsat Thematic mapper (TM) image has long been the dominate data source, and recently LiDAR has offered an important new structural data stream for forest biomass estimations. On the other hand, forest biomass uncertainty analysis research has only recently obtained sufficient attention due to the difficulty in collecting reference data. This paper provides a brief overview of current forest biomass estimation methods using both TM and LiDAR data. A case study is then presented that demonst...

  10. Uncertainty Determination Methodology, Sampling Maps Generation and Trend Studies with Biomass Thermogravimetric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazó, Jose A.; Granada, Enrique; Saavedra, Ángeles; Eguía, Pablo; Collazo, Joaquín

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates a method for the determination of the maximum sampling error and confidence intervals of thermal properties obtained from thermogravimetric analysis (TG analysis) for several lignocellulosic materials (ground olive stone, almond shell, pine pellets and oak pellets), completing previous work of the same authors. A comparison has been made between results of TG analysis and prompt analysis. Levels of uncertainty and errors were obtained, demonstrating that properties evaluated by TG analysis were representative of the overall fuel composition, and no correlation between prompt and TG analysis exists. Additionally, a study of trends and time correlations is indicated. These results are particularly interesting for biomass energy applications. PMID:21152292

  11. Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-01-01

    The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in terms of food availability, prices, and marketing. Along with established forms of supply chain analysis, the method is informed by a historical overview of how food supply chains have changed over time. The method posits that the actors and actions in the chain are affected by organizational, financial, technological, and policy incentives and disincentives, which can in turn be levered for change. It presents a preliminary example of the supply of Coca-Cola beverages into school vending machines and identifies further potential applications. These include fruit and vegetable supply chains, local food chains, supply chains for health-promoting versions of food products, and identifying financial incentives in supply chains for healthier eating. PMID:23144674

  12. Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-07-01

    The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in terms of food availability, prices, and marketing. Along with established forms of supply chain analysis, the method is informed by a historical overview of how food supply chains have changed over time. The method posits that the actors and actions in the chain are affected by organizational, financial, technological, and policy incentives and disincentives, which can in turn be levered for change. It presents a preliminary example of the supply of Coca-Cola beverages into school vending machines and identifies further potential applications. These include fruit and vegetable supply chains, local food chains, supply chains for health-promoting versions of food products, and identifying financial incentives in supply chains for healthier eating.

  13. Aboveground Forest Biomass Estimation with Landsat and LiDAR Data and Uncertainty Analysis of the Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengsheng Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Landsat Thematic mapper (TM image has long been the dominate data source, and recently LiDAR has offered an important new structural data stream for forest biomass estimations. On the other hand, forest biomass uncertainty analysis research has only recently obtained sufficient attention due to the difficulty in collecting reference data. This paper provides a brief overview of current forest biomass estimation methods using both TM and LiDAR data. A case study is then presented that demonstrates the forest biomass estimation methods and uncertainty analysis. Results indicate that Landsat TM data can provide adequate biomass estimates for secondary succession but are not suitable for mature forest biomass estimates due to data saturation problems. LiDAR can overcome TM’s shortcoming providing better biomass estimation performance but has not been extensively applied in practice due to data availability constraints. The uncertainty analysis indicates that various sources affect the performance of forest biomass/carbon estimation. With that said, the clear dominate sources of uncertainty are the variation of input sample plot data and data saturation problem related to optical sensors. A possible solution to increasing the confidence in forest biomass estimates is to integrate the strengths of multisensor data.

  14. QTL meta-analysis of root traits in Brassica napus under contrasting phosphorus supply in two growth systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Thomas, Catherine L; Xiang, Jinxia; Long, Yan; Wang, Xiaohua; Zou, Jun; Luo, Ziliang; Ding, Guangda; Cai, Hongmei; Graham, Neil S; Hammond, John P; King, Graham J; White, Philip J; Xu, Fangsen; Broadley, Martin R; Shi, Lei; Meng, Jinling

    2016-09-14

    A high-density SNP-based genetic linkage map was constructed and integrated with a previous map in the Tapidor x Ningyou7 (TNDH) Brassica napus population, giving a new map with a total of 2041 molecular markers and an average marker density which increased from 0.39 to 0.97 (0.82 SNP bin) per cM. Root and shoot traits were screened under low and 'normal' phosphate (Pi) supply using a 'pouch and wick' system, and had been screened previously in an agar based system. The P-efficient parent Ningyou7 had a shorter primary root length (PRL), greater lateral root density (LRD) and a greater shoot biomass than the P-inefficient parent Tapidor under both treatments and growth systems. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis identified a total of 131 QTL, and QTL meta-analysis found four integrated QTL across the growth systems. Integration reduced the confidence interval by ~41%. QTL for root and shoot biomass were co-located on chromosome A3 and for lateral root emergence were co-located on chromosomes A4/C4 and C8/C9. There was a major QTL for LRD on chromosome C9 explaining ~18% of the phenotypic variation. QTL underlying an increased LRD may be a useful breeding target for P uptake efficiency in Brassica.

  15. Green supply chain management: analysis of brazilian academic publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Barbieri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with environmental issues from the perspective of Supply Chain Management. With the incorporation of environmental concerns in a systematic manner the concept of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM has emerged. The subject GSCM interests not only to academics but also to professional audience especially with regard to new legal obligations, and social pressures of various types of stakeholders, as well as issues related to the competitiveness of enterprises and their supply chains. However, the way in which this knowledge is being produced in Brazil is not clear, hence the need for a mapping which areas and sub-areas of GSCM has been studied most frequently. Thus, this work can be characterized as a desk research that aims to analyze the Brazilian academic publications on green supply chain management. In order to delimit the scope of the research, we collected articles published from 2006 to 2010 in specific Brazilian congresses of Management and Production Engineering, as EnANPAD, SIMPOI and SIMPEP. 110 papers were collected and analyzed.The area of Green Operations represents 81% of published articles and 45% of these focus on Reverse Logistics. 70% of total papers are empirical and 77% use a qualitative approach, while 57% of the total are case studies

  16. Analysis of the Supply Response of Maize Producers in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research work analyzed the supply response of maize producers in Nigeria and its implication for agricultural trade. The period covered was 1987-2007 (20 years) and data were collected on import quantity and value, export quantity and value, price of maize, price of its substitute, output and hectarage within the time ...

  17. Forecasting Tourist Arrivals and Supply and Demand Gap Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims to forecast the long term behavior of tourist arrivals and analyze the gap between supply and demand for the hotel/accommodation sector of the city of Addis Ababa. It also intends to provide vital information in regards to the sparse knowledge in the subject of forecasting tourist arrivals in Ethiopia.

  18. State Aid and Student Performance: A Supply-Demand Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnucan, Henry W.; Zheng, Yuqing; Brehmer, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    Using a supply-demand framework, a six-equation model is specified to generate hypotheses about the relationship between state aid and student performance. Theory predicts that an increase in state or federal aid provides an incentive to decrease local funding, but that the disincentive associated with increased state aid is moderated when federal…

  19. A meta-analysis of soil microbial biomass responses to forest disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Robin Holden

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate warming is likely to increase the frequency and severity of forest disturbances, with uncertain consequences for soil microbial communities and their contribution to ecosystem C dynamics. To address this uncertainty, we conducted a meta-analysis of 139 published soil microbial responses to forest disturbances. These disturbances included abiotic (fire, harvesting, storm and biotic (insect, pathogen disturbances. We hypothesized that soil microbial biomass would decline following forest disturbances, but that abiotic disturbances would elicit greater reductions in microbial biomass than biotic disturbances. In support of this hypothesis, across all published studies, disturbances reduced soil microbial biomass by an average of 29.4%. However, microbial responses differed between abiotic and biotic disturbances. Microbial responses were significantly negative following fires, harvest, and storms (48.7%, 19.1%, and 41.7% reductions in microbial biomass, respectively. In contrast, changes in soil microbial biomass following insect infestation and pathogen-induced tree mortality were non-significant, although biotic disturbances were poorly represented in the literature. When measured separately, fungal and bacterial responses to disturbances mirrored the response of the microbial community as a whole. Changes in microbial abundance following disturbance were significantly positively correlated with changes in microbial respiration. We propose that the differential effect of abiotic and biotic disturbances on microbial biomass may be attributable to differences in soil disruption and organic C removal from forests among disturbance types. Altogether, these results suggest that abiotic forest disturbances may significantly decrease soil microbial abundance, with corresponding consequences for microbial respiration. Further studies are needed on the effect of biotic disturbances on forest soil microbial communities and soil C dynamics.

  20. Review and analysis of the 1980-1989 biomass thermochemical conversion program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D.J.

    1994-09-01

    In the period between 1980 and 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research and development projects through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion (BTC) Program. Thermochemical conversion technologies use elevated temperatures to convert biomass into more useful forms of energy such as fuel gases or transportation fuels. The BTC Program included a wide range of biomass conversion projects in the areas of gasification, pyrolysis, liquefaction, and combustion. This work formed the basis of the present DOE research and development efforts on advanced liquid fuel and power generation systems. At the beginning of Fiscal Year 1989, the management of the BTC Program was transferred from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, formerly Solar Energy Research Institute). This document presents a summary of the research which was performed under the BTC Program during the 1981-1989 time frame. The document consists of an analysis of the research projects which were funded by the BTC Program and a bibliography of published documents. This work will help ensure that information from PNL`s BTC Program is available to those interested in biomass conversion technologies. The background of the BTC Program is discussed in the first chapter of this report. In addition, a brief summary of other related biomass research and development programs funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and others is presented with references where additional information can be found. The remaining chapters of the report present a detailed summary of the research projects which were funded by the BTC Program. The progress which was made on each project is summarized, the overall impact on biomass conversion is discussed, and selected references are provided.

  1. A stochastic analysis of the decision to produce biomass crops in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clancy, Daragh; Breen, James P.; Thorne, Fiona; Wallace, Michael

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing interest in biomass crops as an alternative farm activity. However farmer concerns about the production and financial risks associated with growing these crops may be impeding the actual rates of adoption. The uncertainty surrounding risky variables such as the costs of production, yield level, price per tonne and opportunity cost of land make it difficult to accurately calculate the returns to biomass crops. Their lengthy production lifespan may only serve to heighten the level of risk that affects key variables. A stochastic budgeting model is used to estimate distributions of returns from willow and miscanthus in Ireland. The opportunity cost of land is accounted for through the inclusion of the foregone returns from selected conventional agricultural activities. The impact on biomass returns of bioremediation is also examined. The Net Present Values (NPVs) of various biomass investment options are simulated to ascertain the full distribution of possible returns. The results of these simulations are then compared using their respective Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDFs) and the investments are ranked using Stochastic Efficiency with Respect to a Function (SERF). While the distributions of investment returns for miscanthus are wider than those of willow, implying greater risk, the distribution of willow returns is predominantly to the left of zero indicating that such an investment has an extremely high probability of generating a negative return. The results from the SERF analysis show that miscanthus generally has higher certainty equivalents (CEs), and therefore farmers would be more likely to invest in miscanthus rather than willow. -- Highlights: ► We develop a stochastic budgeting model to capture uncertainty in key variables. ► Farmers with higher levels of risk aversion would be unwilling to invest in biomass crops. ► Miscanthus has a greater probability of making a profit than willow. ► Bioremediation can help to offset

  2. Biomass CCS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavezzali, S.

    2009-11-15

    The use of biomass in power generation is one of the important ways in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Specifically, the cofiring of biomass with coal could be regarded as a common feature to any new build power plant if a sustainable supply of biomass fuel is readily accessible. IEA GHG has undertaken a techno-economic evaluation of the use of biomass in biomass fired and co-fired power generation, using post-combustion capture technology. This report is the result of the study undertaken by Foster Wheeler Italiana.

  3. Strategic analysis of biomass and waste fuels for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowin, C.R.; Wiltsee, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    Although the environmental and other benefits of using biomass and waste fuel energy to displace fossil fuels are well known, the economic realities are such that these fuels cannot compete effectively in the current market without tax credits, subsidies and other artificial measures. In 1992, EPRI initiated a strategic analysis of biomass and waste fuels and power technologies, both to develop consistent performance and cost data for the leading fuels and technologies and to identify the conditions which favor and create market pull for biomass and waste fuel energy. Using the final results of the EPRI project, this paper compares the relative performance and cost of power generation from coal, natural gas, and biomass and waste fuels. The range of fuels includes wood, agricultural wastes, municipal solid waste, refuse-derived fuel, scrap tires and tire-derived fuel. The power technologies include pulverized coal and natural gas/combined cycle power plants, cofiring with coal in coal-fired utility boilers, direct combustion in dedicated mass burn, stoker and fluidized bed boilers, and wood gasification/combined cycle-power plants. The analysis suggests that, in the near term, the highest-efficiency, lowest-cost, lowest-risk technology is cofiring with coal in industrial and utility boilers. However, this approach is economically feasible only when the fuel is delivered at a deep discount relative to fossil fuel, or the fuel user receives a tipping fee, subsidy, or emissions credit. (author)

  4. Technoeconomic analysis of a biomass based district heating system. Paper no. IGEC-1-ID01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Ugursal, V.I.; Fung, A.

    2005-01-01

    District energy systems (DES) that produce steam, hot water or chilled water at a central plant and then distribute that energy to buildings in the district for space heating, domestic hot water heating and air conditioning provide opportunities for increasing energy efficiency and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Use of biomass, such as wood, wood byproducts and wastes, fast-growing trees, agricultural crops and waste, in place of conventional fossil fuels to produce the thermal energy needed by a DES, presents further opportunities for reducing green house gas emissions as well as providing rural employment, and local solutions to rural and remote energy needs. In this paper, a technoeconomic analysis of a biomass based DES for a community center in Nova Scotia, Canada is presented. The methodology used to size and design the heating and ventilating system, as well as the biomass based DES is discussed. Annual energy requirement and biomass fuel consumption predictions are presented along with cost estimates. A comparative assessment of the economic feasibility of the system vis-a-vis a conventional oil fired system is conducted. While the results are specific to the particular application, the design and analysis methodology that is presented in the paper can be used for any similar application. (author)

  5. Energy-, exergy- and emergy analysis of biomass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovelius, K.

    1997-11-01

    In this report, results from analyzing salix-, winter wheat-, and winter rape cultivations from energy, exergy, and EMERGY perspectives are presented. The exchange in terms of energy for this Salix cultivation is 28 times , but if instead an exergy analysis is done the exchange for exactly the same process is 36 times. The energy analysis gives an energy exchange of 8.1 for winter wheat cultivation, and 5.7 for winter rape cultivation. Corresponding exchanges for the exergy analysis are 9.3 for winter wheat and 6.6 for winter rape. The EMERGY analysis gives a transformity for salix of 1.04E+11 sej/kg DM, for winter wheat 3.85E+11 sej/kg DM, and for winter rape 1.03E+12 sej/kg DM. Thus, the EMERGY need is bigger for rape cultivation than for winter wheat and salix cultivations. The NEYR is the ratio between the EMERGY yield and the EMERGY invested from society (economy, services and other resources), and it is 1.10 for this salix cultivation, and 0.66 for both the winter wheat and the winter rape cultivations. The EIR is the ratio between the EMERGY invested from society and the EMERGY invested from the environment, and it is 2.23 for this salix cultivation, 11.5 for the winter wheat cultivation , and 11.8 for the winter rape cultivation. 26 refs, 11 figs, 25 tabs

  6. Water conservation implications for decarbonizing non-electric energy supply: A hybrid life-cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiyuan; Wang, Can; Shi, Lei; Cai, Wenjia; Zhang, Lixiao

    2018-08-01

    Low-carbon transition in the non-electric energy sector, which includes transport and heating energy, is necessary for achieving the 2 °C target. Meanwhile, as non-electric energy accounts for over 60% of total water consumption in the energy supply sector, it is vital to understand future water trends in the context of decarbonization. However, few studies have focused on life-cycle water impacts for non-electric energy; besides, applying conventional LCA methodology to assess non-electric energy has limitations. In this paper, a Multi-Regional Hybrid Life-Cycle Assessment (MRHLCA) model is built to assess total CO 2 emissions and water consumption of 6 non-electric energy technologies - transport energy from biofuel and gasoline, heat supply from natural gas, biogas, coal, and residual biomass, within 7 major emitting economies. We find that a shift to natural gas and residual biomass heating can help economies reduce 14-65% CO 2 and save more than 21% water. However, developed and developing economies should take differentiated technical strategies. Then we apply scenarios from IMAGE model to demonstrate that if economies take cost-effective 2 °C pathways, the water conservation synergy for the whole energy supply sector, including electricity, can also be achieved. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Establishment of Grain Farmers' Supply Response Model and Empirical Analysis under Minimum Grain Purchase Price Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shuang

    2012-01-01

    Based on farmers' supply behavior theory and price expectations theory, this paper establishes grain farmers' supply response model of two major grain varieties (early indica rice and mixed wheat) in the major producing areas, to test whether the minimum grain purchase price policy can have price-oriented effect on grain production and supply in the major producing areas. Empirical analysis shows that the minimum purchase price published annually by the government has significant positive imp...

  8. Supply Management Analysis of the Chilean Navy Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    52 LIST OF REFERENCES Armada de Chile, N. (1986). Manual de Logistica de la Armada de Chile [Manual of logistics of the Chilean Navy]. Chile... transportation • Quality control • Demand and supply planning • Receiving, materials handling, and storage 11 • Material or inventory control...Order purchasing • Production planning, scheduling, and control • Warehousing and distribution • Shipping • Outbound transportation • Customer

  9. Analysis of Navy Supply Corps Lines of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Expeditionary Combat Support FM Financial Management FM Field Manual HCS Department of Defense Logistics Human Capital Strategy JCS Joint Chiefs of Staff...allocation, control, and execution of resources and funds for DOD organizations” ( Office of Supply Corps Personnel, 2011, p. 9) and that Financial ...Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget

  10. Strategic analysis and optimization of bioethanol supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Gutiérrez, Ricardo Andrés

    2015-01-01

    In modern times, the interest in renewable energy has been increasing considerably in response to the growing energy demand and to the simultaneous concern about global warming effects. The urgency of this issue is related to dissociation between the perspective of a steady growth in demand for fuel and its supply, which is projected to become ever more uncertain and expensive. The phenomenon of climate change is widely recognized as a consequence of the increased concentration of greenhouse ...

  11. Exploratory Analysis of Supply Chains in the Defense Industrial Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    hp) 2- and 4- stroke RC/modeler engines are O.S. Engine (Japan), Thunder Tiger (Taiwan), and Saito (Japan). E. Global Nature of the Supply Chain...Mexico). • The 115-HP 4- stroke Rotax 914 class engine (Austria/Germany) found in the Predator (MQ-1B) is also found in many other systems, including...Equipment 43 Pumps and Compressors 44 Furnace/Steam Plant/Drying Equipment, Nuclear Reactors 45 Plumbing, Heating , and Sanitation Equipment 49

  12. Security of electricity supply at the generation level: Problem analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodilla, P.; Batlle, C.

    2012-01-01

    Since the very beginning of the restructuring process, back in 1982 in Chile, the ability of an electricity market to provide the system with the required level of security of supply has been put into question. The mistrust on the ability of the market, left to its own devices, to provide sufficient generation availability when needed, is more and more leading to the implementation of additional regulatory mechanisms. This matter is undoubtedly gaining importance and it has taken a key role in the energy regulators’ agendas. In this paper, we revisit this discussion under the light of thirty years of electricity market experience. We analyze the different reasons why, although ideally the market is supposed to provide itself an adequate security of supply at the generation level, this result is still far from being achieved in practice. - Highlights: ► Discussion on the need for capacity mechanisms is revisited. ► Reasons behind adequacy problem are analyzed. ► Regulator’s intervention to guarantee supply is most of the times justified.

  13. Strategic analysis of biomass and waste fuels for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowin, C.R.; Wiltsee, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Although the environmental and other benefits of using biomass and waste fuel energy to displace fossil fuels are well known, the economic realities are such that these fuels can not compete effectively in the current market without tax credits, subsidies, and other artificial measures. In 1992, EPRI initiated a strategic analysis of biomass and waste fuels and power technologies, both to develop consistent performance and cost data for the leading fuels and technologies and to identify the conditions that favor and create market pull for biomass and waste fuel energy. Using the interim results of the EPRI project, this paper compares the relative performance and cost of power generation from coal, natural gas, and biomass and waste fuels. The range of fuels includes wood, agricultural wastes, municipal solid waste, refuse-derived fuel, scrap tires, and tire-derived fuel, scrap tires, and tire-derived fuel. The power technologies include pulverized coal and natural gas/combined cycle power plants, cofiring with coal in coal-fired utility boilers, and wood gasification/combined cycle power plants. The analysis suggests that, in the near term, the highest-efficiency, lowest-cost, lowest-risk technology is cofiring with coal in industrial and utility boilers. However, this relative to fossil fuel, or the fuel user receives a tipping fee, subsidy, or emissions credit. In order to increase future use of biomass and waste fuels, a joint initiative, involving government, industry, and fuel suppliers, transporters, and users, is needed to develop low-cost and efficient energy crop production and power technology

  14. Evaluating a biomass resource: The TVA region-wide biomass resource assessment model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, M.; Graham, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The economic and supply structures of short rotation woody crop (SRWC) markets have not been established. Establishing the likely price and supply of SRWC biomass in a region is a complex task because biomass is not an established commodity as are oil, natural gas and coal. In this study we project the cost and supply of short-rotation woody biomass for the TVA region -- a 276 county area that includes all of Tennessee and portions of 10 contiguous states in the southeastern United States. Projected prices and quantities of SRWC are assumed to be a function of the amount and quality of crop and pasture land available in a region, expected SRWC yields and production costs on differing soils and land types, and the profit that could be obtained from current conventional crop production on these same lands. Results include the supply curve of SRWC biomass that is projected to be available from the entire region, the amount and location of crop and pasture land that would be used, and the conventional agricultural crops that would be displaced as a function of SRWC production. Finally, we show the results of sensitivity analysis on the projected cost and supply of SRWC biomass. In particular, we examine the separate impacts of varying SRWC production yields.

  15. Energetic use of renewable fuels. Logistics of energy carrier supply, technologies of usage, boundary conditions for economically efficient use of biomass. Proceedings; Energetische Nutzung nachwachsender Rohstoffe. Logistik der Energietraegerbereitstellung, Technologien der Energietraegernutzung, Rahmenbedingungen fuer den wirtschaftlichen Einsatz von Biomasse. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Authors of the conference reported on recent developments in utilization of renewable energy sources: resource potential of biomass, wood fuels, pollution limits, dedusting and purification of flue gas, heat recovery, straw combustion in small boilers, logistics and market of wood fuels, fluidized bed steam gasification, design of biomass-fueled power plants, organic Rankine cycle, operating experience in pilot plants. (uke)

  16. Community analysis of plant biomass-degrading microorganisms from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D; Podar, Mircea; Mosher, Jennifer J; Palumbo, Anthony V; Phelps, Tommy J; Keller, Martin; Elkins, James G

    2015-02-01

    The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels can potentially be improved by employing robust microorganisms and enzymes that efficiently deconstruct plant polysaccharides at elevated temperatures. Many of the geothermal features of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are surrounded by vegetation providing a source of allochthonic material to support heterotrophic microbial communities adapted to utilize plant biomass as a primary carbon and energy source. In this study, a well-known hot spring environment, Obsidian Pool (OBP), was examined for potential biomass-active microorganisms using cultivation-independent and enrichment techniques. Analysis of 33,684 archaeal and 43,784 bacterial quality-filtered 16S rRNA gene pyrosequences revealed that archaeal diversity in the main pool was higher than bacterial; however, in the vegetated area, overall bacterial diversity was significantly higher. Of notable interest was a flooded depression adjacent to OBP supporting a stand of Juncus tweedyi, a heat-tolerant rush commonly found growing near geothermal features in YNP. The microbial community from heated sediments surrounding the plants was enriched in members of the Firmicutes including potentially (hemi)cellulolytic bacteria from the genera Clostridium, Anaerobacter, Caloramator, Caldicellulosiruptor, and Thermoanaerobacter. Enrichment cultures containing model and real biomass substrates were established at a wide range of temperatures (55-85 °C). Microbial activity was observed up to 80 °C on all substrates including Avicel, xylan, switchgrass, and Populus sp. Independent of substrate, Caloramator was enriched at lower (65 °C) temperatures.

  17. Profitable ultrasonic assisted microwave disintegration of sludge biomass: Modelling of biomethanation and energy parameter analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Rajesh Banu, J; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Kaliappan, S; Yeom, Ick Tae

    2018-04-01

    In this study, microwave irradiation has been employed to disintegrate the sludge biomass profitably by deagglomerating the sludge using a mechanical device, ultrasonicator. The outcomes of the study revealed that a specific energy input of 3.5 kJ/kg TS was found to be optimum for deagglomeration with limited cell lysis. A higher suspended solids (SS) reduction and biomass lysis efficiency of about 22.5% and 33.2% was achieved through ultrasonic assisted microwave disintegration (UMWD) when compared to microwave disintegration - MWD (15% and 20.9%). The results of biochemical methane potential (BMP) test were used to estimate biodegradability of samples. Among the samples subjected to BMP, UMWD showed better amenability towards anaerobic digestion with higher methane production potential of 0.3 L/g COD representing enhanced liquefaction potential of disaggregated sludge biomass. Economic analysis of the proposed method of sludge biomass pretreatment showed a net profit of 2.67 USD/Ton respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimating terrestrial aboveground biomass estimation using lidar remote sensing: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolkos, S. G.; Goetz, S. J.; Dubayah, R.

    2012-12-01

    Estimating biomass of terrestrial vegetation is a rapidly expanding research area, but also a subject of tremendous interest for reducing carbon emissions associated with deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). The accuracy of biomass estimates is important in the context carbon markets emerging under REDD, since areas with more accurate estimates command higher prices, but also for characterizing uncertainty in estimates of carbon cycling and the global carbon budget. There is particular interest in mapping biomass so that carbon stocks and stock changes can be monitored consistently across a range of scales - from relatively small projects (tens of hectares) to national or continental scales - but also so that other benefits of forest conservation can be factored into decision making (e.g. biodiversity and habitat corridors). We conducted an analysis of reported biomass accuracy estimates from more than 60 refereed articles using different remote sensing platforms (aircraft and satellite) and sensor types (optical, radar, lidar), with a particular focus on lidar since those papers reported the greatest efficacy (lowest errors) when used in the a synergistic manner with other coincident multi-sensor measurements. We show systematic differences in accuracy between different types of lidar systems flown on different platforms but, perhaps more importantly, differences between forest types (biomes) and plot sizes used for field calibration and assessment. We discuss these findings in relation to monitoring, reporting and verification under REDD, and also in the context of more systematic assessment of factors that influence accuracy and error estimation.

  19. Pyrolysis kinetics and thermal behavior of waste sawdust biomass using thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ranjeet Kumar; Mohanty, Kaustubha

    2018-03-01

    The present study reports pyrolysis behavior of three waste biomass using thermogravimetric analysis to determine kinetic parameters at five different heating rates. Physiochemical characterization confirmed that these biomass have the potential for fuel and energy production. Pyrolysis experiments were carried out at five different heating rates (5-25 °C min -1 ). Five model-free methods such as Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS), Ozawa-Flynn-Wall (OFW), Friedman, Coats-Redfern, and distributed activation energy (DAEM) were used to calculate the kinetic parameters. The activation energy was found to be 171.66 kJ mol -1 , 148.44 kJ mol -1 , and 171.24 kJ mol -1 from KAS model; 179.29 kJ mol -1 , 156.58 kJ mol -1 , and 179.47 kJ mol -1 from OFW model; 168.58 kJ mol -1 , 181.53 kJ mol -1 , and 184.61 kJ mol -1 from Friedman model; and 206.62 kJ mol -1 , 171.63 kJ mol -1 , and 160.45 kJ mol -1 from DAEM model for PW, SW, AN biomass respectively. The calculated kinetic parameters are in good agreement with other reported biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of genomic regions of Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 related to biomass degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucello, Aline; Sforça, Danilo Augusto; Horta, Maria Augusta Crivelente; dos Santos, Clelton Aparecido; Viana, Américo José Carvalho; Beloti, Lilian Luzia; de Toledo, Marcelo Augusto Szymanski; Vincentz, Michel; Kuroshu, Reginaldo Massanobu; de Souza, Anete Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 secretes high levels of cellulolytic-active enzymes and is therefore a promising strain for use in biotechnological applications in second-generation bioethanol production. However, the T. harzianum biomass degradation mechanism has not been well explored at the genetic level. The present work investigates six genomic regions (~150 kbp each) in this fungus that are enriched with genes related to biomass conversion. A BAC library consisting of 5,760 clones was constructed, with an average insert length of 90 kbp. The assembled BAC sequences revealed 232 predicted genes, 31.5% of which were related to catabolic pathways, including those involved in biomass degradation. An expression profile analysis based on RNA-Seq data demonstrated that putative regulatory elements, such as membrane transport proteins and transcription factors, are located in the same genomic regions as genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and exhibit similar expression profiles. Thus, we demonstrate a rapid and efficient tool that focuses on specific genomic regions by combining a BAC library with transcriptomic data. This is the first BAC-based structural genomic study of the cellulolytic fungus T. harzianum, and its findings provide new perspectives regarding the use of this species in biomass degradation processes.

  1. Biomass steam gasification for production of SNG – Process design and sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gröbl, Thomas; Walter, Heimo; Haider, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A model for the SNG-production process from biomass to raw-SNG is prepared. ► A thermodynamic equilibrium model of the Biomass-Heatpipe-Reformer is developed. ► A sensitivity analysis on the most important operation parameters is carried out. ► Adopting the steam excess ratio a syngas ideally suitable for SNG production is generated. ► Thermodynamic equilibrium models are a useful tool for process design. -- Abstract: A process design for small-scale production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) by steam gasification of woody biomass is performed. In the course of this work, thermodynamic models for the novel process steps are developed and implemented into an already existing model library of commercial process simulation software IPSEpro. Mathematical models for allothermal steam gasification of biomass as well as for cleaning and methanation of product gas are provided by applying mass balances, energy balances and thermodynamic equilibrium equations. Using these models the whole process is integrated into the simulation software, a flowsheet for an optimum thermal integration of the single process steps is determined and energy savings are identified. Additionally, a sensitivity study is carried out in order to analyze the influence of various operation parameters. Their effects on amount and composition of the product gas and process efficiency are evaluated and discussed within this article.

  2. Electrifying biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusnierczyk, D.

    2005-01-01

    British Columbia's (BC) energy plan was outlined in this PowerPoint presentation. BC Hydro is the third largest electric utility in Canada with a generating capacity of 11,000 MW, 90 per cent of which is hydro generation. Various independent power project (IPP) biomass technologies were outlined, including details of biogas, wood residue and municipal solid waste facilities. An outline of BC Hydro's overall supply mix was presented, along with details of the IPP supply mix. It was suggested that the cancellation of the Duke Point power project has driven growth in the renewable energy sector. A chart of potential energy contribution by resource type was presented, as well as unit energy cost ranges. Resources included small and large hydro; demand side management; resource smart natural gas; natural gas; coal; wind; geothermal; biomass; wave; and tidal. The acquisition process was reviewed. Details of calls for tenders were presented, and issues concerning bidder responsibility and self-selection were examined. It was observed that wood residue presents a firm source of electricity that is generally local, and has support from the public. In addition, permits for wood residue energy conversion are readily available. However, size limitations, fuel risks, and issues concerning site control may prove to be significant challenges. It was concluded that the success of biomass energy development will depend on adequate access and competitive pricing. tabs., figs

  3. Analysis of a furnace for heat generation using polydisperse biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Edney Alves; Silva, Juarez de Sousa e; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Oliveira Filho, Delly [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola; Donzeles, Sergio Mauricio Lopes [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG), Vicosa, MG (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In many agro-industrial activities, the processing of raw material generates a substantial amount of fine materials. Examples include the production of soluble coffee, processing of rice, and wood processing, among others. In many regions, these by-products keep piling up on the courtyard of companies or become an environmental problem for land dumps. However, detailed tests of these byproducts indicate that they are excellent sources of energy. With this in mind, a furnace was developed to generate clean and hot air, using the alimentation system for pneumatic transport. Wood sawdust was used as fuel for analysis. The obtained results were considered satisfactory, proven by the small heat losses, primarily by the non-burned carbon monoxide (less than 0.2%) and the cooling of the furnace (less than 2.5%) whereas the losses by the exhaust gases were a little more than 23%. The thermal efficiency of the furnace was considered high when compared to others with an indirect heating system, obtaining an average value of 73%. The developed furnace, beyond being efficient, allows the use of the waste from the wood industry, which is important in the reduction of environmental impacts and minimizing production costs associated with the acquisition of conventional energy. (author)

  4. Analysis and comparison of biomass pyrolysis/gasification condensates: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.C.

    1986-06-01

    This report provides results of chemical and physical analysis of condensates from eleven biomass gasification and pyrolysis systems. The samples were representative of the various reactor configurations being researched within the Department of Energy, Biomass Thermochemical Conversion program. The condensates included tar phases and aqueous phases. The analyses included gross compositional analysis (elemental analysis, ash, moisture), physical characterization (pour point, viscosity, density, heat of combustion, distillation), specific chemical analysis (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, infrared spectrophotometry, proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry) and biological activity (Ames assay and mouse skin tumorigenicity tests). These results are the first step of a longer term program to determine the properties, handling requirements, and utility of the condensates recovered from biomass gasification and pyrolysis. The analytical data demonstrates the wide range of chemical composition of the organics recovered in the condensates and suggests a direct relationship between operating temperature and chemical composition of the condensates. A continuous pathway of thermal degradation of the tar components as a function of temperature is proposed. Variations in the chemical composition of the organic components in the tars are reflected in the physical properties of tars and phase stability in relation to water in the condensate. The biological activity appears to be limited to the tars produced at high temperatures. 56 refs., 25 figs., 21 tabs.

  5. Supply risk analysis: applying system dynamics to the Colombian healthcare sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Zamora Aguas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses supply risk in the oncological medicine supply chain (SC in Colombia. A system dynamics model was developed for assessing supply risk impact on SC operation and performance. The costs of risk and logis-tics operation were evaluated in current conditions and in a risk mitigation scenario. The model was based on a systematic analysis of supply networks, mainly concerning the reduction of overall SC costs and improving service, quality and opportunity performance index. This article has resulted from research into SC risk management (SCRM carried out by the Universidad Nacional de Colombia’s SEPRO research group.

  6. A simulation approach for analysis of short-term security of natural gas supply in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villada, Juan; Olaya, Yris

    2013-01-01

    Achieving security of gas supply implies diversifying gas sources, while having enough supply, transportation, and storage capacity to meet demand peaks and supply interruptions. Devising a strategy for securing gas supply is not straightforward because gas supply depends on complex interactions of production, demand and infrastructure, and it is exposed to economic, regulatory, political, environmental and technical risks. To address this complexity, we propose a simulation approach that replicates the structure of the gas supply chain, including transportation constraints and demand fluctuations. We build and calibrate a computer model for the Colombian gas sector, and run the model to assess the impact of expanding transportation capacity and increasing market flexibility on the security of supply. Our analysis focuses on the operation and planned and proposed expansions of the transportation infrastructure because adequate regulation and development of this infrastructure can contribute to increase the security of supply in the gas sector. We find that proposed import facilities, specifically LNG import terminals at Buenaventura, increase system's security under the current market structure. - Highlights: ► We build a simulation model for analyzing natural gas trade in Colombia. ► The model captures the structure of the gas network and on market rules. ► We simulate investment decisions to increase short-term security of supply. ► Securing supply would need LNG imports and expansion of pipeline capacity.

  7. Time-series analysis of Nigeria rice supply and demand: Error ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined a time-series analysis of Nigeria rice supply and demand with a view to determining any long-run equilibrium between them using the Error Correction Model approach (ECM). The data used for the study represents the annual series of 1960-2007 (47 years) for rice supply and demand in Nigeria, ...

  8. Combustion characteristics of Malaysian oil palm biomass, sub-bituminous coal and their respective blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Siti Shawalliah; Rahman, Norazah Abd; Ismail, Khudzir

    2012-11-01

    The combustion characteristics of Malaysia oil palm biomass (palm kernel shell (PKS), palm mesocarp fibre (PMF) and empty fruit bunches (EFB)), sub-bituminous coal (Mukah Balingian) and coal/biomass blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were investigated. Six weight ratios of coal/biomass blends were prepared and oxidised under dynamic conditions from temperature 25 to 1100°C at four heating rates. The thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the EFB and PKS evolved additional peak besides drying, devolatilisation and char oxidation steps during combustion. Ignition and burn out temperatures of blends were improved in comparison to coal. No interactions were observed between the coal and biomass during combustion. The apparent activation energy during this process was evaluated using iso-conversional model free kinetics which resulted in highest activation energy during combustion of PKS followed by PMF, EFB and MB coal. Blending oil palm biomass with coal reduces the apparent activation energy value. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental analysis of a combustion reactor under co-firing coal with biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Fabyo Luiz; Bazzo, Edson; Oliveira Junior, Amir Antonio Martins de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). LabCET], e-mail: ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br; Bzuneck, Marcelo [Tractebel Energia S.A., Complexo Termeletrico Jorge Lacerda, Capivari de Baixo, SC (Brazil)], e-mail: marcelob@tractebelenergia.com.br

    2010-07-01

    Mitigation of greenhouse gases emission is one of the most important issues in energy engineering. Biomass is a potential renewable source but with limited use in large scale energy production because of the relative smaller availability as compared to fossil fuels, mainly to coal. Besides, the costs concerning transportation must be well analysed to determine its economic viability. An alternative for the use of biomass as a primary source of energy is the co-firing, that is the possibility of using two or more types of fuels combined in the combustion process. Biomass can be co-fired with coal in a fraction between 10 to 25% in mass basis (or 4 to 10% in heat-input basis) without seriously impacting the heat release characteristics of most boilers. Another advantage of cofiring, besides the significant reductions in fossil CO{sub 2} emissions, is the reduced emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}. As a result, co-firing is becoming attractive for power companies worldwide. This paper presents results of some experimental analysis on co-firing coal with rice straw in a combustion reactor. The influence of biomass thermal share in ash composition is also discussed, showing that alkali and earth alkaline compounds play the most important role on the fouling and slagging behavior when co-firing. Some fusibility correlations that can assist in the elucidation of these behavior are presented and discussed, and then applied to the present study. Results show that for a biomass thermal share up to 20%, significant changes are not expected in fouling and slagging behavior of ash. (author)

  10. Analysis of a feasible trigeneration system taking solar energy and biomass as co-feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Li, Hongqiang; Liu, Lifang; Zeng, Rong; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A feasible trigeneration system is proposed to generate power, heating and cooling. • The steam for biomass gasification process is provided by solar energy. • The thermodynamic properties of the proposed system are investigated. • Effects of ER and SBR on gasification process is presented. • The sensitivity of the economic performance of trigeneration system is evaluated. - Abstract: The trigeneration systems are widely used owing to high efficiency, low greenhouse gas emission and high reliability. Especially, those trigeneration systems taking renewable energy as primary input are paid more and more attention. This paper presents a feasible trigeneration system, which realizes biomass and solar energy integrating effective utilization according to energy cascade utilization and energy level upgrading of chemical reaction principle. In the proposed system, the solar energy with mid-and-low temperature converted to the chemical energy of bio-gas through gasification process, then the bio-gas will be taken as the fuel for internal combustion engine (ICE) to generate electricity. The jacket water as a byproduct generated from ICE is utilized in a liquid desiccant unit for providing desiccant capacity. The flue gas is transported into an absorption chiller and heat exchanger consequently, supplying chilled water and domestic hot water. The thermodynamic performance of the trigeneration system was investigated by the help of Aspen plus. The results indicate that the overall energy efficiency and the electrical efficiency of the proposed system in case study are 77.4% and 17.8%, respectively. The introduction of solar energy decreases the consumption of biomass, and the solar thermal energy input fraction is 8.6%. In addition, the primary energy saving ratio and annual total cost saving ratio compared with the separated generation system are 16.7% and 25.9%, respectively.

  11. Synergy between the Multiple Supply Chain and Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) approaches: an initial analysis aimed at fostering supply chain sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Lima de Carvalho; Livia Rodrigues Ignácio; Kleber Francisco Esposto; Aldo Roberto Ometto

    2016-01-01

    The concept of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) was created in the 90s to reduce the environmental impacts of productive systems. This approach seeks to improve the environmental performance of all the participants in a supply chain, from the extraction of raw materials to the use and final disposal of the product, through relationships of collaboration or conformity between the parties. The multiple supply chains approach established by Gattorna (2009) brought to light different supply c...

  12. A supply sided analysis of leading MOOC platforms and universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Peters

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Investing in education is generally considered as a promising strategy to fight poverty and increase prosperity. This applies to all levels of an economy reaching from individuals to local communities and countries and has a global perspective as well. However, high-quality education is often costly and not available anytime anywhere. Therefore, any promising concept that might help to democratize education is worth pursuing, in a sense that it makes education accessible for everybody without any restrictions. The characteristics attributed to MOOC – Massive Open Online Courses are promising to contribute to this objective. Hence, our objective is to analyse MOOC as it currently operates. Obviously, there is a huge demand for free high-quality education anytime anywhere but a shortage on the supply side. So, we will concentrate on supply-sided effects and study MOOC platforms as well as content providers, particularly universities. We focus our research on some of the leading platforms and universities worldwide. Relative to their size Australia and the Netherlands are very active players in the MOOC sector. Germany is lagging behind and leading universities in the UK seem to virtually refrain from offering MOOC. Our research also shows the leading role of US universities and platform providers.

  13. Stress analysis of biomass fuel molding machine piston type stamping forming cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Gaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is established the ram biomass straw machine as the analysis object in this paper,the molding machine cones of stress in the forming process of the analysis of the system. We used pottery instead of Wear-resistant cast iron for improving the performance of forming sleeve. The structure of the forming sleeve was analyzed with the mechanical module of a soft named Pro/engineer in this paper. The result indicated that the program was feasible. With the sensitivity analysis we identified the suitable angle for the sleeve.

  14. Dynamics of global supply chain and electric power networks: Models, pricing analysis, and computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsypura, Dmytro

    In this dissertation, I develop a new theoretical framework for the modeling, pricing analysis, and computation of solutions to electric power supply chains with power generators, suppliers, transmission service providers, and the inclusion of consumer demands. In particular, I advocate the application of finite-dimensional variational inequality theory, projected dynamical systems theory, game theory, network theory, and other tools that have been recently proposed for the modeling and analysis of supply chain networks (cf. Nagurney (2006)) to electric power markets. This dissertation contributes to the extant literature on the modeling, analysis, and solution of supply chain networks, including global supply chains, in general, and electric power supply chains, in particular, in the following ways. It develops a theoretical framework for modeling, pricing analysis, and computation of electric power flows/transactions in electric power systems using the rationale for supply chain analysis. The models developed include both static and dynamic ones. The dissertation also adds a new dimension to the methodology of the theory of projected dynamical systems by proving that, irrespective of the speeds of adjustment, the equilibrium of the system remains the same. Finally, I include alternative fuel suppliers, along with their behavior into the supply chain modeling and analysis framework. This dissertation has strong practical implications. In an era in which technology and globalization, coupled with increasing risk and uncertainty, complicate electricity demand and supply within and between nations, the successful management of electric power systems and pricing become increasingly pressing topics with relevance not only for economic prosperity but also national security. This dissertation addresses such related topics by providing models, pricing tools, and algorithms for decentralized electric power supply chains. This dissertation is based heavily on the following

  15. SUPPLY CHAIN RESILIENCE ANALYSIS: A BRAZILIAN AUTOMOTIVE CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Scavarda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain (SC resilience and flexibility are important research topics receiving growing attention. However, the academic literature needs empirical studies on SC resilience capable of investigating the inter-organizational components of flexibility along different tiers. Therefore, this paper analyzes the main lack of flexibilities in three Brazilian automotive SCs that limit their resilience and therefore their capacity to better support and meet the demand changes in the marketplace. A multi-tier case study approach is adopted. Research findings identify lack of flexibilities in different tiers that inhibit the SC resilience as well as manufacturing and SC flexibilities that build SC resilience. The findings also highlight that the same SC may have the flexibility to be resilient for one of its products but not for another product, what sheds new lights on the academic literature. Finally, flexible SCs should be designed to increase SC resilience to cope with mishaps as significant demand changes.

  16. A cost-benefit analysis of methods for the determination of biomass concentration in wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, J E; Bachmann, R T; Edyvean, R G J

    2006-01-01

    The measurement of biomass concentration is important in biological wastewater treatment. This paper compares the accuracy and costs of the traditional volatile suspended solids (VSS) and the proposed suspended organic carbon (SOC) methods. VSS and SOC values of a dilution system were very well correlated (R(2)=0.9995). VSS and SOC of 16 samples were determined, the mean SOC/VSS ratio (0.52, n=16, sigma=0.01) was close to the theoretical value (0.53). For costing analysis, two hypothetical cases were analysed. In case A, it is assumed that 108 samples are analysed annually from two continuous reactors. Case B represents a batch experiment to be carried out in 24 incubated serum bottles. The savings, when using the SOC method, were 11,987 pounds for case A and 90 pounds for case B. This study suggests the use of SOC method as a time saving and lower cost biomass concentration measurement.

  17. [Design and implementation of supply security monitoring and analysis system for Chinese patent medicines supply in national essential medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Huang, Lu-Qi; Guo, Lan-Ping; Wang, Ling; Zhao, Yu-Ping; Yang, Guang

    2017-11-01

    The supply of Chinese patent medicine is influenced by the price of raw materials (Chinese herbal medicines) and the stock of resources. On the one hand, raw material prices show cyclical volatility or even irreversible soaring, making the price of Chinese patent medicine is not stable or even the highest cost of hanging upside down. On the other hand, due to lack of resources or disable some of the proprietary Chinese medicine was forced to stop production. Based on the micro-service architecture and Redis cluster deployment Based on the micro-service architecture and Redis cluster deployment, the supply security monitoring and analysis system for Chinese patent medicines in national essential medicines has realized the dynamic monitoring and intelligence warning of herbs and Chinese patent medicine by connecting and integrating the database of Chinese medicine resources, the dynamic monitoring system of traditional Chinese medicine resources and the basic medicine database of Chinese patent medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  18. Multi-functional biomass systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dornburg, Veronika

    2004-01-01

    Biomass can play a role in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions by substituting conventional materials and supplying biomass based fuels. Main reason for the low share of biomass applications in Europe is their often-high production costs, among others due to the relatively low availability of

  19. An Analysis of United States Marine Corps Enlisted Entry-Level Training Using Supply Chain and Operations Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    An Analysis of United States Marine Corps Enlisted Entry-Level Training Using Supply Chain and Operations Management ______________________________________ By...Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: An Analysis of United States Marine Corps Enlisted Entry-Level Training Using Supply Chain and Operations Management 6...Level Training; United States Marine Corps; Operations Management ; Supply Chain Management; Process Analysis 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY

  20. Shorea robusta: A sustainable biomass feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Kumar Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The biomass feedstock needs to be available in a manner that is sustainable as well as renewable. However, obtaining reliable and cost effective supplies of biomass feedstock produced in a sustainable manner can prove to be difficult. Traditional biomass, mainly in the form of fallen leaves, fuel wood or dried dung, has long been the renewable and sustainable energy source for cooking and heating. Present study accounts for the biomass of fallen leaves of Shorea robusta, also known as sal, sakhua or shala tree, in the campus of BIT Mesra (Ranchi. These leaves are being gathered and burnt rather than being sold commercially. They contain water to varying degrees which affects their energy content. Hence, measurement of moisture content is critical for its biomass assessment. The leaves were collected, weighed, oven dried at 100oC until constant weight, then dry sample was reweighed to calculate the moisture content that has been driven off. By subtraction of moisture content from the initial weight of leaves, biomass was calculated. Using Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC the heat content of the leaves was calculated and the elemental analysis of leaf was done by CHNSO elemental analyser. Further, total biomass and carbon content of Sal tree was calculated using allometric equations so as to make a comparison to the biomass stored in dried fallen leaves

  1. Comparative Secretome Analysis of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger during Growth on Sugarcane Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borin, Gustavo Pagotto; Sanchez, Camila Cristina; de Souza, Amanda Pereira; de Santana, Eliane Silva; de Souza, Aline Tieppo; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes; Squina, Fabio Marcio; Buckeridge, Marcos; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro

    2015-01-01

    part of the cell wall in sugarcane) are likely the first to be released and assimilated by both species of fungi. At all time points tested, A. niger produced more enzymes (quantitatively and qualitatively) than T. reesei. However, the most important enzymes related to biomass degradation, including cellobiohydrolases, endoglucanases, β-glucosidases, β-xylosidases, endoxylanases, xyloglucanases, and α-arabinofuranosidases, were identified in both secretomes. We also noticed that the both fungi produce more enzymes when grown in culm as a single carbon source. Conclusion Our work provides a detailed qualitative and semi-quantitative secretome analysis of A. niger and T. reesei grown on sugarcane biomass. Our data indicate that a combination of enzymes from both fungi is an interesting option to increase saccharification efficiency. In other words, these two fungal species might be combined for their usage in industrial processes. PMID:26053961

  2. Comparative Secretome Analysis of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger during Growth on Sugarcane Biomass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Pagotto Borin

    part of the cell wall in sugarcane are likely the first to be released and assimilated by both species of fungi. At all time points tested, A. niger produced more enzymes (quantitatively and qualitatively than T. reesei. However, the most important enzymes related to biomass degradation, including cellobiohydrolases, endoglucanases, β-glucosidases, β-xylosidases, endoxylanases, xyloglucanases, and α-arabinofuranosidases, were identified in both secretomes. We also noticed that the both fungi produce more enzymes when grown in culm as a single carbon source.Our work provides a detailed qualitative and semi-quantitative secretome analysis of A. niger and T. reesei grown on sugarcane biomass. Our data indicate that a combination of enzymes from both fungi is an interesting option to increase saccharification efficiency. In other words, these two fungal species might be combined for their usage in industrial processes.

  3. Exergy analysis of a coal/biomass co-hydrogasification based chemical looping power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Linbo; Yue, Guangxi; He, Boshu

    2015-01-01

    Power generation from co-utilization of coal and biomass is very attractive since this technology can not only save the coal resource but make sufficient utilization of biomass. In addition, with this concept, net carbon discharge per unit electric power generation can also be sharply reduced. In this work, a coal/biomass co-hydrogasification based chemical looping power generation system is presented and analyzed with the assistance of Aspen Plus. The effects of different operating conditions including the biomass mass fraction, R_b, the hydrogen recycle ratio, R_h_r, the hydrogasification pressure, P_h_g, the iron to fuel mole ratio, R_i_f, the reducer temperature, T_r_e, the oxidizer temperature, T_o_x, and the fuel utilization factor, U_f of the SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell) on the system operation results including the energy efficiency, η_e, the total energy efficiency, η_t_e, the exergy efficiency, η_e_x, the total exergy efficiency, η_t_e_x and the carbon capture rate, η_c_c, are analyzed. The energy and exergy balances of the whole system are also calculated and the corresponding Sankey diagram and Grassmann diagram are drawn. Under the benchmark condition, exergy efficiencies of different units in the system are calculated. η_t_e, η_t_e_x and η_c_c of the system are also found to be 43.6%, 41.2% and 99.1%, respectively. - Highlights: • A coal/biomass co-hydrogasification based chemical looping power generation system is setup. • Sankey and Grassmann diagrams are presented based on the energy and exergy balance calculations. • Sensitivity analysis is done to understand the system operation characteristics. • Total energy and exergy efficiencies of this system can be 43.6% and 41.2%, respectively. • About 99.1% of the carbon contained in coal and biomass can be captured in this system.

  4. Privatization of British electricity supply industry: Critical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervigni, G.

    1993-01-01

    Until 1989, despite the partially disintegrated organization of the British electricity supply industry (ESI) and the attempt of the Energy Act of 1983 to pull down entrance barriers to the power generation business, ESI operated like an integrated monopoly. Between 1989 and 1990, ESI has been subjected to a reorganization process and transfer to the private sector with the declared aim of improving short and long run micro-economic efficiency. For this purpose, the attempt of introducing competition in the phases of the production process where possible and of regulating those which are structurally non competitive, has been made. The new configuration of ESI in terms of organizational structure, property regime and regulatory system is analyzed. Areas of improvement of the regulatory system and delayed key decisions of the public operator, are identified. However, any evaluation of the process as a whole can only relate to a minor part of the present situation; thus it subtends a scenary for the future, where the role of the regulatory authority is crucial

  5. Accelerating residential PV expansion: supply analysis for competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, Adam; Williams, Robert H.; Duke, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology is now sufficiently advanced that market support mechanisms such as net metering plus a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) could induce rapid PV market growth in grid-connected applications. With such support mechanisms, markets would be sufficiently large that manufacturers could profitably build and operate 100 MW p /yr PV module factories, and electricity costs for residential rooftop PV systems would compare favorably with residential electricity prices in certain areas (e.g., California and the greater New York region in the US). This prospect is illustrated by economic and market analyses for one promising technology (amorphous silicon thin-film PV) from the perspectives of both module manufacturers and buyers of new homes with rooftop PV systems. With public policies that reflect the distributed and environmental benefits offered by PV-and that can sustain domestic PV market demand growth at three times the historical growth rate for a period of the order of two decades - PV could provide 3% of total US electricity supply by 2025. (Author)

  6. Fire hazard analysis for the fuel supply shutdown storage buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    REMAIZE, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of a fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire and other perils within individual fire areas in a DOE facility in relation to proposed fire protection so as to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE 5480.7A, Fire Protection, are met. This Fire Hazards Analysis was prepared as required by HNF-PRO-350, Fire Hazards Analysis Requirements, (Reference 7) for a portion of the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility

  7. Satellite Based Analysis of Wood Biomass and Fuelwood Sustainability in Senegal: Developing Approaches for Long-Term Monitoring in the SERVIR-West Africa Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanan, N. P.; Anchang, J.; Dieye, A. M.; Yero, K.; Tredennick, A. T.

    2017-12-01

    Rural populations in most of Africa are highly dependent on woody biomass (wood or charcoal) for cooking and heating. Many rural families gather wood locally, while urban populations often rely on small-scale commercial charcoal producers, who make charcoal in rural areas for transport to urban centers. Given that cooking is essential for conversion of inedible protein and carbohydrate substrates into edible food, fuelwood is an essential part of the food security puzzle for most African families. The SERVIR program is a partnership between USAID, NASA and regional institutions designed to enhance access to, and application of, earth observation data for economic development and natural resource management in less developed countries. In this paper, we report on a SERVIR West Africa collaboration to develop above-ground wood biomass estimates using moderate resolution ( 20 m) data from Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 satellites, incorporating field data for calibration and validation, and using data retrieval and analysis workflows that can be replicated by SERVIR partners across the region. Using the country of Senegal as a test case, we analyze the spatial distribution of biomass stocks in relation to fuelwood demand to assess supply-demand patterns across scales from local (village), to district, regional and national scales.

  8. Qualitative Analysis of Microbial Dynamics during Anaerobic Digestion of Microalgal Biomass in a UASB Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Doloman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion (AD is a microbiologically coordinated process with dynamic relationships between bacterial players. Current understanding of dynamic changes in the bacterial composition during the AD process is incomplete. The objective of this research was to assess changes in bacterial community composition that coordinates with anaerobic codigestion of microalgal biomass cultivated on municipal wastewater. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor was used to achieve high rates of microalgae decomposition and biogas production. Samples of the sludge were collected throughout AD and extracted DNA was subjected to next-generation sequencing using methanogen mcrA gene specific and universal bacterial primers. Analysis of the data revealed that samples taken at different stages of AD had varying bacterial composition. A group consisting of Bacteroidales, Pseudomonadales, and Enterobacteriales was identified to be putatively responsible for the hydrolysis of microalgal biomass. The methanogenesis phase was dominated by Methanosarcina mazei. Results of observed changes in the composition of microbial communities during AD can be used as a road map to stimulate key bacterial species identified at each phase of AD to increase yield of biogas and rate of substrate decomposition. This research demonstrates a successful exploitation of methane production from microalgae without any biomass pretreatment.

  9. Economic analysis of biomass gasification for generating electricity in rural areas in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, H.; Suria, T.; Pranolo, S. H.

    2018-03-01

    The gaseous fuel from biomass gasification might reduce the consumption of diesel fuel by 70%. The investment cost of the whole unit with a capacity of 45 kWe was about IDR 220 million in 2008 comprised of 24% for gasification unit, 54% for diesel engine and electric generator, 22% for transportation of the whole unit from Bandung to the site in South Borneo. The gasification unit was made in local workshop in Bandung, while the diesel-generator was purchased also in a local market. To anticipate the development of biomass based electricity in remote areas, an economic analysis has been made for implementations in 2019. A specific investment cost of 600 USD/kW has been estimated taking account to the escalation and capacity factors. Using a discounted factor of 11% and biomass cost in the range of 0.03-0.07 USD/kg, the production cost of electricity would be in the range of 0.09-0.16 USD/kWh. This production cost was lower than that of diesel engine fueled with full oil commonly implemented in many remote areas in Indonesia at this moment. This production cost was also lower than the Feed in Tariff in some regions established by Indonesian government in 2017.

  10. Qualitative Analysis of Microbial Dynamics during Anaerobic Digestion of Microalgal Biomass in a UASB Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doloman, Anna; Soboh, Yousef; Walters, Andrew J.; Sims, Ronald C.

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a microbiologically coordinated process with dynamic relationships between bacterial players. Current understanding of dynamic changes in the bacterial composition during the AD process is incomplete. The objective of this research was to assess changes in bacterial community composition that coordinates with anaerobic codigestion of microalgal biomass cultivated on municipal wastewater. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor was used to achieve high rates of microalgae decomposition and biogas production. Samples of the sludge were collected throughout AD and extracted DNA was subjected to next-generation sequencing using methanogen mcrA gene specific and universal bacterial primers. Analysis of the data revealed that samples taken at different stages of AD had varying bacterial composition. A group consisting of Bacteroidales, Pseudomonadales, and Enterobacteriales was identified to be putatively responsible for the hydrolysis of microalgal biomass. The methanogenesis phase was dominated by Methanosarcina mazei. Results of observed changes in the composition of microbial communities during AD can be used as a road map to stimulate key bacterial species identified at each phase of AD to increase yield of biogas and rate of substrate decomposition. This research demonstrates a successful exploitation of methane production from microalgae without any biomass pretreatment. PMID:29259629

  11. Characteristics and kinetic study on pyrolysis of five lignocellulosic biomass via thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhihua; Hu, Mian; Zhu, Xiaolei; Guo, Dabin; Liu, Shiming; Hu, Zhiquan; Xiao, Bo; Wang, Jingbo; Laghari, Mahmood

    2015-09-01

    Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic of five lignocellulosic biomass pine wood sawdust, fern (Dicranopteris linearis) stem, wheat stalk, sugarcane bagasse and jute (Corchorus capsularis) stick were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis. The pyrolysis of five lignocellulosic biomass could be divided into three stages, which correspond to the pyrolysis of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, respectively. Single Gaussian activation energy distributions of each stage are 148.50-201.13 kJ/mol with standard deviations of 2.60-13.37 kJ/mol. The kinetic parameters of different stages were used as initial guess values for three-parallel-DAEM model calculation with good fitting quality and fast convergence rate. The mean activation energy ranges of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin were 148.12-164.56 kJ/mol, 171.04-179.54 kJ/mol and 175.71-201.60 kJ/mol, with standard deviations of 3.91-9.89, 0.29-1.34 and 23.22-27.24 kJ/mol, respectively. The mass fractions of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin in lignocellulosic biomass were respectively estimated as 0.12-0.22, 0.54-0.65 and 0.17-0.29. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Techno-economic analysis of wood biomass boilers for the greenhouse industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, J.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, S.; Preto, F.; Melin, S.; Bi, X.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to perform a techno-economic analysis on a typical wood pellet and wood residue boiler for generation of heat to an average-sized greenhouse in British Columbia. The variables analyzed included greenhouse size and structure, boiler efficiency, fuel types, and source of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) for crop fertilization. The net present value (NPV) show that installing a wood pellet or a wood residue boiler to provide 40% of the annual heat demand is more economical than using a natural gas boiler to provide all the heat at a discount rate of 10%. For an assumed lifespan of 25 years, a wood pellet boiler system could generate NPV of C$259,311 without electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and C$74,695 with ESP, respectively. While, installing a wood residue boiler with or without an ESP could provide NPV of C$919,922 or C$1,104,538, respectively. Using a wood biomass boiler could also eliminate over 3000 tonne CO 2 equivalents of greenhouse gases annually. Wood biomass combustion generates more particulate matters than natural gas combustion. However, an advanced emission control system could significantly reduce particulate matters emission from wood biomass combustion which would bring the particulate emission to a relatively similar level as for natural gas

  13. Speeding up stochastic analysis of bulk water supply systems using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-22

    Oct 22, 2013 ... It is possible to analyse the reliability of municipal storage tanks through stochastic analysis, in which the user demand, fire water demand and pipe failures are simulated using Monte Carlo analysis. While this technique could in principle be used to find the optimal size of a municipal storage tank, ...

  14. Speeding up stochastic analysis of bulk water supply systems using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is possible to analyse the reliability of municipal storage tanks through stochastic analysis, in which the user demand, fire water demand and pipe failures are simulated using Monte Carlo analysis. While this technique could in principle be used to find the optimal size of a municipal storage tank, in practice the high ...

  15. Traceability and Risk Analysis Strategies for Addressing Counterfeit Electronics in Supply Chains for Complex Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMase, Daniel; Collier, Zachary A; Carlson, Jinae; Gray, Robin B; Linkov, Igor

    2016-10-01

    Within the microelectronics industry, there is a growing concern regarding the introduction of counterfeit electronic parts into the supply chain. Even though this problem is widespread, there have been limited attempts to implement risk-based approaches for testing and supply chain management. Supply chain risk management tends to focus on the highly visible disruptions of the supply chain instead of the covert entrance of counterfeits; thus counterfeit risk is difficult to mitigate. This article provides an overview of the complexities of the electronics supply chain, and highlights some gaps in risk assessment practices. In particular, this article calls for enhanced traceability capabilities to track and trace parts at risk through various stages of the supply chain. Placing the focus on risk-informed decision making through the following strategies is needed, including prioritization of high-risk parts, moving beyond certificates of conformance, incentivizing best supply chain management practices, adoption of industry standards, and design and management for supply chain resilience. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. NIR and Py-mbms coupled with multivariate data analysis as a high-throughput biomass characterization technique : a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li eXiao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing the use of lignocellulosic biomass as the feedstock for renewable energy production is currently being developed globally. Biomass is a complex mixture of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignins, extractives, and proteins; as well as inorganic salts. Cell wall compositional analysis for biomass characterization is laborious and time consuming. In order to characterize biomass fast and efficiently, several high through-put technologies have been successfully developed. Among them, near infrared spectroscopy (NIR and pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry (Py-mbms are complementary tools and capable of evaluating a large number of raw or modified biomass in a short period of time. NIR shows vibrations associated with specific chemical structures whereas Py-mbms depicts the full range of fragments from the decomposition of biomass. Both NIR vibrations and Py-mbms peaks are assigned to possible chemical functional groups and molecular structures. They provide complementary information of chemical insight of biomaterials. However, it is challenging to interpret the informative results because of the large amount of overlapping bands or decomposition fragments contained in the spectra. In order to improve the efficiency of data analysis, multivariate analysis tools have been adapted to define the significant correlations among data variables, so that the large number of bands/peaks could be replaced by a small number of reconstructed variables representing original variation. Reconstructed data variables are used for sample comparison (principal component analysis and for building regression models (partial least square regression between biomass chemical structures and properties of interests. In this review, the important biomass chemical structures measured by NIR and Py-mbms are summarized. The advantages and disadvantages of conventional data analysis methods and multivariate data analysis methods are introduced, compared and evaluated

  17. Analysis and co-ordination of the activities concerning gasification of biomass. Summary country report, Denmark and Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoholm, P.; Olsen, A.

    1996-11-01

    The analysis summarises the coordination of activities concerning the gasification of biomass in Denmark and Norway. The total quantity of available biomass for energy production in Denmark corresponds to ca. 115 PJ of which ca. 40% is utilized - and this constitutes ca. 6% of the country's total energy consumption. The resulting energy from biomass is currently mostly used for heating purposes utilizing small wood/straw household or farm stoves in addition to ca. 100 district heating systems. There is a tendency to use biomass fuels for electric power production as in the case of all major waste incineration plants and about 10 fully or partly wood/straw-fired cogeneration plants which are found within the range of 2 -20 MWe. A table shows details of all Danish biomass gasification plants and information is given on the types of biomass, under the titles of residue products and energy crops, most relevant to energy production in Denmark. Data is presented on the consumption of renewable energy in Denmark, recalculated in fuel equivalents, and Danish national energy policy and related legislation are described. Information on Norway's use of biomass as fuel is given under the headings of primary consumption, biomass sources and use, legislation, and brief evaluations of commercial gasification plants, pilot and demonstration plants, and laboratory plants and studies. It has recently been decided to speed up the development of small-scale gasification plants for combined heat and electricity production using biomass as fuel in Denmark. Total Norwegian energy consumption is 25% higher than Denmark's, and biomass fuels cover only 3.6% of this. (ARW) 32 refs

  18. Mathematical supply-chain modelling: Product analysis of cost and time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easters, D J

    2014-01-01

    Establishing a mathematical supply-chain model is a proposition that has received attention due to its inherent benefits of evolving global supply-chain efficiencies. This paper discusses the prevailing relationships found within apparel supply-chain environments, and contemplates the complex issues indicated for constituting a mathematical model. Principal results identified within the data suggest, that the multifarious nature of global supply-chain activities require a degree of simplification in order to fully dilate the necessary factors which affect, each sub-section of the chain. Subsequently, the research findings allowed the division of supply-chain components into sub-sections, which amassed a coherent method of product development activity. Concurrently, the supply-chain model was found to allow systematic mathematical formulae analysis, of cost and time, within the multiple contexts of each subsection encountered. The paper indicates the supply-chain model structure, the mathematics, and considers how product analysis of cost and time can improve the comprehension of product lifecycle management

  19. Mathematical supply-chain modelling: Product analysis of cost and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easters, D. J.

    2014-03-01

    Establishing a mathematical supply-chain model is a proposition that has received attention due to its inherent benefits of evolving global supply-chain efficiencies. This paper discusses the prevailing relationships found within apparel supply-chain environments, and contemplates the complex issues indicated for constituting a mathematical model. Principal results identified within the data suggest, that the multifarious nature of global supply-chain activities require a degree of simplification in order to fully dilate the necessary factors which affect, each sub-section of the chain. Subsequently, the research findings allowed the division of supply-chain components into sub-sections, which amassed a coherent method of product development activity. Concurrently, the supply-chain model was found to allow systematic mathematical formulae analysis, of cost and time, within the multiple contexts of each subsection encountered. The paper indicates the supply-chain model structure, the mathematics, and considers how product analysis of cost and time can improve the comprehension of product lifecycle management.

  20. Process chain analysis for methanol production from biomass with the aid of mathematical models; Prozesskettenanalyse fuer die Methanolerzeugung aus Biomasse mit Hilfe von mathematischen Modellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saller, G.; Krumm, W. [Siegen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Using the example of primary energy consumption for methanol production from cellulose-rich biomass, it is shown that process chain analysis with mathematical modelling of the technical systems enables calculations of eco-inventories as a function of the relevant process parameters. Optimisation of process chains with regard to ecological indicators or cost necessitates mathematical modelling because of the many different parameters and parameter combinations involved. (orig) [Deutsch] Am Beispiel des Primaerenergieaufwands bei der Methanolgewinnung aus zellulosealtiger Biomasse wurde gezeigt, dass die Prozesskettenanalyse mit Abbildung der technischen Systeme in mathematischen Modellen die Berechnung von Oekoinventaren in Abhaengigkeit der relevanten Prozessparameter erlaubt. Die Optimierung von Prozessketten hinsichtlich oekologischer Indikatoren oder Kosten ist wegen der Vielzahl an unterschiedlichen Parametern und deren Kombinationsmoeglichkeiten nur mit Hilfe mathematischer Modelle moeglich. (orig)

  1. Process chain analysis for methanol production from biomass with the aid of mathematical models; Prozesskettenanalyse fuer die Methanolerzeugung aus Biomasse mit Hilfe von mathematischen Modellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saller, G; Krumm, W [Siegen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Using the example of primary energy consumption for methanol production from cellulose-rich biomass, it is shown that process chain analysis with mathematical modelling of the technical systems enables calculations of eco-inventories as a function of the relevant process parameters. Optimisation of process chains with regard to ecological indicators or cost necessitates mathematical modelling because of the many different parameters and parameter combinations involved. (orig) [Deutsch] Am Beispiel des Primaerenergieaufwands bei der Methanolgewinnung aus zellulosealtiger Biomasse wurde gezeigt, dass die Prozesskettenanalyse mit Abbildung der technischen Systeme in mathematischen Modellen die Berechnung von Oekoinventaren in Abhaengigkeit der relevanten Prozessparameter erlaubt. Die Optimierung von Prozessketten hinsichtlich oekologischer Indikatoren oder Kosten ist wegen der Vielzahl an unterschiedlichen Parametern und deren Kombinationsmoeglichkeiten nur mit Hilfe mathematischer Modelle moeglich. (orig)

  2. Assessment of fire emission inventories during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pereira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fires associated with land use and land cover changes release large amounts of aerosols and trace gases into the atmosphere. Although several inventories of biomass burning emissions cover Brazil, there are still considerable uncertainties and differences among them. While most fire emission inventories utilize the parameters of burned area, vegetation fuel load, emission factors, and other parameters to estimate the biomass burned and its associated emissions, several more recent inventories apply an alternative method based on fire radiative power (FRP observations to estimate the amount of biomass burned and the corresponding emissions of trace gases and aerosols. The Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model (3BEM and the Fire Inventory from NCAR (FINN are examples of the first, while the Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model with FRP assimilation (3BEM_FRP and the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS are examples of the latter. These four biomass burning emission inventories were used during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field campaign. This paper analyzes and inter-compared them, focusing on eight regions in Brazil and the time period of 1 September–31 October 2012. Aerosol optical thickness (AOT550 nm derived from measurements made by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS operating on board the Terra and Aqua satellites is also applied to assess the inventories' consistency. The daily area-averaged pyrogenic carbon monoxide (CO emission estimates exhibit significant linear correlations (r, p  >  0.05 level, Student t test between 3BEM and FINN and between 3BEM_ FRP and GFAS, with values of 0.86 and 0.85, respectively. These results indicate that emission estimates in this region derived via similar methods tend to agree with one other. However, they differ more from the estimates derived via the alternative approach. The evaluation of MODIS AOT550 nm indicates that model

  3. Assessment of fire emission inventories during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gabriel; Siqueira, Ricardo; Rosário, Nilton E.; Longo, Karla L.; Freitas, Saulo R.; Cardozo, Francielle S.; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Wooster, Martin J.

    2016-06-01

    Fires associated with land use and land cover changes release large amounts of aerosols and trace gases into the atmosphere. Although several inventories of biomass burning emissions cover Brazil, there are still considerable uncertainties and differences among them. While most fire emission inventories utilize the parameters of burned area, vegetation fuel load, emission factors, and other parameters to estimate the biomass burned and its associated emissions, several more recent inventories apply an alternative method based on fire radiative power (FRP) observations to estimate the amount of biomass burned and the corresponding emissions of trace gases and aerosols. The Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model (3BEM) and the Fire Inventory from NCAR (FINN) are examples of the first, while the Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model with FRP assimilation (3BEM_FRP) and the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) are examples of the latter. These four biomass burning emission inventories were used during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field campaign. This paper analyzes and inter-compared them, focusing on eight regions in Brazil and the time period of 1 September-31 October 2012. Aerosol optical thickness (AOT550 nm) derived from measurements made by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) operating on board the Terra and Aqua satellites is also applied to assess the inventories' consistency. The daily area-averaged pyrogenic carbon monoxide (CO) emission estimates exhibit significant linear correlations (r, p > 0.05 level, Student t test) between 3BEM and FINN and between 3BEM_ FRP and GFAS, with values of 0.86 and 0.85, respectively. These results indicate that emission estimates in this region derived via similar methods tend to agree with one other. However, they differ more from the estimates derived via the alternative approach. The evaluation of MODIS AOT550 nm indicates that model simulation driven by 3BEM and FINN

  4. The Analysis of Vertical Transaction Behavior and Performance Based on Automobile Brand Trust in Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglan Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nontrust behaviors among the automobile supply chain members lead to a trust crisis situation. Under such circumstances, this paper studies the mutual influences of trust, enterprise behavior, and transaction performance on the independent brand automobile supply chain. The business behavior concept which consists of information sharing, joint action, and specific asset investment is proposed. Then, the paper tests the reliability and validity of the collected data through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. Through empirical test and analysis on mutual relationship among vertical transaction enterprise behaviors, trust, and transaction performance, the vertical transaction enterprise behaviors can be regulated, so as to improve the efficiency of independent brand automobile supply chain.

  5. Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

  6. Epithermal neutron activation analysis of Spirulina platensis biomass, of the C-phycocianin and of DNA extracted from it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Khizanishvili, A.I.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Pomyakushina, E.V.

    2002-01-01

    The epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) was used for study of the biomass of Spirulina platensis. The background levels of concentration of 27 macro-, micro- and trace elements ranging from 10 -3 up to 10 4 ppm were determined. It was found that the biomass of Spirulina does not contain toxic elements above the tolerance levels and can be utilized as a matrix of pharmaceuticals based on it. The concentrations of basic elements in C-phycocianin and DNA extracted from Spirulina platensis were determined by ENAA. A comparison of the element content of a whole Spirulina biomass with that of a refined C-phycocianin preparation was made

  7. Application of Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis to Investigate Accumulation and Adsorption of Mercury by Spirulina platensis Biomass

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Khizanishvili, A I; Frontasyeva, M V; Kirkesali, E I; Aksenova, N G

    2004-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis was used to study interaction of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis with toxic metal mercury. Various concentrations of Hg(II) were added to cell cultures in a nutrient medium. The dynamics of accumulation of Hg was investigated over several days in relation to Spirulina biomass growth. The process of Hg adsorption by Spirulina biomass was studied in short-time experiments. The isotherm of adsorption was carried out in Freindlich coordinates. Natural Spirulina biomass has potential to be used in the remediation of sewage waters at Hg concentrations \\sim 100 {\\mu}g/l.

  8. Application of epithermal neutron activation analysis to investigate accumulation and adsorption of mercury by Spirulina platensis biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Khizanishvili, A.I.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Aksenova, N.G.

    2004-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis was used to study interaction of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis with toxic metal mercury. Various concentrations of Hg(II) were added to cell cultures in a nutrient medium. The dynamics of accumulation of Hg was investigated over several days in relation to Spirulina biomass growth. The process of Hg adsorption by Spirulina biomass was studied in short-time experiments. The isotherm of adsorption was carried out in Freindlich coordinates. Natural Spirulina biomass has potential to be used in the remediation of sewage waters at Hg concentrations ∼100 μg/1

  9. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of Spirulina platensis Biomass, of the C-Phycocianin and of DNA Extracted from It

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Belokobylsky, A I; Kirkesali, E I; Khizanishvili, A I; Pomyakushina, E V

    2002-01-01

    The epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) was used for study of the biomass of Spirulina platensis. The background levels of concentration 27 macro-, micro- and trace elements ranging from 10^{-3} up to 10^{4} ppm were determined. It was found that the biomass of spirulina does not contain toxic elements above the tolerance levels and can be utilized as a matrix of pharmaceuticals based on it. The concentrations of basic elements in C-phycocianin and DNA extracted from Spirulina platensis were determined by ENAA. A comparison of the element content of a whole spirulina biomass with that of a refined C-phycocianin preparation was made.

  10. Biomass energy potential in Brazil. Country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, J [Biomass Users Network-Brazil Regional Office, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1995-12-01

    The present paper was prepared as a country study about the biomass potential for energy production in Brazil. Information and analysis of the most relevant biomass energy sources and their potential are presented in six chapters. Ethanol fuel, sugar-cane bagasse, charcoal, vegetable oil, firewood and other biomass-derived fuels are the objects of a historical review, in addition to the presentation of state-of-the-art technologies, economic analysis and discussion of relevant social and environmental issues related to their production and use. Wherever possible, an evaluation, from the available sources of information and based on the author`s knowledge, is performed to access future perspectives of each biomass energy source. Brazil is a country where more than half of the energy consumed is provided from renewable sources of energy, and biomass provides 28% of the primary energy consumption. Its large extension, almost all located in the tropical and rainy region, provides an excellent site for large-scale biomass production, which is a necessity if biomass is to be used to supply a significant part of future energy demand. Even so, deforestation has occurred and is occurring in the country, and the issue is discussed and explained as mainly the result of non-energy causes or the use of old and outdated technologies for energy production. (author) 115 refs, figs, tabs

  11. Biomass energy potential in Brazil. Country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, J.

    1995-01-01

    The present paper was prepared as a country study about the biomass potential for energy production in Brazil. Information and analysis of the most relevant biomass energy sources and their potential are presented in six chapters. Ethanol fuel, sugar-cane bagasse, charcoal, vegetable oil, firewood and other biomass-derived fuels are the objects of a historical review, in addition to the presentation of state-of-the-art technologies, economic analysis and discussion of relevant social and environmental issues related to their production and use. Wherever possible, an evaluation, from the available sources of information and based on the author's knowledge, is performed to access future perspectives of each biomass energy source. Brazil is a country where more than half of the energy consumed is provided from renewable sources of energy, and biomass provides 28% of the primary energy consumption. Its large extension, almost all located in the tropical and rainy region, provides an excellent site for large-scale biomass production, which is a necessity if biomass is to be used to supply a significant part of future energy demand. Even so, deforestation has occurred and is occurring in the country, and the issue is discussed and explained as mainly the result of non-energy causes or the use of old and outdated technologies for energy production. (author)

  12. Frequency-domain analysis of resonant-type ring magnet power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.M.S.; Reiniger, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    For fast-cycling synchrotrons, resonant-type ring magnet power supplies are commonly used to provide a dc-biased ac excitation for the ring magnets. Up to the present, this power supply system has been analyzed using simplified analytical approximation, namely assuming the resonant frequency of the ring magnet network is fixed and equal to the accelerator frequency. This paper presents a frequency-domain analysis technique for a more accurate analysis of resonant-type ring magnet power supplies. This approach identifies that, with the variation of the resonant frequency, the operating conditions of the power supply changes quite dramatically because of the high Q value of the resonant network. The analytical results are verified, using both experimental results and simulation results

  13. Increasing Supply-Chain Visibility with Rule-Based RFID Data Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilic, A.; Andersen, Thomas; Michahelles, F.

    2009-01-01

    RFID technology tracks the flow of physical items and goods in supply chains to help users detect inefficiencies, such as shipment delays, theft, or inventory problems. An inevitable consequence, however, is that it generates huge numbers of events. To exploit these large amounts of data, the Sup......RFID technology tracks the flow of physical items and goods in supply chains to help users detect inefficiencies, such as shipment delays, theft, or inventory problems. An inevitable consequence, however, is that it generates huge numbers of events. To exploit these large amounts of data......, the Supply Chain Visualizer increases supply-chain visibility by analyzing RFID data, using a mix of automated analysis techniques and human effort. The tool's core concepts include rule-based analysis techniques and a map-based representation interface. With these features, it lets users visualize...

  14. Analysis and comparison of biomass pyrolysis/gasification condensates: an interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.C.

    1985-09-01

    This report provides results of chemical and physical analysis of condensates from eleven biomass gasification and pyrolysis systems. The analyses were performed in order to provide more detailed data concerning these condensates for the different process research groups and to allow a determination of the differences in properties of the condensates as a function of reactor environment. The samples were representative of the various reactor configurations being researched within the Department of Energy, Biomass Thermochemical Conversion program. The condensates included tar phases, aqueous phases and, in some cases, both phases depending on the output of the particular reactor system. The analyses included gross compositional analysis (elemental analysis, ash, moisture), physical characterization (pour point, viscosity, density, heat of combustion, distillation), specific chemical analysis (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, infrared spectrophotometry, proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry) and biological activity (Ames assay). The analytical data demonstrate the wide range of chemical composition of the organics recovered in the condensates and suggests a direct relationship between operating temperature and chemical composition of the condensates. A continuous pathway of thermal degradation of the tar components as a function of temperature is proposed. Variations in the chemical composition of the organic components in the tars are reflected in the physical properties of tars and phase stability in relation to water in the condensate. The biological activity appears to be limited to the tars produced at high temperatures as a result of formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high concentrations. 55 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Catalytic routes from biomass to fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, Anders

    2014-01-01

    chain unaffected. This presentation will survey the status of biofuels production from different sources, and discuss the sustainability of making transportation fuels from biomass. Furthermore, recently developed chemocatalytic technologies that allow efficient conversion of lignocellulosic biomass...... the chemical industry to find new feasible chemocatalytic routes to convert the components of lignocellulosic plant biomass (green biomass) as well as aquatic biomass (blue biomass) into potential platform chemicals that can replace the fossil based chemicals in order to leave the chemical supply and value...

  16. Ordering Strategy Analysis of Prefabricated Component Manufacturer in Construction Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hongxiong; Chung, Jacky K. H.; Chen, Yuhong; Pan, Yifan; Mei, Zhiling; Sun, Xiongle

    2018-01-01

    Firstly, the characteristics and present situations of the prefabricated construction supply chain are analyzed; inventory cost models for construction material of every phase order, one-off order, and fractionated order are built based on traditional EOQ model and construction supply chain theory. Next, the order decision is represented in binary numbers 0 and 1, in which 0 stands for “no order” and 1 for “order.” The analysis uses the genetic algorithm, sets the objective function, and unde...

  17. Techno-economic analysis of organosolv pretreatment process from lignocellulosic biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues Gurgel da Silva, Andrè; Errico, Massimiliano; Rong, Ben-Guang

    2018-01-01

    data, we propose a feasible process flowsheet for organosolv pretreatment. Simulation of the pretreatment process provided mass and energy balances for a techno-economic analysis, and the values were compared with the most prevalent and mature pretreatment method: diluted acid. Organosolv pretreatment...... required more energy, 578.1 versus 213.8 MW for diluted acid pretreatment, but resulted in a higher ethanol concentration after the biomass fermentation, 11.1% compared to 5.4%. Total annual costs (TACs) calculations showed advantages for diluted acid pretreatment, but future improvements explored...

  18. Application of data envelopment analysis models in supply chain management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soheilirad, Somayeh; Govindan, Kannan; Mardani, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    . Regarding this, some major databases including Web of Science and Scopus have been nominated and systematic and meta-analysis method which called “PRISMA” has been proposed. Accordingly, a review of 75 published articles appearing in 35 scholarly international journals and conferences between 1996 and 2016...

  19. Feasibility study on the potential of development of renewable energies for the ZAC de l'Horloge in Romainville. Study of opportunities in renewable energies and definition of energy supply scenarios. Analysis and comparison of energy supply scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    A first report proposes an overview of available renewable energy sources (geothermal, solar, and wind energy, green electricity, methanization, wood energy, waste water valorisation, connection to an existing heat network). For each of them, it presents a resource assessment, a discussion of constraints, or, should the occasion occur an overview of local providers (for wood), or an assessment of different options (small and large wind energy installations). It also presents demands made by existing sites on the studied area and at its neighbourhood. Energy supply scenarios are briefly defined. The second report proposes an analysis and a comparison of these scenarios. After a presentation of hypotheses and methodology, scenarios are presented in terms of energy needs, energy production and its relationship with the performance of positive energy buildings, adequacy with resource. Beside a reference scenario, these scenarios are named Dogger, Biomass, Wood, Clustered sectors. Comparison is performed in terms of energetic, economic and environmental assessments

  20. Economic and Technical Efficiency of the Biomass Industry in China: A Network Data Envelopment Analysis Model Involving Externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyou Yan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the network data envelopment analysis (DEA model accounting for negative externalities and applies it for decomposition of profit inefficiency in the biomass-agriculture circular system (Bio-AG system. A circular structure of the Bio-AG system which is different from the previously applied network structures is assumed. Since the negative externalities (i.e., pollutant emissions from the biomass industry occur in the Bio-AG system, the property rights are taken into consideration to model the externalities-adjusted profits. Therefore, the changes in profits due to changes in the property rights (assuming no property rights, allocating property rights to agricultural sector, and allocating property rights to biomass power generation sector are quantified. Further, the decomposition shows that the biomass power generation sector is less affected by technical inefficiency if contrasted to allocative inefficiency in terms of the profit loss. The findings suggest that the biomass power generation technology influences the profits of the biomass industry. What is more, the inefficient allocation of resources is now the key factor undermining performance of the biomass industry. Therefore, the government should adopt measures to improve the allocation of resources and prevent excessive investments or development of less efficient technologies.

  1. China’s Rare Earths Supply Forecast in 2025: A Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Ge

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The supply of rare earths in China has been the focus of significant attention in recent years. Due to changes in regulatory policies and the development of strategic emerging industries, it is critical to investigate the scenario of rare earth supplies in 2025. To address this question, this paper constructed a dynamic computable equilibrium (DCGE model to forecast the production, domestic supply, and export of China’s rare earths in 2025. Based on our analysis, production will increase by 10.8%–12.6% and achieve 116,335–118,260 tons of rare-earth oxide (REO in 2025, based on recent extraction control during 2011–2016. Moreover, domestic supply and export will be 75,081–76,800 tons REO and 38,797–39,400 tons REO, respectively. The technological improvements on substitution and recycling will significantly decrease the supply and mining activities of rare earths. From a policy perspective, we found that the elimination of export regulations, including export quotas and export taxes, does have a negative impact on China’s future domestic supply of rare earths. The policy conflicts between the increase in investment in strategic emerging industries, and the increase in resource and environmental taxes on rare earths will also affect China’s rare earths supply in the future.

  2. Insights into pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of biomass and polystyrene: Thermochemical behaviors, kinetics and evolved gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özsin, Gamzenur; Pütün, Ayşe Eren

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • TGA/MS/FT-IR was used to explore effect of polystyrene on pyrolytic decomposition of biomass. • The model-free iso-conversional methods were used for kinetic analysis. • Interactions occurred depending on the characteristics of the biomass. • TGA/MS and TGA/FT-IR coupling were used for gas analysis of co-pyrolysis for the first time. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect on polystyrene (PS) during co-pyrolysis with biomass through thermal decomposition. The model-free iso-conversional methods (Kissinger, Friedman, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose, Starink and Vyazovkin) were adopted to calculate activation energy of the pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis process of two biomass samples (walnut shell: WS and peach stones: PST) with PS. It is found that biomass blending to PS decreased activation energy values and resulted in multi-step reaction mechanisms. Furthermore, changes in the evolution profiles of methyl, water, methoxy, carbon dioxide, benzene and styrene was monitored through evolved gas analysis via TGA/FT-IR and TGA/MS. Detection of temperature dependent release of volatiles indicated the differences occur as a result of compositional differences of biomass.

  3. Global sugar market – the analysis of factors influencing supply and demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Rumánková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with an analysis of the world sugar market, and specifically focuses on the supply and demand of refined sugar and their main determinants. The article first identifies the main determinants of the world supply of and demand for sugar, and further, their effect on such variables is quantified. Further, the component correlations on the selected market are analyzed. This consists of the identification of the factors affecting the production of refined sugar, as one of the main elements of the supply of sugar, as well as an analysis of the world price of sugar, as one of the significant factors affecting the world sugar market. The said correlations are quantified with the utilization of regression analysis on the basis of time series of the individual variables within the years 1980–2010. On the basis of the conducted analysis, the main determinants of the sugar supply on the world market within the analyzed period, for which an effect has been established both from an economic viewpoint, as well as from a statistical viewpoint, can be considered to be sugar reserves, its price and the acreage of sugarcane. The main determinant of the demand for sugar is, according to the conducted analysis, the global GDP on a new value level, as well as converted to one inhabitant. Further, the analysis also established the effect of the price of sugar and its reserves on the world production of refined sugar, and, last but not least, also the long-term tendency in the development of the world price of sugar. The analysis has proven significant influence of refined sugar supply, reserves of refined sugar, its price and area of sugar cane on sugar supply. Then, the analysis detected GDP as the main determinant of the sugar demand and the long memory in sugar prices. Finally, the influence of delayed price, reserves and delayed reserves on production has been proven.

  4. Energy efficiency analysis: biomass-to-wheel efficiency related with biofuels production, fuel distribution, and powertrain systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Dong Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Energy efficiency analysis for different biomass-utilization scenarios would help make more informed decisions for developing future biomass-based transportation systems. Diverse biofuels produced from biomass include cellulosic ethanol, butanol, fatty acid ethyl esters, methane, hydrogen, methanol, dimethyether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and bioelectricity; the respective powertrain systems include internal combustion engine (ICE vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles based on gasoline or diesel ICEs, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, sugar fuel cell vehicles (SFCV, and battery electric vehicles (BEV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a simple, straightforward, and transparent biomass-to-wheel (BTW analysis including three separate conversion elements--biomass-to-fuel conversion, fuel transport and distribution, and respective powertrain systems. BTW efficiency is a ratio of the kinetic energy of an automobile's wheels to the chemical energy of delivered biomass just before entering biorefineries. Up to 13 scenarios were analyzed and compared to a base line case--corn ethanol/ICE. This analysis suggests that BEV, whose electricity is generated from stationary fuel cells, and SFCV, based on a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle with an on-board sugar-to-hydrogen bioreformer, would have the highest BTW efficiencies, nearly four times that of ethanol-ICE. SIGNIFICANCE: In the long term, a small fraction of the annual US biomass (e.g., 7.1%, or 700 million tons of biomass would be sufficient to meet 100% of light-duty passenger vehicle fuel needs (i.e., 150 billion gallons of gasoline/ethanol per year, through up to four-fold enhanced BTW efficiencies by using SFCV or BEV. SFCV would have several advantages over BEV: much higher energy storage densities, faster refilling rates, better safety, and less environmental burdens.

  5. Energy Efficiency Analysis: Biomass-to-Wheel Efficiency Related with Biofuels Production, Fuel Distribution, and Powertrain Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2011-01-01

    Background Energy efficiency analysis for different biomass-utilization scenarios would help make more informed decisions for developing future biomass-based transportation systems. Diverse biofuels produced from biomass include cellulosic ethanol, butanol, fatty acid ethyl esters, methane, hydrogen, methanol, dimethyether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and bioelectricity; the respective powertrain systems include internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles based on gasoline or diesel ICEs, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, sugar fuel cell vehicles (SFCV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV). Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a simple, straightforward, and transparent biomass-to-wheel (BTW) analysis including three separate conversion elements -- biomass-to-fuel conversion, fuel transport and distribution, and respective powertrain systems. BTW efficiency is a ratio of the kinetic energy of an automobile's wheels to the chemical energy of delivered biomass just before entering biorefineries. Up to 13 scenarios were analyzed and compared to a base line case – corn ethanol/ICE. This analysis suggests that BEV, whose electricity is generated from stationary fuel cells, and SFCV, based on a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle with an on-board sugar-to-hydrogen bioreformer, would have the highest BTW efficiencies, nearly four times that of ethanol-ICE. Significance In the long term, a small fraction of the annual US biomass (e.g., 7.1%, or 700 million tons of biomass) would be sufficient to meet 100% of light-duty passenger vehicle fuel needs (i.e., 150 billion gallons of gasoline/ethanol per year), through up to four-fold enhanced BTW efficiencies by using SFCV or BEV. SFCV would have several advantages over BEV: much higher energy storage densities, faster refilling rates, better safety, and less environmental burdens. PMID:21765941

  6. Energy efficiency analysis: biomass-to-wheel efficiency related with biofuels production, fuel distribution, and powertrain systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2011-01-01

    Energy efficiency analysis for different biomass-utilization scenarios would help make more informed decisions for developing future biomass-based transportation systems. Diverse biofuels produced from biomass include cellulosic ethanol, butanol, fatty acid ethyl esters, methane, hydrogen, methanol, dimethyether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and bioelectricity; the respective powertrain systems include internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles based on gasoline or diesel ICEs, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, sugar fuel cell vehicles (SFCV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV). We conducted a simple, straightforward, and transparent biomass-to-wheel (BTW) analysis including three separate conversion elements--biomass-to-fuel conversion, fuel transport and distribution, and respective powertrain systems. BTW efficiency is a ratio of the kinetic energy of an automobile's wheels to the chemical energy of delivered biomass just before entering biorefineries. Up to 13 scenarios were analyzed and compared to a base line case--corn ethanol/ICE. This analysis suggests that BEV, whose electricity is generated from stationary fuel cells, and SFCV, based on a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle with an on-board sugar-to-hydrogen bioreformer, would have the highest BTW efficiencies, nearly four times that of ethanol-ICE. In the long term, a small fraction of the annual US biomass (e.g., 7.1%, or 700 million tons of biomass) would be sufficient to meet 100% of light-duty passenger vehicle fuel needs (i.e., 150 billion gallons of gasoline/ethanol per year), through up to four-fold enhanced BTW efficiencies by using SFCV or BEV. SFCV would have several advantages over BEV: much higher energy storage densities, faster refilling rates, better safety, and less environmental burdens.

  7. Supply chain analysis of e-tailing versus retailing operation - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sameer; Tiffany, Maryellen; Vaidya, Salil

    2016-07-01

    The swift growth of e-commerce or e-tailing as a consumer retail channel has made it a serious competitor to traditional retail channels and is changing consumers' purchasing behaviour. The purpose of this case study, based on Target and Amazon.com, is to analyse the attributes of traditional retailing, e-tailing, and hybrid supply chain models to form conclusions about the feasibility of an idealised supply chain model for the future. An integrated and generalised modelling framework is used that incorporates Six Sigma - define, measure, analyse, improve, control methodology leveraging various tools, including process flow maps, cause and effect diagram, performance efficiency metrics, failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), and Monte Carlo simulation. Based on this analysis and research, the conclusion is that the idealised supply chain of the future may evolve into a hybrid supply chain, which includes both e-tail and retail channels. The main recommendations from this study include assessing the risks of migrating to such a hybrid supply chain and to leverage the recommended actions provided in the hybrid FMEA. To facilitate more effective and mature processes, this study can guide researchers in exhaustive empirical evaluations of hybrid supply chains, gather experiences and lessons learned for practitioners.

  8. Price competition and equilibrium analysis in multiple hybrid channel supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Guihua; Wang, Aihu; Sha, Jin

    2017-06-01

    The amazing boom of Internet and logistics industry prompts more and more enterprises to sell commodity through multiple channels. Such market conditions make the participants of multiple hybrid channel supply chain compete each other in traditional and direct channel at the same time. This paper builds a two-echelon supply chain model with a single manufacturer and a single retailer who both can choose different channel or channel combination for their own sales, then, discusses the price competition and calculates the equilibrium price under different sales channel selection combinations. Our analysis shows that no matter the manufacturer and retailer choose same or different channel price to compete, the equilibrium price does not necessarily exist the equilibrium price in the multiple hybrid channel supply chain and wholesale price change is not always able to coordinate supply chain completely. We also present the sufficient and necessary conditions for the existence of equilibrium price and coordination wholesale price.

  9. Design and analysis of high current DC power supply for vacuum arc melting furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikary, Santu; Sharma, Vishnu Kumar; Sharma, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Vacuum Arc furnace (VAR), is used for melting of ingot in many industrial units. Till now in many industries the existing power supply for VAR is based on magnetic amplifier, which is a lossy component. Thus an efficient topology is needed to develop as a suitable alternative for the existing power supply. Basically Arc in electrical furnace is an unstable phenomena, it has drooping characteristic in nature so to stabilize the arc we need a power supply across the load (arc), which is more drooping in nature than arc characteristics. So this paper highlights the stability and response analysis of several alternative topologies and Stabilization of arc using the feedback and firing angle control in MATLAB. The work also covers comparison among those topologies to choose the optimized topology as a suitable alternative of the existing magnetic amplifier based power supply and the detail design of the proposed topology with a tested trail circuit in PROTEUS. (author)

  10. Possibility analysis of combustion of torrefied biomass in 140 t/h PC boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagodzińska Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to evaluate the impact of combustion of torrefied willow (Latin: Salix viminalis and palm kernel shell (Latin: Elaeis guineensis on the heat exchange in a 140 t/h PC boiler through an analysis of 6 cases for different boiler loads (60 %, 75 % and 100 % and a comparison with coal combustion. The analysis is premised on a 0-dimensional model based on the method presented in [15, 16, 17] and long-standing experimental measurements. Inter alia, the following results are presented: the temperature distribution of flue gases and the working medium (water/steam in characteristic points of the boiler as well as heat transfer coefficients for each element thereof. The temperature distribution of both fluids and the heat transfer coefficients are similar for all analysed fuels for each boiler load. However, the flue gas temperature at the outlet is higher in the case of torrefied biomass combustion. Due to that, there is an increase in the stack loss, which involves a decrease in the boiler efficiency. The conclusion is that torrefied biomass combustion is possible in a PC boiler without the need to change the boiler construction. However, it would be less effective than coal combustion.

  11. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Three Biofuel Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Erin Searcy; Kara Cafferty; Jennifer B. Dunn; Michael Johnson; Zhichao Wang; Michael Wang; Mary Biddy; Abhijit Dutta; Daniel Inman; Eric Tan; Sue Jones; Lesley Snowden-Swan

    2013-11-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) collaborates with industrial, agricultural, and non-profit partners to develop and deploy biofuels and other biologically-derived products. As part of this effort, BETO and its national laboratory teams conduct in-depth techno-economic assessments (TEA) of technologies to produce biofuels as part state of technology (SOT) analyses. An SOT assesses progress within and across relevant technology areas based on actual experimental results relative to technical targets and cost goals from design cases and includes technical, economic, and environmental criteria as available. Overall assessments of biofuel pathways begin with feedstock production and the logistics of transporting the feedstock from the farm or plantation to the conversion facility or biorefinery. The conversion process itself is modeled in detail as part of the SOT analysis. The teams then develop an estimate of the biofuel minimum selling price (MSP) and assess the cost competitiveness of the biofuel with conventional fuels such as gasoline.

  12. BENEFIT COST FOR BIOMASS CO-FIRING IN ELECTRICITY GENERATION: CASE OF UTAH, U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Keun Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Policy making regarding biomass co-firing is difficult. The article provides a benefit-cost analysis for decision makers to facilitate policy making process to implement efficient biomass co-firing policy. The additional cost is the sum of cost of the biomass procurement and biomass transportation. Co-benefits are sales of greenhouse gas emission credits and health benefit from reducing harmful air pollutants, especially particulate matter. The benefit-cost analysis is constructed for semi-arid U.S. region, Utah, where biomass supply is limited. Results show that biomass co-firing is not economically feasible in Utah but would be feasible when co-benefits are considered. Benefit-cost ratio is critically dependent upon biomass and carbon credit prices. The procedure to build the benefit-cost ratio can be applied for any region with other scenarios suggested in this study.

  13. The water footprint of energy from biomass: a quantitative assessment and consequences of an increasing share of bio-energy in energy supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the water footprint (WF) of different primary energy carriers derived from biomass expressed as the amount of water consumed to produce a unit of energy (m3/GJ). The paper observes large differences among the WFs for specific types of primary bio-energy carriers. The WF depends

  14. Biomass production on the Olympic and Kitsap Peninsulas, Washington: updated logging residue ratios, slash pile volume-to-weight ratios, and supply curves for selected locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason C. Cross; Eric C. Turnblom; Gregory J. Ettl

    2013-01-01

    Biomass residue produced by timber harvest operations is estimated for the Olympic and Kitsap Peninsulas, Washington. Scattered residues were sampled in 53 harvest units and piled residues were completely enumerated in 55 harvest units. Production is based on 2008 and 2009 data and is stratified by forest location, ownership type, harvest intensity, and harvest method...

  15. Lidar and Hyperspectral Remote Sensing for the Analysis of Coniferous Biomass Stocks and Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halligan, K. Q.; Roberts, D. A.

    2006-12-01

    Airborne lidar and hyperspectral data can improve estimates of aboveground carbon stocks and fluxes through their complimentary responses to vegetation structure and biochemistry. While strong relationships have been demonstrated between lidar-estimated vegetation structural parameters and field data, research is needed to explore the portability of these methods across a range of topographic conditions, disturbance histories, vegetation type and climate. Additionally, research is needed to evaluate contributions of hyperspectral data in refining biomass estimates and determination of fluxes. To address these questions we are a conducting study of lidar and hyperspectral remote sensing data across sites including coniferous forests, broadleaf deciduous forests and a tropical rainforest. Here we focus on a single study site, Yellowstone National Park, where tree heights, stem locations, above ground biomass and basal area were mapped using first-return small-footprint lidar data. A new method using lidar intensity data was developed for separating the terrain and vegetation components in lidar data using a two-scale iterative local minima filter. Resulting Digital Terrain Models (DTM) and Digital Canopy Models (DCM) were then processed to retrieve a diversity of vertical and horizontal structure metrics. Univariate linear models were used to estimate individual tree heights while stepwise linear regression was used to estimate aboveground biomass and basal area. Three small-area field datasets were compared for their utility in model building and validation of vegetation structure parameters. All structural parameters were linearly correlated with lidar-derived metrics, with higher accuracies obtained where field and imagery data were precisely collocated . Initial analysis of hyperspectral data suggests that vegetation health metrics including measures of live and dead vegetation and stress indices may provide good indicators of carbon flux by mapping vegetation

  16. Reliability analysis for power supply system in a reprocessing facility based on GO methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Renze

    2014-01-01

    GO methodology was applied to analyze the reliability of power supply system in a typical reprocessing facility. Based on the fact that tie breakers are set in the system, tie breaker operator was defined. Then GO methodology modeling and quantitative analysis were performed sequently, minimal cut sets and average unavailability of the system were obtained. Parallel analysis between GO methodology and fault tree methodology was also performed. The results showed that setup of tie breakers was rational and necessary and that the modeling was much easier and the chart was much more succinct for GO methodology parallel with fault tree methodology to analyze the reliability of the power supply system. (author)

  17. Decision Analysis of Advertising and Price for Bilateral Competing Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Tang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of centralized equilibrium, prisoner's dilemma equilibrium, and decentralized equilibrium under different decision models has been provided with regards to bilateral competing supply chain system, either side of which is composed of one manufacturer and one retailer. Theoretical analysis indicates a positive correlation between price and one's own advertising investment level and a negative correlation between price and the opponent's advertising investment level. Through analysis of numerical examples, the results reveal a first mover advantage that leads to prisoner's dilemma in the system as well as the impact that price and advertising competition intensity has on the supply chain's choice of decision model.

  18. Spatial-temporal management zones for biomass moisture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountas, S; Bochtis, Dionysis; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    Biomass handling operations (harvesting, raking, collection, and transportation) are critical operations within the agricultural production system since they constitute the first link in the biomass supply chain, a fact of substantial importance considering the increasingly involvement of biomass...

  19. Goal and Scope in Life Cycle Sustainability Analysis: The Case of Hydrogen Production from Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Stefanova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The framework for life cycle sustainability analysis (LCSA developed within the project CALCAS (Co-ordination Action for innovation in Life-Cycle Analysis for Sustainability is introducing a truly integrated approach for sustainability studies. However, it needs to be further conceptually refined and to be made operational. In particular, one of the gaps still hindering the adoption of integrated analytic tools for sustainability studies is the lack of a clear link between the goal and scope definition and the modeling phase. This paper presents an approach to structure the goal and scope phase of LCSA so as to identify the relevant mechanisms to be further detailed and analyzed in the modeling phase. The approach is illustrated with an on-going study on a new technology for the production of high purity hydrogen from biomass, to be used in automotive fuel cells.

  20. Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Machinal, Michelle A.

    2011-06-01

    ). This study is part of an ongoing effort within the Department of Energy to meet the renewable energy goals for liquid transportation fuels. The objective of this report is to present a techno-economic evaluation of the performance and cost of various biomass based thermochemical fuel production. This report also documents the economics that were originally developed for the report entitled “Biofuels in Oregon and Washington: A Business Case Analysis of Opportunities and Challenges” (Stiles et al. 2008). Although the resource assessments were specific to the Pacific Northwest, the production economics presented in this report are not regionally limited. This study uses a consistent technical and economic analysis approach and assumptions to gasification and liquefaction based fuel production technologies. The end fuels studied are methanol, ethanol, DME, SNG, gasoline and diesel.

  1. A fuzzy MICMAC analysis for improving supply chain performance of basic vaccines in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Dheeraj; Kumar, Dinesh

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, demand to improve child immunization coverage globally, and the development of the latest vaccines and technology has made the vaccine market very complex. The rise in such complexities often gives birth to numerous issues in the vaccine supply chain, which are the primary cause of its poor performance. Figuring out the cause of the performance problem can help you decide how to address it. The goal of the present study is to identify and analyze important issues in the supply chain of basic vaccines required for child immunization in the developing countries. Twenty-five key issues as various factors of the vaccine supply chain have been presented in this paper. Fuzzy MICMAC analysis has been carried out to classify the factors based on their driving and dependence power and to develop a hierarchy based model. Further, the findings have been discussed with the field experts to identify the critical factors. Three factors: better demand forecast, communication between the supply chain members, and proper planning and scheduling have been identified as the critical factors of vaccine supply chain. These factors should be given special care to improve vaccine supply chain performance.

  2. The development of renewable energies and supply security: A trade-off analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Röpke, Luise

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of the green transformation on the German electricity sector with respect to the energy-political triangle. It focuses on how the development of renewable energies will affect security of electricity supply. In a cost–benefit analysis, the value of supply security is compared with its costs of provision. More specifically, the benefits of maintaining the present quality of electricity supply are the avoided social damages from electricity outages and are compared with the respective investment costs in the low- and medium-voltage distribution grid. It is shown that the transformation process towards a green and decentralized production structure will be costly for society, even though the costs can be reduced by different measures. - Highlights: • The effects of the transformation on the German electricity sector are analyzed. • The paper focuses on the trade-off between green energies and supply security. • The benefits of maintaining supply quality are compared with the investment costs. • The costs of maintaining supply quality by far exceed the induced welfare gains. • A strong focus on renewable energies endangers different energy-political goals

  3. Comparative Study of Coal and Biomass Co-Combustion With Coal Burning Separately Through Emissions Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Siddique; Suhail Ahmed Soomro; Aziza Aftab; Zahid Naeem Qaisrani; Abdul Sattar Jatoi; Asadullah; Ghulamullah Khan; Ehsanullah Kakar

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate eco-friendly methods to mitigate the problem of emissions from combustion of fossil fuel are highly demanded. The current study was focused on the effect of using coal & coal-biomass co-combustion on the gaseous emissions. Different biomass' were used along with coal. The coal used was lignite coal and the biomass' were tree waste, cow dung and banana tree leaves. Various ratios of coal and biomass were used to investigate the combustion behavior of coal-biomass blends and their ...

  4. Analysis of the electricity supply-demand balance during the winter of 2008-2009: moderate risk of supply disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-10-01

    Twice a year, RTE publishes a forecast study of the electricity supply and demand in continental France for the summer and winter periods. The study is based on the information supplied by electric utilities concerning the expected availability of power generation means and on statistical meteorological models. Safety margins are calculated using thousands of probabilistic scenarios combining various production and consumption situations. This report is the forecast study for the winter of 2008-2009

  5. Analysis of energy wood supply chain in thinning operations: a case study in a pine stand of Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldini S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Thinning is an essential practice in Mediterranean pine forests management but is rarely applied because of the high harvesting costs. The new market of bioenergy products could give a profit to wood biomass harvesting activities, though the drawbacks of elevated supply chain costs, related to technical problems and lack of knowledge about the wood quality have to be overcome in advance. This study analyzed technical, economic, energy and environmental factors of a pine stand thinning in Central Italy, where collected biomass was directed to energy, in order to give a decisional support to reach economical profitability and environmental sustainability in thinning practices. The introduction of Full Tree System maximized the recovery of available biomass, full tree chipping produced material with Heating Value superior than single tree components. The use of a felling frame in motor-manual felling in comparison with the traditional chainsaw reduced operator effort, increasing the number of felled trees per hour, when the stump diameter remained under 15 cm. The energy wood supply chain is not sustainable from an economic point of view, the profitability could be reached only acting on suggested technical levers and particularly reducing costs of hauling operation. The estimation of output/input energy ratio in the supply chain underlined the feasibility of thinning practices for energy. The assessment of CO2 emissions confirmed the environmental sustainability of biomass supply chain in energy when compared to traditional fossil fuels. Study conclusions provide the guidelines for thinning treatment in Mediterranean pine stands, in order to reach environmental and economic sustainability of these practices.

  6. Techno-Economic Analysis of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis to Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, M. M.; Satrio, J. A.; Brown, R. C.; Daugaard, D. E.; Hsu, D. D.

    2010-11-01

    This study develops techno-economic models for assessment of the conversion of biomass to valuable fuel products via fast pyrolysis and bio-oil upgrading. The upgrading process produces a mixture of naphtha-range (gasoline blend stock) and diesel-range (diesel blend stock) products. This study analyzes the economics of two scenarios: onsite hydrogen production by reforming bio-oil, and hydrogen purchase from an outside source. The study results for an nth plant indicate that petroleum fractions in the naphtha distillation range and in the diesel distillation range are produced from corn stover at a product value of $3.09/gal ($0.82/liter) with onsite hydrogen production or $2.11/gal ($0.56/liter) with hydrogen purchase. These values correspond to a $0.83/gal ($0.21/liter) cost to produce the bio-oil. Based on these nth plant numbers, product value for a pioneer hydrogen-producing plant is about $6.55/gal ($1.73/liter) and for a pioneer hydrogen-purchasing plant is about $3.41/gal ($0.92/liter). Sensitivity analysis identifies fuel yield as a key variable for the hydrogen-production scenario. Biomass cost is important for both scenarios. Changing feedstock cost from $50-$100 per short ton changes the price of fuel in the hydrogen production scenario from $2.57-$3.62/gal ($0.68-$0.96/liter).

  7. Thermoeconomic analysis of Biomass Integrated Gasification Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (BIG GT CC) cogeneration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrieta, Felipe Raul Ponce; Lora, Electo Silva [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Estudos de Sistemas Termicos]. E-mails: aponce@iem.efei.br; electo@iem.efei.br; Perez, Silvia Azucena Nebra de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: sanebra@fem. unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    Using thermoeconomics as a tool to identify the location and magnitude of the real thermodynamic losses (energy waste, or exergy destruction and exergy losses) it is possible to assess the production costs of each product (electric power and heat) and the exergetic and exergoeconomic cost of each flow in a cogeneration plant to assist in decision-marketing procedures concerning to plant design, investment, operation and allocations of research funds. Thermo economic analysis of Biomass Integrated Gasification Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (BIG GT CC) cogeneration plant for its applications in sugar cane mills brings the following results: the global exergetic efficiency is low; the highest irreversibilities occur in the following equipment, by order: scrubber (38%), gas turbine (16%), dryer (12%), gasifier and HRSG (6%); due to the adopted cost distribution methodology, the unit exergetic cost of the heat (4,11) is lower than electricity (4,71); the lower market price of biomass is one of the most sensible parameter in the possible implementation of BIG-GT technology in sugar cane industry; the production costs are 31 US$/MWh and 32 US$/MWh for electricity and heat, respectively. The electricity cost is, after all, competitive with the actual market price. The electricity and heat costs are lower or almost equal than other values reported for actual Rankine cycle cogeneration plants. (author)

  8. Tar analysis from biomass gasification by means of online fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumhakl, Christoph; Karellas, Sotirios

    2011-07-01

    Optical methods in gas analysis are very valuable mainly due to their non-intrusive character. That gives the possibility to use them for in-situ or online measurements with only optical intervention in the measurement volume. In processes like the gasification of biomass, it is of high importance to monitor the gas quality in order to use the product gas in proper machines for energy production following the restrictions in the gas composition but also improving its quality, which leads to high efficient systems. One of the main problems in the biomass gasification process is the formation of tars. These higher hydrocarbons can lead to problems in the operation of the energy system. Up to date, the state of the art method used widely for the determination of tars is a standardized offline measurement system, the so-called "Tar Protocol". The aim of this work is to describe an innovative, online, optical method for determining the tar content of the product gas by means of fluorescence spectroscopy. This method uses optical sources and detectors that can be found in the market at low cost and therefore it is very attractive, especially for industrial applications where cost efficiency followed by medium to high precision are of high importance.

  9. Application of GO methodology in reliability analysis of offsite power supply of Daya Bay NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Zupei; Li Xiaodong; Huang Xiangrui

    2003-01-01

    The author applies the GO methodology to reliability analysis of the offsite power supply system of Daya Bay NPP. The direct quantitative calculation formulas of the stable reliability target of the system with shared signals and the dynamic calculation formulas of the state probability for the unit with two states are derived. The method to solve the fault event sets of the system is also presented and all the fault event sets of the outer power supply system and their failure probability are obtained. The resumption reliability of the offsite power supply system after the stability failure of the power net is also calculated. The result shows that the GO methodology is very simple and useful in the stable and dynamic reliability analysis of the repairable system

  10. Quantification and mapping of the supply of and demand for carbon storage and sequestration service in woody biomass and soil to mitigate climate change in the socio-ecological environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahle, Mesfin; Saito, Osamu; Fürst, Christine; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

    2018-05-15

    In this study, the supply of and demand for carbon storage and sequestration of woody biomass in the socio-ecological environment of the Wabe River catchment in Gurage Mountains, Ethiopia, were estimated. This information was subsequently integrated into a map that showed the balance between supply capacities and demand in a spatially explicit manner to inform planners and decision makers on methods used to manage local climate change. Field data for wood biomass and soil were collected, satellite images for land use and land cover (LULC) were classified, and secondary data from statistics and studies for estimation were obtained. Carbon storage, the rate of carbon sequestration and the rate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from diverse sources at different LULCs, was estimated accordingly by several methods. Even though a large amount of carbon was stored in the catchment, the current yearly sequestration was less than the CO 2 -eq. GHG emissions. Forest and Enset-based agroforestry emissions exhibited the highest amount of woody biomass, and cereal crop and wetland exhibited the highest decrease in soil carbon sequestration. CO 2 -eq. GHG emissions are mainly caused by livestock, nitrogenous fertilizer consumption, and urban activities. The net negative emissions were estimated for the LULC classes of cereal crop, grazing land, and urban areas. In conclusion, without any high-emission industries, GHG emissions can be greater than the regulatory capacity of ecosystems in the socio-ecological environment. This quantification approach can provide information to policy and decision makers to enable them to tackle climate change at the root level. Thus, measures to decrease emission levels and enhance the sequestration capacity are crucial to mitigate the globally delivered service in a specific area. Further studies on the effects of land use alternatives on net emissions are recommended to obtain in-depth knowledge on sustainable land use planning. Copyright

  11. Feasibility study for biomass power plants in Thailand. Volume 2. appendix: Detailed financial analysis results. Export trade information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This study, conducted by Black and Veatch, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report presents a technical and commercial analysis for the development of three nearly identical electricity generating facilities (biomass steam power plants) in the towns of Chachgoengsao, Suphan Buri, and Pichit in Thailand. Volume 2 of the study contains the following appendix: Detailed Financial Analysis Results

  12. Ground-based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brito

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment, which consisted of a combination of aircraft and ground-based measurements over Brazil, aimed to investigate the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality, and numerical weather prediction over South America. The campaign took place during the dry season and the transition to the wet season in September/October 2012. During most of the campaign, the site was impacted by regional biomass burning pollution (average CO mixing ratio of 0.6 ppm, occasionally superimposed by intense (up to 2 ppm of CO, freshly emitted biomass burning plumes. Aerosol number concentrations ranged from ~1000 cm−3 to peaks of up to 35 000 cm−3 (during biomass burning (BB events, corresponding to an average submicron mass mean concentrations of 13.7 μg m−3 and peak concentrations close to 100 μg m−3. Organic aerosol strongly dominated the submicron non-refractory composition, with an average concentration of 11.4 μg m−3. The inorganic species, NH4, SO4, NO3, and Cl, were observed, on average, at concentrations of 0.44, 0.34, 0.19, and 0.01 μg m−3, respectively. Equivalent black carbon (BCe ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 μg m−3, with an average concentration of 1.3 μg m−3. During BB peaks, organics accounted for over 90% of total mass (submicron non-refractory plus BCe, among the highest values described in the literature. We examined the ageing of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA using the changes in the H : C and O : C ratios, and found that throughout most of the

  13. New geospatial approaches for efficiently mapping forest biomass logistics at high resolution over large areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Hogland; Nathaniel Anderson; Woodam Chung

    2018-01-01

    Adequate biomass feedstock supply is an important factor in evaluating the financial feasibility of alternative site locations for bioenergy facilities and for maintaining profitability once a facility is built. We used newly developed spatial analysis and logistics software to model the variables influencing feedstock supply and to estimate and map two components of...

  14. The Timber Resource Inventory Model (TRIM): a projection model for timber supply and policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.L. Tedder; R.N. La Mont; J.C. Kincaid

    1987-01-01

    TRIM (Timber Resource Inventory Model) is a yield table projection system developed for timber supply projections and policy analysis. TRIM simulates timber growth, inventories, management and area changes, and removals over the projection period. Programs in the TRIM system, card-by-card descriptions of required inputs, table formats, and sample results are presented...

  15. Energy performance analysis for a photovoltaic, diesel, battery hybrid power supply system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at an energy performance analysis for a photovoltaic, diesel, and battery hybrid power supply system. The procedure starts by the identification of the hourly load requirements for a typical target consumer and the concept of load...

  16. Electricity supply and demand analysis in electric system of Uruguay 2000-2007 period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This article is about the following topics: energy analysis, production and use, supply and demand, energy consumption evolution, energy sources, energy demand by economic sector between years 2000-2007, energy range, energy growing rate, demanding maximum power, growing maximum rate, exported and imported energy.

  17. Analysis of the Structure of Labour Supply and Demand in Four ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Analysis of the Structure of Labour Supply and Demand in Four Target Sectors in Saint-Louis and Louga (Sénégal) ... The project identified four areas in which semi-skilled labour was in high demand - agriculture (market gardening, cereals), fishing, textiles and cattle-raising - not only in the study area but also in the country ...

  18. An economic and environmental analysis of biomass-solar hybrid system for the textile industry in India

    OpenAIRE

    MAHADEVAN, MAHALAKSHMI; SALAI, LATHA

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design and analysis of a hybrid biomass-solar photovoltaic system for the textile industry with the goal of minimizing the cost and greenhouse gas emissions. The feasibility analysis of the hybrid system is performed based on the resource availability and the power generation potential of the existing biomass power plant near the textile plant at T.Kallupatti in Tamil Nadu, India. The power plant located at the site (9.66$^{\\circ}$N, 77.79$^{\\circ}$E) has an averag...

  19. Biomass Demand-Resources Value Targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chun Hsion; Lam, Hon Loong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Introduce DRVT supply chain modelling approach to consider underutilised biomass. • Advantages of the novel DRVT biomass supply chain approach. • A case study is presented to demonstrate the improvement of the system. - Abstract: With the global awareness towards sustainability, biomass industry becomes one of the main focuses in the search of alternative renewable resources for energy and downstream product. However, the efficiency of the biomass management, especially in supply chain is still questionable. Even though many researches and integrations of supply chain network have been conducted, less has considered underutilised biomass. This leads to the ignorance of potential value in particular biomass species. A new Demand-Resources Value Targeting (DRVT) approach is introduced in this study to investigate the value of each biomass available in order to fully utilise the biomass in respective applications. With systematic biomass value classification, integration of supply chain based on biomass value from biomass resources-to-downstream product can be developed. DRVT model allows better understanding of biomass and their potential downstream application. A simple demonstration of DRVT approach is conducted based on biomass resources in Malaysia

  20. MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF TRANSMISSION LOSSES IN THE SUPPLY SYSTEM OF ELECTRIFIED TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikołaj Bartłomiejczyk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The issue of electric energy saving in public transport is currently becoming a key area of interest, a fact connected with both an increase in society’s environmental awareness and a rise in the prices of fuel and electricity. Electricity can be saved by reducing transmission losses in the supply system. The article presents a method of measurement and analysis of transmission losses in the supply system of electrified public transport on the example of trolleybus transport in Gdynia and Lublin in Poland.

  1. Greenhouse gas and energy analysis of substitute natural gas from biomass for space heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pucker, J.; Jungmeier, G. [JOANNEUM RESEARCH Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, RESOURCES - Institute for Water, Energy and Sustainability, Steyrergasse 17, 8010 Graz (Austria); Zwart, R. [Energy Research Centre of The Netherlands (ECN), Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    In this paper, the greenhouse gas and energy balances of the production and use for space heating of substitute natural gas from biomass (bio-SNG) for space heat are analysed. These balances are compared to the use of natural gas and solid biomass as wood chips to provide the same service. The reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions (CO{sub 2}-eq.) - carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide - and of the fossil primary energy use is investigated in a life cycle assessment (LCA). This assessment was performed for nine systems for bio-SNG; three types of gasification technologies (O{sub 2}-blown entrained flow, O{sub 2}-blown circulating fluidised bed and air-steam indirect gasification) with three different types of feedstock (forest residues, miscanthus and short rotation forestry). The greenhouse gas analysis shows that forest residues using the air-steam indirect gasification technology result in the lowest greenhouse gas emissions (in CO{sub 2}-eq. 32 kg MWh{sup -1} of heat output). This combination results in 80% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions when compared to natural gas and a 29% reduction of greenhouse gases if the forest residues were converted to wood chips and combusted. The gasification technologies O{sub 2}-blown entrained flow and O{sub 2}-blown circulating fluidised bed gasification have higher greenhouse gas emissions that range between in CO{sub 2}-eq. 41 to 75 kg MWh{sup -1} of heat output depending on the feedstock. When comparing feedstocks in the bio-SNG systems, miscanthus had the highest greenhouse gas emissions bio-SNG systems producing in CO2-eq. 57-75 kg MWh{sup -1} of heat output. Energy analysis shows that the total primary energy use is higher for bio-SNG systems (1.59-2.13 MWh MWh{sup -1} of heat output) than for the reference systems (in 1.37-1.51 MWh MWh{sup -1} of heat output). However, with bio-SNG the fossil primary energy consumption is reduced compared to natural gas. For example, fossil primary energy use is reduced by

  2. Production of furfural from pentosan-rich biomass: analysis of process parameters during simultaneous furfural stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agirrezabal-Telleria, I; Gandarias, I; Arias, P L

    2013-09-01

    Among the furan-based compounds, furfural (FUR) shows interesting properties as building-block or industrial solvent. It is produced from pentosan-rich biomass via xylose cyclodehydration. The current FUR production makes use of homogeneous catalysts and excessive amounts of steam. The development of greener furfural production and separation techniques implies the use of heterogeneous catalysts and innovative separation processes. This work deals with the conversion of corncobs as xylose source to be dehydrated to furfural. The results reveal differences between the use of direct corncob hydrolysis and dehydration to furfural and the prehydrolysis and dehydration procedures. Moreover, this work focuses on an economical analysis of the main process parameters during N2-stripping and its economical comparison to the current steam-stripping process. The results show a considerable reduction of the annual utility costs due to use of recyclable nitrogen and the reduction of the furfural purification stages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of coals and biomass pyrolysis using the distributed activation energy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengqi; Liu, Chunlong; Chen, Zhichao; Qian, Juan; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Qunyi

    2009-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of coals and biomass was studied using thermogravimetric analysis with the distributed activation energy model. The integral method resulted in Datong bituminous coal conversions of 3-73% at activation energies of 100-486 kJ/mol. The corresponding frequency factors were e(19.5)-e(59.0)s(-1). Jindongnan lean coal conversions were 8-52% at activation energies of 100-462 kJ/mol. Their corresponding frequency factors were e(13.0)-e(55.8)s(-1). The conversion of corn-stalk skins were 1-84% at activation energies of 62-169 kJ/mol with frequency factors of e(10.8)-e(26.5)s(-1). Datong bituminous coal, Jindongnan lean coal and corn-stalk skins had approximate Gaussian distribution functions with linear ln k(0) to E relationships.

  4. Cost analysis of concepts for a demand oriented biogas supply for flexible power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Henning; Ganagin, Waldemar; Hartmann, Kilian; Wachendorf, Michael

    2014-10-01

    With the share of intermittent renewable energies within the electricity system rising, balancing services from dispatchable power plants are of increasing importance. Highlighting the importance of the need to keeping fuel costs for flexible power generation to a minimum, the study aims to identify favourable biogas plant configurations, supplying biogas on demand. A cost analysis of five configurations based on biogas storing and flexible biogas production concepts has been carried out. Results show that additional flexibility costs for a biogas supply of 8h per day range between 2€ and 11€MWh(-1) and for a 72h period without biogas demand from 9€ to 19€MWh(-1). While biogas storage concepts were identified as favourable short term supply configurations, flexible biogas production concepts profit from reduced storage requirements at plants with large biogas production capacities or for periods of several hours without biogas demand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. ANALYSIS OF LOGISTICS AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT AGILITY IN CORRUGATED BOX INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Daryanto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Several analyses were performed in this case study including the analysis of the business environments and the current supply chain system, which than followed by measurement and comparison of supply chain agility performance indicator. As corrugated box industry work in make/engineer to order system and by considering their competitive situation and uncertain business environment it was concluded that they need agility in their supply chain. The main problem was the unbalance power position with paper supplier that resulting low inbound inventory turns. Focusing on this weakness, two solutions were proposed; those are building higher collaboration with paper suppliers and performing better inventory management by set different inventory control and policy for each inventory class

  6. An analysis of control scheme and test results of fast feedback power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Shivam Kumar; Gupta, C.N.; Shah, Kunal; Makwana, Moti

    2017-01-01

    Real time Plasma Position Control is essential for obtaining long duration plasma in tokamaks. For that purpose four external coils has been installed in toroidal direction. Magnetic field of these coils interact with the plasma and tries to keep it radially stable in vacuum vessel to avoid direct contact of plasma to wall of tokamak. A fast feedback power supply has been installed in Aditya Tokamak which is able to set the appropriate current in either direction and current magnitude in external coils on the fast scale. In this paper, an analysis of control scheme and testing of Fast Feedback Power Supply (FFPS) has been described. FFPS is IGBT based H-bridge inverter programmable power supply

  7. EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS OF CAMPUS HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEM OF DNIPROPETROVSK NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF RAILWAY TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Pshinko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Heat consumption for heating and hot water supply of housing and industrial facilities is an essential part of heat energy consumption. Prerequisite for development of energy saving measures in existing heating systems is their preliminary examination. The investigation results of campus heating system of Dnipropetrovsk National University of Railway Transport named after Academician V. Lazaryan are presented in the article. On the basis of the analysis it is proposed to take the energy saving measures and assess their effectiveness. Methodology. Analysis of the consumption structure of thermal energy for heating domestic and hot water supply was fulfilled. The real costs of heat supply during the calendar year and the normative costs were compared. Findings. The recording expenditures data of thermal energy for heating supply of residential buildings and dormitories in 2012 were analyzed. The comparison of actual performance with specific regulations was performed. This comparison revealed problems, whose solution will help the efficient use of thermal energy. Originality. For the first time the impact of climate conditions, features of schemes and designs of heating systems on the effective use of thermal energy were analyzed. It was studied the contribution of each component. Practical value. Based on the analysis of thermal energy consumption it was developed a list of possible energy saving measures that can be implemented in the system of heat and power facilities. It was evaluated the fuel and energy resources saving.

  8. Optimizing national immunization program supply chain management in Thailand: an economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riewpaiboon, A; Sooksriwong, C; Chaiyakunapruk, N; Tharmaphornpilas, P; Techathawat, S; Rookkapan, K; Rasdjarmrearnsook, A; Suraratdecha, C

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to conduct an economic analysis of the transition of the conventional vaccine supply and logistics systems to the vendor managed inventory (VMI) system in Thailand. Cost analysis of health care program. An ingredients based approach was used to design the survey and collect data for an economic analysis of the immunization supply and logistics systems covering procurement, storage and distribution of vaccines from the central level to the lowest level of vaccine administration facility. Costs were presented in 2010 US dollar. The total cost of the vaccination program including cost of vaccine procured and logistics under the conventional system was US$0.60 per packed volume procured (cm(3)) and US$1.35 per dose procured compared to US$0.66 per packed volume procured (cm(3)) and US$1.43 per dose procured under the VMI system. However, the findings revealed that the transition to the VMI system and outsourcing of the supply chain system reduced the cost of immunization program at US$6.6 million per year because of reduction of un-opened vaccine wastage. The findings demonstrated that the new supply chain system would result in efficiency improvement and potential savings to the immunization program compared to the conventional system. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. COST ANALYSIS AND OPTIMIZATION IN THE LOGISTIC SUPPLY CHAIN USING THE SIMPROLOGIC PROGRAM

    OpenAIRE

    Ilona MAŃKA; Adam MAŃKA

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to characterize the authorial SimProLOGIC program, version 2.1, which enables one to conduct a cost analysis of individual links, as well as the entire logistic supply chain (LSC). This article also presents an example of the analysis of the parameters, which characterize the supplier of subsystems in the examined logistic chain, and the results of the initial optimization, which makes it possible to improve the economic balance, as well as the level of customer servic...

  10. Woody biomass availability for bioethanol conversion in Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Verdin, Gustavo; Grebner, Donald L.; Sun, Changyou; Munn, Ian A.; Schultz, Emily B.; Matney, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated woody biomass from logging residues, small-diameter trees, mill residues, and urban waste as a feedstock for cellulosic ethanol conversion in Mississippi. The focus on Mississippi was to assess in-state regional variations and provide specific information of biomass estimates for those facilities interested in locating in Mississippi. Supply and cost of four woody biomass sources were derived from Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA) information, a recent forest inventory conducted by the Mississippi Institute for Forest Inventory, and primary production costs. According to our analysis, about 4.0 million dry tons of woody biomass are available for production of up to 1.2 billion liters of ethanol each year in Mississippi. The feedstock consists of 69% logging residues, 21% small-diameter trees, 7% urban waste, and 3% mill residues. Of the total, 3.1 million dry tons (930 million liters of ethanol) can be produced for $34 dry ton -1 or less. Woody biomass from small-diameter trees is more expensive than other sources of biomass. Transportation costs accounted for the majority of total production costs. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the largest impacts in production costs of ethanol come from stumpage price of woody biomass and technological efficiency. These results provide a valuable decision support tool for resource managers and industries in identifying parameters that affect resource magnitude, type, and location of woody biomass feedstocks in Mississippi. (author)

  11. The people factor: An analysis of the human resources landscape for immunization supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasonde, Musonda; Steele, Pamela

    2017-04-19

    Human resources is the backbone of any system and the key enabler for all other functions to effectively perform. This is no different with the Immunization Supply Chain, more so in todays' complex operating environment with the increasing strain caused by new vaccines and expanding immunization programmes (Source: WHO, UNICEF). In order to drive the change that is required for sustainability and continuous improvement, every immunization supply chain needs an effective leader. A dedicated and competent immunization supply chain leader with adequate numbers of skilled, accountable, motivated and empowered personnel at all levels of the health system to overcome existing and emerging immunization supply chain (ISC) challenges. Without an effective supply chain leader supported by capable and motivated staff, none of the interventions designed to strengthen the supply chain can be effective or sustainable (Source: Gavi Alliance SC Strategy 2014). This landscape analysis was preceded by an HR Evidence Review (March 2014) and has served to inform global partner strategies and country activities, as well as highlight where most support is required. The study also aimed to define the status quo in order to create some form of baseline against which to measure the impact of interventions related to HR going forward. The analysis was comprised of a comprehensive desk review, a survey of 40 respondents from 32 countries and consultations with ISC practitioners in several forums. The findings highlight key areas that should inform the pillars of a HR capacity development plan. At the same time, it revealed that there are some positive examples of where countries are actively addressing some of the issues identified and putting in place mechanisms and structures to optimize the SC function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Analysis and evalution of selected future biofuel options on the basis of solid biomass; Analyse und Bewertung ausgewaehlter zukuenftiger Biokraftstoffoptionen auf der Basis fester Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Langer, Franziska

    2011-12-13

    The aim of this work is starting from the investigation of the technical development prospects along the fuel delivery chain to develop a suitable reproducible tool for the analysis and evaluation of future biofuel policies and on selected fuel options from solid biomass (1. bioethanol by biochemical fermentation, 2. Fischer-Tropsch-Diesel by thermochemical gasification, and 3. Bio-Synthetic Natural Gas (Bio-SNG) by thermochemical gasification). For this it is necessary for these biofuels in accordance with the current technology state the essential perspectives for the practical implementation taking into account the short, medium and long term (e.g. time horizon for implementation in up to 5 years, in about 10 to 15 years, or about 20 to 25 years) to identify possible technical options. [German] Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, ausgehend von der Untersuchung der technischen Entwicklungsperspektiven entlang der Kraftstoffbereitstellungskette ein geeignetes reproduzierbares Werkzeug fuer die Analyse und Bewertung zukuenftiger Biokraftstoffkonzepte zu entwickeln und auf ausgewaehlte Kraftstoffoptionen auf Basis fester Biomasse (hier Bioethanol ueber die biochemische Fermentation, Fischer-Tropsch-Diesel ueber die thermochemische Vergasung und Bio-Synthetic Natural Gas (Bio-SNG) ueber die thermochemische Vergasung) anzuwenden. Dazu gilt es fuer diese Biokraftstoffe unter Beachtung des aktuellen Technikstandes die wesentlichen Perspektiven fuer die praktische Umsetzung unter Beruecksichtigung der kurz-, mittel- bis langfristig (d.h. Zeithorizont fuer die Realisierung in bis zu 5 Jahren, in etwa 10 bis 15 Jahren bzw. in etwa 20 bis 25 Jahren) denkbaren technischen Moeglichkeiten zu identifizieren.

  13. Synergies between energy supply networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jianzhnog; Yan, Jinyue; Desideri, Umberto

    2017-01-01

    Energy system integration uses a whole-system approach to optimize the synergies between energy supply networks to facilitate and coordinate the grid integration of distributed energy resources while enabling the synergies and conflicts between the local distribution networks and the national lev...... and integration of local renewables including solar energy wind geothermal waste heat and biomass is presented.......Energy system integration uses a whole-system approach to optimize the synergies between energy supply networks to facilitate and coordinate the grid integration of distributed energy resources while enabling the synergies and conflicts between the local distribution networks and the national level...... objectives to be understood and optimally coordinated. The latest research on the network coupling technologies analysis of synergies between energy supply networks and optimal use of synergies in network operation is discussed. A diagram on the possible interactions between different energy networks...

  14. Aboveground biomass mapping of African forest mosaics using canopy texture analysis: toward a regional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Jean-François; Barbier, Nicolas; Couteron, Pierre; Adams, Benoît; Shapiro, Aurélie; Bogaert, Jan; De Cannière, Charles

    In the context of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions caused by deforestation and forest degradation (the REDD+ program), optical very high resolution (VHR) satellite images provide an opportunity to characterize forest canopy structure and to quantify aboveground biomass (AGB) at less expense than methods based on airborne remote sensing data. Among the methods for processing these VHR images, Fourier textural ordination (FOTO) presents a good method to detect forest canopy structural heterogeneity and therefore to predict AGB variations. Notably, the method does not saturate at intermediate AGB values as do pixelwise processing of available space borne optical and radar signals. However, a regional-scale application requires overcoming two difficulties: (1) instrumental effects due to variations in sun–scene–sensor geometry or sensor-specific responses that preclude the use of wide arrays of images acquired under heterogeneous conditions and (2) forest structural diversity including monodominant or open canopy forests, which are of particular importance in Central Africa. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of a rigorous regional study of canopy texture by harmonizing FOTO indices of images acquired from two different sensors (Geoeye-1 and QuickBird-2) and different sun–scene–sensor geometries and by calibrating a piecewise biomass inversion model using 26 inventory plots (1 ha) sampled across very heterogeneous forest types. A good agreement was found between observed and predicted AGB (residual standard error [RSE] = 15%; R2 = 0.85; P biomass map (100-m pixels) was produced for a 400-km2 area, and predictions obtained from both imagery sources were consistent with each other (r = 0.86; slope = 1.03; intercept = 12.01 Mg/ha). These results highlight the horizontal structure of forest canopy as a powerful descriptor of the entire forest stand structure and heterogeneity. In particular, we show that quantitative metrics resulting from such

  15. Guidelines for biomass energy policy implementation in Rwanda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategeka, A.; Karenzi, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    This chapter reports on the energy scene in Rwanda, and discusses the evolution of the energy development concept in the framework of national development policy, biomass and other energy sources, biomass supply and demand, and commercialised wood and biomass consumption. Prospects to stabilise the biomass cycle are examined, and the implementation of biomass energy policy in Rwanda is considered. (UK)

  16. Greenhouse gas and energy analysis of substitute natural gas from biomass for space heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucker, Johanna; Zwart, Robin; Jungmeier, Gerfried

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the greenhouse gas and energy balances of the production and use for space heating of substitute natural gas from biomass (bio-SNG) for space heat are analysed. These balances are compared to the use of natural gas and solid biomass as wood chips to provide the same service. The reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions (CO 2 -eq.) – carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide – and of the fossil primary energy use is investigated in a life cycle assessment (LCA). This assessment was performed for nine systems for bio-SNG; three types of gasification technologies (O 2 -blown entrained flow, O 2 -blown circulating fluidised bed and air–steam indirect gasification) with three different types of feedstock (forest residues, miscanthus and short rotation forestry). The greenhouse gas analysis shows that forest residues using the air–steam indirect gasification technology result in the lowest greenhouse gas emissions (in CO 2 -eq. 32 kg MWh −1 of heat output). This combination results in 80% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions when compared to natural gas and a 29% reduction of greenhouse gases if the forest residues were converted to wood chips and combusted. The gasification technologies O 2 -blown entrained flow and O 2 -blown circulating fluidised bed gasification have higher greenhouse gas emissions that range between in CO 2 -eq. 41 to 75 kg MWh −1 of heat output depending on the feedstock. When comparing feedstocks in the bio-SNG systems, miscanthus had the highest greenhouse gas emissions bio-SNG systems producing in CO 2 -eq. 57–75 kg MWh −1 of heat output. Energy analysis shows that the total primary energy use is higher for bio-SNG systems (1.59–2.13 MWh MWh −1 of heat output) than for the reference systems (in 1.37–1.51 MWh MWh −1 of heat output). However, with bio-SNG the fossil primary energy consumption is reduced compared to natural gas. For example, fossil primary energy use is reduced by 92% when air

  17. Small nuclear power reactor emergency electric power supply system reliability comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfietti, Gerson

    2003-01-01

    This work presents an analysis of the reliability of the emergency power supply system, of a small size nuclear power reactor. Three different configurations are investigated and their reliability analyzed. The fault tree method is used as the main tool of analysis. The work includes a bibliographic review of emergency diesel generator reliability and a discussion of the design requirements applicable to emergency electrical systems. The influence of common cause failure influences is considered using the beta factor model. The operator action is considered using human failure probabilities. A parametric analysis shows the strong dependence between the reactor safety and the loss of offsite electric power supply. It is also shown that common cause failures can be a major contributor to the system reliability. (author)

  18. Markets during world oil supply crises: an analysis of industry, consumer, and governmental response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erfle, Stephen; Pound, John; Kalt, Joseph

    1981-04-01

    An analysis of the response of American markets to supply crises in world oil markets is presented. It addresses four main issues: the efficiency of the operation of American oil markets during oil supply crises; the problems of both economic efficiency and social equity which arise during the American adaptation process; the propriety of the Federal government's past policy responses to these problems; and the relationship between perceptions of the problems caused by world oil crises and the real economic natures of these problems. Specifically, Chapter 1 presents a theoretical discussion of the effects of a world supply disruption on the price level and supply availability of the world market oil to any consuming country including the US Chapter 2 provides a theoretical and empirical analysis of the efficiency of the adaptations of US oil product markets to higher world oil prices. Chapter 3 examines the responses of various groups of US oil firms to the alterations observed in world markets, while Chapter 4 presents a theoretical explanation for the price-lagging behavior exhibited by firms in the US oil industry. Chapter 5 addresses the nature of both real and imagined oil market problems in the US during periods of world oil market transition. (MCW)

  19. Well-to-refinery emissions and net-energy analysis of China's crude-oil supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masnadi, Mohammad S.; El-Houjeiri, Hassan M.; Schunack, Dominik; Li, Yunpo; Roberts, Samori O.; Przesmitzki, Steven; Brandt, Adam R.; Wang, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Oil is China's second-largest energy source, so it is essential to understand the country's greenhouse gas emissions from crude-oil production. Chinese crude supply is sourced from numerous major global petroleum producers. Here, we use a per-barrel well-to-refinery life-cycle analysis model with data derived from hundreds of public and commercial sources to model the Chinese crude mix and the upstream carbon intensities and energetic productivity of China's crude supply. We generate a carbon-denominated supply curve representing Chinese crude-oil supply from 146 oilfields in 20 countries. The selected fields are estimated to emit between 1.5 and 46.9 g CO2eq MJ-1 of oil, with volume-weighted average emissions of 8.4 g CO2eq MJ-1. These estimates are higher than some existing databases, illustrating the importance of bottom-up models to support life-cycle analysis databases. This study provides quantitative insight into China's energy policy and the economic and environmental implications of China's oil consumption.

  20. Biomass sector review for the Carbon Trust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-26

    The review drew on an extensive number of sources, including a detailed literature survey, in-house references, questionnaires and interviews with trade associations, industry participants and industry observers. The policy observations that were drawn from the review, together with the results of the analysis itself, were subject to a detailed peer review with leading industry participants, observers and academics. The purpose of this document, is to place the results of this analysis in the public domain and to ensure that it is available to those interested in developing the biomass sector in the UK. Screening of the available biomass resource in the UK highlighted four key biomass fuels: forestry crops, dry agricultural residue, waste wood arid woody energy crops. The four fuels could have a material impact on UK energy supply when used for heat and power. Currently they have the potential to supply up to an additional. 41TWh/yr or about 1.5% of UK energy supply. In the future this could rise to c.80TWh/yr, mainly through expansion in the supply of woody energy crops and/or dry agricultural residue. If available resources are used for biofuels the level of potential carbon saving decreases significantly compared with providing heat or electricity due to lower conversion efficiency. Consequently, biofuels are not covered in depth in this report. Although the UK has a considerable amount of biomass resource, gaining access to it is not always viable for developers and end-users as the UK. currently has a relatively undeveloped biomass fuel supply infrastructure. Just as biomass can be drawn from a number or sources, it can be converted to useful energy through a number of processes and delivered to a variety of markets. Our screening of biomass conversion processes demonstrated that currently combustion represents the best area of focus. Combustion is a proven, established conversion process and the lowest cost option available today. Co-firing was not analysed

  1. Analysis of supply chain, scale factor, and optimum plant capacity for the production of ethanol from corn stover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leboreiro, Jose; Hilaly, Ahmad K.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed model is used to perform a thorough analysis on ethanol production from corn stover via the dilute acid process. The biomass supply chain cost model accounts for all steps needed to source corn stover including collection, transportation, and storage. The manufacturing cost model is based on work done at NREL; attainable conversions of key process parameters are used to calculate production cost. The choice of capital investment scaling function and scaling parameter has a significant impact on the optimum plant capacity. For the widely used exponential function, the scaling factors are functions of plant capacity. The pre-exponential factor decreases with increasing plant capacity while the exponential factor increases as the plant capacity increases. The use of scaling parameters calculated for small plant capacities leads to falsely large optimum plants; data from a wide range of plant capacities is required to produce accurate results. A mathematical expression to scale capital investment for fermentation-based biorefineries is proposed which accounts for the linear scaling behavior of bio-reactors (such as saccharification vessels and fermentors) as well as the exponential nature of all other plant equipment. Ignoring the linear scaling behavior of bio-reactors leads to artificially large optimum plant capacities. The minimum production cost is found to be in the range of 789–830 $ m −3 which is significantly higher than previously reported. Optimum plant capacities are in the range of 5750–9850 Mg d −1 . The optimum plant capacity and production cost are highly sensitive to farmer participation in biomass harvest for low participation rates. -- Highlights: •A detailed model is used to perform a technoeconomic analysis for the production of ethanol from corn stover. •The capital investment scaling factors were found to be a function of plant capacity. •Bio-reactors (such as saccharification vessels and fermentors) in large size

  2. Conflicts in Coalitions: A Stability Analysis of Robust Multi-City Regional Water Supply Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, D.; Trindade, B. C.; Reed, P. M.; Characklis, G. W.

    2017-12-01

    Regional cooperation among water utilities can improve the robustness of urban water supply portfolios to deeply uncertain future conditions such as those caused by climate change or population growth. Coordination mechanisms such as water transfers, coordinated demand management, and shared infrastructure, can improve the efficiency of resource allocation and delay the need for new infrastructure investments. Regionalization does however come at a cost. Regionally coordinated water supply plans may be vulnerable to any emerging instabilities in the regional coalition. If one or more regional actors does not cooperate or follow the required regional actions in a time of crisis, the overall system performance may degrade. Furthermore, when crafting regional water supply portfolios, decision makers must choose a framework for measuring the performance of regional policies based on the evaluation of the objective values for each individual actor. Regional evaluations may inherently favor one actor's interests over those of another. This work focuses on four interconnected water utilities in the Research Triangle region of North Carolina for which robust regional water supply portfolios have previously been designed using multi-objective optimization to maximize the robustness of the worst performing utility across several objectives. This study 1) examines the sensitivity of portfolio performance to deviations from prescribed actions by individual utilities, 2) quantifies the implications of the regional formulation used to evaluate robustness for the portfolio performance of each individual utility and 3) elucidates the inherent regional tensions and conflicts that exist between utilities under this regionalization scheme through visual diagnostics of the system under simulated drought scenarios. Results of this analysis will help inform the creation of future regional water supply portfolios and provide insight into the nature of multi-actor water supply systems.

  3. Charcoal from biomass residues of a Cryptomeria plantation and analysis of its carbon fixation benefit in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yu-Jen; Hwang, Gwo-Shyong

    2009-01-01

    Charcoal production as an age-old industry not only supplies fuel in developing countries, in recent decades, it has also become a means of supplying new multifunctional materials for environmental improvement and agricultural applications in developed countries. These include air dehumidification and deodorization, water purification, and soil improvement due to charcoal's excellent adsorption capacity. Paradoxically, charcoal production might also help curb greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, we made charcoal from discarded branches and tops of wood from a Cryptomeria plantation after thinning using a still-operational earthen kiln. Woody biomass was used as the carbonization fuel. The effect of carbonization on carbon fixation was calculated and its benefits evaluated. The results showed that the recovered fixed carbon reached 33.2%, i.e., one-third of the biomass residual carbon was conserved as charcoal which if left on the forest ground would decompose and turn into carbon dioxide, and based on a net profit of US$1.13 kg -1 for charcoal, an annual net profit of US$14,665 could be realized. Charcoaling thus appears to be a feasible alternative to promote reutilization of woody resides which would not only reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but also provide potential benefits to regional economies in developing countries.

  4. The challenge of biomass production. Analysis of Chinnahagari and Upparahalla watersheds, Bellary District, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avornyo, F.; Ballal, F.; Husseini, R.; Mysore, A.; Nabi, S.A.; Guevara, A.L.P.

    2003-01-01

    Results are presented of a field study conducted in the Chinnahagari and Upparahalla watersheds in the Karnataka state of India, with the objective of identifying the opportunities for and constraints in efforts for enhancing biomass production. The Agricultural Research for Development (ARD) procedure which is a process of integrating different perspectives of stakeholders was used for planning strategies to combat low biomass problems

  5. How the food supply harvestable by waders in the Wadden Sea depends on the variation in energy density, body weight, biomass, burying depth and behaviour of tidal-flat invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwarts, Leo; Wanink, Jan H.

    For several reasons, waders in the Wadden Sea face a large seasonal and annual variation in their food supply. Observations on a tidal flat in the Dutch Wadden Sea have shown that: - (1) The average energy density of ten invertebrate prey species varies between 21 and 23 kJ·g -1 AFDW. In Scrobicularia plana and Mya arenaria, but not in Macoma balthica, the energy density is 10% lower in winter than in summer. - (2) Depending on the species, body weights of prey of similar size are 30 to 60% lower in winter than in summer. - (3) The year-to-year fluctuation in standing-crop biomass is larger in some species than in others, the difference depending mainly on the frequency of successful recruitment. The overall biomass of the macrobenthos in winter is half of that in summer, but the timing of the peak biomass differs per species. - (4) The burying depth varies per species: Cerastoderma edule live just beneath the surface, while M. balthica, S. plana, M. arenaria, Arenicola marina and Nereis diversicolor bury more deeply and the majority of these prey live out of reach of the bird's bill. In all six species, burying depth increases with size. There is no seasonal variation in depth of C. edule and M. arenaria, but the four other species live at most shallow depth in early summer and most deeply in midwinter. Burying depths in winter vary from year to year, but are unrelated to temperature. Neither has temperature any effect on depth within months. For knot Calidris canutus feeding on M. balthica, the fluctuation in the accessible fraction was the main source of variation in the biomass of prey that is actually harvestable, i.e. the biomass of prey of suitable size that is accessible. Accordingly, the paper reviews the available data on the temporal variations in accessibility, detectability, ingestibility, digestibility and profitability of prey for waders. Only a small part of the prey is harvestable since many accessible prey are ignored because of their low

  6. Country profiles: Lithuania [Analysis of energy supply options and security of energy supply in the Baltic States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Lithuania is a very dependent country in terms of energy resources. In 2000 only about 13.8% of the primary energy requirement was covered by domestic resources. The remaining primary fuel requirement is imported from neighbouring countries, mainly from Russia - all crude oil, natural gas and nuclear fuel are imported from this country. There is a concern about the political and economic consequences of this dependence. There is a good interconnection with neighbouring countries for both electrical grid and gas pipelines. The supply of crude oil is also available via pipeline from Russia and two existing oil terminals from other countries, including orimulsion from Venezuela. Coal can be supplied by railway from both Russia and Poland

  7. Assessment of forest biomass for use as energy. GIS-based analysis of geographical availability and locations of wood-fired power plants in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Viana; Warren B. Cohen; D. Lopes; J. Aranha

    2010-01-01

    Following the European Union strategy concerning renewable energy (RE), Portugal established in their national policy programmes that the production of electrical energy from RE should reach 45% of the total supply by 2010. Since Portugal has large forest biomass resources, a significant part of this energy will be obtained from this source. In addition to the two...

  8. Analysis And Assessment Of The Security Method Against Incidental Contamination In The Collective Water Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpak Dawid

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main types of surface water incidental contaminations and the security method against incidental contamination in water sources. Analysis and assessment the collective water supply system (CWSS protection against incidental contamination was conducted. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA was used. The FMEA method allow to use the product or process analysis, identification of weak points, and implementation the corrections and new solutions for eliminating the source of undesirable events. The developed methodology was shown in application case. It was found that the risk of water contamination in water-pipe network of the analyzed CWSS caused by water source incidental contamination is at controlled level.

  9. Life Cycle Multi-Criteria Analysis Of Alternative Energy Supply Systems For A Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Rogoža

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses energy supply alternatives for a partially renovated residential building. In addition to the existing district heating (base case alternative systems, gas boilers, heat pumps (air-water and ground-water, solar collectors, solar cells, and combinations of these systems have been examined. Actual heat consumption of the building and electricity demand determined by the statistical method are used for simulating the systems. The process of simulation is performed using EnergyPro software. In order to select an optimal energy supply option, the life cycle analysis of all systems has been carried out throughout a life span of the building, and the estimated results of energy, environmental and economic evaluation have been converted into non-dimensional variables (3E using multi–criteria analysis.Article in Lithuanian

  10. Quantitative appraisal and potential analysis for primary biomass resources for energy utilization in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanli, Yang; Peidong, Zhang; Yonghong, Zheng; Lisheng, Wang [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of science, Qingdao 266101 (China); Wenlong, Zhang; Yongsheng, Tian [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of science, Qingdao 266101 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2010-12-15

    As the largest agricultural country, China has abundant biomass resources, but the distribution is scattered and difficult to collect. It is essential to estimate the biomass resource and its potential for bioenergy utilization in China. In this study, the amount of main biomass resources for possible energy use and their energy utilization potential in China are analyzed based on statistical data. The results showed that the biomass resource for possible energy use amounted to 8.87 x 10{sup 8} tce in 2007 of which the crops straw is 1.42 x 10{sup 8} tce, the forest biomass is 2.85 x 10{sup 8} tce, the poultry and livestock manure is 4.40 x 10{sup 7} tce, the municipal solid waste is 1.35 x 10{sup 6} tce, and the organic waste water is 6.46 x 10{sup 6} tce. Through the information by thematic map, it is indicated that, except arctic-alpine areas and deserts, the biomass resource for possible energy use was presented a relatively average distribution in China, but large gap was existed in different regions in the concentration of biomass resources, with the characteristics of East dense and West sparse. It is indicated that the energy transformation efficiency of biomass compressing and shaping, biomass anaerobic fermentation and biomass gasification for heating have higher conversion efficiency. If all of the biomass resources for possible energy use are utilized by these three forms respectively, 7.66 x 10{sup 12} t of biomass briquettes fuel, 1.98 x 10{sup 12} m{sup 3} of low calorific value gas and 3.84 x 10{sup 11} m{sup 3} of biogas could be produced, 3.65 x 10{sup 8} t to 4.90 x 10{sup 8} t of coal consumption could be substituted, and 6.12 x 10{sup 8} t to 7.53 x 10{sup 8} t of CO{sub 2} emissions could be reduced. With the enormous energy utilization potential of biomass resources and the prominent benefit of energy saving and emission reduction, it proves an effective way to adjust the energy consumption structure, to alleviate the energy crisis, to ensure

  11. An analysis of China's coal supply and its impact on China's future economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jianliang; Feng, Lianyong; Tverberg, Gail E.

    2013-01-01

    Many people believe that China's economic growth can continue almost indefinitely. For a manufacturing-based economy such as China's to continue to grow, it needs an adequate supply of inexpensive energy. To date, this energy growth has primarily come from coal, but China's indigenous coal supplies are now falling short of the amount needed to support this growth. In this situation, the status of China's future coal supply will be very important for China's future economic development. Our analysis shows that China's ultimate recoverable coal reserves equal 223.6×10 9 MT, and its production will peak between 2025 and 2030, with peak production of approximately 3.9×10 9 MT. The extent to which China can import coal in the future is uncertain. With rising coal demand, this combination is likely to create a significant challenge to China's future economic development. - Highlights: ► We analyze an issue of prime importance for the future of China's economy. ► The decline in coal supply will present a challenge to China's economic growth. ► Rising coal price will also have an adverse impact on economic growth

  12. Canonical Correlation Analysis Between Supply Chain Quality Management And Competitive Advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaghooshi Ahmad Jafarnejad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Competitive environment of today’s organizations, more than ever, is extensive, and the major concern for managers is to preserve and promote the sustainable competitive advantage. Companies have an obligation to improve their product quality and have extensive and close cooperation with other companies involved in the supply chain of products. Supply chain quality management (SCQM is a systematic approach to improve the performance that integrates supply chain partners and uses the opportunity in the best way, establish linkages between upstream and downstream flows, and investigate on creating value and satisfaction of intermediaries and final customers. Furthermore, achieving competitive advantages enables an organization to create a remarkable position in market and differentiate itself from competitors. This paper aims to understand the relationships between SCQM and competitive advantage. Sixty-eight experts of 25 companies in Sahami Alyaf (SA supply chain has been participated in this research. The research method used for this article is descriptive correlation. To assess the relationships between the criteria, canonical correlation analysis was used. The result shows that the SCQM and competitive advantages have a meaningful relationship. It also shows that most important variable in the linear combination of SCQM and competitive advantages are “customer focus and quality,” respectively.

  13. Online channel operation mode: Game theoretical analysis from the supply chain power structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Huang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Dual-channels have been widely used in practice, and the pricing decisions and the online channel operation mode choice have been the core problems in dual-channel supply chain management. This paper focuses on the online channel operation mode choice from the supply chain power structures based on game theoretical analysis. Design/methodology/approach: This paper utilizes three kinds of game theoretical models to analyze the impact of supply chain power structures on the optimal pricing and online channel operation mode choice. Findings: Results derived in this paper indicate that when the self-price elasticity is large, the power structures have no direct impact on the decisions. However, when the self-price elasticity is small and customers’ preference for the online channel is low, then in the MS market, it is better for the retailer to operate the online channel, while in the RS market or in the VN market, it is better for the manufacturer to operate the online channel. Research limitations/implications: In this paper, we do not consider stochastic demand and asymmetric information, which may not well suit the reality. Originality/value: This paper provides a different perspective to analyze the impact of supply chain power structures on the pricing decisions and online channel operation mode choice. The comparison of these two online channel operation modes in this paper is also a unique point.

  14. Economic feasibility of CHP facilities fueled by biomass from unused agriculture land: Case of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifer, Antun; Dominković, Dominik Franjo; Ćosić, Boris; Duić, Neven

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Potential of unused agricultural land for biomass and fruit production is assessed. • Technical and energy potential of biomass from SRC and fruit pruning is calculated. • Economic feasibility of CHP plants utilizing biomass from SRC is presented for Croatia. • Sensitivity analysis and recommendations for shift toward feasibility are provided. - Abstract: In this paper, the energy potential of biomass from growing short rotation coppice on unused agricultural land in the Republic of Croatia is used to investigate the feasibility of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) facilities fueled by such biomass. Large areas of agricultural land that remain unused for food crops, represent significant potential for growing biomass that could be used for energy. This biomass could be used to supply power plants of up to 15 MW_e in accordance with heat demands of the chosen locations. The methodology for regional energy potential assessment was elaborated in previous work and is now used to investigate the conditions in which such energy facilities could be feasible. The overall potential of biomass from short rotation coppice cultivated on unused agricultural land in the scenarios with 30% of the area is up to 10 PJ/year. The added value of fruit trees pruning biomass represents an incentive for the development of fruit production on such agricultural land. Sensitivity analysis was conducted for several parameters: cost of biomass, investment costs in CHP systems and combined change in biomass and technology cost.

  15. Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to the analysis of algal biomass for industrial biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pořízka, P.; Prochazka, D.; Pilát, Z.; Krajcarová, L.; Kaiser, J.; Malina, R.; Novotný, J.; Zemánek, P.; Ježek, J.; Šerý, M.; Bernatová, S.; Krzyžánek, V.; Dobranská, K.; Novotný, K.; Trtílek, M.; Samek, O.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to the determination of elements distinctive in terms of their biological significance (such as potassium, magnesium, calcium, and sodium) and to the monitoring of accumulation of potentially toxic heavy metal ions in living microorganisms (algae), in order to trace e.g. the influence of environmental exposure and other cultivation and biological factors having an impact on them. Algae cells were suspended in liquid media or presented in a form of adherent cell mass on a surface (biofilm) and, consequently, characterized using their spectra. In our feasibility study we used three different experimental arrangements employing double-pulse LIBS technique in order to improve on analytical selectivity and sensitivity for potential industrial biotechnology applications, e.g. for monitoring of mass production of commercial biofuels, utilization in the food industry and control of the removal of heavy metal ions from industrial waste waters. - Highlights: ► We realized laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis of algal biomass. ► We used water jet setup, bulk liquid arrangement and algal biofilms. ► LIBS analysis of macro- and micro-element concentrations in algae was shown. ► LIBS can be of assistance in research of sustainable biofuel generation. ► LIBS can be used in research of algal food applications and bioremediation.

  16. Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to the analysis of algal biomass for industrial biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porizka, P.; Prochazka, D. [X-ray micro CT and nano CT research group, CEITEC-Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, 616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Pilat, Z. [Institute of Scientific Instruments of the ASCR v.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Kralovopolska 147, Brno 61669 (Czech Republic); Krajcarova, L. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, Brno 611 37 (Czech Republic); Kaiser, J., E-mail: kaiser@fme.vutbr.cz [X-ray micro CT and nano CT research group, CEITEC-Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, 616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Malina, R.; Novotny, J. [X-ray micro CT and nano CT research group, CEITEC-Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, 616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Zemanek, P.; Jezek, J.; Sery, M.; Bernatova, S.; Krzyzanek, V.; Dobranska, K. [Institute of Scientific Instruments of the ASCR v.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Kralovopolska 147, Brno 61669 (Czech Republic); Novotny, K. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, Brno 611 37 (Czech Republic); Trtilek, M. [Photon Systems Instruments, Drasov 470, 664 24 Drasov (Czech Republic); Samek, O. [Institute of Scientific Instruments of the ASCR v.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Kralovopolska 147, Brno 61669 (Czech Republic)

    2012-08-15

    We report on the application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to the determination of elements distinctive in terms of their biological significance (such as potassium, magnesium, calcium, and sodium) and to the monitoring of accumulation of potentially toxic heavy metal ions in living microorganisms (algae), in order to trace e.g. the influence of environmental exposure and other cultivation and biological factors having an impact on them. Algae cells were suspended in liquid media or presented in a form of adherent cell mass on a surface (biofilm) and, consequently, characterized using their spectra. In our feasibility study we used three different experimental arrangements employing double-pulse LIBS technique in order to improve on analytical selectivity and sensitivity for potential industrial biotechnology applications, e.g. for monitoring of mass production of commercial biofuels, utilization in the food industry and control of the removal of heavy metal ions from industrial waste waters. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We realized laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis of algal biomass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We used water jet setup, bulk liquid arrangement and algal biofilms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LIBS analysis of macro- and micro-element concentrations in algae was shown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LIBS can be of assistance in research of sustainable biofuel generation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LIBS can be used in research of algal food applications and bioremediation.

  17. Computer Aided Analysis and Prototype Testing of an Improved Biogas Reactor For Biomass System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy (Zheng Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The alternative fuel resources substituting for conventional fuels are required due to less availability of fuel resources than demand in the market. A large amount of crude oil and petroleum products are required to be imported in many countries over the world. Also the environmental pollution is another serious problem when use petroleum products. Biogas, with the composition of 54.5% CH4, 39.5% CO2, and 6% other elements (i.e., H2, N2, H2S, and O2, is a clear green fuel that can substitute the regular petroleum fuels to reduce the pollutant elements. Biogas can be produced by performing enriching, scrubbing, and bottling processes. The purification process can be further applied to take away the pollutants in biogas. The pure biogas process analyzed in this research is compressed to 2950 psi while being filled into gas cylinder. The daily produced biogas capacity is around 5480 ft3 and the processing efficacy is affected by surrounding environment and other factors. The design and development of this biogas system is assisted through mathematical analysis, 3D modeling, computational simulation, and prototype testing. Both computer aided analysis and prototype testing show close results which validate the feasibility of this biogas system in biomass applications.

  18. Targets for Marine Corps Purchasing and Supply Management Initiatives: Spend Analysis Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Corps Purchasing and Supply Management Initiatives: Spend Analysis Findings source contracts with providers in them. We also examine contract “ churn ...repair, and rebuilding of equipment; general purpose ADP equipment; ADP and telecommunication ser- vices—are also shown in the previous chart for top...to $469 million in FY 2004. The spend for other ADP and telecommunication services, $264 million in FY 2004, was not even in the top ten in FY 2003

  19. Patient-specific coronary blood supply territories for quantitative perfusion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakkaroff, Constantine; Biglands, John D.; Greenwood, John P.; Plein, Sven; Boyle, Roger D.; Radjenovic, Aleksandra; Magee, Derek R.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Myocardial perfusion imaging, coupled with quantitative perfusion analysis, provides an important diagnostic tool for the identification of ischaemic heart disease caused by coronary stenoses. The accurate mapping between coronary anatomy and under-perfused areas of the myocardium is important for diagnosis and treatment. However, in the absence of the actual coronary anatomy during the reporting of perfusion images, areas of ischaemia are allocated to a coronary territory based on a population-derived 17-segment (American Heart Association) AHA model of coronary blood supply. This work presents a solution for the fusion of 2D Magnetic Resonance (MR) myocardial perfusion images and 3D MR angiography data with the aim to improve the detection of ischaemic heart disease. The key contribution of this work is a novel method for the mediated spatiotemporal registration of perfusion and angiography data and a novel method for the calculation of patient-specific coronary supply territories. The registration method uses 4D cardiac MR cine series spanning the complete cardiac cycle in order to overcome the under-constrained nature of non-rigid slice-to-volume perfusion-to-angiography registration. This is achieved by separating out the deformable registration problem and solving it through phase-to-phase registration of the cine series. The use of patient-specific blood supply territories in quantitative perfusion analysis (instead of the population-based model of coronary blood supply) has the potential of increasing the accuracy of perfusion analysis. Quantitative perfusion analysis diagnostic accuracy evaluation with patient-specific territories against the AHA model demonstrates the value of the mediated spatiotemporal registration in the context of ischaemic heart disease diagnosis. PMID:29392098

  20. Advanced Hydroinformatic Techniques for the Simulation and Analysis of Water Supply and Distribution Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, Manuel; Meniconi, Silvia; Alvisi, Stefano; Izquierdo, Joaquin

    2018-01-01

    This document is intended to be a presentation of the Special Issue “Advanced Hydroinformatic Techniques for the Simulation and Analysis of Water Supply and Distribution Systems”. The final aim of this Special Issue is to propose a suitable framework supporting insightful hydraulic mechanisms to aid the decision-making processes of water utility managers and practitioners. Its 18 peer-reviewed articles present as varied topics as: water distribution system design, optimization of network perf...

  1. Securing the Containerized Supply Chain: Analysis of Government Incentives for Private Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Bakshi; Noah Gans

    2010-01-01

    To mitigate the threat that terrorists smuggle weapons of mass destruction into the United States through maritime containers, the U.S. Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (CBP) inspects containers upon entry to domestic ports. Inspection-driven congestion is costly, and CBP provides incentives to firms to improve security upstream in the supply chain, thereby reducing the inspection burden at U.S. ports. We perform an economic analysis of this incentive program, called Customs-Trade Part...

  2. A multi-regional structural path analysis of the energy supply chain in China's construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jingke; Shen, Qiping; Xue, Fan

    2016-01-01

    The construction industry in China exerts significant environmental impacts and uses considerable resources because of rapid urbanization. This study conducted a structural path analysis (SPA) based on the multi-regional input–output table to quantify environmental impact transmission in the entire supply chain. Results indicated that the direct resource input (the first stage) along with on-site construction (the zeroth stage) consumed the highest amount of energy in the supply chain and accounted for approximately 50% of total energy consumption. Regional analysis showed that energy consumption in the construction industry at the provincial level was self-sufficient. Sectoral analysis demonstrated that the direct inputs from the sectors of “manufacture of non-metallic mineral products” and “smelting and pressing of metals” generated the most important energy flows, whereas the sectors of “production and distribution of electric power and heat power” and “extraction of petroleum and natural gas” significantly but indirectly influenced energy use. Sensitivity analysis exhibited that the system boundary of SPA could be narrowed down into the first two upstream stages that contained nearly 50% of energy flow information or expanded toward the first five upstream stages that represented 80% of total energy consumption. - Highlights: •We designed an optimized algorithm for multi-regional SPA. •We extracted energy-intensive paths throughout the upstream supply chain. •We explored self-sufficiency characteristic for provincial construction industries. •We identified energy-intensive sectors hidden in higher-order supply chain. •We developed an effective strategy for narrowing down the system boundary of SPA.

  3. Biomass for bioenergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott

    Across the range of renewable energy resources, bioenergy is probably the most complex, as using biomass to support energy services ties into a number of fields; climate change, food production, rural development, biodiversity and environmental protection. Biomass offer several options...... for displacing fossil resources and is perceived as one of the main pillars of a future low-carbon or no-carbon energy supply. However, biomass, renewable as it is, is for any relevant, time horizon to be considered a finite resource as it replenishes at a finite rate. Conscientious stewardship of this finite...... the undesirable impacts of bioenergy done wrong. However, doing bioenergy right is a significant challenge due to the ties into other fields of society. Fundamentally plant biomass is temporary storage of solar radiation energy and chemically bound energy from nutrients. Bioenergy is a tool to harness solar...

  4. Comparative analysis of food webs based on flow networks: effects of nutrient supply on structure and function of coastal plankton communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Yngvar; Reinertsen, Helge; Vadstein, Olav; Andersen, Tom; Gismervik, Ingrid; Duarte, Carlos; Agusti, Susana; Stibor, Herwig; Sommer, Ulrich; Lignell, Risto; Tamminen, Timo; Lancelot, Christiane; Rousseau, Veronique; Hoell, Espen; Sanderud, Knut Arvid

    2001-12-01

    The objective of COMWEB was to develop efficient analytical, numerical and experimental methods for assessing and predicting the effects of nutrient (N, P, Si) supply on the stability and persistence of pelagic food web structure and function in coastal waters. The experimental comparative work included a geographic gradient covering Baltic, Mediterranean, and NE Atlantic waters and a NE Atlantic gradient in state of eutrophication. COMWEB has been an experimental approach to coastal eutrophication, studying effects of enhanced nutrient supply on components and flows of the entire lower pelagic food web. Flow network representations of pelagic food webs has been a framework of data reduction and flows were established by sophisticated inverse modelling. Fundamental information on physiological properties of functional key species in the pelagic food web was used to constrain flow estimations. A main conclusion derived from the flow networks was that very little energy and materials were transferred from the microbial food web to the main food chain. The lower food web could therefore be described as two parallel food chains with relatively limited interaction between heterotrophic groups. Short-term effects of nutrient perturbations were examined in mesocosms along the geographic gradient. The response was comparable in all systems, with a stronger effect on the activity and biomass of autotrophic groups than those of heterotrophic ones. Mediterranean waters showed much lower autotrophic biomass response than Baltic and NE Atlantic waters, which responded almost equally. The response of primary production was, however, more comparable. High phytoplankton lysis rate explained this low accumulation of biomass in Mediterranean waters. The study of Atlantic coastal waters of different eutrophic states revealed that the ecological response was higher in the closed nutrient perturbed mesocosms than in open systems exposed for >4 summer months (summer/autumn season). The

  5. The Use of Statistically Based Rolling Supply Curves for Electricity Market Analysis: A Preliminary Look

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkin, Thomas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Larson, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ruth, Mark F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Ben [U.S. Department of Energy; Spitsen, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy

    2018-03-27

    In light of the changing electricity resource mixes across the United States, an important question in electricity modeling is how additions and retirements of generation, including additions in variable renewable energy (VRE) generation could impact markets by changing hourly wholesale energy prices. Instead of using resource-intensive production cost models (PCMs) or building and using simple generator supply curves, this analysis uses a 'top-down' approach based on regression analysis of hourly historical energy and load data to estimate the impact of supply changes on wholesale electricity prices, provided the changes are not so substantial that they fundamentally alter the market and dispatch-order driven behavior of non-retiring units. The rolling supply curve (RSC) method used in this report estimates the shape of the supply curve that fits historical hourly price and load data for given time intervals, such as two-weeks, and then repeats this on a rolling basis through the year. These supply curves can then be modified on an hourly basis to reflect the impact of generation retirements or additions, including VRE and then reapplied to the same load data to estimate the change in hourly electricity price. The choice of duration over which these RSCs are estimated has a significant impact on goodness of fit. For example, in PJM in 2015, moving from fitting one curve per year to 26 rolling two-week supply curves improves the standard error of the regression from 16 dollars/MWh to 6 dollars/MWh and the R-squared of the estimate from 0.48 to 0.76. We illustrate the potential use and value of the RSC method by estimating wholesale price effects under various generator retirement and addition scenarios, and we discuss potential limits of the technique, some of which are inherent. The ability to do this type of analysis is important to a wide range of market participants and other stakeholders, and it may have a role in complementing use of or providing

  6. Drug supply indicators: Pitfalls and possibilities for improvements to assist comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Nicola; Cunningham, Andrew; Groshkova, Teodora; Royuela, Luis; Sedefov, Roumen

    2018-06-01

    Interventions to tackle the supply of drugs are seen as standard components of illicit drug policies. Therefore drug market-related administrative data, such as seizures, price, purity and drug-related offending, are used in most countries for policy monitoring and assessment of the drug situation. International agencies, such as the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) and the UN Office of Drugs and Crime, also monitor and report on the drug situation cross-nationally and therefore seek to collect and make available key data in a uniform manner from the countries they cover. However, these data are not primarily collected for this purpose, which makes interpretation and comparative analysis difficult. Examples of limitations of these data sources include: the extent to which they reflect operational priorities rather than market changes; question marks over the robustness of and consistency in data collection methods, and issues around the timeliness of data availability. Such problems are compounded by cultural, social and contextual differences between countries. Making sense of such data is therefore challenging and extreme care needs to be taken using it. Nevertheless, these data provide an important window on a hidden area, so improving the quality of the data collected and expanding its scope should be a priority for those seeking to understand or monitor drug markets and supply reduction. In addition to highlighting some of the potential pitfalls in using supply indicators for comparative analysis, this paper presents a selection of options for improvements based on the current EMCDDA programme of work to improve their supply-related monitoring and analysis. The conceptual framework developed to steer this work may have wider application. Adopting this approach has the potential to provide a richer picture of drug markets, at both national and international levels, and make it easier to compare data between countries. Copyright

  7. Supply chain cost analysis of long-distance transportation of energy wood in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahvanainen, Timo; Anttila, Perttu

    2011-01-01

    The increasing use of bioenergy has resulted in a growing demand for long-distance transportation of energy wood. For both biofuels and traditional forest products, the importance of energy efficiency and rail use is growing. A GIS-based model for energy wood supply chains was created and used to simulate the costs for several supply chains in a study area in eastern Finland. Cost curves of ten supply chains for logging residues and full trees based on roadside, terminal and end-facility chipping were analyzed. The average procurement costs from forest to roadside storage were included. Railway transportation was compared to the most commonly used truck transportation options in long-distance transport. The potential for the development of supply chains was analyzed using a sensitivity analysis of 11 modified supply chain scenarios. For distances shorter than 60 km, truck transportation of loose residues and end-facility comminution was the most cost-competitive chain. Over longer distances, roadside chipping with chip truck transportation was the most cost-efficient option. When the transportation distance went from 135 to 165 km, depending on the fuel source, train-based transportation offered the lowest costs. The most cost-competitive alternative for long-distance transport included a combination of roadside chipping, truck transportation to the terminal and train transportation to the plant. Due to the low payload, the energy wood bundle chain with train transportation was not cost-competitive. Reduction of maximum truck weight increased the relative competitiveness of loose residue chains and train-based transportation, while reduction of fuel moisture increased competitiveness, especially of chip trucks.

  8. Gaming Change: A Many-objective Analysis of Water Supply Portfolios under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, P. M.; Kasprzyk, J.; Characklis, G.; Kirsch, B.

    2008-12-01

    This study explores the uncertainty and tradeoffs associated with up to six conflicting water supply portfolio planning objectives. A ten-year Monte Carlo simulation model is used to evaluate water supply portfolios blending permanent rights, adaptive options contracts, and spot leases for a single city in the Lower Rio Grande Valley. Historical records of reservoir mass balance, lease pricing, and demand serve as the source data for the Monte Carlo simulation. Portfolio planning decisions include the initial volume and annual increases of permanent rights, thresholds for an adaptive options contract, and anticipatory decision rules for purchasing leases and exercising options. Our work distinguishes three cases: (1) permanent rights as the sole source of supply, (2) permanent rights and adaptive options, and (3) a combination of permanent rights, adaptive options, and leases. The problems have been formulated such that cases 1 and 2 are sub-spaces of the six objective formulation used for case 3. Our solution sets provide the tradeoff surfaces between portfolios' expected values for cost, cost variability, reliability, frequency of purchasing permanent rights increases, frequency of using leases, and dropped (or unused) transfers of water. The tradeoff surfaces for the three cases show that options and leases have a dramatic impact on the marginal costs associated with improving the efficiency and reliability of urban water supplies. Moreover, our many-objective analysis permits the discovery of a broad range of high quality portfolio strategies. We differentiate the value of adaptive options versus leases by testing a representative subset of optimal portfolios' abilities to effectively address regional increases in demand during drought periods. These results provide insights into the tradeoffs inherent to a more flexible, portfolio-style approach to urban water resources management, an approach that should become increasingly attractive in an environment of

  9. Allocation of biomass resources for minimising energy system greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott; Jack, Michael W.; Felby, Claus; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2014-01-01

    The European Union (EU) energy policy has three targets: supply security, development of a competitive energy sector and environmental sustainability. The EU countries have issued so-called National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAP) for increased renewable energy generation. Biomass is stipulated to account for 56% of renewable energy generation by 2020, corresponding to an increase in bioenergy generation from 2.4 × 10 9  GJ in 2005 to 5.7 × 10 9  GJ in 2020. There is uncertainty about the amounts of biomass available in the EU, and import challenges policy targets on supply security and sustainability. We address issues about how, from a technical point of view, the EU may deploy its biomass resources to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy consumption. We investigate if deployment patterns depend on resource availability and technological development. In situations with adequate biomass availability the analysis suggests that liquid fuel production should be based on agricultural residues. Electricity production should be based on forest residues and other woody biomass and heat production on forest and agricultural residues. Improved conversion technologies implicitly relax the strain on biomass resources and improve supply security. - Highlights: • Optimal allocation of biomass to energy is analysed conceptually for the EU by 2020. • Allocation is influenced not only by GHG performance, also by resource availability. • Surplus biomass could be allocated to electricity generation to reduce GHG emissions

  10. Investigation of thermochemical biorefinery sizing and environmental sustainability impacts for conventional supply system and distributed preprocessing supply system designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, jr., David J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Langholtz, Matthew H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jacobson, Jacob [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schwab, Amy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wu, May [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Argo, Andrew [Sundrop Fuels, Golden, CO (United States); Brandt, Craig C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cafferty, Kara [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chiu, Yi-Wen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eaton, Laurence M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Searcy, Erin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-03-31

    The 2011 US Billion-Ton Update estimates that by 2030 there will be enough agricultural and forest resources to sustainably provide at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually, enough to displace approximately 30% of the country's current petroleum consumption. A portion of these resources are inaccessible at current cost targets with conventional feedstock supply systems because of their remoteness or low yields. Reliable analyses and projections of US biofuels production depend on assumptions about the supply system and biorefinery capacity, which, in turn, depend upon economic value, feedstock logistics, and sustainability. A cross-functional team has examined combinations of advances in feedstock supply systems and biorefinery capacities with rigorous design information, improved crop yield and agronomic practices, and improved estimates of sustainable biomass availability. A previous report on biochemical refinery capacity noted that under advanced feedstock logistic supply systems that include depots and pre-processing operations there are cost advantages that support larger biorefineries up to 10 000 DMT/day facilities compared to the smaller 2000 DMT/day facilities. This report focuses on analyzing conventional versus advanced depot biomass supply systems for a thermochemical conversion and refinery sizing based on woody biomass. The results of this analysis demonstrate that the economies of scale enabled by advanced logistics offsets much of the added logistics costs from additional depot processing and transportation, resulting in a small overall increase to the minimum ethanol selling price compared to the conventional logistic supply system. While the overall costs do increase slightly for the advanced logistic supply systems, the ability to mitigate moisture and ash in the system will improve the storage and conversion processes. In addition, being able to draw on feedstocks from further distances will decrease the risk of biomass supply to

  11. Optimization of casting defects analysis with supply chain in cast iron foundry process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Narayanaswamy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Some of the foundries are in need of meeting production targets and due to the urgency they ignore the rejections. The objective of this paper is to analyze the various defects, [1] from molding process in a cast iron foundry. The Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA in quality control [2-6] with suitable supply chain for mold making process considering rejection rates are identified and analyzed in terms of Risk Priority Number (RPN to prioritize the attention for each of the problem. The optimum levels of selected parameters [7] are obtained in this analysis.

  12. Experimental Analysis of Linear Induction Motor under Variable Voltage Variable Frequency (VVVF Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasenjit D. Wakode

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the complete analysis of Linear Induction Motor (LIM under VVVF. The complete variation of LIM air gap flux under ‘blocked Linor’ condition and starting force is analyzed and presented when LIM is given VVVF supply. The analysis of this data is important in further understanding of the equivalent circuit parameters of LIM and to study the magnetic circuit of LIM. The variation of these parameters is important to know the LIM response at different frequencies. The simulation and application of different control strategies such as vector control thus becomes quite easy to apply and understand motor’s response under such strategy of control.

  13. Reliability analysis of the automatic control and power supply of reactor equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monori, Pal; Nagy, J.A.; Meszaros, Zoltan; Konkoly, Laszlo; Szabo, Antal; Nagy, Laszlo

    1988-01-01

    Based on reliability analysis the shortcomings of nuclear facilities are discovered. Fault tree types constructed for the technology of automatic control and for power supply serve as input data of the ORCHARD 2 computer code. In order to charaterize the reliability of the system, availability, failure rates and time intervals between failures are calculated. The results of the reliability analysis of the feedwater system of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant showed that the system consisted of elements of similar reliabilities. (V.N.) 8 figs.; 3 tabs

  14. Empirical Analysis of Green Supply Chain Management Practices in Indian Automobile Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, S.; Garg, D.; Haleem, A.

    2014-04-01

    Environmental sustainability and green environmental issues have an increasing popularity among researchers and supply chain practitioners. An attempt has been made to identify and empirically analyze green supply chain management (GSCM) practices in Indian automobile industry. Six main GSCM practices (having 37 sub practices) and four expected performance outcomes (having 16 performances) have been identified by implementing GSCM practices from literature review. Questionnaire based survey has been made to validate these practices and performance outcomes. 123 complete questionnaires were collected from Indian automobile organizations and used for empirical analysis of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry. Descriptive statistics have been used to know current implementation status of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry and multiple regression analysis has been carried out to know the impact on expected organizational performance outcomes by current GSCM practices adopted by Indian automobile industry. The results of study suggested that environmental, economic, social and operational performances improve with the implementation of GSCM practices. This paper may play an important role to understand various GSCM implementation issues and help practicing managers to improve their performances in the supply chain.

  15. Impacts of Returning Unsold Products in Retail Outsourcing Fashion Supply Chain: A Sustainability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available l outsourcing with a return policy is quite commonly adopted in the fashion supply chain. Under the return policy, the supplier as a brand owner may focus on production, and then outsource retailing to the retailer. In the meanwhile, the retailer may receive some support money from the supplier for subsidizing the loss of unsold products at the end of the selling season and be asked for shipping back. Motivated by this real practice in the fashion industry, we examine a two-echelon supply chain with one supplier and one retailer under the return policy. Several interesting findings are obtained from our analysis. First, we find that when the supply chain achieves channel coordination, the cost of physical return is at least partially borne by the supplier, no matter who is responsible for it in reality. Second, we find that the cost of physical return is significantly affecting the sustainability factors such as the expected amount leftover (which represents environmental friendliness, the expected sales to expected goods leftover ratio (which implies both environmental friendliness and economic sustainability, and the rate of return on investment (which indicates economic sustainability. Third, from a sustainability perspective, we find that the pure wholesale price contract is more sustainable than the coordinating return policy. A numerical study by the real company data is conducted and managerial insights from analysis are discussed.

  16. Requirement Analysis for the Collaborative Supply and Logistics Management of Fresh Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Issues and concerns for food safety, agro-processing, and the environmental and ecological impact of food production have been attracted many research interests. Traceability and logistics management of fresh agricultural products is faced with the technological challenges including food product label and identification, activity/process characterization, information systems for the supply chain, i.e., from farm to table. Application of information technologies for food processing and logistics industry in the fields of smart packaging and materials, automation and control technology, standards and their application scenarios, and production management principles were wildly studied. A collaborative research project for the supply and logistics of fresh agricultural products in Tianjin was performed. System analysis for the logistics management information system is studied. The model-driven business transformation, an approach uses formal models to explicitly define the structure and behavior of a business, is applied for the review and analysis process. Requirements for the logistic management solutions are proposed. Development of this research is crucial for the solution integration of supply and logistic management information system for fresh agricultural products.

  17. A multilayered analysis of energy security research and the energy supply process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriyama, Eriko; Kajikawa, Yuya

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The analysis reveals that energy security research is highly multidisciplinary. • Diversification is important for ensuring security in the energy supply process. • A multilayered overview of the energy supply process is important for energy risk management. • Consumer lifestyle innovation will be a part of energy security in the future. - Abstract: After the Fukushima nuclear disaster, a reassessment of the energy system is needed in order to include such aspects as human security and resilience. More open and careful discussions are needed concerning the various risks and uncertainties of future energy options, both in Japan and globally. In this paper, we aim to offer a fundamental basis for discourse on energy security by analyzing the status and trends in academic publications on that issue. Our bibliometrics analysis indicates that research has shifted from promoting strategies for ensuring the self-sufficiency of the primary energy to diversification of the secondary energy supply chain by introducing energy networks consisting of an infrastructure established through international coordination. In the literature, the concept of energy security is ambiguous and allows for multiple interpretations. Our results illustrate the existence of highly multidisciplinary topics within energy security, which can be categorized into four perspectives: geopolitical, economic, policy related, and technological

  18. Regional biomass burning trends in India: Analysis of satellite fire data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    humans have dramatically influenced biomass burn- ing for agricultural needs ... implications for climatic change as a result of land- scape change ... Comprehensive modelling-based emission esti- mates of .... Cloud coverage could be also a ...

  19. Comparative genomic analysis of the thermophilic biomass-degrading fungi Myceliophthora thermophila and Thielavia terrestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berka, Randy M.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Otillar, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Grimwood, Jane; Reid, Ian; Ishmael, Nadeeza; John, Tricia; Darmond, Corinne; Moisan, Marie-Claude; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Lombard, Vincent; Natvig, Donald O.; Lindquist, Erika; Schmutz, Jeremy; Lucas, Susan; Harris, Paul; Powlowski, Justin; Bellemare, Annie; Taylor, David; Butler, Gregory; de Vries, Ronald P.; Allijn, Iris E.; van den Brink, Joost; Ushinsky, Sophia; Storms, Reginald; Powell, Amy J.; Paulsen, Ian T.; Elbourne, Liam D. H.; Baker, Scott. E.; Magnuson, Jon; LaBoissiere, Sylvie; Clutterbuck, A. John; Martinez, Diego; Wogulis, Mark; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Rey, Michael W.; Tsang, Adrian

    2011-05-16

    Thermostable enzymes and thermophilic cell factories may afford economic advantages in the production of many chemicals and biomass-based fuels. Here we describe and compare the genomes of two thermophilic fungi, Myceliophthora thermophila and Thielavia terrestris. To our knowledge, these genomes are the first described for thermophilic eukaryotes and the first complete telomere-to-telomere genomes for filamentous fungi. Genome analyses and experimental data suggest that both thermophiles are capable of hydrolyzing all major polysaccharides found in biomass. Examination of transcriptome data and secreted proteins suggests that the two fungi use shared approaches in the hydrolysis of cellulose and xylan but distinct mechanisms in pectin degradation. Characterization of the biomass-hydrolyzing activity of recombinant enzymes suggests that these organisms are highly efficient in biomass decomposition at both moderate and high temperatures. Furthermore, we present evidence suggesting that aside from representing a potential reservoir of thermostable enzymes, thermophilic fungi are amenable to manipulation using classical and molecular genetics.

  20. Biomass Assessment. Assessment of global biomass potentials and their links to food, water, biodiversity, energy demand and economy. Inventory and analysis of existing studies. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.; Verweij, P. [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Banse, M.; Van Diepen, K.; Van Keulen, H.; Langeveld, H.; Meeusen, M.; Van de Ven, G.; Wester, F. [Wageningen UR, Wageningen (Netherlands); Alkemade, R.; Ten Brink, B.; Van den Born, G.J.; Van Oorschot, M.; Ros, J.; Smout, F.; Van Vuuren, D.; Van den Wijngaart, R. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency NMP, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Aiking, H. [Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Londo, M.; Mozaffarian, H.; Smekens, K. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Lysen, E. (ed.); Van Egmond, S. (ed.) [Utrecht Centre for Energy research UCE, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2008-01-15

    The increased use and potential growth of biomass for energy has triggered a heated debate on the sustainability of those developments as biomass production is now also associated with increased competition with food and feed production, loss of forest cover and the like. Besides such competition, also the net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions is questioned in case land-use for biomass is associated with clearing forest, with conversion of peat land, as well as with high fossil energy inputs for machinery, fertilisers and other agrochemicals. Although available studies give a reasonable insight in the importance of various parameters, the integration between different arenas is still limited. This causes confusion in public as well as scientific debate, with conflicting views on the possibilities for sustainable use of biomass as a result. This study aims to tackle this problem by providing a more comprehensive assessment of the current knowledge with respect to biomass resource potentials.

  1. Biomass Assessment. Assessment of global biomass potentials and their links to food, water, biodiversity, energy demand and economy. Inventory and analysis of existing studies. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.; Verweij, P.; Banse, M.; Van Diepen, K.; Van Keulen, H.; Langeveld, H.; Meeusen, M.; Van de Ven, G.; Wester, F.; Alkemade, R.; Ten Brink, B.; Van den Born, G.J.; Van Oorschot, M.; Ros, J.; Smout, F.; Van Vuuren, D.; Van den Wijngaart, R.; Aiking, H.; Londo, M.; Mozaffarian, H.; Smekens, K.; Lysen, E.

    2008-01-01

    The increased use and potential growth of biomass for energy has triggered a heated debate on the sustainability of those developments as biomass production is now also associated with increased competition with food and feed production, loss of forest cover and the like. Besides such competition, also the net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions is questioned in case land-use for biomass is associated with clearing forest, with conversion of peat land, as well as with high fossil energy inputs for machinery, fertilisers and other agrochemicals. Although available studies give a reasonable insight in the importance of various parameters, the integration between different arenas is still limited. This causes confusion in public as well as scientific debate, with conflicting views on the possibilities for sustainable use of biomass as a result. This study aims to tackle this problem by providing a more comprehensive assessment of the current knowledge with respect to biomass resource potentials

  2. Use of grey relational analysis to assess and optimize small biomass boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, J.; Granada, E.; Miguez, J.L.; Porteiro, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for the evaluation of the environmental and economic feasibility of combustion of different biomass fuels in small boilers. The study focuses on pellets as the basic co-firing product and forest residues as the complementary product. Although the co-firing of forest residues can be economically profin, it is difficult to evaluate the general economic advantages due to the worsening of combustion in terms of performance and emissions caused by the presence of the forest residues in the fuel mixture. The grey relational analysis of different energetic and emission variables and also residue prices allows for the definition of a new single variable called the grey relational grade. Thus, evaluation and optimization of complicated multiple responses can be converted into the optimization of a standardised single variable. Experimental analyses by means of the Grey theory of different forest residues have revealed the possibility of co-firing crust of pine combined with wood pellets as a way of reducing fuel costs, keeping performance and emissions within average standards in small pellet boilers. (author)