WorldWideScience

Sample records for biomass resource assessments

  1. Assessment of Biomass Resources in Liberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.

    2009-04-01

    Biomass resources meet about 99.5% of the Liberian population?s energy needs so they are vital to basic welfare and economic activity. Already, traditional biomass products like firewood and charcoal are the primary energy source used for domestic cooking and heating. However, other more efficient biomass technologies are available that could open opportunities for agriculture and rural development, and provide other socio-economic and environmental benefits.The main objective of this study is to estimate the biomass resources currently and potentially available in the country and evaluate their contribution for power generation and the production of transportation fuels. It intends to inform policy makers and industry developers of the biomass resource availability in Liberia, identify areas with high potential, and serve as a base for further, more detailed site-specific assessments.

  2. Assessment of Biomass Resources in Afghanistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R.

    2011-01-01

    Afghanistan is facing many challenges on its path of reconstruction and development. Among all its pressing needs, the country would benefit from the development and implementation of an energy strategy. In addition to conventional energy sources, the Afghan government is considering alternative options such as energy derived from renewable resources (wind, solar, biomass, geothermal). Biomass energy is derived from a variety of sources -- plant-based material and residues -- and can be used in various conversion processes to yield power, heat, steam, and fuel. This study provides policymakers and industry developers with information on the biomass resource potential in Afghanistan for power/heat generation and transportation fuels production. To achieve this goal, the study estimates the current biomass resources and evaluates the potential resources that could be used for energy purposes.

  3. Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment Capabilities in APEC Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P

    2008-11-01

    This survey of biomass resource assessments and assessment capabilities in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies considered various sources: academic and government publications, media reports, and personal communication with contacts in member economies.

  4. Regional assessment of nonforestry related biomass resources: Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-11-01

    This document consists of spreadsheets detailing in a county by county manner agricultural crop, agricultural waste, municipal waste and industrial waste in Arkansas that are potential biomass energy sources.

  5. Biomass for energy in the European Union - a review of bioenergy resource assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentsen Niclas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reviews recent literature on bioenergy potentials in conjunction with available biomass conversion technologies. The geographical scope is the European Union, which has set a course for long term development of its energy supply from the current dependence on fossil resources to a dominance of renewable resources. A cornerstone in European energy policies and strategies is biomass and bioenergy. The annual demand for biomass for energy is estimated to increase from the current level of 5.7 EJ to 10.0 EJ in 2020. Assessments of bioenergy potentials vary substantially due to methodological inconsistency and assumptions applied by individual authors. Forest biomass, agricultural residues and energy crops constitute the three major sources of biomass for energy, with the latter probably developing into the most important source over the 21st century. Land use and the changes thereof is a key issue in sustainable bioenergy production as land availability is an ultimately limiting factor.

  6. Assessment of Biomass Resources from Marginal Lands in APEC Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P.

    2009-08-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the marginal lands in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies and evaluate their biomass productivity potential. Twelve categories of marginal lands are identified using the Global Agro-Ecological Zones system of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

  7. Chemicals from biomass: an assessment of the potential for production of chemical feedstocks from renewable resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Culberson, O.L.

    1983-06-01

    This assessment of the potential for production of commodity chemicals from renewable biomass resources is based on (1) a Delphi study with 50 recognized authorities to identify key technical issues relevant to production of chemicals from biomass, and (2) a systems model based on linear programming for a commodity chemicals industry using renewable resources and coal as well as gas and petroleum-derived resources. Results from both parts of the assessment indicate that, in the absence of gas and petroleum, coal undoubtedly would be a major source of chemicals first, followed by biomass. The most attractive biomass resources are wood, agricultural residues, and sugar and starch crops. A reasonable approximation to the current product slate for the petrochemical industry could be manufactured using only renewable resources for feedstocks. Approximately 2.5 quads (10/sup 15/ Btu (1.055 x 10/sup 18/ joules)) per year of oil and gas would be released. Further use of biomass fuels in the industry could release up to an additional 1.5 quads. however, such an industry would be unprofitable under current economic conditions with existing or near-commercial technology. As fossil resources become more expensive and biotechnology becomes more efficient, the economics will be more favorable. Use of the chemicals industry model to evaluate process technologies is demonstrated. Processes are identified which have potential for significant added value to the system if process improvements can be made to improve the economics. Guidelines and recommendations for research and development programs to improve the attractiveness of chemicals from biomass are discussed.

  8. Biomass Resource Assessment and Existing Biomass Use in the Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu States of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Natarajan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available India is experiencing energy crisis and a widening gap between energy supply and demand. The country is, however, endowed with considerable, commercially and technically available renewable resources, from which surplus agro-biomass is of great importance and a relatively untapped resource. In the policy making process, knowledge of existing biomass use, degree of social reliance, and degree of biomass availability for energy production is unequivocal and pre-conditional. Field observations, documentation, and fill-in sheet tools were used to investigate the potential of biomass resources and the existing domestic, commercial, and industrial uses of biomass in selected Indian states. To do so, a team of field observers/supervisors visited three Indian states namely: Maharashtra (MH, Madhya Pradesh (MP, and Tamil Nadu (TN. Two districts from each state were selected to collect data regarding the use of biomass and the extent of biomass availability for energy production. In total, 471 farmers were interviewed, and approximately 75 farmers with various land holdings have been interviewed in each district. The existing uses of biomass have been documented in this survey study and the results show that the majority of biomass is used as fodder for domestic livestock followed by in-site ploughing, leaving trivial surplus quantities for other productive uses. Biomass for cooking appeared to be insignificant due to the availability and access to Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG cylinders in the surveyed districts. Opportunities exist to utilize roadside-dumped biomass, in-site burnt biomass, and a share of biomass used for ploughing. The GIS-based maps show that biomass availability varies considerably across the Taluks of the surveyed districts, and is highly dependent on a number of enviromental and socio-cultural factors. Developing competitive bioenergy market and enhancing and promoting access to more LPG fuel connections seem an appropriate socio

  9. Illinois biomass resources: annual crops and residues; canning and food-processing wastes. Preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonopoulos, A A

    1980-06-01

    Illinois, a major agricultural and food-processing state, produces vast amounts of renewable plant material having potential for energy production. This biomass, in the form of annual crops, crop residues, and food-processing wastes, can be converted to alternative fuels (such as ethanol) and industrial chemicals (such as furfural, ethylene, and xylene). The present study provides a preliminary assessment of these Illinois biomass resources, including (a) an appraisal of the effects of their use on both agriculture and industry; (b) an analysis of biomass conversion systems; and (c) an environmental and economic evaluation of products that could be generated from biomass. It is estimated that, of the 39 x 10/sup 6/ tons of residues generated in 1978 in Illinois from seven main crops, about 85% was collectible. The thermal energy equivalent of this material is 658 x 10/sup 6/ Btu, or 0.66 quad. And by fermenting 10% of the corn grain grown in Illinois, some 323 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in 1978. Another 3 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in the same year from wastes generated by the state's food-processing establishments. Clearly, Illinois can strengthen its economy substantially by the development of industries that produce biomass-derived fuels and chemicals. In addition, a thorough evaluation should be made of the potential for using the state's less-exploitable land for the growing of additional biomass.

  10. Resource Assessment for Microalgal/Emergent Aquatic Biomass Systems in the Arid Southwest: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigon, B. W.; Arthur, M. F.; Taft, L. G.; Wagner, C. K.; Lipinsky, E. S.; Litchfield, J. H.; McCandlish, C. D.; Clark, R.

    1982-12-23

    This research project has been designed to facilitate the eventual selection of biomass production systems using aquatic species (microalgal and emergent aquatic plant species (MEAP) which effectively exploit the potentially available resources of the Southwest.

  11. World wide biomass resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased rapidly in

  12. Sustainable Biomass Resources for Biogas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup

    The aim of this thesis was to identify and map sustainable biomass resources, which can be utilised for biogas production with minimal negative impacts on the environment, nature and climate. Furthermore, the aim of this thesis was to assess the resource potential and feasibility of utilising...... such biomasses in the biogas sector. Sustainability in the use of biomass feedstock for energy production is of key importance for a stable future food and energy supply, and for the functionality of the Earths ecosystems. A range of biomass resources were assessed in respect to sustainability, availability...... from 39.3-66.9 Mtoe, depending on the availability of the residues. Grass from roadside verges and meadow habitats in Denmark represent two currently unutilised sources. If utilised in the Danish biogas sector, the results showed that the resources represent a net energy potential of 60,000 -122,000 GJ...

  13. Changes in Forest Production, Biomass and Carbon: Results From the 2015 UN FAO Global Forest Resource Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navar, J.

    2015-12-01

    Forests are important sources of livelihoods to millions of people and contribute to national economic development of many countries. In addition, they are vital sources and sinks of carbon and contribute to the rate of climate change. The UN Food and Agriculture Organization has been collecting and presenting data on global forest resources and forest cover since 1948. This paper builds on data from FAO's 2015 Global Forest Resource Assessment (FRA) and presents information on growing stock, biomass, carbon stock, wood removals, and changes of forest area primarily designated for production and multiple use of the world's forests. Between 1990 and 2015, the total growing stock volume has increased in East Asia, Caribbean, Western and Central Asia, North America, Europe (including the Russian Federation), and Oceania with the highest relative increase in East Asia and the Caribbean. In all other subregions the total growing stock volume decreased. North and Central America, Europe and Asia report forest C stock increases while South America and Africa report strong decreases and Oceania reports stable forest C stocks. The annual rate of decrease of forest C stock weakened between 1990 and 2015. The total volume of annual wood removals including wood fuel removals increased between 1990 and 2011, but shows a remarkable decline during the 2008-2009 economic crisis. Forest areas designated for production purposes differ considerably between subregions. The percentage of production area out of total forest area ranges between 16 percent in South America and 53 percent in Europe. Globally about one quarter of the forest area is designated to multiple use forestry. The balance between biomass growth and removals shows considerable sub-regional differences and related implications for the sustainable use of forests.

  14. Assessment Planning and Evaluation of Renewable Energy Resources: an Interactive Computer Assisted Procedure. [hydroelectricity, biomass, and windpower in the Pittsfield metropolitan region, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, T. W.; Fabos, J. G.; Macdougall, E. B.

    1982-01-01

    Adaptation and derivation were used to develop a procedure for assessing the availability of renewable energy resources on the landscape while simultaneously accounting for the economic, legal, social, and environmental issues required. Done in a step-by-step fashion, the procedure can be used interactively at the computer terminals. Its application in determining the hydroelectricity, biomass, and windpower in a 40,000 acre study area of Western Massachusetts shows that: (1) three existing dam sites are physically capable of being retrofitted for hydropower; (2) each of three general areas has a mean annual windspeed exceeding 14 mph and is conductive to windpower; and (3) 20% of the total land area consists of prime agricultural biomass while 30% of the area is prime forest biomass land.

  15. Bamboo: An Overlooked Biomass Resource?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scurlock, J.M.O.

    2000-02-01

    Bamboo is the common term applied to a broad group (1250 species) of large woody grasses, ranging from 10 cm to 40 m in height. Already in everyday use by about 2.5 billion people, mostly for fiber and food within Asia, bamboo may have potential as a bioenergy or fiber crop for niche markets, although some reports of its high productivity seem to be exaggerated. Literature on bamboo productivity is scarce, with most reports coming from various parts of Asia. There is little evidence overall that bamboo is significantly more productive than many other candidate bioenergy crops, but it shares a number of desirable fuel characteristics with certain other bioenergy feedstocks, such as low ash content and alkali index. Its heating value is lower than many woody biomass feedstocks but higher than most agricultural residues, grasses and straws. Although non-fuel applications of bamboo biomass may be actually more profitable than energy recovery, there may also be potential for co-productio n of bioenergy together with other bamboo processing. A significant drawback is the difficulty of selective breeding, given the lack of knowledge of flowering physiology. Further research is also required on propagation techniques, establishment and stand management, and mechanized harvesting needs to be developed.

  16. Biomass Resource Allocation among Competing End Uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Inman, D.; Lin, Y.; Mai, T.; Martinez, A.; Mulcahy, D.; Short, W.; Simpkins, T.; Uriarte, C.; Peck, C.

    2012-05-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model developed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a tool to better understand the interaction of complex policies and their potential effects on the biofuels industry in the United States. However, it does not currently have the capability to account for allocation of biomass resources among the various end uses, which limits its utilization in analysis of policies that target biomass uses outside the biofuels industry. This report provides a more holistic understanding of the dynamics surrounding the allocation of biomass among uses that include traditional use, wood pellet exports, bio-based products and bioproducts, biopower, and biofuels by (1) highlighting the methods used in existing models' treatments of competition for biomass resources; (2) identifying coverage and gaps in industry data regarding the competing end uses; and (3) exploring options for developing models of biomass allocation that could be integrated with the BSM to actively exchange and incorporate relevant information.

  17. Waste and biomass as energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klass, Donald L.

    1978-11-01

    Organic fuels can be manufactured by converting major sources of continuously renewable nonfossil carbon to synfuels that are interchangeable with, or can be substituted for, natural gas and petroleum-derived fuels. Promising sources of this carbon are waste materials, such as urban refuse, and biomass produced from solar energy by photosynthesis. The development of this concept is presented in this paper. The broad scope of the technology and its potential impact on energy supplies are reviewed. The renewable feature of both wastes and biomass makes them valuable natural resources that inevitably will be fully developed and commercialized as sources of energy-intensive products and synfuels. The perpetual availability of organic fuels will permit the conservation of valuable fossil fuel reserves, and, as time passes, offer a long-term solution to independence from foreign energy supplies and fossil fuel depletion.

  18. Solar Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renne, D.; George, R.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-02-01

    This report covers the solar resource assessment aspects of the Renewable Systems Interconnection study. The status of solar resource assessment in the United States is described, and summaries of the availability of modeled data sets are provided.

  19. Biomass Resources Distribution in the Terrestrial Ecosystem of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data and the multiple linear regression model were used to estimate distribution of biomass resources in 2010. The establishment of models, developed using different vegetation biomass sample data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, leaf area index (LAI, meteorological data, coordinates, terrain data, and statistical data. Results based on a cross-validation approach show that the model can explain 95.6% of the variance in biomass, with a relative estimation error of 67 g·m−2 for a range of biomass between 0–73,875 g·m−2. Spatial statistic results were consistent with the practical condition in most cases. The above- and below-ground biomass (ABGB of China was estimated to be 31.1 Pg (1 Pg = 1015 g in 2010. The forest ecosystem has the largest total biomass, which represents about 70% of the whole terrestrial ecosystem. The desert ecosystem has minimum biomass value. The Belowground Endowment (BRE varied differently in spatial distribution, with the high values occurring in the southeast and northeast. The low values were primarily distributed in north and northwest regions, where it is mostly desert and few plants. Biomass per capita indicates the availability of natural resources per capita. Tibet had the maximum biomass per capita (807 tone in 2010. Shanghai and Tianjin had the minimum biomass per capita, less than 500 kg. Shanghai, Tianjin, Guangzhou, Beijing, and Hainan had negative growth of biomass per capita.

  20. SSCM analyses of biomass resources in Randers, Norddjurs and Syddjurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-15

    This project has been commissioned by ENERCOAST whose overall aim is to stimulate increased use and production of biomass, and create a market for bio energy in the North Sea region. The Enercoast project has been financed by the EU Interreg IVB with partners from Denmark, Germany, United Kingdom, Sweden and Norway. The Danish project leader is AgroBusiness Park/ CBMI /Innovation Centre for Bioenergy and Environmental Technology. Central Region Denmark is co-financing 34% of the Danish portion of the project, while the municipalities of Norddjurs, Syddjurs and Randers are contributing to the project with their working hours. The Danish portion of this project focuses on three Danish municipalities, Randers, Norddjurs, and Syddjurs, and the possibilities to reach local energy and climate targets by increasing the use and production of biomass. The project is divided into 6 phases of which this report is part of the second and third phase which focus on analyses of various biomass resources on a local level including carrying out SSCM analyses of these resources. The aim of this report is to assess the sustainability of relevant bio energy supply chains related to the resource accessibility in the three municipalities with main focus on biogas, straw, wood residues and energy crops for combined heat and power production. Sustainable Supply Chain Management (SSCM) is a concept that has many definitions and the methodologies used to approach this are numerous. In this report the SSCM analysis is used to answer the following question: What are the possibilities of increased use of biomass for energy production in the three municipalities, and what consequences are associated with the utilisation of each of the selected resources described through our case studies? For each of the resource case studies an overview of the supply chain is illustrated through a matrix. Each step of the supply chain from the primal material production in on end to heat and electricity

  1. Balanced Ecological Use of Biomass Resources in DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I; Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Christensen, B.T.

    1996-01-01

    As Denmark has no hydro power, biomass resources play an important role for a future sustainable energy system. Especially surplus straw and animal manure (for biogas) from agriculture. This paper describes the potential of biomass in the Danish energy supply system three to four decades ahead...

  2. Community assessment of tropical tree biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, Ida; Rutishauser, Ervan; Poulsen, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Background REDD+ programs rely on accurate forest carbon monitoring. Several REDD+ projects have recently shown that local communities can monitor above ground biomass as well as external professionals, but at lower costs. However, the precision and accuracy of carbon monitoring conducted by local...... communities have rarely been assessed in the tropics. The aim of this study was to investigate different sources of error in tree biomass measurements conducted by community monitors and determine the effect on biomass estimates. Furthermore, we explored the potential of local ecological knowledge to assess...... measurement, with special attention given to large and odd-shaped trees. A better understanding of traditional classification systems and concepts is required for local tree identifications and wood density estimates to become useful in monitoring of biomass and tree diversity....

  3. NATURAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.F. Fenster

    2000-12-11

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the scientific work that was performed to evaluate and assess the occurrence and economic potential of natural resources within the geologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The extent of the regional areas of investigation for each commodity differs and those areas are described in more detail in the major subsections of this report. Natural resource assessments have focused on an area defined as the ''conceptual controlled area'' because of the requirements contained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation, 10 CFR Part 60, to define long-term boundaries for potential radionuclide releases. New requirements (proposed 10 CFR Part 63 [Dyer 1999]) have obviated the need for defining such an area. However, for the purposes of this report, the area being discussed, in most cases, is the previously defined ''conceptual controlled area'', now renamed the ''natural resources site study area'' for this report (shown on Figure 1). Resource potential can be difficult to assess because it is dependent upon many factors, including economics (demand, supply, cost), the potential discovery of new uses for resources, or the potential discovery of synthetics to replace natural resource use. The evaluations summarized are based on present-day use and economic potential of the resources. The objective of this report is to summarize the existing reports and information for the Yucca Mountain area on: (1) Metallic mineral and mined energy resources (such as gold, silver, etc., including uranium); (2) Industrial rocks and minerals (such as sand, gravel, building stone, etc.); (3) Hydrocarbons (including oil, natural gas, tar sands, oil shales, and coal); and (4) Geothermal resources. Groundwater is present at the Yucca Mountain site at depths ranging from 500 to 750 m (about 1,600 to 2,500 ft) below the ground surface. Groundwater resources are not discussed in this

  4. Information technology resources assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D.F. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    This year's Information Technology Resources Assessment (ITRA) is something of a departure from traditional practice. Past assessments have concentrated on developments in fundamental technology, particularly with respect to hardware. They form an impressive chronicle of decreasing cycle times, increasing densities, decreasing costs (or, equivalently, increasing capacity and capability per dollar spent), and new system architectures, with a leavening of operating systems and languages. Past assessments have aimed -- and succeeded -- at putting information technology squarely in the spotlight; by contrast, in the first part of this assessment, we would like to move it to the background, and encourage the reader to reflect less on the continuing technological miracles of miniaturization in space and time and more on the second- and third-order implications of some possible workplace applications of these miracles. This Information Technology Resources Assessment is intended to provide a sense of technological direction for planners in projecting the hardware, software, and human resources necessary to support the diverse IT requirements of the various components of the DOE community. It is also intended to provide a sense of our new understanding of the place of IT in our organizations.

  5. Information technology resources assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D.F. [ed.

    1992-01-01

    This year`s Information Technology Resources Assessment (ITRA) is something of a departure from traditional practice. Past assessments have concentrated on developments in fundamental technology, particularly with respect to hardware. They form an impressive chronicle of decreasing cycle times, increasing densities, decreasing costs (or, equivalently, increasing capacity and capability per dollar spent), and new system architectures, with a leavening of operating systems and languages. Past assessments have aimed -- and succeeded -- at putting information technology squarely in the spotlight; by contrast, in the first part of this assessment, we would like to move it to the background, and encourage the reader to reflect less on the continuing technological miracles of miniaturization in space and time and more on the second- and third-order implications of some possible workplace applications of these miracles. This Information Technology Resources Assessment is intended to provide a sense of technological direction for planners in projecting the hardware, software, and human resources necessary to support the diverse IT requirements of the various components of the DOE community. It is also intended to provide a sense of our new understanding of the place of IT in our organizations.

  6. Information Technology Resources Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The Information Technology Resources Assessment (ITRA) is being published as a companion document to the Department of Energy (DOE) FY 1994--FY 1998 Information Resources Management Long-Range Plan. This document represents a collaborative effort between the Office of Information Resources Management and the Office of Energy Research that was undertaken to achieve, in part, the Technology Strategic Objective of IRM Vision 21. An integral part of this objective, technology forecasting provides an understanding of the information technology horizon and presents a perspective and focus on technologies of particular interest to DOE program activities. Specifically, this document provides site planners with an overview of the status and use of new information technology for their planning consideration.

  7. Assessment of Peruvian biofuel resources and alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J.P.; Smith, W.; Mariani, E.

    1979-08-01

    Comprehensive assessment of the biofuel potential of Peru is based on: determination of current biofuel utilization practices, evauation of Peruvian biomass productivity, identification of Peruvian agricultural and forestry resources, assessment of resource development and management concerns, identification of market considerations, description of biofuel technological options, and identification of regional biofuel technology applications. Discussion of current biofuel utilization centers on a qualitative description of the main conversion approaches currently being practiced in Peru. Biomass productivity evaluations consider the terrain and soil, and climatic conditions found in Peru. The potential energy from Peruvian agricultural and forestry resources is described quantitatively. Potental regional production of agricultural residues and forest resources that could supply energy are identified. Assessment of resource development and management concerns focuses on harvesting, reforestation, training, and environmental consequences of utilization of forest resources. Market factors assessed include: importation, internal market development, external market development, energy policy and pricing, and transportation. Nine biofuel technology options for Peru are identified: (1) small-to-medium-scale gasification, (2) a wood waste inventory, (3) stationary and mobile charcoal production systems, (4) wood distillation, (5) forest resource development and management, (6) electrical cogeneration, (7) anaerobic digestion technology, (8) development of ethanol production capabilities, and (9) agricultural strategies for fuel production. Applications of these biofuel options are identified for each of the three major regions - nine applications for the Costa Region, eight for the Sierra Region, and ten for the Selva Region.

  8. Information technology resources assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loken, S.C. [ed.

    1993-01-01

    The emphasis in Information Technology (IT) development has shifted from technology management to information management, and the tools of information management are increasingly at the disposal of end-users, people who deal with information. Moreover, the interactive capabilities of technologies such as hypertext, scientific visualization, virtual reality, video conferencing, and even database management systems have placed in the hands of users a significant amount of discretion over how these resources will be used. The emergence of high-performance networks, as well as network operating systems, improved interoperability, and platform independence of applications will eliminate technical barriers to the use of data, increase the power and range of resources that can be used cooperatively, and open up a wealth of possibilities for new applications. The very scope of these prospects for the immediate future is a problem for the IT planner or administrator. Technology procurement and implementation, integration of new technologies into the existing infrastructure, cost recovery and usage of networks and networked resources, training issues, and security concerns such as data protection and access to experiments are just some of the issues that need to be considered in the emerging IT environment. As managers we must use technology to improve competitiveness. When procuring new systems, we must take advantage of scalable resources. New resources such as distributed file systems can improve access to and efficiency of existing operating systems. In addition, we must assess opportunities to improve information worker productivity and information management through tedmologies such as distributed computational visualization and teleseminar applications.

  9. Biomass energy: the scale of the potential resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christopher B; Campbell, J Elliott; Lobell, David B

    2008-02-01

    Increased production of biomass for energy has the potential to offset substantial use of fossil fuels, but it also has the potential to threaten conservation areas, pollute water resources and decrease food security. The net effect of biomass energy agriculture on climate could be either cooling or warming, depending on the crop, the technology for converting biomass into useable energy, and the difference in carbon stocks and reflectance of solar radiation between the biomass crop and the pre-existing vegetation. The area with the greatest potential for yielding biomass energy that reduces net warming and avoids competition with food production is land that was previously used for agriculture or pasture but that has been abandoned and not converted to forest or urban areas. At the global scale, potential above-ground plant growth on these abandoned lands has an energy content representing approximately 5% of world primary energy consumption in 2006. The global potential for biomass energy production is large in absolute terms, but it is not enough to replace more than a few percent of current fossil fuel usage. Increasing biomass energy production beyond this level would probably reduce food security and exacerbate forcing of climate change.

  10. Assessing aboveground tropical forest biomass using Google Earth canopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploton, Pierre; Pélissier, Raphaël; Proisy, Christophe; Flavenot, Théo; Barbier, Nicolas; Rai, S N; Couteron, Pierre

    2012-04-01

    Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) in efforts to combat climate change requires participating countries to periodically assess their forest resources on a national scale. Such a process is particularly challenging in the tropics because of technical difficulties related to large aboveground forest biomass stocks, restricted availability of affordable, appropriate remote-sensing images, and a lack of accurate forest inventory data. In this paper, we apply the Fourier-based FOTO method of canopy texture analysis to Google Earth's very-high-resolution images of the wet evergreen forests in the Western Ghats of India in order to (1) assess the predictive power of the method on aboveground biomass of tropical forests, (2) test the merits of free Google Earth images relative to their native commercial IKONOS counterparts and (3) highlight further research needs for affordable, accurate regional aboveground biomass estimations. We used the FOTO method to ordinate Fourier spectra of 1436 square canopy images (125 x 125 m) with respect to a canopy grain texture gradient (i.e., a combination of size distribution and spatial pattern of tree crowns), benchmarked against virtual canopy scenes simulated from a set of known forest structure parameters and a 3-D light interception model. We then used 15 1-ha ground plots to demonstrate that both texture gradients provided by Google Earth and IKONOS images strongly correlated with field-observed stand structure parameters such as the density of large trees, total basal area, and aboveground biomass estimated from a regional allometric model. Our results highlight the great potential of the FOTO method applied to Google Earth data for biomass retrieval because the texture-biomass relationship is only subject to 15% relative error, on average, and does not show obvious saturation trends at large biomass values. We also provide the first reliable map of tropical forest aboveground biomass predicted

  11. Forest Biomass Energy Resources in China: Quantity and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important renewable and sustainable energy sources, the forest biomass energy resource has always been the focus of attention of scholars and policy makers. However, its potential is still uncertain in China, especially with respect to its spatial distribution. In this paper, the quantity and distribution of Chinese forest biomass energy resources are explored based mainly on forestry statistics data rather than forest resource inventory data used by most previous studies. The results show that the forest biomass energy resource in China was 169 million tons in 2010, of which wood felling and bucking residue (WFBR,wood processing residue (WPR, bamboo processing residue, fuel wood and firewood used by farmers accounted for 38%, 37%, 6%, 4% and 15%, respectively. The highest resource was located in East China, accounting for nearly 39.0% of the national amount, followed by the Southwest and South China regions, which accounted for 17.4% and 16.3%, respectively. At the provincial scale, Shandong has the highest distribution, accounting for 11.9% of total resources, followed by Guangxi and Fujian accounting for 10.3% and 10.2%, respectively. The actual wood-processing residue (AWPR estimated from the actual production of different wood products (considering the wood transferred between regions showed apparent differences from the local wood processing residue (LWPR, which assumes that no wood has been transferredbetween regions. Due to the large contribution of WPR to total forestry bioenergy resources, the estimation of AWPR will provide a more accurate evaluation of the total amount and the spatial distribution of forest biomass energy resources in China.

  12. Biomass Gasifier Facility (BGF). Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR) is planning, to design, construct and operate a Biomass Gasifier Facility (BGF). This facility will be located on a site easement near the Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar company (KC&S) Paia Sugar Factory on Maui, Hawaii. The proposed BGF Project is a scale-up facility, intended to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of emerging biomass gasification technology for commercialization. This Executive Summary summarizes the uses of this Environmental Assessment, the purpose and need for the project, project,description, and project alternatives.

  13. Zooplankton biomass and potential fishery resources of the EEZ of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.

    An assessment of zooplankton biomass, secondary production and potential fishery resources of the EEZ of India was made from the data collected during a period of 15 years from 1976 to 1991. The areas studied included the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal...

  14. Assessment of potential biomass energy production in China towards 2030 and 2050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Guangling

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a more detailed picture of potential biomass energy production in the Chinese energy system towards 2030 and 2050. Biomass for bioenergy feedstocks comes from five sources, which are agricultural crop residues, forest residues and industrial wood waste......, energy crops and woody crops, animal manure, and municipal solid waste. The potential biomass production is predicted based on the resource availability. In the process of identifying biomass resources production, assumptions are made regarding arable land, marginal land, crops yields, forest growth rate......, and meat consumption and waste production. Four scenarios were designed to describe the potential biomass energy production to elaborate the role of biomass energy in the Chinese energy system in 2030. The assessment shows that under certain restrictions on land availability, the maximum potential biomass...

  15. Petroleum resources assessment 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report consists of two articles. (1) Petroleum resources assessment of the Okinawa Trough: The hydrocarbon potential has been evaluated for the Tertiary strata in the northwestern margin of the Okinawa Trough on the basis of the pale-ontological, petrological, geochemical data from two wells (Nikkan 8-9 and JDZ 7-3), and geophysical data. (2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Jinju area (2): Petroleum geological studies such as stratigraphy, sedimentology, petrology and organic geochemistry were carried out in the Gyeongsang Supergroup, Junju area. Based on lithofacies and rock color, the sequence can be divided into seven formations which can be organized into two groups (Sindong Group: Nagdong, Hasandong and Jinju formations in ascending order; Hayang Group: Chilgog, Silla Conglomerate, Haman and Jindong formations). (author). 57 refs.

  16. Life Cycle Assessment of an Advanced Bioethanol Technology in the Perspective of Constrained Biomass Availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Thyø, Katrine; Wenzel, Henrik

    Among the existing environmental assessments of bioethanol for transport, the studies suggesting an environmental benefit of bioethanol all ignore the constraints on the availability of biomass resources and the implications competition for biomass has on the assessment. We show that toward 2030......, regardless of whether a global or European perspective is applied, the amount of biomass, which can become available for bioethanol or other energy uses, will be physically and economically constrained. This implies that use of biomass or land for bioethanol production will most likely happen at the expense...... fermentation based bioethanol for transport, when held up against the consequence of losing alternative biomass utilizations. The biomass feedstock considered is an energy whole-crop in the form of whole-crop maize and the bioethanol technology considered includes fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass. We...

  17. Environmental assessment of biomass based materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Susanne Vedel

    non-standard impacts from land use and land use change (LULUC) Some of the impacts associated with LULUC for biomass production, which are often not addressed in LCAs have been addressed through a theoretic case study in this PhD project. These impacts are changes in surface albedo, biogenic carbon...... with temporary carbon storage in biomaterials, in a way that quantifies the potential climate change benefit in relation to avoiding crossing near-term climatic targets. The geographical scope in this PhD project is global, as the focus is on methodology development and assessment of biomaterials at a global...... materials. Background The society today is highly dependent on fossil oil and gas for producing fuels, chemicals and materials, however many of those can alternatively be produced from biomass. The potential of biomaterials to substitute fossil based materials receives increased attention, and their global...

  18. Assessment of Danish biomass resources for producing biofuels for the transport sector towards the year 2020; Opgoerelse af den danske biomasseressourcer til brug for fremstilling af biobraendstoffer til transportsektoren frem mod 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blume, S.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Jensen, E.S.

    2008-11-15

    The agricultural sector will have an increasing role to play according to society needs for biobased products, including biofuels. However, it is necessary to point out national positions of strength in order to act proactive and gain the benefits for this growing marked. It is clear from this report that both agriculture and forestry, and connected industries, have great possibilities to deliver biomass resources without decreasing the current food production. From the calculations in this report, including several assumptions concerning convertibility and uncertainties about yield potentials comparing, the sector can provide up to 30 % of the existing fossil fuel consumption in the transportation sector using cereal straw. Approximately, 10 % if the wood resources are utilized and about 6 % using more waste based biomasses. Fish and slaughterhouse waste can cover up to about 9 % of the present diesel consumption. However, increased sale of bioresources for bioenergy purposes require that this resource is validated as a part of the whole farm or forestry system including political regulations like for instance the EU Natura 2000 directives. Different crops have additional functions/ effects like groundwater protection, biodiversity, soil fertility (including carbon sequestration) which needs to be included when validating such biomass crops. Furthermore, several biomass resources which are regarded as waste at present represent a much higher value, and needs to be addressed in such perspective. (author)

  19. Petroleum resources assessment (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. 1) Petroleum resources assessment on the western part of the Kunsan Basin: Palynomorphs including spores, pollen and organic-walled microfossils and calcareous microfossils such as ostracods, charophytes and gastropods were studied for the biostratigraphic work of Kachi-1 and IIH-1Xa wells. Based on available well data, the rifting probably began in the Cretaceous time had continued until Paleocene. It is considered that compressional force immediately after rifting event deformed sedimentary sections. During the period of Paleocene to middle Miocene, the sediments were deposited in stable environment without particular tectonic event. 2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Taegu area (II): The Nakdong and Jinju formations contain abundant black shales, and thermal maturity of the organic matter reached at the final stage of dry gas generation. These formations also contain thick sandstones which can act as a petroleum reservoir. However, reservoir quality of the sandstones is poor (porosity: < 5%; permeability: < 0.001 md). In these sandstones, secondary pores such as dissolution pores and micropores can act as a tight gas reservoir. (author). 56 refs., 24 tabs., 68 figs.

  20. Photoreceptor effects on plant biomass, resource allocation, and metabolic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deyue; Seaton, Daniel D; Krahmer, Johanna; Halliday, Karen J

    2016-07-05

    Plants sense the light environment through an ensemble of photoreceptors. Members of the phytochrome class of light receptors are known to play a critical role in seedling establishment, and are among the best-characterized plant signaling components. Phytochromes also regulate adult plant growth; however, our knowledge of this process is rather fragmented. This study demonstrates that phytochrome controls carbon allocation and biomass production in the developing plant. Phytochrome mutants have a reduced CO2 uptake, yet overaccumulate daytime sucrose and starch. This finding suggests that even though carbon fixation is impeded, the available carbon resources are not fully used for growth during the day. Supporting this notion, phytochrome depletion alters the proportion of day:night growth. In addition, phytochrome loss leads to sizeable reductions in overall growth, dry weight, total protein levels, and the expression of CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE genes. Because cellulose and protein are major constituents of plant biomass, our data point to an important role for phytochrome in regulating these fundamental components of plant productivity. We show that phytochrome loss impacts core metabolism, leading to elevated levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, amino acids, sugar derivatives, and notably the stress metabolites proline and raffinose. Furthermore, the already growth-retarded phytochrome mutants are less responsive to growth-inhibiting abiotic stresses and have elevated expression of stress marker genes. This coordinated response appears to divert resources from energetically costly biomass production to improve resilience. In nature, this strategy may be activated in phytochrome-disabling, vegetation-dense habitats to enhance survival in potentially resource-limiting conditions.

  1. Petroleum resources assessment (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    On the basis of diverse microfossils such as foraminifers, ostracods, micromulluscs, fossil spores and pollen and calcareous nannofossils derived from 14 drill holes, the sediments are divided into two part, the upper marine part and the lower nonmarine one. Marine part is subdivided into 4 foraminiferal zones and 3 nannofossil zones of Plio-Pleistocene age. In the lower part ranging from Oligocene to Late Miocene 4 palynomoph assemblages are established, which reflect climatic changes fluctuating between subtropical and cool temperate. Some fine sediments occurring in the South Sea continental shelf are rich in organic matter to be hydrocarbon source rock. The organic matter is mainly compared to type 3. However, lower part of the Geobuk-1 and Okdom-1 shows more oil prone geochemical characteristics than other wells. The kerosene is mixture type 1 and type 3 organic matter. The main oil generation zone located between 2,500 m and 3,000 m and gas generation zone from 3,500 m to 4,000 m approximately. Hydrocarbon accumulation could be expected in the trap formed in the period earlier than 10 Ma. as the hydrocarbon started to be expelled at 10 Ma. according to the modeling. Approximately 13,000 Line-km of multichannel seismic data integrated with 14 wells and gravity and magnetic data were analyzed to investigate the structural and stratigraphic evolution of southern part of offshore Korea. The northeast-southwest trending Taiwan-Sinzi Uplift Belt separates the area into two regions with different tectonic features, northwestern and southwestern regions. The potential hydrocarbon traps associated with anticline, tilted fault block, fault, unconformity, and rollover structure exist. This project is consisted of two main subjects. 1) Petroleum resources assessment on the continental shelf basin of the south sea. 2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Taegu area (1). (author). refs., tabs., figs.

  2. Petroleum resources assessment (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. 1) Petroleum resources assessment of the Kunsan Basin : Kunsan Basin is mainly filled with Cretaceous and Tertiary clastic sediments, and divided into Southwest Sub-basin, Central Sub-basin and Northeast Sub-basin by uplifts and faults developed in the basin. Microfossils were studied for the biostratigraphic works of drill wells in the Kunsan Basin. The microfossils include organic-walled microfossils such as spores, pollen and nonmarine dinoflagellates and calcareous microfossils such as ostracods, charophytes and gastropods. The fossil assemblages of the Kunsan Basin reveal nonmarine environments ranging from alluvial fan to shallow lacustrine and climatic variation between subtropical and cool temperate temperature in the arid/humid alternating conditions. According to the paleontological data, the Kunsan Basin was initiated in the Early Cretaceous and expanded during Paleogene followed by regional erosion at the closing time of Paleogene on which Neogene sediments have been accumulated. The Paleogene strata show laterally irregular thickness in each Epoch due to migrating depocenter. 2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Hapcheon area (I) : The Cretaceous Gyeongsang Supergroup consists of more than 9 Km sequences of sedimentary and volcanic rocks in Hapcheon-Changyong-Euiryong-Haman area and occupies the middle part of the Milyang subbasin. The Supergroup can be divided into three group; Sindong, Hayang and Yuchon groups in ascending order. Based on rock color, the Sindong Group can be subdivided into Nakdong, Hasandong and Jinju Formations. The Hayang Group can be subdivided into Chilgok, Silla Conglomerate, Haman and Jindong Formations. The Chilgok Formation includes basaltic lava and tuffs in the upper part. The Haman Formation has Kusandong tuff (keybed) in the uppermost part in the Changyong area, whereas the tuff is intercalated below the vocaniclastics in the Haman area. (author). 60 refs., 22 tabs., 61 figs.

  3. Biomass as energy resource of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gvero, P. (University of Banja Luka, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Banja Luka (Bosnia and Herzegowina)); Petrovic, S. (IGT R and D Centre for Gas Technology, Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina)); Ballard Tremeer, G. (ECO Ltd., London (United Kingdom)); Maslac, S. (UNDP, Banja Luka Office (Bosnia and Herzegowina))

    2007-07-01

    The production, harvesting and processing of timber is one of the country's oldest economic activities, and has a major strategic importance for the country's economic development, especially in post war period. Some statistical estimations shows that the wood export value within the total Bosnia and Herzegovina export value is probably in order of 15%. It is further estimated that 15% of the total population receives its livelihood through the activities in forestry and forest industry. Sustainable development of the present and future energy systems has to be based on two strategies: energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. Bosnia and Herzegovina thanking to great hydro potential, biomass, geothermal energy etc. belongs to the list of the countries which will development of energy sector mainly based on renewable energy sources. In a present period biomass plays significant role in households and wood processing industry sectors. Bosnia and Herzegovina has large biomass resources: the growing stock is equivalent to 7.44 x 106 m3 of wood giving an annual sustainable production volume of about 4.43 x 106 m3. Because of large potential of biomass, this energy source will play more important role in whole energy sector of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This paper gives some data regarding to biomass energy potential collected from different sources in Republic of Srpska and Federation of B and H as consisting parts of the Bosnia and Herzegovina and recouped on one place. This paper also gives short analysis of potential biomass resource use. There are a lot of large industrial energy systems in the Country, mainly in wood processing industry, which was passed through privatization process in last couple years. Now, new owners of this mainly to large capacities for them, looking for the chances in ESCO business, electricity production, district heating systems. This paper gives short analysis of potential cogeneration systems based on biomass. Some analysis

  4. Biomass Assessment. Assessment of global biomass potentials and their links to food, water, biodiversity, energy demand and economy. Inventory and analysis of existing studies. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.; Verweij, P. [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Banse, M.; Van Diepen, K.; Van Keulen, H.; Langeveld, H.; Meeusen, M.; Van de Ven, G.; Wester, F. [Wageningen UR, Wageningen (Netherlands); Alkemade, R.; Ten Brink, B.; Van den Born, G.J.; Van Oorschot, M.; Ros, J.; Smout, F.; Van Vuuren, D.; Van den Wijngaart, R. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency NMP, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Aiking, H. [Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Londo, M.; Mozaffarian, H.; Smekens, K. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Lysen, E. (ed.); Van Egmond, S. (ed.) [Utrecht Centre for Energy research UCE, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2008-01-15

    The increased use and potential growth of biomass for energy has triggered a heated debate on the sustainability of those developments as biomass production is now also associated with increased competition with food and feed production, loss of forest cover and the like. Besides such competition, also the net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions is questioned in case land-use for biomass is associated with clearing forest, with conversion of peat land, as well as with high fossil energy inputs for machinery, fertilisers and other agrochemicals. Although available studies give a reasonable insight in the importance of various parameters, the integration between different arenas is still limited. This causes confusion in public as well as scientific debate, with conflicting views on the possibilities for sustainable use of biomass as a result. This study aims to tackle this problem by providing a more comprehensive assessment of the current knowledge with respect to biomass resource potentials.

  5. Harvesting forest biomass for energy in Minnesota: An assessment of guidelines, costs and logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Dalia El Sayed Abbas Mohamed

    The emerging market for renewable energy in Minnesota has generated a growing interest in utilizing more forest biomass for energy. However, this growing interest is paralleled with limited knowledge of the environmental impacts and cost effectiveness of utilizing this resource. To address environmental and economic viability concerns, this dissertation has addressed three areas related to biomass harvest: First, existing biomass harvesting guidelines and sustainability considerations are examined. Second, the potential contribution of biomass energy production to reduce the costs of hazardous fuel reduction treatments in these trials is assessed. Third, the logistics of biomass production trials are analyzed. Findings show that: (1) Existing forest related guidelines are not sufficient to allow large-scale production of biomass energy from forest residue sustainably. Biomass energy guidelines need to be based on scientific assessments of how repeated and large scale biomass production is going to affect soil, water and habitat values, in an integrated and individual manner over time. Furthermore, such guidelines would need to recommend production logistics (planning, implementation, and coordination of operations) necessary for a potential supply with the least site and environmental impacts. (2) The costs of biomass production trials were assessed and compared with conventional treatment costs. In these trials, conventional mechanical treatment costs were lower than biomass energy production costs less income from biomass sale. However, a sensitivity analysis indicated that costs reductions are possible under certain site, prescriptions and distance conditions. (3) Semi-structured interviews with forest machine operators indicate that existing fuel reduction prescriptions need to be more realistic in making recommendations that can overcome operational barriers (technical and physical) and planning and coordination concerns (guidelines and communications

  6. Sustainable and resource-conserving utilization of global land areas and biomass; Globale Landflaechen und Biomasse nachhaltig und ressourcenschonend nutzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jering, Almut; Klatt, Anne; Seven, Jan; Ehlers, Knut; Guenther, Jens; Ostermeier, Andreas; Moench, Lars

    2012-10-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the state of the art of biomass based land use as well as on existing and future global development trends. An ecologically compatible and socially equitable utilization of resources as well as priorities in the production and utilization of biomass are described in order to achieve their goals. Approaches to action, measures and policy recommendations are presented with respect to the development of a globally sustainable, resource-conserving utilization of land.

  7. Lignocellulosic feedstock resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooney, T.

    1998-09-01

    This report provides overall state and national information on the quantity, availability, and costs of current and potential feedstocks for ethanol production in the United States. It characterizes end uses and physical characteristics of feedstocks, and presents relevant information that affects the economic and technical feasibility of ethanol production from these feedstocks. The data can help researchers focus ethanol conversion research efforts on feedstocks that are compatible with the resource base.

  8. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Fuels from Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    The purpose of this report is to present and prioritize the major environmental issues associated with the further development of biomass production and biomass conversion systems. To provide a background for this environmental analysis, the basic concepts of the technology are reviewed, as are resource requirements. The potential effects of this…

  9. Wind conditions and resource assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Troen, Ib

    2012-01-01

    The development of wind power as a competitive energy source requires resource assessment of increasing accuracy and detail (including not only the long-term ‘raw’ wind resource, but also turbulence, shear, and extremes), and in areas of increasing complexity. This in turn requires the use of the...

  10. Fort Carson Wind Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.

    2012-10-01

    This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and economic potential of a wind turbine project on a ridge in the southeastern portion of the Fort Carson Army base.

  11. Life Cycle Assessment of an Advanced Bioethanol Technology in the Perspective of Constrained Biomass Availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Thyø, Kathrine Anker; Wenzel, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    of whether a global or European perspective is applied, the amount of biomass, which can become available for bioethanol or other energy uses, will be physically and economically constrained. This implies that use of biomass or land for bioethanol production will most likely happen at the expense......Among the existing environmental assessments of bioethanol, the studies suggesting an environmental benefit of bioethanol all ignore the constraints on the availability of biomass resources and the implications competition for biomass has on the assessment. We show that toward 2030, regardless...... of alternative uses. In this perspective, we show that for the case of a new advanced bioethanol technology, in terms of reducing greenhouse emissions and fossil fuel dependency, more is lost than gained when prioritizing biomass or land for bioethanol. Technology pathways involving heat and power production and...

  12. Mexico Wind Resource Assessment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, M.N.; Elliott, D.L.

    1995-05-01

    A preliminary wind energy resource assessment of Mexico that produced wind resource maps for both utility-scale and rural applications was undertaken as part of the Mexico-U.S. Renewable Energy Cooperation Program. This activity has provided valuable information needed to facilitate the commercialization of small wind turbines and windfarms in Mexico and to lay the groundwork for subsequent wind resource activities. A surface meteorological data set of hourly data in digital form was utilized to prepare a more detailed and accurate wind resource assessment of Mexico than otherwise would have been possible. Software was developed to perform the first ever detailed analysis of the wind characteristics data for over 150 stations in Mexico. The hourly data set was augmented with information from weather balloons (upper-air data), ship wind data from coastal areas, and summarized wind data from sources in Mexico. The various data were carefully evaluated for their usefulness in preparing the wind resource assessment. The preliminary assessment has identified many areas of good-to-excellent wind resource potential and shows that the wind resource in Mexico is considerably greater than shown in previous surveys.

  13. Environmental multi-objective optimization of the use of biomass resources for energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadenbo, Carl; Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2017-02-17

    Bioenergy is often considered an important component, alongside other renewables, to mitigate global warming and to reduce fossil fuel dependency. Determining sustainable strategies for utilizing biomass resources, however, requires a holistic perspective to reflect a wider range of potential environmental consequences. To circumvent the limitations of scenario-based life cycle assessment (LCA), we develop a multi-objective optimization model to systematically identify the environmentally-optimal use of biomass for energy under given system constraints. Besides satisfying annual final energy demand, the model constraints comprise availability of biomass and arable land, technology- and system-specific capacities, and relevant policy targets. Efficiencies and environmental performances of bioenergy conversions are derived using biochemical process models combined with LCA data. The application of the optimization model is exemplified by a case aimed at determining the environmentally-optimal use of biomass in the Danish energy system in 2025. A multi-objective formulation based on fuzzy intervals for six environmental impact categories resulted in impact reductions of 13-43% compared to the baseline. The robustness of the optimal solution was analyzed with respect to parameter uncertainty and choice of environmental objectives.

  14. Sustainability assessment of two chains of biomass supply from field to bioenergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morandi, Fabiana; Østergård, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    LogistEC, “Logistics for Energy Crops biomass”, is an FP7 Project aiming at developing new or improvedtechnologies of the biomass logistics chains (http://www.logistecproject.eu/). Sustainability assessment of different biomasses is being performed by studying the environmental, economic and social...... emergy analysis, a method that accounts for all forms of energy, resources and human services that contribute to the system; 2) combination of all assessment results (coming from emergy, LCA, economic and social evaluations) in a Sustainability Multicriteria Multi-scale Assessment (SUMMA) framework. We...

  15. Validating Community-Led Forest Biomass Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Michelle; Venter, Oscar; Edwards, Will; Bird, Michael I

    2015-01-01

    The lack of capacity to monitor forest carbon stocks in developing countries is undermining global efforts to reduce carbon emissions. Involving local people in monitoring forest carbon stocks could potentially address this capacity gap. This study conducts a complete expert remeasurement of community-led biomass inventories in remote tropical forests of Papua New Guinea. By fully remeasuring and isolating the effects of 4,481 field measurements, we demonstrate that programmes employing local people (non-experts) can produce forest monitoring data as reliable as those produced by scientists (experts). Overall, non-experts reported lower biomass estimates by an average of 9.1%, equivalent to 55.2 fewer tonnes of biomass ha(-1), which could have important financial implications for communities. However, there were no significant differences between forest biomass estimates of expert and non-expert, nor were there significant differences in some of the components used to calculate these estimates, such as tree diameter at breast height (DBH), tree counts and plot surface area, but were significant differences between tree heights. At the landscape level, the greatest biomass discrepancies resulted from height measurements (41%) and, unexpectedly, a few large missing trees contributing to a third of the overall discrepancies. We show that 85% of the biomass discrepancies at the tree level were caused by measurement taken on large trees (DBH ≥50 cm), even though they consisted of only 14% of the stems. We demonstrate that programmes that engage local people can provide high-quality forest carbon data that could help overcome barriers to reducing forest carbon emissions in developing countries. Nonetheless, community-based monitoring programmes should prioritise reducing errors in the field that lead to the most important discrepancies, notably; overcoming challenges to accurately measure large trees.

  16. Research on Jiangxi Yongxin County Water Resources Assessment for Construction Project of Kaidi Biomass Energy Power Station%江西永新凯迪生物质能发电厂水资源论证建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万小庆; 胡磊; 邓坤

    2013-01-01

    For strengthening the water resources management of Ganjiang river basin , guaranteeing the reasonable use of water of the construction project of Kaidi biomass energy power station , this paper have done some research on water resources assesment for constraction project from the following aspect regional water resources situation , the source of water of the project ,the affect of the water taking and withdrawal,putting forword the protection measures and suggestions on Water conservation.%为加强赣江流域水资源管理,保障江西永新凯迪生物质能发电厂(1×30MW)建设项目的合理用水,对建设项目所在区域水资源状况、取水水源、取水和退水的影响提出相应的水资源保护措施及水资源论证建议。

  17. 中部地区生物质资源潜力与减排效应估算%ASSESSMENT ON POTENTIAL OF BIOMASS RESOURCES AND CARBON EMISSION REDUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 陈艳

    2012-01-01

    Energy is a kind of strategic resource and it is the foundation of economic and social development.With the development of the central area,the consumption for energy shows the tendency to ascend.Fossil energy indicates supply and enviromental stress.Bioenergy can replace fossil energy and decrease the share of carbon emissions.The central area possesses rich biomass resources,and the estimated resuls are as follows.Firstly,the biogas potential of crop straw,livestock excrement and municipal refuse could reach 83.973 3 billion cubic metres and are equivalent to 73 147 500 tons of standard coal.Secondly,these resources could reduct carbon dioxide to discharge 53 880 594.83 tons.Then this paper gives relevant policy suggestion accordingly:mainly make use of crop straw,livestock excrement,and bring about a transformation from biomass resources to bioenergy products.%能源是战略性资源,是一个国家经济增长和社会发展的重要物质基础。随着中部地区经济的不断增长,对能源的消费量也呈逐渐上升趋势。传统化石能源日益显示出供给和环境两方面的压力,而生物质能源的开发利用具有能源替代和减少二氧化碳排放的效应。中部地区生物质资源丰富,经估算结果如下:第一,2009年农作物秸秆、牲畜粪便和城市垃圾3种生物质资源沼气潜力达839.733亿m2,折合标煤7 314.75万t;第二,开发利用3种生物质资源可减少二氧化碳排放量53 880 594.83t。据此,提出建议:第一,重点开发利用秸秆、牲畜粪便等农村生物质资源;第二,为中部地区生物质资源转化为生物质能源产品进而实现减排效应创造支撑条件。

  18. Life cycle assessment of a biomass gasification combined-cycle power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.

    1997-12-01

    The potential environmental benefits from biomass power are numerous. However, biomass power may also have some negative effects on the environment. Although the environmental benefits and drawbacks of biomass power have been debated for some time, the total significance has not been assessed. This study serves to answer some of the questions most often raised in regard to biomass power: What are the net CO{sub 2} emissions? What is the energy balance of the integrated system? Which substances are emitted at the highest rates? What parts of the system are responsible for these emissions? To provide answers to these questions, a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a hypothetical biomass power plant located in the Midwest United States was performed. LCA is an analytical tool for quantifying the emissions, resource consumption, and energy use, collectively known as environmental stressors, that are associated with converting a raw material to a final product. Performed in conjunction with a technoeconomic feasibility study, the total economic and environmental benefits and drawbacks of a process can be quantified. This study complements a technoeconomic analysis of the same process, reported in Craig and Mann (1996) and updated here. The process studied is based on the concept of power Generation in a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) plant. Broadly speaking, the overall system consists of biomass production, its transportation to the power plant, electricity generation, and any upstream processes required for system operation. The biomass is assumed to be supplied to the plant as wood chips from a biomass plantation, which would produce energy crops in a manner similar to the way food and fiber crops are produced today. Transportation of the biomass and other materials is by both rail and truck. The IGCC plant is sized at 113 MW, and integrates an indirectly-heated gasifier with an industrial gas turbine and steam cycle. 63 refs., 34 figs., 32 tabs.

  19. Zooplankton standing stock assessment and fishery resources in the indian seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.; Sarupria, J.S.; Bhargava, R.M.S.

    Based on data from 1864 samples collected over a period of 12 years (1976-88), an assessment of zooplankton standing stock (biomass), secondary production and potential fishery resources has been made. The areas studied included Arabian Sea, Bay...

  20. Utilization characteristics and importance of woody biomass resources on the rural-urban fringe in botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkambwe, Musisi; Sekhwela, Mogodisheng B M

    2006-02-01

    This article examines the utilization characteristics and importance of woody biomass resources in the rural-urban fringe zones of Botswana. In the literature for Africa, attention has been given to the availability and utilization of biomass in either urban or rural environments, but the rural-urban fringe has been neglected. Within southern Africa, this neglect is not justified; the rural-urban fringe, not getting the full benefits available in urban environments in Botswana, has developed problems in woody biomass availability and utilization that require close attention. In this article, socioeconomic data on the importance of woody biomass in the Batlokwa Tribal Territory, on the rural-urban fringe of Gaborone, Botswana, were collected together with ecologic data that reveal the utilization characteristics and potential for regrowth of woody biomass. The analysis of these results show that local woody biomass is very important in the daily lives of communities in the rural-urban fringe zones and that there is a high level of harvesting. However, there is no effort in planning land use in the tribal territory to either conserve this resource or provide alternatives to its utilization. The future of woody biomass resources in Botswana's rural-urban fringe is uncertain. The investigators recommend that a comprehensive policy for the development of the rural-urban fringe consider the importance of this resource. The neglect of this resource will have far-reaching implications on the livelihoods of residents as well as the environment in this zone.

  1. Energy from Biomass: technology assessment of small-medium scale biomass conversion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cutz Ijchajchal, Luis Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Mención Internacional en el título de doctor Bioenergy is a key resource to addressing challenges such as climate change (anthropogenic CO₂ emissions), pollution (suspended particles), energy security and human well-being. Currently, most of the biomass produced worldwide is consumed for cooking and space heating which has raised concerns among governments and policy-makers, especially due to threats to human health. The present thesis focuses on studying the technical and economic feasibi...

  2. The potential impacts of biomass feedstock production on water resource availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, K C; Hunt, P G; Cantrell, K B; Ro, K S

    2010-03-01

    Biofuels are a major topic of global interest and technology development. Whereas bioenergy crop production is highly dependent on water, bioenergy development requires effective allocation and management of water. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the bioenergy production relative to the impacts on water resource related factors: (1) climate and weather impact on water supplies for biomass production; (2) water use for major bioenergy crop production; and (3) potential alternatives to improve water supplies for bioenergy. Shifts to alternative bioenergy crops with greater water demand may produce unintended consequences for both water resources and energy feedstocks. Sugarcane and corn require 458 and 2036 m(3) water/m(3) ethanol produced, respectively. The water requirements for corn grain production to meet the US-DOE Billion-Ton Vision may increase approximately 6-fold from 8.6 to 50.1 km(3). Furthermore, climate change is impacting water resources throughout the world. In the western US, runoff from snowmelt is occurring earlier altering the timing of water availability. Weather extremes, both drought and flooding, have occurred more frequently over the last 30 years than the previous 100 years. All of these weather events impact bioenergy crop production. These events may be partially mitigated by alternative water management systems that offer potential for more effective water use and conservation. A few potential alternatives include controlled drainage and new next-generation livestock waste treatment systems. Controlled drainage can increase water available to plants and simultaneously improve water quality. New livestock waste treatments systems offer the potential to utilize treated wastewater to produce bioenergy crops. New technologies for cellulosic biomass conversion via thermochemical conversion offer the potential for using more diverse feedstocks with dramatically reduced water requirements. The development of bioenergy

  3. The Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Power Generation from Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Shen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the energy crisis and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG, renewable energy resources are exploited for power generation. Because lignocellulosic biomass resources are abundant and renewable, various technologies are applied to using lignocellulosic biomass to derive biofuel and electricity. This paper focuses on power generation from lignocellulosic biomass and comparison of the effects of different feedstocks, transportation, and power generation technologies evaluated through life cycle assessment (LCA. The inputs and boundaries of LCA vary with different feedstocks, such as forestry wood, agricultural residues, and fast-growing grass. For agricultural residues and fast-growing grass, the transportation cost from field to power plant is more critical. Three technologies for power generation are analyzed both with and without pelletization of lignocellulosic biomass. The GHG emissions also vary with different feedstocks and depend on burning technologies at different plant scales. The daily criteria pollutant emissions of power generation from different lignocellulosic biomass were evaluated with a life cycle assessment model of GREET.net 2014. It is concluded that bio-power generation is critical with the urgency of greenhouse effects.

  4. Region-Specific Indicators for Assessing the Sustainability of Biomass Utilisation in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Kudoh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of an expert working group of researchers from East Asian countries. The group was tasked with developing a theoretically sound and practically implementable methodology for assessing the sustainability of biomass utilisation in East Asian countries based on the needs and potential of biomass resources in this region. Building on six years of research conducted between 2007 and 2013, the working group formulated a set of main and secondary indicators for biomass utilisation under three pillars of sustainability. For the environmental pillar, the main indicator was life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and secondary indicators were water consumption and soil quality. For the economic pillar, the main indicator was total value added and secondary indicators were net profit, productivity, and net energy balance. For the social pillar, the main indicators were employment generation and access to modern energy, and the secondary indicator was the human development index. The application of the working group methodology and indicators in sustainability assessments of biomass utilisation will enable decision makers in East Asian countries to compare the sustainability of biomass utilisation options and to make decisions on whether or not to launch or sustain biomass utilisation initiatives.

  5. Water resources assessment and prediction in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangsheng; Dai, Ning; Yang, Jianqing; Wang, Jinxing

    2016-10-01

    Water resources assessment in China, can be classified into three groups: (i) comprehensive water resources assessment, (ii) annual water resources assessment, and (iii) industrial project water resources assessment. Comprehensive water resources assessment is the conventional assessment where the frequency distribution of water resources in basins or provincial regions are analyzed. For the annual water resources assessment, water resources of the last year in basins or provincial regions are usually assessed. For the industrial project water resources assessment, the water resources situation before the construction of industrial project has to be assessed. To address the climate and environmental changes, hydrological and statistical models are widely applied for studies on assessing water resources changes. For the water resources prediction in China usually the monthly runoff prediction is used. In most low flow seasons, the flow recession curve is commonly used as prediction method. In the humid regions, the rainfall-runoff ensemble prediction (ESP) has been widely applied for the monthly runoff prediction. The conditional probability method for the monthly runoff prediction was also applied to assess next month runoff probability under a fixed initial condition.

  6. The use of conservation biomass feedstocks as potential bioenergy resources in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D; Mitchell, E J S; Lea-Langton, A R; Parmar, K R; Jones, J M; Williams, A

    2016-07-01

    A number of countries have introduced energy policies to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide which, in the case of bio-heat, has resulted in increased use of small wood burning stoves and boilers, particularly in Europe. There are issues surrounding the supply of sustainable wood feedstock, prompting a desire to utilise local biomass resources. This includes biomass generated through the management of natural woodlands in nature reserves and conservation areas. These management practices can also extend to other areas, such as raised bog wildernesses and estuary Reed beds. We term the biomass from this resource as conservation biomass. This study is concerned with the viability of this resource as a fuel within the United Kingdom, and combustion tests were carried out using a small domestic stove. It was concluded that there is as much as 500kty(-1) that could be used in this way.

  7. Comparative assessment of marine biomass materials. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Show, I.T. Jr.; Piper, L.E.; Lupton, S.E.; Stegen, G.R.

    1979-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess potential marine biomass sources and their preprocessing requirements. For the assessment of marine biomass sources, a priority list of marine plants was developed based on maximum potential organic yields, maximum potential calorific yields, and chemical composition. Yields were maximized and undesirable chemical properties minimized. The priority list was used to estimate maximum potential yields from US coastal water (from shore to the 200-mile limit of the Fisheries Conservation Zone). Preprocessing schemes were compared based on a comparative evaluation of energy consumption for each preprocessing step. The priority list of potential biomass sources produced 13 potential genera; five showed calorific yields far in excess of the other eight. These five (Laminaria, Chondrus, Fucus, Gracilaria, and Macrocystis) had calorific yields in excess of 50 x 10/sup 3/ kcal/m/sup 2/ - yr. No genus was found to be universally applicable to all US territorial waters. It was estimated that maximum potential national yield without mechanical nutrient upwelling could be as high as 30 x 10/sup 5/ Btu/yr (30 quad). Results of the preprocessing study indicated that harvesting and size reduction operations may consume a large proportion of the energy available from the harvested biomass. It was found that biochemical conversion preprocessing incurs the least energy loss. It was also found that thermochemical conversion is probably not appropriate for marine biomass due to preprocessing energy losses.

  8. Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, S.

    2010-05-01

    This report provides an overview of a technical report on an assessment NREL conducted in Greensburg, Kansas, to identify potential opportunities to develop a biomass pelletization or briquetting plant in the region. See NREL/TP-7A2-45843 for the Executive Summary of this report.

  9. A critical review on biomass gasification, co-gasification, and their environmental assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Farzad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gasification is an efficient process to obtain valuable products from biomass with several potential applications, which has received increasing attention over the last decades. Further development of gasification technology requires innovative and economical gasification methods with high efficiencies. Various conventional mechanisms of biomass gasification as well as new technologies are discussed in this paper. Furthermore, co-gasification of biomass and coal as an efficient method to protect the environment by reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions has been comparatively discussed. In fact, the increasing attention to renewable resources is driven by the climate change due to GHG emissions caused by the widespread utilization of conventional fossil fuels, while biomass gasification is considered as a potentially sustainable and environmentally-friendly technology. Nevertheless, social and environmental aspects should also be taken into account when designing such facilities, to guarantee the sustainable use of biomass. This paper also reviews the life cycle assessment (LCA studies conducted on biomass gasification, considering different technologies and various feedstocks.

  10. Biomass Assessment. Assessment of global biomass potentials and their links to food, water, biodiversity, energy demand and economy. Inventory and analysis of existing studies. Supporting document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.; Verweij, P. [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Banse, M.; Van Diepen, K.; Van Keulen, H.; Langeveld, H.; Meeusen, M.; Van de Ven, G.; Wester, F. [Wageningen UR, Wageningen (Netherlands); Alkemade, R.; Ten Brink, B.; Van den Born, G.J.; Van Oorschot, M.; Ros, J.; Smout, F.; Van Vuuren, D.; Van den Wijngaart, R. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency NMP, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Aiking, H. [Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Londo, M.; Mozaffarian, H.; Smekens, K. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Lysen, E. (ed.); Van Egmond, S. (ed.) [Utrecht Centre for Energy research UCE, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2008-01-15

    This supporting document contains the result from the inventory phase of the biomass assessment of global biomass potentials and their links to food, water, biodiversity, energy demand and economy. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of global biomass potential estimates, focusing on the various factors affecting these potentials, such as food supplies, water use, biodiversity, energy demands and agro-economics.

  11. Biomass Gasification Technology Assessment: Consolidated Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, M.; Yale, J.

    2012-11-01

    Harris Group Inc. (HGI) was commissioned by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to assess gasification and tar reforming technologies. Specifically, the assessments focused on gasification and tar reforming technologies that are capable of producing a syngas suitable for further treatment and conversion to liquid fuels. HGI gathered sufficient information to analyze three gasification and tar reforming systems. This report summarizes the equipment, general arrangement of the equipment, operating characteristics, and operating severity for each technology. The order of magnitude capital cost estimates are supported by a basis-of-estimate write-up, which is also included in this report. The report also includes Microsoft Excel workbook models, which can be used to design and price the systems. The models can be used to analyze various operating capacities and pressures. Each model produces a material balance, equipment list, capital cost estimate, equipment drawings and preliminary general arrangement drawings. Example outputs of each model are included in the Appendices.

  12. Fort Stewart integrated resource assessment. Volume 3: Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, G.P.; Keller, J.M.; Stucky, D.J.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Larson, L.L.

    1993-10-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Stewart. This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the FORSCOM Fort Stewart facility located approximately 25 miles southwest of Savannah, Georgia. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative description of each ERO is provided, along with a table detailing information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operations and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO. The tables also present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings to investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  13. Dynamic Evaluation of Water Quality Improvement Based on Effective Utilization of Stockbreeding Biomass Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Yan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The stockbreeding industry is growing rapidly in rural regions of China, carrying a high risk to the water environment due to the emission of huge amounts of pollutants in terms of COD, T-N and T-P to rivers. On the other hand, as a typical biomass resource, stockbreeding waste can be used as a clean energy source by biomass utilization technologies. In this paper, we constructed a dynamic linear optimization model to simulate the synthetic water environment management policies which includes both the water environment system and social-economic situational changes over 10 years. Based on the simulation, the model can precisely estimate trends of water quality, production of stockbreeding biomass energy and economic development under certain restrictions of the water environment. We examined seven towns of Shunyi district of Beijing as the target area to analyse synthetic water environment management policies by computer simulation based on the effective utilization of stockbreeding biomass resources to improve water quality and realize sustainable development. The purpose of our research is to establish an effective utilization method of biomass resources incorporating water environment preservation, resource reutilization and economic development, and finally realize the sustainable development of the society.

  14. New methods for impact assessment of biotic-resource depletion in life cycle assessment of fisheries : theory and application

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to address all of the direct environmental impacts of fisheries using conventional methods of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). A methodological framework was developed that calculates regionalised characterisation factors for biomass uptake by fishing activities to assess impacts of biotic-resource depletion at both species and ecosystem levels. These two levels were studied to include effects of catch on the collapse of a particular stock of a given species and on total biomass a...

  15. A comprehensive review of biomass resources and biofuel production in Nigeria: potential and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokan-Adeaga, Adewale Allen; Ana, Godson R E E

    2015-01-01

    The quest for biofuels in Nigeria, no doubt, represents a legitimate ambition. This is so because the focus on biofuel production has assumed a global dimension, and the benefits that may accrue from such effort may turn out to be enormous if the preconditions are adequately satisfied. As a member of the global community, it has become exigent for Nigeria to explore other potential means of bettering her already impoverished economy. Biomass is the major energy source in Nigeria, contributing about 78% of Nigeria's primary energy supply. In this paper, a comprehensive review of the potential of biomass resources and biofuel production in Nigeria is given. The study adopted a desk review of existing literatures on major energy crops produced in Nigeria. A brief description of the current biofuel developmental activities in the country is also given. A variety of biomass resources exist in the country in large quantities with opportunities for expansion. Biomass resources considered include agricultural crops, agricultural crop residues, forestry resources, municipal solid waste, and animal waste. However, the prospects of achieving this giant stride appear not to be feasible in Nigeria. Although the focus on biofuel production may be a worthwhile endeavor in view of Nigeria's development woes, the paper argues that because Nigeria is yet to adequately satisfy the preconditions for such program, the effort may be designed to fail after all. To avoid this, the government must address key areas of concern such as food insecurity, environmental crisis, and blatant corruption in all quarters. It is concluded that given the large availability of biomass resources in Nigeria, there is immense potential for biofuel production from these biomass resources. With the very high potential for biofuel production, the governments as well as private investors are therefore encouraged to take practical steps toward investing in agriculture for the production of energy crops and the

  16. Resource assessment/commercialization planning meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Division of Geothermal Energy and Division of Geothermal Resource Management, sponsored a Resource Assessment/Commercialization Planning meeting in Salt Lake City on January 21-24, 1980. The meeting included presentations by state planning and resource teams from all DOE regions. An estimated 130 people representing federal, state and local agencies, industry and private developers attended.

  17. Assessment of novel power generation systems for the biomass industry

    OpenAIRE

    Codeceira Neto, Alcides

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this programme of research is to produce a method for assessing and optimising the performance of advanced gas turbine power plants for electricity generation within the Brazilian electric sector. With the privatisation of the Brazilian electric sector, interest has been given to the thermal plants and studies have been carried out along with the use of other alternative fuels rather than fossil fuels. Biomass is a fuel of increasing interest for power gener...

  18. Enhancement of the NEEDS-TIMES Model: Data for Spain on Biomass Resources and Renewable Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labriet, M.; Cabal, H.; Lechon, Y.

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the data related to both electricity generation (focus on distributed generation and Renewable Energy Source) as well as biomass resources and transformation in Spain. It will contribute to the analysis of the renewable energy potential at the European level (RES2020 project). (Author)

  19. Portfolios. Assessment Resource Kit (ARK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Margaret; Masters, Geoff

    In developmental assessment, teachers monitor student progress against a map of developing skills, knowledge, and understanding. Portfolio assessment is a tool to use in developmental assessment, and there are many types of portfolios to support developmental assessment of students. When considering a portfolio type, it is important to consider…

  20. Algal biomass conversion to bioethanol - a step-by-step assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, Razif; Yip, Jason W S; Thiruvenkadam, Selvakumar; Ghani, Wan A W A K; Cherrington, Tamara; Danquah, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    The continuous growth in global population and the ongoing development of countries such as China and India have contributed to a rapid increase in worldwide energy demand. Fossil fuels such as oil and gas are finite resources, and their current rate of consumption cannot be sustained. This, coupled with fossil fuels' role as pollutants and their contribution to global warming, has led to increased interest in alternative sources of energy production. Bioethanol, presently produced from energy crops, is one such promising alternative future energy source and much research is underway in optimizing its production. The economic and temporal constraints that crop feedstocks pose are the main downfalls in terms of the commercial viability of bioethanol production. As an alternative to crop feedstocks, significant research efforts have been put into utilizing algal biomass as a feedstock for bioethanol production. Whilst the overall process can vary, the conversion of biomass to bioethanol usually contains the following steps: (i) pretreatment of feedstock; (ii) hydrolysis; and (iii) fermentation of bioethanol. This paper reviews different technologies utilized in the pretreatment and fermentation steps, and critically assesses their applicability to bioethanol production from algal biomass. Two different established fermentation routes, single-stage fermentation and two-stage gasification/fermentation processes, are discussed. The viability of algal biomass as an alternative feedstock has been assessed adequately, and further research optimisation must be guided toward the development of cost-effective scalable methods to produce high bioethanol yield under optimum economy.

  1. Performances. Assessment Resource Kit (ARK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Margaret; Masters, Geoff

    Performance assessment is the assessment of students engaged in an activity. It is the on-the-spot evaluation of a performance, behavior, or interaction. Ordinarily, there is no concrete product that can be judged at a later date. In Developmental Assessment, teachers monitor student progress against a preconstructed map of developing skills,…

  2. Banana biomass as potential renewable energy resource: A Malaysian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tock, Jing Yan; Lai, Chin Lin; Lee, Keat Teong; Tan, Kok Tat; Bhatia, Subhash [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2010-02-15

    The world has been relying on fossil fuels as its primary source of energy. This unsustainable energy source is not going to last long and thus, gradual shift towards green renewable energy should be practiced. In Malaysia, even though fossil fuel dominates the energy production, renewable energies such as hydropower and biomass are gaining popularity due to the implementation of energy policies and greater understanding on the importance of green energy. Malaysia has been well endowed with natural resources in areas such as agriculture and forestry. Thus, with the availability of feedstock, biomass energy is practical to be conducted and oil palm topped the ranking as biomass source here because of its high production. However, new sources should be sought after as to avoid the over dependency on a single source. Hence, other agriculture biomass should be considered such as banana plant biomass. This paper will discuss on its potential as a new biomass source in Malaysia. Banana plant is chosen as the subject due to its availability, high growth rates, carbon neutrality and the fact that it bears fruit only once a lifetime. Conversion of the biomass to energy can be done via combustion, supercritical water gasification and digestion to produce thermal energy and biogas. The theoretical potential power generation calculated reached maximum of 950 MW meeting more than half of the renewable energy requirement in the Fifth Fuel Policy (Eighth Malaysia Plan 2001-2005). Thus, banana biomass is feasible as a source of renewable energy in Malaysia and also other similar tropical countries in the world. (author)

  3. Geospatial Assessment of Long-Term Sustainability of Biomass Feedstock Supplies: Erosion, Soil Biomass Accumulation, Greenhouse Gasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosentrater, K. A.; Kaleita, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    In the past decade, the corn grain-based fuel ethanol industry has grown exponentially. Now, stakeholders within the corn grain producing regions of the midwestern United States are seeking to develop advanced biofuels from abundant post-harvest lignocellulosic corn stover resides. How sustainable are these biofuels? Scientific guidelines regarding the sustainable use of corn grain and stover to maintain soil quality have not been clearly defined, due in part to the complexity of agricultural soil systems and the dearth of robust and consistent data. The objective of this study was to examine the long-term sustainability of corn stover harvest for economically relevant agricultural production scenarios focused on the state of Iowa. We used the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model to simulate soil erosion and biomass returned to the soil under two crop rotation scenarios (continuous corn vs. corn-soybean rotation), three corn stover removal rates (0, 50, 100% removed), and three tillage intensities (no till (NT), intermediate till (IT), conventional till (CT)). Calculations were aggregated to the township-scale using multiple sampling points from the USDA Natural Resources Inventory per township within each county, for a total of 17,848 sampling points throughout the state. This accounted for the topographical and soils variation within the state; use of county weather stations incorporated climate variations. Statistical characterization and GIS visualization were used to illustrate and interpret the results. Wide variations in biomass accumulation/erosion/GHG impacts were observed across agronomic scenarios and landform regions throughout Iowa, and biomass management and tillage intensity impacted on-site soil quality and the off-site environment. Soil biomass was primarily affected by stover removal rate, with soybean rotation also reducing soil biomass. Soil erosion was primarily affected by slope and tillage, with stover removal rate playing a lesser

  4. Global mineral resource assessment: porphyry copper assessment of Mexico: Chapter A in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Ludington, Steve; Gray, Floyd; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Cendejas-Cruz, Francisco; Espinosa, Enrique; Pérez-Segura, Efrén; Valencia-Moreno, Martín; Rodríguez-Castañeda, José Luis; Vásquez-Mendoza, Rigobert; Zürcher, Lukas

    2010-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about distributions of mineral deposits in the Earth’s crust. A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in Mexico was done as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 km of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000; (2) provide a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in undiscovered deposits for each permissive tract. The assessment was conducted using a three-part form of mineral resource assessment based on mineral deposit models (Singer, 1993). Delineation of permissive tracts primarily was based on distributions of mapped igneous rocks related to magmatic arcs that formed in tectonic settings associated with subduction boundary zones. Using a GIS, map units were selected from digital geologic maps based on lithology and age to delineate twelve permissive tracts associated with Jurassic, Laramide (~90 to 34 Ma), and younger Tertiary magmatic arcs. Stream-sediment geochemistry, mapped alteration, regional aeromagnetic data, and exploration history were considered in conjunction with descriptive deposit models and grade and tonnage models to guide estimates.

  5. Developmental Assessment. Assessment Resource Kit(ARK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Geoff; Forster, Margaret

    Developmental assessment is the process of monitoring a student's progress through an area of learning so that decisions can be made about the best way to facilitate further learning. The unique feature of developmental assessment is its use of a progress map. The progress map, or continuum, describes the development in an area of learning and so…

  6. Priority of domestic biomass resources for energy: Importance of national environmental targets in a climate perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Vadenbo, Carl; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2017-01-01

    that utilizing the energy potential of manure and straw represents the primary opportunity for further global warming mitigation. For this purpose, co-digestion (for manure) and combustion with heat-and-power production (for straw) appear as the most promising technologies. The utilization of biomass (or biogas......) for electricity/heat is generally preferred, as long as coal/oil is still used within the energy system. Yet, to fulfill environmental targets for renewable energy in the transport sector, the diversion of a significant share of biogas (and/or other biofuels) from these more beneficial uses is necessary....... To completely phase out coal/oil, additional biomass (to current domestic resources) must be included, either through domestic energy crops cultivation or biomass/biofuel import; alternatively, natural gas could be used....

  7. Cross-Sectoral Resource Management: How Forest Management Alternatives Affect the Provision of Biomass and Other Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Frank

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Integrated forest management is faced with the challenge that the contribution of forests to economic and ecological planning targets must be assessed in a socio-ecological system context. This paper introduces a way to model spatio-temporal dynamics of biomass production at a regional scale in order to derive land use strategies that enhance biomass provision and avoid trade-offs for other ecosystem services. The software platform GISCAME was employed to bridge the gap between local land management decisions and regional planning by linking growth and yield models with an integrative mesoscale modeling and assessment approach. The model region is located in Saxony, Germany. Five scenarios were simulated, which aimed at testing different alternatives for adapted land use in the context of climate change and increasing biomass demand. The results showed, for example, that forest conversion towards climate-change-adapted forest types had positive effects on ecological integrity and landscape aesthetics. In contrast, negative impacts on landscape aesthetics must be expected if agricultural sites were converted into short rotation coppices. Uncertainties with stem from assumptions regarding growth and yield models were discussed. Future developmental steps which consider, for example, accessibility of the resources were identified.

  8. Assessment and utilization of soil water resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the analyses of water interactions and water balance, this paper discusses the issues on the assessment and regulation of soil water resources, which lays the scientific basis for limited irrigation and water-saving agriculture.

  9. Lunar resource assessment: an industry perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, S. C.; Altenberg, B. H.; Franklin, H. A.

    The goals of the U.S. space program are to return to the Moon, establish a base, and continue onward to Mars. To accomplish this in a relatively short time frame and to avoid the high costs of transporting materials from the Earth, resources on the Moon will need to be mined. Oxygen will be one of the most important resources, to be used as a rocket propellant and for life support. Ilmenite and lunar regolith have both been considered as ores for the production of oxygen. Resource production on the Moon will be a very important part of the U.S. space program. To produce resources we must explore to identify the location of ore or feedback and calculate the surface and underground reserves. Preliminary resource production tests will provide the information that can be used in final plant design. Bechtel Corporation's experience in terrestrial engineering and construction has led to an interest in lunar resource assessment leading to the construction of production facilities on the Moon. There is an intimate link between adequate resource assessment to define feedstock quantity and quality, material processing requirements, and the successful production of lunar oxygen. Although lunar resource assessment is often viewed as a research process, the engineering and production aspects are very important to consider. Resource production often requires the acquisition of different types, scales, or resolutions of data than that needed for research, and it is needed early in the exploration process. An adequate assessment of the grade, areal extent, and depth distribution of the resources is a prerequisite to mining. The need for a satisfactory resource exploration program using remote sensing techniques, field sampling, and chemical and physical analysis is emphasized. These data can be used to define the ore for oxygen production and the mining, processing facilities, and equipment required.

  10. Resource assessment for geothermal direct use applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, C.; Hederman, W.F. Jr.; Dolenc, M.R.; Allman, D.W.

    1984-04-01

    This report discusses the topic geothermal resource assessment and its importance to laymen and investors for finding geothermal resources for direct-use applications. These are applications where the heat from lower-temperature geothermal fluids, 120 to 200/sup 0/F, are used directly rather than for generating electricity. The temperatures required for various applications are listed and the various types of geothermal resources are described. Sources of existing resource data are indicated, and the types and suitability of tests to develop more data are described. Potential development problems are indicated and guidance is given on how to decrease technical and financial risk and how to use technical consultants effectively. The objectives of this report are to provide: (1) an introduction low-temperature geothermal resource assessment; (2) experience from a series of recent direct-use projects; and (3) references to additional information.

  11. Environmental Multiobjective Optimization of the Use of Biomass Resources for Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadenbo, Carl; Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2017-01-01

    of the optimization model is exemplified by a case aimed at determining the environmentally optimal use of biomass in the Danish energy system in 2025. A multiobjective formulation based on fuzzy intervals for six environmental impact categories resulted in impact reductions of 13-43% compared to the baseline...... environmental consequences. To circumvent the limitations of scenario-based life cycle assessment (LCA), we develop a multiobjective optimization model to systematically identify the environmentally optimal use of biomass for energy under given system constraints. Besides satisfying annual final energy demand......, the model constraints comprise availability of biomass and arable land, technology- and system-specific capacities, and relevant policy targets. Efficiencies and environmental performances of bioenergy conversions are derived using biochemical process models combined with LCA data. The application...

  12. Sustainability assessment of forest biomass supply chain at local scale: carrying capacity of the system for energy valorisation

    OpenAIRE

    Martire, S; Castellani, V.; Sala, S.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of the trade-off between the benefits coming from forest resources’ use and the conservation of forest ecosystems is needed. Considering the use of biomass for energy purpose, on one hand the use of wood resources should be based on an evaluation of the “carrying capacity” of the forest ecosystem and site-specific characteristics; on the other hand, the role of biomass valorisation has to be assessed considering the socio economic benefit or drawbacks due to the further development...

  13. Biomass Allocation of Stoloniferous and Rhizomatous Plant in Response to Resource Availability: A Phylogenetic Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiu-Fang; Hu, Yu-Kun; Pan, Xu; Liu, Feng-Hong; Song, Yao-Bin; Dong, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Resource allocation to different functions is central in life-history theory. Plasticity of functional traits allows clonal plants to regulate their resource allocation to meet changing environments. In this study, biomass allocation traits of clonal plants were categorized into absolute biomass for vegetative growth vs. for reproduction, and their relative ratios based on a data set including 115 species and derived from 139 published literatures. We examined general pattern of biomass allocation of clonal plants in response to availabilities of resource (e.g., light, nutrients, and water) using phylogenetic meta-analysis. We also tested whether the pattern differed among clonal organ types (stolon vs. rhizome). Overall, we found that stoloniferous plants were more sensitive to light intensity than rhizomatous plants, preferentially allocating biomass to vegetative growth, aboveground part and clonal reproduction under shaded conditions. Under nutrient- and water-poor condition, rhizomatous plants were constrained more by ontogeny than by resource availability, preferentially allocating biomass to belowground part. Biomass allocation between belowground and aboveground part of clonal plants generally supported the optimal allocation theory. No general pattern of trade-off was found between growth and reproduction, and neither between sexual and clonal reproduction. Using phylogenetic meta-analysis can avoid possible confounding effects of phylogeny on the results. Our results shown the optimal allocation theory explained a general trend, which the clonal plants are able to plastically regulate their biomass allocation, to cope with changing resource availability, at least in stoloniferous and rhizomatous plants.

  14. Biomass Allocation of Stoloniferous and Rhizomatous Plant in Response to Resource Availability: A Phylogenetic Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Fang eXie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resource allocation to different functions is central in life-history theory. Plasticity of functional traits allows clonal plants to regulate their resource allocation to meet changing environments. In this study, biomass allocation traits of clonal plants were categorized into absolute biomass for vegetative growth versus for reproduction, and their relative ratios based on a data set including 115 species and derived from 139 published literatures. We examined general pattern of biomass allocation of clonal plants in response to availabilities of resource (e.g. light, nutrients and water using phylogenetic meta-analysis. We also tested whether the pattern differed among clonal organ types (stolon vs. rhizome. Overall, we found that stoloniferous plants were more sensitive to light intensity than rhizomatous plants, preferentially allocating biomass to vegetative growth, aboveground part and clonal reproduction under shaded conditions. Under nutrient- and water-poor condition, rhizomatous plants were constrained more by ontogeny than by resource availability, preferentially allocating biomass to belowground part. Biomass allocation between belowground and aboveground part of clonal plants generally supported the optimal allocation theory. No general pattern of trade-off was found between growth and reproduction, and neither between sexual and clonal reproduction. Using phylogenetic meta-analysis can avoid possible confounding effects of phylogeny on the results. Our results shown the optimal allocation theory explained a general trend, which the clonal plants are able to plastically regulate their biomass allocation, to cope with changing resource availability, at least in stoloniferous and rhizomatous plants.

  15. Risk assessment of replacing conventional P fertilizers with biomass ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz Paredes, Carla; Lopez Garcia, Alvaro; Rubæk, Gitte H.;

    2017-01-01

    Reutilizing biomass ashes in agriculture can substitute inputs of P from finite primary sources. However, recycling of ashes is disputed due to their content of toxic substances such as heavy metals. This study evaluates the potential risk of replacing easily soluble inorganic P fertilizer with P...... application, grain, straw and root dry matter yield, and P and Cd uptake were determined. Resin-extractable P was measured in soil and the symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal activity, colonization, and community composition were assessed. Crop yield was not affected by ash application, while P......-uptake and mycorrhizal status were slightly enhanced with high ash applications. Changes to the mycorrhizal community composition were evident with high ash doses. Cadmium uptake in aboveground plant tissue was unaffected by ash treatments, but increased in roots with increasing doses. Consequently, we conclude...

  16. Cultivation of microalgal Chlorella for biomass and lipid production using wastewater as nutrient resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Sheng-Yi; Kao, Chien-Ya; Chen, Tsai-Yu; Chang, Yu-Bin; Kuo, Chiu-Mei; Lin, Chih-Sheng

    2015-05-01

    Using wastewater for microalgal cultures is beneficial for minimizing the use of freshwater, reducing the cost of nutrient addition, removing nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater and producing microalgal biomass as bioresources for biofuel or high-value by-products. There are three main sources of wastewater, municipal (domestic), agricultural and industrial wastewater, which contain a variety of ingredients. Some components in the wastewater, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, are useful ingredients for microalgal cultures. In this review, the effects on the biomass and lipid production of microalgal Chlorella cultures using different kinds of wastewater were summarized. The use of the nutrients resource in wastewater for microalgal cultures was also reviewed. The effect of ammonium in wastewater on microalgal Chlorella growth was intensively discussed. In the end, limitations of wastewater-based of microalgal culture were commented in this review article.

  17. Spatial Analysis of Biomass Resources within a Socio-Ecologically Heterogeneous Region: Identifying Opportunities for a Mixed Feedstock Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirby Calvert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Local bioenergy will play a crucial role in national and regional sustainable energy strategies. Effective siting and feedstock procurement strategies are critical to the development and implementation of bioenergy systems. This paper aims to improve spatial decision-support in this domain by shifting focus from homogenous (forestry or agricultural regions toward heterogeneous regions—i.e., areas with a presence of both forestry and agricultural activities; in this case, eastern Ontario, Canada. Multiple land-cover and resource map series are integrated in order to produce a spatially distributed GIS-based model of resource availability. These data are soft-linked with spreadsheet-based linear models in order to estimate and compare the quantity and supply-cost of the full range of non-food bioenergy feedstock available to a prospective developer, and to assess the merits of a mixed feedstock stream relative to a homogenous feedstock stream. The method is applied to estimate bioenergy production potentials and biomass supply-cost curves for a number of cities in the study region. Comparisons of biomass catchment areas; supply-cost curves; resource density maps; and resource flow charts demonstrate considerable strategic and operational advantages to locating a facility within the region’s “transition zone” between forestry and agricultural activities. Existing and emerging bioenergy technologies that are feedstock agnostic and therefore capable of accepting a mixed-feedstock stream are reviewed with emphasis on “intermediates” such as wood pellets; biogas; and bio-oils, as well as bio-industrial clusters.

  18. Water resources disturbance risk assessment base on whole life cycle of biomass energy——a case study of biodiesel from rapeseed%基于全生命周期的生物质能水资源扰动风险评价——以油菜籽生物柴油为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婷; 田秉晖; 闫浩文; 袁宪正; 王健; 潘峰

    2013-01-01

    This passage mainly evaluated the ecological risk which was caused by developing the biomass energy through the lifecycle cycle assessment method. The risk index of water resources disturbance was calculated by the model of risk-business and then which was used in the region. The results show that the consumption of water is 4 391.39 tons during the whole lifecycle of developing the biodiesel from rapeseed and is 4 389.96 tons during the planting process of it, which accounted for 99.95% in whole lifecycle of it. On a national scale which contained 31 provinces, the equivalent benchmark of Henan is minimum which is only 418.202 7, and the equivalent benchmark of Tibet is maximum which reach to 7 818.86 and is 18.7 times of Henan. The result of the study show that the water resource disturbance index of Tibet is minimum and Henan is maximum, and the disturbance index is greater than 0.8 in Hunan, et al 14 provinces are not suitable for biomass energy development.%通过生命周期评价方法,对发展生物质能引起的生态风险进行评价.利用风险商模型,计算水资源扰动的风险指数,并对其进行区域评价.计算结果显示:发展油菜籽生物柴油生命周期全过程耗水量为4 391.39t,种植过程耗水量为4 389.96 t,占全过程耗水量的99.95%.全国31个区域范围内,河南当量基准最小,仅为418.2027,西藏当量基准最大,达到7 818.86,是河南的18.7倍.研究结果表明:西藏水资源扰动指数最低,河南水资源扰动指数最高,扰动指数大于0.8的湖南等14个省区不适于发展生物质能源.

  19. Uncertainty of biomass contributions from agriculture and forestry to renewable energy resources under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gutsch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the future, Germany's land-use policies and the impacts of climate change on yields will affect the amount of biomass available for energy production. We used recent published data on biomass potentials in the federal states of Germany to assess the uncertainty caused by climate change effects in the potential supply of biomass available for energy production. In this study we selected three climate scenarios representing the maximum, mean and minimum temperature increase for Germany out of 21 CMIP5-projections driven by the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP 8.5 scenario. Each of the three selected projections was downscaled using the regional statistical climate model STARS. We analysed the yield changes of four biomass feedstock crops (forest, short-rotation coppices (SRC, cereal straw (winter wheat and energy maize for the period 2031–2060 in comparison to 1981–2010. The mean annual yield changes of energy wood from forest and short-rotation coppices were modelled using the process-based forest growth model 4C. The yield changes of winter wheat and energy maize from agricultural production were simulated with the statistical yield model IRMA. Germany's annual biomass potential of 1500 PJ varies between minus 5 % and plus 8 % depending on the climate scenario realisation. Assuming that 1500 PJ of biomass utilisation can be achieved, climate change effects of minus 75 (5 % PJ or plus 120 (8 % PJ do not impede overall bioenergy targets of 1287 PJ in 2020 and 1534 PJ in 2050. In five federal states the climate scenarios lead to decreasing yields of energy maize and winter wheat. Impacts of climate scenarios on forest yields are mainly positive and show both positive and negative effects on yields of SRC.

  20. Responses in chemical traits and biomass allocation of Arundo donax L. to deficit resources in the establishment year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pompeiano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A large expansion in renewable energy production is underway with an increasing focus on sustainable second-generation biofuels. Fast growing rhizomatous perennial grasses are leading candidates for lignocellulosic feedstock thanks to their positive energy balance, and low ecological/agro-management demands. Biomass accumulation is favored by the efficient use of available resources. The aim of this study was to identify which accumulation processes were most affected in the establishment year of a giant reed (Arundo donax L. field crop grown under water and N deficiencies. The relative plasticity of growth of A. donax in response to various levels of resource availability was evaluated. A field scale experiment was carried out, and treatments were arranged as a randomized complete block, strip-plot design with irrigation treatments as the main plot factor and pre-planting N rate as the sub-plot factor. Biometric relationships between variables were assessed to understand how agro-management factors influence the above ground biomass of giant reed, as well as yield over time. Evidence is presented indicating that growth is strongly enhanced by water availability (+97% dry weight biomass. Changes in composition were not significant within or among fixed treatments, rather changes were observed over time. A high content of glucans and xylans were detected from early stage, and as the mobilization of minerals increased, lignin content significantly increased as well (from 12% to 36% w/w. These results suggest that an increase in the growth of A. donax in the establishment year is accomplished by a limited use of the water input

  1. FIJI geothermal resource assessment and development programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autar, Rohit K.

    1996-01-24

    The Fiji Department of Energy (DOE) has a comprehensive resource assessment programme which assesses and promotes the use of local renewable energy resources where they are economically viable. DOE is currently involved in the investigation of the extent of geothermal resources for future energy planning and supply purposes. The aim is to determine (a) whether exploitable geothermal fields exist in the Savusavu or Labasa areas. the two geothermal fields with the greatest potential, (b) the cost of exploiting these fields for electricity generation/process heat on Vanua Levu. (c) the comparative cost per mega-watt-hour (MWh) of geothermal electricity generation with other generating options on Vanua Levu, and. (d) to promote the development of the geothermal resource by inviting BOO/BOOT schemes. Results to date have indicated that prospects for using geothermal resource for generating electricity lies in Savusavu only - whereas the Labasa resource can only provide process heat. All geophysical surveys have been completed and the next stage is deep drilling to verify the theoretical findings and subsequent development.

  2. Wind Resource Assessment in Europe Using Emergy

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In context of increasing use of renewable sources, it is of importance to correctly evaluate the actual sustainability of their implementation. Emergy analysis is one of the possible methods useful for such an assessment. This work aims to demonstrate how the emergy approach can be used to assess the sustainability of wind energy resource in Europe. The Emergy Index of Sustainability (EIS) and the Emergy Yield Ratio (EYR) are used to analyze 90 stations of European reg...

  3. Geothermal resources assessment in Hawaii. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D.M.

    1984-02-21

    The Hawaii Geothermal Resources Assessment Program was initiated in 1978. The preliminary phase of this effort identified 20 Potential Geothermal Resource Areas (PGRA's) using available geological, geochemical and geophysical data. The second phase of the Assessment Program undertook a series of field studies, utilizing a variety of geothermal exploration techniques, in an effort to confirm the presence of thermal anomalies in the identified PGRA's and, if confirmed, to more completely characterize them. A total of 15 PGRA's on four of the five major islands in the Hawaiian chain were subject to at least a preliminary field analysis. The remaining five were not considered to have sufficient resource potential to warrant study under the personnel and budget constraints of the program.

  4. Wind Resource Assessment of Gujarat (India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draxl, C.; Purkayastha, A.; Parker, Z.

    2014-07-01

    India is one of the largest wind energy markets in the world. In 1986 Gujarat was the first Indian state to install a wind power project. In February 2013, the installed wind capacity in Gujarat was 3,093 MW. Due to the uncertainty around existing wind energy assessments in India, this analysis uses the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the wind at current hub heights for one year to provide more precise estimates of wind resources in Gujarat. The WRF model allows for accurate simulations of winds near the surface and at heights important for wind energy purposes. While previous resource assessments published wind power density, we focus on average wind speeds, which can be converted to wind power densities by the user with methods of their choice. The wind resource estimates in this study show regions with average annual wind speeds of more than 8 m/s.

  5. Challenges for assessing the performance of biomass degrading biocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmel, Michael E; Decker, Stephen R; Johnson, David K

    2012-01-01

    Common analytical challenges impact current work to estimate the cost of converting plant biomass to fermentable sugars. The most noteworthy are measuring cellulase and hemicellulase activities, cellulase and hemicellulase protein, biomass compositions (before and after pretreatment), and the products formed. The use of high-throughput (HTP) methods has shown considerable promise for improving both analytical precision and technician efficiency, but can also present pitfalls regarding experimental accuracy and relevance. Recent work demonstrates that HTP systems which include biomass composition analysis, thermal chemical pretreatment, and biomass saccharification can be realized.

  6. Review: Assessing the climate mitigation potential of biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Moriarty

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For many millennia, humans have used biomass for three broad purposes: food for humans and fodder for farm animals; energy; and materials. Food has always been exclusively produced from biomass, and in the year 1800, biomass still accounted for about 95% of all energy. Biomass has also been a major source of materials for construction, implements, clothing, bedding and other uses, but some researchers think that total human uses of biomass will soon reach limits of sustainability. It is thus important to select those biomass uses that will maximise global climate change benefits. With a ‘food first’ policy, it is increasingly recognised that projections of food needs are important for estimating future global bioenergy potential, and that non-food uses of biomass can be increased by both food crop yield improvements and dietary changes. However, few researchers have explicitly included future biomaterials production as a factor in bioenergy potential. Although biomaterials’ share of the materials market has roughly halved over the past quarter-century, we show that per tonne of biomass, biomaterials will usually allow greater greenhouse gas reductions than directly using biomass for bioenergy. particularly since in many cases, biomaterials can be later burnt for energy after their useful life.

  7. Life cycle assessment of biomass-to-liquid fuels - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungbluth, N.; Buesser, S.; Frischknecht, R.; Tuchschmid, M.

    2008-02-15

    This study elaborates a life cycle assessment of using of BTL-fuels (biomass-to-liquid). This type of fuel is produced in synthesis process from e.g. wood, straw or other biomass. The life cycle inventory data of the fuel provision with different types of conversion concepts are based on the detailed life cycle assessment compiled and published within a European research project. The inventory of the fuel use emissions is based on information published by automobile manufacturers on reductions due to the use of BTL-fuels. Passenger cars fulfilling the EURO3 emission standards are the basis for the comparison. The life cycle inventories of the use of BTL-fuels for driving in passenger cars are investigated from cradle to grave. The full life cycle is investigated with the transportation of one person over one kilometre (pkm) as a functional unit. This includes all stages of the life cycle of a fuel (biomass and fuel production, distribution, combustion) and the necessary infrastructure (e.g. tractors, conversion plant, cars and streets). The use of biofuels is mainly promoted for the reason of reducing the climate change impact and the use of scarce non-renewable resources e.g. crude oil. The possible implementation of BTL-fuel production processes would potentially help to achieve this goal. The emissions of greenhouse gases due to transport services could be reduced by 28% to 69% with the BTL-processes using straw, forest wood or short-rotation wood as a biomass input. The reduction potential concerning non-renewable energy resources varies between 37% und 61%. A previous study showed that many biofuels cause higher environmental impacts than fossil fuels if several types of ecological problems are considered. The study uses two single score impact assessment methods for the evaluation of the overall environmental impacts, namely the Eco-indicator 99 (H,A) and the Swiss ecological scarcity 2006 method. The transportation with the best BTL-fuel from short

  8. Decomposer biomass in the rhizosphere to assess rhizodeposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren; Bjørnlund, Lisa; Madsen, Mette Vestergård

    2007-01-01

    Quantification of the organic carbon released from plant roots is a challenge. These compounds of rhizodeposition are quickly transformed into CO2 and eventually bacterial biomass to be consumed by bacterivores (protozoa and nematodes). Microbes stimulate rhizodeposition several-fold so assays...... barley with a 2 week leaf aphid attack and found that biomass of bacterivores but not bacteria in the rhizosphere correlated with plant-induced respiration activity belowground. This indicated top-down control of the bacteria. Moreover, at increasing density of aphids, bacterivore biomass...... in the rhizosphere decreased to the level in soil unaffected by roots. This suggests that difference in bacterivore biomass directly reflects variations in rhizodeposition. Rhizodeposition is estimated from plant-induced increases in bacterial and bacterivore biomass, and yield factors, maintenance requirements...

  9. Assessment of the externalities of biomass energy for electricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, P.; Leal, J.; Saez, R.M.

    1996-10-01

    This study presents a methodology for the quantification of the socioeconomic and environmental externalities of the biomass fuel cycle. It is based on the one developed by the ExternE Project of the European Commission, based in turn in the damage function approach, and which has been extended and modified for a better adaptation to biomass energy systems. The methodology has been applied to a 20 MW biomass power plant, fueled by Cynara cardunculus, in southern Spain. The externalities addressed have been macroeconomic effects, employment, CO{sub 2}, fixation, erosion, and non-point source pollution. The results obtained should be considered only as subtotals, since there are still other externalities to be quantified. anyway, and in spite of the uncertainty existing, these results suggest that total cost (those including internal and external costs) of biomass energy are lower than those of conventional energy sources, what, if taken into account, would make biomass more competitive than it is now. (Author)

  10. Assessment of the externalise of biomass energy for electricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, P.; Leal, J.; Saez, R.M.

    1996-07-01

    This study presents a methodology for the quantification of the socioeconomic and environmental externalities of the biomass fuel cycle. It is based on the one developed by the ExternE Project of the European Commission, based in turm in the damage function approach, and which has been extended and modified for a better adaptation to biomass energy systems. The methodology has been applied to a 20 MW biomass power plant, fueled by Cynara cardunculus, in southern Spain. The externalities addressed have been macroeconomic effects, employment, CO2, fixation, erosion, and non-point source pollution. The results obtained should be considered only as subtotals, since there are still other externalities to be quantified. Anyway, and in spite of the uncertainty existing, these results suggest that the total cost (those including internal and external costs) of biomass energy are lower than those of conventional energy sources, what, if taken into account, would make biomass more competitive than it is now. (Author) 44 refs.

  11. Outcome-based Carbon Sequestration Resource Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundquist, E. T.; Jain, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Opportunities for carbon sequestration are an important consideration in developing policies to manage the mass balance of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Assessments of potential carbon sequestration, like other resource assessments, should be widely accepted within the scientific community and broadly applicable to public needs over a range of spatial and temporal scales. The essential public concern regarding all forms of carbon sequestration is their effectiveness in offsetting CO2 emissions. But the diverse forms and mechanisms of potential sequestration are reflected in diverse assessment methodologies that are very difficult for decision-makers to compare and apply to comprehensive carbon management. For example, assessments of potential geologic sequestration are focused on total capacities derived from probabilistic analyses of rock strata, while assessments of potential biologic sequestration are focused on annual rates calculated using biogeochemical models. Non-specialists cannot readily compare and apply such dissimilar estimates of carbon storage. To address these problems, assessment methodologies should not only tabulate rates and capacities of carbon storage, but also enable comparison of the time-dependent effects of various sequestration activities on the mitigation of increasing atmospheric CO2. This outcome-based approach requires consideration of the sustainability of the assessed carbon storage, as well as the response of carbon-cycle feedbacks. Global models can be used to compare atmospheric CO2 trajectories implied by alternative global sequestration strategies, but such simulations may not be accessible or useful in many decision settings. Simplified assessment metrics, such as ratios using impulse response functions, show some promise in providing comparisons of CO2 mitigation that are broadly useful while minimizing sensitivity to differences in global models and emissions scenarios. Continued improvements will require close

  12. USGS Methodology for Assessing Continuous Petroleum Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a new quantitative methodology for assessing resources in continuous (unconventional) petroleum deposits. Continuous petroleum resources include shale gas, coalbed gas, and other oil and gas deposits in low-permeability ("tight") reservoirs. The methodology is based on an approach combining geologic understanding with well productivities. The methodology is probabilistic, with both input and output variables as probability distributions, and uses Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the estimates. The new methodology is an improvement of previous USGS methodologies in that it better accommodates the uncertainties in undrilled or minimally drilled deposits that must be assessed using analogs. The publication is a collection of PowerPoint slides with accompanying comments.

  13. Market Assessment of Biomass Gasification and Combustion Technology for Small- and Medium-Scale Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D.; Haase, S.

    2009-07-01

    This report provides a market assessment of gasification and direct combustion technologies that use wood and agricultural resources to generate heat, power, or combined heat and power (CHP) for small- to medium-scale applications. It contains a brief overview of wood and agricultural resources in the U.S.; a description and discussion of gasification and combustion conversion technologies that utilize solid biomass to generate heat, power, and CHP; an assessment of the commercial status of gasification and combustion technologies; a summary of gasification and combustion system economics; a discussion of the market potential for small- to medium-scale gasification and combustion systems; and an inventory of direct combustion system suppliers and gasification technology companies. The report indicates that while direct combustion and close-coupled gasification boiler systems used to generate heat, power, or CHP are commercially available from a number of manufacturers, two-stage gasification systems are largely in development, with a number of technologies currently in demonstration. The report also cites the need for a searchable, comprehensive database of operating combustion and gasification systems that generate heat, power, or CHP built in the U.S., as well as a national assessment of the market potential for the systems.

  14. Strain selection, biomass to biofuel conversion, and resource colocation have strong impacts on the economic performance of algae cultivation sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venteris, Erik R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.; Skaggs, Richard

    2014-09-16

    Decisions involving strain selection, biomass to biofuel technology, and the location of cultivation facilities can strongly influence the economic viability of an algae-based biofuel enterprise. In this contribution we summarize our past results in a new analysis to explore the relative economic impact of these design choices. We present strain-specific growth model results from two saline strains (Nannocloropsis salina, Arthrospira sp.), a fresh to brackish strain (Chlorella sp., DOE strain 1412), and a freshwater strain of the order Sphaeropleales. Biomass to biofuel conversion is compared between lipid extraction (LE) and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) technologies. National-scale models of water, CO2 (as flue gas), land acquisition, site leveling, construction of connecting roads, and transport of HTL oil to existing refineries are used in conjunction with estimates of fuel value (from HTL) to prioritize and select from 88,692 unit farms (UF, 405 ha in pond area), a number sufficient to produce 136E+9 L yr-1 of renewable diesel (36 billion gallons yr-1, BGY). Strain selection and choice of conversion technology have large economic impacts, with differences between combinations of strains and biomass to biofuel technologies being up to $10 million dollars yr-1 UF-1. Results based on the most productive species, HTL-based fuel conversion, and resource costs show that the economic potential between geographic locations within the selection can differ by up to $4 million yr-1 UF-1, with 2.0 BGY of production possible from the most cost-effective sites. The local spatial variability in site rank is extreme, with very high and low rank sites within 10s of km of each other. Colocation with flue gas sources has a strong influence on site rank, but the most costly resource component varies from site to site. The highest rank sites are located predominantly in Florida and Texas, but most states south of 37°N latitude contain promising locations. Keywords: algae

  15. NANA Wind Resource Assessment Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay Hermanson

    2010-09-23

    NANA Regional Corporation (NRC) of northwest Alaska is located in an area with abundant wind energy resources. In 2007, NRC was awarded grant DE-FG36-07GO17076 by the US Department of Energy's Tribal Energy Program for funding a Wind Resource Assessment Project (WRAP) for the NANA region. The NANA region, including Kotzebue Electric Association (KEA) and Alaska Village Electric Cooperative (AVEC) have been national leaders at developing, designing, building, and operating wind-diesel hybrid systems in Kotzebue (starting in 1996) and Selawik (2002). Promising sites for the development of new wind energy projects in the region have been identified by the WRAP, including Buckland, Deering, and the Kivalina/Red Dog Mine Port Area. Ambler, Shungnak, Kobuk, Kiana, Noorvik & Noatak were determined to have poor wind resources at sites in or very near each community. However, all five of these communities may have better wind resources atop hills or at sites with slightly higher elevations several miles away.

  16. Overview of the Quality and Completeness of Resource Assessment Data for the APEC Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renne, D. S.; Pilasky, S.

    1998-02-01

    The availability of information and data on the renewable energy resources (solar, wind, biomass, geothermal, and hydro) for renewable energy technologies is a critical element in the successful implementation of these technologies. This paper presents a comprehensive summary of published information on these resources for each of 1 8 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies. In the introductory sections, a discussion of the quality and completeness of this information is presented, along with recommendations on steps that need to be taken to facilitate the further development and deployment of renewable energy technologies throughout the APEC region. These sections are then followed by economy-specific reviews, and a complete bibliography and summary description for each citation. The major results of this survey are that a basis for understanding renewable energy resources is currently available for essentially all the economies, although there is a significant need to apply improved and updated resource assessment techniques in most. For example, most wind resource assessments rely on data collected at national weather stations, which often results in underestimates of the true potential wind resource within an economy. As a second example, solar resource assessments in most economies rely on an analysis of very simple sunshine record data, which results in large uncertainties in accurately quantifying the resource. National surveys of biomass, geothermal, and hydro resources are often lacking; in most cases, resources for these technologies were discussed for site-specific studies only. Thus, the major recommendations in this paper are to: ( 1 ) upgrade current or install new wind and solar measurement systems at key 'benchmark' locations to provide accurate, representative information on these resources; (2) apply advanced wind and solar resource assessment tools that rely on data quality assessment procedures, the use of satellite data

  17. U.S. Hydropower Resource Assessment - California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. M. Conner; B. N. Rinehart; J. E. Francfort

    1998-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the underdeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. For this purpose, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory developed a computer model called Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES). HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of California.

  18. US hydropower resource assessment for Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Wisconsin.

  19. US hydropower resource assessment for Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Iowa.

  20. US hydropower resource assessment for Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Missouri.

  1. US Hydropower Resource Assessment for Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

  2. US hydropower resource assessment for New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1996-03-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of New Jersey.

  3. US hydropower resource assessment for Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE, menu-driven software application. HES allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Colorado.

  4. US hydropower resource assessment for Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Kansas.

  5. US hydropower resource assessment for Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Utah.

  6. US hydropower resource assessment for Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Washington.

  7. Quantitative assessment of microalgae biomass and lipid stability post cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerine eNapan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Processing of microalgal biomass to biofuels and other products requires the removal of the culture from a well-controlled growth system to a containment or preprocessing step at non-ideal growth conditions, such as darkness, minimal gas exchange, and fluctuating temperatures. The conditions and the length of time between harvest and processing will impact microalgal metabolism resulting in biomass and lipid degradation. This study experimentally investigates the impact of time and temperature on Nannochloropsis salina harvested from outdoor plate photobioreactors. The impact of three temperatures, 4°, 40° or 70°C, on biomass and lipid content (as fatty acid methyl esters of the harvested microalgae was evaluated over a 156 hour time period. Results show that for N. salina, time and temperature are key factors that negatively impact biomass and lipid yields. The temperature of 70°C resulted in the highest degradation with the overall biofuel potential reduced by 30% over 156 hours. Short time periods, 24 hours, and low temperatures are shown to have little effect on the harvested biomass.

  8. Quivira National Wildlife Refuge Water Resource Inventory and Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Quivira NWR describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of water resource needs and...

  9. Water Resources Inventory and Assessment: Patuxent Research Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Patuxent Research Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of water resource...

  10. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment: Pixley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Pixley National Wildlife Refuge describes hydrologic information, provides an assessment of water resource...

  11. STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT AT PRICEWATERHOUSECOOPERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Boncea

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The world we are living in today has increasingly become aware of the importance of the human factor in all types of organizations. The present paper is intended to assess the performance of the human resource department at PricewaterhouseCoopers and to provide adequate recommendations for activity improvement. After a statement of the current HR strategy and an in-depth analysis of the external and internal environment, the paper continues with some proposals upon a more efficient HR function and the corresponding action plan to achieve this objective. In addition, the paper presents a section on how employees respond to change inside the company.

  12. Wind Resource Assessment in Europe Using Emergy

    CERN Document Server

    Paudel, Subodh; Martin, Viktoria; Lacarriere, Bruno; Corre, Olivier Le

    2015-01-01

    In context of increasing use of renewable sources, it is of importance to correctly evaluate the actual sustainability of their implementation. Emergy analysis is one of the possible methods useful for such an assessment. This work aims to demonstrate how the emergy approach can be used to assess the sustainability of wind energy resource in Europe. The Emergy Index of Sustainability (EIS) and the Emergy Yield Ratio (EYR) are used to analyze 90 stations of European regions for three types of wind turbines. To do so, the simplified Chou wind turbine model is used for different set of parameters as: nominal power and size of the wind turbines, and cut-in and cut-out wind speeds. Based on the calculation of the emergy indices, a mapping is proposed to identify the most appropriate locations for an implementation of wind turbines in European regions. The influence of the wind turbine type on the sustainability is also analyzed, in link with the local wind resource. Thus, it is concluded that the emergy sustainabi...

  13. Wind power error estimation in resource assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Osvaldo; Del Río, Jesús A; Jaramillo, Oscar A; Martínez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the power output is one of the elements that determine the techno-economic feasibility of a renewable project. At present, there is a need to develop reliable methods that achieve this goal, thereby contributing to wind power penetration. In this study, we propose a method for wind power error estimation based on the wind speed measurement error, probability density function, and wind turbine power curves. This method uses the actual wind speed data without prior statistical treatment based on 28 wind turbine power curves, which were fitted by Lagrange's method, to calculate the estimate wind power output and the corresponding error propagation. We found that wind speed percentage errors of 10% were propagated into the power output estimates, thereby yielding an error of 5%. The proposed error propagation complements the traditional power resource assessments. The wind power estimation error also allows us to estimate intervals for the power production leveled cost or the investment time return. The implementation of this method increases the reliability of techno-economic resource assessment studies.

  14. Wind Power Error Estimation in Resource Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Osvaldo; del Río, Jesús A.; Jaramillo, Oscar A.; Martínez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the power output is one of the elements that determine the techno-economic feasibility of a renewable project. At present, there is a need to develop reliable methods that achieve this goal, thereby contributing to wind power penetration. In this study, we propose a method for wind power error estimation based on the wind speed measurement error, probability density function, and wind turbine power curves. This method uses the actual wind speed data without prior statistical treatment based on 28 wind turbine power curves, which were fitted by Lagrange's method, to calculate the estimate wind power output and the corresponding error propagation. We found that wind speed percentage errors of 10% were propagated into the power output estimates, thereby yielding an error of 5%. The proposed error propagation complements the traditional power resource assessments. The wind power estimation error also allows us to estimate intervals for the power production leveled cost or the investment time return. The implementation of this method increases the reliability of techno-economic resource assessment studies. PMID:26000444

  15. Wind power error estimation in resource assessments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Estimating the power output is one of the elements that determine the techno-economic feasibility of a renewable project. At present, there is a need to develop reliable methods that achieve this goal, thereby contributing to wind power penetration. In this study, we propose a method for wind power error estimation based on the wind speed measurement error, probability density function, and wind turbine power curves. This method uses the actual wind speed data without prior statistical treatment based on 28 wind turbine power curves, which were fitted by Lagrange's method, to calculate the estimate wind power output and the corresponding error propagation. We found that wind speed percentage errors of 10% were propagated into the power output estimates, thereby yielding an error of 5%. The proposed error propagation complements the traditional power resource assessments. The wind power estimation error also allows us to estimate intervals for the power production leveled cost or the investment time return. The implementation of this method increases the reliability of techno-economic resource assessment studies.

  16. Wood products biomass gasification: technological and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonino, G.; Scarzella, L.

    In this paper, a design lay-out is presented for the gasification of wood products biomass. Regarding this alternative energy form, the paper discusses historical aspects and recent technological developments made by Italian industry. The design, construction, performance, efficiency, present and future applications of a twin-feeding system are described.

  17. Resource Assessment for Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production Potential from Fossil and Renewable Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the energy resources required to produce 4-10 million metric tonnes of domestic, low-carbon hydrogen in order to fuel approximately 20-50 million fuel cell electric vehicles. These projected energy resource requirements are compared to current consumption levels, projected 2040 business as usual consumptions levels, and projected 2040 consumption levels within a carbonconstrained future for the following energy resources: coal (assuming carbon capture and storage), natural gas, nuclear (uranium), biomass, wind (on- and offshore), and solar (photovoltaics and concentrating solar power). The analysis framework builds upon previous analysis results estimating hydrogen production potentials and drawing comparisons with economy-wide resource production projections

  18. Biomass Energy Self-Sufficiency Resource Alternatives for a Forested Air Force Installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    to support basewide biomass energy systems. The study confirmed the feasibility of a biomass energy plantation supplying the required fuel wood to...support the basewide biomass energy systems while, at the same time not conflicting with any of the operational missions of Eglin AFB. This conclusion is...have an installation that provides all of its electrical and thermal energy requirements through the utilization of the Biomass Energy Island concept. (Author)

  19. World Water Resources Assessment for 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, T.; Agata, Y.; Kanae, S.; Musiake, K.; Saruhashi, T.

    2003-04-01

    nticipated water scarcity in the first half of this century is one of the most concerned international issues to be assessed adequately. However, even though the issue has an international impact and world wide monitoring is critical, there are limited number of global estimates at present. In this study, annual water availability was derived from annual runoff estimated by land surface models using Total Runoff Integrating Pathways (TRIP) with 0.5 degree by 0.5 degree longitude/latitude resolution globally. Global distribution of water withdrawal for each sector in the same horizontal spatial resolution was estimated based on country-base statistics of municipal water use, industrial water use, and agricultural intake, using global geographical information system with global distributions of population and irrigated crop land area. The total population under water stress estimated for 1995 corresponded very well with former estimates, however, the number is highly depend on how to assume the ratio how much water from upstream of the region can be considered as ``available'' water resources within the region. It suggests the importance of regional studies evaluating the the water quality deterioration in the upper stream, the real consumption of water resources in the upper stream, and the accessibility to water. The last factor should be closely related to how many large scale water withdrawal schemes are implemented in the region. Further studies by an integrated approach to improve the accuracy of future projections on both the natural and social sides of the water resources should be promoted. About the future projection of the global water resources assessment, population growth, climatic change, and the increase of water consumption per capita are considered. Population growth scenario follows the UN projection in each country. Change in annual runoff was estimated based on the climatic simulation by a general circulation model by the Center of Climate System

  20. Assessment of biomass residue availability and bioenergy yields in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemausuor, Francis; Kamp, Andreas; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2014-01-01

    is expected to increase with more efficient applications, such as the production of biogas and liquid biofuels for cooking, transportation and the generation of power. The aim of this study is to establish the amount of Ghana's energy demand that can be satisfied by using the country's crop residues, animal......Biomass is an important renewable energy source that holds large potential as feedstock for the production of different energy carriers in a context of sustainable development, peak oil and climate change. In developing countries, biomass already supplies the bulk of energy services and future use...... manure, logging residues and municipal waste. The study finds that the technical potential of bioenergy from these sources is 96 PJ in 2700 Mm3 of biogas or 52 PJ in 2300 ML of cellulosic ethanol. The biogas potential is sufficient to replace more than a quarter of Ghana's present woodfuel use...

  1. Italian Residential Buildings: Economic Assessments for Biomass Boilers Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Carlini; Sonia Castellucci; Silvia Cocchi; Elena Allegrini; Ming Li

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is increasingly used for energy generation since it represents a useful alternative to fossil fuel in order to face the pollutions and the global warming problem. It can be exploited for heating purposes and for supplying domestic hot water. The most common applications encompass wood and pellet boilers. The economic aspect is becoming an important issue in order to achieve the ambitious targets set by the European Directives on Renewable Sources. Thus, the present paper deals with th...

  2. Nebraska wind resource assessment first year results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, P.J.F.; Vilhauer, R. [RLA Consulting, Inc., Bothell, WA (United States); Stooksbury, D. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the preliminary results from a wind resource assessment program in Nebraska sponsored by the Nebraska Power Association. During the first year the measured annual wind speed at 40 meters ranged from 6.5 - 7.5 m/s (14.6 - 16.8 mph) at eight stations across the state. The site selection process is discussed as well as an overview of the site characteristics at the monitoring locations. Results from the first year monitoring period including data recovery rate, directionality, average wind speeds, wind shear, and turbulence intensity are presented. Results from the eight sites are qualitatively compared with other midwest and west coast locations. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. California's forest resources. Preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This Preliminary Assessment was prepared in response to the California Forest Resources Assessment and Policy Act of 1977 (FRAPA). This Act was passed to improve the information base upon which State resource administrators formulate forest policy. The Act provides for this report and a full assessment by 1987 and at five year intervals thereafter. Information is presented under the following chapter titles: introduction to the forest resources assessment program; the forest area: a general description; classifications of the forest lands; the watersheds; forest lands and the air resource; fish and wildlife resources; the forested rangelands; the wilderness; forest lands as a recreation resource; the timber resource; wood energy; forest lands and the mineral, fossil fuels, and geothermal energy resources; mathematically modeling California's forest lands; vegetation mapping using remote sensing technology; important forest resources legislation; and, State and cooperative State/Federal forestry programs. Twelve indexes, a bibliography, and glossary are included. (JGB)

  4. Shifts in biomass and resource allocation patterns following defoliation in Eucalyptus globulus growing with varying water and nutrient supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, Alieta; Pinkard, Elizabeth A; Mohammed, Caroline

    2009-06-01

    In woody species, potential mechanisms to compensate for tissue loss to herbivory and diseases have been related to post-event shifts in growth, biomass and internal resource allocation patterns, as modulated by external resource limitations. We examined the interactive effects of belowground resource limitations by varying nutrient and water availability, and aboveground carbon limitation imposed by a single defoliation event (40% leaf removal) on stem growth, whole-tree and within-tree resource allocation patterns (total non-structural carbohydrate and nitrogen) and below- and aboveground biomass allocation patterns in 8-month-old, field-grown Eucalyptus globulus Labill. saplings. Two months after treatments were imposed, the direction of the stem growth response to defoliation depended on the abiotic treatment. Five months after defoliation, however, we found little evidence that resource availability constrained the expression of tolerance to defoliation. With the exception of the combined low-nutrient and low-water supply treatment, saplings grown with (1) adequate water and nutrient supplies and even with (2) low-water supply or (3) low-nutrient supply were able to compensate for the 40% foliage loss. The observed compensatory responses were attributed to the activation of several short- and longer-term physiological mechanisms including reduced biomass allocation to coarse roots, mobilization of carbohydrate reserves, robust internal N dynamics and increased ratio of foliage to wood dry mass.

  5. Priority order in using biomass resources - Energy systems analyses of future scenarios for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Pil Seok; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2013-01-01

    for the decrease of biomass are made by use of an hourly energy system analysis model, EnergyPLAN. The results are shown in terms of system configuration, biomass fuel efficiency, system cost, and impacts on the export of electricity. It is concluded that the reduction of biomass in the heat sector is better than......According to some future Danish energy scenarios, biomass will become one of the two main pillars of the future energy system accompanied by wind power. The biomass can be used for generating heat and electricity, and as a transportation fuel in a future energy system according to the scenarios....... This article compares the value of using biomass as a heat source and for electricity generation in a 100% renewable energy system context. The comparison is done by assuming an incremental decrease in the biomass available for the electricity and heat sector, respectively. The assumed scenarios...

  6. Wind energy resource assessment in Madrid region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migoya, Emilio; Crespo, Antonio; Jimenez, Angel; Garcia, Javier; Manuel, Fernando [Laboratorio de Mecanica de Fluidos, Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, Escuela Tecnica Superior Ingenieros Industriales (ETSII), Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2-28006, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    The Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid (Autonomous Community of Madrid, in the following Madrid Region), is a region located at the geographical centre of the Iberian Peninsula. Its area is 8.028 km{sup 2}, and its population about five million people. The Department of Economy and Technological Innovation of the Madrid Region, together with some organizations dealing on energy saving and other research institutions have elaborated an Energy Plan for the 2004-12 period. As a part of this work, the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory of the Superior Technical School of Industrial Engineers of the Polytechnic University of Madrid has carried out the assessment of the wind energy resources [Crespo A, Migoya E, Gomez Elvira R. La energia eolica en Madrid. Potencialidad y prospectiva. Plan energetico de la Comunidad de Madrid, 2004-2012. Madrid: Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid; 2004]; using for this task the WAsP program (Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program), and the own codes, UPMORO (code to study orography effects) and UPMPARK (code to study wake effects in wind parks). Different kinds of data have been collected about climate, topography, roughness of the land, environmentally protected areas, town and village distribution, population density, main facilities and electric power supply. The Spanish National Meteorological Institute has nine wind measurement stations in the region, but only four of them have good and reliable temporary wind data, with time measurement periods that are long enough to provide representative correlations among stations. The Observed Wind Climates of the valid meteorological stations have been made. The Wind Atlas and the resource grid have been calculated, especially in the high wind resource areas, selecting appropriate measurements stations and using criteria based on proximity, similarity and ruggedness index. Some areas cannot be used as a wind energy resource mainly because they have environmental regulation or, in some cases, are very close

  7. 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report, the 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States, was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and updates a previous national resource assessment study, and refines and reaffirms that the available wind resource is sufficient for offshore wind to be a large-scale contributor to the nation's electric energy supply.

  8. Easetech Energy: Advanced Life Cycle Assessment of Energy from Biomass and Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard; Turconi, Roberto; Tonini, Davide

    SUMMARY: Biomass and waste are expected to play a key role in future energy systems based on large shares of renewable energy resources. The LCA model EASETECH Energy was developed specifically for modelling large and complex energy systems including various technologies and several processing st...

  9. Biomass Assessment: A Question of Method and Expertise Évaluation de la ressource biomasse : une question de méthode et d’expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thivolle-Cazat A.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the new stakes on lignocellulosic biomass are often demand-oriented (heat, electricity, biofuels, etc. mainly through public policies, the new equilibrium will depend also on the supply-side. This supply has to be understood as socio-economic and environmental targets combining many topics: multi-resources (agriculture, forest, "dedicated coppices", by-products and wastes, available/potential quantities and costs, localisation, replacement/substitution effects (activities, lands, and supply-side stakeholders’ behaviours. Many initiatives have been launched to grasp those dimensions through projects (National Research Agency, French Environment and Energy Management Agency, etc.. Many figures exist on the biomass assessment aspect but they are not clear enough and not comparable due to differences in definitions, scopes, data, parameters, geographical levels, reporting units, time-scale, etc. Regarding the characterisation of biomass supply chains, evaluations are often incomplete and lack methodological references. This article aims to focus on methodological key points and barriers to overcome, in order to get a better evaluation and understanding of biomass mobilisation expected by potential users and public authorities. Alors que les objectifs non-alimentaires sur la biomasse ligno-cellulosique sont souvent orientés par la demande (chaleur, électricité, biocarburants, etc. principalement via des politiques publiques, le nouvel équilibre dépendra également de l’offre. L’appréciation de cette offre est rendue complexe par la multiplicité des critères techniques, socio-économiques et environnementaux qui la définissent et/ou qu’on souhaite lui assigner. Elle renvoie ainsi ceux qui s’y essaient à l’étude de combinaisons croisant plusieurs thématiques : multi-ressources (agriculture, forêt, cultures dédiées, co-produits et déchets, quantités disponibles/potentiels et coûts, localisation, effet de

  10. Development of a multicriteria assessment model for ranking biomass feedstock collection and transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Flynn, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    This study details multicriteria assessment methodology that integrates economic, social, environmental, and technical factors in order to rank alternatives for biomass collection and transportation systems. Ranking of biomass collection systems is based on cost of delivered biomass, quality of biomass supplied, emissions during collection, energy input to the chain operations, and maturity of supply system technologies. The assessment methodology is used to evaluate alternatives for collecting 1.8 x 10(6) dry t/yr based on assumptions made on performance of various assemblies of biomass collection systems. A proposed collection option using loafer/ stacker was shown to be the best option followed by ensiling and baling. Ranking of biomass transport systems is based on cost of biomass transport, emissions during transport, traffic congestion, and maturity of different technologies. At a capacity of 4 x 10(6) dry t/yr, rail transport was shown to be the best option, followed by truck transport and pipeline transport, respectively. These rankings depend highly on assumed maturity of technologies and scale of utilization. These may change if technologies such as loafing or ensiling (wet storage) methods are proved to be infeasible for large-scale collection systems.

  11. Decision-making of biomass ethanol fuel policy based on life cycle 3E assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LENG Ru-bo; DAI Du; CHEN Xiao-jun; WANG Cheng-tao

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the environmental, economic, energy performance of biomass ethanol fuel in China and tosupport the decision-making of biomass ethanol energy policy, an assessment method of life cycle 3E (economy, en vironment, energy) was applied to the three biomass ethanol fuel cycle alternatives, which includes cassava-based, corn-based and wheat-based ethanol fuel. The assessments provide a comparison of the economical performance, energy efficiency and environmental impacts of the three alternatives. And the development potential of the three alternatives in China was examined. The results are very useful for the Chinese government to make decisions on the biomass ethanol energy policy, and some advises for the decision-making of Chinese government were given.

  12. Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge Water Resource Inventory and Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) for Okefenokee National Wildlife Refugesummarizes available information relevant to refuge water resources,...

  13. Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge Water Resource Inventory and Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes available information relevant to refuge water resources, provides an assessment of refuge water resource needs and issues of concern, and...

  14. Solmap: Project In India's Solar Resource Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indradip Mitra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available India launched Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission in 2009, which aims to set up 20 000 MW of grid connected solar power, besides 2 000 MW equivalent of off-grid applications and cumulative growth of solar thermal collector area to 20 million m2 by 2022. Availability of reliable and accurate solar radiation data is crucial to achieve the targets. As a result of this initiative, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE of Government of India (GoI has awarded a project to Centre for Wind Energy Technology (C-WET, Chennai in the year 2011 to set up 51 Solar Radiation Resource Assessment (SRRA stations using the state-of-the-art equipment in various parts of the country, especially the sites with high potential for solar power. The GoI project has synergy with SolMap project, which is implemented by the Deutsche GesellschaftfürInternationaleZusammenarbeit (GIZ in cooperation with the MNRE. SolMap project is contributing to SRRA project in establishing quality checks on the data obtained as per International protocols and helping data processing to generate investment grade data. The paper highlights the details of SRRA stations and an attempt has been made to present some of the important results of quality control and data analysis with respect to GHI and DNI. While our analysis of the data over one year finds that intensity and profile of the insolation are not uniform across the geographic regions, the variability in DNI is particularly high. Strong influence of monsoon is also identified. SRRA infrastructure aims to develop investment grade solar radiation resource information to assist project activities under the National Solar Mission of India.

  15. Complex Assessment of Sufficiency of the Bank Resource Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizova Kateryna M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is development of methodical recommendations regarding assessment of sufficiency of the bank resource potential by means of identification and analysis of all its components and use of the method of rating assessment. Analysing, systemising and generalising scientific works of foreign and Ukrainian scientists, the article considers a complex approach to the bank resource potential management. In the result of the study the article identifies specific features of a complex approach in the bank resource potential management. The method of geometric average and normative values of selected ratios for calculation was used for the generalising complex assessment of sufficiency of the bank resource potential. The rating assessment of the Public JSC Mercury Bank resource potential was calculated by such indicators as: debt, loan and own resources. The stated algorithm of the rating assessment of the resource potential could be applied for comparison of banks in dynamics.

  16. Biomass Resource Demand Characterization Study: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-11-436

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.

    2015-02-01

    Competing demands for U.S. biomass resources and resulting impacts on regional feedstock availability could have a significant impact on the ability of the biofuels industry to transition to lower cost feedstocks, such as wood, agricultural residues, and energy crops, as well as on the ability of U.S. electric utilities and consumers to meet Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) and transition to lower carbon-footprint sources of electricity. Promulgation of regulations that place a cost on CO2 emissions from fossil fuels will also impact this situation as biomass to power applications become increasingly cost competitive. This increased competition for biomass feedstocks could create technical and economic risks for the Government, industry, and investors, and has the potential to impede commercialization of bio-energy in the U.S. at a meaningful scale.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES FOR REGIONAL INNOVATION ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Lukyanova

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issues of human resource development regarding an innovation activity. Concepts of labor and human resources have been surveyed. An integral index for assessment of human resources for regional innovation activity has been developed and assessment of the Russian regions has been made on the basis of it. Development tendencies of modern human resources for innovation activity in Russia have been revealed.

  18. Global assessment of undiscovered copper resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Deposits, prospects, and permissive tracts for porphyry and sediment-hosted copper resources worldwide, with estimates of undiscovered copper resources. pCu_tracts...

  19. National-Scale Wind Resource Assessment for Power Generation (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2013-08-01

    This presentation describes the current standards for conducting a national-scale wind resource assessment for power generation, along with the risk/benefit considerations to be considered when beginning a wind resource assessment. The presentation describes changes in turbine technology and viable wind deployment due to more modern turbine technology and taller towers and shows how the Philippines national wind resource assessment evolved over time to reflect changes that arise from updated technologies and taller towers.

  20. Application of a Cloud Model-Set Pair Analysis in Hazard Assessment for Biomass Gasification Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Xu, Kaili

    2017-01-01

    Because a biomass gasification station includes various hazard factors, hazard assessment is needed and significant. In this article, the cloud model (CM) is employed to improve set pair analysis (SPA), and a novel hazard assessment method for a biomass gasification station is proposed based on the cloud model-set pair analysis (CM-SPA). In this method, cloud weight is proposed to be the weight of index. In contrast to the index weight of other methods, cloud weight is shown by cloud descriptors; hence, the randomness and fuzziness of cloud weight will make it effective to reflect the linguistic variables of experts. Then, the cloud connection degree (CCD) is proposed to replace the connection degree (CD); the calculation algorithm of CCD is also worked out. By utilizing the CCD, the hazard assessment results are shown by some normal clouds, and the normal clouds are reflected by cloud descriptors; meanwhile, the hazard grade is confirmed by analyzing the cloud descriptors. After that, two biomass gasification stations undergo hazard assessment via CM-SPA and AHP based SPA, respectively. The comparison of assessment results illustrates that the CM-SPA is suitable and effective for the hazard assessment of a biomass gasification station and that CM-SPA will make the assessment results more reasonable and scientific. PMID:28076440

  1. Biomass production as renewable energy resource at reclaimed Serbian lignite open-cast mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is the overview of the scope and dynamics of biomass production as a renewable energy source for substitution of coal in the production of electrical energy in the Kolubara coal basin. In order to successfully realize this goal, it was necessary to develop a dynamic model of the process of coal production, overburden dumping and re-cultivation of dumping sites by biomass planting. The results obtained by simulation of the dynamic model of biomass production in Kolubara mine basin until year 2045 show that 6870 hectares of overburden waste dumps will be re-cultivated by biomass plantations. Biomass production modeling point out the significant benefits of biomass production by planting the willow Salix viminalis cultivated for energy purposes. Under these conditions, a 0.6 % participation of biomass at the end of the period of intensive coal production, year 2037, is achieved. With the decrease of coal production to 15 million tons per year, this percentage steeply rises to 1.4 % in 2045. This amount of equivalent tons of coal from biomass can be used for coal substitution in the production of electrical energy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33039

  2. An assessement of global energy resource economic potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Mercure, J F

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of global economic energy potentials for all major natural energy resources. This work is based on both an extensive literature review and calculations using natural resource assessment data. Economic potentials are presented in the form of cost-supply curves, in terms of energy flows for renewable energy sources, or fixed amounts for fossil and nuclear resources, with strong emphasis on uncertainty, using a consistent methodology that allow direct comparisons to be made. In order to interpolate through available resource assessment data and associated uncertainty, a theoretical framework and a computational methodology are given based on statistical properties of different types of resources, justified empirically by the data, and used throughout. This work aims to provide a global database for natural energy resources ready to integrate into models of energy systems, enabling to introduce at the same time uncertainty over natural resource assessments. The supplementary mate...

  3. Rapid appraisal of biomass resources: a case study of northern Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millington, A.C. (Reading Univ. (United Kingdom)); Crosetti, M. (RCG/Hagler Bailly, San Francisco, CA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    A reconnaissance survey of woody biomass stocks in the northern Governorates of the Republic of Yemen was undertaken in 1988. Sample sites for field measurements were selected in a stratified sample framework based on land-use zones. The data collected on trees and shrubs in the sample plots were used to estimate woody biomass stocks (both as total above-ground volume and wet weight) using equations developed for N. E. Africa. Wood productivity was estimated using a rainfall-productivity equation. These estimates were aggregated to provide a national estimate of woody biomass. Dead wood stocks were also estimated. A map of woody biomass supply areas and the main fuelwood supply routes was constructed from primary and secondary data. This map was used to place the results of the inventory in a spatial context, and to provide a qualitative means of validating the spatial variability in the woody biomass stock estimates. (author).

  4. The state of solar energy resource assessment in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Alberto; Escobar, Rodrigo [Mechanical and Metallurgical Engineering Department, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Colle, Sergio [Laboratorios de Engenharia de Processos de Conversao e Tecnologia de Energia - LEPTEN, Mechanical Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil); de Abreu, Samuel Luna [IFSC - Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Sao Jose, Sao Jose - SC (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    The Chilean government has determined that a renewable energy quota of up to 10% of the electrical energy generated must be met by 2024. This plan has already sparked interest in wind, geothermal, hydro and biomass power plants in order to introduce renewable energy systems to the country. Solar energy is being considered only for demonstration, small-scale CSP plants and for domestic water heating applications. This apparent lack of interest in solar energy is partly due to the absence of a valid solar energy database, adequate for energy system simulation and planning activities. One of the available solar radiation databases is 20-40 years old, with measurements taken by pyranographs and Campbell-Stokes devices. A second database from the Chilean Meteorological Service is composed by pyranometer readings, sparsely distributed along the country and available from 1988, with a number of these stations operating intermittently. The Chilean government through its National Energy Commission (CNE) has contracted the formulation of a simulation model and also the deployment of network of measurement stations in northern Chile. Recent efforts by the authors have resulted in a preliminary assessment by satellite image processing. Here, we compare the existing databases of solar radiation in Chile. Monthly mean solar energy maps are created from ground measurements and satellite estimations and compared. It is found that significant deviation exists between sources, and that all ground-station measurements display unknown uncertainty levels, thus highlighting the need for a proper, country-wide long-term resource assessment initiative. However, the solar energy levels throughout the country can be considered as high, and it is thought that they are adequate for energy planning activities - although not yet for proper power plant design and dimensioning. (author)

  5. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment: Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of water...

  6. Water Resources Inventory and Assessment: Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of...

  7. Water Resources Inventory and Assessment: Cape May National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Cape May National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of water...

  8. Wind Resource and Feasibility Assessment Report for the Lummi Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DNV Renewables (USA) Inc.; J.C. Brennan & Associates, Inc.; Hamer Environmental L.P.

    2012-08-31

    This report summarizes the wind resource on the Lummi Indian Reservation (Washington State) and presents the methodology, assumptions, and final results of the wind energy development feasibility assessment, which included an assessment of biological impacts and noise impacts.

  9. Water Resources Inventory and Assessment: Parker River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Parker River National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of...

  10. Water Resources Inventory and Assessment: Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of water...

  11. Cahaba River National Wildlife Refuge Water Resource Inventory and Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) report for Cahaba River National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment...

  12. Conventional digital cameras as a tool for assessing leaf area index and biomass for cereal breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaume Casadesús; Dolors Villegas

    2014-01-01

    Affordable and easy-to-use methods for assessing biomass and leaf area index (LAI) would be of interest in most breeding programs. Here, we describe the evaluation of a protocol for photographic sampling and image analysis aimed at providing low-labor yet robust indicators of biomass and LAI. In this trial, two genotypes of triticale, two of bread wheat, and four of tritordeum were studied. At six dates during the growing cycle, biomass and LAI were measured destructively, and digital photography was taken on the same dates. Several vegetation indices were calculated from each image. The results showed that repeatable and consistent values of the indices were obtained in consecutive photographic samplings on the same plots. The photographic indices were highly correlated with the destructive measure-ments, though the magnitude of the correlation was lower after anthesis. This work shows that photographic assess-ment of biomass and LAI can be fast, affordable, have good repeatability, and can be used under bright and overcast skies. A practical vegetation index derived from pictures is the fraction of green pixels over the total pixels of the image, and as it shows good correlations with all biomass variables, is the most robust to lighting conditions and has easy interpretation.

  13. Assessment of the phytoextraction potential of high biomass crop plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Allica, Javier [NEIKER-tecnalia, Basque Institute of Agricultural Research and Development, c/Berreaga 1, E-48160 Derio (Spain); Becerril, Jose M. [Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, University of the Basque Country, P.O. Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Garbisu, Carlos [NEIKER-tecnalia, Basque Institute of Agricultural Research and Development, c/Berreaga 1, E-48160 Derio (Spain)], E-mail: cgarbisu@neiker.net

    2008-03-15

    A hydroponic screening method was used to identify high biomass crop plants with the ability to accumulate metals. Highest values of shoot accumulation were found in maize cv. Ranchero, rapeseed cv. Karat, and cardoon cv. Peralta for Pb (18 753 mg kg{sup -1}), Zn (10 916 mg kg{sup -1}), and Cd (242 mg kg{sup -1}), respectively. Subsequently, we tested the potential of these three cultivars for the phytoextraction of a metal spiked compost, finding out that, in cardoon and maize plants, increasing Zn and Cd concentrations led to lower values of root and shoot DW. By contrast, rapeseed shoot growth was not significantly affected by Cd concentration. Finally, a metal polluted soil was used to check these cultivars' phytoextraction capacity. Although the soil was phytotoxic enough to prevent the growth of cardoon and rapeseed plants, maize plants phytoextracted 3.7 mg Zn pot{sup -1}. We concluded that the phytoextraction performance of cultivars varies depending on the screening method used. - The phytoextraction performance of cultivars varies significantly depending on the screening method used.

  14. Life-cycle assessment of electricity from biomass: Case studies of two biocrops in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butnar, Isabela; Castells, Francesc [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Campus Sescelades, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Rodrigo, Julio [SIMPPLE S.L., 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Gasol, Carles M. [SosteniPrA-Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    Through the Renewable Energies Plan 2000-2010, Spain has fixed the objective of covering 12% of the primary energy demand from renewable sources. The achievement of this objective implies an annual increase of 22.4% of the energy produced from renewable sources. In this context, the objective of this study is to determine if the electricity from biomass produced in Spain would be environmentally competitive with electricity from natural gas or from the Spanish electricity mix. For that, the environmental impacts associated to the whole life cycle of two energetic crops in Spain, Poplar and Ethiopian mustard, used for power generation were evaluated. The overall assessment includes the cultivation and collection of biomass, its transport and the processes of its energetic transformation. We calculated different scenarios of electricity production from biomass in different capacity power plants (10, 25 or 50 MW), different transport scenarios and different productivities for biomass production. Our results show that, given the assumptions of this study, Ethiopian mustard is more impacting than Poplar when used for electricity production. Also, the transportation of biomass from the field to the power plant is an important stage that has to be carefully planned in order to get the maximum amount of electricity with a minimum environmental impact. Compared to electricity from natural gas or the Spanish electricity mix, the electricity obtained from biomass is more impacting in three from six impact categories we present here. (author)

  15. Biomass Direct Liquefaction Options. TechnoEconomic and Life Cycle Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tews, Iva J.; Zhu, Yunhua; Drennan, Corinne; Elliott, Douglas C.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Onarheim, Kristin; Solantausta, Yrjo; Beckman, David

    2014-07-31

    The purpose of this work was to assess the competitiveness of two biomass to transportation fuel processing routes, which were under development in Finland, the U.S. and elsewhere. Concepts included fast pyrolysis (FP), and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), both followed by hydrodeoxygenation, and final product refining. This work was carried out as a collaboration between VTT (Finland), and PNNL (USA). The public funding agents for the work were Tekes in Finland and the Bioenergy Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy. The effort was proposed as an update of the earlier comparative technoeconomic assessment performed by the IEA Bioenergy Direct Biomass Liquefaction Task in the 1980s. New developments in HTL and the upgrading of the HTL biocrude product triggered the interest in reinvestigating this comparison of these biomass liquefaction processes. In addition, developments in FP bio-oil upgrading had provided additional definition of this process option, which could provide an interesting comparison.

  16. Model collaboration for the improved assessment of biomass supply, demand, and impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, Birka; van der Hilst, Floortje; Daioglou, Vasileios; Banse, Martin; Beringer, Tim; Gerssen - Gondelach, Sarah; Heijnen, Sanne; Karssenberg, Derek; Laborde, David; Lippe, Melvin; van Meijl, Hans; Nassar, André; Powell, Jeff; Prins, Anne Gerdien; Rose, Steve N K; Smeets, Edward M W; Stehfest, Elke; Tyner, Wallace E.; Verstegen, Judith A.; Valin, Hugo; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Yeh, Sonia; Faaij, André P C

    2015-01-01

    Existing assessments of biomass supply and demand and their impacts face various types of limitations and uncertainties, partly due to the type of tools and methods applied (e.g., partial representation of sectors, lack of geographical details, and aggregated representation of technologies involved)

  17. National implications of high solar and biomass energy growth. Final report of the TASE project. A technology assessment of solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, Y.M.; D' Alessio, G.

    1982-09-01

    The Technology Assessment of Solar Energy (TASE) Project is a comprehensive multi-year analysis of the environmental, resource and community impacts which could result in the year 2000 if major national incentives were adopted to accelerate solar and biomass energy use. The study uses a comparative approach to examine: (a) the potential impacts of large numbers of solar and biomass units, and (b) the potential reductions in the impacts of new conventional technologies which they would displace. In addition, TASE examines the indirect pollution impacts associated with the manufacturing of solar systems at greater and lesser rates. Overall, massive incentives for solar and biomass energy over the next 20 years can lead to major stress on national capital and finished materials resources as well as to significant air pollution and safety problems. Rapid growth rates for solar systems could markedly increase energy damand in the manufacturing sector. The capital resource and materials problems would derive from emphasis on high, near term growth of solar technologies. The potential environmental and safety problems would derive largely from emphasis on decentralized, uncontrolled biomass combustion. A range of less costly general approaches lies in greater near term emphasis on more mature, competitive technologies, and specifically on biomass rather than solar technologies.In particular this emphasis should be on larger scale biomass technologies with economical pollution controls rather than on small, uncontrolled units; on bio-harvesting safety measures; on larger scale solar technologies which are far less energy and materials intensive and hence less costly than smaller solar technologies per unit energy output; on more gradual growth rates for active solar energy systems, especially small systems.

  18. Technology assessment of geothermal energy resource development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-04-15

    Geothermal state-of-the-art is described including geothermal resources, technology, and institutional, legal, and environmental considerations. The way geothermal energy may evolve in the United States is described; a series of plausible scenarios and the factors and policies which control the rate of growth of the resource are presented. The potential primary and higher order impacts of geothermal energy are explored, including effects on the economy and society, cities and dwellings, environmental, and on institutions affected by it. Numerical and methodological detail is included in appendices. (MHR)

  19. Strain selection, biomass to biofuel conversion, and resource colocation have strong impacts on the economic performance of algae cultivation sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik R. Venteris

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Decisions involving strain selection, biomass to biofuel technology, and the location of cultivation facilities can strongly influence the economic viability of an algae-based biofuel enterprise. We summarize our past results in a new analysis to explore the relative economic impact of these design choices. Our growth model is used to predict average biomass production for two saline strains (Nannocloropsis salina, Arthrospira sp., one fresh to brackish strain (Chlorella sp., DOE strain 1412, and one freshwater strain (order Sphaeropleales. Biomass to biofuel conversion is compared between lipid extraction (LE and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL technologies. National-scale models of water, CO2 (as flue gas, land acquisition, site leveling, construction of connecting roads, and transport of HTL oil to existing refineries are used in conjunction with estimates of fuel value (from HTL to prioritize and select from 88,692 unit farms (UF, 405 ha in pond area, a number sufficient to produce 136E+9 L yr-1 of renewable diesel (36 billion gallons yr-1. Strain selection and choice of conversion technology have large economic impacts, with differences between combinations of strains and biomass to biofuel technologies being up to $10 million dollars yr-1 UF-1. Results based on the most productive strain, HTL-based fuel conversion, and resource costs show that the economic potential between geographic locations within the selection can differ by up to $4 million yr-1 UF-1, with 1.8 BGY of production possible from the most cost-effective sites. The local spatial variability in site rank is extreme, with very high and low sites within 10s of km of each other. Colocation with flue gas sources has a strong influence on rank, but the most costly resource component varies from site to site. The highest rank UFs are located predominantly in Florida and Texas, but most states south of 37°N latitude contain promising locations.

  20. Environmental assessment of energy production from waste and biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide

    by assessing a specific pilot-plant operated in Copenhagen, Denmark. The waste refining treatment was compared with a number of different state-of-the-art technologies such as incineration, mechanical-biological treatment and landfilling in bioreactor. The results highlighted that production of liquid...... captured during growth of the plants. This, however, neglects that using the land for energy crops implies that the same land cannot be used for other purposes, including food cropland, forestry, grassland, etc. This may induce cascading effects converting natural biomes into arable land with associated...... impacts. Waste, such as municipal solid waste, does not involve land use change impacts. However, existing and emerging waste treatment technologies offer different environmental benefits and drawbacks which should be evaluated in order to recommend appropriate technologies in selected scenarios...

  1. Assessing the impacts of climate change on natural resource systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, K.D.; Rosenberg, N.J. [eds.

    1994-11-30

    This volume is a collection of papers addressing the theme of potential impacts of climatic change. Papers are entitled Integrated Assessments of the Impacts of Climatic Change on Natural Resources: An Introductory Editorial; Framework for Integrated Assessments of Global Warming Impacts; Modeling Land Use and Cover as Part of Global Environmental Change; Assessing Impacts of Climatic Change on Forests: The State of Biological Modeling; Integrating Climatic Change and Forests: Economic and Ecological Assessments; Environmental Change in Grasslands: Assessment using Models; Assessing the Socio-economic Impacts of Climatic Change on Grazinglands; Modeling the Effects of Climatic Change on Water Resources- A Review; Assessing the Socioeconomic Consequences of Climate Change on Water Resources; and Conclusions, Remaining Issues, and Next Steps.

  2. Assessment of the Potential of Biomass Gasification for Electricity Generation in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barun Kumar Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is an agriculture based country where more than 65 percent of the people live in rural areas and over 70% of total primary energy consumption is covered by biomass, mainly agricultural waste and wood. Only about 6% of the entire population has access to natural gas, primarily in urban areas. Electricity production in Bangladesh largely depends on fossil fuel whose reserve is now under threat and the government is now focusing on the alternating sources to harness electricity to meet the continuous increasing demand. To reduce the dependency on fossil fuels, biomass to electricity could play a vital role in this regard. This paper explores the biomass based power generation potential of Bangladesh through gasification technology—an efficient thermochemical process for distributed power generation. It has been estimated that the total power generation from the agricultural residue is about 1178 MWe. Among them, the generation potential from rice husk, and bagasses is 1010 MWe, and 50 MWe, respectively. On the other hand, wheat straw, jute stalks, maize residues, lentil straw, and coconut shell are also the promising biomass resources for power generation which counted around 118 MWe. The forest residue and municipal solid waste could also contribute to the total power generation 250 MWe and 100 MWe, respectively.

  3. Assessing land availability to produce biomass for energy: The case of Brazilian charcoal for steel making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piketty, Marie-Gabrielle [CIRAD and Sao Paulo University (Economic Department and Environmental Science Program) (Brazil)]|[Universidade de Sao Paulo - FEA - Avenida Prof. Luciano Gualberto, 908 CEP: 05 508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Wichert, Marcos [Sao Paulo University, ESALQ, Forestry Science, Avenida Padua Dias, 11 CP 9 Piracicaba, SP, CEP 13418-900 (Brazil); Fallot, Abigail [CIRAD, 73 rue Jean-Francois Breton, TA B-42/16 (Bat. 16, Bur. 26), 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Aimola, Luis [Sao Paulo University, Environmental Science Program, Brazil, PROCAM-USP Rua do Anfiteatro, 181 Colmeia, Favo 15, CEP 05508-900, Cidade Universitaria, SP (Brazil)

    2009-02-15

    The paper discusses the availability of biomass in Brazil to supply charcoal to the steel industry on the bases of an initial global assessment of land potentially available for plantations and of Brazilian data that allows refining the assessment and specifying the issue of practical availability. Technical potentials are first assessed through a series of simple rules against direct competition with agriculture, forests and protected areas, and of quantitative criteria, whether geo-climatic (rainfall), demographic (population density) or legal (reserves). Institutional, social and economic factors are then identified and discussed so as to account for the practical availability of Brazilian biomass through six criteria. The ranking of nine Brazilian States according to these criteria brings out the necessary trade-offs in the selection of land for plantations that would efficiently supply charcoal to the steel industry. (author)

  4. Pollution prevention opportunity assessments, a training and resource guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VALERO, O.J.

    1998-11-03

    The intention of the ''Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment Training and Resource Guide'' is to help Hanford waste generators identify ways to reduce waste through the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (P20A) process. This document presents pollution prevention tools and provides a step-by-step approach for conducting assessments.

  5. 78 FR 16656 - Draft Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for Natural Resource...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... Environmental Assessment for Natural Resource Injuries and Service Losses Associated With the 2010 Oil Spill... Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for natural resource injuries and service losses associated with... Environmental Conservation, Department of Fish and Game, Department of Natural Resources and Department of...

  6. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - Horicon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for Horicon National Wildlife Refuges describes current hydrologic information, provides an...

  7. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment- Port Louisa NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Inventory, assessment, and summary of water rights, water quantity, water quality, water management, climate, and other water resource issues

  8. An Assessment of Fishery Resources on Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A qualitative assessment of the fishery resources on Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge was conducted by Fish and Wildlife Service personnel in September 1993. This...

  9. GIS Technology: Resource and Habitability Assessment Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a one-year project to apply a GIS analysis tool to new orbital data for lunar resource assessment and martian habitability identification.  We used...

  10. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) describes current hydrologic information, provides...

  11. Cache River National Wildlife Refuge Water Resource Inventory and Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) for Cache River National Wildlife Refuge summarizes available and relevant information for refuge water...

  12. A novel PSB-EDI system for high ammonia wastewater treatment, biomass production and nitrogen resource recovery: PSB system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hangyao; Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Guangming; Yan, Guokai; Lu, Haifeng; Sun, Liyan

    A novel process coupling photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) with electrodeionization (EDI) treatment was proposed to treat high ammonia wastewater and recover bio-resources and nitrogen. The first stage (PSB treatment) was used to degrade organic pollutants and accumulate biomass, while the second stage (EDI) was for nitrogen removal and recovery. The first stage was the focus in this study. The results showed that using PSB to transform organic pollutants in wastewater into biomass was practical. PSB could acclimatize to wastewater with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 2,300 mg/L and an ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) concentration of 288-4,600 mg/L. The suitable pH was 6.0-9.0, the average COD removal reached 80%, and the biomass increased by an average of 9.16 times. The wastewater COD removal was independent of the NH4(+)-N concentration. Moreover, the PSB functioned effectively when the inoculum size was only 10 mg/L. The PSB-treated wastewater was then further handled in an EDI system. More than 90% of the NH4(+)-N was removed from the wastewater and condensed in the concentrate, which could be used to produce nitrogen fertilizer. In the whole system, the average NH4(+)-N removal was 94%, and the average NH4(+)-N condensing ratio was 10.0.

  13. Field biomass as energy resource for the future; Peltobiomassat tulevaisuuden energiaresurssina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahkala, K.; Loetjoenen, T. (eds.)

    2012-11-01

    Bioenergy can be derived from biomasses especially produced for bioenergy or from by-products, side streams and waste from wood processing industry, agriculture and forestry, or e.g. municipal waste. In the Nordic countries and Russia forests are a natural source of bioenergy. In many other European countries forests may be too scarce for bioenergy use. Therefore field biomasses form an interesting potential source for bioenergy. Production of field biomasses for non-food purposes has been criticized, especially as there is not enough food for everyone even at present, and in the future more food has to be produced as the world population increases. We studied the field biomass potential in different European countries with different scenarios for development. 'Good development' scenario includes improvements in plant breeding and food production and processing technologies, with increasing yields and decreasing waste of food products and raw materials. 'Bad development' scenario assumes stagnating yields and little improvement in technologies in the OECD countries, and only small improvements in former Soviet Union countries. The foci of the present research were the effects of development of food production, population growth and climate change on regional potential of field biomasses for bioenergy and sustainable use of crop residues and grasses for bioenergy. The field area that could be allocated to energy crops after growing enough food for the citizens of each country depends mostly on the diet. Growing food for vegetarian diet would occupy so little field area that every country under study could set aside at least half of their field area for bioenergy purposes already at present, if the 'good development' scenario was applied. With 'bad development' scenario some of the countries would be unable to set aside fields for bioenergy production even with vegetarian diet. With affluent diet there would be little field

  14. Macroalgae as a Biomass Feedstock: A Preliminary Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesijadi, Guritno; Jones, Susanne B.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2010-09-26

    A thorough of macroalgae analysis as a biofuels feedstock is warranted due to the size of this biomass resource and the need to consider all potential sources of feedstock to meet current biomass production goals. Understanding how to harness this untapped biomass resource will require additional research and development. A detailed assessment of environmental resources, cultivation and harvesting technology, conversion to fuels, connectivity with existing energy supply chains, and the associated economic and life cycle analyses will facilitate evaluation of this potentially important biomass resource.

  15. Resource Letter: Research-based Assessments in Physics and Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Adrian; Sayre, Eleanor C

    2016-01-01

    This resource letter provides a guide to research-based assessments (RBAs) of physics and astronomy content. These are standardized assessments that were rigorously developed and revised using student ideas and interviews, expert input, and statistical analyses. RBAs have had a major impact on physics and astronomy education reform by providing a universal and convincing measure of student understanding that instructors can use to assess and improve the effectiveness of their teaching. In this resource letter, we present an overview of all content RBAs in physics and astronomy by topic, research validation, instructional level, format, and themes, to help faculty find the best assessment for their course.

  16. Biomass gasification technology nationalization and human resources formation in North region: GASEIBRAS Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez; Santos, Sandra Maria Apolinario dos; Lora, Beatriz Acquaro [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: suani@iee.usp.br, e-mail: sgvelaz@iee.usp.br, e-mail: sandra@iee.usp.br, e-mail: blora@iee.usp.br

    2008-07-01

    Gasification systems already developed in Brazil are not adjusted to the electricity production at isolated communities, because this models that supply a gas with satisfactory properties to this end, are projected to operate with coal and not with biomass in natura, what implies in the biomass transformation in coal with all the environmental impacts and loss of thermodynamic income associates to this practical. These problems had been surpassed with the GASEIFAMAZ Project development realized by CENBIO in the last two years. The project, that it aimed to make possible the electricity supply expansion in communities without energy access in the country north region, consisted of two gasification systems importation from the Indian Institute of Science, tests accomplishment and its transference to an isolated community. (author)

  17. Assessment of Geothermal Data Resources and Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2008-09-01

    This paper is a review of Geothermal Technologies Program activities and archives related to data collection and analysis. It includes an assessment of the current state of geothermal data, future program and stakeholder data needs, existence of and access to critical data, and high-level direction and prioritization of next steps to meet the Program’s data needs.

  18. Progress Maps. Assessment Resource Kit(ARK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Geoff; Forster, Margaret

    A progress map describes the nature of development in an area of learning and thus serves as a frame of reference for monitoring individual growth. An essential feature of a progress map, which is an integral component of Developmental Assessment, is that it describes and illustrates developing competence. The first step in constructing a progress…

  19. Projects. Assessment Resource Kit(ARK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Margaret; Masters, Geoff

    Projects are extended pieces of work completed over a period of time. They provide contexts for the assessment of general skills, as well as the ability to apply subject-specific knowledge and skills. Some of the general skills that projects demonstrate are collecting and organizing information, solving problems, working in a group, and…

  20. Hydropower Resource Assessment of Brazilian Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas G. Hall

    2011-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of the Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE) and the Agencia Nacional de Energia Electrica (ANEEL) has performed a comprehensive assessment of the hydropower potential of all Brazilian natural streams. The methodology by which the assessment was performed is described. The results of the assessment are presented including an estimate of the hydropower potential for all of Brazil, and the spatial distribution of hydropower potential thus providing results on a state by state basis. The assessment results have been incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) application for the Internet called the Virtual Hydropower Prospector do Brasil. VHP do Brasil displays potential hydropower sites on a map of Brazil in the context of topography and hydrography, existing power and transportation infrastructure, populated places and political boundaries, and land use. The features of the application, which includes tools for finding and selecting potential hydropower sites and other features and displaying their attributes, is fully described.

  1. Assessing Extension's Ability to Promote Family Forests as a Woody Biomass Feedstock in the Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Rene' H.; Ghosh, Chandrani

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here surveyed Extension educators' awareness and knowledge of woody biomass energy and assessed their desire and ability to reach out to family forest owners-a critical feedstock source. The results indicate Extension educators are aware of the potential of woody biomass to serve as a renewable source of energy. Respondents…

  2. Technical-economic assessment of the production of methanol from biomass. Conversion process analysis. Final research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, E.I.; Simmons, J.A.; Price, J.D.; Nguyen, T.D.

    1979-07-12

    A comprehensive engineering system study was conducted to assess various thermochemical processes suitable for converting biomass to methanol. A summary of the conversion process study results is presented here, delineating the technical and economic feasibilities of producing methanol fuel from biomass utilizing the currently available technologies. (MHR)

  3. Biomass pyrolysis for biochar or energy applications? A life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jens F; Iribarren, Diego; Dufour, Javier

    2015-04-21

    The application of biochar as a soil amendment is a potential strategy for carbon sequestration. In this paper, a slow pyrolysis system for generating heat and biochar from lignocellulosic energy crops is simulated and its life-cycle performance compared with that of direct biomass combustion. The use of the char as biochar is also contrasted with alternative use options: cofiring in coal power plants, use as charcoal, and use as a fuel for heat generation. Additionally, the influence on the results of the long-term stability of the biochar in the soil, as well as of biochar effects on biomass yield, is evaluated. Negative greenhouse gas emissions are obtained for the biochar system, indicating a significant carbon abatement potential. However, this is achieved at the expense of lower energy efficiency and higher impacts in the other assessed categories when compared to direct biomass combustion. When comparing the different use options of the pyrolysis char, the most favorable result is obtained for char cofiring substituting fossil coal, even assuming high long-term stability of the char. Nevertheless, a high sensitivity to biomass yield increase is found for biochar systems. In this sense, biochar application to low-quality soils where high yield increases are expected would show a more favorable performance in terms of global warming.

  4. Biomass potential assessment in Central and Eastern European Countries and opportunities for the Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faaij, A.; Hoogzaad, J.; Van Dam, J.; Smeets, E.; Lewandowski, I.

    2004-12-15

    This paper discusses an approach to determine future biomass production potentials and cost supply curves based on a bottom-up approach. The approach uses detailed data on NUTS3 level (the nomenclature of territorial units for statistics (NUTS) provides a single, uniform breakdown of the economic territory of the European Union). The NUTS is the territorial classification for the compilation of regional accounts for Central and Eastern European Countries and results in biomass supply curves for different scenario conditions that could occur in a European setting. A first assessment of the Ukraine reveals that even with modest assumptions, the Ukrainian agricultural sector could supply 2,000 to 3,000 PJ of primary biomass per year on medium term (i.e. 2010-2015). Cost levels of liquid fuels produced from biomass (such as methanol or Fischer-Tropsch diesel) could end up around 6 Euro/GJ, which is about competitive with production costs of diesel and gasoline from mineral oil. Given the growing demand for biofuels in particular in the EU, biofuels could prove an extremely valuable export commodity for the Ukraine on shorter term already.

  5. Impact Assessment of Biomass Burning on Air Quality in Southeast and East Asia During BASE-ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Hsu, N. Christina; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lam, Yun Fat

    2013-01-01

    A synergy of numerical simulation, ground-based measurement and satellite observation was applied to evaluate the impact of biomass burning originating from Southeast Asia (SE Asia) within the framework of NASA's 2006 Biomass burning Aerosols in Southeast Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA). Biomass burning emissions in the spring of 2006 peaked in MarcheApril when most intense biomass burning occurred in Myanmar, northern Thailand, Laos, and parts of Vietnam and Cambodia. Model performances were reasonably validated by comparing to both satellite and ground-based observations despite overestimation or underestimation occurring in specific regions due to high uncertainties of biomass burning emission. Chemical tracers of particulate K(+), OC concentrations, and OC/EC ratios showed distinct regional characteristics, suggesting biomass burning and local emission dominated the aerosol chemistry. CMAQ modeled aerosol chemical components were underestimated at most circumstances and the converted AOD values from CMAQ were biased low at about a factor of 2, probably due to the underestimation of biomass emissions. Scenario simulation indicated that the impact of biomass burning to the downwind regions spread over a large area via the Asian spring monsoon, which included Southern China, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait. Comparison of AERONET aerosol optical properties with simulation at multi-sites clearly demonstrated the biomass burning impact via longrange transport. In the source region, the contribution from biomass burning to AOD was estimated to be over 56%. While in the downwind regions, the contribution was still significant within the range of 26%-62%.

  6. Robins Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, G.P.; Keller, J.M.; Stucky, D.J.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Larson, L.L.

    1993-10-01

    The US Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Robins Air Force Base (AFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the AFMC Robins AFB facility located approximately 15 miles south of Macon, Georgia. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 13 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative-description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operation and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings to investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  7. Patrick Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, W.F.; Parker, S.A.; King, D.A.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Elliott, D.B.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-12-01

    The US Air Force has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost effective energy projects at Patrick Air Force Base (AFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at Patrick AFB which is located south of Cocoa Beach, Florida. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume.2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories. A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings, impacts on operations and maintenance, and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost analysis indicating the net present value and value index of each ERO.

  8. Integrated assessment of dispersed energy resources deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnay, Chris; Blanco, Raquel; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Kawaan, Cornelia P.; Osborn, Julie G.; Rubio, F. Javier

    2000-06-01

    The goal of this work is to create an integrated framework for forecasting the adoption of distributed energy resources (DER), both by electricity customers and by the various institutions within the industry itself, and for evaluating the effect of this adoption on the power system, particularly on the overall reliability and quality of electrical service to the end user. This effort and follow on contributions are intended to anticipate and explore possible patterns of DER deployment, thereby guiding technical work on microgrids towards the key technical problems. An early example of this process addressed is the question of possible DER adopting customer disconnection. A deployment scenario in which many customers disconnect from their distribution company (disco) entirely leads to a quite different set of technical problems than a scenario in which customers self generate a significant share or all of their on-site electricity requirements and additionally buy and sell energy and ancillary services (AS) locally and/or into wider markets. The exploratory work in this study suggests that the economics under which customers disconnect entirely are unlikely.

  9. 15 CFR 990.20 - Relationship to the CERCLA natural resource damage assessment regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Authorities § 990.20 Relationship to the CERCLA natural resource damage assessment regulations. (a) General. Regulations for assessing natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases under the...

  10. Biomass [updated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Biomass resources and conversion technologies are diverse. Substantial biomass resources exist including woody crops, herbaceous perennials and annuals, forest resources, agricultural residues, and algae. Conversion processes available include fermentation, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, combustion, and transesterification. Bioderived products include liquid fuels (e.g. ethanol, biodiesel, and gasoline and diesel substitutes), gases, electricity, biochemical, and wood pellets. At present the major sources of biomass-derived liquid fuels are from first generation biofuels; ethanol from maize and sugar cane (89 billion L in 2013) and biodiesel from vegetable oils and fats (24 billion liters in 2011). For other than traditional uses, policy in the forms of mandates, targets, subsidies, and greenhouse gas emission targets has largely been driving biomass utilization. Second generation biofuels have been slow to take off.

  11. Assessing forest resources in Denmark using wall-to-wall remote sensing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Johannes

    Forests act as a multifunctional, natural, renewable resource, and thus play an important role for many different stakeholders. They are not only providers of wood resources, but also fulfil functions such as providing a buffer from noise, habitat for fauna, contributing to air and water quality...... assessments, is lacking. In this thesis wall-to-wall remote sensing data (from aerial images, airborne LiDAR, and space-borne SAR) were combined with ground reference data (from NFI plots and tree species experiments) to build and evaluate models estimating properties such as basal area, timber volume......, biomass, and tree types in forests at a countrywide scale, i.e. in Denmark. In addition, LiDAR data and ecological modelling were coupled to model canopy throughfall, i.e. precipitation falling through gaps in canopies or dripping off tree crowns, an important factor in forest water flux cycles...

  12. Renewable energy resource and technology assessment: Southern Tier Central Region, New York, New York. Renewable Energy Resource Inventory; renewable energy technology handbook; technology assessment workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Resource Inventory contains regional maps that record the location of renewable energy resources such as insolation, wind, biomass, and hydropower in the Southern Tier Central Region of New York State. It contains an outline of a process by which communities can prepare local renewable energy resource inventories using maps and overlays. The process starts with the mapping of the resources at a regional scale and telescopes to an analysis of resources at a site-specific scale. The resource inventory presents a site analysis of Sullivan Street Industrial Park, Elmira, New York.

  13. Energy resources and technologies, today and tomorrow with emphasis on pellets from woody biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleveland, James

    2010-09-15

    There is a good case to be made for increased development of pellet and briquette production facilities in North America to alleviate our dependence on foreign oil, reduce carbon emissions and provide a continuously renewable energy source. Fuel from woody biomass, in the form of pellets and briquettes have the capability to provide the best near term solution to offsetting fossil fuels for power generation. Due to their transportability, existing transportation systems, and the vast amount of harvestable wood, this fuel will be a viable energy solution for future needs.

  14. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the technically accessible storage resources (TASR) for carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic formations underlying the onshore and State waters area of the United States. The formations assessed are at least 3,000 feet (914 meters) below the ground surface. The TASR is an estimate of the CO2 storage resource that may be available for CO2 injection and storage that is based on present-day geologic and hydrologic knowledge of the subsurface and current engineering practices. Individual storage assessment units (SAUs) for 36 basins were defined on the basis of geologic and hydrologic characteristics outlined in the assessment methodology of Brennan and others (2010, USGS Open-File Report 2010–1127) and the subsequent methodology modification and implementation documentation of Blondes, Brennan, and others (2013, USGS Open-File Report 2013–1055). The mean national TASR is approximately 3,000 metric gigatons (Gt). The estimate of the TASR includes buoyant trapping storage resources (BSR), where CO2 can be trapped in structural or stratigraphic closures, and residual trapping storage resources, where CO2 can be held in place by capillary pore pressures in areas outside of buoyant traps. The mean total national BSR is 44 Gt. The residual storage resource consists of three injectivity classes based on reservoir permeability: residual trapping class 1 storage resource (R1SR) represents storage in rocks with permeability greater than 1 darcy (D); residual trapping class 2 storage resource (R2SR) represents storage in rocks with moderate permeability, defined as permeability between 1 millidarcy (mD) and 1 D; and residual trapping class 3 storage resource (R3SR) represents storage in rocks with low permeability, defined as permeability less than 1 mD. The mean national storage resources for rocks in residual trapping classes 1, 2, and 3 are 140 Gt, 2,700 Gt, and 130 Gt, respectively. The known recovery

  15. Optimization of low energy sonication treatment for granular activated carbon colonizing biomass assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccani, G; Bernasconi, M; Antonelli, M

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed at optimizing a low energy sonication (LES) treatment for granular activated carbon (GAC)-colonizing biomass detachment and determination, evaluating detachment efficiency and the effects of ultrasound exposure on bacterial cell viability. GAC samples were collected from two filters fed with groundwater. Conventional heterotrophic plate count (HPC) and fluorescence microscopy with a double staining method were used to evaluate cell viability, comparing two LES procedures, without and with periodical bulk substitution. A 20 min LES treatment, with bulk substitution after cycles of 5 min as maximum treatment time, allowed to recover 87%/100% of attached biomass, protecting detached bacteria from ultrasound damaging effects. Observed viable cell inactivation rate was 6.5/7.9% cell/min, with membrane-compromised cell damage appearing to be even higher (11.5%/13.1% cell/min). Assessing bacterial detachment and damaging ultrasound effects, fluorescence microscopy turned out to be more sensitive compared to conventional HPC. The optimized method revealed a GAC-colonizing biomass of 9.9 x 10(7) cell/gGAC for plant 1 and 8.8 x 10(7) cell/gGAC for plant 2, 2 log lower than reported in literature. The difference between the two GAC-colonizing biomasses is higher in terms of viable cells (46.3% of total cells in plant 1 GAC-colonizing biomass compared to the 33.3% in plant 2). Studying influent water contamination through multivariate statistical analyses, apossible combined toxic and genotoxic effect of chromium VI and trichloroethylene was suggested as a reason for the lower viable cell fraction observed in plant 2 GAC-colonizing population.

  16. Preliminary results of Aruba wind resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guda, M.H. [Fundashon Antiyano Pa Energia, Curacao (Netherlands Antilles)

    1996-12-31

    As part of a project to assess the possibilities for wind energy utilitization in the Dutch Antilles islands, windspeed and -direction data were collected in Aruba for two years, from March 1992 to February 1994. Five sites that were estimated to be representative for the islands` wind regimes, were monitored during this period: two sites on the windward coast, one east and one west; two inland sites, again one east and one west, and one site topping the cliffs overlooking the eastern windward coast. Additionally, twenty years worth of data were analyzed for the reference site at the airport, which is in the middle part of the island, on the leeward coast. Correlation calculations between these data and the data for the project sites were performed, in order to establish a methodology for estimating the long-term behavior of the wind regimes at these sites. 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Wind resource assessment: A three year experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Abbadi, N.M.; Alawaji, S.H.; Eugenio, N.N. [Energy Research Institute (ERI), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the results of data collected from three different sites located in the central, northern and eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Each site is geographically and climatologically different from the others. Statistical moments and frequency distributions were generated for the wind speed and direction parameters to analyse the wind energy characteristics and its availability. The results of these statistical operations present the wind power and energy density estimates of the three sites. The data analysis presented a prospect of wind energy conversion and utilization. The annual extractable energy density is 488, 890, 599 kWh/m{sup 2} for the central, northern and eastern sites respectively. Also, the paper demonstrates the lessons learned from operating wind assessment stations installed in remote areas having different environmental characteristics.

  18. Hawaii energy strategy project 3: Renewable energy resource assessment and development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    RLA Consulting (RLA) has been retained by the State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT) to conduct a Renewable Energy Resource Assessment and Development Program. This three-phase program is part of the Hawaii Energy Strategy (HES), which is a multi-faceted program intended to produce an integrated energy strategy for the State of Hawaii. The purpose of Phase 1 of the project, Development of a Renewable Energy Resource Assessment Plan, is to better define the most promising potential renewable energy projects and to establish the most suitable locations for project development in the state. In order to accomplish this goal, RLA has identified constraints and requirements for renewable energy projects from six different renewable energy resources: wind, solar, biomass, hydro, wave, and ocean thermal. These criteria were applied to areas with sufficient resource for commercial development and the results of Phase 1 are lists of projects with the most promising development potential for each of the technologies under consideration. Consideration of geothermal energy was added to this investigation under a separate contract with DBEDT. In addition to the project lists, a monitoring plan was developed with recommended locations and a data collection methodology for obtaining additional wind and solar data. This report summarizes the results of Phase 1. 11 figs., 22 tabs.

  19. Some Suggested Future Directions of Quantitative Resource Assessments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Future quantitative assessments will be expected to estimate quantities, values, and locations of undiscovered mineral resources in a form that conveys both economic viability and uncertainty associated with the resources. Historically, declining metal prices point to the need for larger deposits over time. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the greatest opportunity for reducing uncertainty in assessments lies in lowering uncertainty associated with tonnage estimates. Of all errors possible in assessments, those affecting tonnage estimates are by far the most important. Selecting the correct deposit model is the most important way of controlling errors because of the dominance of tonnage-deposit models are the best known predictors of tonnage. Much of the surface is covered with apparently barren rocks and sediments in many large regions. Because many exposed mineral deposits are believed to have been found, a prime concern is the presence of possible mineralized rock under cover. Assessments of areas with resources under cover must rely on extrapolation from surrounding areas, new geologic maps of rocks under cover, or analogy with other well-explored areas that can be considered training tracts. Cover has a profound effect on uncertainty and on methods and procedures of assessments because geology is seldom known and geophysical methods typically have attenuated responses. Many earlier assessment methods were based on relationships of geochemical and geophysical variables to deposits learned from deposits exposed on the surface—these will need to be relearned based on covered deposits. Mineral-deposit models are important in quantitative resource assessments for two reasons: (1) grades and tonnages of most deposit types are significantly different, and (2) deposit types are present in different geologic settings that can be identified from geologic maps. Mineral-deposit models are the keystone in combining the diverse geoscience information on geology

  20. Field biomass as energy resource for the future; Peltobiomassat tulevaisuuden energiaresurssina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahkala, K.; Loetjoenen, T. (eds.)

    2012-11-01

    Bioenergy can be derived from biomasses especially produced for bioenergy or from by-products, side streams and waste from wood processing industry, agriculture and forestry, or e.g. municipal waste. In the Nordic countries and Russia forests are a natural source of bioenergy. In many other European countries forests may be too scarce for bioenergy use. Therefore field biomasses form an interesting potential source for bioenergy. Production of field biomasses for non-food purposes has been criticized, especially as there is not enough food for everyone even at present, and in the future more food has to be produced as the world population increases. We studied the field biomass potential in different European countries with different scenarios for development. 'Good development' scenario includes improvements in plant breeding and food production and processing technologies, with increasing yields and decreasing waste of food products and raw materials. 'Bad development' scenario assumes stagnating yields and little improvement in technologies in the OECD countries, and only small improvements in former Soviet Union countries. The foci of the present research were the effects of development of food production, population growth and climate change on regional potential of field biomasses for bioenergy and sustainable use of crop residues and grasses for bioenergy. The field area that could be allocated to energy crops after growing enough food for the citizens of each country depends mostly on the diet. Growing food for vegetarian diet would occupy so little field area that every country under study could set aside at least half of their field area for bioenergy purposes already at present, if the 'good development' scenario was applied. With 'bad development' scenario some of the countries would be unable to set aside fields for bioenergy production even with vegetarian diet. With affluent diet there would be little field

  1. A Review of Mineral Resources and GIS Applications in Mineral Resource Assessment in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yunxuan; Wang Lei; Liu Wansong; Xu Huiping; Sun Fengyue

    2000-01-01

    Northeast China is one of the regions in China that possesses a great abundance of mineral resources.Coal, petroleum, natural gas, gold, iron, magnesite, graphite, talc, molding sand, glass sand and some others account for large portion in reserves and yields of that in the whole country. The region faced also shortages of copper, molybdenum, oil shale, zirconium, tantalum, rare earth, and beryllium, although they have large reserves,but limited by economical and technical factors. Geological mapping and mineral exploration activities have been intensive. Only the north part of Daxinanling Mountains in the region leaves unexplored. GIS applications in mineral resource assessment in the region start not long. Databases for GIS applications are on the way of construction.Well - trained technical staff and expertise do not meet the demand.This article reviews the situation of mineral resources and GIS applications for mineral resource assessment in the region. Suggestions on multi - lateral cooperation and GIS training are also made.

  2. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, W.F.; Eichman, C.J.; King, D.A.; McMordie, K.L.; Parker, S.A.; Shankle, S.A.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1994-03-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS). Projects considered can be either in the form of energy management or energy conservation. The overall efforts of this task are based on a model program PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at Cape Canaveral AFS, which is located approximately 10 miles north of Cocoa Beach, Florida. It is a companion report to Volume 1: Executive Summary and Volume 2: Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings, impacts on operations and maintenance (O&M), and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. Descriptions of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions are also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost- effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis, indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  3. Miscanthus as energy crop: Environmental assessment of a miscanthus biomass production case study in France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morandi, Fabiana; Perrin, A.; Østergård, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    assessment of different logistic (harvesting) strategies for miscanthus production in the Bourgogne region is presented. Emergy assessment is a particular methodology suited to quantify the resource use of a process and to estimate the percentage of renewability of products or services. The case study...

  4. Porphyry copper assessment of eastern Australia: Chapter L in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Len, Richard A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Zientek, Michael L.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Jaireth, Subhash; Cossette, Pamela M.; Wallis, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts national and global assessments of resources (mineral, energy, water, and biologic) to provide science in support of decision making. Mineral resource assessments provide syntheses of available information about where mineral deposits are known and suspected to occur in the Earth’s crust and which commodities may be present, together with estimates of amounts of resources that may be present in undiscovered deposits. The USGS collaborated with geologists of the Geological Survey of New South Wales and Geoscience Australia (formerly the Australian Geological Survey Organisation) on an assessment of Phanerozoic-age porphyry copper resources in Australia. Porphyry copper deposits contain about 11 percent of the identified copper resources in Australia. This study addresses resources of known porphyry copper deposits and expected resources of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in eastern Australia.

  5. Biomass, Leaf Area, and Resource Availability of Kudzu Dominated Plant Communities Following Herbicide Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.T. Rader

    2001-10-01

    Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens the forests of the southern U.S. Five herbicides were tested with regard to their efficacy in controlling kudzu, community recover was monitored, and interactions with planted pines were studied. The sites selected were old farm sites dominated by kudzu.These were burned following herbicide treatment. The herbicides included triclopyr, clopyralid, metsulfuron, tebuthiuron, and picloram plus 2,4-D. Pine seedlings were planted the following year. Regression equations were developed for predicting biomass and leaf area. Four distinct plant communities resulted from the treatments. The untreated check continued to be kudzu dominated. Blackberry dominated the clopyradid treatment. Metsulfron, trychlopyr and picloram treated sites resulted in herbaceous dominated communities. The tebuthiuron treatment maintained all vegetation low.

  6. Risk assessment activities at NIOSH: Information resources and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stayner, L.T.; Meinhardt, T.; Hardin, B. [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Under the Occupational Safety and Health, and Mine Safety and Health Acts, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is charged with development of recommended occupational safety and health standards, and with conducting research to support the development of these standards. Thus, NIOSH has been actively involved in the analysis of risk associated with occupational exposures, and in the development of research information that is critical for the risk assessment process. NIOSH research programs and other information resources relevant to the risk assessment process are described in this paper. Future needs for information resources are also discussed.

  7. Washington State biomass data book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    This is the first edition of the Washington State Biomass Databook. It assess sources and approximate costs of biomass fuels, presents a view of current users, identifies potential users in the public and private sectors, and lists prices of competing energy resources. The summary describes key from data from the categories listed above. Part 1, Biomass Supply, presents data increasing levels of detail on agricultural residues, biogas, municipal solid waste, and wood waste. Part 2, Current Industrial and Commercial Use, demonstrates how biomass is successfully being used in existing facilities as an alternative fuel source. Part 3, Potential Demand, describes potential energy-intensive public and private sector facilities. Part 4, Prices of Competing Energy Resources, shows current suppliers of electricity and natural gas and compares utility company rates. 49 refs., 43 figs., 72 tabs.

  8. Fuzzy Multi-actor Multi-criteria Decision Making for Sustainability Assessment of biomass-based technologies for hydrogen production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Fedele, Andrea; Mason, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a sustainability assessment method to rank the prior sequence of biomass-based technologies for hydrogen production. A novel fuzzy Multi-actor Multi-criteria Decision Making method which allows multiple groups of decision-makers to use linguistic variables...... to assess the biomass-based technologies for hydrogen production has been developed. Fifteen criteria relevant to in economic, environmental, technological and social-political aspects have been used in sustainability assessment. Four biomass-based technologies including pyrolysis, conventional gasification......, supercritical water gasification and fermentative hydrogen production have been studied by the proposed method, and biomass gasification has been considered as the most sustainable scenario and can be chosen for further development....

  9. [Applications of GIS in biomass energy source research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xian-Ming; Wang, Wu-Kui; Li, Yi-Wei; Sun, Wen-Xiang; Shi, Hai; Zhang, Da-Hong

    2010-03-01

    Biomass resources have the characteristics of widespread and dispersed distribution, which have close relations to the environment, climate, soil, and land use, etc. Geographic information system (GIS) has the functions of spatial analysis and the flexibility of integrating with other application models and algorithms, being of predominance to the biomass energy source research. This paper summarized the researches on the GIS applications in biomass energy source research, with the focus in the feasibility study of bioenergy development, assessment of biomass resources amount and distribution, layout of biomass exploitation and utilization, evaluation of gaseous emission from biomass burning, and biomass energy information system. Three perspectives of GIS applications in biomass energy source research were proposed, i. e., to enrich the data source, to improve the capacity on data processing and decision-support, and to generate the online proposal.

  10. The US Geological Survey's national coal resource assessment: The results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, L.F.; Kirschbaum, M.A.; Warwick, P.D.; Flores, R.M.; Affolter, R.H.; Hatch, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    The US Geological Survey and the State geological surveys of many coal-bearing States recently completed a new assessment of the top producing coal beds and coal zones in five major producing coal regions the Appalachian Basin, Gulf Coast, Illinois Basin, Colorado Plateau, and Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains. The assessments, which focused on both coal quality and quantity, utilized geographic information system technology and large databases. Over 1,600,000 million short tons of coal remain in over 60 coal beds and coal zones that were assessed. Given current economic, environmental, and technological restrictions, the majority of US coal production will occur in that portion of the assessed coal resource that is lowest in sulfur content. These resources are concentrated in parts of the central Appalachian Basin, Colorado Plateau, and the Northern Rocky Mountains. ?? Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Topical report on sources and systems for aquatic plant biomass as an energy resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, J.C.; Ryther, J.H.; Waaland, R.; Wilson, E.H.

    1977-10-21

    Background information is documented on the mass cultivation of aquatic plants and systems design that is available from the literature and through consultation with active research scientists and engineers. The biology of microalgae, macroalgae, and aquatic angiosperms is discussed in terms of morphology, life history, mode of existence, and ecological significance, as they relate to cultivation. The requirements for growth of these plants, which are outlined in the test, suggest that productivity rates are dependent primarily on the availability of light and nutrients. It is concluded that the systems should be run with an excess of nutrients and with light as the limiting factor. A historical review of the mass cultivation of aquatic plants describes the techniques used in commercial large-scale operations throughout the world and recent small-scale research efforts. This review presents information on the biomass yields that have been attained to date in various geographical locations with different plant species and culture conditions, emphasizing the contrast between high yields in small-scale operations and lower yields in large-scale operations.

  12. Environmental impact of biomass based polygeneration - A case study through life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Kuntal; De, Sudipta

    2017-03-01

    Multi-generation or polygeneration is considered to be a potential sustainable energy solution. To assess environmental sustainability of multi-generation, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a useful tool. In this paper, environmental impact of polygeneration using an agro waste (rice straw) is assessed by LCA. Then it is compared with stand alone conventional plants with same utility outputs. Power, ethanol, heating and cooling are utility outputs of the polygeneration plant. System boundary for this polygeneration is defined for surplus biomass only. Exergy based allocation method is used for this analysis. Results of LCA are shown through both mid-point and end-point indicators. Results indicate that polygeneration with surplus rice straw is more environment-friendly than conventional stand-alone generation of same utilities.

  13. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1992-12-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

  14. The Gas Resources Assessment Expert System of the Songliao Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The gas resources assessment expert system is one of the advanced methods for appraising oil and gas resources. The establishment of a knowledge base is the focal task in developing the expert system. This paper presents a summary of the mechanism and the major controlling factors in the formation of gas pools in the southeast uplift of the Songliao basin. Then an appropriate assessment model is established for trapping the gas resources and a knowledge base built in the expert system to realize the model. By using the expert system to appraise the gas-bearing probability of 25 major traps of the Quantou and Denglouku Formations in the Shiwu-Dehui area, the authors have proved that the expert system is suitable for appraising traps in the Songliao basin and similar basins.

  15. Techno-economic assessment of a solar PV, fuel cell, and biomass gasifier hybrid energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Singh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The interest of power is expanding step by step all through the world. Because of constrained measure of fossil fuel, it is vital to outline some new non-renewable energy frameworks that can diminish the reliance on ordinary energy asset. A hybrid off-grid renewable energy framework might be utilized to reduction reliance on the traditional energy assets. Advancement of crossover framework is a procedure to choose the best mix of part and there cost that can give shabby, solid and successful option energy resource. In this paper sun oriented photovoltaic, fuel cell, biomass gasifier generator set, battery backup and power conditioning unit have been simulated and optimized for educational institute, energy centre, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. The area of the study range on the guide situated of 23°12′N latitude and 77°24′E longitude. In this framework, the essential wellspring of power is sun based solar photovoltaic system and biomass gasifier generator set while fuel cell and batteries are utilized as reinforcement supply. HOMER simulator has been utilized to recreate off the grid and it checks the specialized and financial criteria of this hybrid energy system. The execution of every segment of this framework is dissected lastly delicate examination has been performing to enhance the mixture framework at various conditions. In view of the recreation result, it is found that the cost of energy (COE of a biomass gasifier generator set, solar PV and fuel cell crossover energy system has been found to be 15.064 Rs/kWh and complete net present cost Rs.51,89003. The abundance power in the proposed framework is observed to be 36 kWh/year with zero rates unmet electrical burden.

  16. Information resource use and need in risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turturro, A. [National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The manner in which the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) uses information resources comprises an interesting illustration of federal agency information use. A description of the context in which risk assessment occurs within the FDA is followed by a discussion of information access and use, as well as a practical example.

  17. Satellite based wind resource assessment over the South China Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Astrup, Poul; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2014-01-01

    modeling to develop procedures and best practices for satellite based wind resource assessment offshore. All existing satellite images from the Envisat Advanced SAR sensor by the European Space Agency (2002-12) have been collected over a domain in the South China Sea. Wind speed is first retrieved from...

  18. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an evaluation of the technically accessible storage resource (TASR) for carbon dioxide (CO2) for 36 sedimentary basins in the onshore areas and State waters of the United States. The TASR is an estimate of the geologic storage resource that may be available for CO2 injection and storage and is based on current geologic and hydrologic knowledge of the subsurface and current engineering practices. By using a geology-based probabilistic assessment methodology, the USGS assessment team members obtained a mean estimate of approximately 3,000 metric gigatons (Gt) of subsurface CO2 storage capacity that is technically accessible below onshore areas and State waters; this amount is more than 500 times the 2011 annual U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions of 5.5 Gt (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2012, http://www.eia.gov/environment/emissions/carbon/). In 2007, the Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110–140) directed the U.S. Geological Survey to conduct a national assessment of geologic storage resources for CO2 in consultation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Energy, and State geological surveys. The USGS developed a methodology to estimate storage resource potential in geologic formations in the United States (Burruss and others, 2009, USGS Open-File Report (OFR) 2009–1035; Brennan and others, 2010, USGS OFR 2010–1127; Blondes, Brennan, and others, 2013, USGS OFR 2013–1055). In 2012, the USGS completed the assessment, and the results are summarized in this Fact Sheet and are provided in more detail in companion reports (U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources Assessment Team, 2013a,b; see related reports at right). The goal of this project was to conduct an initial assessment of storage capacity on a regional basis, and results are not intended for use in the evaluation of specific sites for potential CO2 storage. The national

  19. Assessment of cultivation factors that affect biomass and geraniol production in transgenic tobacco cell suspension cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Vasilev

    Full Text Available A large-scale statistical experimental design was used to determine essential cultivation parameters that affect biomass accumulation and geraniol production in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN cell suspension cultures. The carbohydrate source played a major role in determining the geraniol yield and factors such as filling volume, inoculum size and light were less important. Sucrose, filling volume and inoculum size had a positive effect on geraniol yield by boosting growth of plant cell cultures whereas illumination of the cultures stimulated the geraniol biosynthesis. We also found that the carbohydrates sucrose and mannitol showed polarizing effects on biomass and geraniol accumulation. Factors such as shaking frequency, the presence of conditioned medium and solubilizers had minor influence on both plant cell growth and geraniol content. When cells were cultivated under the screened conditions for all the investigated factors, the cultures produced ∼ 5.2 mg/l geraniol after 12 days of cultivation in shaking flasks which is comparable to the yield obtained in microbial expression systems. Our data suggest that industrial experimental designs based on orthogonal arrays are suitable for the selection of initial cultivation parameters prior to the essential medium optimization steps. Such designs are particularly beneficial in the early optimization steps when many factors must be screened, increasing the statistical power of the experiments without increasing the demand on time and resources.

  20. Carbon mitigation with biomass: An engineering, economic and policy assessment of opportunities and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, James S., III

    2007-12-01

    C"), equivalent to roughly 3% of U.S. GHG emissions. In the medium or longer term, integration of carbon capture and storage technologies with advanced bio-energy conversion technologies ("biomass-CCS"), in both liquid fuels production and electric sector applications, will likely be feasible. These systems are capable of generating useful energy products with negative net atmospheric carbon emissions at carbon prices between 100 and 200 per tC. Negative emissions from biomass-CCS could be applied to offset emissions sources that are difficult or expensive to abate directly. Such indirect mitigation may prove cost competitive and provide important flexibility in achieving stabilization of atmospheric GHG concentrations at desirable levels. With increasing deployments, alternate bio-energy systems will eventually compete for limited biomass resources and inputs to agricultural production--particularly land. In this context, resource allocation decisions will likely turn on the relative economic performance of alternate bio-energy systems in their respective energy markets. The relatively large uncertainty in forecasts of energy futures confounds reliable prediction of economically efficient uses for available biomass resources. High oil prices or large valuation of energy security benefits will likely enable bio-fuels production to dominate electric-sector options. In contrast, low oil prices and low valuation of energy security benefits will likely enable electric-sector applications to dominate. In the latter scenario, indirect mitigation of transportation-sector emissions via emissions offsets from electric-sector biomass-CCS could prove more efficient than direct fuel substitution with biofuels, both economically and in terms of the transportation-sector mitigation of available biomass resources [tC tbiomass-1]. The policy environment surrounding industrial bio-energy development is systematically examined. Specifically, the policy objectives that may be advanced with bio

  1. Assessment of fire emission inventories during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gabriel; Siqueira, Ricardo; Rosário, Nilton E.; Longo, Karla L.; Freitas, Saulo R.; Cardozo, Francielle S.; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Wooster, Martin J.

    2016-06-01

    Fires associated with land use and land cover changes release large amounts of aerosols and trace gases into the atmosphere. Although several inventories of biomass burning emissions cover Brazil, there are still considerable uncertainties and differences among them. While most fire emission inventories utilize the parameters of burned area, vegetation fuel load, emission factors, and other parameters to estimate the biomass burned and its associated emissions, several more recent inventories apply an alternative method based on fire radiative power (FRP) observations to estimate the amount of biomass burned and the corresponding emissions of trace gases and aerosols. The Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model (3BEM) and the Fire Inventory from NCAR (FINN) are examples of the first, while the Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model with FRP assimilation (3BEM_FRP) and the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) are examples of the latter. These four biomass burning emission inventories were used during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field campaign. This paper analyzes and inter-compared them, focusing on eight regions in Brazil and the time period of 1 September-31 October 2012. Aerosol optical thickness (AOT550 nm) derived from measurements made by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) operating on board the Terra and Aqua satellites is also applied to assess the inventories' consistency. The daily area-averaged pyrogenic carbon monoxide (CO) emission estimates exhibit significant linear correlations (r, p > 0.05 level, Student t test) between 3BEM and FINN and between 3BEM_ FRP and GFAS, with values of 0.86 and 0.85, respectively. These results indicate that emission estimates in this region derived via similar methods tend to agree with one other. However, they differ more from the estimates derived via the alternative approach. The evaluation of MODIS AOT550 nm indicates that model simulation driven by 3BEM and FINN

  2. Selenium uptake and assessment of the biochemical changes in Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis biomass during the synthesis of selenium nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinicovscaia, I; Chiriac, T; Cepoi, L; Rudi, L; Culicov, O; Frontasyeva, M; Rudic, V

    2017-01-01

    The process of selenium uptake by biomass of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis was investigated by neutron activation analysis at different selenium concentrations in solution and at different contact times. Experimental data showed good fit with the Freundlich adsorption isotherm model, with a regression coefficient value of 0.99. In terms of absorption dependence on time, the maximal selenium content was adsorbed in the first 5 min of interaction without significant further changes. It was also found that A. platensis biomass forms spherical selenium nanoparticles. Biochemical analysis was used to assess the changes in the main components of spirulina biomass (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and phycobilin) during nanoparticle formation.

  3. Final Technical Report: Renewable Energy Feasibility Study and Resources Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, Mariah [BEC Environmental, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-02-28

    In March 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded White Pine County, Nevada, a grant to assess the feasibility of renewable resource-related economic development activities in the area. The grant project included a public outreach and training component and was to include a demonstration project; however, the demonstration project was not completed due to lack of identification of an entity willing to locate a project in White Pine County. White Pine County completed the assessment of renewable resources and a feasibility study on the potential for a renewable energy-focused economic sector within the County. The feasibility study concluded "all resources studied were present and in sufficient quantity and quality to warrant consideration for development" and there were varying degrees of potential economic impact based on the resource type and project size. The feasibility study and its components were to be used as tools to attract potential developers and other business ventures to the local market. White Pine County also marketed the County’s resources to the renewable energy business community in an effort to develop contracts for demonstration projects. The County also worked to develop partnerships with local educational institutions, including the White Pine County School District, conducted outreach and training for the local community.

  4. Low-temperature resource assessment program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J. [Oregon Inst. of Tech., Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center; Ross, H. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Earth Sciences and Resources Inst.

    1996-02-01

    The US Department of Energy - Geothermal Division (DOE/GD) recently sponsored the Low-Temperature Resource Assessment project to update the inventory of the nation`s low- and moderate-temperature geothermal resources and to encourage development of these resources. A database of 8,977 thermal wells and springs that are in the temperature range of 20{degrees}C to 150{degrees}C has been compiled for ten western states, an impressive increase of 82% compared to the previous assessments. The database includes location, descriptive data, physical parameters, water chemistry and references for sources of data. Computer-generated maps are also available for each state. State Teams have identified 48 high-priority areas for near-term comprehensive resource studies and development. Resources with temperatures greater than 50{degrees}C located within 8 km of a population center were identified for 271 collocated cities. Geothermal energy cost evaluation software has been developed to quickly identify the cost of geothermally supplied heat to these areas in a fashion similar to that used for conventionally fueled heat sources.

  5. Final Report Low-temperature Resource Assessment Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J. [Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR (US); Ross, H. [Earth Sciences and Resources Institute, University of Utah

    1996-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy - Geothermal Division (DOE/GD) recently sponsored the Low-Temperature Resource Assessment project to update the inventory of the nation's low- and moderate-temperature geothermal resources and to encourage development of these resources. A database of 8,977 thermal wells and springs that are in the temperature range of 20 degrees Celsius to 150 degrees Celsius has been compiled for ten western states, an impressive increase of 82% compared to the previous assessments. The database includes location, descriptive data, physical parameters, water chemistry and references for sources of data. Computer-generated maps are also available for each state. State Teams have identified 48 high-priority areas for near-term comprehensive resource studies and development. Resources with temperatures greater than 50 degrees Celsius located within 8 km of a population center were identified for 271 collocated cities. Geothermal energy costevaluation software has been developed to quickly identify the cost of geothermally supplied heat to these areas in a fashion similar to that used for conventionally fueled heat sources.

  6. Spatial database for a global assessment of undiscovered copper resources: Chapter Z in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicken, Connie L.; Dunlap, Pamela; Parks, Heather L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Kathleen M.

    2016-07-13

    As part of the first-ever U.S. Geological Survey global assessment of undiscovered copper resources, data common to several regional spatial databases published by the U.S. Geological Survey, including one report from Finland and one from Greenland, were standardized, updated, and compiled into a global copper resource database. This integrated collection of spatial databases provides location, geologic and mineral resource data, and source references for deposits, significant prospects, and areas permissive for undiscovered deposits of both porphyry copper and sediment-hosted copper. The copper resource database allows for efficient modeling on a global scale in a geographic information system (GIS) and is provided in an Esri ArcGIS file geodatabase format.

  7. Soil resources and climate jointly drive variations in microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in China's forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. H. Zhou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbial metabolism plays a key role in regulating the biogeochemical cycle of forest ecosystems, but the mechanisms driving microbial growth are not well understood. Here, we synthesized 689 measurements on soil microbial biomass carbon (Cmic and nitrogen (Nmic and related parameters from 207 independent studies published during the past 15 years across China's forest ecosystems. Our objectives were to (1 examine patterns in Cmic, Nmic, and microbial quotient (i.e., Cmic / Csoil and Nmic / Nsoil rates by climate zones and management regimes for these forests; and (2 identify the factors driving the variability in the Cmic, Nmic, and microbial quotient. There was a large variability in Cmic (390.2 mg kg−1, Nmic (60.1 mg kg−1, Cmic : Nmic ratio (8.25, Cmic / Csoil rate (1.92 %, and Nmic / Nsoil rate (3.43 % across China's forests, with coefficients of variation varying from 61.2 to 95.6 %. The natural forests had significantly greater Cmic and Nmic than the planted forests, but had less Cmic : Nmic ratio and Cmic / Csoil rate. Soil resources and climate together explained 24.4–40.7 % of these variations. The Cmic : Nmic ratio declined slightly with the Csoil : Nsoil ratio, and changed with latitude, mean annual temperature and precipitation, suggesting a plastic homeostasis of microbial carbon-nitrogen stoichiometry. The Cmic / Csoil and Nmic / Nsoil rates were responsive to soil resources and climate differently, suggesting that soil microbial assimilation of carbon and nitrogen be regulated by different mechanisms. We conclude that soil resources and climate jointly drive microbial growth and metabolism, and also emphasize the necessity of appropriate procedures for data compilation and standardization in cross-study syntheses.

  8. TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT IN ENGINEERING PRACTICE. THE CASE OF BIOLIQ® – FUEL PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin GRUNWALD

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes a brief overview of the basic motivations and objectives of TA, followed by a description of the three main operating fields of TA: providing scientific advice for decision‐making in the political system, contributing to public debate, and enriching technology development and engineering practice. These issues will then be considered in more detail by referring to various approaches to the relationship between TA and technology development and by presenting a specific case study of an accompanying TA process over various development stages of the bioliq® process for converting dry biomass into fuel (Biomass to Liquid and chemicals. The accompanying TA work on the bioliq® process can, as a result of more than ten years of experience, be considered a successful technology assessment as it has opened up a new research field with a highly precautionary aspect on the one hand, and helped to win over technology‐oriented research institutes to reorienting their research work, on the other. The results of the TA studies allowed to assess e.g. the competitiveness of the bioliq® process at a very early stage. The mutual trust built up in the course of the historical development between the parties involved has always been essential for this ongoing accompanying TA process. TA has been proven, in this way, a useful tool to uncover new chances for engineering research and development, and to accompany the research process.

  9. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF ARUNDO DONAX BIOMASS PRODUCTION IN A MEDITERRANEAN EXPERIMENTAL FIELD USING TREATED WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Arcidiacono

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA of the Arundo donax production process for energy purpose is proposed. The cultivation of this type of herbaceous biomass, irrigated with urban wastewater, was carried out in an experimental field, sited in eastern Sicily (Italy. The analysis by LCA makes it possible, among other things, to evaluate the potential environmental impacts related to each phase of the process. In this study a sensitivity analysis of the LCA results were carried out by varying the process stages. Furthermore the incidence of each process stage on the damage categories by varying the cultivation- cycle length was evaluated. The stages constituting the Arundo donax production process, considered in this assessment, regard seedling production, agronomic practices, irrigation, and transport to boiler. The functional unit used in the analyses was 1 ton of biomass and crop productivity values were derived from literature. The analyses allowed to identify the most significant stages of the Arundo donax production process related to the experimental field. In detail, this study highlights that seedling production and irrigation stages contributed most of all to the overall environmental burden, whereas agronomic practices stage showed a minor influence on the process.

  10. Water resources assessment issues and isotope hydrology application in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘恒; 陈明忠

    2001-01-01

    As one of the largest countries in the world, China has a highest population and great potential in water resources and land. Water is a key issue for sustainable development in the fu-rure, because the average water and land availability per-capita is much lower than the world averages. Water resources assessment plays a very important role. However, certain problems could not be solved due to lack of hydrological data, such as groundwater in arid and semi-arid zones. Environment isotope technologies have been applied and show promise of wide application.

  11. The USGS national geothermal resource assessment: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.F.; Reed, M.J.; Galanis, S.P.; DeAngelo, J.

    2007-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) is working with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Program and other geothermal organizations on a three-year effort to produce an updated assessment of available geothermal resources. The new assessment will introduce significant changes in the models for geothermal energy recovery factors, estimates of reservoir volumes, and limits to temperatures and depths for electric power production. It will also include the potential impact of evolving Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) technology. An important focus in the assessment project is on the development of geothermal resource models consistent with the production histories and observed characteristics of exploited geothermal fields. New models for the recovery of heat from heterogeneous, fractured reservoirs provide a physically realistic basis for evaluating the production potential of both natural geothermal reservoirs and reservoirs that may be created through the application of EGS technology. Project investigators have also made substantial progress studying geothermal systems and the factors responsible for their formation through studies in the Great Basin-Modoc Plateau region, Coso, Long Valley, the Imperial Valley and central Alaska, Project personnel are also entering the supporting data and resulting analyses into geospatial databases that will be produced as part of the resource assessment.

  12. Introduction to the Biomass Project: An Illustration of Evidence-Centered Assessment Design and Delivery Capability. CSE Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Linda S.; Mislevy, Robert J.; Almond, Russell G.; Baird, Andrew B.; Cahallan, Cara; Dibello, Louis V.; Senturk, Deniz; Yan, Duanli; Chernick, Howard; Kindfield, Ann C. H.

    This paper describes the design rationale for a prototype of an innovative assessment product, and the process that led to the design. The goals of the Biomass project were to demonstrate: (1) an assessment product designed to serve two new purposes in the transition from high school to college; and (2) the capability needed to produce this kind…

  13. An economic assessment of the use of short-rotation coppice woody biomass to heat greenhouses in southern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenney, Daniel W.; Yemshanov, Denys; Fraleigh, Saul; Allen, Darren; Preto, Fernando [Natural Resources (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    This study explores the economic feasibility of fossil fuel substitution with biomass from short-rotation willow plantations as an option for greenhouse heating in southern Ontario, Canada. We assess the net displacement value of fossil fuel biomass combustion systems with an integrated purpose-grown biomass production enterprise. Key project parameters include greenhouse size, heating requirements, boiler capital costs and biomass establishment and management costs. Several metrics have been used to examine feasibility including net present value, internal rate of return, payback period, and the minimum or break-even prices for natural gas and heating oil for which the biomass substitution operations become financially attractive. Depending on certain key assumptions, internal rates of return ranged from 11-14% for displacing heating oil to 0-4% for displacing natural gas with woody biomass. The biomass heating projects have payback periods of 10 to >22 years for substituting heating oil and 18 to >22 years for replacing a natural gas. Sensitivity analyses indicate that fossil fuel price and efficiency of the boiler heating system are critical elements in the analyses and research on methods to improve growth and yield and reduce silviculture costs could have a large beneficial impact on the feasibility of this type of bioenergy enterprise. (author)

  14. Comparative assessment of utilization means of plant inedible biomass in the soil-like substrate concerning bioregenerative LSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Velichko, Vladimir; Ushakova, Sofya; Trifonov, Sergey V.

    Researches carried out at the Institute of Biophysics SB RAS (Russia) have shown that the soil-like substrate (SLS) was the promising biological substrate for inclusion of plant inedible biomass into matter turnover. Still, mineralization rate of plant residues introduced into the SLS strongly depends upon the character of its preliminary preparation and the plant species. So the given work is aimed at a comparative assessment of different approaches to utilization of plant inedible biomass in the SLS when growing plants on it. Efficiency criteria of plant wastes utilization in the SLS was the productivity of the plants grown on it. Radish was the test object. The wheat and radish inedible biomass was introduced into the SLS. The biomass amount of wheat straw inserted was equal on nitrogen content to the nitrogen value removed during the radish harvesting. During experiments three introduction ways of plant inedible biomass were used: 1) direct insertion of crushed biomass into the SLS; 2) introduction of plant wastes mineralized by a physical-chemical method; 3) a combination of two abovementioned ways of plant wastes preparation. The carried out researches have shown that the use of the third preparation way of plant wastes combining both a physical-chemical mineralization method and their direct introduction into the SLS was the most efficient to involve inedible biomass into the LSS intersystem mass exchange. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of utilization processes of plant wastes in the SLS under study and their effect on the plants productivity are discussed.

  15. Technology assessment of solar energy: An evaluation of widespread deployment of solar and biomass technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, Y.; D' Alessio, G.J.

    1980-12-01

    The following summarizes significance of the results of the analyses performed: Air Quality - Both increases and decreases in emissions of certain energy related criteria pollutants: essentially no influence on long-range transport of energy-related pollutants; moderate regional decreases in SO /SUB x/ and NO /SUB x/ ; significant increases in biomass-related particulate emissions in certain regions and subregions; minor changes in nonenergy related criteria pollutants associated with manufacturing solar on a national basis. Water Quality - Relatively minor increases and decreases in water pollution nationally; some significant increases in erosion in agricultural states; some potential local benefits associated with reduced conventional waste disposal requirements; and some potential penalties associated with increased solar working fluid disposal. Water Resources - Nationally insignificant especially in the Eastern U.S., but with some potential local problems in the West associated with discretionary water use for cleaning solar systems; some local benefits in the East associated with reduction in mandatory water use by conventional power plant cooling systems. Land Resources - On-site solar energy demands in moderately sized communities can be exceeded in all but the most dense land use sectors, this would offset adverse local land use impacts, but is highly influenced by local land use planning decisions.

  16. [Aesthetics theory and method of landscape resource assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baozhong; Wang, Baoming; He, Ping

    2006-09-01

    With the destruction of natural environment by human beings, scenic resources are no longer inexhaustible in supply and use. Human beings begin to lay the scenic resources on the same important strategic status as other natural resources, while landscape resources assessment is the prerequisite of their sustainable exploitation and conservation. This paper illustrated the psychological mechanisms of aesthetic and its approaches, compared with the methodologies of traditional and modem landscape aesthetic research, discussed the characteristics of important aesthetic theories (Platonism, Kant paradigm, Empathizing theory, Gestalt paradigm, Marxism aesthetics theory, and Appleton theory) and the landscape assessment theories of 4 paradigms (expert, psychological, cognitive, and empirical) and 2 groups (landscape environment science and landscape architecture culture), and summarized the important practices and successful examples at home and abroad. It was demonstrated that the historical development of landscape assessment had the feature of a contest between expert- and perception-based approaches, with the expert approach dominated in landscape management, while the perception-based approach dominated in landscape research. Both of these approaches generallty accepted that landscape quality was derived from the interaction between the biophysical features of landscape and the percepultual (judgmental) processes of human viewer. In the future, landscape quality assessment will evolve toward a shaky marriage, both expert- and perceptual approaches will be applied in parallel and merged in the final landscape management decision-making process in some but unspecified way, landscape information and complex geo-temporal dynamics representation central to scenic ecosystem management will present major challenges to the traditional landscape aesthetic assessment, and modem science and technology will continue to help meet these challenges. The main trends of landscape

  17. Genetic resources for methane production from biomass described with gene ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang ePurwantini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Methane (CH4 is a valuable fuel, constituting 70-95% of natural gas, and a potent greenhouse gas. Release of CH4 into the atmosphere contributes to climate change. Biological CH4 production or methanogenesis is mostly performed by methanogens, a group of strictly anaerobic archaea. The direct substrates for methanogenesis are H2 plus CO2, acetate, formate, methylamines, methanol, methyl sulfides, and ethanol or a secondary alcohol plus CO2. In numerous anaerobic niches in nature, methanogenesis facilitates mineralization of complex biopolymers such as carbohydrates, lipids and proteins generated by primary producers. Thus, methanogens are critical players in the global carbon cycle. The same process is used in anaerobic treatment of municipal, industrial and agricultural wastes, reducing the biological pollutants in the wastes and generating methane. It also holds potential for commercial production of natural gas from renewable resources. This process operates in digestive systems of many animals, including cattle, and humans. In contrast, in deep-sea hydrothermal vents methanogenesis is a primary production process, allowing chemosynthesis of biomaterials from H2 plus CO2. In this report we present Gene Ontology (GO terms that can be used to describe processes, functions and cellular components involved in methanogenic biodegradation and biosynthesis of specialized coenzymes that methanogens use. Some of these GO terms were previously available and the rest were generated in our Microbial Energy Gene Ontology (MENGO project. A recently discovered non-canonical CH4 production process is also described. We have performed manual GO annotation of selected methanogenesis genes, based on experimental evidence, providing gold standards for machine annotation and automated discovery of methanogenesis genes or systems in diverse genomes. Most of the GO-related information presented in this report is available at the MENGO website (http://www.mengo.biochem.vt.edu/.

  18. Colorado's hydrothermal resource base: an assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearl, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    As part of its effort to more accurately describe the nations geothrmal resource potential, the US Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy contracted with the Colorado Geological survey to appraise the hydrothermal (hot water) geothermal resources of Colorado. Part of this effort required that the amount of energy that could possibly be contained in the various hydrothermal systems in Colorado be estimated. The findings of that assessment are presented. To make these estimates the geothermometer reservoir temperatures estimated by Barrett and Pearl (1978) were used. In addition, the possible reservoir size and extent were estimated and used. This assessment shows that the total energy content of the thermal systems in Colorado could range from 4.872 x 10{sup 15} BTU's to 13.2386 x 10{sup 15} BTU's.

  19. Wind Resource Assessment Report: Mille Lacs Indian Reservation, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage development of renewable energy on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. EPA collaborated with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Mille Lacs Band of Chippewa Indians to evaluate the wind resource and examine the feasibility of a wind project at a contaminated site located on the Mille Lacs Indian Reservation in Minnesota. The wind monitoring effort involved the installation of a 60-m met tower and the collection of 18 months of wind data at multiple heights above the ground. This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and an assessment of the economic feasibility of a potential wind project sited this site.

  20. Assessment of the sustainability of a water resource system expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thomas Rødding; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2001-01-01

    A sustainability assessment method involving risk criteria related to reliability, resilience and vulnerability, has been applied to quantify the relative sustainability of possible expansions of a water resources system in the KwaZulu-Natal province South Africa. A river basin model has been setup...... for the water resources system, comprising all important water users within the catchment. Measures to meet the growing water demand in the catchment are discussed. Six scenarios including both supply and demand oriented solutions are identified, modelled and compared in tenus of the sustainability criteria....... Based on initial experience the method was modified leading to more credible results. A problem with assessing sustainability using risk criteria is a favouring of supply-oriented solutions, in particular when aspects not directly related to demand and availability of water are excluded....

  1. The National Climate Assessment as a Resource for Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, R. C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 Third National Climate Assessment (NCA3) is scientifically authoritative and features major advances, relative to other assessments produced by several organizations. NCA3 is a valuable resource for communicating climate science to a wide variety of audiences. Other assessments were often overly detailed and laden with scientific jargon that made them appear too complex and technical to many in their intended audiences, especially policymakers, the media, and the broad public. Some other assessments emphasized extensive scientific caveats, quantitative uncertainty estimates and broad consensus support. All these attributes, while valuable in research, carry the risk of impeding science communication to non-specialists. Without compromising scientific accuracy and integrity, NCA3 is written in exceptionally clear and vivid English. It includes outstanding graphics and employs powerful techniques aimed at conveying key results unambiguously to a wide range of audiences. I have used NCA3 as a resource in speaking about climate change in three very different settings: classroom teaching for undergraduate university students, presenting in academia to historians and other non-scientists, and briefing corporate executives working on renewable energy. NCA3 proved the value of developing a climate assessment with communication goals and strategies given a high priority throughout the process, not added on as an afterthought. I draw several lessons. First, producing an outstanding scientific assessment is too complex and demanding a task to be carried out by scientists alone. Many types of specialized expertise are also needed. Second, speaking about science to a variety of audiences requires an assortment of communication skills and tools, all tailored to specific groups of listeners. Third, NCA3 is scientifically impeccable and is also an outstanding example of effective communication as well as a valuable resource for communicators.

  2. Maintaining the uranium resources data system and assessing the 1989 US uranium potential resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCammon, R.B. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)); Finch, W.I.; Grundy, W.D.; Pierson, C.T. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA))

    1990-12-31

    Under the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the EIA, US Department of Energy, and the US Geological Survey (USGS), US Department of the Interior, the USGS develops estimates of uranium endowment for selected geological environments in the United States. New estimates of endowment are used to update the Uranium Resources Assessment Data (URAD) System which, beginning in 1990, is maintained for EIA by the USGS. For 1989, estimates of US undiscovered resources were generated using revised economic index values (current to December 1989) in the URAD system's cost model. The increase in the estimates for the Estimated Additional Resources (EAR) and Speculative Resources (SR) classes resulted primarily from increases in the estimates of uranium endowment for the solution-collapse, breccia-pipe uranium deposit environment in the Colorado Plateau resource region. The mean values for $30-, $50-, and $100-per-pound U{sub 3}O{sub 8} forward-cost categories of EAR increased by about 8, 48, and 32 percent, respectively, as compared to 1988. Estimates of the 1989 undiscovered resources in the SR class also increased in all three forward-cost categories by 10, 5, and 9 percent, respectively. The original cost equations in the URAD System were designed to cover drilling costs related to extensive flat-lying tabular ore bodies. The equations do not adequately treat drilling costs for the smaller areas of vertical breccia pipe uranium deposits in the Colorado Plateau resource region. The development of appropriate cost equations for describing the economics of mining this type of deposit represents a major new task. 12 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Toxicology and risk assessment information resources for librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, D A

    2000-01-01

    Many librarians work with toxicologists and risk assessors seeking information about chemicals and hazardous substances of concern to human health and the environment. Therefore, this article reviews reliable, accurate, readily accessible, and user-friendly sources of toxicological and risk assessment information. A summary and description of pertinent toxicological data, literature, and profile sources is presented. The majority of the resources are available online; however, descriptions of several important print sources are included.

  4. EnerGEO biomass pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tum, M.; Guenther, K.P. [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Wessling (Germany). German Remote Sensing Data Center (DFD); McCallum, I.; Balkovic, J.; Khabarov, N.; Kindermann, G.; Leduc, S. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg (Austria); Biberacher, M. [Research Studios Austria AG (RSA), Salzburg (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    In the framework of the EU FP7 project EnerGEO (Earth Observations for Monitoring and Assessment of the Environmental Impact of Energy Use) sustainable energy potentials for forest and agricultural areas were estimated by applying three different model approaches. Firstly, the Biosphere Energy Transfer Hydrology (BETHY/DLR) model was applied to assess agricultural and forest biomass increases on a regional scale with the extension to grassland. Secondly, the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) - a cropping systems simulation model - was used to estimate grain yields on a global scale and thirdly the Global Forest Model (G4M) was used to estimate global woody biomass harvests and stock. The general objective of the biomass pilot is to implement the observational capacity for using biomass as an important current and future energy resource. The scope of this work was to generate biomass energy potentials for locations on the globe and to validate these data. Therefore, the biomass pilot was focused to use historical and actual remote sensing data as input data for the models. For validation purposes, forest biomass maps for 1987 and 2002 for Germany (Bundeswaldinventur (BWI-2)) and 2001 and 2008 for Austria (Austrian Forest Inventory (AFI)) were prepared as reference. (orig.)

  5. Biomass or growth rate endpoint for algae and aquatic plants: relevance for the aquatic risk assessment of herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergtold, Matthias; Dohmen, Gerhard Peter

    2011-04-01

    Ecotoxicological studies with algae and aquatic plants are essential parts of the aquatic risk assessment for crop protection products (CPP). Growth rate is used as a response variable and in addition the effects on biomass and/or yield (in the following biomass) can be measured. The parameter biomass generally provides a lower numerical value compared with the growth rate for systematic and mathematical reasons. Therefore, some regulators prefer to use the EbC50 value (i.e., the concentration at which 50% reduction of biomass is observed) rather than ErC50 (the concentration at which a 50% inhibition of growth rate is observed) as the endpoint for ecotoxicological risk assessment. However, the parameter growth rate is scientifically more appropriate and robust against deviations in test conditions, permitting better interpretation of, and comparison between, studies. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the growth rate and biomass parameters with regard to their protectiveness and suitability for environmental risk assessment of CPP. It has been shown for a number of herbicides that the use of the EC50 value (without distinction between growth rate and biomass endpoints) from laboratory studies in combination with an assessment factor of 10 is sufficiently protective for aquatic plants (except for the herbicide 2,4-D). In this paper we evaluated EbC50 and ErC50 values separately. Data on 19 different herbicides were compiled from the literature or GLP reports. The EbC50 and ErC50 values obtained in laboratory studies were compared with effect concentrations in ecosystem studies (mainly mesocosm). This comparison of laboratory and field data shows that the overall aquatic risk assessment using ErC50 values in combination with the currently applied assessment factor of 10 is sufficient to exclude significant risk to aquatic plants in the environment.

  6. Biomass potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Biomass resources of the industrialised countries are enormous, if only a small fraction of set-aside fields were used for energy crops. Forest resources could also be utilised more efficiently than at present for large-scale energy production. The energy content of the annual net growth of the total wood biomass is estimated to be 180 million toe in Europe without the former USSR, and about 50 million toe of that in the EC area, in 1990. Presently, the harvesting methods of forest biomass for energy production are not yet generally competitive. Among the most promising methods are integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to the industry and wood fuel for energy production. Several new methods for separate harvesting of energy wood are being developed in many countries. (orig.)

  7. Seasonal dynamics of fine root biomass, root length density, specific root length, and soil resource availability in a Larix gmelinii plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Yunhuan; HAN Youzhi; WANG Qingcheng; WANG Zhengquan

    2006-01-01

    Fine root tumover is a major pathway for carbon and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems and is most likely sensitive to many global change factors.Despite the importance of fine root turnover in plant C allocation and nutrient cycling dynamics and the tremendous research efforts in the past,our understanding of it remains limited.This is because the dynamics processes associated with soil resources availability are still poorly understood.Soil moisture,temperature,and available nitrogen are the most important soil characteristics that impact fine root growth and mortality at both the individual root branch and at the ecosystem level.In temperate forest ecosystems,seasonal changes of soil resource availability will alter the pattern of carbon allocation to belowground.Therefore,fine root biomass,root length density(RLD)and specific root length(SRL)vary during the growing season.Studying seasonal changes of fine root biomass,RLD,and SRL associated with soil resource availability will help us understand the mechanistic controls of carbon to fine root longevity and turnover.The objective of this study was to understand whether seasonal variations of fine root biomass,RLD and SRL were associated with soil resource availability,such as moisture,temperature,and nitrogen,and to understand how these soil components impact fine root dynamics in Larix gmelinii plantation.We used a soil coring method to obtain fine root samples(≤2 mm in diameter)every month from Mav to October in 2002 from a 17-year-old L.gmelinii plantation in Maoershan Experiment Station,Northeast Forestry University,China.Seventy-two soil cores(inside diameter 60 mm;depth intervals:0-10 cm,10-20 cm,20-30 cm)were sampled randomly from three replicates 25 m×30 m plots to estimate fine root biomass(live and dead),and calculate RLD and SRL.Soil moisture,temperature,and nitrogen(ammonia and nitrates)at three depth intervals were also analyzed in these plots.Results showed that the average standing fine

  8. Environmental assessment of gasification technology for biomass conversion to energy in comparison with other alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Nielsen, Rasmus Glar

    2013-01-01

    on gasification technology appears to be more environmentally friendly than straw direct combustion in all impact categories considered. The comparison with coal results in the same conclusion as that reached in the comparison with straw direct combustion. The comparison with natural gas shows that using straw......This paper assesses the environmental performance of biomass gasification for electricity production based on wheat straw and compares it with that of alternatives such as straw-fired electricity production and fossil fuel-fired electricity production. In the baseline simulation, we assume......Wh of electricity from straw through gasification would lead to a global warming potential of 0.08 kg CO2e, non-renewable energy use of 0.2 MJ primary, acidification of 1.3 g SO2e, respiratory inorganics of 0.08 g PM2.5e and eutrophication potential of -1.9 g NO3e. The production of electricity from straw based...

  9. Identifying the point of departures for the detailed sustainability assessment of biomass feedstocks for biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Dalgaard, Tommy

    In the light of sustainable development in the energy sector, biomasses have gained increasing attention, which have exacerbated competition among them. Biorefineries are increasing its hold in developed economies, since it facilitates the delivery of multiple products including food, feed...... for biorefineries and potential impacts to the existing market. This study aims to assist in the sustainability assessment of straw conversion in the biochemical conversion routes to deliver bioethanol and other biobased products. For the comparison, conversion of straw to produce heat and electricity in a Combined...... Eutrophication Potential (EP) 0.16 g NO3-eq and 0.008 m2 UES respectively, and Non-Renewable Energy Use (NRE use) as −0.14 MJ-primary per 1 MJ heat production. In order to reduce the environmental and economic loadings, it might be relevant: (i) to reduce the consequences related to the straw removal from field...

  10. Assessment of regional wind energy resources over the Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobchenko, Anastasiia; Khomenko, Inna

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the study has been to provide a preliminary assessment of different regions of the Ukraine. Investigation is based on thirty-minute wind observations collected through an 8-year period (January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2008) for seven airports of the Ukraine. For renewal of vertical profile of the wind direction and speed radiosounding data were used. By applying of the probabilistic analysis techniques to series of wind data and the wind extreme values, yearly, monthly and diurnal variation of wind speed and direction are derived. Based on these results theoretical distribution functions and exceeding probability are found for each airport. The statistic characteristics obtained were compared with the correspondent values provided for 1936-1960 and 1961-1990 periods and site-related temporal changeability is determined. For each period considered assessment of wind resources at 10 meters height is carried out. Since the geostrophic wind are frequently used to calculate the surface wind at heights between 10 and 200 m, in the research the distribution of the geostrophic wind for each airport were determined. Comparative analysis of distribution and statistic characteristics of geostrophic and surface winds are made. The relation between a set of values of the geostrophic wind and a set of values of the surface wind speed was provided for each airport. Using different relationship for variation of wind speed with height wind resources at heights between 10 and 200 were assessed. The results obtained show that with the lapse of the time wind speed and wind resources is decreased half the size. It is reflected general tendencies in the wind speed changeability over the European territory. Places which are most perspective for wind turbine installation are off-shore sites such as Odessa, and sites situated in the Crimea mountain (Simferopol) and the Donetsk ridge (Donetsk). The results derived in the contribution may be used for modeling and mapping wind

  11. Coal conversion and biomass conversion: Volume 1: Final report on USAID (Agency for International Development)/GOI (Government of India) Alternate Energy Resources and Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, A.; Saluja, J.

    1987-06-30

    The United States Agency for International Development (AID), in joint collaboration with the Government of India (GOI), supported a research and development program in Alternate Energy Resources during the period March 1983 to June 1987. The primary emphasis of this program was to develop new and advanced coal and biomass conversion technologies for the efficient utilization of coal and biomass feedstocks in India. This final ''summary'' report is divided into two volumes. This Report, Volume I, covers the program overview and coal projects and Volume II summarizes the accomplishments of the biomass projects. The six projects selected in the area of coal were: Evaluation of the Freeboard Performance in a Fluidized-Bed Combustor; Scale-up of AFBC boilers; Rheology, Stability and Combustion of Coal-Water Slurries; Beneficiation of Fine Coal in Dense Medium Cyclones; Hot Gas Cleanup and Separation; and Cold Gas Cleanup and Separation.

  12. Information technologies for global resources management and environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, A.P.; Wang, Hua.

    1992-01-01

    Recent advances in computer and communications technologies offer unprecedented opportunities to develop sophisticated information resources management systems for global resources management and environment assessment in an efficient, effective, and systematic manner. In this paper, the emerging global energy and environmental issues are identified. Since satellite-based remote sensing systems are becoming increasingly available and produce massive data collections, the utilization of imaging processing techniques and their applications for regional and global resources management and environmental studies are described. Interoperability and interconnectivity among heterogeneous computer systems are major issues in designing a totally integrated, multimedia-based, information resources management system that operates in a networking environment. Discussions of the future technology trends are focused on a number of emerging information management technologies and communications standards which will aid in achieving seamless system integration and offer user-friendly operations. It can be foreseen that advances in computer and communications technologies, increasingly sophisticated image processing techniques and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and the development of globally comprehensive data bases will bring global visualization'' onto multimedia desktop computers before the end of this decade.

  13. Information technologies for global resources management and environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, A.P.; Wang, Hua

    1992-09-01

    Recent advances in computer and communications technologies offer unprecedented opportunities to develop sophisticated information resources management systems for global resources management and environment assessment in an efficient, effective, and systematic manner. In this paper, the emerging global energy and environmental issues are identified. Since satellite-based remote sensing systems are becoming increasingly available and produce massive data collections, the utilization of imaging processing techniques and their applications for regional and global resources management and environmental studies are described. Interoperability and interconnectivity among heterogeneous computer systems are major issues in designing a totally integrated, multimedia-based, information resources management system that operates in a networking environment. Discussions of the future technology trends are focused on a number of emerging information management technologies and communications standards which will aid in achieving seamless system integration and offer user-friendly operations. It can be foreseen that advances in computer and communications technologies, increasingly sophisticated image processing techniques and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and the development of globally comprehensive data bases will bring ``global visualization`` onto multimedia desktop computers before the end of this decade.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF WATER RESOURCES AT HONGHE NATIONAL NATURE RESERVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zheng-Mao; LU Xian-Guo; ZHAO Chun-Hui; ZHAO Yan-Bo; QI Han-Qiang

    2004-01-01

    A detailed assessment on water resources of HNNR is to find the changing rules in time and space scale of water resources of HNNR and its adjacent areas, and the generating and degrading factors of wetland and provide scientific base on restoring and managing the hydrologic regime for planning and designing at HNNR. Both the assessment area and its adjacent watershed of Bielahong River belong to the same region in the climate and surface features. Total of 46 years of serial data from 1956-2001 in the Bielahong Hydrology Station was employed. Typical analysis of the serial runoff was conducted by adopting the residual mass curve method. The calculation methods of hydrological parameters are valuable for analyzing the water balance of HNNR. The results showed that the inputs of 118.29 × 106 m3 of the surface runoff and 1 478km2 of the areas of natural watershed in HNNR were decreased. At the same time some measurements to control and prevent water resources decreased have been proposed.

  15. Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. (Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States))

    1992-03-01

    This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

  16. The U.S. Geological Survey National Helium Resource Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, S. T.; East, J. A., II

    2015-12-01

    In 2013, the U.S. Congress passed legislation directing the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to complete a national assessment of subsurface helium gas resources. As part of this assessment, the USGS has constructed a database of helium concentration from compositional analyses of produced gas. Though most data of this data is non-proprietary, helium data have been taken from both public and proprietary sources, with a majority taken from the USGS geochemical database (http://energy.usgs.gov/GeochemistryGeophysics/GeochemistryLaboratories/GeochemistryLaboratories-GeochemistryDatabase.aspx#4413382-introduction) and from the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) natural gas database. Altogether, there are over 16,000 analyses of natural gas composition compiled. In order to complete the assessment, it was necessary to correlate the well data with geologic reservoir data so that the helium concentrations could be compared with the reservoir and field-level gas production, in place gas volumes, and gas recovery factors. The well data from the compiled database were initially cross-referenced with the proprietary IHS Inc. well database, where possible. The results of that effort were then cross-referenced with three additional databases: the proprietary NRG Associates database of significant oil and gas fields of the United States, the non-proprietary U.S. Department of Energy's gas information system (GASIS), and an internal BLM reservoir and field database. These field and reservoir databases provide the data needed to estimate the in-place helium resources for fields with economic concentrations of helium. In order for helium production to be economic, the gas produced from geologic reservoirs must be greater than 0.3 mole percent (mol%), or in the case of liquefied natural gas processing, greater than 0.04 mol%. The field and reservoir specific estimates of total gas in place volumes, gas recovery factors, and helium concentrations, can be used as inputs for a

  17. Techniques and strategies for data integration in mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautwein, Charles M.; Dwyer, John L.

    1991-01-01

    The Geologic and the National Mapping divisions of the U.S. Geological Survey have been involved formally in cooperative research and development of computer-based geographic information systems (GISs) applied to mineral-resource assessment objectives since 1982. Experience in the Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP) projects including the Rolla, Missouri; Dillon, Montana; Butte, Montana; and Tonopah, Nevada 1?? ?? 2?? quadrangles, has resulted in the definition of processing requirements for geographically and mineral-resource data that are common to these studies. The diverse formats of data sets collected and compiled for regional mineral-resource assessments necessitate capabilities for digitally encoding and entering data into appropriate tabular, vector, and raster subsystems of the GIS. Although many of the required data sets are either available or can be provided in a digital format suitable for direct entry, their utility is largely dependent on the original intent and consequent preprocessing of the data. In this respect, special care must be taken to ensure the digital data type, encoding, and format will meet assessment objectives. Data processing within the GIS is directed primarily toward the development and application of models that can be used to describe spatially geological, geophysical, and geochemical environments either known or inferred to be associated with specific types of mineral deposits. Consequently, capabilities to analyze spatially, aggregate, and display relations between data sets are principal processing requirements. To facilitate the development of these models within the GIS, interfaces must be developed among vector-, raster-, and tabular-based processing subsystems to reformat resident data sets for comparative analyses and multivariate display of relations.

  18. Assessment of geothermal resources of the United States, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muffler, L.J.P. (ed.)

    1979-01-01

    The geothermal resource assessment presented is a refinement and updating of USGS Circular 726. Nonproprietary information available in June 1978 is used to assess geothermal energy in the ground and, when possible, to evaluate the fraction that might be recovered at the surface. Five categories of geothermal energy are discussed: conduction-dominated regimes, igneous-related geothermal systems, high-temperature (> 150/sup 0/C) and intermediate-temperature (90 to 150/sup 0/C) hydrothermal convection systems, low-temperature (< 90/sup 0/C) geothermal waters, and geopressured-geothermal energy (both thermal energy and energy from dissolved methane). Assessment data are presented on three colored maps prepared in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Separate abstracts were prepared for papers on these five categories.

  19. Independent Assessment of Technology Characterizations to Support the Biomass Program Annual State-of-Technology Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, B.

    2011-03-01

    This report discusses an investigation that addressed two thermochemical conversion pathways for the production of liquid fuels and addressed the steps to the process, the technology providers, a method for determining the state of technology and a tool to continuously assess the state of technology. This report summarizes the findings of the investigation as well as recommendations for improvements for future studies.

  20. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of New Mexico.

  1. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1998-08-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of New York.

  2. Reconnaissance geothermal resource assessment of 40 sites in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leivas, E.; Martin, R.C.; Higgins, C.T.; Bezore, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Results are set forth for a continuing reconnaissance-level assessment of promising geothermal sites scattered through California. The studies involve acquisition of new data based upon field observations, compilation of data from published and unpublished sources, and evaluation of the data to identify areas suitable for more intensive area-specific studies. Forty sites were chosen for reporting on the basis of their relative potential for development as a significant resource. The name and location of each site is given, and after a brief synopsis, the geothermal features, chemistry, geology, and history of the site are reported. Three sites are recommended for more detailed study on the basis of potential for use by a large number of consumers, large volume of water, and the likelihood that the resource underlies a large area. (LEW)

  3. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydro-power potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Connecticut.

  4. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-10-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Nevada.

  5. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-06-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. To assist in providing this estimate, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory developed the Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) computer model. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of South Carolina.

  6. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1998-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Oregon.

  7. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Illinois.

  8. Lithium Resources and Production: Critical Assessment and Global Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve H. Mohr

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically assesses if accessible lithium resources are sufficient for expanded demand due to lithium battery electric vehicles. The ultimately recoverable resources (URR of lithium globally were estimated at between 19.3 (Case 1 and 55.0 (Case 3 Mt Li; Best Estimate (BE was 23.6 Mt Li. The Mohr 2010 model was modified to project lithium supply. The Case 1 URR scenario indicates sufficient lithium for a 77% maximum penetration of lithium battery electric vehicles in 2080 whereas supply is adequate to beyond 2200 in the Case 3 URR scenario. Global lithium demand approached a maximum of 857 kt Li/y, with a 100% penetration of lithium vehicles, 3.5 people per car and 10 billion population.

  9. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydro-power potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Maine.

  10. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-11-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Alaska.

  11. 'Oorja' in India: Assessing a large-scale commercial distribution of advanced biomass stoves to households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Mark C; Phadke, Himani; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Shrimali, Gireesh; Zerriffi, Hisham

    2014-04-01

    Replacing traditional stoves with advanced alternatives that burn more cleanly has the potential to ameliorate major health problems associated with indoor air pollution in developing countries. With a few exceptions, large government and charitable programs to distribute advanced stoves have not had the desired impact. Commercially-based distributions that seek cost recovery and even profits might plausibly do better, both because they encourage distributors to supply and promote products that people want and because they are based around properly-incentivized supply chains that could more be scalable, sustainable, and replicable. The sale in India of over 400,000 "Oorja" stoves to households from 2006 onwards represents the largest commercially-based distribution of a gasification-type advanced biomass stove. BP's Emerging Consumer Markets (ECM) division and then successor company First Energy sold this stove and the pelletized biomass fuel on which it operates. We assess the success of this effort and the role its commercial aspect played in outcomes using a survey of 998 households in areas of Maharashtra and Karnataka where the stove was sold as well as detailed interviews with BP and First Energy staff. Statistical models based on this data indicate that Oorja purchase rates were significantly influenced by the intensity of Oorja marketing in a region as well as by pre-existing stove mix among households. The highest rate of adoption came from LPG-using households for which Oorja's pelletized biomass fuel reduced costs. Smoke- and health-related messages from Oorja marketing did not significantly influence the purchase decision, although they did appear to affect household perceptions about smoke. By the time of our survey, only 9% of households that purchased Oorja were still using the stove, the result in large part of difficulties First Energy encountered in developing a viable supply chain around low-cost procurement of "agricultural waste" to make

  12. Atlantic bluefin tuna: a novel multistock spatial model for assessing population biomass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan G Taylor

    Full Text Available Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus is considered to be overfished, but the status of its populations has been debated, partly because of uncertainties regarding the effects of mixing on fishing grounds. A better understanding of spatial structure and mixing may help fisheries managers to successfully rebuild populations to sustainable levels while maximizing catches. We formulate a new seasonally and spatially explicit fisheries model that is fitted to conventional and electronic tag data, historic catch-at-age reconstructions, and otolith microchemistry stock-composition data to improve the capacity to assess past, current, and future population sizes of Atlantic bluefin tuna. We apply the model to estimate spatial and temporal mixing of the eastern (Mediterranean and western (Gulf of Mexico populations, and to reconstruct abundances from 1950 to 2008. We show that western and eastern populations have been reduced to 17% and 33%, respectively, of 1950 spawning stock biomass levels. Overfishing to below the biomass that produces maximum sustainable yield occurred in the 1960s and the late 1990s for western and eastern populations, respectively. The model predicts that mixing depends on season, ontogeny, and location, and is highest in the western Atlantic. Assuming that future catches are zero, western and eastern populations are predicted to recover to levels at maximum sustainable yield by 2025 and 2015, respectively. However, the western population will not recover with catches of 1750 and 12,900 tonnes (the "rebuilding quotas" in the western and eastern Atlantic, respectively, with or without closures in the Gulf of Mexico. If future catches are double the rebuilding quotas, then rebuilding of both populations will be compromised. If fishing were to continue in the eastern Atlantic at the unregulated levels of 2007, both stocks would continue to decline. Since populations mix on North Atlantic foraging grounds, successful rebuilding

  13. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - Great River NWR and Clarence Cannon NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of water resource needs and...

  14. Porphyry copper assessment of the Tibetan Plateau, China: Chapter F in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Mars, John L.; Miller, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with the China Geological Survey to conduct a mineral-resource assessment of resources in porphyry copper deposits on the Tibetan Plateau in western China. This area hosts several very large porphyry deposits, exemplified by the Yulong and Qulong deposits, each containing at least 7,000,000 metric tons (t) of copper. However, large parts of the area are underexplored and are likely to contain undiscovered porphyry copper deposits.

  15. Assessment of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen of native and non native perennial pasture soil using hyperspetral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen (MBC/MBN) are integral parts of soil organic matter, and if left out of nutrient calculations may suggest increased need of fertilizer resulting in increased production costs and chemical runoff. Timely and cost-effective methods are needed to assess MBC a...

  16. Assessment of microbial biomass carbon nitrogen of native and non native perennial pasture soil using hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen (MBC/MBN) are integral parts of soil organic matter, and if left out of nutrient calculations may suggest increased need of fertilizer resulting in increased production costs and chemical runoff. Timely and cost-effective methods are needed to assess MBC a...

  17. Forecastability as a Design Criterion in Wind Resource Assessment: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to include the wind power forecasting ability, or 'forecastability,' of a site as a design criterion in wind resource assessment and wind power plant design stages. The Unrestricted Wind Farm Layout Optimization (UWFLO) methodology is adopted to maximize the capacity factor of a wind power plant. The 1-hour-ahead persistence wind power forecasting method is used to characterize the forecastability of a potential wind power plant, thereby partially quantifying the integration cost. A trade-off between the maximum capacity factor and the forecastability is investigated.

  18. Metallic Mineral Resources Assessment and Analysis System Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the aim and the design structure of the metallic mineral resources assessment and analysis system. This system adopts an integrated technique of data warehouse composed of affairs-processing layer and analysis-application layer. The affairs-processing layer includes multiform databases (such as geological database, geophysical database, geochemical database),while the analysis application layer includes data warehouse, online analysis processing and data mining. This paper also presents in detail the data warehouse of the present system and the appropriate spatial analysis methods and models. Finally, this paper presents the prospect of the system.

  19. Economic filters for evaluating porphyry copper deposit resource assessments using grade-tonnage deposit models, with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey global mineral resource assessment: Chapter H in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Menzie, W. David

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the amount and location of undiscovered mineral resources that are likely to be economically recoverable is important for assessing the long-term adequacy and availability of mineral supplies. This requires an economic evaluation of estimates of undiscovered resources generated by traditional resource assessments (Singer and Menzie, 2010). In this study, simplified engineering cost models were used to estimate the economic fraction of resources contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, predicted in a global assessment of copper resources. The cost models of Camm (1991) were updated with a cost index to reflect increases in mining and milling costs since 1989. The updated cost models were used to perform an economic analysis of undiscovered resources estimated in porphyry copper deposits in six tracts located in North America. The assessment estimated undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the land surface in three depth intervals.

  20. Initial Market Assessment for Small-Scale Biomass-Based CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.; Mann, M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to reexamine the energy generation market opportunities for biomass CHP applications smaller than 20 MW. This paper provides an overview of the benefits of and challenges for biomass CHP in terms of policy, including a discussion of the drivers behind, and constraints on, the biomass CHP market. The report provides a summary discussion of the available biomass supply types and technologies that could be used to feed the market. Two primary markets are outlined--rural/agricultural and urban--for small-scale biomass CHP, and illustrate the primary intersections of supply and demand for those markets. The paper concludes by summarizing the potential markets and suggests next steps for identifying and utilizing small-scale biomass.

  1. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: allocations of assessed areas to Federal lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buursink, Marc L.; Cahan, Steven M.; Warwick, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Following the geologic basin-scale assessment of technically accessible carbon dioxide storage resources in onshore areas and State waters of the United States, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that an area of about 130 million acres (or about 200,000 square miles) of Federal lands overlies these storage resources. Consequently, about 18 percent of the assessed area associated with storage resources is allocated to Federal land management. Assessed areas are allocated to four other general land-ownership categories as follows: State lands about 4.5 percent, Tribal lands about 2.4 percent, private and other lands about 72 percent, and offshore areas about 2.6 percent.

  2. Integrative assessment of hydrological, ecological, and economic systems for water resources management at river basin scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianglian LI; Xiusheng YANG; Qiong GAO; Yu LI; Suocheng DONG

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a basin-scale integrative hydrological, ecological, and economic (HEE) modeling system, aimed at evaluating the impact of resources management, especially agricultural water resources management, on the sustainability of regional water resources. The hydrological model in the modeling system was adapted from SWAT, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool, to simulate the water balance in terms of soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and streamflow. An ecologi-cal model was integrated into the hydrological model to compute the ecosystem production of biomass production and yield for different land use types. The economic model estimated the monetary values of crop production and water productivity over irrigated areas. The modeling system was primarily integrated and run on a Windows platform and was able to produce simulation results at daily time steps with a spatial resolution of hydrological response unit (HRU). The modeling system was then calibrated over the period from 1983 to 1991 for the upper and middle parts of the Yellow River basin, China.Calibration results showed that the efficiencies of the modeling system in simulating monthly streamflow over 5hydrological stations were from 0.54 to 0.68 with an average of 0.64, indicating an acceptable calibration.Preliminary simulation results from 1986 to 1995 revealed that water use in the study region has largely reduced the streamflow in many parts of the area except for that in the riverhead. Spatial distribution of biomass production, and crop yield showed a strong impact of irrigation on agricultural production. Water productivity over irrigated cropland ranged from 1 to 1640 USD/(ha.mm 1), indicat-ing a wide variation of the production conditions within the study region and a great potential in promoting water use efficiency in low water productivity areas. Generally,simulation results from this study indicated that the modeling system was capable of tracking the temporal and spatial

  3. Integrated Resource Management and Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    . Over the recent decades, DTU Environment has worked extensively both with resource recovery technologies and life cycle assessment (LCA) models (www.EASETECH.dk) dedicated to evaluating resource management and recovery systems. Advanced sustainability assessments of resource recovery and utilization...... have been carried out e.g. in relation to household and industrial waste systems, biomass residues from agriculture and forestry, energy producing technologies as well as entire energy systems. The presentation provides an introduction to key challenges in relation to sustainability assessment...

  4. Porphyry copper assessment of western Central Asia: Chapter N in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Mars, John L.; Denning, Paul D.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drew, Lawrence J.; with contributions from Alexeiev, Dmitriy; Seltmann, Reimar; Herrington, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an assessment of resources associated with porphyry copper deposits in the western Central Asia countries of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Tajikistan and the southern Urals of Kazakhstan and Russia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits; (2) compile a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) where data permit, estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in those undiscovered deposits.

  5. Porphyry copper assessment of Southeast Asia and Melanesia: Chapter D in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Ludington, Steve; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Setiabudi, Bambang Tjahjono; Sukserm, Wudhikarn; Sunuhadi, Dwi Nugroho; Wah, Alexander Yan Sze; Zientek, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with member countries of the Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) on an assessment of the porphyry copper resources of Southeast Asia and Melanesia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The region hosts world-class porphyry copper deposits and underexplored areas that are likely to contain undiscovered deposits. Examples of known porphyry copper deposits include Batu Hijau and Grasberg in Indonesia; Panguna, Frieda River, and Ok Tedi in Papua New Guinea; and Namosi in Fiji.

  6. Framework for Assessing Water Resource Sustainability in River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, J.; Goodwin, P.; Swanson, D.

    2013-12-01

    As the anthropogenic footprint increases on Earth, the wise use, maintenance, and protection of freshwater resources will be a key element in the sustainability of development. Borne from efforts to promote sustainable development of water resources is Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), which promotes efficiency of water resources, equity in water allocation across different social and economic groups, and environmental sustainability. Methodologies supporting IWRM implementation have largely focused on the overall process, but have had limited attention on the evaluation methods for ecologic, economic, and social conditions (the sustainability criterion). Thus, assessment frameworks are needed to support the analysis of water resources and evaluation of sustainable solutions in the IWRM process. To address this need, the River Basin Analysis Framework (RBAF) provides a structure for understanding water related issues and testing the sustainability of proposed solutions in river basins. The RBAF merges three approaches: the UN GEO 4 DPSIR approach, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment approach, and the principles of sustainable development. Merging these approaches enables users to understand the spatiotemporal interactions between the hydrologic and ecologic systems, evaluate the impacts of disturbances (drivers, pressures) on the ecosystem goods and services (EGS) and constituents of human well-being (HWB), and identify and employ analytical methods and indicators in the assessments. The RBAF is comprised of a conceptual component (RBAF-C) and an analytical component (RBAF-A). For each disturbance type, the RBAF-C shows the potential directional change in the hydrologic cycle (peak flows, seasonality, etc.), EGS (drinking water supply, water purification, recreational opportunities, etc.), and HWB (safety, health, access to a basic materials), thus allowing users insight into potential impacts as well as providing technical guidance on the methods and

  7. Assessing the impacts of climatic change on mountain water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniston, Martin; Stoffel, Markus

    2014-09-15

    As the evidence for human induced climate change becomes clearer, so too does the realization that its effects will have impacts on numerous environmental and socio-economic systems. Mountains are recognized as very sensitive physical environments with populations whose histories and current social positions often strain their capacity to accommodate intense and rapid changes to their resource base. It is thus essential to assess the impacts of a changing climate, focusing on the quantity of water originating in mountain regions, particularly where snow and ice melt represent a large streamflow component as well as a local resource in terms of freshwater supply, hydropower generation, or irrigation. Increasing evidence of glacier retreat, permafrost degradation and reduced mountain snowpack has been observed in many regions, thereby suggesting that climate change may seriously affect streamflow regimes. These changes could in turn threaten the availability of water resources for many environmental and economic systems, and exacerbate a range of natural hazards that would compound these impacts. As a consequence, socio-economic structures of downstream living populations would be also impacted, calling for better preparedness and strategies to avoid conflicts of interest between water-dependent economic actors. This paper is thus an introduction to the Special Issue of this journal dedicated to the European Union Seventh Framework Program (EU-FP7) project ACQWA (Assessing Climate Impacts on the Quantity and Quality of WAter), a major European network of scientists that was coordinated by the University of Geneva from 2008 to 2014. The goal of ACQWA has been to address a number of these issues and propose a range of solutions for adaptation to change and to help improve water governance in regions where quantity, seasonality, and perhaps quality of water may substantially change in coming decades.

  8. Effect of stand structure on models for volume and aboveground biomass assessment (Castelfusano pinewood, Roma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to analyse the effects of stand structure on biomass allocation and on the accurancy of estimation models for volume and aboveground biomass of Italian stone pine (Pinus pinea L.. Although the species is widely distributed on Mediterranean coasts, few studies on forest biomass estimation have focused on pinewoods. The research was carried out in the Castelfusano’s pinewood (Rome and concerned the two most common structural types: (a 50 years-old pinewood originated by broadcast seeding; and (b 62 years-old pinewood originated by partial seeding alternating worked strips to firm strips. Some 83 sample trees were selected for stem volume estimation and a subset of 32 trees used to quantify the total epigeous biomass, the wooden biomass compartment, including stem and big branches (diameter > 3 cm and the photosynthetic biomass, including thin branches (diameter < 3 cm and needles. Collected data were used to elaborate allometric relations for stem volume, total biomass and specific relations for both compartments, based on one (d2 or two (d2h indipendent variables, for both structural types. Furthermore, pinewood specific biomass expansion factors (BEF - indexes used to estimate carbon stocks starting from stem biomass data - were obtained. The achieved estimation models were subjected to both parallelism and coincidence tests, showing significant effects of stand structure on the accurancy of the allometric relations. The effects of stand structure and reliability of tree height curves on the accurancy of estimation models for volume and aboveground biomass and on biomass allocation in different compartments are analysed and discussed.

  9. Renewing Rock-Tenn: A Biomass Fuels Assessment for Rock-Tenn's St. Paul Recycled Paper Mill.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Carl

    2007-03-31

    In the summer of 2006 the Green Institute started the study for the RockTenn paper mill that would evaluate the economics and supply chain reliability of wood waste and other clean biomass as a fuel for the facility. The Green Institute obtained sponsorship from a broad coalition representing the community and the project team included other consultants and university researchers specializing in biomass issues. The final product from the project was a report to: 1) assess the availability of clean biomass fuel for use at the Rock-Tenn site; 2) roughly estimate costs at various annual usage quantities; and 3) develop the building blocks for a supply chain procurement plan. The initial report was completed and public presentations on the results were completed in spring of 2007.

  10. Water Resources Vulnerability Assessment Accounting for Human Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran, A.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2014-12-01

    Reservoirs are one of the main infrastructures that provide resilience against extremes (e.g., floods and droughts) and they play a key role in water resources management. Based on International Commission of Large Dams (ICOLD 2003) records, the total volume of reservoirs is over 6200 km3, which is twice larger than the global annual water use estimated as 3000 km3. Just a simple comparison of the two numbers indicates the importance of reservoirs and their role in providing resilience for water security. On the other hand, man-made reservoirs change the water distribution throughout the year. Most climate change impact studies ignore the role of reservoirs in water availability studies. However, water availability cannot be properly assessed without a thorough assessment of reservoir conditions. By combining classical methods for climate variability assessment (top-down approach) and influence assessment (bottom-up approach), this study offers a hybrid framework that integrates different drivers of water storage vulnerability. Final index is termed as the Multivariate Standardized Reliability and Resilience Index (MSRRI). This index investigates the adaptive capacity of the reservoir and exposure of the system to variable conditions. MSRRI has been investigated over several major reservoirs in Australia and California, United States. This presentation reviews recent findings and discusses reservoir conditions in Australia and California using MSRRI under different climatic change scenarios.

  11. Combining biofilm matrix measurements with biomass and viability assays in susceptibility assessments of antimicrobials against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogman, Malena Elise; Vuorela, Pia Maarit; Fallarero, Adyary

    2012-09-01

    Despite that three types of assays (measuring biofilm viability, biomass, or matrix) are described to assess anti-biofilm activity, they are rarely used together. As infections can easily reappear if the matrix is not affected after antibiotic treatments, our goal was to explore the simultaneous effects of antibiotics on the viability, biomass and matrix of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms (ATCC 25923). Viability and biomass were quantified using resazurin and crystal violet staining sequentially in the same plate, while matrix staining was conducted with a wheat germ agglutinin-Alexa Fluor 488 fluorescent conjugate. Establishment of the detection limits and linearity ranges allowed concluding that all three methods were able to estimate biofilm formation in a similar fashion. In a susceptibility study with 18-h biofilms, two model compounds (penicillin G and ciprofloxacin) caused a reduction on the viability and biomass accompanied by an increase or not changed levels of the matrix, respectively. This response pattern was also proven for S. aureus Newman, S. epidermidis and E. coli biofilms. A classification of antibiotics based on five categories according to their effects on viability and matrix has been proposed earlier. Our data suggests a sixth group, represented by penicillin, causing decrease in bacterial viability but showing stimulatory effects on the matrix. Further, if effects on the matrix are not taken into account, the long-term chemotherapeutic effect of antibiotics can be jeopardized in spite of the positive effects on biofilms viability and biomass. Thus, measuring all these three endpoints simultaneously provide a more complete and accurate picture.

  12. An assessment of biomass feedstock availability for the supply of bioenergy to University College Dublin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, Peter G.; McDonnell, Kevin P. [Bioresource Research Centre, Biosystems Engineering, School of Agriculture, Food Science and Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2010-12-15

    As the cost of energy rises due to an increase in fossil fuels prices, the need to develop a sustainable alternative that will reduce green house gas emissions has increased in importance. One such alternative to reduce dependency on fossil fuels is the use of biomass for bioenergy generation. This study aims to quantify how much biomass can be produced in a specific area with a maximum haulage distance of 75 km to its end location, in this case, a large residential campus, to supply fuel to a biomass boiler. The study is carried out by identifying potential sources of biomass within the catchment zone and then quantifying it under different scenarios. The first scenario focuses on minimum land use impact, which quantifies how much biomass could be achieved taking just 10% of biomass from the sources identified. The second scenario is the maximum energy scenario and is set out to establish the maximum amount of energy that could be generated within the catchment zone using 50-100% of available biomass. The final scenario is the environmental scenario which looks to quantify biomass while not infringing on existing land uses such as agriculture and forestry. Results show that scenario one could produce almost 6 PJ of energy which is, scenario two could produce over 31 PJ of energy and scenario three could produce almost 14 PJ of energy. (author)

  13. Comparative life cycle assessment of biomass co-firing plants with carbon capture and storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, Wouter; Meerman, Hans; Talaei, Alireza; Ramírez, Andrea; Faaij, André

    2014-01-01

    Combining co-firing biomass and carbon capture and storage (CCS) in power plants offers attractive potential for net removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. In this study, the impact of co-firing biomass (wood pellets and straw pellets) on the emission profile of power plants with carbo

  14. Assessing the effect of stricter sustainability criteria on EU biomass crop potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, B.S.; Fritsche, U.; Petersen, J.E.; Lesschen, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how different sustainability criteria restrict the supply of cropped biomass sources within the EU. There are already mandatory sustainability criteria formulated in the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) at EU level for biomass feedstocks to be used for conversion into biofuel

  15. The Physical Activity Resource Assessment (PARA instrument: Evaluating features, amenities and incivilities of physical activity resources in urban neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regan Gail

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neighborhood environment factors may influence physical activity (PA. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a brief instrument to systematically document and describe the type, features, amenities, quality and incivilities of a variety of PA resources. Method The one-page Physical Activity Resource Assessment (PARA instrument was developed to assess all publicly available PA resources in thirteen urban lower income, high ethnic minority concentration neighborhoods that surrounded public housing developments (HDs and four higher income, low ethnic minority concentration comparison neighborhoods. Neighborhoods had similar population density and connectivity. Trained field coders rated 97 PA resources (including parks, churches, schools, sports facilities, fitness centers, community centers, and trails on location, type, cost, features, amenities, quality and incivilities. Assessments typically took about 10 minutes to complete. Results HD neighborhoods had a mean of 4.9 PA resources (n = 73 with considerable variability in the type of resources available for each neighborhood. Comparison neighborhoods had a mean of 6 resources (n = 24. Most resources were accessible at no cost (82%. Resources in both types of neighborhoods typically had about 2 to 3 PA features and amenities, and the quality was usually mediocre to good in both types of neighborhoods. Incivilities at PA resources in HD neighborhoods were significantly more common than in comparison neighborhoods. Conclusion Although PA resources were similar in number, features and amenities, the overall appearance of the resources in HD neighborhoods was much worse as indicated by substantially worse incivilities ratings in HD neighborhoods. The more comprehensive assessment, including features, amenities and incivilities, provided by the PARA may be important to distinguish between PA resources in lower and higher deprivation areas.

  16. Comprehensive evaluation of biomass resources using SD method-aided world energy/land utilization model; SD shuho no sekai energy tochi riyo model ni yoru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Yamaji, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-02-01

    For the evaluation of the world-wide conflict between the utilization of biomass resources and the restrictions on land utilization, analysis was made using the system dynamics method. In the advanced area, there is scarcely any changes in land utilization, thanks to stable demand for biomass and perfect forestry protection. On the other hand, in the developing area, demand for biomass is increasing and areas of mature forests are decreasing due to imperfect forestry protection. In 2050 and after when the forests will be enjoying the same protection as that in practice in the advanced area, the forest area will stabilize. Mature forests, however, will not stop shrinking, and there will be only 400-million ha of mature forests remaining in 2100. There will be serious food shortage in the developing area because there will be a huge demand for food for livestock. Accordingly, there will be no room at all for the production of energy making crops. Both in advanced and developing areas, the potential is high of cereal residue, livestock`s dung, raw material timber residue, by-products, and refuse energy resources. On the contrary, the potential is low of kitchen refuse, paper, and chemical industry products refuse. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Assessing the Role of Particles in Radiative Heat Transfer during Oxy-Combustion of Coal and Biomass Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautham Krishnamoorthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the required fidelities in modeling particle radiative properties and particle size distributions (PSDs of combusting particles in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD investigations of radiative heat transfer during oxy-combustion of coal and biomass blends. Simulations of air and oxy-combustion of coal/biomass blends in a 0.5 MW combustion test facility were carried out and compared against recent measurements of incident radiative fluxes. The prediction variations to the combusting particle radiative properties, particle swelling during devolatilization, scattering phase function, biomass devolatilization models, and the resolution (diameter intervals employed in the fuel PSD were assessed. While the wall incident radiative flux predictions compared reasonably well with the experimental measurements, accounting for the variations in the fuel, char and ash radiative properties were deemed to be important as they strongly influenced the incident radiative fluxes and the temperature predictions in these strongly radiating flames. In addition, particle swelling and the diameter intervals also influenced the incident radiative fluxes primarily by impacting the particle extinction coefficients. This study highlights the necessity for careful selection of particle radiative property, and diameter interval parameters and the need for fuel fragmentation models to adequately predict the fly ash PSD in CFD simulations of coal/biomass combustion.

  18. Assessment of industrial activity in the utilization of biomass for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    The objective of this report is to help focus the federal programs in biomass energy, by identifying the status and objectives of private sector activity in the biomass field as of mid-1979. In addition, the industry's perceptions of government activities are characterized. Findings and conclusions are based principally on confidential interviews with executives in 95 companies. These included forest products companies, agricultural products companies, equipment manufacturers, electric and gas utilities petroleum refiners and distributors, research and engineering firms, and trade organizations, as listed in Exhibit 1. Interview findings have been supplemented by research of recent literature. The study focused on four key questions: (1) what is the composition of the biomass industry; (2) what are the companies doing; (3) what are their objectives and strategies; and (4) what are the implications for government policy. This executive summary provides highlights of the key findings and conclusions. The summary discussion is presented in seven parts: (1) overview of the biomass field; (2) structure of the biomass industry today; (3) corporate activities in biomass-related areas; (4) motivations for these activities; (5) industry's outlook on the future for energy-from-biomass; (6) industry's view of government activities; and (7) implications for Federal policy.

  19. Economic approach to assess the forest carbon implications of biomass energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigneault, Adam; Sohngen, Brent; Sedjo, Roger

    2012-06-05

    There is widespread concern that biomass energy policy that promotes forests as a supply source will cause net carbon emissions. Most of the analyses that have been done to date, however, are biological, ignoring the effects of market adaptations through substitution, net imports, and timber investments. This paper uses a dynamic model of forest and land use management to estimate the impact of United States energy policies that emphasize the utilization of forest biomass on global timber production and carbon stocks over the next 50 years. We show that when market factors are included in the analysis, expanded demand for biomass energy increases timber prices and harvests, but reduces net global carbon emissions because higher wood prices lead to new investments in forest stocks. Estimates are sensitive to assumptions about whether harvest residues and new forestland can be used for biomass energy and the demand for biomass. Restricting biomass energy to being sourced only from roundwood on existing forestland can transform the policy from a net sink to a net source of emissions. These results illustrate the importance of capturing market adjustments and a large geographic scope when measuring the carbon implications of biomass energy policies.

  20. Uranium resource assessment by the Geological Survey; methodology and plan to update the national resource base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Warren Irvin; McCammon, Richard B.

    1987-01-01

    Based on the Memorandum of Understanding {MOU) of September 20, 1984, between the U.S. Geological Survey of the U.S. Department of Interior and the Energy Information Administration {EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy {DOE), the U.S. Geological Survey began to make estimates of the undiscovered uranium endowment of selected areas of the United States in 1985. A modified NURE {National Uranium Resource Evaluation) method will be used in place of the standard NURE method of the DOE that was used for the national assessment reported in October 1980. The modified method, here named the 'deposit-size-frequency' {DSF) method, is presented for the first time, and calculations by the two methods are compared using an illustrative example based on preliminary estimates for the first area to be evaluated under the MOU. The results demonstrate that the estimate of the endowment using the DSF method is significantly larger and more uncertain than the estimate obtained by the NURE method. We believe that the DSF method produces a more realistic estimate because the principal factor estimated in the endowment equation is disaggregated into more parts and is more closely tied to specific geologic knowledge than by the NURE method. The DSF method consists of modifying the standard NURE estimation equation, U=AxFxTxG, by replacing the factors FxT by a single factor that represents the tonnage for the total number of deposits in all size classes. Use of the DSF method requires that the size frequency of deposits in a known or control area has been established and that the relation of the size-frequency distribution of deposits to probable controlling geologic factors has been determined. Using these relations, the principal scientist {PS) first estimates the number and range of size classes and then, for each size class, estimates the lower limit, most likely value, and upper limit of the numbers of deposits in the favorable area. Once these probable estimates have been refined

  1. Bioenergy from crops and biomass residues: a consequential life-cycle assessment including land-use changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    generation biofuels produced from residual biomass promise important environmental savings. However, since these residues are today in-use for specific purposes (e.g., feeding), a detailed modelling of the consequences (e.g., on the feed-market) induced by their diversion to energy should be performed...... to represent the actual environmental impacts. This study quantified the GHG emissions associated with a number of scenarios involving bioenergy production (as combined-heat-and-power, heating, and transport biofuel) from energy crops, industrial/agricultural residues, algae, and the organic fraction...... at identifying all the consequences associated with the establishment of bioenergy systems compared with the reference (current use of fossil and biomass resource). The modelling was facilitated with the LCA-model EASETECH. The functional unit was 1 unit-energy produced (i.e., 1 kWh electricity, 1 MJ heat or 1...

  2. Assessing global resource utilization efficiency in the industrial sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Marc A

    2013-09-01

    Designing efficient energy systems, which also meet economic, environmental and other objectives and constraints, is a significant challenge. In a world with finite natural resources and large energy demands, it is important to understand not just actual efficiencies, but also limits to efficiency, as the latter identify margins for efficiency improvement. Energy analysis alone is inadequate, e.g., it yields energy efficiencies that do not provide limits to efficiency. To obtain meaningful and useful efficiencies for energy systems, and to clarify losses, exergy analysis is a beneficial and useful tool. Here, the global industrial sector and industries within it are assessed by using energy and exergy methods. The objective is to improve the understanding of the efficiency of global resource use in the industrial sector and, with this information, to facilitate the development, prioritization and ultimate implementation of rational improvement options. Global energy and exergy flow diagrams for the industrial sector are developed and overall efficiencies for the global industrial sector evaluated as 51% based on energy and 30% based on exergy. Consequently, exergy analysis indicates a less efficient picture of energy use in the global industrial sector than does energy analysis. A larger margin for improvement exists from an exergy perspective, compared to the overly optimistic margin indicated by energy.

  3. Wind power in Eritrea, Africa: A preliminary resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, K.; Rosen, K. [San Jose State Univ., CA (United States); Van Buskirk, R. [Dept. of Energy, Eritrea (Ethiopia)

    1997-12-31

    The authors preliminary assessment of Eritrean wind energy potential identified two promising regions: (1) the southeastern Red Sea coast and (2) the mountain passes that channel winds between the coastal lowlands and the interior highlands. The coastal site, near the port city of Aseb, has an exceptionally good resource, with estimated average annual wind speeds at 10-m height above 9 m/s at the airport and 7 m/s in the port. Furthermore, the southern 200 km of coastline has offshore WS{sub aa} > 6 m/s. This area has strong potential for development, having a local 20 MW grid and unmet demand for the fishing industry and development. Although the highland sites contain only marginal wind resources ({approximately} 5 m/s), they warrant further investigation because of their proximity to the capital city, Asmera, which has the largest unmet demand and a larger power grid (40 MW with an additional 80 MW planned) to absorb an intermittent source without storage.

  4. Distributed Wind Resource Assessment: State of the Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tinnesand, Heidi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baring-Gould, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office (WWPTO) goals, researchers from DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) are investigating the Distributed Wind Resource Assessment (DWRA) process, which includes pre-construction energy estimation as well as turbine site suitability assessment. DWRA can have a direct impact on the Wind Program goals of maximizing stakeholder confidence in turbine performance and safety as well as reducing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). One of the major components of the LCOE equation is annual energy production. DWRA improvements can maximize the annual energy production, thereby lowering the overall LCOE and improving stakeholder confidence in the distributed wind technology sector by providing more accurate predictions of power production. Over the long term, one of the most significant benefits of a more defined DWRA process could be new turbine designs, tuned to site-specific characteristics that will help the distributed wind industry follow a similar trajectory to the low-wind-speed designs in the utility-scale industry sector. By understanding the wind resource better, the industry could install larger rotors, capture more energy, and as a result, increase deployment while lowering the LCOE. a direct impact on the Wind Program goals of maximizing stakeholder confidence in turbine performance and safety as well as reducing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). One of the major components of the LCOE equation is annual energy production. DWRA improvements can maximize the annual energy production, thereby lowering the overall LCOE and improving stakeholder confidence in the distributed wind technology sector by providing more accurate predictions of power production. Over the long term, one of the most significant benefits of a more defined DWRA process could be new turbine designs, tuned to site-specific characteristics that

  5. 78 FR 40425 - Draft Environmental Assessment for the J. Phil Campbell, Senior, Natural Resource Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Draft Environmental Assessment for the J. Phil Campbell, Senior, Natural Resource... Environmental Assessment for the J. Phil Campbell, Senior, Natural Resource Conservation Center Land Transfer... of land at the J. Phil Campbell, Senior (JPC), Natural Resource Conservation Center (NRCC) from...

  6. INRA Water Resource Management Research and EducationNeeds Assessment Project

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The Water Resources Research Needs Assessment team received funding in summer 2006 from the Inland Northwest Research Alliance (INRA) Water Resources Steering Committee to conduct a structured needs assessment study. The study was motivated by the desire to allow future INRA research and educational programs to meet better the needs of water resources managers in the five state INRA region.

  7. Fort Stewart integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.M.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Larson, L.L.

    1993-08-01

    This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at Fort Stewart, a US Army Forces Command facility located near Savannah, Georgia. This is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 3, Integrated Resource Assessment. The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Stewart. PNL, in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), has designed a model program applicable to the federal sector for this purpose. The model program (1) identifies and evaluates all cost-effective energy projects; (2) develops a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) targets 100% of the financing required to implement energy efficiency projects. PNL applied this model program to Fort Stewart. The analysis examines the characteristics of electric, natural gas, oil, propane, and wood chip use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. The results include energy-use intensities for the facilities at Fort Stewart by building type, fuel type, and energy end use. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that accounts for the distribution of all major energy uses and losses among buildings, utilities, and central systems.

  8. Geothermal resource assessment of western San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharakis, Ted G.; Pearl, Richard Howard; Ringrose, Charles D.

    1983-01-01

    The Colorado Geological Survey initiated and carried out a fully integrated assessment program of the geothermal resource potential of the western San Luis Valley during 1979 and 1980. The San Luis Valley is a large intermontane basin located in southcentral Colorado. While thermal springs and wells are found throughout the Valley, the only thermal waters found along the western part of the Valley are found at Shaw Warm Springs which is a relatively unused spring located approximately 6 miles (9.66 km) north of Del Norte, Colorado. The waters at Shaws Warm Spring have a temperature of 86 F (30 C), a discharge of 40 gallons per minute and contain approximately 408 mg/l of total dissolved solids. The assessment program carried out din the western San Luis Valley consisted of: soil mercury geochemical surveys; geothermal gradient drilling; and dipole-dipole electrical resistivity traverses, Schlumberger soundings, Audio-magnetotelluric surveys, telluric surveys, and time-domain electro-magnetic soundings and seismic surveys. Shaw Warm Springs appears to be the only source of thermal waters along the western side of the Valley. From the various investigations conducted the springs appear to be fault controlled and is very limited in extent. Based on best evidence presently available estimates are presented on the size and extent of Shaw Warm Springs thermal system. It is estimated that this could have an areal extent of 0.63 sq. miles (1.62 sq. km) and contain 0.0148 Q's of heat energy.

  9. Coordinating ecological risk assessment with natural resource damage assessment: A panel discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Brenda; Ammann, Mike; Hoff, Rebecca; Huston, Mark; Jenkins, Kenneth; Palagyi, Tony; Pelto, Karen; Rettig, Todd; Wagner, Anne

    2016-10-01

    Contaminated sites in the United States undergo remediation and restoration through regulatory programs that lead the 2 processes through independent but often parallel pathways with different objectives. The objective of remediation is to reduce risk to human health and the environment, whereas that of restoration is to restore injured resources and compensate the public for lost use of the services that natural resources provide. More complex sites, such as those associated with large river systems and urban waterways, have resulted in increasingly larger-scale ecological risk assessments (ERAs) and natural resource damage assessments (NRDAs) that take many years and involve diverse practitioners including scientists, economists, and engineers. Substantial levels of effort are now frequently required, creating a need for more efficient and cost-effective approaches to data collection, analyses, and assessments. Because there are commonalities in the data needs between ERAs and NRDAs, coordination of the design and implementation of site-specific studies that meet the needs of both programs could result in increased efficiency and lower costs. The Association for Environmental Health and Sciences Foundation convened a panel of environmental practitioners from industry, consulting, and regulatory bodies to examine the benefits and challenges associated with coordinating ERA and NRDA activities in the context of a broad range of regulatory programs. This brief communication presents the opinions and conclusions of the panelists on these issues and reports 2 case studies for which coordinated ERA and NRDA activities produced a positive outcome. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:616-621. © 2015 SETAC.

  10. Biomass offsets little or none of permafrost carbon release from soils, streams, and wildfire: an expert assessment

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    As the permafrost region warms, its large organic carbon pool will be increasingly vulnerable to decomposition, combustion, and hydrologic export. Models predict that some portion of this release will be offset by increased production of Arctic and boreal biomass; however, the lack of robust estimates of net carbon balance increases the risk of further overshooting international emissions targets. Precise empirical or model-based assessments of the critical factors driving carbon balance are ...

  11. Biomass offsets little or none of permafrost carbon release from soils, streams, and wildfire:an expert assessment

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    As the permafrost region warms, its large organic carbon pool will be increasingly vulnerable to decomposition, combustion, and hydrologic export. Models predict that some portion of this release will be offset by increased production of Arctic and boreal biomass; however, the lack of robust estimates of net carbon balance increases the risk of further overshooting international emissions targets. Precise empirical or model-based assessments of the critical factors driving carbon balance are ...

  12. Life Cycle Assessment of high ligno-cellulosic biomass pyrolysis coupled with anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Serena; Bandini, Vittoria; Marazza, Diego; Baioli, Filippo; Torri, Cristian; Contin, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    A Life Cycle Assessment is conducted on pyrolysis coupled to anaerobic digestion to treat corn stovers and to obtain bioenergy and biochar. The analysis takes into account the feedstock treatment process, the fate of products and the indirect effects due to crop residue removal. The biochar is considered to be used as solid fuel for coal power plants or as soil conditioner. All results are compared with a corresponding fossil-fuel-based scenario. It is shown that the proposed system always enables relevant primary energy savings of non-renewable sources and a strong reduction of greenhouse gases emissions without worsening the abiotic resources depletion. Conversely, the study points out that the use of corn stovers for mulch is critical when considering acidification and eutrophication impacts. Therefore, removal of corn stovers from the fields must be planned carefully.

  13. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA): Erwin National Fish Hatchery, Unicoi County, Tennessee

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) for Erwin National Fish Hatchery (NFH) summarizes available and relevant information for hatchery water resources...

  14. Improving biomass resource recycling capacity of Rubrivivax gelatinosus cultivated in wastewater through regulating the generation and use of energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pan; Wang, Yan-ling; Zhang, Guang-ming; Liu, Xian-shu; Du, Cong; Tong, Qing-yue; Li, Ning

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigated Mg2+ enhancement of biomass production through regulating the generation and use of energy in Rubrivivax gelatinosus wastewater treatment. Results showed that proper Mg2+ dosage range was 1.5-15 mg/L. With optimal Mg2+ dosage (10 mg/L), biomass production (5010 mg/L) was improved by 60%. Both protein and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals reached above 90%. Biomass yield improved by 38%. Hydraulic retention time was shortened by 25%. Mechanism analysis indicated that as activator, Mg2+ promoted specifically isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and Ca2+ / Mg2+ -ATPase activities in energy metabolism, and then improved the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the use of ATP. This enhanced the secretion and activity of protease, protein and COD removals, and then led to more biomass production. With 10 mg/L Mg2+, IDH and Ca2+ / Mg2+ -ATPase activities, ATP production, protease activity were improved by 43.8%, 40.6%, 39.4% and 46.5%, respectively.

  15. Chemical biorefinery perspectives : the valorisation of functionalised chemicals from biomass resources compared to the conventional fossil fuel production route

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brehmer, B.

    2008-01-01

    In response to the impending problems related to fossil fuels (continued supply, price, and regional and global pollution) alternative feedstocks are gaining interest as possible solutions. Biomass, considered sustainable and renewable, is an option with the potential to replace a wide diversity

  16. Forests: future fibre and fuel values : Woody biomass for energy and materials: resources, markets, carbon flows and sustainability impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, R.

    2014-01-01

    From energy outlooks, it becomes clear that global bioenergy consumption is expected to grow further; specifically the demand for wood for electricity and heating, together with agricultural biomass for liquid biofuels. The EU has an ambitious and integrated policy in order to address climate change

  17. Bioenergy options for New Zealand : the role of residual biomass and forestry resources in national energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, P. [Scion, Rotorua (New Zealand)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that was conducted to determine bioenergy options for New Zealand. The study showed that current biomass residuals had the potential to contribute approximately 57 PJ per annum between 2005 and 2010. New Zealand has the potential to grow forest biomass on a greater scale from land that is currently providing low economic returns from sheep and cattle grazing. Four afforestation scenarios of 0.8, 1.8, 3.3, and 4.9 million ha were then analyzed in order to determine their production potential as well as economic and environmental impacts. The study showed that the 1.8 m ha scenario provided the highest volumes of biomass in relation to economic and environmental outcomes. The use of chip log technologies resulted in the production of 200 PJ, or nearly two thirds of the country's domestic liquid fuel consumption. Existing forest stands in New Zealand were able to supply 12 million m{sup 3}, or 83 PJ of primary energy. Results demonstrated that New Zealand has the capacity to obtain most of its transport fuel needs from forest biomass.

  18. Wave energy resource assessment based on satellite observations around Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribal, Agustinus; Zieger, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    A preliminary assessment of wave energy resource around Indonesian's ocean has been carried out by means of analyzing satellite observations. The wave energy flux or wave power can be approximated using parameterized sea states. Wave power scales with significant wave height, characteristic wave period and water depth. In this approach, the significant wave heights were obtained from ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite) data which have been calibrated. However, as the characteristic wave period is rarely specified and therefore must be estimated from other variables when information about the wave spectra is unknown. Here, the characteristic wave period was calculated with an empirical model that utilizes altimeter estimates of wave height and backscatter coefficient originally proposed. For the Indonesian region, wave power energy is calculated over two periods of one year each and was compared with the results from global hindcast carried out with a recent release of wave model WAVEWATCH III. We found that, the most promising wave power energy regions around the Indonesian archipelago are located in the south of Java island and the south west of Sumatera island. In these locations, about 20 - 30 kW/m (90th percentile: 30-50 kW/m, 99th percentile: 40-60 kW/m) wave power energy on average has been found around south of Java island during 2010. Similar results have been found during 2011 at the same locations. Some small areas which are located around north of Irian Jaya (West Papua) are also very promising and need further investigation to determine its capacity as a wave energy resource.

  19. Growing stock and woody biomass assessment in Asola-Bhatti Wildlife Sanctuary, Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, S P S; Nandy, S; Gupta, Mohini

    2014-09-01

    Biomass is an important entity to understand the capacity of an ecosystem to sequester and accumulate carbon over time. The present study, done in collaboration with the Delhi Forest Department, focused on the estimation of growing stock and the woody biomass in the so-called lungs of Delhi--the Asola-Bhatti Wildlife Sanctuary in northern Aravalli hills. The satellite-derived vegetation strata were field-inventoried using stratified random sampling procedure. Growing stock was calculated for the individual sample plots using field data and species-specific volume equations. Biomass was estimated from the growing stock and the specific gravity of the wood. Among the four vegetation types, viz. Prosopis juliflora, Anogeissus pendula, forest plantation and the scrub, the P. juliflora was found to be the dominant vegetation in the area, covering 23.43 km(2) of the total area. The study revealed that P. juliflora forest with moderate density had the highest (10.7 m(3)/ha) while A. pendula forest with moderate density had the lowest (3.6 m(3)/ha) mean volume. The mean woody biomass was also found to be maximum in P. juliflora forest with moderate density (10.3 t/ha) and lowest in A. pendula forest with moderate density (3.48 t/ha). The total growing stock was estimated to be 20,772.95 m(3) while total biomass worked out to be 19,366.83 t. A strong correlation was noticed between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the growing stock (R(2) = 0.84)/biomass (R(2) = 0.88). The study demonstrated that growing stock and the biomass of the woody vegetation in Asola-Bhatti Wildlife Sanctuary could be estimated with high accuracy using optical remote sensing data.

  20. Assessing the interactions among U.S. climate policy, biomass energy, and agricultural trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, Marshall A.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page

    2014-09-01

    Energy from biomass is potentially an important contributor to U.S. climate change mitigation efforts. However, an important consideration to large-scale implementation of bioenergy is that the production of biomass competes with other uses of land. This includes traditionally economically productive uses, such as agriculture and forest products, as well as storage of carbon in forests and non-commercial lands. In addition, in the future, biomass may be more easily traded, meaning that increased U.S. reliance on bioenergy could come with it greater reliance on imported energy. Several approaches could be implemented to address these issues, including limits on U.S. biomass imports and protection of U.S. and global forests. This paper explores these dimensions of bioenergy’s role in U.S. climate policy and the relationship to these alternative measures for ameliorating the trade and land use consequences of bioenergy. It first demonstrates that widespread use of biomass in the U.S. could lead to imports; and it highlights that the relative stringency of domestic and international carbon mitigation policy will heavily influence the degree to which it is imported. Next, it demonstrates that while limiting biomass imports would prevent any reliance on other countries for this energy supply, it would most likely alter the balance of trade in other agricultural products against which biomass competes; for example, it might turn the U.S. from a corn exporter to a corn importer. Finally, it shows that increasing efforts to protect both U.S. and international forests could also affect the balance of trade in other agricultural products.

  1. An integrated model for the assessment of global water resources – Part 2: Applications and assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hanasaki

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available To assess global water resources from the perspective of subannual variation in water availability and water use, an integrated water resources model was developed. In a companion report, we presented the global meteorological forcing input used to drive the model and six modules, namely, the land surface hydrology module, the river routing module, the crop growth module, the reservoir operation module, the environmental flow requirement module, and the anthropogenic withdrawal module. Here, we present the results of the model application and global water resources assessments. First, the timing and volume of simulated agriculture water use were examined because agricultural use composes approximately 85% of total consumptive water withdrawal in the world. The estimated crop calendar showed good agreement with earlier reports for wheat, maize, and rice in major countries of production. In major countries, the error in the planting date was ±1 mo, but there were some exceptional cases. The estimated irrigation water withdrawal also showed fair agreement with country statistics, but tended to be underestimated in countries in the Asian monsoon region. The results indicate the validity of the model and the input meteorological forcing because site-specific parameter tuning was not used in the series of simulations. Finally, global water resources were assessed on a subannual basis using a newly devised index. This index located water-stressed regions that were undetected in earlier studies. These regions, which are indicated by a gap in the subannual distribution of water availability and water use, include the Sahel, the Asian monsoon region, and southern Africa. The simulation results show that the reservoir operations of major reservoirs (>1 km3 and the allocation of environmental flow requirements can alter the population under high water stress by approximately −11% to +5% globally. The integrated model is applicable to

  2. Multilanguage Web application to assess biomass energy production: economic and energetic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berruto, Remigio; Busato, Patrizia; Piccarolo, Pietro [University of Turin (Italy). Dipt. di Economia e Ingegneria Agraria, Forestale e Ambientale (DEIAFA)], E-mail: remigio.berruto@unito.it

    2008-07-01

    One of the main difficulties in the development of biomass supply chains is the lack of reliable and complete information, which is needed to carry out a correct feasibility study. The aim of the research is contributing to knowledge which can be exploited in designing and evaluating biomass supply chains, within a standardized system approach. For this purpose has been implemented by DEIAFA a Web application - www.energyfarm.unito.it - to investigate the biomass supply chains under the technical, economic and energetic aspects. The first set of procedures allow the evaluation of field and logistic operations related to biomass cultivation, harvest and transport to the point of use. Another set of procedures refers to the feasibility study of biomass power plant. All procedures share a common database, ensuring their proper integration. EnergyFarm{sup R} represents a step toward the standardization of data and calculation procedures. In the future, it will be possible to foresee also in the same application the computing of the results with different standards (ASAE, EU, etc.). The interface to the application is provided in English and Italian languages. (author)

  3. Biomass responses to elevated CO2, soil heterogeneity and diversity: an experimental assessment with grassland assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, Fernando T; Reynolds, James F

    2007-03-01

    While it is well-established that the spatial distribution of soil nutrients (soil heterogeneity) influences the competitive ability and survival of individual plants, as well as the productivity of plant communities, there is a paucity of data on how soil heterogeneity and global change drivers interact to affect plant performance and ecosystem functioning. To evaluate the effects of elevated CO(2), soil heterogeneity and diversity (species richness and composition) on productivity, patterns of biomass allocation and root foraging precision, we conducted an experiment with grassland assemblages formed by monocultures, two- and three-species mixtures of Lolium perenne, Plantago lanceolata and Holcus lanatus. The experiment lasted for 90 days, and was conducted on microcosms built out of PVC pipe (length 38 cm, internal diameter 10 cm). When nutrients were heterogeneously supplied (in discrete patches), assemblages exhibited precise root foraging patterns, and had higher total, above- and belowground biomass. Greater aboveground biomass was observed under elevated CO(2). Species composition affected the below:aboveground biomass ratio and interacted with nutrient heterogeneity to determine belowground and total biomass. Species richness had no significant effects, and did not interact with either CO(2) or nutrient heterogeneity. Under elevated CO(2) conditions, the two- and three-species mixtures showed a clear trend towards underyielding. Our results show that differences among composition levels were dependent on soil heterogeneity, highlighting its potential role in modulating diversity-productivity relationships.

  4. Impact Assessment of Abiotic Resources in LCA: Quantitative Comparison of Selected Characterization Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbech, Jakob Thaysen; Vadenbo, Carl; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Resources have received significant attention in recent years resulting in development of a wide range of resource depletion indicators within life cycle assessment (LCA). Understanding the differences in assessment principles used to derive these indicators and the effects on the impact assessment...... results is critical for indicator selection and interpretation of the results. Eleven resource depletion methods were evaluated quantitatively with respect to resource coverage, characterization factors (CF), impact contributions from individual resources, and total impact scores. We included 2247...... groups, according to method focus and modeling approach, to aid method selection within LCA....

  5. Estimates of forest biomass carbon storage inLiaoning Province of Northeast China: a review and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dapao; Wang, Xiaoyu; Yin, You; Zhan, Jinyu; Lewis, Bernard J; Tian, Jie; Bao, Ye; Zhou, Wangming; Zhou, Li; Dai, Limin

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimates of forest carbon storage and changes in storage capacity are critical for scientific assessment of the effects of forest management on the role of forests as carbon sinks. Up to now, several studies reported forest biomass carbon (FBC) in Liaoning Province based on data from China's Continuous Forest Inventory, however, their accuracy were still not known. This study compared estimates of FBC in Liaoning Province derived from different methods. We found substantial variation in estimates of FBC storage for young and middle-age forests. For provincial forests with high proportions in these age classes, the continuous biomass expansion factor method (CBM) by forest type with age class is more accurate and therefore more appropriate for estimating forest biomass. Based on the above approach designed for this study, forests in Liaoning Province were found to be a carbon sink, with carbon stocks increasing from 63.0 TgC in 1980 to 120.9 TgC in 2010, reflecting an annual increase of 1.9 TgC. The average carbon density of forest biomass in the province has increased from 26.2 Mg ha(-1) in 1980 to 31.0 Mg ha(-1) in 2010. While the largest FBC occurred in middle-age forests, the average carbon density decreased in this age class during these three decades. The increase in forest carbon density resulted primarily from the increased area and carbon storage of mature forests. The relatively long age interval in each age class for slow-growing forest types increased the uncertainty of FBC estimates by CBM-forest type with age class, and further studies should devote more attention to the time span of age classes in establishing biomass expansion factors for use in CBM calculations.

  6. Global water resources assessment at a sub-annual timescale: Application to climate change impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T.; Hanasaki, N.; Takahashi, K.; Hijioka, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Several reports have assessed water scarcity globally using the widely accepted withdrawal-to-water resources ratio (hereafter WWR). This index is defined as the ratio of annual withdrawal to the annual renewable water resources (runoff). The index has also been used widely to assess the impact of climate change on global water resources. Here, we ask whether it is appropriate to use the WWR to assess the impact of climate change. Global warming is projected to increase the mean annual runoff in many parts of the world. Therefore, in these regions, the WWR decreases, by definition. However, water scarcity may not always be alleviated in these regions. Global warming is also projected to increase the temporal and spatial variability of precipitation, decrease snowfall, and change the timing of snowmelt. These phenomena may increase the temporal gap between water availability and water demand, which might worsen local water scarcity, even if the mean annual runoff is increased. To assess the impact of climate change on global water resources incorporating subannual time-scale phenomena, this study applies a new water scarcity index, the cumulative withdrawal-to-demand ratio (hereafter CWD). This index is defined as the ratio of the accumulation of daily water withdrawal from local water resources to the accumulation of daily water demand. To estimate daily water withdrawal and water demand, we used the state-of-the-art H08 global water resources model. Our results indicated that global warming increased the mean annual runoff in 52% of the total land area globally. However, in 22% of the area where runoff increased, the CWD showed increased water stress. Those regions included India, northern China, and northern Europe. For India, the increase in water stress was attributed to the seasonal gap between runoff increase and water demand. The increased runoff was concentrated in a few months, while the high water demand months differed and were much longer. For Europe

  7. Chemicals from Biomass: A Market Assessment of Bioproducts with Near-Term Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, Mary J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scarlata, Christopher [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kinchin, Christopher [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-23

    Production of chemicals from biomass offers a promising opportunity to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, as well as to improve the overall economics and sustainability of an integrated biorefinery. Given the increasing momentum toward the deployment and scale-up of bioproducts, this report strives to: (1) summarize near-term potential opportunities for growth in biomass-derived products; (2) identify the production leaders who are actively scaling up these chemical production routes; (3) review the consumers and market champions who are supporting these efforts; (4) understand the key drivers and challenges to move biomass-derived chemicals to market; and (5) evaluate the impact that scale-up of chemical strategies will have on accelerating the production of biofuels.

  8. Biomass offsets little or none of permafrost carbon release from soils, streams, and wildfire: an expert assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin W. Abbott,; Jeremy B. Jones,; Edward A.G. Schuur,; F.S. Chapin, III; William B. Bowden,; M. Syndonia Bret-Harte,; Howard E. Epstein,; Michael D. Flannigan,; Tamara K. Harms,; Teresa N. Hollingsworth,; Michelle Mack,; McGuire, Anthony; Susan M. Natali,; Adrian V. Rocha,; Suzanne E. Tank,; Merrit R. Turetsky,; Jorien E. Vonk,; Wickland, Kimberly P.; Aiken, George R.

    2016-01-01

    As the permafrost region warms, its large organic carbon pool will be increasingly vulnerable to decomposition, combustion, and hydrologic export. Models predict that some portion of this release will be offset by increased production of Arctic and boreal biomass; however, the lack of robust estimates of net carbon balance increases the risk of further overshooting international emissions targets. Precise empirical or model-based assessments of the critical factors driving carbon balance are unlikely in the near future, so to address this gap, we present estimates from 98 permafrost-region experts of the response of biomass, wildfire, and hydrologic carbon flux to climate change. Results suggest that contrary to model projections, total permafrost-region biomass could decrease due to water stress and disturbance, factors that are not adequately incorporated in current models. Assessments indicate that end-of-the-century organic carbon release from Arctic rivers and collapsing coastlines could increase by 75% while carbon loss via burning could increase four-fold. Experts identified water balance, shifts in vegetation community, and permafrost degradation as the key sources of uncertainty in predicting future system response. In combination with previous findings, results suggest the permafrost region will become a carbon source to the atmosphere by 2100 regardless of warming scenario but that 65%–85% of permafrost carbon release can still be avoided if human emissions are actively reduced.

  9. Biomass offsets little or none of permafrost carbon release from soils, streams, and wildfire: an expert assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, Benjamin; Jones, Jeremy B.; Schuur, Edward A.; Chapin, F. S.; Bowden, William B.; Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia; Epstein, Howard E.; Flannigan, Michael D.; Harms, Tamara K.; Hollingsworth, Teresa N.; Mack, Michelle; McGuire, A. David; Natali, Susan M.; Rocha, Adrian; Tank, Suzanne E.; Turetsky, Merritt; Vonk, Jorien E.; Wickland, Kimberly P.; Aiken, George R.; Alexander, Heather D.; Amon, Rainer M.; Benscoter, Brian W.; Bergeron, Yves; Bishop, Kevin; Blarquez, Olivier; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Breen, Amy L.; Buffam, Ishi; Cai, Yihua; Carcaillet, Christopher; Carey, Sean K.; Chen, Jing Ming; Chen, Han Y.; Christensen, Torben R.; Cooper, Lee W.; Cornelissen, J Hans C.; de Groot, William J.; DeLuca, Thomas H.; Dorrepaal, Ellen; Fetcher, Ned; Finlay, Jacques C.; Forbes, Bruce C.; French, Nancy H.; Gauthier, Sylvie; Girardin, Martin P.; Goetz, Scott J.; Goldammer, Johann G.; Gough, Laura; Grogan, Paul; Guo, Laodong; Higuera, Philip E.; Hinzman, Larry; Hu, Feng S.; Hugelius, Gustaf; Jafarov, Elchin E.; Jandt, Randi; Johnstone, Jill F.; Karlsson, J.; Kasischke, Eric S.; Kattner, Gerhard; Kelly, Ryan; Keuper, Frida; Kling, George; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Kouki, Jari; Kuhry, Peter; Laudon, Hjalmar; Laurion, Isabelle; Macdonald, Robie W.; Mann, Paul J.; Martikainen, Pertti; McClelland, James W.; Molau, Ulf; Oberbauer, Steven F.; Olefeldt, David; Pare, David; Parisien, Marc-Andre; Payette, Serge; Peng, Changhui; Pokrovesky, Oleg S.; Rastetter, Edward B.; Raymond, Peter A.; Raynolds, Martha K.; Rein, Guillermo; Reynolds, James F.; Robards, Martin; Rogers, Brendan M.; Schadel, Christina; Schaefer, Kevin; Schmidt, Inger K.; Shvidenko, Anatoly; Sky, Jasper; Spencer, Robert G.; Starr, Gregory; Striegl, Robert G.; Teisserenc, Roman; Tranvik, Lars J.; Virtanen, Tarmo; Welker, Jeffrey M.; Zimov, Sergei

    2016-03-07

    As the permafrost region warms, its large organic carbon pool will be increasingly vulnerable to decomposition, combustion, and hydrologic export. Models predict that some portion of this release will be offset by increased production of Arctic and boreal biomass; however, the lack of robust estimates of net carbon balance increases the risk of further overshooting international emissions targets. Precise empirical or model-based assessments of the critical factors driving carbon balance are unlikely in the near future, so to address this gap, we present estimates from 98 permafrost-region experts of the response of biomass, wildfire, and hydrologic carbon flux to climate change. Results suggest that contrary to model projections, total permafrost-region biomass could decrease due to water stress and disturbance, factors that are not adequately incorporated in current models. Assessments indicate that end-of-the-century organic carbon release from Arctic rivers and collapsing coastlines could increase by 75% while carbon loss via burning could increase four-fold. Experts identified water balance, shifts in vegetation community, and permafrost degradation as the key sources of uncertainty in predicting future system response. In combination with previous findings, results suggest the permafrost region will become a carbon source to the atmosphere by 2100 regardless of warming scenario but that 65%–85% of permafrost carbon release can still be avoided if human emissions are actively reduced.

  10. Integrated water resource assessment for the Adelaide region, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, James W.; Akeroyd, Michele; Oliver, Danielle P.

    2016-10-01

    South Australia is the driest state in the driest inhabited country in the world, Australia. Consequently, water is one of South Australia's highest priorities. Focus on water research and sources of water in the state became more critical during the Millenium drought that occurred between 1997 and 2011. In response to increased concern about water sources the South Australian government established The Goyder Institute for Water Research - a partnership between the South Australian State Government, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Flinders University, University of Adelaide and University of South Australia. The Goyder Institute undertakes cutting-edge science to inform the development of innovative integrated water management strategies to ensure South Australia's ongoing water security and enhance the South Australian Government's capacity to develop and deliver science-based policy solutions in water management. This paper focuses on the integrated water resource assessment of the northern Adelaide region, including the key research investments in water and climate, and how this information is being utilised by decision makers in the region.

  11. Forests: future fibre and fuel values : Woody biomass for energy and materials: resources, markets, carbon flows and sustainability impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Sikkema, R.

    2014-01-01

    From energy outlooks, it becomes clear that global bioenergy consumption is expected to grow further; specifically the demand for wood for electricity and heating, together with agricultural biomass for liquid biofuels. The EU has an ambitious and integrated policy in order to address climate change and security of energy supply towards 2020.Proposed policies with more stringent goals for the 2030 horizon are: 40% greenhouse gas emission (GHG) reduction, and further increase of Renewable Ener...

  12. Porphyry copper assessment of British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada: Chapter C in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Frost, Thomas P.; Ludington, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey does regional, national, and global assessments of resources (mineral, energy, water, biologic) to provide science in support of land management and decision making. Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about where mineral deposits are known and suspected to be in the Earth’s crust, which commodities may be present, and estimates of amounts of resources that may be present in undiscovered deposits.

  13. The role of natural resource and environmental economics in determining the trade-offs in consumption and production of energy inputs: The case of biomass energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, M.; Graham, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    Natural resource economics issues deal with flows and funds of renewable and nonrenewable resources over time. These issues include topics concerned with management of fisheries, forests, mineral, energy resources, the extinction of species and the irreversibility of development over time. Environmental economics issues deal with regulation of polluting activities and the valuation of environmental amenities. In this study we outline a framework for studying both natural resource and environmental economics issues for any renewable or nonrenewable resource. Valuation from both the cost and benefit sides are addressed as they relate to the valuation of environmental programs or policies. By using this top-down approach to analyze and determine the costs and benefits of using renewable or nonrenewable resources, policy-makers on the global, national and local scales may be better informed as to the probable nonmarket and market ramifications of their natural resource and environmental policy decisions. This general framework for analysis is then focused to address biomass energy crops and their usage as inputs to energy production. As with any energy technology, a complete analysis must include an examination of the entire fuel cycle; specifically both production and consumption sides. From a production standpoint, market valuation issues such as crop management techniques, inputs to production, and community economics issues must be addressed as well as nonmarket valuation issues such as soil erosion, ground water effects and carbon sequestration. On the consumption side, market valuation considerations such as energy fuel efficiency and quality, cost of conversion and employment of labor are important factors while the critical nonmarket valuation factors are ambient air visibility, greenhouse gas release, and disposal of the by-products of conversion and combustion.

  14. Biomass bale stack and field outlet locations assessment for efficient infield logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvested hay or biomass are traditionally baled for better handling and they are transported to the outlet for final utilization. For better management of bale logistics, producers often aggregate bales into stacks so that bale-hauling equipment can haul multiple bales for improved efficiency. Obje...

  15. A Life Cycle Assessment on a Fuel Production Through Distributed Biomass Gasification Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowaki, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Tsutomu; Ohkubo, Rui; Genchi, Yutaka

    In this paper, we estimated life cycle inventories (energy intensities and CO2 emissions) on the biomass gasification CGS, Bio-H2, Bio-MeOH (methanol) and Bio-DME (di-methyl ether), using the bottom-up methodology. CO2 emissions and energy intensities on material's chipping, transportation and dryer operation were estimated. Also, the uncertainties on the moisture content of biomass materials and the transportation distance to the plant were considered by the Monte Carlo simulation. The energy conversion system was built up by gasification through the BLUE Tower process, with either CGS, PSA (Pressure Swing Absorption) system or the liquefaction process. In our estimation, the biomass materials were the waste products from Japanese Cedar. The uncertainties of moisture content and transportation distance were assumed to be 20 to 50 wt.% and 5 to 50 km, respectively. The capability of the biomass gasification plant was 10 t-dry/d, that is, an annual throughput of 3,000 t-dry/yr. The production energy in each case was used as a functional unit. Finally, the energy intensities of 1.12 to 3.09 MJ/MJ and CO2 emissions of 4.79 to 88.0 g-CO2/MJ were obtained. CGS case contributes to the environmental mitigation, and Bio-H2 and/or Bio-DME cases have a potential to reduce CO2 emissions, compared to the conventional ones.

  16. Assessment and Monitoring of Siberian Forest Resources in the Framework of the Eu-Russia ZAPÁS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmullius, C. C.; Thiel, C. J.; Bartalev, S.; Emelyanov, K.; Korets, M.; Shvidenko, A.

    2011-12-01

    SUMMARY ZAPÁS investigates and cross validates methodologies using both Russian and European Earth observation data to develop procedures and products for forest resource assessment and monitoring. Products include biomass change maps for the years 2007-2008-2009 on a local scale, a biomass and improved land cover map on the regional scale, and a 1 km land cover map as input to a carbon accounting model. The geographical focus of research and development is Central Siberia, which contains two administrative districts of Russia, namely Krasnoyarsk Kray and Irkutsk Oblast. The overall concept of the ZAPÁS project is described in Fig. 1. The left column presents the required input data for methodological development and product delineation. The coarse scale products (> 300 m x 300 m) as well as the results of the terrestrial ecosystem full carbon accounting are addressed to the Federal Forest Agency as federal instance. Besides the input data (left column) also preliminary and final products are depicted in Fig. 1 (pale green and light green boxes, second and third column). In terms of scale in general two lines of products can be distinguished. The high resolution products feature one line (the lower half of the sketch) and comprise biomass and change maps for selected local sites. These products are addressed to support the UN FAO Forest Resources Assessment as well as the requirements of the local forest inventories. The other line comprises the medium to low scale products based on medium scale EO data: METEOR-M1, MERIS, and ASAR WS. The land cover map will be improved by means of a knowledge based merging process which combines the information of the biomass and land cover maps. The improved land cover map has to be implemented into the IIASA GIS (scale 1:500,000), which contains all required information for carbon accounting, including information on the land cover. Eventually, terrestrial ecosystem full carbon accounting will be accomplished. These coarse

  17. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Lusitanian Basin Province, Portugal, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Paxton, Stanley T.

    2016-11-04

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 121 million barrels of oil and 212 billion cubic feet of gas in the Lusitanian Basin Province, Portugal.

  18. Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (north of the Arctic Circle) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the World Petroleum Resources Project. The Assessment Unit is defined within the context of the higher-level...

  19. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - Iowa Corridor Project Area (Port Louisa NWR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for Iowa Corridor Project Area describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of...

  20. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for Cypress Creek NWR (CCNWR) describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of...

  1. 75 FR 21592 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Natural Resource Damage Assessment Restoration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... the collection of this information is to assist state and federal Natural Resource Trustees in more efficiently carrying out the restoration planning phase of Natural Resource Damage Assessments (NRDA), in... restoration projects. This information will be used by the Natural Resource Trustees to develop...

  2. 78 FR 42755 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Natural Resource Damage Assessment Restoration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... collection is to assist state and federal Natural Resource Trustees in more efficiently carrying out the restoration planning phase of Natural Resource Damage Assessments (NRDA), in compliance with the National... information will be used by the Natural Resource Trustees to develop potential restoration alternatives...

  3. Fort Drum integrated resource assessment. Volume 1, Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.

    1993-09-01

    Some of the most difficult problems that a federal site has in reducing its energy consumption in a cost-effective manner revolve around understanding where the energy is being used, and what technologies could be employed to decrease the energy use. Many large federal sites have one or two meters to track electric energy use for several thousand buildings and numerous industrial processes. Even where meters are available on individual buildings or family housing units, the meters are not consistently read. When the federal energy manager has been able to identify high energy users, he or she may not have the background, training, or resources to determine the most cost-effective options for reducing this energy use. This can lead to selection of suboptimal projects that prevent the site from achieving the full life-cycle cost savings. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), has developed a model program that provides a systematic approach to evaluating energy opportunities that (1) identifies the building groups and end uses that use the most energy (not just have the greatest energy-use intensity), and (2) evaluates the numerous options for retrofit or installation of new technology that will result in the selection of the most cost-effective technologies. In essence, this model program provides the federal energy manager with a roadmap to significantly reduce energy use in a planned, rational, cost-effective fashion that is not biased by the constraints of the typical funding sources available to federal sites. The results from this assessment process can easily be turned into a five- to ten-year energy management plan that identifies where to start and how to proceed in order to reach the mandated energy consumption targets.

  4. Alluvial Diamond Resource Potential and Production Capacity Assessment of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Anum, Solomon; Phillips, Emily C.

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by both diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in 'conflict' diamonds while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was to assess the alluvial diamond resource endowment and current production capacity of the alluvial diamond-mining sector in Ghana. A modified volume and grade methodology was used to estimate the remaining diamond reserves within the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields. The production capacity of the sector was estimated using a formulaic expression of the number of workers reported in the sector, their productivity, and the average grade of deposits mined. This study estimates that there are approximately 91,600,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remaining in both the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields: 89,000,000 carats in the Birim and 2,600,000 carats in the Bonsa. Production capacity is calculated to be 765,000 carats per year, based on the formula used and available data on the number of workers and worker productivity. Annual production is highly dependent on the international diamond market and prices, the numbers of seasonal workers actively mining in the sector, and

  5. Tidal Energy Resource Assessment in Chacao Channel, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, M.; Suarez, L.; Cienfuegos, R.; Thomson, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Chacao Channel, located in Los Lagos region in Chile (41º S; 73º W), is a highly energetic tidal channel, with a complex hydrodynamics resulting from the propagation of tidal waves through a narrow channel. The channel flow exhibits bi-directional tidal currents up to 4 to 5 m/s along with a high tidal range up to 6 m in its east end (Aiken, 2008: Cáceres et al., 2003). The channel has previously been identified as one of the most attractive sites in Chile for tidal energy extraction (Garrad Hassan and Partners, 2009); however this statement is based on global model predictions over coarse bathymetric information. In this investigation, the first hydrodynamic characterization of the Chacao channel is carried out in order to assess the hydrokinetic power available and to select the most interesting spots where the first tidal energy extraction devices might be installed in Chile. The Chacao channel hydrodynamic characterization and resource assessment is carried out in two stages: field measurements and numerical hydrodynamic modeling. The first stage involves a 10 m resolution multi-beam bathymetry of the channel, sea-level measurements using 6 tidal gauges distributed over the channel berms, tidal current measurements with 6 ADCPs distributed along the channel, and detailed measurements of turbulence in a specific spot in the channel using the Tidal Turbulence Mooring (TTM) developed by Thomson et al. (2013). In a second stage, numerical hydrodynamic modeling using FVCOM (Chen et al., 2003) was prepared for the entire Chacao channel region, using the field data collected in the first stage for calibration and validation of the model. The obtained results allow us to define suitable sites for marine energy extraction, finding large areas with 30 to 60 m depths where horizontal currents are above 1.5 m/s during 60% of the time of a 28 days tidal cycle, however the high levels of turbulence detected by the TTM indicate the need for more detailed studies on the

  6. Assessment of human resources management practices in Lebanese hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Diana

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sound human resources (HR management practices are essential for retaining effective professionals in hospitals. Given the recruitment and retention reality of health workers in the twenty-first century, the role of HR managers in hospitals and those who combine the role of HR managers with other responsibilities should not be underestimated. The objective of this study is to assess the perception of HR managers about the challenges they face and the current strategies being adopted. The study also aims at assessing enabling factors including role, education, experience and HR training. Methods A cross-sectional survey design of HR managers (and those who combine their role as HR manager with other duties in Lebanese hospitals was utilized. The survey included a combination of open- and close-ended questions. Questions included educational background, work experience, and demographics, in addition to questions about perceived challenges and key strategies being used. Quantitative data analysis included uni-variate analysis, whereas thematic analysis was used for open-ended questions. Results A total of 96 respondents from 61 hospitals responded. Respondents had varying levels of expertise in the realm of HR management. Thematic analysis revealed that challenges varied across respondents and participating hospitals. The most frequently reported challenge was poor employee retention (56.7%, lack of qualified personnel (35.1%, and lack of a system for performance evaluation (28.9%. Some of the strategies used to mitigate the above challenges included offering continuing education and training for employees (19.6%, improving salaries (14.4%, and developing retention strategies (10.3%. Mismatch between reported challenges and strategies were observed. Conclusion To enable hospitals to deliver good quality, safe healthcare, improving HR management is critical. There is a need for a cadre of competent HR managers who can fully

  7. Assessing genetic resources of summer truffle in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Gažo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of summer truffle genetic resources, their description and evaluation of economically important traits in Slovak natural truffiéres started since 2005. Draft of national descriptor list has been developed to manage truffle genetic resources collected in the information system "Tuber Aestivum/ Uncinatum Phenotype Data" (TAUPD. Revision was performed in TAUPD to increase effectiveness of truffle breeding process.

  8. Effective coordination and cooperation between ecological risk assessments and natural resource damage assessments: a new synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouguet, Ronald G; Charters, David W; Champagne, Larry F; Davis, Mark; Desvouges, William; Durda, Judi L; Hyatt, William H; Jacobson, Rachel; Kapustka, Larry; Longoria, Rose M

    2009-10-01

    Although ecological risk assessments (ERAs) and natural resource damage assessments (NRDAs) are performed under different statutory and regulatory authorities, primarily the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), as currently practiced, the activities typically overlap. ERAs performed as part of the response process (typically by the US Environmental Protection Agency [USEPA]) should be closely coordinated with the natural resource trustees' (trustees') NRDAs. Trustees should actively participate in the early stages of the remedial investigation (RI) and work with USEPA, including the potentially responsible parties (PRPs), when appropriate, to coordinate NRDA data needs with those of the RI. Close coordination can present opportunities to avoid inefficiencies, such as unnecessary resampling or duplicate data gathering, and provide the opportunity to fulfill both process requirements with a few well-designed investigations. Early identification of opportunities for practical combined assessment can save money and time as the restoration process proceeds and facilitate a cooperative resolution of the entire site's CERCLA liability. The Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) convened an invited workshop (August 2008) to address coordination between ERA and NRDA efforts. This paper presents the findings and conclusions of the Framework Work Group, which considered technical issues common to each process, while mindful of the current legal and policy landscape, and developed recommendations for future practice.

  9. Assessment of natural resources and the policy of subsidies in grain production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Wei; Hao Jinmin; Zhang Qiuping

    2006-01-01

    Based on the analysis on the status quo of natural resources input in grain production and on the policy of grain subsidies, this paper puts forward a new idea - establishing grain subsidies through assessing the value of the natural resources in grain production. The assessment of the natural resources in grain production provides rationale and reference standard for the policy of grain subsidies, which will promote the sustainable use of natural resources accordingly. This paper concludes: (1) it is necessary for the grain subsidies to assess the full value of natural resources,including economic value, ecological value and social value; (2) the government should give farmers direct subsidies or environment subsidies according to the economic and ecological value of natural resources in grain production; (3) the social value of natural resources can be realized by establishing the country social security system, taking the social value as the criterion for the payment for part of farmers insurance.

  10. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-01-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.

  11. Digital Resources in Instruction and Research: Assessing Faculty Discovery, Use and Needs--Final Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, the Digital Initiatives Coordinating Committee (DICC) requested a comprehensive assessment of the UW Digital Collections (UWDC). The goal of this assessment was to better understand faculty awareness of and expectations for digital library resources, services and tools; obtain faculty feedback on digital resource and service needs that…

  12. Genomic resources in fruit plants: an assessment of current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Manoj K; Shekhawat, N S

    2015-01-01

    The availability of many genomic resources such as genome sequences, functional genomics resources including microarrays and RNA-seq, sufficient numbers of molecular markers, express sequence tags (ESTs) and high-density genetic maps is causing a rapid acceleration of genetics and genomic research of many fruit plants. This is leading to an increase in our knowledge of the genes that are linked to many horticultural and agronomically important traits. Recently, some progress has also been made on the identification and functional analysis of miRNAs in some fruit plants. This is one of the most active research fields in plant sciences. The last decade has witnessed development of genomic resources in many fruit plants such as apple, banana, citrus, grapes, papaya, pears, strawberry etc.; however, many of them are still not being exploited. Furthermore, owing to lack of resources, infrastructure and research facilities in many lesser-developed countries, development of genomic resources in many underutilized or less-studied fruit crops, which grow in these countries, is limited. Thus, research emphasis should be given to those fruit crops for which genomic resources are relatively scarce. The development of genomic databases of these less-studied fruit crops will enable biotechnologists to identify target genes that underlie key horticultural and agronomical traits. This review presents an overview of the current status of the development of genomic resources in fruit plants with the main emphasis being on genome sequencing, EST resources, functional genomics resources including microarray and RNA-seq, identification of quantitative trait loci and construction of genetic maps as well as efforts made on the identification and functional analysis of miRNAs in fruit plants.

  13. Estimation of forest resources from a country wide laser scanning survey and national forest inventory data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Schumacher, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Airborne laser scanning may provide a means for assessing local forest biomass resources. In this study, national forest inventory (NFI) data was used as reference data for modeling forest basal area, volume, aboveground biomass, and total biomass from laser scanning data obtained in a countrywide...

  14. Biomass burning in the Amazon region: Aerosol source apportionment and associated health risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Alves, Nilmara; Brito, Joel; Caumo, Sofia; Arana, Andrea; de Souza Hacon, Sandra; Artaxo, Paulo; Hillamo, Risto; Teinilä, Kimmo; Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia Regina; de Castro Vasconcellos, Pérola

    2015-11-01

    The Brazilian Amazon represents about 40% of the world's remaining tropical rainforest. However, human activities have become important drivers of disturbance in that region. The majority of forest fire hotspots in the Amazon arc due to deforestation are impacting the health of the local population of over 10 million inhabitants. In this study we characterize western Amazonia biomass burning emissions through the quantification of 14 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Organic Carbon, Elemental Carbon and unique tracers of biomass burning such as levoglucosan. From the PAHs dataset a toxic equivalence factor is calculated estimating the carcinogenic and mutagenic potential of biomass burning emissions during the studied period. Peak concentration of PM10 during the dry seasons was observed to reach 60 μg m-3 on the 24 h average. Conversely, PM10 was relatively constant throughout the wet season indicating an overall stable balance between aerosol sources and sinks within the filter sampling resolution. Similar behavior is identified for OC and EC components. Levoglucosan was found in significant concentrations (up to 4 μg m-3) during the dry season. Correspondingly, the estimated lung cancer risk calculated during the dry seasons largely exceeded the WHO health-based guideline. A source apportionment study was carried out through the use of Absolute Principal Factor Analysis (APFA), identifying a three-factor solution. The biomass burning factor is found to be the dominating aerosol source, having 75.4% of PM10 loading. The second factor depicts an important contribution of several PAHs without a single source class and therefore was considered as mixed sources factor, contributing to 6.3% of PM10. The third factor was mainly associated with fossil fuel combustion emissions, contributing to 18.4% of PM10. This work enhances the knowledge of aerosol sources and its impact on climate variability and local population, on a site representative of the

  15. Assessment of tillage systems in organic farming: influence of soil structure on microbial biomass. First results

    OpenAIRE

    Vian, Jean François; Peigné, Joséphine; Chaussod, Rémi; Roger-Estrade, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Soil tillage modifies environmental conditions of soil microorganisms and their ability to release nitrogen. We compare the influence of reduced tillage (RT) and mouldboard ploughing (MP) on the soil microbial functioning in organic farming. In order to connect soil structure generated by these tillage systems on the soil microbial biomass we adopt a particular sampling scheme based on the morphological characterisation of the soil structure by the description of the soil profile. This method...

  16. Assessment of impacts on ground water resources in Libya and vulnerability to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Bindra; Hamid, A.; S. Abulifa; H.S. Al Reiani; Hammuda Khalifa Abdalla

    2014-01-01

    This paper is designed to present the likely impact of climate change on groundwater resources in general and Libya in particular. State of the art reviews on recent research studies, and methodology to assess the impact of climate change on groundwater resources shows that climate change poses uncertainties to the supply and management of water resources. It outlines to demonstrate that how climate change impact assessment plays a vital role in forming the sensitive water balance rarely achi...

  17. Allometric Biomass, Biomass Expansion Factor and Wood Density Models for the OP42 Hybrid Poplar in Southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Tærø; Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Stupak, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Biomass and biomass expansion factor functions are important in wood resource assessment, especially with regards to bioenergy feedstocks and carbon pools. We sampled 48 poplar trees in seven stands with the purpose of estimating allometric models for predicting biomass of individual tree...... components, stem-to-aboveground biomass expansion factors (BEF) and stem basic densities of the OP42 hybrid poplar clone in southern Scandinavia. Stand age ranged from 3 to 31 years, individual tree diameter at breast height (dbh) from 1.2 to 41 cm and aboveground tree biomass from 0.39 to 670 kg. Models...... for predicting total aboveground leafless, stem and branch biomass included dbh and tree height as predictor variables and explained more than 97 % of the total variation. The BEF was approaching 2.0 for the smallest trees but declined with increasing tree size and stabilized around 1.2 for trees with dbh >10 cm...

  18. Viability assessment of regional biomass pre-processing center based bioethanol value chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Joseph E.

    Petroleum accounts for 94% of all liquid fuels and 36% of the total of all energy consumed in the United States. Petroleum dependence is problematic because global petroleum reserves are estimated to last only for 40 to 60 years at current consumption rates; global supplies are often located in politically unstable or unfriendly regions; and fossil fuels have negative environmental footprints. Domestic policies have aimed at promoting alternative, renewable liquid fuels, specifically bio-fuels derived from organic matter. Cellulosic bio-ethanol is one promising alternative fuel that has featured prominently in federal bio-fuel mandates under the Energy Independence and Security Act, 2007. However, the cellulosic bio-ethanol industry faces several technical, physical and industrial organization challenges. This dissertation examines the concept of a network of regional biomass pre-treatment centers (RBPC) that form an extended biomass supply chain feeding into a simplified biorefinery as a way to overcome these challenges. The analyses conducted address the structural and transactional issues facing bio-ethanol value chain establishment; the technical and financial feasibility of a stand alone pre-treatment center (RBPC); the impact of distributed pre-treatment on biomass transport costs; a comparative systems cost evaluation of the performance of the RBPC chain versus a fully integrated biorefinery (gIBRh), followed by application of the analytical framework to three case study regions.

  19. Risk assessment of nitrate and petroleum-derived hydrocarbon addition on Contricriba weissflogii biomass, lifetime, and nutritional value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shun-Xing, Li; Feng-Jiao, Liu; Feng-Ying, Zheng; Xu-Guang, Huang; Yue-Gang, Zuo

    2014-03-15

    Coastal diatoms are often exposed to both petroleum-derived hydrocarbon pollution and eutrophication. How these exposures influence on algal biomass, lifetime, and nutritional value are unknown. To examine a more accurate risk assessment of the pollutants on the role of diatoms in coastal ecosystem functions, Conticribra weissflogii was maintained at different concentrations of nitrate (N) and/or water-soluble fractions of No.0 diesel oil (WSF). Algal density, cell growth cycle, protein, chlorophyll a, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and malonaldehyde (MDA) were determined for the assessment of algal biomass, lifetime, nutritional value, photosynthesis and respiration, antioxidant capacity, and lipid peroxidation, respectively.When N addition was combined with WSF pollution, the cell growth cycles were shortened by 27-44%; SOD activities were decreased by 1-64%; algal density, the concentrations of chlorophyll a, protein, and MDA were varied between 38 and 310%, 62 and 712%, 4 and 124%, and 19 and 233% of the values observed in N addition experiments, respectively. Coastal ecosystem functions were severely weakened by N and WSF additions, and the influence was increased in the order: Nassessment of petroleum-derived hydrocarbon on coastal ecosystem functions.

  20. A framework for quantitative assessment of impacts related to energy and mineral resource development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seth S.; Diffendorfer, James; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Berger, Byron R.; Cook, Troy A.; Gautier, Donald L.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Gerritsen, Margot; Graffy, Elisabeth; Hawkins, Sarah; Johnson, Kathleen; Macknick, Jordan; McMahon, Peter; Modde, Tim; Pierce, Brenda; Schuenemeyer, John H.; Semmens, Darius; Simon, Benjamin; Taylor, Jason; Walton-Day, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Natural resource planning at all scales demands methods for assessing the impacts of resource development and use, and in particular it requires standardized methods that yield robust and unbiased results. Building from existing probabilistic methods for assessing the volumes of energy and mineral resources, we provide an algorithm for consistent, reproducible, quantitative assessment of resource development impacts. The approach combines probabilistic input data with Monte Carlo statistical methods to determine probabilistic outputs that convey the uncertainties inherent in the data. For example, one can utilize our algorithm to combine data from a natural gas resource assessment with maps of sage grouse leks and piñon-juniper woodlands in the same area to estimate possible future habitat impacts due to possible future gas development. As another example: one could combine geochemical data and maps of lynx habitat with data from a mineral deposit assessment in the same area to determine possible future mining impacts on water resources and lynx habitat. The approach can be applied to a broad range of positive and negative resource development impacts, such as water quantity or quality, economic benefits, or air quality, limited only by the availability of necessary input data and quantified relationships among geologic resources, development alternatives, and impacts. The framework enables quantitative evaluation of the trade-offs inherent in resource management decision-making, including cumulative impacts, to address societal concerns and policy aspects of resource development.

  1. A National Research Council Evaluation of the Department of Energy's Marine and Hydrokinetic Resource Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickson, D.; Holmes, K. J.; Cooke, D.

    2012-12-01

    Marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) resources are increasingly becoming part of energy regulatory, planning, and marketing activities in the U.S. and elsewhere. In particular, state-based renewable portfolio standards and federal production and investment tax credits have led to an increased interest in the possible deployment of MHK technologies. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-58) directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate the size of the MHK resource base. In order to help DOE prioritize its overall portfolio of future research, increase the understanding of the potential for MHK resource development, and direct MHK device and/or project developers to locations of greatest promise, the DOE Wind and Water Power Program requested that the National Research Council (NRC) provide an evaluation of the detailed assessments being conducted by five individual resource assessment groups. These resource assessment groups were contracted to estimate the amount of extractable energy from wave, tidal, ocean current, ocean thermal energy conversion, and riverine resources. Performing these assessments requires that each resource assessment group estimate the average power density of the resource base, as well as the basic technology characteristics and spatial and temporal constituents that convert power into electricity for that resource. The NRC committee evaluated the methodologies, technologies, and assumptions associated with each of these resource assessments. The committee developed a conceptual framework for delineating the processes used to develop the assessment results requested by the DOE, with definitions of the theoretical, technical, and practical resource to clarify elements of the overall resource assessment process. This allowed the NRC committee to make a comparison of different methods, terminology, and processes among the five resource assessment groups. The committee concluded that the overall approach taken by the wave resource and

  2. Estimating aboveground biomass for broadleaf woody plants and young conifers in Sierra Nevada, California forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Thomas W.; Shook, Christine D.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of biomass is fundamental to a wide range of research and natural resource management goals. An accurate estimation of plant biomass is essential to predict potential fire behavior, calculate carbon sequestration for global climate change research, assess critical wildlife habitat, and so forth. Reliable allometric equations from simple field measurements are necessary for efficient evaluation of plant biomass. However, allometric equations are not available for many common woody plant taxa in the Sierra Nevada. In this report, we present more than 200 regression equations for the Sierra Nevada western slope that relate crown diameter, plant height, crown volume, stem diameter, and both crown diameter and height to the dry weight of foliage, branches, and entire aboveground biomass. Destructive sampling methods resulted in regression equations that accurately predict biomass from one or two simple, nondestructive field measurements. The tables presented here will allow researchers and natural resource managers to easily choose the best equations to fit their biomass assessment needs.

  3. Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. [Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States)

    1992-03-01

    This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

  4. Assessment of Professional Competences. Constructive Dimension of Human Resources Management

    OpenAIRE

    Simona PONEA; Antonio SANDU

    2010-01-01

    The present article proposes a model of how to develop a plan for evaluate professional skills, applicable to people who want to certify skills acquired in non-formal ways and also in human resource departments, that want to evaluate professional skills of its own members, with the purpose to achieve a more efficient use of human resources, and also to derulate organizational development programs that includes professional training.

  5. Energy Efficiency in Western Utility Resource Plans: Impacts onRegional Resources Assessment and Support for WGA Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopper, Nicole; Goldman, Charles; Schlegal, Jeff

    2006-08-01

    In the aftermath of the consumer price shocks and short-term power shortages of the 2000-01 electricity crisis, policymakers and regulators in Western states are placing increased emphasis on integrated resource planning (IRP), resource adequacy and assessment and a diversified portfolio of resources to meet the needs of electricity consumers. In some states, this has led to a resurgence in state and utility commitments to energy efficiency. Increasing interest in acquiring energy efficiency as a power-system resource is also driven by the desire to dampen high growth rates in electricity demand in some Western states, rapid increases in natural gas prices, concerns about the environmental impacts of electricity generation (e.g. water consumption by power plants, air quality), and the potential of energy efficiency to provide utility bill savings for households and businesses (WGA CDEAC 2006). Recognizing the cost-competitiveness and environmental benefits of energy efficiency, the Western Governor's Association (WGA) has set a high priority for energy efficiency, establishing a goal of reducing projected electricity demand by 20% across the West by 2020 in a policy resolution on Clean and Diversified Energy for the West (WGA 2004). Nationally, the need for improved tracking of demand-side resources in load forecasting is formalized in the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC)'s recently adopted reliability standards, which utilities and regional reliability organizations will need to comply with (NERC 2005a and 2005b). In this study, we examine the treatment of energy efficiency in recent resource plans issued by fourteen investor-owned utilities (IOUs) in the Western United States and Canada. The goals of this study are to: (1) summarize energy-efficiency resources as represented in a large sample of recent resource plans prepared by Western utilities and identify key issues; (2) evaluate the extent to which the information provided in

  6. National forecast for geothermal resource exploration and development with techniques for policy analysis and resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassel, T.A.V.; Shimamoto, G.T.; Amundsen, C.B.; Blair, P.D.; Finan, W.F.; Smith, M.R.; Edeistein, R.H.

    1982-03-31

    The backgrund, structure and use of modern forecasting methods for estimating the future development of geothermal energy in the United States are documented. The forecasting instrument may be divided into two sequential submodels. The first predicts the timing and quality of future geothermal resource discoveries from an underlying resource base. This resource base represents an expansion of the widely-publicized USGS Circular 790. The second submodel forecasts the rate and extent of utilization of geothermal resource discoveries. It is based on the joint investment behavior of resource developers and potential users as statistically determined from extensive industry interviews. It is concluded that geothermal resource development, especially for electric power development, will play an increasingly significant role in meeting US energy demands over the next 2 decades. Depending on the extent of R and D achievements in related areas of geosciences and technology, expected geothermal power development will reach between 7700 and 17300 Mwe by the year 2000. This represents between 8 and 18% of the expected electric energy demand (GWh) in western and northwestern states.

  7. Micro -algae biomass as an alternative resource for fishmeal and fish oil in the production of fish feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed

    application for aquaculture are related to nutrition, being used as a sole fresh feed or an additive, e.g. source of pigment. Algae produce almost all nutritious compounds which are required for fish. The diverse biochemical composition of microalgae represents them as a promising candidate...... for the formulation of fish feed. The nutritional composition of microalgae depends on the species, environmental conditions and growth medium composition. Microalgae for use in aquaculture should be non-toxic and possess the essential nutritive constituents, in a reasonable price. Photosynthetic production of algae...... acids (LC PUFA), and bioactive compounds such as natural antioxidants. Effects of growth media composition/concentration and cultivation time on the nutritional composition of the biomass, variations in proteins, lipid, fatty acid composition, amino acids, tocopherols, and pigments were evaluated. Among...

  8. Characteristics of Composite Rice Straw and Coconut Shell as Biomass Energy Resources (Briquette(Case study: Muara Telang Village, Banyuasin of South Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yerizam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw and coconut shell as Solid residues are, biomass residue materials that are not optimally used by farmers in Muara Telang and potentially become environmental pollutant. These residues are used as an alternative energy which are biomass briquettes. Post-harvest produced 114 tons yield of rice straw and 80 tons yield of coconut shell. Mostly these residues were burned and produced environmental gas pollutant such as  CO, CO2 and NOx emissions. Rice straw and coconut shell have carbon compound that contained in the fixed carbon (FC, which flammable and became energy resources. Rice straw has 15.61% of FC and coconut shell has 78.32% of FC. Rice straw fuel value is 1525.5 cal/gram while  coconut shell has 7283.5 cal/gram of fuel value. The fuel value of biobriquette in ratio 50:50 is 4354.50 cal / gram. This fuel value close to coal fuel value between 4000 - 8000 cal / gram.

  9. Combined Sustainability Assessment and Techno-Economic Analysis for the Production of Biomass-Derived High-Octane Gasoline Blendstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric C. D.; Talmadge, Michael; Dutta, Abhijit

    2015-11-13

    Conversion technologies for biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels are being actively developed. Converting biomass into advanced hydrocarbon fuels requires detailed assessments to help prioritize research; techno-economic analysis (TEA) is a long established tool used to assess feasibility and progress. TEA provides information needed to make informed judgments about the viability of any given conceptual conversion process; it is particularly useful to identify technical barriers and measure progress toward overcoming those barriers. Expansion of the cellulosic biofuels industry at the scale needed to meet the Renewable Fuel Standard goals is also expected to have environmental impacts. Hence, the success of the biofuels industry depends not only on economic viability, but also on environmental sustainability. A biorefinery process that is economically feasible but suffers from key sustainability drawbacks is not likely to represent a long-term solution to replace fossil-derived fuels. Overarching concerns like environmental sustainability need to be addressed for biofuels production. Combined TEA and environmental sustainability assessment of emerging pathways helps facilitate biorefinery designs that are both economically feasible and minimally impactful to the environment. This study focuses on environmental sustainability assessment and techno-economic analysis for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via gasification and methanol/dimethyl ether intermediates. Results from the conceptual process design with economic analysis, along with the quantification and assessment of the environmental sustainability, are presented and discussed. Sustainability metrics associated with the production of high-octane gasoline include carbon conversion efficiency, consumptive water use, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy consumption, energy return on investment and net energy value.

  10. A new measure-correlate-predict approach for resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joensen, A.; Landberg, L. [Risoe National Lab., Dept. of Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark); Madsen, H. [The Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Mathematical Modelling, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    In order to find reasonable candidate site for wind farms, it is of great importance to be able to calculate the wind resource at potential sites. One way to solve this problem is to measure wind speed and direction at the site, and use these measurements to predict the resource. If the measurements at the potential site cover less than e.g. one year, which most likely will be the case, it is not possible to get a reliable estimate of the long-term resource, using this approach. If long-term measurements from e.g. some nearby meteorological station are available, however, then statistical methods can be used to find a relation between the measurements at the site and at the meteorological station. This relation can then be used to transform the long-term measurements to the potential site, and the resource can be calculated using the transformed measurements. Here, a varying-coefficient model, estimated using local regression, is applied in order to establish a relation between the measurements. The approach is evaluated using measurements from two sites, located approximately two kilometres apart, and the results show that the resource in this case can be predicted accurately, although this approach has serious shortcomings. (au)

  11. Improved Offshore Wind Resource Assessment in Global Climate Stabilization Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, D.; Sullivan, P.; Heimiller, D.; Lopez, A.; Eurek, K.; Badger, J.; Jorgensen, H. E.; Kelly, M.; Clarke, L.; Luckow, P.

    2012-10-01

    This paper introduces a technique for digesting geospatial wind-speed data into areally defined -- country-level, in this case -- wind resource supply curves. We combined gridded wind-vector data for ocean areas with bathymetry maps, country exclusive economic zones, wind turbine power curves, and other datasets and relevant parameters to build supply curves that estimate a country's offshore wind resource defined by resource quality, depth, and distance-from-shore. We include a single set of supply curves -- for a particular assumption set -- and study some implications of including it in a global energy model. We also discuss the importance of downscaling gridded wind vector data to capturing the full resource potential, especially over land areas with complex terrain. This paper includes motivation and background for a statistical downscaling methodology to account for terrain effects with a low computational burden. Finally, we use this forum to sketch a framework for building synthetic electric networks to estimate transmission accessibility of renewable resource sites in remote areas.

  12. Enterprise resource planning: An assessment for readiness to change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ashraf Nazari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation for the implementation of enterprise resource planning among 58 production units in province of Ilam, Iran. The proposed study of this paper considers the readiness in terms of six factors including human resources, financial resources, infrastructures, quality control, and information systems and communication technology. Using structural equation modeling, the study examines six hypotheses and the implementation is accomplished on LISREL software package. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.91, which is well above the minimum desirable level. The results of the survey have indicated that all six mentioned factors influence positively on ERP implementation and for a successful implementation of ERP, it is suggested to consider these factors, seriously.

  13. The 1980-1982 Geothermal Resource Assessment Program in Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korosec, Michael A.; Phillips, William M.; Schuster, J.Eric

    1983-08-01

    Since 1978, the Division of Geology and Earth Resources of the Washington Department of Natural Resources has participated in the U.S. Department of Energy's (USDOE) State-Coupled Geothermal Resource Program. Federal and state funds have been used to investigate and evaluate the potential for geothermal resources, on both a reconnaissance and area-specific level. Preliminary results and progress reports for the period up through mid-1980 have already been released as a Division Open File Report (Korosec, Schuster, and others, 1981). Preliminary results and progress summaries of work carried out from mid-1980 through the end of 1982 are presented in this report. Only one other summary report dealing with geothermal resource investigations in the state has been published. An Information Circular released by the Division (Schuster and others, 1978) compiled the geology, geochemistry, and heat flow drilling results from a project in the Indian Heaven area in the south Cascades. The previous progress report for the geothermal program (Korosec, Schuster, and others, 1981) included information on temperature gradients measured throughout the state, heat flow drilling in the southern Cascades, gravity surveys for the southern Cascades, thermal and mineral spring investigations, geologic mapping for the White Pass-Tumac Mountain area, and area specific studies for the Camas area of Clark County and Mount St. Helens. This work, along with some additional studies, led to the compilation of the Geothermal Resources of Washington map (Korosec, Kaler, and others, 1981). The map is principally a nontechnical presentation based on all available geothermal information, presented as data points, tables, and text on a map with a scale of 1:500,000.

  14. Porphyry copper assessment of the Tethys region of western and southern Asia: Chapter V in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürcher, Lukas; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Mars, John C.; Ludington, Stephen; Zientek, Michael L.; Dunlap, Pamela; Wallis, John C.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Sutphin, David M.; Berger, Byron R.; Herrington, Richard J.; Billa, Mario; Kuşcu, Ilkay; Moon, Charles J.; Richards, Jeremy P.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Kathleen M.

    2015-11-18

    A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Tethys region of western and southern Asia was carried out as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The purpose of the study was to delineate geographic areas as permissive tracts for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits at a scale of 1:1,000,000 and to provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper likely to be contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in those tracts. The team did the assessment using the USGS three-part form of mineral resource assessment, which is based on (1) mineral deposit and grade-tonnage models constructed from known deposits as analogs for undiscovered deposits, (2) delineation of permissive tracts based on geoscientific information, and (3) estimation of numbers of undiscovered deposits.

  15. Geology and undiscovered resource assessment of the potash-bearing Central Asia Salt Basin, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan: Chapter AA in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jeff; Orris, Greta J.; Dunlap, Pamela; Cocker, Mark D.; Bliss, James D.

    2016-03-23

    Undiscovered potash resources in the Central Asia Salt Basin (CASB) of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan were assessed as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey. The term “potash” refers to potassium-bearing, water-soluble salts derived from evaporite basins, where seawater dried up and precipitated various salt compounds; the word for the element “potassium” is derived from potash. Potash is produced worldwide at amounts exceeding 30 million metric tons per year, mostly for use in fertilizers. The term “potash” is used by industry to refer to potassium chloride, as well as potassium in sulfate, nitrate, and oxide forms. For the purposes of this assessment, the term “potash” refers to potassium ores and minerals and potash ore grades. Resource and production values are usually expressed by industry in terms of K2O (potassium oxide) or muriate of potash (KCl, potassium chloride).

  16. Modeling and Assessment of a Biomass Gasification Integrated System for Multigeneration Purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Khanmohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of biomass due to the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impacts has attracted many researchers’ attention in the recent years. Access to an energy conversion system which is able to have the optimum performance for applying valuable low heating value fuels has been considered by many practitioners and scholars. This paper focuses on the accurate modeling of biomass gasification process and the optimal design of a multigeneration system (heating, cooling, electrical power, and hydrogen as energy carrier to take the advantage of this clean energy. In the process of gasification modeling, a thermodynamic equilibrium model based on Gibbs energy minimization is used. Also, in the present study, a detailed parametric analysis of multigeneration system for undersigning the behavior of objective functions with changing design parameters and obtaining the optimal design parameters of the system is done as well. The results show that with exergy efficiency as an objective function this parameter can increase from 19.6% in base case to 21.89% in the optimized case. Also, for the total cost rate of system as an objective function it can decrease from 154.4 $/h to 145.1 $/h.

  17. Novel application of a combustion chamber for experimental assessment of biomass burning emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusini, Ilaria; Pallozzi, E.; Corona, P.; Ciccioli, P.; Calfapietra, C.

    2014-09-01

    Biomass burning is an important ecological factor in the Mediterranean ecosystem and a significant source of several atmospheric gases and particles. This paper demonstrates the performance of a recently developed combustion chamber, showing its capability in estimating the emission from wildland fire through a case study with dried leaf litter of Quercus robur. The combustion chamber was equipped with a thermocouple, a high resolution balance, an epiradiometer, two different sampling lines to collect volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particles, and a portable analyzer to measure carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. VOCs were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after enrichment on adsorption traps, but also monitored on-line with a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). Preliminary qualitative analyses of emissions from burning dried leaf litter of Q. robur found CO and CO2 as the main gaseous species emitted during the flaming and smoldering stages. Aromatic VOCs, such as benzene and toluene, were detected together with several oxygenated VOCs, like acetaldehyde and methanol. Moreover, a clear picture of the carbon balance during the biomass combustion was obtained with the chamber used. The combustion chamber will allow to distinguish the contribution of different plant tissues to the emissions occurring during different combustion phases.

  18. Biomass for bioenergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott

    for displacing fossil resources and is perceived as one of the main pillars of a future low-carbon or no-carbon energy supply. However, biomass, renewable as it is, is for any relevant, time horizon to be considered a finite resource as it replenishes at a finite rate. Conscientious stewardship of this finite......Across the range of renewable energy resources, bioenergy is probably the most complex, as using biomass to support energy services ties into a number of fields; climate change, food production, rural development, biodiversity and environmental protection. Biomass offer several options...... the undesirable impacts of bioenergy done wrong. However, doing bioenergy right is a significant challenge due to the ties into other fields of society. Fundamentally plant biomass is temporary storage of solar radiation energy and chemically bound energy from nutrients. Bioenergy is a tool to harness solar...

  19. Assessing Faculty Perceptions of Free Educational Resources: One Institution's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Providing financial incentives to faculty who adopt free educational resources in place of traditional textbooks is becoming more common in U.S. higher education institutions. The University of Mississippi (UM) offered liberal arts instructors the opportunity to apply for internal funding to replace one traditional textbook in their classroom with…

  20. European resource assessment for geothermal energy and CO2 storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.D. van; Neele, F.

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal Energy and CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) are both considered major contributors to the global energy transition. Their success critically depends on subsurface resource quality, which in turn depends on specific subsurface parameters. For CCS and Geothermal Energy these in some respect ov

  1. An Assessment of River Resources for Louisiana Coastal Land Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Resources Max maximum Min minimum MRGO Mississippi River Gulf Outlet NAVD North American Vertical Datum RSLR relative sea-level rise SRED ...Enhancement Device ( SRED ), a low weir to enhance deposition, was not constructed and could be added later as the 20,000 cubic feet per second (cfs

  2. 76 FR 16250 - Planning Resource Adequacy Assessment Reliability Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ...\\ NERC defines direct control load management (DCLM) as ``Demand-Side Management that is under the direct... Adequacy,'' which is defined as the ability of supply-side and demand-side resources to meet the..., less Direct Control Load Management and Interruptible Demand. Third, ``Peak Period,'' which is...

  3. 75 FR 66038 - Planning Resource Adequacy Assessment Reliability Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... control load management (DCLM) as ``Demand-Side Management that is under the direct control of the system... of supply-side and demand-side resources to meet the aggregate electrical demand (including losses... metered boundaries, less Direct Control Load Management and Interruptible Demand. Peak Period: A...

  4. Situation Aware Assessment of Regulating Power Need and Resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Distributed generation and renewable energy sources are both, new disturbance and new regulation resource. Which it is, depends to a large extend on the facilitation of control capabilities, that for example modern wind turbines can provide. Most renewable energy sources are quite unlike classical...

  5. Wind resource assessment a practical guide to developing a wind project

    CERN Document Server

    Brower, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A practical, authoritative guide to the assessment of wind resources for utility-scale wind projects-authored by a team of experts from a leading renewable energy consultancy The successful development of wind energy projects depends on an accurate assessment of where, how often, and how strongly the wind blows. A mistake in this stage of evaluation can cause severe financial losses and missed opportunities for developers, lenders, and investors. Wind Resource Assessment: A Practical Guide to Developing a Wind Project shows readers how to achieve a high standard of resource a

  6. Can DNA-Based Ecosystem Assessments Quantify Species Abundance? Testing Primer Bias and Biomass--Sequence Relationships with an Innovative Metabarcoding Protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Elbrecht

    Full Text Available Metabarcoding is an emerging genetic tool to rapidly assess biodiversity in ecosystems. It involves high-throughput sequencing of a standard gene from an environmental sample and comparison to a reference database. However, no consensus has emerged regarding laboratory pipelines to screen species diversity and infer species abundances from environmental samples. In particular, the effect of primer bias and the detection limit for specimens with a low biomass has not been systematically examined, when processing samples in bulk. We developed and tested a DNA metabarcoding protocol that utilises the standard cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI barcoding fragment to detect freshwater macroinvertebrate taxa. DNA was extracted in bulk, amplified in a single PCR step, and purified, and the libraries were directly sequenced in two independent MiSeq runs (300-bp paired-end reads. Specifically, we assessed the influence of specimen biomass on sequence read abundance by sequencing 31 specimens of a stonefly species with known haplotypes spanning three orders of magnitude in biomass (experiment I. Then, we tested the recovery of 52 different freshwater invertebrate taxa of similar biomass using the same standard barcoding primers (experiment II. Each experiment was replicated ten times to maximise statistical power. The results of both experiments were consistent across replicates. We found a distinct positive correlation between species biomass and resulting numbers of MiSeq reads. Furthermore, we reliably recovered 83% of the 52 taxa used to test primer bias. However, sequence abundance varied by four orders of magnitudes between taxa despite the use of similar amounts of biomass. Our metabarcoding approach yielded reliable results for high-throughput assessments. However, the results indicated that primer efficiency is highly species-specific, which would prevent straightforward assessments of species abundance and biomass in a sample. Thus, PCR

  7. Integrated water resources modelling for assessing sustainable water governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoulikaris, Charalampos; Ganoulis, Jacques; Tsoukalas, Ioannis; Makropoulos, Christos; Gkatzogianni, Eleni; Michas, Spyros

    2015-04-01

    Climatic variations and resulting future uncertainties, increasing anthropogenic pressures, changes in political boundaries, ineffective or dysfunctional governance of natural resources and environmental degradation are some of the most fundamental challenges with which worldwide initiatives fostering the "think globally, act locally" concept are concerned. Different initiatives target the protection of the environment through sustainable development; Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Transboundary Water Resources Management (TWRM) in the case of internationally shared waters are frameworks that have gained wide political acceptance at international level and form part of water resources management planning and implementation on a global scale. Both concepts contribute in promoting economic efficiency, social equity and environmental sustainability. Inspired by these holistic management approaches, the present work describes an effort that uses integrated water resources modelling for the development of an integrated, coherent and flexible water governance tool. This work in which a sequence of computer based models and tools are linked together, aims at the evaluation of the sustainable operation of projects generating renewable energy from water as well as the sustainability of agricultural demands and environmental security in terms of environmental flow under various climatic and operational conditions. More specifically, catchment hydrological modelling is coupled with dams' simulation models and thereafter with models dedicated to water resources management and planning,while the bridging of models is conducted through geographic information systems and custom programming tools. For the case of Mesta/Nestos river basin different priority rules in the dams' operational schedule (e.g. priority given to power production as opposed to irrigation needs and vice versa), as well as different irrigation demands, e.g. current water demands as opposed to

  8. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) R&D Program: US Geothermal Resources Review and Needs Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entingh, Dan; McLarty, Lynn

    2000-11-30

    The purpose of this report is to lay the groundwork for an emerging process to assess U.S. geothermal resources that might be suitable for development as Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). Interviews of leading geothermists indicate that doing that will be intertwined with updating assessments of U.S. higher-quality hydrothermal resources and reviewing methods for discovering ''hidden'' hydrothermal and EGS resources. The report reviews the history and status of assessment of high-temperature geothermal resources in the United States. Hydrothermal, Enhanced, and Hot Dry Rock resources are addressed. Geopressured geothermal resources are not. There are three main uses of geothermal resource assessments: (1) They inform industry and other interest parties of reasonable estimates of the amounts and likely locations of known and prospective geothermal resources. This provides a basis for private-sector decisions whether or not to enter the geothermal energy business at all, and for where to look for useful resources. (2) They inform government agencies (Federal, State, local) of the same kinds of information. This can inform strategic decisions, such as whether to continue to invest in creating and stimulating a geothermal industry--e.g., through research or financial incentives. And it informs certain agencies, e.g., Department of Interior, about what kinds of tactical operations might be required to support such activities as exploration and leasing. (3) They help the experts who are performing the assessment(s) to clarify their procedures and data, and in turn, provide the other two kinds of users with a more accurate interpretation of what the resulting estimates mean. The process of conducting this assessment brings a spotlight to bear on what has been accomplished in the domain of detecting and understanding reservoirs, in the period since the last major assessment was conducted.

  9. Assessment of tight-gas resources in Canyon sandstones of the Val Verde Basin, Texas, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2016-07-08

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed mean resources of 5 trillion cubic feet of gas and 187 million barrels of natural gas liquids in tight-gas assessment units in the Canyon sandstones of the Val Verde Basin, Texas.

  10. National Assessments: Testing the System. EDI Learning Resources Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Paud, Ed.; And Others

    Recognizing the importance of national educational assessments, an increasing number of countries have begun to establish their own systems, and many have sought support from the World Bank. This book provides background on national assessments through papers developed for three World Bank seminars. The papers are: (1) "Introduction"…

  11. Nevada low-temperaure geothermal resource assessment: 1994. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garside, L.J.

    1994-12-31

    Data compilation for the low-temperature program is being done by State Teams in two western states. Final products of the study include: a geothermal database, in hardcopy and as digital data (diskette) listing information on all known low- and moderate- temperature springs and wells in Nevada; a 1:1,000,000-scale map displaying these geothermal localities, and a bibliography of references on Nevada geothermal resources.

  12. [Comparative assessment of Cladophora, Spirogyra and Oedogonium biomass for the production of fatty acid methyl esters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, I; Muhammad, A; Hameed, U

    2014-01-01

    The use of alternative fuels for the mitigation of ecological impacts by use of diesel has been focus of intensive research. In the present work, algal oils extracted from cultivated biomass of Cladophora sp., Spirogyra sp. and Oedogonium sp. were evaluated for the lipase-mediated synthesis of fatty acid monoalkyl esters (FAME, biodiesel). To optimize the transesterification of these oils, different parameters such as the alkyl group donor, reaction temperature, stirring time and oil to alcohol ratio were investigated. Four different alcohols i.e. methanol, ethanol, n-propanol and n-butanol were tested as alkyl group donor for the biosynthesis FAME and methanol was found to be the best. Similarly, temperature 50 C and stirring time of 6 h were optimized for the transesterification of oils with methanol. The maximum biodiesel conversions from Cladophora (75.0%), Spirogyra (87.5%) and Oedogonium (92.0%) were obtained when oil to alcohol ratio was 1 : 8.

  13. Thermodynamic modeling of small scale biomass gasifiers: Development and assessment of the ''Multi-Box'' approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalis, Stergios; Patuzzi, Francesco; Baratieri, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Modeling can be a powerful tool for designing and optimizing gasification systems. Modeling applications for small scale/fixed bed biomass gasifiers have been interesting due to their increased commercial practices. Fixed bed gasifiers are characterized by a wide range of operational conditions and are multi-zoned processes. The reactants are distributed in different phases and the products from each zone influence the following process steps and thus the composition of the final products. The present study aims to improve the conventional 'Black-Box' thermodynamic modeling by means of developing multiple intermediate 'boxes' that calculate two phase (solid-vapor) equilibriums in small scale gasifiers. Therefore the model is named ''Multi-Box''. Experimental data from a small scale gasifier have been used for the validation of the model. The returned results are significantly closer with the actual case study measurements in comparison to single-stage thermodynamic modeling.

  14. Assessment of suitability of tree species for the production of biomass on trace element contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelou, Michael W.H., E-mail: michael.evangelou@env.ethz.ch [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Deram, Annabelle, E-mail: annabelle.deram@univ-lille2.fr [Laboratoire des sciences vegetales et fongiques - EA4483, Faculte des sciences pharmaceutiques et biologiques-ILIS, Universite Lille Nord de France - 3, rue du Professeur Laguesse, B.P. 83, F-59006 Lille Cedex (France); Gogos, Alexander; Studer, Bjoern; Schulin, Rainer [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Birch: lowest metal concentrations in foliage, wood and bark. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bark proportion does not have to decline with increasing age of tree. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Long harvest rotation (>25 y) reduces metal concentrations in stem. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Birch: most suitable tree for BCL. - Abstract: To alleviate the demand on fertile agricultural land for production of bioenergy, we investigated the possibility of producing biomass for bioenergy on trace element (TE) contaminated land. Soil samples and plant tissues (leaves, wood and bark) of adult willow (Salix sp.), poplar (Populus sp.), and birch (Betula pendula) trees were collected from five contaminated sites in France and Germany and analysed for Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ca, and K. Cadmium concentration in tree leaves were correlated with tree species, whereas Zn concentration in leaves was site correlated. Birch revealed significantly lower leaf Cd concentrations (1.2-8.9 mg kg{sup -1}) than willow and poplar (5-80 mg kg{sup -1}), thus posing the lowest risk for TE contamination of surrounding areas. Birch displayed the lowest bark concentrations for Ca (2300-6200 mg kg{sup -1}) and K (320-1250 mg kg{sup -1}), indicating that it would be the most suitable tree species for fuel production, as high concentrations of K and Ca decrease the ash melting point which results in a reduced plant lifetime. Due to higher TE concentrations in bark compared to wood a small bark proportion in relation to the trunk is desirable. In general the bark proportion was reduced with the tree age. In summary, birch was amongst the investigated species the most suitable for biomass production on TE contaminated land.

  15. Assessment of atmospheric impacts of biomass open burning in Kalimantan, Borneo during 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Mastura

    2013-10-01

    Biomass burning from the combustion of agricultural wastes and forest materials is one of the major sources of air pollution. The objective of the study is to investigate the major contribution of the biomass open burning events in the island of Borneo, Indonesia to the degradation of air quality in equatorial Southeast Asia. A total of 10173 active fire counts were detected by the MODIS Aqua satellite during August 2004, and consequently, elevated the PM10 concentration levels at six air quality stations in the state of Sarawak, in east Malaysia, which is located in northwestern Borneo. The PM10 concentrations measured on a daily basis were above the 50 μg m-3 criteria as stipulated by the World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines for most of the month, and exceeded the 24-h Recommended Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines of 150 μg m-3 on three separate periods from the 13th to the 30th August 2004. The average correlation between the ground level PM10 concentrations and the satellite derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 0.3 at several ground level air quality stations, implied the moderate relationship between the aerosols over the depth of the entire column of atmosphere and the ground level suspended particulate matter. Multiple regression for meteorological parameters such as rainfall, windspeed, visibility, mean temperature, relative humidity at two stations in Sarawak and active fire counts that were located near the centre of fire activities were only able to explain for 61% of the total variation in the AOD. The trajectory analysis of the low level mesoscale meteorological conditions simulated by the TAPM model illustrated the influence of the sea and land breezes within the lowest part of the planetary boundary layer, embedded within the prevailing monsoonal southwesterlies, in circulating the aged and new air particles within Sarawak.

  16. Limits to solar and biomass energy growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, Y.M.; D' Alessio, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    Drawing on some 45 assessments made by the Technology Assessments of Solar Energy (TASE), the authors examine the potential for commercialization of solar and biomass technologies. The book is divided into four major parts: Part I describes and compares technologies; Part II describes the natural and capital resources necessary for commercialization; Part III examines social, economic, and environmental impacts and institutional and regulatory factors; and Part IV analyzes the consequences of several deployment scenarios. The authors conclude that the disproportionate resource requirements for a modest energy contribution will be liminting factor. 103 references, 80 figures, 32 tables. (DCK)

  17. Discussion on the Assessment Method of Wind Energy Resources by Using Regional Meteorological Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The exploitation status of wind energy resources was analyzed, and the distribution of wind energy resources and regional meteorological stations were introduced, and then the assessment method of wind energy resources by using data from regional meteorological station was studied taking Huangjin Regional Meteorological Station in Xinning County in Hunan Province for example, besides, corresponding software was compiled. By means of SQL database and program, the method was used simply and easily and had pos...

  18. [Principles and methods of mental health resource assessment in military personnel under conditions of demographic crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorona, A A; Syrkin, L D

    2011-03-01

    The article is devoted to developing the principles and methods of resource assessment of mental health military contingent in terms of demographic decline and reform of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. From the standpoint of the concept of the mutual influence of the value-semantic components and the level of psychological adaptation resources demonstrates the possibility of evaluating resource capabilities of the psyche of military contingent.

  19. Genotoxic potential generated by biomass burning in the Brazilian Legal Amazon by Tradescantia micronucleus bioassay: a toxicity assessment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artaxo Paulo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brazilian Amazon has suffered impacts from non-sustainable economic development, especially owing to the expansion of agricultural commodities into forest areas. The Tangará da Serra region, located in the southern of the Legal Amazon, is characterized by non-mechanized sugar cane production. In addition, it lies on the dispersion path of the pollution plume generated by biomass burning. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic potential of the atmosphere in the Tangará da Serra region, using Tradescantia pallida as in situ bioindicator. Methods The study was conducted during the dry and rainy seasons, where the plants were exposed to two types of exposure, active and passive. Results The results showed that in all the sampling seasons, irrespective of exposure type, there was an increase in micronucleus frequency, compared to control and that it was statistically significant in the dry season. A strong and significant relationship was also observed between the increase in micronucleus incidence and the rise in fine particulate matter, and hospital morbidity from respiratory diseases in children. Conclusions Based on the results, we demonstrated that pollutants generated by biomass burning in the Brazilian Amazon can induce genetic damage in test plants that was more prominent during dry season, and correlated with the level of particulates and elevated respiratory morbidity.

  20. Life Cycle Assessment of Selected Biomass and Fossil Fuel Energy Systems in Denmark and Ghana - with a focus on greenhouse gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present project has been to establish an LCA methodology for assessing different biomass energy systems in Denmark and Ghana in relation to their emission of greenhouse gases. The biomass systems which have been studied are willow chips, surplus straw and biogas from manure...... PJ of biogas, the total CO2 reduction will be 3.8 million tonnes or 6% of present CO2 emission if biomass substitute natural gas. This relates to the use of present available technologies. In the decades to come new and more efficient technologies will be developed for biomass plants....... This will increase the reduction potential for CO2. GhanaTwo different case studies have been carried out for Ghana. The first is a life cycle analysis of an energy forest plantation in Ghana which has been cultivated with modern equipment. The second LCA is extended with an energy end use chain to determine...

  1. 15 CFR 971.501 - Resource assessment, recovery plan, and logical mining unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and logical mining unit. 971.501 Section 971.501 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Resource Development § 971.501 Resource assessment, recovery plan, and logical... (see § 971.301(a)), the area is not a logical mining unit. In the case of a commercial recovery...

  2. Development and application of fuzzy indicator for assessment of agricultural land resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    With ever increasing demands on agriculture, it is essential that we be able to adequately evaluate agriculture land resources. Recently, efforts have been undertaken to develop methods and tools for the purpose of evaluating agricultural land resources. However, to be successful, assessments need...

  3. Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserve base in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David C.; Luppens, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated in-place resources of 1.07 trillion short tons of coal in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. Of that total, with a maximum stripping ratio of 10:1, recoverable coal was 162 billion tons. The estimate of economically recoverable resources was 25 billion tons.

  4. Wave energy resource assessment for the Indian shelf seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Anoop, T.R.

    As a renewable energy, the assessment of wave power potential around a country is crucial. Knowledge of the temporal and spatial variations of wave energy is required for locating a wave power plant. This study investigates the variations in wave...

  5. Ecological Assessment of Storm Impacts on Marine Resources (EASI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project provides information that can be used in preliminary land use-based risk assessments for pesticides potentially used in the St. Johns River watershed,...

  6. 76 FR 34684 - Offshore Renewable Energy; Public Meeting on Information Needs for Resource Assessment and Design...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Offshore Renewable Energy; Public Meeting on Information Needs for Resource Assessment and Design Conditions AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... meteorological and oceanographic information to support cost-effective deployment of offshore renewable...

  7. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources of the Cooper Basin, Australia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2016-07-15

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean continuous resources of 482 million barrels of oil and 29.8 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Cooper Basin of Australia.

  8. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment - Flow Map Poster: Ankeny National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This flow map depicts the flow and control of water on Ankeny National Wildlife Refuge. It was produced as part of the Water Resource Inventory and Assessment...

  9. Water Resources Inventory and Assessment for Kern National Wildlife Refuge and Tulare Basin Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Kern National Wildlife Refuge and Tulare Basin Wildlife Management Area describes hydrologic information,...

  10. Assessment of Permian coalbed gas resources of the Karoo Basin Province, South Africa and Lesotho, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-02-21

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 5.27 trillion cubic feet of coalbed gas in the Karoo Basin Province.

  11. Assessment of shale-gas resources of the Karoo Province, South Africa and Lesotho, Africa, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-07-08

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resource of 44.5 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Karoo Province of South Africa and Lesotho, Africa.

  12. Geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mineral occurrences, and mineral resource assessment for the commonwealth of Puerto Rico

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geologic map with faults, along with additional scientific information needed for mineral resource assessment (geochemical analyses, mineral occurrences, geologic...

  13. Assessment of undiscovered, conventional oil and gas resources of Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Weaver, Jean N.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 19 billion barrels of oil and 83 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas resources in 10 geologic provinces of Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize.

  14. Undiscovered gas resources assessment unit boundaries for Bangladesh (au8bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons, and polygon labels that describe the undiscovered natural gas resources assessment unit boundaries of the Bangladesh. This...

  15. Assessment of coalbed gas resources of the Central and South Sumatra Basin Provinces, Indonesia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-12-09

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 20 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered, technically recoverable coalbed gas resource in the Central and South Sumatra Basin Provinces of Indonesia.

  16. Dale Bumpers White River National Wildlife Refuge Water Resource Inventory and Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) for Dale Bumpers White River National Wildlife Refuge summarizes available and relevant information for refuge...

  17. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an...

  18. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an...

  19. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - DeSoto and Boyer Chute National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for DeSoto and Boyer Chute National Wildlife Refuges describes current hydrologic information,...

  20. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA)- Big Muddy National Fish & Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for Big Muddy National Fish & Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information,...

  1. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - Hamden Slough National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for Hamden Slough National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) describes current hydrologic information,...

  2. Water Resources Inventory and Assessment of Modoc National Wildlife Refuge near Alturas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Water Resource Inventory and Assessment Report for Modoc National Wildlife Refuge is to describe current hydrologic information, provide an...

  3. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Cooper and Eromanga Basins, Australia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2016-05-12

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean conventional resources of 68 million barrels of oil and 964 billion cubic feet of gas in the Cooper and Eromanga Basins of Australia.

  4. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment: Lower Suwannee National Wildlife Refuge Dixie and Levy Counties, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) report for Lower Suwannee National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information relevant to the...

  5. Water Resource Assessment of Geothermal Resources and Water Use in Geopressured Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Harto, C. B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Troppe, W. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This technical report from Argonne National Laboratory presents an assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation and an analysis of fresh water use in low-temperature geopressured geothermal power generation systems.

  6. Competing uses of biomass : Assessment and comparison of the performance of bio-based heat, power, fuels and materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerssen-Gondelach, S. J.; Saygin, D.; Wicke, B.; Patel, M. K.; Faaij, A. P. C.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing production of modern bioenergy carriers and biomaterials intensifies the competition for different applications of biomass. To be able to optimize and develop biomass utilization in a sustainable way, this paper first reviews the status and prospects of biomass value chains for heat,

  7. Capturing subregional variability in regional-scale climate change vulnerability assessments of natural resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buotte, Polly C; Peterson, David L; McKelvey, Kevin S; Hicke, Jeffrey A

    2016-03-15

    Natural resource vulnerability to climate change can depend on the climatology and ecological conditions at a particular site. Here we present a conceptual framework for incorporating spatial variability in natural resource vulnerability to climate change in a regional-scale assessment. The framework was implemented in the first regional-scale vulnerability assessment conducted by the US Forest Service. During this assessment, five subregional workshops were held to capture variability in vulnerability and to develop adaptation tactics. At each workshop, participants answered a questionnaire to: 1) identify species, resources, or other information missing from the regional assessment, and 2) describe subregional vulnerability to climate change. Workshop participants divided into six resource groups; here we focus on wildlife resources. Participants identified information missing from the regional assessment and multiple instances of subregional variability in climate change vulnerability. We provide recommendations for improving the process of capturing subregional variability in a regional vulnerability assessment. We propose a revised conceptual framework structured around pathways of climate influence, each with separate rankings for exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. These revisions allow for a quantitative ranking of species, pathways, exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity across subregions. Rankings can be used to direct the development and implementation of future regional research and monitoring programs. The revised conceptual framework is equally applicable as a stand-alone model for assessing climate change vulnerability and as a nested model within a regional assessment for capturing subregional variability in vulnerability.

  8. Assessment of aerosol-cloud interactions during southern African biomass burning activity, employing cloud parameterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiston, Modise; McFiggans, Gordon; Schultz, David

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we perform a simulation of the spatial distributions of particle and gas concentrations from a significantly large source of pollution event during a dry season in southern Africa and their interactions with cloud processes. Specific focus is on the extent to which cloud-aerosol interactions are affected by various inputs (i.e. emissions) and parameterizations and feedback mechanisms in a coupled mesoscale chemistry-meteorology model -herein Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem). The southern African dry season (May-Sep) is characterised by biomass burning (BB) type of pollution. During this period, BB particles are frequently observed over the subcontinent, at the same time a persistent deck of stratocumulus covers the south West African coast, favouring long-range transport over the Atlantic Ocean of aerosols above clouds. While anthropogenic pollutants tend to spread more over the entire domain, biomass pollutants are concentrated around the burning areas, especially the savannah and tropical rainforest of the Congo Basin. BB is linked to agricultural practice at latitudes south of 10° N. During an intense burning event, there is a clear signal of strong interactions of aerosols and cloud microphysics. These species interfere with the radiative budget, and directly affect the amount of solar radiation reflected and scattered back to space and partly absorbed by the atmosphere. Aerosols also affect cloud microphysics by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), modifying precipitation pattern and the cloud albedo. Key area is to understand the role of pollution on convective cloud processes and its impacts on cloud dynamics. The hypothesis is that an environment of potentially high pollution enables the probability of interactions between co-located aerosols and cloud layers. To investigate this hypothesis, we outline an approach to integrate three elements: i) focusing on regime(s) where there are strong indications of

  9. Automated negotiation in environmental resource management: Review and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshragh, Faezeh; Pooyandeh, Majeed; Marceau, Danielle J

    2015-10-01

    Negotiation is an integral part of our daily life and plays an important role in resolving conflicts and facilitating human interactions. Automated negotiation, which aims at capturing the human negotiation process using artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques, is well-established in e-commerce, but its application in environmental resource management remains limited. This is due to the inherent uncertainties and complexity of environmental issues, along with the diversity of stakeholders' perspectives when dealing with these issues. The objective of this paper is to describe the main components of automated negotiation, review and compare machine learning techniques in automated negotiation, and provide a guideline for the selection of suitable methods in the particular context of stakeholders' negotiation over environmental resource issues. We advocate that automated negotiation can facilitate the involvement of stakeholders in the exploration of a plurality of solutions in order to reach a mutually satisfying agreement and contribute to informed decisions in environmental management along with the need for further studies to consolidate the potential of this modeling approach.

  10. Improving Program Design and Assessment with Broadening Participation Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, D.; Johnson, A.; Thomas, S. H.; Fauver, A.; Detrick, L.

    2012-12-01

    Many theoretical and research-based approaches suggest how to best use mentoring to enhance an undergraduate research program. The Institute for Broadening Participation's Pathways to Engineering and Pathways to Ocean Sciences projects synthesized a set of mentoring studies, theoretical sources, and other texts pertinent to undergraduate research program design into a suite of practical tools that includes an online mentoring manual, an online reference library of mentoring and diversity literature, and practical guides such as Using Social Media to Build Diversity in Your REU. The overall goal is to provide easy-to-access resources that can assist faculty and program directors in implementing or honing the mentoring elements in their research programs for undergraduates. IBP's Online Mentoring Manual addresses common themes, such as modeling, student self-efficacy, career development, retention and evaluation. The Online Diversity Reference Library provides a comprehensive, annotated selection of key policy documents, research studies, intervention studies, and other texts on broadening participation in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. IBP's suite of tools provides the theoretical underpinnings and research findings that can help leaders in education integrate site-appropriate mentoring elements into their educational programs. Program directors and faculty from a variety of program types and disciplines have benefitted from using the Manual and other resources. IBP continues the work of translating and synthesizing theory to practice and welcomes your participation and partnership in that effort.

  11. Universal model of slow pyrolysis technology producing biochar and heat from standard biomass needed for the techno-economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinar, Dušan

    2016-04-01

    Biochar as a soil amendment and carbon sink becomes in last period one of the vast, interesting product of slow pyrolysis. Simplest and most used industrial process arrangement is a production of biochar and heat at the same time. Proposed mass and heat balance model consist of heat consumers (heat demand side) and heat generation-supply side. Direct burning of all generated uncondensed volatiles from biomass provides heat. Calculation of the mass and heat balance of both sides reveals the internal distribution of masses and energy inside process streams and units. Thermodynamic calculations verified not only the concept but also numerical range of the results. The comparisons with recent published scientific and vendors data prove its general applicability and reliability. The model opens the possibility for process efficiency innovations. Finally, the model was adapted to give more investors favorable results and support techno-economic assessments entirely.

  12. GHG emission factors for bioelectricity, biomethane, and bioethanol quantified for 24 biomass substrates with consequential life-cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, Lorie; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin

    2016-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission savings from biofuels dramatically depend upon the source of energy displaced and the effects induced outside the energy sector, for instance land-use changes (LUC). Using consequential life-cycle assessment and including LUC effects, this study provides GHG emission...... factors (EFs) for bioelectricity, biomethane, and bioethanol produced from twenty-four biomasses (from dedicated crops to residues of different origin) under a fossil and a non-fossil energy system. Accounting for numerous variations in the pathways, a total of 554 GHG EFs were quantified. The results...... showed that, important GHG savings were obtained with residues and seaweed, both under fossil and non-fossil energy systems. For high-yield perennial crops (e.g. willow and Miscanthus), GHG savings were achieved only under fossil energy systems. Biofuels from annual crops and residues that are today used...

  13. The potential impact of externalities considerations on the market for biomass power technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swezey, B.G.; Porter, K.L.; Feher, J.S.

    1994-02-01

    This study assesses the current status of externalities considerations--nonmarket costs and benefits--in state and utility electricity resource planning processes and determines how externalities considerations might help or hinder the development of biomass power plants. It provides an overview of biomass resources and technologies, including their market status and environmental impacts; reviews the current treatment of externalities in the states; and documents the perspectives of key utility, regulatory, and industry representatives concerning externalities considerations. The authors make the following recommendations to the biomass industry: (1) the wood and agricultural waste industries should work toward having states and utilities recognize that wood and agricultural waste are greenhouse gas neutral resources because of carbon sequestration during growth; (2) the biomass industry should emphasize nonenvironmental benefits such as economic development and job creation; and (3) the biomass industry should pursue and support efforts to establish renewable energy set-asides or ``green`` requests for proposals.

  14. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project: geologic assessment of undiscovered gas hydrate resources on the North Slope, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    USGS AK Gas Hydrate Assessment Team: Collett, Timothy S.; Agena, Warren F.; Lee, Myung Woong; Lewis, Kristen A.; Zyrianova, Margarita; Bird, Kenneth J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey have completed the first assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable gas hydrate resources beneath the North Slope of Alaska. This assessment indicates the existence of technically recoverable gas hydrate resources—that is, resources that can be discovered, developed, and produced using current technology. The approach used in this assessment followed standard geology-based USGS methodologies developed to assess conventional oil and gas resources. In order to use the USGS conventional assessment approach on gas hydrate resources, three-dimensional industry-acquired seismic data were analyzed. The analyses indicated that the gas hydrates on the North Slope occupy limited, discrete volumes of rock bounded by faults and downdip water contacts. This assessment approach also assumes that the resource can be produced by existing conventional technology, on the basis of limited field testing and numerical production models of gas hydrate-bearing reservoirs. The area assessed in northern Alaska extends from the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska on the west through the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge on the east and from the Brooks Range northward to the State-Federal offshore boundary (located 3 miles north of the coastline). This area consists mostly of Federal, State, and Native lands covering 55,894 square miles. Using the standard geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated that the total undiscovered technically recoverable natural-gas resources in gas hydrates in northern Alaska range between 25.2 and 157.8 trillion cubic feet, representing 95 percent and 5 percent probabilities of greater than these amounts, respectively, with a mean estimate of 85.4 trillion cubic feet.

  15. Improved Assessments of Ecosystem Services through Active-Remote Sensing: Quantification of Timber and Snow Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkham, Wade T.

    Over the last century the natural environment has experienced an accelerated rate of climatic change in terms of both temperature and precipitation. The call for remote sensing methodologies that can provide reliable and accurate estimates of ecosystem services has never been stronger. This need is vital for assessing resources like above ground carbon stocks and water availability (from snow) as these resources have already been shown to be influenced by our changing climate. Although LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is still a relatively young technology, only moving into mainstream use in the mid 1980's, it has since become the most promising remote sensing technique for high resolution elevation measurements in rugged and remote landscapes. Progressing our understanding of LiDAR error structure spatially, resulting from the interactions of vegetation and terrain, will allow us to generate more reliable assessments of carbon and water stocks in remote mountainous regions. The research within this dissertation is focused on improving the assessment of ecosystem services, by advancing our understanding of LiDAR-derived DEM vertical error and applying that knowledge to quantify the accuracy of associated value-added products. The work first evaluates the performance of two open-source and one commercial black-box LiDAR classification algorithms and identifies their sources of error in diverse landscapes. This showed that across algorithm there was no statistical difference, but that orders of magnitude differences could be found between different terrain and cover types. This demonstrated that LiDAR-derived DEM vertical error has little impact (project is intended as a proof of concept, meant to show how LiDAR data could be used operationally within forest management to directly estimate ecosystem services, including above ground carbon and stem volume. The same principals are then taken to the landscape scale and applied to spatially predict LiDAR-derived DEM

  16. Use of grey relational analysis to assess and optimize small biomass boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J.; Granada, E.; Miguez, J.L.; Porteiro, J. [Universidad de Vigo E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales. Lagoas-Marcosende, s/n., Dpto. Ing. Mecanica Maquinas y Motores Termicos, 36200 Vigo (Pontevedra) (Spain)

    2006-01-15

    This paper presents a new methodology for the evaluation of the environmental and economic feasibility of combustion of different biomass fuels in small boilers. The study focuses on pellets as the basic co-firing product and forest residues as the complementary product. Although the co-firing of forest residues can be economically profin, it is difficult to evaluate the general economic advantages due to the worsening of combustion in terms of performance and emissions caused by the presence of the forest residues in the fuel mixture. The grey relational analysis of different energetic and emission variables and also residue prices allows for the definition of a new single variable called the grey relational grade. Thus, evaluation and optimization of complicated multiple responses can be converted into the optimization of a standardised single variable. Experimental analyses by means of the Grey theory of different forest residues have revealed the possibility of co-firing crust of pine combined with wood pellets as a way of reducing fuel costs, keeping performance and emissions within average standards in small pellet boilers. (author)

  17. Regionalized Techno-Economic Assessment and Policy Analysis for Biomass Molded Fuel in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a relatively mature technology, biomass molded fuel (BMF is widely used in distributed and centralized heating in China and has received considerable government attention. Although many BFM incentive policies have been developed, decreased domestic traditional fuel prices in China have caused BMF to lose its economic viability and new policy recommendations are needed to stimulate this industry. The present study built a regionalized net present value (NPV model based on real production process simulation to test the impacts of each policy factor. The calculations showed that BMF production costs vary remarkably between regions, with the cost of agricultural briquette fuel (ABF ranging from 86 US dollar per metric ton (USD/t to 110 (USD/t, while that of woody pellet fuel (WPF varies from 122 USD/t to 154 USD/t. The largest part of BMF’s cost composition is feedstock, which accounts for up 50%–60% of the total; accordingly a feedstock subsidy is the most effective policy factor, but in consideration of policy implementation, it would be better to use a production subsidy. For ABF, the optimal product subsidy varies from 26 USD/t to 57 USD/t among different regions of China, while for WPF, the range is 36 USD/t to 75 USD/t. Based on the data, a regional BMF development strategy is also proposed in this study.

  18. Wind Resource Assessment – Østerild National Test Centre for Large Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Ohrbeck; Courtney, Michael; Mortensen, Niels Gylling

    This report presents a wind resource assessment for the seven test stands at the Østerild National Test Centre for Large Wind Turbines in Denmark. Calculations have been carried out mainly using wind data from three on-site wind lidars. The generalized wind climates applied in the wind resource...... calculations for the seven test stands are based on correlations between a short period of on-site wind data from the wind lidars with a long-term reference. The wind resource assessment for the seven test stands has been made applying the WAsP 11.1 and WindPRO 2.9 software packages....

  19. A comparative analysis of extended water cloud model and backscatter modelling for above-ground biomass assessment in Corbett Tiger Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Yogesh; Singh, Sarnam; Chatterjee, R. S.; Trivedi, Mukul

    2016-04-01

    Forest biomass acts as a backbone in regulating the climate by storing carbon within itself. Thus the assessment of forest biomass is crucial in understanding the dynamics of the environment. Traditionally the destructive methods were adopted for the assessment of biomass which were further advanced to the non-destructive methods. The allometric equations developed by destructive methods were further used in non-destructive methods for the assessment, but they were mostly applied for woody/commercial timber species. However now days Remote Sensing data are primarily used for the biomass geospatial pattern assessment. The Optical Remote Sensing data (Landsat8, LISS III, etc.) are being used very successfully for the estimation of above ground biomass (AGB). However optical data is not suitable for all atmospheric/environmental conditions, because it can't penetrate through clouds and haze. Thus Radar data is one of the alternate possible ways to acquire data in all-weather conditions irrespective of weather and light. The paper examines the potential of ALOS PALSAR L-band dual polarisation data for the estimation of AGB in the Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR) covering an area of 889 km2. The main focus of this study is to explore the accuracy of Polarimetric Scattering Model (Extended Water Cloud Model (EWCM) with respect to Backscatter model in the assessment of AGB. The parameters of the EWCM were estimated using the decomposition components (Raney Decomposition) and the plot level information. The above ground biomass in the CTR ranges from 9.6 t/ha to 322.6 t/ha.

  20. Development Potentials and Policy Options of Biomass in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to106 tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts’ energy distribution also varies from province to province in China. Based on

  1. Development potentials and policy options of biomass in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to10(6) tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts' energy distribution also varies from province to province in China

  2. Map of assessed coalbed-gas resources in the United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Biewick, Laura R. H.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a digital map of coalbed-gas resource assessments in the United States as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS quantitatively estimated potential volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable natural gas resources within coalbed-gas assessment units (AUs). This is the third digital map product in a series of USGS unconventional oil and gas resource maps. The map plate included in this report can be printed in hardcopy form or downloaded in a Geographic Information System (GIS) data package, including an ArcGIS ArcMap document (.mxd), geodatabase (.gdb), and published map file (.pmf). In addition, the publication access table contains hyperlinks to current USGS coalbed-gas assessment publications and web pages.

  3. Seismic vulnerability assessments administrative building and human resources building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, F.E.

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of this assessment is to identify probable life safety structural and non-structural building damage and its impact on the safety of the occupants of the subject buildings during an earthquake which has a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years in the Fernald, Ohio area. 2 figs.

  4. Sandstone copper assessment of the Chu-Sarysu Basin, Central Kazakhstan: Chapter E in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, Stephen E.; Syusyura, Boris; Hayes, Timothy S.; Taylor, Cliff D.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hitzman, Murray W.; Seltmann, Reimar; Chechetkin, Vladimir; Dolgopolova, Alla; Cossette, Pamela M.; Wallis, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments represent a synthesis of available information to estimate the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered mineral resources in the upper part of the Earth’s crust. This report presents a probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits within the late Paleozoic Chu-Sarysu Basin in central Kazakhstan by the U.S. Geological Survey as a contribution to a global assessment of mineral resources. The purposes of this study are to: (1) provide a database of known sandstone copper deposits and significant prospects in this area, (2) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered sandstone copper deposits within 2 km of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000, (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The assessment uses the three-part form of mineral resource assessment based on mineral deposit models (Singer, 1993; Singer and Menzie, 2010).

  5. Map of assessed continuous (unconventional) oil resources in the United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Biewick, Laura R. H.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts quantitative assessments of potential oil and gas resources of the onshore United States and associated coastal State waters. Since 2000, the USGS has completed assessments of continuous (unconventional) resources in the United States based on geologic studies and analysis of well-production data and has compiled digital maps of the assessment units classified into four categories: shale gas, tight gas, coalbed gas, and shale oil or tight oil (continuous oil). This is the fourth digital map product in a series of USGS unconventional oil and gas resource maps; its focus being shale-oil or tight-oil (continuous-oil) assessments. The map plate included in this report can be printed in hardcopy form or downloaded in a Geographic Information System (GIS) data package, which includes an ArcGIS ArcMap document (.mxd), geodatabase (.gdb), and a published map file (.pmf). Supporting geologic studies of total petroleum systems and assessment units, as well as studies of the methodology used in the assessment of continuous-oil resources in the United States, are listed with hyperlinks in table 1. Assessment results and geologic reports are available at the USGS websitehttp://energy.usgs.gov/OilGas/AssessmentsData/NationalOilGasAssessment.aspx.

  6. Impacts of Amazonia biomass burning aerosols assessed from short-range weather forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Kolusu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The direct radiative impacts of biomass burning aerosols (BBA on meteorology are investigated using short-range forecasts from the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM over South America during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA. The impacts are evaluated using a set of three simulations: (i no aerosols, (ii with monthly mean aerosol climatologies and (iii with prognostic aerosols modelled using the Coupled Large-scale Aerosol Simulator for Studies In Climate (CLASSIC scheme. Comparison with observations show that the prognostic CLASSIC scheme provides the best representation of BBA. The impacts of BBA are quantified over central and southern Amazonia from the first and second day of 2-day forecasts during 14 September–3 October 2012. On average, during the first day of the forecast, including prognostic BBA reduces the clear-sky net radiation at the surface by 15 ± 1 W m−2 and reduces net top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiation by 8 ± 1 W m−2, with a direct atmospheric warming of 7 ± 1 W m−2. BBA-induced reductions in all-sky radiation are smaller in magnitude: 9.0 ± 1 W m−2 at the surface and 4.0 ± 1 W m−2 at TOA. In this modelling study the BBA therefore exert an overall cooling influence on the Earth–atmosphere system, although some levels of the atmosphere are directly warmed by the absorption of solar radiation. Due to the reduction of net radiative flux at the surface, the mean 2 m air temperature is reduced by around 0.1 ± 0.02 °C. The BBA also cools the boundary layer (BL but warms air above by around 0.2 °C due to the absorption of shortwave radiation. The overall impact is to reduce the BL depth by around 19 ± 8 m. These differences in heating lead to a more anticyclonic circulation at 700 hPa, with winds changing by around 0.6 m s−1. Inclusion of climatological or prognostic BBA in the MetUM makes a small but significant improvement in forecasts of temperature and relative humidity, but improvements were

  7. Statistical assessment of groundwater resources in Washim district (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajankar, P N; Tambekar, D H; Ramteke, D S; Wate, S R

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality of Washim district of Maharashtra (India) was assessed using quality parameters and water quality index (WQI). In this study, the WQI was analyzed by using pH, turbidity, temperature, nitrates, total phosphates, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total solids, total coliforms and faecal coliforms, respectively for residential and commercial uses. All the parameters were analyzed both in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons to assess the groundwater quality and seasonal variations. The parameters like turbidity, solids and coliforms showed the seasonal variations. The WQI varied from 72 to 88 in pre-monsoon season and 64 to 88 in post-monsoon season. The results indicate that all groundwater samples in the study area have good water quality in pre-monsoon season but in post-monsoon season 9 percent samples indicated the change in water quality from good to medium, which reveals seasonal variation and groundwater quality deterioration.

  8. Catalytic conversion of biomass to fuels. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten, R. L.; Ushiba, K. K.; Cooper, M.; Mahawili, I.

    1978-01-01

    This report presents an assessment and perspective concerning the application of catalytic technologies to the thermochemical conversion of biomass resources to fuels. The major objectives of the study are: to provide a systematic assessment of the role of catalysis in the direct thermochemical conversion of biomass into gaseous and liquid fuels; to establish the relationship between potential biomass conversion processes and catalytic processes currently under development in other areas, with particular emphasis on coal conversion processes; and to identify promising catalytic systems which could be utilized to reduce the overall costs of fuels production from biomass materials. The report is divided into five major parts which address the above objectives. In Part III the physical and chemical properties of biomass and coal are compared, and the implications for catalytic conversion processes are discussed. With respect to chemical properties, biomass is shown to have significant advantages over coal in catalytic conversion processes because of its uniformly high H/C ratio and low concentrations of potential catalyst poisons. The physical properties of biomass can vary widely, however, and preprocessing by grinding is difficult and costly. Conversion technologies that require little preprocessing and accept a wide range of feed geometries, densities, and particle sizes appear desirable. Part IV provides a comprehensive review of existing and emerging thermochemical conversion technologies for biomass and coal. The underlying science and technology for gasification and liquefaction processes are presented.

  9. State Bioenergy Primer: Information and Resources for States on Issues, Opportunities, and Options for Advancing Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrnett, D. S.; Mulholland, D.; Zinsmeister, E.; Doris, E.; Milbrandt, A.; Robichaud. R.; Stanley, R.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2009-09-01

    One renewable energy option that states frequently consider to meet their clean energy goals is the use of biomass resources to develop bioenergy. Bioenergy includes bioheat, biopower, biofuels, and bioproducts. This document provides an overview of biomass feedstocks, basic information about biomass conversion technologies, and a discussion of benefits and challenges of bioenergy options. The Primer includes a step-wise framework, resources, and tools for determining the availability of feedstocks, assessing potential markets for biomass, and identifying opportunities for action at the state level. Each chapter contains a list of selected resources and tools that states can use to explore topics in further detail.

  10. Natural resource assessment: an approach to science based planning in national parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Carolyn G; Vanderhorst, James P; Young, John A

    2009-06-01

    We conducted a natural resource assessment at two national parks, New River Gorge National River and Shenandoah National Park, to help meet the goals of the Natural Resource Challenge--a program to help strengthen natural resource management at national parks. We met this challenge by synthesizing and interpreting natural resource information for planning purposes and we identified information gaps and natural significance of resources. We identified a variety of natural resources at both parks as being globally and/or nationally significant, including large expanses of unfragmented, mixed-mesophytic forests that qualify for wilderness protection, rare plant communities, diverse assemblages of neotropical migratory birds and salamanders, and outstanding aquatic recreational resources. In addition, these parks function, in part, as ecological reserves for plants in and wildlife. With these significant natural resources in mind, we also developed a suite of natural resource management recommendations in light of increasing threats from within and outside park boundaries. We hope that our approach can provide a blueprint for natural resource conservation at publically owned lands.

  11. Application of Satellite Gravimetry for Water Resource Vulnerability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The force of Earth's gravity field varies in proportion to the amount of mass near the surface. Spatial and temporal variations in the gravity field can be measured via their effects on the orbits of satellites. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) is the first satellite mission dedicated to monitoring temporal variations in the gravity field. The monthly gravity anomaly maps that have been delivered by GRACE since 2002 are being used to infer changes in terrestrial water storage (the sum of groundwater, soil moisture, surface waters, and snow and ice), which are the primary source of gravity variability on monthly to decadal timescales after atmospheric and oceanic circulation effects have been removed. Other remote sensing techniques are unable to detect water below the first few centimeters of the land surface. Conventional ground based techniques can be used to monitor terrestrial water storage, but groundwater, soil moisture, and snow observation networks are sparse in most of the world, and the countries that do collect such data rarely are willing to share them. Thus GRACE is unique in its ability to provide global data on variations in the availability of fresh water, which is both vital to life on land and vulnerable to climate variability and mismanagement. This chapter describes the unique and challenging aspects of GRACE terrestrial water storage data, examples of how the data have been used for research and applications related to fresh water vulnerability and change, and prospects for continued contributions of satellite gravimetry to water resources science and policy.

  12. Proceedings for a Workshop on Deposit Modeling, Mineral Resource Assessment, and Their Role in Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briskey, Joseph A.; Schulz, Klaus J.

    2007-01-01

    Preface The world's use of nonfuel mineral resources continues to increase to support a growing population and increasing standards of living. The ability to meet this increasing demand is affected especially by concerns about possible environmental degradation associated with minerals production and by competing land uses. What information does the world need to support global minerals development in a sustainable way? Informed planning and decisions concerning sustainability and future mineral resource supply require a long-term perspective and an integrated approach to resource, land use, economic, and environmental management worldwide. Such perspective and approach require unbiased information on the global distribution of identified and especially undiscovered resources, the economic and political factors influencing their development, and the potential environmental consequences of their exploitation. The U.S. Geological Survey and the former Deposit Modeling Program of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) sponsored a workshop on 'Deposit Modeling, Mineral Resource Assessment, and Their Role in Sustainable Development' at the 31st International Geological Congress (IGC) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on August 18-19, 2000. The purpose of the workshop was to review the state-of-the-art in mineral deposit modeling and resource assessment and to examine the role of global assessments of nonfuel mineral resources in sustainable development. The workshop addressed questions such as the following: Which of the available mineral deposit models and assessment methods are best suited for predicting the locations, deposit types, and amounts of undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources remaining in the world? What is the availability of global geologic, mineral deposit, and mineral exploration information? How can mineral resource assessments be used to address economic and

  13. 78 FR 77155 - Grant Program To Assess, Evaluate, and Promote Development of Tribal Energy and Mineral Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... dependent upon international market conditions. Natural gas and coal bed methane production depends upon... coal bed gas) or renewable energy resources (e.g., wind, solar, biomass, hydro and geothermal). Mineral... (Oil, Natural Gas, Coal): Bob Just, telephone 720-407-0611, email robert.just@bia.gov Renewable...

  14. Research and evaluation of biomass resources/conversion/utilization systems (market/experimental analysis for development of a data base for a fuels from biomass model). Quarterly technical progress report, Februray 1, 1980-April 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Y.K.; Chen, Y.C.; Chen, H.T.; Helm, R.W.; Nelson, E.T.; Shields, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    The project will result in two distinct products: (1) a biomass allocation model which will serve as a tool for the energy planner. (2) the experimental data is being generated to help compare and contrast the behavior of a large number of biomass material in thermochemical environments. Based on information in the literature, values have been developed for regional biomass costs and availabilities and for fuel costs and demands. This data is now stored in data banks and may be updated as better data become available. Seventeen biomass materials have been run on the small TGA and the results partially analyzed. Ash analysis has been performed on 60 biomass materials. The Effluent Gas Analyzer with its associated gas chromatographs has been made operational and some runs have been carried out. Using a computerized program for developing product costs, parametric studies on all but 1 of the 14 process configurations being considered have been performed. Background economic data for all the configuration have been developed. Models to simulate biomass gasifications in an entrained and fixed bed have been developed using models previously used for coal gasification. Runs have been carried out in the fluidized and fixed bed reactor modes using a variety of biomass materials in atmospheres of steam, O/sub 2/ and air. Check aout of the system continues using fabricated manufacturing cost and efficiency data. A users manual has been written.

  15. Assessment and Evaluation of National Human Resource Development System Competitiveness in Emerging Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, HunSeok; Seo, DongIn; Kim, JuSeuk; Yoo, SangOk; Seong, HeeChang

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed and evaluated the competitiveness of national human resource development (NHRD) systems in emerging countries with potential for growth. The literature on emerging countries and NHRD systems was reviewed. The study developed a model mechanism with forty-one indices and nine sub-components for the NHRD system assessment in…

  16. Direct heat resource assessment and subsurface information systems for geothermal aquifers; the Dutch perspetive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramers, L.; Wees, van J.-D.; Pluymaekers, M.P.D.; Kronimus, A.; Boxem, T.

    2012-01-01

    A resource assessment methodology has been developed to designate prospective high permeable clastic aquifers and to assess the amount of potential geothermal energy in the Netherlands. It builds from the wealth of deep subsurface data from oil and gas exploration and production which is publicly an

  17. Resource utilization implications of treatment were able to be assessed from appropriately reported clinical trial data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poole-Wilson, Philip A.; Kirwan, Bridget-Anne; Voko, Zoltan; de Brouwer, Sophie; Dunselman, Peter H. J. M.; van Dalen, Frederik J.; Lubsen, Jacobus

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objective: Published clinical trial data rarely allow assessment of the health care resource utilization implications of treatment. We give an example of how these can be assessed given appropriate tabulation of data. Methods: Data from a trial comparing long-acting nifedipine gastroi

  18. Test Reviews: Euler, B. L. (2007). "Emotional Disturbance Decision Tree". Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansy, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Emotional Disturbance Decision Tree (EDDT) is a teacher-completed norm-referenced rating scale published by Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc., in Lutz, Florida. The 156-item EDDT was developed for use as part of a broader assessment process to screen and assist in the identification of 5- to 18-year-old children for the special…

  19. Assessment of undiscovered gas resources of the Thrace Basin, Turkey, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2016-01-27

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 787 billion cubic feet of conventional gas and 1,630 billion cubic feet of unconventional gas in the Thrace Basin, Turkey.

  20. Information resources used in health risk assessment by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, G.B.; Baratta, M.; Wolfson, S.; McGeorge, L. [New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection`s responsibilities related to health-based risk assessment are described, including its research projects and its development of health based compound specific standards and guidance levels. The resources used by the agency to support health risk assessment work are outlined.

  1. Biomass burning fuel consumption dynamics in the tropics and subtropics assessed from satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andela, Niels; van der Werf, Guido R.; Kaiser, Johannes W.; van Leeuwen, Thijs T.; Wooster, Martin J.; Lehmann, Caroline E. R.

    2016-06-01

    Landscape fires occur on a large scale in (sub)tropical savannas and grasslands, affecting ecosystem dynamics, regional air quality and concentrations of atmospheric trace gasses. Fuel consumption per unit of area burned is an important but poorly constrained parameter in fire emission modelling. We combined satellite-derived burned area with fire radiative power (FRP) data to derive fuel consumption estimates for land cover types with low tree cover in South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Australia. We developed a new approach to estimate fuel consumption, based on FRP data from the polar-orbiting Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the geostationary Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) in combination with MODIS burned-area estimates. The fuel consumption estimates based on the geostationary and polar-orbiting instruments showed good agreement in terms of spatial patterns. We used field measurements of fuel consumption to constrain our results, but the large variation in fuel consumption in both space and time complicated this comparison and absolute fuel consumption estimates remained more uncertain. Spatial patterns in fuel consumption could be partly explained by vegetation productivity and fire return periods. In South America, most fires occurred in savannas with relatively long fire return periods, resulting in comparatively high fuel consumption as opposed to the more frequently burning savannas in Sub-Saharan Africa. Strikingly, we found the infrequently burning interior of Australia to have higher fuel consumption than the more productive but frequently burning savannas in northern Australia. Vegetation type also played an important role in explaining the distribution of fuel consumption, by affecting both fuel build-up rates and fire return periods. Hummock grasslands, which were responsible for a large share of Australian biomass burning, showed larger fuel build-up rates than equally productive grasslands in

  2. Particulate-phase mercury emissions from biomass burning and impact on resulting deposition: a modelling assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Francesco; Artaxo, Paulo; Bencardino, Mariantonia; Cinnirella, Sergio; Carbone, Francesco; D'Amore, Francesco; Dommergue, Aurélien; Feng, Xin Bin; Gencarelli, Christian N.; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Landis, Matthew S.; Sprovieri, Francesca; Suzuki, Noriuki; Wängberg, Ingvar; Pirrone, Nicola

    2017-02-01

    Mercury (Hg) emissions from biomass burning (BB) are an important source of atmospheric Hg and a major factor driving the interannual variation of Hg concentrations in the troposphere. The greatest fraction of Hg from BB is released in the form of elemental Hg (Hg0(g)). However, little is known about the fraction of Hg bound to particulate matter (HgP) released from BB, and the factors controlling this fraction are also uncertain. In light of the aims of the Minamata Convention to reduce intentional Hg use and emissions from anthropogenic activities, the relative importance of Hg emissions from BB will have an increasing impact on Hg deposition fluxes. Hg speciation is one of the most important factors determining the redistribution of Hg in the atmosphere and the geographical distribution of Hg deposition. Using the latest version of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFEDv4.1s) and the global Hg chemistry transport model, ECHMERIT, the impact of Hg speciation in BB emissions, and the factors which influence speciation, on Hg deposition have been investigated for the year 2013. The role of other uncertainties related to physical and chemical atmospheric processes involving Hg and the influence of model parametrisations were also investigated, since their interactions with Hg speciation are complex. The comparison with atmospheric HgP concentrations observed at two remote sites, Amsterdam Island (AMD) and Manaus (MAN), in the Amazon showed a significant improvement when considering a fraction of HgP from BB. The set of sensitivity runs also showed how the quantity and geographical distribution of HgP emitted from BB has a limited impact on a global scale, although the inclusion of increasing fractions HgP does limit Hg0(g) availability to the global atmospheric pool. This reduces the fraction of Hg from BB which deposits to the world's oceans from 71 to 62 %. The impact locally is, however, significant on northern boreal and tropical forests, where fires are

  3. Radiocarbon-based impact assessment of open biomass burning on regional carbonaceous aerosols in North China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zong, Zheng [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Chen, Yingjun, E-mail: yjchen@yic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Tian, Chongguo, E-mail: cgtian@yic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Fang, Yin [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Wang, Xiaoping [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Huang, Guopei; Zhang, Fan [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Samples of total suspended particulates (TSPs) and fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) were collected from 29th May to 1st July, 2013 at a regional background site in Bohai Rim, North China. Mass concentrations of particulate matter and carbonaceous species showed a total of 50% and 97% of the measured TSP and PM{sub 2.5} levels exceeded the first grade national standard of China, respectively. Daily concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were detected 7.3 and 2.5 μg m{sup −3} in TSP and 5.2 and 2.0 μg m{sup −3} in PM{sub 2.5}, which accounted 5.8% and 2.0% of TSP while 5.6% and 2.2% for PM{sub 2.5}, respectively. The concentrations of OC, EC, TSP and PM{sub 2.5} were observed higher in the day time than those in the night time. The observations were associated with the emission variations from anthropogenic activities. Two merged samples representing from south and north source areas were selected for radiocarbon analysis. The radiocarbon measurements showed 74% of water-insoluble OC (WINSOC) and 59% of EC in PM{sub 2.5} derived from biomass burning and biogenic sources when the air masses were from south region, and 63% and 48% for the air masses from north, respectively. Combined with backward trajectories and daily burned area, open burning of agricultural wastes was found to be predominating, which was confirmed by the potential source contribution function (PSCF). - Highlights: • PM{sub 2.5} and TSP samples collected at Yellow River Delta were analyzed for OC and EC. • OC, EC, TSP and PM{sub 2.5} concentrations were higher in daytime than in nighttime. • Radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) tracer, backward trajectories, and fire counts were used for the analysis. • Agricultural waste open burning was a main contributor to summer PM{sub 2.5}, OC and EC.

  4. Sustainability Assessment of indicators for integrated water resources management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, A; Morato, J; Peixoto, H; Botero, V; Zuluaga, L; Figueroa, A

    2017-02-01

    The scientific community strongly recommends the adoption of indicators for the evaluation and monitoring of progress towards sustainable development. Furthermore, international organizations consider that indicators are powerful decision-making tools. Nevertheless, the quality and reliability of the indicators depends on the application of adequate and appropriate criteria to assess them. The general objective of this study was to evaluate how indicators related to water use and management perform against a set of sustainability criteria. Our research identified 170 indicators related to water use and management. These indicators were assessed by an international panel of experts that evaluated whether they fulfil the four sustainability criteria: social, economic, environmental, and institutional. We employed an evaluation matrix that classified all indicators according to the DPSIR (Driving Forces, Pressures, States, Impacts and Responses) framework. A pilot study served to test and approve the research methodology before carrying out the full implementation. The findings of the study show that 24 indicators comply with the majority of the sustainability criteria; 59 indicators are bi-dimensional (meaning that they comply with two sustainability criteria); 86 are one-dimensional indicators (fulfilling just one of the four sustainability criteria) and one indicator do not fulfil any of the sustainability criteria.

  5. Review and Assessment of Commercial Vendors/Options for Feeding and Pumping Biomass Slurries for Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglin, Eric J.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2012-11-01

    The National Advanced Biofuels Consortium is working to develop improved methods for producing high-value hydrocarbon fuels. The development of one such method, the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process, is being led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The HTL process uses a wet biomass slurry at elevated temperatures (i.e., 300 to 360°C [570 to 680°F]) and pressures above the vapor pressure of water (i.e., 15 to 20 MPa [2200 to 3000 psi] at these temperatures) to facilitate a condensed-phase reaction medium. The process has been successfully tested at bench-scale and development and testing at a larger scale is required to prove the viability of the process at production levels. Near-term development plans include a pilot-scale system on the order of 0.5 to 40 gpm, followed by a larger production-scale system on the order of 2000 dry metric tons per day (DMTPD). A significant challenge to the scale-up of the HTL process is feeding a highly viscous fibrous biomass wood/corn stover feedstock into a pump system that provides the required 3000 psi of pressure for downstream processing. In October 2011, PNNL began investigating commercial feed and pumping options that would meet these HTL process requirements. Initial efforts focused on generating a HTL feed and pump specification and then providing the specification to prospective vendors to determine the suitability of their pumps for the pilot-scale and production-scale plants. Six vendors were identified that could provide viable equipment to meet HTL feed and/or pump needs. Those six vendors provided options consisting three types of positive displacement pumps (i.e., diaphragm, piston, and lobe pumps). Vendors provided capabilities and equipment related to HTL application. This information was collected, assessed, and summarized and is provided as appendices to this report.

  6. How Technology Can Improve the Efficiency of Excavator-Based Cable Harvesting for Potential Biomass Extraction—A Woody Productivity Resource and Cost Analysis for Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ger Devlin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two cable logging systems were reviewed to compare the efficiency of potential biomass extraction from remote forest sites in Ireland based on productive machine hour (PMH and unit cost of operation (€/m3. Three operational scenarios (SC were analysed where SC I was a three man crew operation (choker setter, the carriage operator and unhooking chokers. SC II was a variation of this with a two man crew operation. SC III was operating radio controlled chokers there was a two man crew (choker setter and carriage operator. The study aims to assess how operations in Ireland perform against previous known cable studies to determine whether the cost of timber extraction on remote forest sites inaccessible for mechanised felling, has a future given the increased demand for wood fibre in Ireland, both from the sawmilling industries and the wood for energy sector. The volume per PMH was recorded at 17.97 for SC I, 15.09 for SC II and 20.58 m3 for SC III. The difference in productivity versus SC III remote controlled chokers is 5.49 m3/PMH for SC II crew and 2.61 m3/PMH for SC I. The decrease in total volume extracted from SCs I and II versus SC III was recorded at 15.69 m3 (15% and 32.97 m3 (36% product respectively. In value terms, the unit cost (€/m3 varied from 6.29 (SC I to 6.43 (SC II to 4.57 (SC III. When looking at the production unit costs of normal wood energy supply chains in Ireland, the figures are similar ranging from 3.17 €/m3 to 8.01 €/m3. The value of the end product of course will always determine which market the eventually goes to but given that cable log wood fibre has been unthinned and unmaintained then the biomass sector may be an ever increasing demand point in the search for increased woody biomass given that the unit costs can be competitive with other wood energy supply chains.

  7. Assessment of Geothermal Resources of the United States--1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.E.; Williams, D.L. [eds.

    1975-01-01

    This is the first of two significant assessments of the geological energy potential of the U.S. The second one is U.S.G.S. Circular 790. Systems analyzed include: Hydrothermal convection systems (with estimates of potential for many specific sites in the West), Igneous related systems (related to current or recent volcanism), Estimates of the conductive transport of heat in most areas of CONUS, Recovery of heat from molten igneous systems (magma), and Geopressured geothermal energy in the Gulf Coast area. The significance of this report is that it began to give policy makers a first handle on the quantities and qualities of geothermal energy in the ground in much of the U.S. Economics (costs and revenues) are not considered. (DJE - 2005)

  8. Assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits of the Kodar-Udokan area, Russia: Chapter M in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Chechetkin, Vladimir S.; Parks, Heather L.; Box, Stephen E.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Cossette, Pamela M.; Dolgopolova, Alla; Hayes, Timothy S.; Seltmann, Reimar; Syusyura, Boris; Taylor, Cliff D.; Wintzer, Niki E.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments integrate and synthesize available information as a basis for estimating the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered mineral resources. This probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits within Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Kodar-Udokan area in Russia is a contribution to a global assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The purposes of this study are to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) to indicate where undiscovered sandstone-hosted copper deposits may occur within 2 km of the surface, (2) provide a database of known sandstone copper deposits and significant prospects, (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu) and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The workshop for the assessment, held in October 2009, used a three-part form of mineral resource assessment as described by Singer (1993) and Singer and Menzie (2010).

  9. Preliminary Assessment of Non-Fuel Mineral Resources of Afghanistan, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Afghanistan has abundant mineral resources, including known deposits of copper, iron, barite, sulfur, talc, chromium, magnesium, salt, mica, marble, rubies, emeralds, lapis lazuli, asbestos, nickel, mercury, gold and silver, lead, zinc, fluorspar, bauxite, beryllium, and lithium (fig. 1). Between 2005 and 2007, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funded a cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) to assess the non-fuel mineral resources of Afghanistan as part of the effort to aid in the reconstruction of that country. An assessment is an estimation or evaluation, in this instance of undiscovered non-fuel mineral resources. Mineral resources are materials that are in such form that economic extraction of a commodity is currently or potentially feasible. In this assessment, teams of scientists from the USGS and the AGS compiled information about known mineral deposits and then evaluated the possible occurrence of undiscovered deposits of all types. Quantitative probabilistic estimates were made for undiscovered deposits of copper, mercury, rare-earth elements, sulfur, chromite, asbestos, potash, graphite, and sand and gravel. These estimates were made for undiscovered deposits at depths less than a kilometer. Other deposit types were considered and discussed in the assessment, but quantitative estimates of numbers of undiscovered deposits were not made. In addition, the assessment resulted in the delineation of 20 mineralized areas for further study, of which several may contain resources amenable to rapid development.

  10. Characterization and normalization factors of abiotic resource depletion for life cycle impact assessment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The availability of resources for economic activities differs between regions, and the importance of the resources is consequently observed to be different within regions compared to a global scale. With the current situation in Chinese mining industry and its statistic characteristics, the characterization procedures of abiotic resource in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) have demonstrated certain limita-tions in the Chinese materials industry. The aim of this paper is to propose new characterization and normalization factors for abiotic resource depletion categories such as metals and non-renewable en- ergy resources in a Chinese context. The actual production of abiotic resources calculated by a modi- fied model is compared to the reserve base in line with the new national standard to determine char- acterization factors in equivalence units, with antimony as the reference mineral. The normalization factors are based on the total base reserves of the most important minerals in China. A case study on primary magnesium production using the Pidgeon process is used to compare LCIA results for abiotic resource categories that are between current LCIA factors and the new Chinese factors. These factors not only reflect the importance of abiotic resource with respect to region-specific resource depletion, but also can compare with the global factors.

  11. Methodology of risk assessment of loss of water resources due to climate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israfilov, Yusif; Israfilov, Rauf; Guliyev, Hatam; Afandiyev, Galib

    2016-04-01

    For sustainable development and management of rational use of water resources of Azerbaijan Republic it is actual to forecast their changes taking into account different scenarios of climate changes and assessment of possible risks of loss of sections of water resources. The major part of the Azerbaijani territory is located in the arid climate and the vast majority of water is used in the national economic production. An optimal use of conditional groundwater and surface water is of great strategic importance for economy of the country in terms of lack of common water resources. Low annual rate of sediments, high evaporation and complex natural and hydrogeological conditions prevent sustainable formation of conditioned resources of ground and surface water. In addition, reserves of fresh water resources are not equally distributed throughout the Azerbaijani territory. The lack of the common water balance creates tension in the rational use of fresh water resources in various sectors of the national economy, especially in agriculture, and as a result, in food security of the republic. However, the fresh water resources of the republic have direct proportional dependence on climatic factors. 75-85% of the resources of ground stratum-pore water of piedmont plains and fracture-vein water of mountain regions are formed by the infiltration of rainfall and condensate water. Changes of climate parameters involve changes in the hydrological cycle of the hydrosphere and as a rule, are reflected on their resources. Forecasting changes of water resources of the hydrosphere with different scenarios of climate change in regional mathematical models allowed estimating the extent of their relationship and improving the quality of decisions. At the same time, it is extremely necessary to obtain additional data for risk assessment and management to reduce water resources for a detailed analysis, forecasting the quantitative and qualitative parameters of resources, and also for

  12. Stratiform chromite deposit model: Chapter E in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Ruth F.; Taylor, Ryan D.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2012-01-01

    A new descriptive stratiform chromite deposit model was prepared which will provide a framework for understanding the characteristics of stratiform chromite deposits worldwide. Previous stratiform chromite deposit models developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have been referred to as Bushveld chromium, because the Bushveld Complex in South Africa is the only stratified, mafic-ultramafic intrusion presently mined for chromite and is the most intensely researched. As part of the on-going effort by the USGS Mineral Resources Program to update existing deposit models for the upcoming national mineral resource assessment, this revised stratiform chromite deposit model includes new data on the geological, mineralogical, geophysical, and geochemical attributes of stratiform chromite deposits worldwide. This model will be a valuable tool in future chromite resource and environmental assessments and supplement previously published models used for mineral resource evaluation.

  13. Exploring Global Exposure Factors Resources for Use in Consumer Exposure Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary T. Zaleski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This publication serves as a global comprehensive resource for readers seeking exposure factor data and information relevant to consumer exposure assessment. It describes the types of information that may be found in various official surveys and online and published resources. The relevant exposure factors cover a broad range, including general exposure factor data found in published compendia and databases and resources about specific exposure factors, such as human activity patterns and housing information. Also included are resources on exposure factors related to specific types of consumer products and the associated patterns of use, such as for a type of personal care product or a type of children’s toy. Further, a section on using exposure factors for designing representative exposure scenarios is included, along with a look into the future for databases and other exposure science developments relevant for consumer exposure assessment.

  14. GPS Application for Groundwater Resource Assessment, Hermanus, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnady, C.; Mlisa, A.; Wonnacott, R.; Calais, E.

    2009-04-01

    TrigNet (http://www.trignet.co.za/footprint/home.jsp) is a network of permanent continuously operating GPS (cGPS) base stations distributed throughout South Africa at approximately 200 - 300 km spacing. Data from 21 of the stations is continuously streamed to the TrigNet control centre in the offices of the Chief Directorate: Surveys and Mapping, from where it is made available within 30 minutes after each hour for 24 hours a day. All stations record 1-second epoch data on both GPS frequencies (L1 and L2) through geodetic-standard choke ring antennas. The real-time Trignet station HERM is situated in the grounds of the Hermanus Magnetic Observatory (HMO), in a coastal town about 100 km SW of the City of Cape Town. The Overstrand Municipality of the Greater Hermanus Area has embarked on a major groundwater development to augment the water supply. As a foundation for sustainable management of the groundwater resource, a detailed monitoring programme was developed for a better understanding of the hydraulic system, and of the interconnections between surface water, the shallow primary aquifer and the remarkable, deep, fractured-rock (FR) aquifer of the Table Mountain Group (TMG), which underlies a large part of the Western Cape province in South Africa. A thick, extensive FR aquifer system like the ~1 km thick Peninsula Aquifer in the TMG provides an opportunity for fundamental advances in understanding interactions between fluid flow and mechanical deformation, through analysis of the "hydro-mechanical" coupling in FR permeability, fluid transport and deep storage in FR porosity. Present knowledge of skeletal-framework compressibility, the main factor in specific storage, is based on published data from similar rocks elsewhere. Up-scaling from dry-sample laboratory measurements of elastic properties of borehole-core samples at ~10-cm scale to saturated rock volumes on 100- to 1000-m scale, is methodologically problematic. Measuring directly the compaction of, and

  15. 1st International Ocean Technology Congress on EEZ Resources : Technology Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Champ, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Today western nations consume annually only a small percentage of their resources from the sea, despite the proclamation of Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) by many. In contrast, most Pacific Basin Countries obtain more than a quarter of their annual needs from the ocean. Determination of greater rewards from the development of marine resources is markedly inhibited by the limited technical abilities available to locate and assess them. Knowledge of Exclusive Economic Zone resources is schematic and generalised, and a detailed understanding of the geology and processes relating to the economic use of the seafloor is both fragmentary and very basic. Technology for mapping the mineral resources of continental shelves and ocean areas, except in active offshore hydrocarbon provinces, has been largely developed in pursuit of scientific objectives and competence to rapidly appraise economic potential is limited. Similarly, the capability to characterise and evaluate the other resources of the seas is rudimentary. The...

  16. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geology-based assessment methodology, estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 8 billion barrels of crude oil, 670 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 21 billion barrels of natural gas liquids for the West Siberian Basin Province in Russia as part of a program to estimate petroleum resources for priority basins throughout the world.

  17. Biomass pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  18. Distributed Energy Resources and Dynamic Microgrid: An Integrated Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Duo Rick

    The overall goal of this thesis is to improve understanding in terms of the benefit of DERs to both utility and to electricity end-users when integrated in power distribution system. To achieve this goal, a series of two studies was conducted to assess the value of DERs when integrated with new power paradigms. First, the arbitrage value of DERs was examined in markets with time-variant electricity pricing rates (e.g., time of use, real time pricing) under a smart grid distribution paradigm. This study uses a stochastic optimization model to estimate the potential profit from electricity price arbitrage over a five-year period. The optimization process involves two types of PHEVs (PHEV-10, and PHEV-40) under three scenarios with different assumptions on technology performance, electricity market and PHEV owner types. The simulation results indicate that expected arbitrage profit is not a viable option to engage PHEVs in dispatching and in providing ancillary services without more favorable policy and PHEV battery technologies. Subsidy or change in electricity tariff or both are needed. Second, it examined the concept of dynamic microgrid as a measure to improve distribution resilience, and estimates the prices of this emerging service. An economic load dispatch (ELD) model is developed to estimate the market-clearing price in a hypothetical community with single bid auction electricity market. The results show that the electricity market clearing price on the dynamic microgrid is predominantly decided by power output and cost of electricity of each type of DGs. At circumstances where CHP is the only source, the electricity market clearing price in the island is even cheaper than the on-grid electricity price at normal times. Integration of PHEVs in the dynamic microgrid will increase electricity market clearing prices. It demonstrates that dynamic microgrid is an economically viable alternative to enhance grid resilience.

  19. Assessment of Undiscovered Petroleum Resources of the Laptev Sea Shelf Province, Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.

    2007-01-01

    The Laptev Sea Shelf Province was assessed for undiscovered crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids/condensates resources (collectively referred to as petroleum) as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal. Using a geology-based methodology, the USGS estimates the mean undiscovered, conventional petroleum resources in the province to be approximately 9,300 million barrels of oil equivalent, including approximately 3,069 million barrels of crude oil, 32,252 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 861 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  20. Comparison of Overall Resource Consumption of Biosolids Management System Processes Using Exergetic Life Cycle Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanya, Sevda; Dewulf, Jo; Duran, Metin

    2015-08-18

    This study focused on the evaluation of biosolids management systems (BMS) from a natural resource consumption point of view. Additionally, the environmental impact of the facilities was benchmarked using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to provide a comprehensive assessment. This is the first study to apply a Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) method for an in-depth resource use assessment of BMS where two full-scale BMS and seven system variations were analyzed. CEENE allows better system evaluation and understanding of how much benefit is achievable from the products generated by BMS, which have valorization potential. LCA results showed that environmental burden is mostly from the intense electricity consumption. The CEENE analysis further revealed that the environmental burden is due to the high consumption of fossil and nuclear-based natural resources. Using Cumulative Degree of Perfection, higher resource-use efficiency, 53%, was observed in the PTA-2 where alkaline stabilization rather than anaerobic digestion is employed. However, an anaerobic digestion process is favorable over alkaline stabilization, with 35% lower overall natural resource use. The most significant reduction of the resource footprint occurred when the output biogas was valorized in a combined heat and power system.