WorldWideScience

Sample records for biomass generation plant

  1. Hybrid biomass-wind power plant for reliable energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Navarro, A.; Alfonso, D.; Alvarez, C.; Ibanez, F.; Sanchez, C.; Segura, I.

    2010-01-01

    Massive implementation of renewable energy resources is a key element to reduce CO 2 emissions associated to electricity generation. Wind resources can provide an important alternative to conventional electricity generation mainly based on fossil fuels. However, wind generators are greatly affected by the restrictive operating rules of electricity markets because, as wind is naturally variable, wind generators may have serious difficulties on submitting accurate generation schedules on a day ahead basis, and on complying with scheduled obligations in real-time operation. In this paper, an innovative system combining a biomass gasification power plant, a gas storage system and stand-by generators to stabilize a generic 40 MW wind park is proposed and evaluated with real data. The wind park power production model is based on real data about power production of a Spanish wind park and a probabilistic approach to quantify fluctuations and so, power compensation needs. The hybrid wind-biomass system is analysed to obtain main hybrid system design parameters. This hybrid system can mitigate wind prediction errors and so provide a predictable source of electricity. An entire year cycle of hourly power compensations needs has been simulated deducing storage capacity, extra power needs of the biomass power plant and stand-by generation capacity to assure power compensation during critical peak hours with acceptable reliability. (author)

  2. Evaluation of Hybrid Power Plants using Biomass, Photovoltaics and Steam Electrolysis for Hydrogen and Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakopoulou, F.; Sanz, J.

    2014-12-01

    Steam electrolysis is a promising process of large-scale centralized hydrogen production, while it is also considered an excellent option for the efficient use of renewable solar and geothermal energy resources. This work studies the operation of an intermediate temperature steam electrolyzer (ITSE) and its incorporation into hybrid power plants that include biomass combustion and photovoltaic panels (PV). The plants generate both electricity and hydrogen. The reference -biomass- power plant and four variations of a hybrid biomass-PV incorporating the reference biomass plant and the ITSE are simulated and evaluated using exergetic analysis. The variations of the hybrid power plants are associated with (1) the air recirculation from the electrolyzer to the biomass power plant, (2) the elimination of the sweep gas of the electrolyzer, (3) the replacement of two electric heaters with gas/gas heat exchangers, and (4) the replacement two heat exchangers of the reference electrolyzer unit with one heat exchanger that uses steam from the biomass power plant. In all cases, 60% of the electricity required in the electrolyzer is covered by the biomass plant and 40% by the photovoltaic panels. When comparing the hybrid plants with the reference biomass power plant that has identical operation and structure as that incorporated in the hybrid plants, we observe an efficiency decrease that varies depending on the scenario. The efficiency decrease stems mainly from the low effectiveness of the photovoltaic panels (14.4%). When comparing the hybrid scenarios, we see that the elimination of the sweep gas decreases the power consumption due to the elimination of the compressor used to cover the pressure losses of the filter, the heat exchangers and the electrolyzer. Nevertheless, if the sweep gas is used to preheat the air entering the boiler of the biomass power plant, the efficiency of the plant increases. When replacing the electric heaters with gas-gas heat exchangers, the

  3. Integrated biomass gasification combined cycle distributed generation plant with reciprocating gas engine and ORC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalina, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    The paper theoretically investigates the performance of a distributed generation plant made up of gasifier, Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) machine as a bottoming unit. The system can be used for maximization of electricity production from biomass in the case where there is no heat demand for cogeneration plant. To analyze the performance of the gasifier a model based on the thermodynamic equilibrium approach is used. Performance of the gas engine is estimated on the basis of the analysis of its theoretical thermodynamic cycle. Three different setups of the plant are being examined. In the first one the ORC module is driven only by the heat recovered from engine exhaust gas and cooling water. Waste heat from a gasifier is used for gasification air preheating. In the second configuration a thermal oil circuit is applied. The oil transfers heat from engine and raw gas cooler into the ORC. In the third configuration it is proposed to apply a double cascade arrangement of the ORC unit with a two-stage low temperature evaporation of working fluid. This novel approach allows utilization of the total waste heat from the low temperature engine cooling circuit. Two gas engines of different characteristics are taken into account. The results obtained were compared in terms of electric energy generation efficiency of the system. The lowest obtained value of the efficiency was 23.6% while the highest one was 28.3%. These are very favorable values in comparison with other existing small and medium scale biomass-fuelled power generation plants. - Highlights: →The study presents performance analysis of a biomass-fuelled local power plant. →Downdraft wood gasifier, gas engine and ORC module are modelled theoretically. →Method for estimation of the producer gas fired engine performance is proposed. →Two gas engines of different characteristics are taken into account. →Different arrangements of the bottoming ORC cycle ere examined.

  4. Input of biomass in power plants for power generation. Calculation of the financial gap. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tilburg, X.; De Vries, H.J.; Pfeiffer, A.E.; Cleijne, J.W.

    2005-09-01

    The Ministry of Economic Affairs has requested ECN and KEMA to answer two questions. (1) Are the costs and benefits of projects in which wood-pellets are co-fired in a coal fired power plant representative for those of bio-oil fueled co-firing projects in a gas fired plant?; and (2) Are new projects representative for existing projects? To answer these questions, ECN and KEMA have calculated the financial gaps in six different situations: co-firing bio-oil in a gas fired power plant; co-firing bio-oil in a coal fired power plant; gasification of solid biomass; co-firing wood pellets in a coal fired power plant; co-firing agricultural residues in a coal fired power plant; and co-firing waste wood (A- and B-grade) in a coal fired power plant. The ranges and reference cases show that co-firing bio-oil on average has a smaller financial gap than the solid biomass reference case. On average it can also be concluded that when using waste wood or agro-residues, the financial gaps are smaller. Based on these findings it is concluded that: (1) The reference case of co-firing wood pellets in a coal fired power plant are not representative for bio-fuel options. A new category for bio-oil options seems appropriate; and (2) The financial gap of new projects as calculated in November 2004, is often higher then the ranges for existing projects indicate [nl

  5. Input of biomass in power plants or the power generation. Calculation of the financial gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, H.J.; Van Tilburg, X.; Pfeiffer, A.E.; Cleijne, H.

    2005-09-01

    The project on the title subject concerns two questions: (1) Are projects in which wood-pellets are co-fired in a coalfired power plant representative for bio-oil fueled co-firing projects in a gas-fired plant?; and (2) are new projects representative for existing projects? To answer those questions the financial gaps have been calculated for five different situations: Co-firing bio-oil in a gas-fired power plant; Co-firing bio-oil in a coal-fired power plant; Co-firing wood pellets in a coal-fired power plant; Co-firing agro-residues in a coal-fired power plant; and Co-firing waste-wood (A- and B-grade) in a coal-fired power plant. The ranges and reference cases in this report show that co-firing bio-oil on average has a smaller financial gap than the solid biomass reference case. On average it can also be concluded that by using waste wood or agro-residues, the financial gaps can decrease [nl

  6. Monitoring of the energy performance of a district heating CHP plant based on biomass boiler and ORC generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prando, Dario; Renzi, Massimiliano; Gasparella, Andrea; Baratieri, Marco

    2015-01-01

    More than seventy district heating (DH) plants based on biomass are operating in South Tyrol (Italy) and most of them supply heat to residential districts. Almost 20% of them are cogenerative systems, thus enabling primary energy savings with respect to the separate production of heat and power. However, the actual performance of these systems in real operation can considerably differ from the nominal one. The main objectives of this work are the assessment of the energy performance of a biomass boiler coupled with an Organic Rankine Cycle (i.e. ORC) generator under real operating conditions and the identification of its potential improvements. The fluxes of energy and mass of the plant have been measured onsite. This experimental evaluation has been supplemented with a thermodynamic model of the ORC generator, calibrated with the experimental data, which is capable to predict the system performance under different management strategies of the system. The results have highlighted that a decrease of the DH network temperature of 10 °C can improve the electric efficiency of the ORC generator of one percentage point. Moreover, a DH temperature reduction could decrease the main losses of the boiler, namely the exhaust latent thermal loss and the exhaust sensible thermal loss, which account for 9% and 16% of the boiler input power, respectively. The analysis of the plant has pointed out that the ORC pump, the flue gases extractor, the thermal oil pump and the condensation section fan are the main responsible of the electric self-consumption. Finally, the negative effect of the subsidisation on the performance of the plant has been discussed. - Highlights: • Energy performance of a biomass boiler coupled to an ORC turbine in real operation. • Potential improvements of a CHP plant connected to a DH network. • Performance prediction by means of a calibrated ORC thermodynamic model. • Influence of the DH temperature on the electric efficiency. • Impact of the

  7. Biomass Energy Generation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olthoff, Edward [Cedar Falls Utilities, Cedar Falls, IA (United States)

    2017-05-15

    The Municipal Electric Utility of the City of Cedar Falls (dba Cedar Fals Utilities or CFU) received a congressionally directed grant funded through DOE-EERE to run three short (4 hour) duration test burns and one long (10 days) duration test burn to test the viability of renewable fuels in Streeter Station Boiler #6, a stoker coal fired electric generation unit. The long test burn was intended to test supply chain assumptions, optimize boiler combustion and assess the effects of a longer duration burn of biomass on the boiler.

  8. Communal biomass conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm-Nielsen, J.B.; Huntingford, S.; Halberg, N.

    1993-03-01

    The aim was to show the agricultural advantages of farmers being in connection with Communal Biogas Plant. Whether a more environmentally protectire distribution of plant nutrients from animal manure takes place through a biogas plants distribution system, whether the nitrogen in the digested slurry is better utilized and whether the connection results in slurry transportation-time reduction, are discussed. The average amount of nitrogen from animal manure used per hectare was reduced. The area of manure distribution was larger. The nitrogen efficiency was increased when using digested slurry and purchase of N mineral fertilizer decreased, resulting in considerable reduction in nitrogen leaching. The amount of slurry delivered to the local storage tanks was approximately 45 per cent of the total amount treated on the biogas plant. Conditions of manure transport improved greatly as this was now the responsibility of the communal biomass conversion plant administrators. (AB) (24 refs.)

  9. Communal biomass conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The Coordinating Committee set up by the Danish government in 1986 were given the responsibility of investigating the potentials for biomass conversion plants in Denmark, especially in relation to agricultural, environmental and energy aspects. The results of the Committee's plan of management for this project are presented. This main report covers 13 background reports which deal with special aspects in detail. The report describes the overall plan of management, the demonstration and follow-up programme and the individual biogas demonstration plants. Information gained from these investigations is presented. The current general status, (with emphasis on the technical and economical aspects) and the prospects for the future are discussed. The interest other countries have shown in Danish activities within the field of biogas production is described, and the possibilities for Danish export of technology and know-how in this relation are discussed. It is claimed that Denmark is the first country that has instigated a coordinated development programme for biomass conversion plants. (AB) 24 refs

  10. Next Generation Protein Interactomes for Plant Systems Biology and Biomass Feedstock Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecker, Joseph Robert [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Trigg, Shelly [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Biological Sciences Dept.; Garza, Renee [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Song, Haili [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; MacWilliams, Andrew [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Nery, Joseph [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Reina, Joaquin [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Bartlett, Anna [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Castanon, Rosa [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Goubil, Adeline [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Feeney, Joseph [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; O' Malley, Ronan [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Huang, Shao-shan Carol [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Zhang, Zhuzhu [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Galli, Mary [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.

    2016-11-30

    Biofuel crop cultivation is a necessary step in heading towards a sustainable future, making their genomic studies a priority. While technology platforms that currently exist for studying non-model crop species, like switch-grass or sorghum, have yielded large quantities of genomic and expression data, still a large gap exists between molecular mechanism and phenotype. The aspect of molecular activity at the level of protein-protein interactions has recently begun to bridge this gap, providing a more global perspective. Interactome analysis has defined more specific functional roles of proteins based on their interaction partners, neighborhoods, and other network features, making it possible to distinguish unique modules of immune response to different plant pathogens(Jiang, Dong, and Zhang 2016). As we work towards cultivating heartier biofuel crops, interactome data will lead to uncovering crop-specific defense and development networks. However, the collection of protein interaction data has been limited to expensive, time-consuming, hard-to-scale assays that mostly require cloned ORF collections. For these reasons, we have successfully developed a highly scalable, economical, and sensitive yeast two-hybrid assay, ProCREate, that can be universally applied to generate proteome-wide primary interactome data. ProCREate enables en masse pooling and massively paralleled sequencing for the identification of interacting proteins by exploiting Cre-lox recombination. ProCREate can be used to screen ORF/cDNA libraries from feedstock plant tissues. The interactome data generated will yield deeper insight into many molecular processes and pathways that can be used to guide improvement of feedstock productivity and sustainability.

  11. Biomass combustion technologies for power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.A. Jr. [Appel Consultants, Inc., Stevenson Ranch, CA (United States); McGowin, C.R.; Hughes, E.E. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Technology in power production from biomass has been advancing rapidly. Industry has responded to government incentives such as the PURPA legislation in the US and has recognized that there are environmental advantages to using waste biomass as fuel. During the 1980s many new biomass power plants were built. The relatively mature stoker boiler technology was improved by the introduction of water-cooled grates, staged combustion air, larger boiler sizes up to 60 MW, higher steam conditions, and advanced sootblowing systems. Circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) technology achieved full commercial status, and now is the leading process for most utility-scale power applications, with more complete combustion, lower emissions, and better fuel flexibility than stoker technology. Bubbling fluidized-bed (BFB) technology has an important market niche as the best process for difficult fuels such as agricultural wastes, typically in smaller plants. Other biomass power generation technologies are being developed for possible commercial introduction in the 1990s. Key components of Whole Tree Energy{trademark} technology have been tested, conceptual design studies have been completed with favorable results, and plans are being made for the first integrated process demonstration. Fluidized-bed gasification processes have advanced from pilot to demonstration status, and the world`s first integrated wood gasification/combined cycle utility power plant is starting operation in Sweden in early 1993. Several European vendors offer biomass gasification processes commercially. US electric utilities are evaluating the cofiring of biomass with fossil fuels in both existing and new plants. Retrofitting existing coal-fired plants gives better overall cost and performance results than any biomass technologies;but retrofit cofiring is {open_quotes}fuel-switching{close_quotes} that provides no new capacity and is attractive only with economic incentives.

  12. Marine biomass power plant using methane fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, T.; Saito, H.; Amano, T.; Sugawara, H.; Seki, T.; Abe, T. [Technology Research Inst., Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    This study presented an effective way to produce biogas from the large quantities of seaweed waste in Japan. A large-scale marine biomass pilot plant was built to produce biogas from marine biomass. Methane fermentation was the process used to produce biogas from Laminaria sp. The maximum treating capacity of the pilot plant is 1 ton of seaweed per day. The pilot plant includes a pretreatment facility, fermentation, biogas storage and power generation. The maximum methane yield from the biomass plant is 22 cubic ton-seaweed. The purified biogas has generated 10 kW of electricity and 23 kW of heat. The biogas was also mixed with natural gas for use in a gas engine generator. The engine operation remained stable despite changes in quantity and composition of the collected biogas caused by changes with the source of biomass and sea conditions. The thermal efficiency of the gas engine running on mixed biogas and natural gas was more than 10 per cent higher than an engine running on biogas fuel alone. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  13. Design and System Analysis of Quad-Generation Plant Based on Biomass Gasification Integrated with District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman

    alternative by upgrading existing district heating plant. It provides a generic modeling framework to design flexible energy system in near future. These frameworks address the three main issues arising in the planning and designing of energy system: a) socio impact at both planning and proses design level; b...... in this study. The overall aim of this work is to provide a complete assessment of the technical potential of biomass gasification for local heat and power supply in Denmark and replace of natural gas for the production. This study also finds and defines the future areas of research in the gasification......, it possible to lay a foundation for future gasification based power sector to produce flexible output such as electricity, heat, chemicals or bio-fuels by improving energy system of existing DHP(district heating plant) integrating gasification technology. The present study investigate energy system...

  14. The development situation of biomass gasification power generation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Zhaoqiu; Yin, Xiuli; Xu, Jie; Ma, Longlong

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the development situation of biomass gasification power generation technology in China and analyzes the difficulty and challenge in the development process. For China, a large agricultural country with abundant biomass resources, the utilization of biomass gasification power generation technology is of special importance, because it can contribute to the electricity structure diversification under the present coal-dominant electricity structure, ameliorate the environmental impact, provide energy to electricity-scarce regions and solve the problems facing agriculture. Up to now, China has developed biomass gasification power generation plants of different types and scales, including simple gas engine-based power generation systems with capacity from several kW to 3 MW and integrated gasification combined cycle systems with capacity of more than 5 MW. In recent years, due to the rising cost of biomass material, transportation, manpower, etc., the final cost of biomass power generation has increased greatly, resulting in a serious challenge in the Chinese electricity market even under present preferential policy for biomass power price. However, biomass gasification power generation technology is generally in accord with the characteristics of biomass resources in China, has relatively good adaptability and viability, and so has good prospect in China in the future. - Highlights: ► Biomass gasification power generation of 2 kW–2 MW has wide utilization in China. ► 5.5 MW biomass IGCC demonstration plant has maximum power efficiency of up to 30%. ► Biomass power generation is facing a serious challenge due to biomass cost increase.

  15. Mini-biomass electric generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot, G. [International Applied Engineering, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Awareness of the living standards achieved by others has resulted in a Russian population which is yearning for a higher standard of living. Such a situation demands access to affordable electricity in remote areas. Remote energy requirements creates the need to transport power or fossil fuels over long distances. Application of local renewable energy resources could eliminate the need for and costs of long distance power supply. Vast forest resources spread over most of Russia make biomass an ideal renewable energy candidate for many off-grid villages. The primary objective for this preliminary evaluation is to examine the economic feasibility of replacing distillate and gasoline fuels with local waste biomass as the primary fuel for village energy in outlying regions of Russia. Approximately 20 million people live in regions where Russia`s Unified Electric System grid does not penetrate. Most of these people are connected to smaller independent power grids, but approximately 8 million Russians live in off-grid villages and small towns served by stand-alone generation systems using either diesel fuel or gasoline. The off-grid villages depend on expensive distillate fuels and gasoline for combustion in small boilers and engines. These fuels are used for both electricity generation and district heating. Typically, diesel generator systems with a capacity of up to 1 MW serve a collective farm, settlement and their rural enterprises (there are an estimated 10,000 such systems in Russia). Smaller gasoline-fueled generator systems with capacities in the range of 0.5 - 5 kW serve smaller farms or rural enterprises (there are about 60,000 such systems in Russia).

  16. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H [Federal Way, WA; Lanning, David N [Federal Way, WA; Broderick, Thomas F [Lake Forest Park, WA

    2012-04-17

    A new class of plant biomass feedstock particles characterized by consistent piece size and shape uniformity, high skeletal surface area, and good flow properties. The particles of plant biomass material having fibers aligned in a grain are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. In particular, the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces. The L.times.W surfaces of particles with L/H dimension ratios of 4:1 or less are further elaborated by surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The length dimension L is preferably aligned within 30.degree. parallel to the grain, and more preferably within 10.degree. parallel to the grain. The plant biomass material is preferably selected from among wood, agricultural crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  17. Reducing landscape restoration costs: Feasibility of generating electricity from invasive alien plant biomass on the Agulhas Plain, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stafford, William

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available products and bioenergy. Using the Agulhas Plain as a case study, we assess the feasibility of using IAP biomass in modular 250 kWe wood gasifiers to produce electricity with biochar as a co-product. There is sufficient IAP biomass available over a 15 year...

  18. Economics of power generation from imported biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lako, P.; Van Rooijen, S.N.M.

    1998-02-01

    Attention is paid to the economics of import of biomass to the Netherlands, and subsequent utilisation for power generation, as a means to reduce dependence on (imported) fossil fuels and to reduce CO2 emission. Import of wood to the extent of 40 PJ or more from Baltic and South American states seems to be readily achievable. Import of biomass has various advantages, not only for the European Union (reduced CO2 emissions) but also for the countries of origin (employment creation). However, possible disadvantages or risks should be taken into account. With that in mind, import of biomass from Baltic states seems very interesting, although it should be noted that in some of those countries the alternative of fuel-switching to biomass seems to be more cost-effective than import of biomass from those countries. Given the expected increase in inland biomass consumption in the Baltic countries and the potential substantial future demand for biomass in other Western European countries it is expected that the biomass supply from Baltic countries will not be sufficient to fulfill the demand. An early focus on import from other countries seems advisable. Several power generation options are available with short to medium term potential and long term potential. The margin between costs of biomass-fuelled power and of coal fired power will be smaller, due to substantial improvements in power generating efficiency and reductions of investment costs of options for power generation from biomass, notably Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle. 18 refs

  19. Lessons learned from existing biomass power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    2000-02-24

    This report includes summary information on 20 biomass power plants, which represent some of the leaders in the industry. In each category an effort is made to identify plants that illustrate particular points. The project experiences described capture some important lessons learned that lead in the direction of an improved biomass power industry.

  20. Sustainability considerations for electricity generation from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Annette; Strezov, Vladimir; Evans, Tim J.

    2010-01-01

    The sustainability of electricity generation from biomass has been assessed in this work according to the key indicators of price, efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions, availability, limitations, land use, water use and social impacts. Biomass produced electricity generally provides favourable price, efficiency, emissions, availability and limitations but often has unfavorably high land and water usage as well as social impacts. The type and growing location of the biomass source are paramount to its sustainability. Hardy crops grown on unused or marginal land and waste products are more sustainable than dedicated energy crops grown on food producing land using high rates of fertilisers. (author)

  1. A 20 MW{sub t} pilot plant for the generation of electric power by magnetohydrodynamic process using biomass; Planta piloto de 20 MW{sub t} de geracao de energia eletrica por magnetohidrodinamica a partir da biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinatti, D G; Guimaraes, O L.C.; Silva, A C da; Batista, J F [Fundacao de Tecnologia Industrial (FTI), Lorena, SP (Brazil); Fernandes Filho, G E.F.; Magalhaes Filho, P [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia

    1991-12-31

    The combustion of celulignin from biomass with addition of 1% of K, generates a plasma with electric conductivity of 100 S/M. This allows the establishment of a small size thermoelectric plants in triple or double cycle with magnetohydrodynamic generator (MHD), gas turbine and steam turbine. It is presented calculations of a pilot plant of 20 MW{sub t} in the MHD circuit and a total of 30 MW{sub t} with net efficiency of 27%. For plants larger than 60 MW{sub t} it is expected net efficiency larger than 37%. 3 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Biomass assessment and small scale biomass fired electricity generation in the Green Triangle, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Luis C.; May, Barrie; Herr, Alexander; O'Connell, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Coal fired electricity is a major factor in Australia's greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) emissions. The country has adopted a mandatory renewable energy target (MRET) to ensure that 20% of electricity comes from renewable sources by 2020. In order to support the MRET, a market scheme of tradable Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) has been implemented since 2001. Generators using biomass from eligible sources are able to contribute to GHG emission reduction through the substitution of coal for electricity production and are eligible to create and trade RECs. This paper quantifies the potential biomass resources available for energy generation from forestry and agriculture in the Green Triangle, one of the most promising Australian Regions for biomass production. We analyse the cost of electricity generation using direct firing of biomass, and estimate the required REC prices to make it competitive with coal fired electricity generation. Major findings suggest that more than 2.6 million tonnes of biomass are produced every year within 200 km of the regional hub of Mount Gambier and biomass fired electricity is viable using feedstock with a plant gate cost of 46 Australian Dollars (AUD) per tonne under the current REC price of 34 AUD per MWh. These findings are then discussed in the context of regional energy security and existing targets and incentives for renewable energies. -- Highlights: → We assessed the biomass production in the Green Triangle. → 2.6 million tonnes of biomass per year are produced within 200 km from Mt Gambier. → Renewable Energy Certificates makes bioenergy competitive with coal electricity. → At a REC price of 34 AUD, biomass of up to 46 AUD/tonne might be used for bionergy

  3. Understanding Biomass Ignition in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzer, Lars; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Glarborg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Converting existing coal fired power plants to biomass is a readily implemented strategy to increase the share of renewable energy. However, changing from one fuel to another is not straightforward: Experience shows that wood pellets ignite more readily than coal in power plant mills or storages...

  4. Plant biomass briquetting : a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Y. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering; Shenyang Agricultural Univ., Shenyang (China). College of Engineering; Tumuluru, J.S.; Tabil, L.; Meda, V. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The technology of converting straws into briquettes for biofuel or energy applications was discussed with particular reference to the factors that affect the quality of briquette, such as the loading pressure, particle size of the chopped material, the preheating temperature, the moisture content and residence time of the die. The study results of briquetting materials such as corn stover, switch grass, alfalfa, cotton stalks and reed canary grass were also presented. The main briquetting related technologies, systems and equipment were also reviewed. The study showed that in order to produce an economically competitive feedstock, further research should be extended to other biomass materials as well as developing technologies to obtain a high quality briquette with better efficiencies from a wide range of biomass materials.

  5. Hydrothermal processing of biomass from invasive aquatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. James Catallo; Todd F. Shupe; Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the hydrothermal (HT) treatment of three invasive aquatic plants (i.e., Lemna sp., Hydrilla sp., and Eichhornia sp.) with respect to the generation of semi-volatile hydrocarbon product mixtures and biomass volume reduction. Identical HT treatments yielded similar semi-...

  6. District heating and combined heat and power generation from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veski, Rein

    1999-01-01

    An Altener programme seminar District Heating and Combined Heat and Power Generation from Biomass. Minitraining seminar and study tours and also Business forum, Exhibition and Short company presentations were held in Tallinn on March 21-23, 1999. The Seminar was organised by the VTT Energy, the Estonian Bioenergy Association and the Estonian Heat and Power Association in co-operation with the AFB-net. The Agricultural and Forestry Biomass Network (AFB-net) is part of the ALTENER programme. The Network aims at promoting and stimulating the implementation and commercial utilisation of energy from biomass and waste, through the initiation of business opportunities. This includes national and international co-operation and the exchange of the personnel. The Seminar was attended by consulting companies, scientists, municipal authorities and representatives of co-ordinating bodies engaged in renewable energy management as well as DH and CHP plant managers, equipment manufacturers and local energy planners from Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Sweden, Denmark, Belgium, Slovenia and Slovak Republic. At the Seminar minitraining issues were dealt with: the current situation and future trends in biomass DH in the Baltic Sea countries, and biomass DH and CHP in Eastern and Central Europe, planning and construction of biomass-based DH plants, biomass fuel procurement and handling technology, combustion technology, DH networks, financing of biomass projects and evaluating of projects, and case projects in Eastern and Central European countries. The following were presented: boilers with a capacity of 100 kW or more, stoker burners, wood and straw handling equipment, wood fuel harvesters, choppers, pelletisers, district heating pipelines and networks. (author)

  7. THE BREAKEVEN POINT GIVEN LIMIT COST USING BIOMASS CHP PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula VOICU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is a renewable source, non-fossil, from which can be obtained fuels, which can be used in power generation systems. The main difference of fossil fuels is the availability biomass in nature and that it is in continue "reproduction". The use its enable the use of materials that could be destined destruction, as a source of energy "renewable", though result with many ecological values. In this paper we will study, applying a calculation model in view optimal sizing of the cogeneration plant based on biomass, biomass cost limit for the net present value is zero. It will consider that in cogeneration systems and in heating peak systems using biomass. After applying the mathematical model for limit value of biomass cost will determine the nominal optimal coefficient of cogeneration, for which discounted net revenue value is zero. Optimal sizing of CHP plants based on using biomass will be given by optimum coefficient of cogeneration determined following the application of the proposed mathematical model.

  8. Drivers of biomass co-firing in U.S. coal-fired power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Goerndt; Francisco X. Aguilar; Kenneth Skog

    2013-01-01

    Substantial knowledge has been generated in the U.S. about the resource base for forest and other residue-derived biomass for bioenergy including co-firing in power plants. However, a lack of understanding regarding power plant-level operations and manager perceptions of drivers of biomass co-firing remains. This study gathered information from U.S. power plant...

  9. High Temperature Corrosion in Biomass Incineration Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Maahn, Ernst emanuel; Gotthjælp, K.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the project is to study the role of ash deposits in high temperature corrosion of superheater materials in biomass and refuse fire combined heat and power plants. The project has included the two main activities: a) A chemical characterisation of ash deposits collected from a major...

  10. Biomass production for direct generation of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In continuing its activities for the formation of public opinion the Deutsche Farming Association) held a colloquium in 1991 on the issue of biomass production and combustion. Its aim was to gather all current knowledge on this issue and, for the first time, to make a comprehensive appraisal of it. The following aspects were dealt with: Abatement of atmospheric pollution, ecologically oriented production, nature conservation, organisation of decentralized power plant operating corporations, state of the art in combustion technology, operational calculations and, not least, agrarin-political framework conditions. The meeting yielded important statements on remarkable innovations in the area of ecological biomass production and for its utilization as an energy source together with the conventional energy sources of oil, gas, coal and nuclear energy. (orig.) [de

  11. Materials Problems and Solutions in Biomass Fired Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Hede; Montgomery, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    ascribed to the composition of the deposit and the metal surface temperature. In woodchip boilers, a similar corrosion rate and corrosion mechanism has on some occasions been observed. Co-firing of straw (10 and 20% energy basis) with coal has shown corrosion rates lower than those in straw-fired plants......Due to Denmark’s pledge to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, biomass is utilised increasingly as a fuel for generating energy. Extensive research and demonstration projects especially in the area of material performance for biomass fired boilers have been undertaken to make biomass a viable fuel...... resource. When straw is combusted, potassium chloride and potassium sulphate are present in ash products, which condense on superheater components. This gives rise to specific chlorine corrosion problems not previously encountered in coal-fired power plants. The type of corrosion attack can be directly...

  12. Third generation nuclear plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barré, Bertrand

    2012-05-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, a new generation of Light Water Reactors has been designed and is being built. Third generation nuclear plants are equipped with dedicated systems to insure that if the worst accident were to occur, i.e. total core meltdown, no matter how low the probability of such occurrence, radioactive releases in the environment would be minimal. This article describes the EPR, representative of this "Generation III" and a few of its competitors on the world market.

  13. Materials Problems and Solutions in Biomass fired plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Hede; Montgomery, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    be directly ascribed to the composition of the deposit and the metal surface temperature. In woodchip boilers, a similar corrosion rate and corrosion mechanism has on some occasions been observed. Cofiring of straw (10 and 20% energy basis) with coal has shown corrosion rates lower than those in straw fired......Owing to Denmark's pledge to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, biomass is being increasingly utilised as a fuel for generating energy. Extensive research and development projects, especially in the area of material performance for biomass fired boilers, have been undertaken to make biomass a viable...... fuel resource. When straw is combusted, potassium chloride and potassium sulphate are present in ash products, which condense on superheater components. This gives rise to specific chlorine corrosion problems not previously encountered in coal fired power plants. The type of corrosion attack can...

  14. An Optimization-Based System Model of Disturbance-Generated Forest Biomass Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Guy L.; Coulson, Robert N.; Gan, Jianbang; Tchakerian, Maria D.; Smith, C. Tattersall

    2008-01-01

    Disturbance-generated biomass results from endogenous and exogenous natural and cultural disturbances that affect the health and productivity of forest ecosystems. These disturbances can create large quantities of plant biomass on predictable cycles. A systems analysis model has been developed to quantify aspects of system capacities (harvest,…

  15. Do plants modulate biomass allocation in response to petroleum pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ming; Yang, Qiang; Jiang, Li-Fen; Fang, Chang-Ming; Chen, Jia-Kuan; Li, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Biomass allocation is an important plant trait that responds plastically to environmental heterogeneities. However, the effects on this trait of pollutants owing to human activities remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the response of biomass allocation of Phragmites australis to petroleum pollution by a 13CO2 pulse-labelling technique. Our data show that plant biomass significantly decreased under petroleum pollution, but the root–shoot ratio for both plant biomass and 13C increased with increasing petroleum concentration, suggesting that plants could increase biomass allocation to roots in petroleum-polluted soil. Furthermore, assimilated 13C was found to be significantly higher in soil, microbial biomass and soil respiration after soils were polluted by petroleum. These results suggested that the carbon released from roots is rapidly turned over by soil microbes under petroleum pollution. This study found that plants can modulate biomass allocation in response to petroleum pollution. PMID:20484231

  16. Potential of Livestock Generated Biomass: Untapped Energy Source in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Kaur

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern economies run on the backbone of electricity as one of major factors behind industrial development. India is endowed with plenty of natural resources and the majority of electricity within the country is generated from thermal and hydro-electric plants. A few nuclear plants assist in meeting the national requirements for electricity but still many rural areas remain uncovered. As India is primarily a rural agrarian economy, providing electricity to the remote, undeveloped regions of the country remains a top priority of the government. A vital, untapped source is livestock generated biomass which to some extent has been utilized to generate electricity in small scale biogas based plants under the government's thrust on rural development. This study is a preliminary attempt to correlate developments in this arena in the Asian region, as well as the developed world, to explore the possibilities of harnessing this resource in a better manner. The current potential of 2600 million tons of livestock dung generated per year, capable of yielding 263,702 million m3 of biogas is exploited. Our estimates suggest that if this resource is utilized judiciously, it possesses the potential of generating 477 TWh (Terawatt hour of electrical energy per annum.

  17. Understanding Biomass Ignition in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzer, Lars; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Glarborg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    . This is not very well explained by apply-ing conventional thermal ignition theory. An experimental study at lab scale, using pinewood as an example fuel, was conducted to examine self-heating and self-ignition. Supplemental experiments were performed with bituminous coal. Instead of characterizing ignition......Converting existing coal fired power plants to biomass is a readily implemented strategy to increase the share of renewable energy. However, changing from one fuel to another is not straightforward: Experience shows that wood pellets ignite more readily than coal in power plant mills or storages...... temperature in terms of sample volume, mass-scaling seems more physically correct for the self-ignition of solids. Findings also suggest that the transition between self-heating and self-ignition is controlled both by the availability of reactive material and temperature. Comparison of experiments at 20...

  18. Optimization of biomass fuelled systems for distributed power generation using Particle Swarm Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, P. Reche; Reyes, N. Ruiz; Gonzalez, M. Gomez; Jurado, F.

    2008-01-01

    With sufficient territory and abundant biomass resources Spain appears to have suitable conditions to develop biomass utilization technologies. As an important decentralized power technology, biomass gasification and power generation has a potential market in making use of biomass wastes. This paper addresses biomass fuelled generation of electricity in the specific aspect of finding the best location and the supply area of the electric generation plant for three alternative technologies (gas motor, gas turbine and fuel cell-microturbine hybrid power cycle), taking into account the variables involved in the problem, such as the local distribution of biomass resources, transportation costs, distance to existing electric lines, etc. For each technology, not only optimal location and supply area of the biomass plant, but also net present value and generated electric power are determined by an own binary variant of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). According to the values derived from the optimization algorithm, the most profitable technology can be chosen. Computer simulations show the good performance of the proposed binary PSO algorithm to optimize biomass fuelled systems for distributed power generation. (author)

  19. Vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopic study of crystalline cellulose in biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong H.; Lee, Christopher M.; Kafle, Kabindra; Park, Yong Bum; Xi, Xiaoning

    2013-09-01

    The noncentrosymmetry requirement of sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy allows selective detection of crystalline cellulose in plant cell walls and lignocellulose biomass without spectral interferences from hemicelluloses and lignin. In addition, the phase synchronization requirement of the SFG process allows noninvasive investigation of spatial arrangement of crystalline cellulose microfibrils in the sample. This paper reviews how these principles are applied to reveal structural information of crystalline cellulose in plant cell walls and biomass.

  20. Development of biomass gasification systems for gas turbine power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, E.D.; Svenningsson, P.

    1991-01-01

    Gas turbines are of interest for biomass applications because, unlike steam turbines, they have relatively high efficiencies and low unit capital costs in the small sizes appropriate for biomass installations. Gasification is a simple and efficient way to make biomass usable in gas turbines. The authors evaluate here the technical requirements for gas turbine power generation with biomass gas and the status of pressurized biomass gasification and hot gas cleanup systems. They also discuss the economics of gasifier-gas turbine cycles and make some comparisons with competing technologies. Their analysis indicates that biomass gasifiers fueling advanced gas turbines are promising for cost-competitive cogeneration and central station power generation. Gasifier-gas turbine systems are not available commercially, but could probably be developed in 3 to 5 years. Extensive past work related to coal gasification and pressurized combustion of solid fuels for gas turbines would be relevant in this effort, as would work on pressurized biomass gasification for methanol synthesis

  1. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya [Oregon Inst. of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  2. Anaerobic digestion in combination with 2nd generation ethanol production for maximizing biofuels yield from lignocellulosic biomass – testing in an integrated pilot-scale biorefinery plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    An integrated biorefinery concept for 2nd generation bioethanol production together with biogas production from the fermentation effluent was tested in pilot-scale. The pilot plant comprised pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, hexose and pentose fermentation into ethanol and anaerobic digestion......-VS/(m3•d) a methane yield of 340 L/kg-VS was achieved for thermophilic operation while 270 L/kg-VS was obtained under mesophilic conditions. Thermophilic operation was, however, less robust towards further increase of the loading rate and for loading rates higher than 5 kg-VS/(m3•d) the yield was higher...... for mesophilic than for thermophilic operation. The effluent from the ethanol fermentation showed no signs of toxicity to the anaerobic microorganisms. Implementation of the biogas production from the fermentation effluent accounted for about 30% higher biofuels yield in the biorefinery compared to a system...

  3. Aspects of using biomass as energy source for power generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tîrtea Raluca-Nicoleta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomass represents an important source of renewable energy in Romania with about 64% of the whole available green energy. Being a priority for the energy sector worldwide, in our country the development stage is poor compared to solar and wind energy. Biomass power plants offer great horizontal economy development, local and regional economic growth with benefic effects on life standard. The paper presents an analysis on biomass to power conversion solutions compared to fossil fuels using two main processes: combustion and gasification. Beside the heating value, which can be considerably higher for fossil fuels compared to biomass, a big difference between fossil fuels and biomass can be observed in the sulphur content. While the biomass sulphur content is between 0 and approximately 1%, the sulphur content of coal can reach 4%. Using coal in power plants requires important investments in installations of flue gas desulfurization. If limestone is used to reduce SO2 emissions, then additional carbon dioxide moles will be released during the production of CaO from CaCO3. Therefore, fossil fuels not only release a high amount of carbon dioxide through burning, but also through the caption of sulphur dioxide, while biomass is considered CO2 neutral. Biomass is in most of the cases represented by residues, so it is a free fuel compared to fossil fuels. The same power plant can be used even if biomass or fossil fuels is used as a feedstock with small differences. The biomass plant could need a drying system due to high moisture content of the biomass, while the coal plant will need a desulfurization installation of flue gas and additional money will be spent with fuel purchasing.

  4. Predicting plant biomass accumulation from image-derived parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dijun; Shi, Rongli; Pape, Jean-Michel; Neumann, Kerstin; Graner, Andreas; Chen, Ming; Klukas, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Image-based high-throughput phenotyping technologies have been rapidly developed in plant science recently, and they provide a great potential to gain more valuable information than traditionally destructive methods. Predicting plant biomass is regarded as a key purpose for plant breeders and ecologists. However, it is a great challenge to find a predictive biomass model across experiments. Results In the present study, we constructed 4 predictive models to examine the quantitative relationship between image-based features and plant biomass accumulation. Our methodology has been applied to 3 consecutive barley (Hordeum vulgare) experiments with control and stress treatments. The results proved that plant biomass can be accurately predicted from image-based parameters using a random forest model. The high prediction accuracy based on this model will contribute to relieving the phenotyping bottleneck in biomass measurement in breeding applications. The prediction performance is still relatively high across experiments under similar conditions. The relative contribution of individual features for predicting biomass was further quantified, revealing new insights into the phenotypic determinants of the plant biomass outcome. Furthermore, methods could also be used to determine the most important image-based features related to plant biomass accumulation, which would be promising for subsequent genetic mapping to uncover the genetic basis of biomass. Conclusions We have developed quantitative models to accurately predict plant biomass accumulation from image data. We anticipate that the analysis results will be useful to advance our views of the phenotypic determinants of plant biomass outcome, and the statistical methods can be broadly used for other plant species. PMID:29346559

  5. Competitiveness of biomass-fueled electrical power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce A. McCarl; Darius M. Adams; Ralph J. Alig; John T. Chmelik

    2000-01-01

    One way countries like the United States can comply with suggested rollbacks in greenhouse gas emissions is by employing power plants fueled with biomass. We examine the competitiveness of biomass-based fuel for electrical power as opposed to coal using a mathematical programming structure. We consider fueling power plants from milling residues, whole trees, logging...

  6. Advanced circulating fluidised bed technology (CFB) for large-scale solid biomass fuel firing power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaentti, Timo; Zabetta, Edgardo Coda; Nuortimo, Kalle [Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Varkaus (Finland)

    2013-04-01

    Worldwide the nations are taking initiatives to counteract global warming by reducing their greenhouse gas emissions. Efforts to increase boiler efficiency and the use of biomass and other solid renewable fuels are well in line with these objectives. Circulating fluidised bed boilers (CFB) are ideal for efficient power generation, capable to fire a broad variety of solid biomass fuels from small CHP plants to large utility power plants. Relevant boiler references in commercial operation are made for Finland and Poland.

  7. IEA Energy Technology Essentials: Biomass for Power Generation and CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    The IEA Energy Technology Essentials series offers concise four-page updates on the different technologies for producing, transporting and using energy. Biomass for Power Generation and CHP is the topic covered in this edition.

  8. Biomass Production System (BPS) Plant Growth Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, R. C.; Crabb, T. M.

    The Biomass Production System (BPS) was developed under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program to meet science, biotechnology and commercial plant growth needs in the Space Station era. The BPS is equivalent in size to a double middeck locker, but uses it's own custom enclosure with a slide out structure to which internal components mount. The BPS contains four internal growth chambers, each with a growing volume of more than 4 liters. Each of the growth chambers has active nutrient delivery, and independent control of temperature, humidity, lighting, and CO2 set-points. Temperature control is achieved using a thermoelectric heat exchanger system. Humidity control is achieved using a heat exchanger with a porous interface which can both humidify and dehumidify. The control software utilizes fuzzy logic for nonlinear, coupled temperature and humidity control. The fluorescent lighting system can be dimmed to provide a range of light levels. CO2 levels are controlled by injecting pure CO2 to the system based on input from an infrared gas analyzer. The unit currently does not scrub CO2, but has been designed to accept scrubber cartridges. In addition to providing environmental control, a number of features are included to facilitate science. The BPS chambers are sealed to allow CO2 and water vapor exchange measurements. The plant chambers can be removed to allow manipulation or sampling of specimens, and each chamber has gas/fluid sample ports. A video camera is provided for each chamber, and frame-grabs and complete environmental data for all science and hardware system sensors are stored on an internal hard drive. Data files can also be transferred to 3.5-inch disks using the front panel disk drive

  9. BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND POWER GENERATION USING ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Liscinsky

    2002-10-20

    A multidisciplined team led by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and consisting of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), KraftWork Systems, Inc. (kWS), and the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA) has evaluated a variety of gasified biomass fuels, integrated into advanced gas turbine-based power systems. The team has concluded that a biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle (BIGCC) plant with an overall integrated system efficiency of 45% (HHV) at emission levels of less than half of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) is technically and economically feasible. The higher process efficiency in itself reduces consumption of premium fuels currently used for power generation including those from foreign sources. In addition, the advanced gasification process can be used to generate fuels and chemicals, such as low-cost hydrogen and syngas for chemical synthesis, as well as baseload power. The conceptual design of the plant consists of an air-blown circulating fluidized-bed Advanced Transport Gasifier and a PWPS FT8 TwinPac{trademark} aeroderivative gas turbine operated in combined cycle to produce {approx}80 MWe. This system uses advanced technology commercial products in combination with components in advanced development or demonstration stages, thereby maximizing the opportunity for early implementation. The biofueled power system was found to have a levelized cost of electricity competitive with other new power system alternatives including larger scale natural gas combined cycles. The key elements are: (1) An Advanced Transport Gasifier (ATG) circulating fluid-bed gasifier having wide fuel flexibility and high gasification efficiency; (2) An FT8 TwinPac{trademark}-based combined cycle of approximately 80 MWe; (3) Sustainable biomass primary fuel source at low cost and potentially widespread availability-refuse-derived fuel (RDF); (4) An overall integrated

  10. Materials for Waste Incinerators and Biomass Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rademakers, P.; Grossmann, G.; Karlsson, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13.......This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13....

  11. Biomass Power Generation Industry Efficiency Evaluation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyou Yan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we compare the properties of the traditional additive-based data envelopment analysis (hereafter, referred to as DEA models and propose two generalized DEA models, i.e., the big M additive-based DEA (hereafter, referred to as BMA model and the big M additive-based super-efficiency DEA (hereafter, referred to as BMAS model, to evaluate the performance of the biomass power plants in China in 2012. The virtues of the new models are two-fold: one is that they inherited the properties of the traditional additive-based DEA models and derived more new additive-based DEA forms; the other is that they can rank the efficient decision making units (hereafter, referred to as DMUs. Therefore, the new models have great potential to be applied in sustainable energy project evaluation. Then, we applied the two new DEA models to evaluate the performance of the biomass power plants in China and find that the efficiency of biomass power plants in the northern part of China is higher than that in the southern part of China. The only three efficient biomass power plants are all in the northern part of China. Furthermore, based on the results of the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney rank-sum test and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, there is a great technology gap between the biomass power plants in the northern part of China and those in the southern part of China.

  12. Decomposition of fresh and anaerobically digested plant biomass in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhead, K.K.; Graetz, D.A.; Reddy, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    Using water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] for waste water renovation produces biomass that must be disposed of. This biomass may be anaerobically digested to produce CH 4 or added to soil directly as an amendment. In this study, fresh and anaerobically digested water hyacinth biomass, with either low or high N tissue content, were added to soil to evaluate C and N mineralization characteristics. The plant biomass was labeled with 15 N before digestion. The fresh plant biomass and digested biomass sludge were freeze-dried and ground to pass a 0.84-mm sieve. The materials were thoroughly mixed with a Kindrick fine sand at a rate of 5 g kg -1 soil and incubated for 90 d at 27 0 C at a moisture content adjusted to 0.01 MPa. Decomposition was evaluated by CO 2 evolution and 15 N mineralization. After 90 d, approximately 20% of the added C of the digested sludges had evolved as CO 2 compared to 39 and 50% of the added C of the fresh plant biomass with a low and high N content, respectively. First-order kinetics were used to describe decomposition stages. Mineralization of organic 15 N to 15 NO 3 - -N accounted for 8% of applied N for both digested sludges at 90 d. Nitrogen mineralization accounted for 3 and 33% of the applied organic N for fresh plant biomass with a low and high N content, respectively

  13. Biomass Allocation and Growth Data of Seeded Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set of leaf, stem, and root biomass for various plant taxa was compiled from the primary literature of the 20th century with a significant portion derived...

  14. Biomass Allocation and Growth Data of Seeded Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set of leaf, stem, and root biomass for various plant taxa was compiled from the primary literature of the 20th century with a significant...

  15. 76 FR 20624 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Availability of a Draft... financial assistance to Oglethorpe Power Corporation (Oglethorpe) for the construction of a 100 megawatt (MW...

  16. Economic feasibility of biomass gasification for power generation in three selected communities of northwestern Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, Thakur Prasad; Shahi, Chander; Leitch, Mathew; Pulkki, Reino

    2012-01-01

    Biomass gasification is expected to be an attractive option among other competitive applications of biomass conversion for bio-energy. This study analyzes economic feasibility of biomass gasification power generating plants in three selected communities (Ignace, Nipigon and Kenora) of northwestern Ontario. The major variables considered in the model are harvesting and handling costs, logistic costs for biomass feedstock delivery and storage, capital costs of power plant by scales, operation and maintenance costs, labor costs, capital financing costs and other regulatory costs. GIS analysis was undertaken to estimate the distance class matrix to apportion the biomass feedstock supply side from different forest management units. Total cost per MW h power production at a 50 MW scale ranges from CAD 61.89 to CAD 63.79. Total cost per unit of electricity production decreases significantly as plant capacity increases due to economy of scale in the production system. Further, the locations of plants explained the cost variability. - Highlights: ► We model feasibility of gasification power plants in three rural communities. ► The variables considered in the model are logistics, operational and capital costs. ► Mean distance from each community to different forest units are estimated with GIS. ► Total cost per MWh at a 50 MW scale ranges from CAD 61.89 to CAD 63.79. ► Total cost decreases with increase in plant capacity.

  17. Energy generation from biomass with the aid of fuel cells; Energetische Nutzung von Biomasse mit Brennstoffzellenverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    To provide an opportunity for information exchange at the interface between biomass use for energy generation and developers of fuel cells, the workshop 'Energy generation from biomass with the aid of fuel cells' was held by the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe on 9 and 10 December 1998. The lectures and discussions permit to assess better the opportunities and restraints resulting from the use of biogenous fuel gas in fuel cells. (orig.) [German] Um an der Schnittstelle zwischen der energetischen Nutzung von Biomasse und den Entwicklern von Brennstoffzellen einen Informationsaustausch zu ermoeglichen, wurde am 9. und 10. Dezember 1998 der Workshop 'Energetische Nutzung von Biomasse mit Brennstoffzellenverfahren' von der FNR veranstaltet. Die Vortraege und die Diskussion erlauben eine bessere Einschaetzung der Moeglichkeiten und Restriktionen, die sich bei dem Einsatz von biogenen Brenngasen in Brennstoffzellen ergeben. (orig.)

  18. Root biomass and exudates link plant diversity with soil bacterial and fungal biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Lanoue, Arnaud; Strecker, Tanja; Scheu, Stefan; Steinauer, Katja; Thakur, Madhav P.; Mommer, Liesje

    2017-01-01

    Plant diversity has been shown to determine the composition and functioning of soil biota. Although root-derived organic inputs are discussed as the main drivers of soil communities, experimental evidence is scarce. While there is some evidence that higher root biomass at high plant diversity

  19. Data from: Root biomass and exudates link plant diversity with soil bacterial and fungal biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Strecker, Tanja; Lanoue, Arnaud; Scheu, Stefan; Steinauer, Katja; Thakur, Madhav P.; Mommer, L.

    2017-01-01

    Plant diversity has been shown to determine the composition and functioning of soil biota. Although root-derived organic inputs are discussed as the main drivers of soil communities, experimental evidence is scarce. While there is some evidence that higher root biomass at high plant diversity

  20. The second generation biofuels from the biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The author takes stock on the second generation biofuels in the world, the recent technologies, their advantages, the research programs and the economical and environmental impacts of the biofuels development. (A.L.B.)

  1. Strategic analysis of biomass and waste fuels for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltsee, G.A. Jr.; Easterly, J.; Vence, T.

    1993-12-01

    In this report, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) intends to help utility companies evaluate biomass and wastes for power generation. These fuels may be alternatives or supplements to fossil fuels in three applications: (1) utility boiler coining; (2) dedicated combustion/energy recovery plants; and 3) dedicated gasification/combined cycle plants. The report summarizes data on biomass and waste properties, and evaluates the cost and performance of fuel preparation and power generation technologies. The primary biomass and waste resources evaluated are: (1) wood wastes (from forests, mills, construction/demolition, and orchards) and short rotation woody crops; (2) agricultural wastes (from fields, animals, and processing) and herbaceous energy crops; and (3) consumer or industrial wastes (e.g., municipal solid waste, scrap tires, sewage sludge, auto shredder waste). The major fuel types studied in detail are wood, municipal solid waste, and scrap tires. The key products of the project include the BIOPOWER model of biomass/waste-fired power plant performance and cost. Key conclusions of the evaluation are: (1) significant biomass and waste fuel resources are available; (2) biomass power technology cannot currently compete with natural gas-fired combined cycle technology; (3) coining biomass and waste fuels with coal in utility and industrial boilers is the most efficient, lowest cost, and lowest risk method of energy recovery from residual materials; (4) better biomass and waste fuel production and conversion technology must be developed, with the help of coordinated government energy and environmental policies and incentives; and (5) community partnerships can enhance the chances for success of a project

  2. The impacts of the power plant generation using biomass in the price of energy in Brazil and its incorporation to the mechanism for reallocation of energy; Os impactos da geracao de usinas a biomassa no preco da energia no Brasil e sua incorporacao ao mecanismo de realocacao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tardin, Thiago V.; Souza, Luiz Eduardo de; Ribeiro, Paulo [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil)], Emails: thiago@engenho.com, luizeduardo_jf@yahoo.com.br, pfribeiro@ieee.org; Leite, Paula Beatriz Cerqueira [Engenho Pesquisa, Desenvolvimento e Consultoria Ltda, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: Paula@engenho.com

    2009-07-01

    The energy reallocation mechanism (ERM) is a compulsory scheme used to reduce the hydrology risk. The aim of this paper is to present a proposed merger of biomass power plants in ERM. This merger will bring great benefits to the power system as a whole in that the generation of biomass is complementary to the system, reducing thus, the hydrological risk and improve safety of supply, but without raising the price of energy, since that the variable cost of production of biomass is very down. Furthermore, biomass has also benefits to be incorporated into the ERM, as it may commercialize energy to a wider range of buyers, not only during the harvest period, but also in the off season, since the ERM 'donate' energy during the period between harvests, reducing the risk of exposure to the spot market.

  3. Integrated biomass pyrolysis with organic Rankine cycle for power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, T. B.; Syahputra, A. W.

    2018-02-01

    The growing interest on Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) application to produce electricity by utilizing biomass energy sources are increasingly due to its successfully used to generate power from waste heat available in industrial processes. Biomass pyrolysis is one of the thermochemical technologies for converting biomass into energy and chemical products consisting of liquid bio-oil, solid biochar, and pyrolytic gas. In the application, biomass pyrolysis can be divided into three main categories; slow, fast and flash pyrolysis mainly aiming at maximizing the products of bio-oil or biochar. The temperature of synthesis gas generated during processes can be used for Organic Rankine Cycle to generate power. The heat from synthesis gas during pyrolysis processes was transfer by thermal oil heater to evaporate ORC working fluid in the evaporator unit. In this study, the potential of the palm oil empty fruit bunch, palm oil shell, and tree bark have been used as fuel from biomass to generate electricity by integrated with ORC. The Syltherm-XLT thermal oil was used as the heat carrier from combustion burner, while R245fa was used as the working fluid for ORC system. Through Aspen Plus, this study analyses the influences on performance of main thermodynamic parameters, showing the possibilities of reaching an optimum performance for different working conditions that are characteristics of different design parameters.

  4. Italian Residential Buildings: Economic Assessments for Biomass Boilers Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Carlini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is increasingly used for energy generation since it represents a useful alternative to fossil fuel in order to face the pollutions and the global warming problem. It can be exploited for heating purposes and for supplying domestic hot water. The most common applications encompass wood and pellet boilers. The economic aspect is becoming an important issue in order to achieve the ambitious targets set by the European Directives on Renewable Sources. Thus, the present paper deals with the economic feasibility of biomass boiler plants with specific regard to an existing residential building. An Italian case study is further investigated, focusing the attention on European and national regulations on energy efficiency and considering the recent public incentives and supporting measures. The main thermoclimatic parameters—that is, heating degree days (HDDs, building thermal insulation and thermal needs—are taken into account. Moreover, the following economic indicators are calculated: cumulative cash flow, discounted cumulative cash flow, payback period (PP, net present value (NPV, Internal rate of return (IRR, discounted payback period (DPP, and profit index (PI.

  5. Parametric Optimization of Biomass Steam-and-Gas Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sednin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a parametric analysis of the simplest scheme of a steam-and gas plant for the conditions required for biomass burning. It has been shown that application of gas-turbine and steam-and-gas plants can significantly exceed an efficiency of steam-power supply units which are used at the present moment. Optimum thermo-dynamical conditions for application of steam-and gas plants with the purpose to burn biomass require new technological solutions in the field of heat-exchange equipment designs.

  6. Is biomass a reliable estimate of plant fitness?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Younginger, B.S.; Sirová, Dagmara; Cruzan, M.B.; Ballhorn, D.J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2017), č. článku 1600094. ISSN 2168-0450 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biomass * fecundity * fitness * plant performance * selection Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.492, year: 2016

  7. Efficient plant biomass degradation by thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, J.; van Muiswinkel, G.C.; Theelen, B.; Hinz, S.W.; de Vries, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and efficient enzymatic degradation of plant biomass into fermentable sugars is a major challenge for the sustainable production of biochemicals and biofuels. Enzymes that are more thermostable (up to 70 degrees C) use shorter reaction times for the complete saccharification of plant

  8. An update technology for integrated biomass gasification combined cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, P.; Dey, S.

    2014-01-01

    A discussion is presented on the technical analysis of a 6.4 M W_e integrated biomass gasification combined cycle (IBGCC) plant. It features three numbers of downdraft biomass gasifier systems with suitable gas clean-up trains, three numbers of internal combustion (IC) producer gas engines for producing 5.85 MW electrical power in open cycle and 550 kW power in a bottoming cycle using waste heat. Comparing with IC gas engine single cycle systems, this technology route increases overall system efficiency of the power plant, which in turn improves plant economics. Estimated generation cost of electricity indicates that mega-watt scale IBGCC power plants can contribute to good economies of scale in India. This paper also highlight's the possibility of activated carbon generation from the char, a byproduct of gasification process, and use of engine's jacket water heat to generate chilled water through VAM for gas conditioning. (author)

  9. Potential Occupational Exposures and Health Risks Associated with Biomass-Based Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Annette C.; Campleman, Sharan L.; Long, Christopher M.; Peterson, Michael K.; Weatherstone, Susan; Quick, Will; Lewis, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is increasingly being used for power generation; however, assessment of potential occupational health and safety (OH&S) concerns related to usage of biomass fuels in combustion-based generation remains limited. We reviewed the available literature on known and potential OH&S issues associated with biomass-based fuel usage for electricity generation at the utility scale. We considered three potential exposure scenarios—pre-combustion exposure to material associated with the fuel, exposure to combustion products, and post-combustion exposure to ash and residues. Testing of dust, fungal and bacterial levels at two power stations was also undertaken. Results indicated that dust concentrations within biomass plants can be extremely variable, with peak levels in some areas exceeding occupational exposure limits for wood dust and general inhalable dust. Fungal spore types, identified as common environmental species, were higher than in outdoor air. Our review suggests that pre-combustion risks, including bioaerosols and biogenic organics, should be considered further. Combustion and post-combustion risks appear similar to current fossil-based combustion. In light of limited available information, additional studies at power plants utilizing a variety of technologies and biomass fuels are recommended. PMID:26206568

  10. Potential Occupational Exposures and Health Risks Associated with Biomass-Based Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette C. Rohr

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is increasingly being used for power generation; however, assessment of potential occupational health and safety (OH&S concerns related to usage of biomass fuels in combustion-based generation remains limited. We reviewed the available literature on known and potential OH&S issues associated with biomass-based fuel usage for electricity generation at the utility scale. We considered three potential exposure scenarios—pre-combustion exposure to material associated with the fuel, exposure to combustion products, and post-combustion exposure to ash and residues. Testing of dust, fungal and bacterial levels at two power stations was also undertaken. Results indicated that dust concentrations within biomass plants can be extremely variable, with peak levels in some areas exceeding occupational exposure limits for wood dust and general inhalable dust. Fungal spore types, identified as common environmental species, were higher than in outdoor air. Our review suggests that pre-combustion risks, including bioaerosols and biogenic organics, should be considered further. Combustion and post-combustion risks appear similar to current fossil-based combustion. In light of limited available information, additional studies at power plants utilizing a variety of technologies and biomass fuels are recommended.

  11. Chemical composition of biomass generated in the guava tree pruning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarena-Tello, Julio César; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria Elizabeth; Gallegos-Infante, José Alberto; González-Laredo, Rubén Francisco; Pedraza-Bucio, Fabiola Eugenia; López-Albarrán, Pablo; Herrera-Bucio, Rafael; Rutiaga-Quiñones, José Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) is a native plant of Central America and is now widely cultivated in many tropical regions of the world for the fruit production. In Mexico, in the guava orchards common practices to control fruit production are: water stress, defoliation and pruning. In this study, we report the chemical composition of the biomass (branches and leaves) generated in the pruning practices. The results ranged as follows: pH (4.98-5.88), soda solubility (39.01-70.49 %), ash (1.87-8.20 %); potassium and calcium were the major inorganic elements in ash. No heavy metals were detected in the studied samples; total solubility (15.21-46.60 %), Runkel lignin (17.77-35.26 %), holocellulose (26.56 -69.49 %), α-cellulose (15.53-35.36 %), hemicelluloses (11.02-34.12 %), tannins in aqueous extracts (3.81-9.06 %), and tannins in ethanolic extracts (3.42-15.24 %). PMID:26417359

  12. Indian Farmers’ Perceptions and Willingness to Supply Surplus Biomass to an Envisioned Biomass-Based Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Zyadin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this socio-technical study are to investigate the Indian farmers’ biomass production capacities and their perceptions and willingness to supply their surplus biomass to fuel an envisioned biomass-based power plant in three selected Indian states: Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. For doing so, 471 farmers (about one-third from each state have been interviewed in the field with info-sheet filled in by the field investigators. The farmers from all of the states appeared very much willing to sell their surplus biomass directly to a power plant. The farmers seem to depreciate the involvement of a middleman in the biomass procurement process. The farmers, however, appeared to highly appreciate a community-based association to regulate the biomass prices, with varying perceptions regarding government intervention. The majority of the farmers perceived the establishment of a biomass-based power plant in their region with positive economic outcomes. The farmers identified several barriers to supply biomass to a power plant where transportation logistics appeared to be the main barrier. The study recommends considering biomass collection, storage and transportation logistics as a fundamental segment of any envisioned investment in a biomass-based power plant. Biomass processing, such as pelletization or briquetting is recommended for efficient transportation of biomass at longer distances to reduce the transportation costs. The study further encourages the establishment of a farmers’ association aimed at collecting and selling biomass in agriculture areas predominant for small land holdings.

  13. Wind Generator & Biomass No-draft Gasification Hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Matthew R.

    The premise of this research is that underutilized but vast intermittent renewable energy resources, such as wind, can become more market competitive by coupling with storable renewable energy sources, like biomass; thereby creating a firm capacity resource. Specifically, the Midwest state of South Dakota has immense wind energy potential that is not used because of economic and logistic barriers of electrical transmission or storage. Coupling the state's intermittent wind resource with another of the state's energy resources, cellulosic non-food biomass, by using a wind generator and no-draft biomass gasification hybrid system will result in a energy source that is both firm and storable. The average energy content of common biomass feedstock was determined, 14.8 MJ/kg (7.153 Btu/lb), along with the assumed typical biomass conversion efficiency of the no-draft gasifier, 65%, so that an average electrical energy round trip efficiency (RTE) of 214% can be expected (i.e. One unit of wind electrical energy can produce 2.14 kWh of electrical energy stored as syngas.) from a wind generator and no-draft biomass gasification system. Wind characteristics are site specific so this analysis utilizes a synthetic wind resource to represent a statistically sound gross representation of South Dakota's wind regime based on data from the Wind Resource Assessment Network (WRAN) locations. A synthetic wind turbine generated from common wind turbine power curves and scaled to 1-MW rated capacity was utilized for this analysis in order to remove equipment bias from the results. A standard 8,760-hour BIN Analysis model was constructed within HOMER, powerful simulation software developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to model the performance of renewable power systems. It was found that the optimum configuration on a per-megawatt-transmitted basis required a wind generator (wind farm) rated capacity of 3-MW with an anticipated annual biomass feedstock of 26,132 GJ

  14. Technical Manual for the SAM Biomass Power Generation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgenson, J.; Gilman, P.; Dobos, A.

    2011-09-01

    This technical manual provides context for the implementation of the biomass electric power generation performance model in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) System Advisor Model (SAM). Additionally, the report details the engineering and scientific principles behind the underlying calculations in the model. The framework established in this manual is designed to give users a complete understanding of behind-the-scenes calculations and the results generated.

  15. Feasibility Study of Biomass Electrical Generation on Tribal Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Roche; Richard Hartmann; Joohn Luton; Warren Hudelson; Roger Blomguist; Jan Hacker; Colene Frye

    2005-03-29

    The goals of the St. Croix Tribe are to develop economically viable energy production facilities using readily available renewable biomass fuel sources at an acceptable cost per kilowatt hour ($/kWh), to provide new and meaningful permanent employment, retain and expand existing employment (logging) and provide revenues for both producers and sellers of the finished product. This is a feasibility study including an assessment of available biomass fuel, technology assessment, site selection, economics viability given the foreseeable fuel and generation costs, as well as an assessment of the potential markets for renewable energy.

  16. AUTOMATIC BIOMASS BOILER WITH AN EXTERNAL THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR

    OpenAIRE

    Marian Brázdil; Ladislav Šnajdárek; Petr Kracík; Jirí Pospíšil

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results of an external thermoelectric generator that utilizes the waste heat from a small-scale domestic biomass boiler with nominal rated heat output of 25 kW. The low-temperature Bi2Te3 generator based on thermoelectric modules has the potential to recover waste heat from gas combustion products as effective energy. The small-scale generator is constructed from independent segments. Measurements have shown that up to 11 W of electricity can be generat...

  17. Communal biomass conversion plants. From idea to reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The first Danish biomass conversion plant for the production of methane was built in the nineteen seventies. It was just a little plant based on manure slurries from a local herd of farm animals. It was not until the nineteen eighties that larger plants were established so that enough methane could be produced as part fuels for decentral district heating and/or cogeneration plants. By November 1995 there were 15 communal biomass conversion plants producing methane in Denmark, three more plants were in the course of establishment and a number of similar projects were on the drawing board. The history of this development is narrated and plans for the future are indicated. The document also deals with the technological aspects, operational economics, environmental impacts, resources and re-use, wastes used as fertilizers, household organic wastes and sewage slam, standards of hygiene and reduction of infection risks, exports and commercial development and socio-economic evaluations in addition to areas within this field which need special attention in the very near future. It is concluded that the economics of Danish biomass conversion plants have improved significantly since 1987, and many older plants have been brought right up to date. Improvements in technology and an increase in the supply of industrial wastes have increased production. Details of the basis of many other betterments that have taken place in recent years are also given. (AB) 27 refs

  18. Next generation CANDU plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedges, K.R.; Yu, S.K.W.

    1998-01-01

    Future CANDU designs will continue to meet the emerging design and performance requirements expected by the operating utilities. The next generation CANDU products will integrate new technologies into both the product features as well as into the engineering and construction work processes associated with delivering the products. The timely incorporation of advanced design features is the approach adopted for the development of the next generation of CANDU. AECL's current products consist of 700MW Class CANDU 6 and 900 MW Class CANDU 9. Evolutionary improvements are continuing with our CANDU products to enhance their adaptability to meet customers ever increasing need for higher output. Our key product drivers are for improved safety, environmental protection and improved cost effectiveness. Towards these goals we have made excellent progress in Research and Development and our investments are continuing in areas such as fuel channels and passive safety. Our long term focus is utilizing the fuel cycle flexibility of CANDU reactors as part of the long term energy mix

  19. From the idea to the construction of a biomass fuelled plant. The marketing potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, Ranveig Vaa

    2000-12-01

    The report deals with the case handling in connection with the planning of a biomass fuelled plant as well as the market potential for a biomass fuelled Stirling engines and direct combustion of biomass with a steam circuit

  20. Biomass gasification for electric power generation. Biomassa vergassing voor elektriciteitsopwekking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croezen, H J

    1992-10-01

    Attention is paid to power generation by means of the use of synthesis gas, produced by biomass gasification, in internal combustion engines and gas turbines. Descriptions are given of the biomass gasification process and several types of gasifiers: cocurrent or downcraft gasifiers, countercurrent gasifiers, crosscurrent gasifiers and fluidized bed gasifiers. The first aim of this report is to assess which gasifier is the most appropriate gasifier to be used in combination with an internal combustion engine or a gas turbine. The second aim is to determine the quality of the biomass fuel, which must be gasified in a particular gasifier. In chapter two the notion biomass is discussed, and in chapter three attention is paid to the gasification process. An overview of the characteristics of available gasifiers is presented in chapter four (performance, quality of the synthesis gas and the biomass fuel, investment costs, and state of the art). In chapter five and six the internal combustion engine and the gas turbine are dealt with, as well as the experiences with and the consequences of the use of synthesis gas. Also the economic feasibility of the application of combined gasifier/engine systems and gasifier/gas turbine systems is discussed. 39 figs., 20 tabs., 43 refs.

  1. Energy values and estimation of power generation potentials of some non-woody biomass species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, M; Patel, S K [National Institute of Technology, Rourkela (India)

    2008-07-01

    In view of high energy potentials in non-woody biomass species and an increasing interest in their utilization for power generation, an attempt has been made in this study to assess the proximate analysis and energy content of different components of Ocimum canum and Tridax procumbens biomass species (both non-woody), and their impact on power generation and land requirement for energy plantations. The net energy content in Ocimum canum was found to be slightly higher than that in Tridax procumbens. In spite of having higher ash contents, the barks from both the plant species exhibited higher calorific values. The results have shown that approximately 650 and 1,270 hectares of land are required to generate 20,000 kWh/day electricity from Ocimum canum and Tridax procumbens biomass species. Coal samples, obtained from six different local mines, were also examined for their qualities, and the results were compared with those of studied biomass materials. This comparison reveals much higher power output with negligible emission of suspended particulate matters (SPM) from biomass materials.

  2. Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1995-09-01

    A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine

  3. Relationships between Plant Biomass and Species Richness under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted in a montane grassland of Kokosa District, West Arsi Zone of Oromia Region, southern Ethiopia. The objective of the study was to investigate the relationships between aboveground plant biomass and species richness in three farming systems and four grazing management systems. A total of 180 ...

  4. 76 FR 77963 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation; Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... Service Oglethorpe Power Corporation; Proposed Biomass Power Plant AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA... related to possible financial assistance to Oglethorpe Power Corporation's (Oglethorpe) for the... online at the following Web site: http://www.rurdev.usda.gov/UWP-OglethorpePower.html and at the: Warren...

  5. 78 FR 26747 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... Decision. SUMMARY: The Rural Utilities Service (RUS) has issued a Record of Decision (ROD) for the.... Accordingly, comments submitted in the EIS process also informed RUS's decision making in the Section 106... Oglethorpe for RUS financing to construct the 100 megawatt (MW) biomass plant and related facilities...

  6. Marine macroscopic plants as biomass sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    Characteristics of marine plants, recent and current research, and studies at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and California Institute of Technology are reviewed. The latter program including laboratory and field studies on giant kelp is discussed. The use of deep ocean water and the nutrient requirements of giant kelp were studied. Test farm structure and problems are presented. (MHR)

  7. Biomass Gasification for Power Generation Internal Combustion Engines. Process Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesme-Jaén, René; Garcia-Faure, Luis; Oliva-Ruiz, Luis; Pajarín-Rodríguez, Juan; Revilla-Suarez, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy sources worldwide greater prospects for its potential and its lower environmental impact compared to fossil fuels. By different processes and energy conversion technologies is possible to obtain solid, liquid and gaseous fuels from any biomass.In this paper the evaluation of thermal and overall efficiency of the gasification of Integral Forestry Company Santiago de Cuba is presented, designed to electricity generation from waste forest industry. The gasifier is a downdraft reactor, COMBO-80 model of Indian manufacturing and motor (diesel) model Leyland modified to work with producer gas. The evaluation was conducted at different loads (electric power generated) of the motor from experimental measurements of flow and composition of gas supplied to the engine. The results show that the motor operates with a thermal efficiency in the range of 20-32% with an overall efficiency between 12-25 %. (author)

  8. Measuring Biomass and Carbon Stock in Resprouting Woody Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matula, Radim; Damborská, Lenka; Nečasová, Monika; Geršl, Milan; Šrámek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Resprouting multi-stemmed woody plants form an important component of the woody vegetation in many ecosystems, but a clear methodology for reliable measurement of their size and quick, non-destructive estimation of their woody biomass and carbon stock is lacking. Our goal was to find a minimum number of sprouts, i.e., the most easily obtainable, and sprout parameters that should be measured for accurate sprout biomass and carbon stock estimates. Using data for 5 common temperate woody species, we modelled carbon stock and sprout biomass as a function of an increasing number of sprouts in an interaction with different sprout parameters. The mean basal diameter of only two to five of the thickest sprouts and the basal diameter and DBH of the thickest sprouts per stump proved to be accurate estimators for the total sprout biomass of the individual resprouters and the populations of resprouters, respectively. Carbon stock estimates were strongly correlated with biomass estimates, but relative carbon content varied among species. Our study demonstrated that the size of the resprouters can be easily measured, and their biomass and carbon stock estimated; therefore, resprouters can be simply incorporated into studies of woody vegetation. PMID:25719601

  9. Feasibility study for biomass power plants in Thailand. Volume 1. Main report. Export trade information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This study, conducted by Black and Veatch, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report presents a technical and commercial analysis for the development of three nearly identical electricity generating facilities (biomass steam power plants) in the towns of Chachoengsao, Suphan Buri, and Pichit in Thailand. The Main Report is divided into the following sections: (1.0) Executive Study; (2.0) Project Objectives; (3.0) Review of Combustion Technology for Biomass Fueled Steam Generator Units; (4.0) Conceptual Design; (5.0) Plant Descriptions; (6.0) Plant Operations Staffing; (7.0) Project Schedule; (8.0) Project Cost Estimate; (9.0) Financial Analysis; Appendix - Financial Analysis

  10. Exergy analysis of biomass organic Rankine cycle for power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, T. B.; Sunoto

    2018-02-01

    The study examines proposed small biomass-fed Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power plant through exergy analysis. The system consists of combustion burner unit to utilize biomass as fuel, and organic Rankine cycle unit to produce power from the expander. The heat from combustion burner was transfered by thermal oil heater to evaporate ORC working fluid in the evaporator part. The effects of adding recuperator into exergy destruction were investigated. Furthermore, the results of the variations of system configurations with different operating parameters, such as the evaporating pressures, ambient temperatures, and expander pressures were analyzed. It was found that the largest exergy destruction occurs during processes are at combustion part, followed by evaporator, condenser, expander, and pump. The ORC system equipped with a recuperator unit exhibited good operational characteristics under wide range conditions compared to the one without recuperator.

  11. Sustainable electricity generation from oil palm biomass wastes in Malaysia: An industry survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umar, Mohd Shaharin; Jennings, Philip; Urmee, Tania

    2014-01-01

    The biomass wastes from the palm oil industry offer great potential for large-scale power generation in Malaysia. It has been estimated that 85.5% of available biomass in the country comes from oil palm agriculture. The introduction of the FiT (Feed-in Tariff) regime in 2011, which superseded the underperforming SREP (Small Renewable Energy Power) scheme, is expected to catalyse and accelerate the development of the renewable energy industry, including biomass technology. Despite a major overhaul of the market structure under the new scheme, the sustainability of the grid-connected oil palm biomass renewable energy industry downstream components remains questionable. Hence, this paper aims to investigate and analyse the market response to six sustainability-related topics. The research methods include electronic and conventional postal modes to disseminate questionnaires to all of the palm oil producers. The returned questionnaires were then analysed with a statistical tool and inferences were drawn to identify the gaps in the existing policy system. The survey identified several key factors for the government's consideration. - Highlights: • Establishing a fuel collection hub. • Centralising a technology hub facility. • Smart-partnership collaboration for building a large scale biomass plant. • Adopting decentralised generation

  12. Aruscular mycorhizal fungi alter plant allometry and biomass - density relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Lu; Weiner, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Plant biomass–density relationships during self-thinning are determined mainly by allometry. Both allometry and biomass–density relationship have been shown to vary with abiotic conditions, but the effects of biotic interactions have not been investigated. Arbuscular mycorrhizal....... In self-thinning populations, the slope of the log (mean shoot biomass) vs. log density relationship was significantly steeper for the high AMF treatment (slope = –1·480) than for the low AMF treatment (–1·133). The canopy radius–biomass allometric exponents were not significantly affected by AMF level...

  13. Biomass Co-Firing in Suspension-Fired Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen; Hvid, Søren Lovmand; Baxter, Larry

    , in the future it is expected to become relevant to cofire in more advanced plants as the trend in the power plant structure is towards older plants having fewer operating hours or being decommissioned. A major product of this project is an experimentally validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based...... modelling tool adapted to accommodate biomass cofiring combustion features. The CFD tool will be able to predict deposit accumulation, particle conversion, fly ash composition, temperatures, velocities, and composition of furnace gases, etc. The computer model will primarily be used in the development...

  14. Review about corrosion of superheaters tubes in biomass plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlanga-Labari, C.; Fernandez-Carrasquilla, J.

    2006-01-01

    The design of new biomass-fired power plants with increased steam temperature raises concerns of high-temperature corrosion. The high potassium and chlorine contents in many biomass, specially in wheat straw, are potentially harmful elements with regard to corrosion. Chlorine may cause accelerated corrosion resulting in increased oxidation, metal wastage, internal attack, void formations and loose non-adherent scales. The most severe corrosion problems in biomass-fired systems are expected to occur due to Cl-rich deposits formed on superheater tubes. In the first part of this revision the corrosion mechanism proposed are described in function of the conditions and compounds involved. The second part is focused on the behaviour of the materials tested so far in the boiler and in the laboratory. First the traditional commercial alloys are studied and secondly the new alloys and the coasting. (Author). 102 refs

  15. The second generation biofuels from the biomass; Les biocarburants de deuxieme generation issus de la biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The author takes stock on the second generation biofuels in the world, the recent technologies, their advantages, the research programs and the economical and environmental impacts of the biofuels development. (A.L.B.)

  16. Monetization of External Costs Using Lifecycle Analysis—A Comparative Case Study of Coal-Fired and Biomass Power Plants in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the structures of external costs are built in line with coal-fired and biomass power plant life cycle activities in Northeast China. The external cost of coal-fired and biomass power plants was compared, using the lifecycle approach. In addition, the external costs of a biomass power plant are calculated for each stage for comparison with those of a coal-fired power plant. The results highlight that the external costs of a coal-fired plant are 0.072 US $/kWh, which are much higher than that of a biomass power plant, 0.00012 US$/kWh. The external cost of coal-fired power generation is as much as 90% of the current price of electricity generated by coal, while the external cost of a biomass power plant is 1/1000 of the current price of electricity generated by biomass. In addition, for a biomass power plant, the external cost associated with SO2, NOX, and PM2.5 are particularly lower than those of a coal-fired power plant. The prospect of establishing precise estimations for external cost mechanisms and sustainable energy policies is discussed to show a possible direction for future energy schemes in China. The paper has significant value for supporting the biomass power industry and taxing or regulating coal-fired power industry to optimize the energy structure in China.

  17. Biomass Power Generation through Direct Integration of Updraft Gasifier and Stirling Engine Combustion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai-Houng Leu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is the largest renewable energy source in the world. Its importance grows gradually in the future energy market. Since most biomass sources are low in energy density and are widespread in space, small-scale biomass conversion system is therefore more competitive than a large stand-alone conversion plant. The current study proposes a small-scale solid biomass power system to explore the viability of direct coupling of an updraft fixed bed gasifier with a Stirling engine. The modified updraft fixed bed gasifier employs an embedded combustor inside the gasifier to fully combust the synthetic gas generated by the gasifier. The flue gas produced by the synthetic gas combustion inside the combustion tube is piped directly to the heater head of the Stirling engine. The engine will then extract and convert the heat contained in the flue gas into electricity automatically. Output depends on heat input. And, the heat input is proportional to the flow rate and temperature of the flue gas. The preliminary study of the proposed direct coupling of an updraft gasifier with a 25 kW Stirling engine demonstrates that full power output could be produced by the current system. It could be found from the current investigation that no auxiliary fuel is required to operate the current system smoothly. The proposed technology and units could be considered as a viable solid biomass power system.

  18. Efficient plant biomass degradation by thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Joost; van Muiswinkel, Gonny C J; Theelen, Bart; Hinz, Sandra W A; de Vries, Ronald P

    2013-02-01

    Rapid and efficient enzymatic degradation of plant biomass into fermentable sugars is a major challenge for the sustainable production of biochemicals and biofuels. Enzymes that are more thermostable (up to 70°C) use shorter reaction times for the complete saccharification of plant polysaccharides compared to hydrolytic enzymes of mesophilic fungi such as Trichoderma and Aspergillus species. The genus Myceliophthora contains four thermophilic fungi producing industrially relevant thermostable enzymes. Within this genus, isolates belonging to M. heterothallica were recently separated from the well-described species M. thermophila. We evaluate here the potential of M. heterothallica isolates to produce efficient enzyme mixtures for biomass degradation. Compared to the other thermophilic Myceliophthora species, isolates belonging to M. heterothallica and M. thermophila grew faster on pretreated spruce, wheat straw, and giant reed. According to their protein profiles and in vitro assays after growth on wheat straw, (hemi-)cellulolytic activities differed strongly between M. thermophila and M. heterothallica isolates. Compared to M. thermophila, M. heterothallica isolates were better in releasing sugars from mildly pretreated wheat straw (with 5% HCl) with a high content of xylan. The high levels of residual xylobiose revealed that enzyme mixtures of Myceliophthora species lack sufficient β-xylosidase activity. Sexual crossing of two M. heterothallica showed that progenies had a large genetic and physiological diversity. In the future, this will allow further improvement of the plant biomass-degrading enzyme mixtures of M. heterothallica.

  19. Strategic analysis of biomass and waste fuels for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowin, C.R.; Wiltsee, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    Although the environmental and other benefits of using biomass and waste fuel energy to displace fossil fuels are well known, the economic realities are such that these fuels cannot compete effectively in the current market without tax credits, subsidies and other artificial measures. In 1992, EPRI initiated a strategic analysis of biomass and waste fuels and power technologies, both to develop consistent performance and cost data for the leading fuels and technologies and to identify the conditions which favor and create market pull for biomass and waste fuel energy. Using the final results of the EPRI project, this paper compares the relative performance and cost of power generation from coal, natural gas, and biomass and waste fuels. The range of fuels includes wood, agricultural wastes, municipal solid waste, refuse-derived fuel, scrap tires and tire-derived fuel. The power technologies include pulverized coal and natural gas/combined cycle power plants, cofiring with coal in coal-fired utility boilers, direct combustion in dedicated mass burn, stoker and fluidized bed boilers, and wood gasification/combined cycle-power plants. The analysis suggests that, in the near term, the highest-efficiency, lowest-cost, lowest-risk technology is cofiring with coal in industrial and utility boilers. However, this approach is economically feasible only when the fuel is delivered at a deep discount relative to fossil fuel, or the fuel user receives a tipping fee, subsidy, or emissions credit. (author)

  20. Viability study of cold generation from biomass in an agrarian exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganan Gomez, J.; Gonzalez, J.F.; Roman, S. [Departamento Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, E II, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda, Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Miranda, A. [Departamento Eng, Electromecanica, Universidade da Beira Interior, 6201-001 Covilha (Portugal); Turegano, J.P. [Esc. Sup. de Tecnologia e Gestao, Instituto Politecnico de Portalegre, 7300 Portalegre (Portugal)

    2006-01-15

    In this work the performance of a cold production plant using biomass residuals from an agrarian exploitation as the primary energy source is analyzed. These residuals are generated in the pruning and renovation of fruit trees and are used in a boiler to convey heat to an absorption refrigeration engine. At first the study carries out the characterization and quantification of the energy produced by the residuals. Furthermore, it ponders on the viability analysis of converting that energy in cold by means of an absorption machine. The estimated thermal power sourced from the biomass generated in the exploitation (approx. 4216 ton) is of approximately 56.92x10{sup 6} MJ/year. This energy was shown to be greater than that required to keep the fruits at a suitable low temperature, thus obviating the use of conventional refrigeration and avoiding their associated high energy consumption. (author)

  1. Three generation production biotechnology of biomass into bio-fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2017-08-01

    The great change of climate change, depletion of natural resources, and scarcity of fossil fuel in the whole world nowadays have witnessed a sense of urgency home and abroad among scales of researchers, development practitioners, and industrialists to search for completely brand new sustainable solutions in the area of biomass transforming into bio-fuels attributing to our duty-that is, it is our responsibility to take up this challenge to secure our energy in the near future with the help of sustainable approaches and technological advancements to produce greener fuel from nature organic sources or biomass which comes generally from organic natural matters such as trees, woods, manure, sewage sludge, grass cuttings, and timber waste with a source of huge green energy called bio-fuel. Biomass includes most of the biological materials, livings or dead bodies. This energy source is ripely used industrially, or domestically for rather many years, but the recent trend is on the production of green fuel with different advance processing systems in a greener. More sustainable method. Biomass is becoming a booming industry currently on account of its cheaper cost and abundant resources all around, making it fairly more effective for the sustainable use of the bio-energy. In the past few years, the world has witnessed a remarkable development in the bio-fuel production technology, and three generations of bio-fuel have already existed in our society. The combination of membrane technology with the existing process line can play a vital role for the production of green fuel in a sustainable manner. In this paper, the science and technology for sustainable bio-fuel production will be introduced in detail for a cleaner world.

  2. Economics of biomass energy utilization in combustion and gasification plants: effects of logistic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caputo, Antonio C.; Palumbo, Mario; Pelagagge, Pacifico M.; Scacchia, Federica

    2005-01-01

    The substitution of conventional fossil fuels with biomass for energy production results both in a net reduction of greenhouse gases emissions and in the replacement of non-renewable energy sources. However, at present, generating energy from biomass is rather expensive due to both technological limits related to lower conversion efficiencies, and logistic constraints. In particular, the logistics of biomass fuel supply is likely to be complex owing to the intrinsic feedstock characteristics, such as the limited period of availability and the scattered geographical distribution over the territory. In this paper, the economical feasibility of biomass utilization for direct production of electric energy by means of combustion and gasification-conversion processes, has been investigated and evaluated over a capacity range from 5 to 50 MW, taking into account total capital investments, revenues from energy sale and total operating costs, also including a detailed evaluation of logistic costs. Moreover, in order to evaluate the impact of logistics on the bio-energy plants profitability, the effects of main logistic variables such as specific vehicle transport costs, vehicles capacity, specific purchased biomass costs and distribution density, have been examined. Finally, a mapping of logistic constraints on plant profitability in the specified capacity range has been carried out

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Biomass Power Generation Systems in China Using Hybrid Life Cycle Inventory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huacai; Yin, Xiuli; Wu, Chuangzhi

    2014-01-01

    There has been a rapid growth in using agricultural residues as an energy source to generate electricity in China. Biomass power generation (BPG) systems may vary significantly in technology, scale, and feedstock and consequently in their performances. A comparative evaluation of five typical BPG systems has been conducted in this study through a hybrid life cycle inventory (LCI) approach. Results show that requirements of fossil energy savings, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions, as well as emission reductions of SO2 and NOx, can be best met by the BPG systems. The cofiring systems were found to behave better than the biomass-only fired system and the biomass gasification systems in terms of energy savings and GHG emission reductions. Comparing with results of conventional process-base LCI, an important aspect to note is the significant contribution of infrastructure, equipment, and maintenance of the plant, which require the input of various types of materials, fuels, services, and the consequent GHG emissions. The results demonstrate characteristics and differences of BPG systems and help identify critical opportunities for biomass power development in China. PMID:25383383

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Biomass Power Generation Systems in China Using Hybrid Life Cycle Inventory Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huacai Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid growth in using agricultural residues as an energy source to generate electricity in China. Biomass power generation (BPG systems may vary significantly in technology, scale, and feedstock and consequently in their performances. A comparative evaluation of five typical BPG systems has been conducted in this study through a hybrid life cycle inventory (LCI approach. Results show that requirements of fossil energy savings, and greenhouse gas (GHG emission reductions, as well as emission reductions of SO2 and NOx, can be best met by the BPG systems. The cofiring systems were found to behave better than the biomass-only fired system and the biomass gasification systems in terms of energy savings and GHG emission reductions. Comparing with results of conventional process-base LCI, an important aspect to note is the significant contribution of infrastructure, equipment, and maintenance of the plant, which require the input of various types of materials, fuels, services, and the consequent GHG emissions. The results demonstrate characteristics and differences of BPG systems and help identify critical opportunities for biomass power development in China.

  5. Techno-economic Assessment of Biomass Pellets for Power Generation in India

    OpenAIRE

    Purohit, P.; Chaturvedi, V.

    2016-01-01

    Biomass pellet production has increased considerably in recent years, mainly due to the demand created by policies and bioenergy-use targets in the European Union (EU). Global biomass pellet production was 24.1 million tonne (Mt) in 2014. In this study, a preliminary attempt has been made to assess the techno-economic feasibility of biomass pellets for electricity generation in India produced from biomass surplus available from agriculture and forestry/wasteland. Biomass surplus availability ...

  6. Process simulation of co-firing torrefied biomass in a 220 MWe coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jun; Zhang, Xiaolei; Pawlak-Kruczek, Halina; Yang, Weihong; Kruczek, Pawel; Blasiak, Wlodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The performances of torrefaction based co-firing power plant are simulated by using Aspen Plus. • Mass loss properties and released gaseous components have been studied during biomass torrefaction processes. • Mole fractions of CO 2 and CO account for 69–91% and 4–27% in total torrefied gases. • The electrical efficiency reduced when increasing either torrefaction temperature or substitution ratio of biomass. - Abstract: Torrefaction based co-firing in a pulverized coal boiler has been proposed for large percentage of biomass co-firing. A 220 MWe pulverized coal-power plant is simulated using Aspen Plus for full understanding the impacts of an additional torrefaction unit on the efficiency of the whole power plant, the studied process includes biomass drying, biomass torrefaction, mill systems, biomass/coal devolatilization and combustion, heat exchanges and power generation. Palm kernel shells (PKS) were torrefied at same residence time but 4 different temperatures, to prepare 4 torrefied biomasses with different degrees of torrefaction. During biomass torrefaction processes, the mass loss properties and released gaseous components have been studied. In addition, process simulations at varying torrefaction degrees and biomass co-firing ratios have been carried out to understand the properties of CO 2 emission and electricity efficiency in the studied torrefaction based co-firing power plant. According to the experimental results, the mole fractions of CO 2 and CO account for 69–91% and 4–27% in torrefied gases. The predicted results also showed that the electrical efficiency reduced when increasing either torrefaction temperature or substitution ratio of biomass. A deep torrefaction may not be recommended, because the power saved from biomass grinding is less than the heat consumed by the extra torrefaction process, depending on the heat sources

  7. Gas generation from biomass for decentralized power supply systems; Gaserzeugung fuer dezentrale Energiesysteme auf der Basis von Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubiak, H.; Papamichalis, A.; Heek, K.H. van [DMT-Inst. fuer Kokserzeugung und Brennstofftechnik, Essen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    By a reaction with steam, bioresidues and plants can be converted into a gas consisting mainly of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane which can be used for electric power generation in gas engines, gas turbins and fuel cells. The conversion processes, especially the fuel cell process, are environment-friendly and efficient. For decentralized applications (i.e. for biomass volumes of 0.5 to 1 t/h), an allothermal process is recommended which is described in detail. (orig) [Deutsch] Durch Reaktion mit Wasserdampf lassen sich Bioreststoffe und Energiepflanzen zu einem Gas umsetzen, das im wesentlichen aus Wasserstoff, Kohlenmonoxid und Methan besteht und z.B. ueber Gasmotoren, Gasturbinen, vorzugsweise aber Brennstoffzellen zu Strom umgewandelt werden kann. Die Umwandlungsverfahren, insbesondere unter Benutzung von Brennstoffzellen, sind umweltfreundlich und haben einen hohen Wirkungsgrad. Als Vergasungsverfahren eignet sich fuer die dezentrale Anwendung. - d.h. fuer eine Biomassemenge von 0,5 bis 1 t/h - insbesondere das hier beschriebene allotherme Verfahren. (orig)

  8. Gas generation from biomass for decentralized power supply systems; Gaserzeugung fuer dezentrale Energiesysteme auf der Basis von Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubiak, H; Papamichalis, A; Heek, K.H. van [DMT-Inst. fuer Kokserzeugung und Brennstofftechnik, Essen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    By a reaction with steam, bioresidues and plants can be converted into a gas consisting mainly of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane which can be used for electric power generation in gas engines, gas turbins and fuel cells. The conversion processes, especially the fuel cell process, are environment-friendly and efficient. For decentralized applications (i.e. for biomass volumes of 0.5 to 1 t/h), an allothermal process is recommended which is described in detail. (orig) [Deutsch] Durch Reaktion mit Wasserdampf lassen sich Bioreststoffe und Energiepflanzen zu einem Gas umsetzen, das im wesentlichen aus Wasserstoff, Kohlenmonoxid und Methan besteht und z.B. ueber Gasmotoren, Gasturbinen, vorzugsweise aber Brennstoffzellen zu Strom umgewandelt werden kann. Die Umwandlungsverfahren, insbesondere unter Benutzung von Brennstoffzellen, sind umweltfreundlich und haben einen hohen Wirkungsgrad. Als Vergasungsverfahren eignet sich fuer die dezentrale Anwendung. - d.h. fuer eine Biomassemenge von 0,5 bis 1 t/h - insbesondere das hier beschriebene allotherme Verfahren. (orig)

  9. AUTOMATIC BIOMASS BOILER WITH AN EXTERNAL THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Brázdil

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and test results of an external thermoelectric generator that utilizes the waste heat from a small-scale domestic biomass boiler with nominal rated heat output of 25 kW. The low-temperature Bi2Te3 generator based on thermoelectric modules has the potential to recover waste heat from gas combustion products as effective energy. The small-scale generator is constructed from independent segments. Measurements have shown that up to 11 W of electricity can be generated by one segment. Higher output power can be achieved by linking thermoelectric segments. The maximum output power is given by the dew point of the flue gas. The electrical energy that is generated can be used, e.g., for power supply or for charging batteries. In the near future, thermoelectric generators could completely eliminate the dependence an automated domestic boiler system on the power supply from the electricity grid, and could ensure comfortable operation in the event of an unexpected power grid failure.

  10. Sugar catabolism in Aspergillus and other fungi related to the utilization of plant biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khosravi, Claire; Benocci, Tiziano; Battaglia, Evy; Benoit, Isabelle; de Vries, Ronald P

    2015-01-01

    Fungi are found in all natural and artificial biotopes and can use highly diverse carbon sources. They play a major role in the global carbon cycle by decomposing plant biomass and this biomass is the main carbon source for many fungi. Plant biomass is composed of cell wall polysaccharides

  11. The Evritania (Greece) demonstration plant of biomass pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabaniotou, A.A.; Karabela, A.J. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute

    1999-06-01

    This paper is focused on describing the Evritania demonstration plant for pyrolysis of forestry biomass. This plant was constructed in the village of Voulpi, district of Evritania, in central Greece, in 1995, with a threefold purpose; development of know-how, forest fire prevention and rural development. The products are charcoal and bio-oil. The plant capacity is 1200-1450 kg/h of wet biomass and the pyrolysis temperature is approx. 400 deg C. The raw material used is Arbutus unedo, which is an evergreen broad-leaf tree which covers the area. Other agricultural waste could also be used, such as olive pits and cuttings, almond shells and cotton kernels. The paper includes the conceptual process flow sheet, the changes and improvements made during the trial phase, data from the start-up phase, and product characteristics. Comparison of the process with the Alten process is presented. Additionally, comparisons are made of product characteristics with those from other pyrolysis processes. In general, the results obtained are encouraging even though several improvements of the pilot plant are required. (author)

  12. A 100% renewable electricity generation system for New Zealand utilising hydro, wind, geothermal and biomass resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, I.G.; Page, S.C.; Williamson, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    The New Zealand electricity generation system is dominated by hydro generation at approximately 60% of installed capacity between 2005 and 2007, augmented with approximately 32% fossil-fuelled generation, plus minor contributions from geothermal, wind and biomass resources. In order to explore the potential for a 100% renewable electricity generation system with substantially increased levels of wind penetration, fossil-fuelled electricity production was removed from an historic 3-year data set, and replaced by modelled electricity production from wind, geothermal and additional peaking options. Generation mixes comprising 53-60% hydro, 22-25% wind, 12-14% geothermal, 1% biomass and 0-12% additional peaking generation were found to be feasible on an energy and power basis, whilst maintaining net hydro storage. Wind capacity credits ranged from 47% to 105% depending upon the incorporation of demand management, and the manner of operation of the hydro system. Wind spillage was minimised, however, a degree of residual spillage was considered to be an inevitable part of incorporating non-dispatchable generation into a stand-alone grid system. Load shifting was shown to have considerable advantages over installation of new peaking plant. Application of the approach applied in this research to countries with different energy resource mixes is discussed, and options for further research are outlined.

  13. Digital Biomass Accumulation Using High-Throughput Plant Phenotype Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Md Matiur; Ahsan, Md Asif; Gillani, Zeeshan; Chen, Ming

    2017-09-01

    Biomass is an important phenotypic trait in functional ecology and growth analysis. The typical methods for measuring biomass are destructive, and they require numerous individuals to be cultivated for repeated measurements. With the advent of image-based high-throughput plant phenotyping facilities, non-destructive biomass measuring methods have attempted to overcome this problem. Thus, the estimation of plant biomass of individual plants from their digital images is becoming more important. In this paper, we propose an approach to biomass estimation based on image derived phenotypic traits. Several image-based biomass studies state that the estimation of plant biomass is only a linear function of the projected plant area in images. However, we modeled the plant volume as a function of plant area, plant compactness, and plant age to generalize the linear biomass model. The obtained results confirm the proposed model and can explain most of the observed variance during image-derived biomass estimation. Moreover, a small difference was observed between actual and estimated digital biomass, which indicates that our proposed approach can be used to estimate digital biomass accurately.

  14. Resource potential for renewable energy generation from co-firing of woody biomass with coal in the Northern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Goerndt; Francisco X. Aguilar; Kenneth Skog

    2013-01-01

    Past studies have established measures of co-firing potential at varying spatial scales to assess opportunities for renewable energy generation from woody biomass. This study estimated physical availability, within ecological and public policy constraints, and associated harvesting and delivery costs of woody biomass for co-firing in selected power plants of the...

  15. Strategic analysis of biomass and waste fuels for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowin, C.R.; Wiltsee, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Although the environmental and other benefits of using biomass and waste fuel energy to displace fossil fuels are well known, the economic realities are such that these fuels can not compete effectively in the current market without tax credits, subsidies, and other artificial measures. In 1992, EPRI initiated a strategic analysis of biomass and waste fuels and power technologies, both to develop consistent performance and cost data for the leading fuels and technologies and to identify the conditions that favor and create market pull for biomass and waste fuel energy. Using the interim results of the EPRI project, this paper compares the relative performance and cost of power generation from coal, natural gas, and biomass and waste fuels. The range of fuels includes wood, agricultural wastes, municipal solid waste, refuse-derived fuel, scrap tires, and tire-derived fuel, scrap tires, and tire-derived fuel. The power technologies include pulverized coal and natural gas/combined cycle power plants, cofiring with coal in coal-fired utility boilers, and wood gasification/combined cycle power plants. The analysis suggests that, in the near term, the highest-efficiency, lowest-cost, lowest-risk technology is cofiring with coal in industrial and utility boilers. However, this relative to fossil fuel, or the fuel user receives a tipping fee, subsidy, or emissions credit. In order to increase future use of biomass and waste fuels, a joint initiative, involving government, industry, and fuel suppliers, transporters, and users, is needed to develop low-cost and efficient energy crop production and power technology

  16. Hybrid concentrated solar power (CSP)–biomass plants in a semiarid region: A strategy for CSP deployment in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria, Rafael; Portugal-Pereira, Joana; Szklo, Alexandre; Milani, Rodrigo; Schaeffer, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The production of electricity using concentrated solar power (CSP) technology is not yet possible in Brazil due to the technology’s high capital costs and the lack of a local industry. However, this study introduces a low-cost approach to CSP in Brazil by describing and simulating the operation of hybrid CSP plants that use sustainably managed biomass in Brazil’s semiarid northeast. Biomass hybridisation of a CSP plant with a solar multiple (SM) of 1.2 and a biomass fill fraction (BFF) of 30% can generate electricity at 110 USD/MWh. The high direct normal irradiation (DNI) and the availability of local low-cost biomass in Brazil’s semiarid northeast suggest the possibility of developing a CSP industry capable of supplying low-cost components under a national program framework, with the co-benefits of local job and income generation. For example, the deployment of 10 CSP plants of 30 MWe each would generate 760 direct and indirect jobs during the 24 months of plant construction and approximately 2100 annual jobs associated with the operation and maintenance (O&M) of the generating units. These 10 new units would generate additional local income on the order of USD 57 million. - Highlights: • CSP plant with supplementary biomass hybridisation is a strategic option for Brazil. • DNI and biomass availability in Brazil's semiarid can foster local CSP industry. • LCOE of CSP would cost 11 cent USD/kWh becoming competitive at solar auctions. • Co-benefits of local job and income generation due to CSP in Brazil are high.

  17. Combating corrosion in biomass and waste fired plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Pamela [Vattenfall AB, Stockholm (Sweden). Research and Development; Hjoernhede, Anders [Vattenfall AB, Gothenburg (Sweden). Power Consultant

    2010-07-01

    Many biomass- or waste-fired plants have problems with high temperature corrosion especially if the steam temperature is greater than 500 C. An increase in the combustion of waste fuels means that an increasing number of boilers have had problems. Therefore, there is great interest in reducing the costs associated with high temperature corrosion and at the same time there exists a desire to improve the electrical efficiency of a plant by the use of higher steam temperatures. Assuming that the fuel is well-mixed and that there is good combustion control, there are in addition a number of other measures which can be used to reduce superheater corrosion in biomass and waste fired plants, and these are described in this paper. These include the use of fuel additives, specifically sulphur-containing ones; design aspects like placing superheaters in less corrosive positions in a boiler, using tube shielding, a wider pitch between the tubes; operational considerations such as more controlled soot-blowing and the use of better materials. (orig.)

  18. The opportunities for obtaining of the biogas on methane fermentation from marine algae biomass and water plant biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Jachniak Ewa; Chmura Joanna; Kuglarz Mariusz; Wiktor Józef

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the research was to try to obtain of the biogas on a laboratory scale from marine algae biomass and water plant biomass. The research was conducted in 2016 year and samples were taken from the Polish coast of the Baltic Sea. In laboratory work, algae and plant species were first identified. The next, in order to subject them to methane fermentation processes and to obtain biogas,partial mechanical treatment of the biomass was conducted. Dry matter content and dry organic matter con...

  19. Biomass Supply and Trade Opportunities of Preprocessed Biomass for Power Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, B.; Junginger, M.; Klemm, M.; Schipfer, F.; Thrän, D.

    2016-01-01

    International trade of solid biomass is expected to increase significantly given the global distribution of biomass resources and anticipated expansion of bioenergy deployment in key global power markets. Given the unique characteristics of biomass, its long-distance trade requires optimized

  20. Three biomass power plants in New England first five years of challenges and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBlanc, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Generating electricity from biomass fuels, through stand-alone power plants, represents a renewal of a half-century old plus, renewable technology. New England has generated its electricity sequentially, and still in parallel, from hydro, coal, oil, and nuclear sources during this period, and most recently during the 1980's, from a mixture of various alternate technologies including wood waste fuels and domestic waste fuels. Three plants located in New Hampshire and Maine, of identical power-island design, were constructed in eighteen months, and began operation in the period December, 1987 through March, 1988. These plants almost from the start have experienced an outstanding record of operation, dependability, and reliability. This paper will describe how each plant has fit into its respective location and environment, the personnel, technical and administrative support required, the biomass wood waste production and supply infra-structure which has developed around these facilities; and the technical problems and challenges which arose and were resolved in the process of handling a cantankerous, bulk fuel and turning it into a reliable supply of electricity. These plants are designed around a zero discharge concept. The author will discuss the design features built in, and operating practices which have evolved, to effectively use waste water internally, minimize air emissions, and recycle 100% of its solid waste as an effective fertilizer and soil conditioner

  1. Impact of different national biomass policies on investment costs of biomass district heating plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    The BIO-COST project - co-ordinated by E.V.A. - was funded by the European Commission's THERMIE Type B Programme. The objective of BIO-COST was to analyse the impact of national biomass policies on the investment costs of biomass district heating (DH) plants. The European comparison should help identifying measures to reduce investment costs for biomass DH plants and/or components down to a 'best practice' level. The investigation is based on the comparison of 20 biomass DH plants by country, with Denmark and Sweden having mainly high energy taxes as driver, while Austria and France rely mainly on subsidy systems. The results of BIO-COST show, that governmental policies can have a big impact especially on grid and buildings costs, effecting of course the overall costs of the plant enormously. Emission standards have their effects especially on the costs for technical equipment, however, this fact was not reflected in the BIO-COST data. The results do not show a clear advantage of either the energy tax approach or the subsidy approach: The French subsidy approach leads to fairly low cost levels compared to the Danish tax approach, while the Swedish tax approach seems to yield the lowest cost level. On the other hand the Austrian subsidy approach seems to intercrease investment costs. In principle both the tax as the subsidy approach can lead to the same effect: a project is calculated in such a way, that it just meets economic breakeven. This is typically the case when the project is not carried out by a private enterprise but by an operator aiming at enhanced public welfare (e.g. co-operative, municipality). In this case a subsidy model might yield more possibilities to encourage an economically efficient development, than a tax. Instead of giving subsidies as a fixed percentage of investments they could be adjusted to the actual needs of the project as proven by a standardised calculation. Of course this can create the incentive to expect higher

  2. Determining appropriate feed-in tariff rates to promote biomass-to-electricity generation in Eastern Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Steven; Durant, Vincent; Mabee, Warren E.

    2013-01-01

    On-site data collection, interviews, and financial models were used to determine the feed-in tariff (FIT) rate required to encourage investment in the generation of electricity from currently unused biomass from the Eastern Ontario forest industry. A financial model was adapted and run to determine the net present value, internal rate of return, and payback period associated with a 15 MW biomass-to-electricity facility. The analysis suggests that Ontario should consider a stronger incentive than the recently-offered CDN$ 0.13 kW −1 h −1 for biomass-to-electricity. If no customer for heat generated from the plant can be found, FIT rates between CDN$ 0.17–0.22 kW −1 h −1 are necessary to achieve a 15% internal rate of return and a simple payback of approximately 5 yr; achieving a price of CDN$ 0.013 kW −1 of thermal output still requires elevated FIT rates between CDN$ 0.15–0.21 kW −1 h −1 to meet economic performance criteria. Other barriers, particularly regulations regarding the use of operating engineers in steam plants, should also be addressed to facilitate development of biomass-to-electricity. Without these changes, it is likely that biomass will be significantly under-used and will not contribute to the renewable energy goals of Ontario. - Highlights: • Economic performance of biomass-to-electricity generation in Ontario is assessed. • Feed-in tariffs needed to meet industrial payback and IRR targets are determined. • Existing feed-in tariff rates for biomass must be raised to meet industrial targets. • Incentives that adjust feedstock price might be explored to increase biomass use

  3. Energetic and environmental performance of three biomass upgrading processes integrated with a CHP plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohl, Thomas; Laukkanen, Timo; Järvinen, Mika; Fogelholm, Carl-Johan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We simulate CHP-integrated production of wood pellets, torrefied wood pellets and pyrolysis slurry. ► Integration increases operation hours and district heat output by up to 38% and 22%. ► Additionally installed equipment reduces yearly power generation by up to 7%. ► Wood pellet production performs best energetically and environmentally. ► Integrated concepts substantially reduce fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions. - Abstract: In order to react on future expected increased competition on restricted biomass resources, communal combined heat and power (CHP) plants can be integrated with biomass upgrading processes that add valuable products to the portfolio. In this paper, outgoing from a base case, the retrofit integration of production of wood pellets (WPs), torrefied wood pellets (TWPs) and wood fast pyrolysis slurry (PS) with an existing wood-fired CHP plant was simulated. Within the integration concept, free boiler capacity during times of low district heat demands is used to provide energy for the upgrading processes. By detailed part-load modelling, critical process parameters are discussed. With help of a multiperiod model of the heat duration curve, the work further shows the influence of the integration on plant operating hours, electricity production and biomass throughput. Environmental and energetic performance is assessed according to European standard EN 15603 and compared to the base case as well as to stand-alone production in two separate units. The work shows that all three integration options are well possible within the operational limits of the CHP plant. Summarising, this work shows that integration of WP, TWP and PS production from biomass with a CHP plant by increasing the yearly boiler workload leads to improved primary energy efficiency, reduced CO 2 emissions, and, when compared to stand-alone production, also to substantial fuel savings

  4. High yielding tropical energy crops for bioenergy production: Effects of plant components, harvest years and locations on biomass composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra, K C; Ogoshi, Richard; Zaleski, Halina M; Hashimoto, Andrew G; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2018-03-01

    The composition of lignocellulosic feedstock, which depends on crop type, crop management, locations and plant parts, significantly affects the conversion efficiency of biomass into biofuels and biobased products. Thus, this study examined the composition of different parts of two high yielding tropical energy crops, Energycane and Napier grass, collected across three locations and years. Significantly higher fiber content was found in the leaves of Energycane than stems, while fiber content was significantly higher in the stems than the leaves of Napier grass. Similarly, fiber content was higher in Napier grass than Energycane. Due to significant differences in biomass composition between the plant parts within a crop type, neither biological conversion, including anaerobic digestion, nor thermochemical pretreatment alone is likely to efficiently convert biomass components into biofuels and biobased products. However, combination of anaerobic digestion with thermochemical conversion technologies could efficiently utilize biomass components in generating biofuels and biobased products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biomass combustion power generation technologies: Background report 4.1 for the EU Joule 2+ project: Energy from biomass: An assessment of two promising systems for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Broek, R.; Faaij, A.; Van Wijk, A.

    1995-05-01

    New developments in biomass combustion technology in progress tend to go towards efficiencies which come close to the present fossil fuel fired systems. The objective of this study is to give a representation of the state of the art and future prospects of biomass combustion technologies and to compare those on a location-independent basis. This will be done both by a general boiler technology description on the basis of qualitative criteria and by a comparison of most recently built and planned power plants on more quantitative grounds. The methodology which has been used in gathering, selecting, presenting and comparing the information is discussed in chapter 2. In chapter 3, a general introduction is given on some basic principles of biomass combustion technology. This includes the combustion process, the Rankine steam cycle and NO x formation. Different boiler technologies which are in use for biomass combustion power generation are discussed in chapter 4. The main groups of boilers which are discussed are the pile burners, stoker fired boilers, suspension fired boilers and fluidized bed boilers. The description focuses on aspects such as construction, operation, fuel requirements, efficiencies and emissions. Chapter 5 deals with individual existing or planned biomass combustion plants, resulting from an international inventory. All the different technologies which have been discussed in chapter 4 are discussed in chapter 5 in the context of complete power plants. The information which is presented for each plant comprises a technical description, efficiencies, emissions and investment costs. At the end of chapter 5 an overview of comparable data from the literature is given, as well as an overview of the results of the inventory. 32 figs., 28 tabs., 4 appendices., 51 refs

  6. Biomass for generation of electrical energy in the Bolivariana Republic of Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Peraza, Alejandro; Perez Matos, Richard; Robles Guillen, Charlee

    2009-01-01

    In Venezuela, the MENPET (Ministry of Popular Power for Energy and Oil), advances a project to national level with the general objective to consider the potential of Biomass with power aims, in sugar plants and the following specific objectives: to determine the autogeneration of energy with cane bagasse used like fuel in the boilers that generate the steam, that needs the turbines to drive the generator ELTs, mills, centrifugal pumps, ventilators, etc. and the steam, destined to the process of sugar manufacture; To determine the leftover bagasse with possibility for co-generation of electrical energy in plant. The pressure and temperature of the steam generated in the boilers it is relatively low, but sufficient to obtain balance, between driving force and steam for processes. Increasing pressure and temperature of the steam, a turbine with a generator ELT can be driven, of greater power to cover needs with energy in factory and to have surpluses to inject to the distribution network, without increase of fuel costs; To determine the interchange of energy with the network of distribution, located in the surroundings of the plants. Energy to fortify the communities that inhabit the rural areas of the surroundings; To have a diagnosis, of the state of the distribution, communications nets, substation and circuit in these areas of rural development. (author)

  7. Visual comparative omics of fungi for plant biomass deconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Miyauchi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wood-decay fungi are able to decompose plant cell wall components such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. Such fungal capabilities may be exploited for the enhancement of directed enzymatic degradation of recalcitrant plant biomass. The comparative analysis of wood-decay fungi using a multi-omics approach gives not only new insights into the strategies for decomposing complex plant materials but also basic knowledge for the design of combinations of enzymes for biotechnological applications. We have developed an analytical workflow, Applied Biomass Conversion Design for Efficient Fungal Green Technology (ABCDEFGT, to simplify the analysis and interpretation of transcriptomic and secretomic data. The ABCDEFGT workflow is primarily constructed of self-organizing maps for grouping genes with similar transcription patterns and an overlay with secreted proteins. The ABCDEFGT workflow produces simple graphic outputs of genome-wide transcriptomes and secretomes. It enables visual inspection without a priori of the omics data, facilitating discoveries of co-regulated genes and proteins. Genome-wide omics landscapes were built with the newly sequenced fungal species Pycnoporus coccineus, Pycnoporus sanguineus, and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus grown on various carbon sources. Integration of the post-genomic data showed a global overlap, confirming the pertinence of the genome-wide approach to study the fungal biological responses to the carbon sources. Our method was compared to a recently-developed clustering method in order to assess the biological relevance of the method and ease of interpretation. Our approach provided a better biological representation of fungal behaviors. The genome-wide multi-omics strategy allowed us to determine the potential synergy of enzymes participating in the decomposition of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin such as Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases (LPMO, modular enzymes associated with a cellulose binding module

  8. Biomass Power Generation Investment in China: A Real Options Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a real options model for evaluating the biomass power generation investment in China. The uncertainties in the market price of electricity, CO2 price and straw price are considered. Meanwhile the dynamic relationship between installed capacity and fuel cost, as well as the long-term reduction of subsidy are described. Two scenarios, i.e., with the carbon emission trading scheme existent and non-existent, respectively, is built to empirically analyze the investment of a 25-MW straw-based power generation project. The results show that investors should undertake the investment in 2030 under two scenarios. Investment values are 14,869,254.8 and 37,608,727 Chinese Yuan (RMB, respectively. The implementation of the carbon emission trading scheme theoretically helps improve investment value and advance the most likely optimal investment time. However, the current CO2 price is not sufficient to advance the most likely optimal investment time. The impacts of several factors, including subsidy policy, CO2 price, straw price, installed capacity, correlation structure and the validity period of investment, on the optimal investment strategy are also examined. It is suggested that governments take some measures, including increasing subsidy, setting the growth pattern of subsidy and establishing and perfecting a nationwide carbon trading market, to improve the investment environment and attract more investments.

  9. Bioethanol and power from integrated second generation biomass: A Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaki, Márcia R.; Seleghim, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The impacts of integrating new sugarcane conversion using bagasse and straw. • Industrial conversion of sugarcane into energy carriers: ethanol and electricity. • A reference sugarcane industrial was simulated by the Monte Carlo method. • Simultaneously optimal ethanol production and electricity generation occur at low burning bagasse rates. - Abstract: The main objective of this work is to assess the impacts of integrating new biomass conversion technologies into an existing sugarcane industrial processing plant in terms of its multi-objective optimal operating conditions. A typical sugarcane mill is identified and a second generation ethanol production pathway is incorporated to give the operator the possibility of controlling the ratio between the rates of burning bagasse and straw (sugarcane tops and leaves) to their second generation processing to achieve optimal ethanol and electricity outputs. A set of equations describing the associated conversion unit operations and chemical reactions is simulated by the Monte Carlo method and the corresponding operating envelope is constructed and statistically analyzed. These equations permit to calculate ethanol production and electricity generation in terms of a virtually infinite number of scenarios characterized by two controlled variables (burning bagasse and straw mass flow rates) and several uncontrolled variables (biomass composition, cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin yields, fermentation efficiencies, etc.). Results reveal that the input variables have specific statistical characteristics when the corresponding operating states lay near the maximum energy limit (Pareto frontier). For example, since the objectives being optimized are intrinsically antagonistic, i.e. the increase of one dictates the decrease of the other, it is better to convert bagasse to ethanol via second generation pathway because of the high energy requirements of its dewatering prior to combustion and low heat

  10. Feasibility study for biomass power plants in Thailand. Volume 2. appendix: Detailed financial analysis results. Export trade information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This study, conducted by Black and Veatch, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report presents a technical and commercial analysis for the development of three nearly identical electricity generating facilities (biomass steam power plants) in the towns of Chachgoengsao, Suphan Buri, and Pichit in Thailand. Volume 2 of the study contains the following appendix: Detailed Financial Analysis Results

  11. Assessment of the phytoextraction potential of high biomass crop plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Allica, Javier; Becerril, Jose M.; Garbisu, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    A hydroponic screening method was used to identify high biomass crop plants with the ability to accumulate metals. Highest values of shoot accumulation were found in maize cv. Ranchero, rapeseed cv. Karat, and cardoon cv. Peralta for Pb (18 753 mg kg -1 ), Zn (10 916 mg kg -1 ), and Cd (242 mg kg -1 ), respectively. Subsequently, we tested the potential of these three cultivars for the phytoextraction of a metal spiked compost, finding out that, in cardoon and maize plants, increasing Zn and Cd concentrations led to lower values of root and shoot DW. By contrast, rapeseed shoot growth was not significantly affected by Cd concentration. Finally, a metal polluted soil was used to check these cultivars' phytoextraction capacity. Although the soil was phytotoxic enough to prevent the growth of cardoon and rapeseed plants, maize plants phytoextracted 3.7 mg Zn pot -1 . We concluded that the phytoextraction performance of cultivars varies depending on the screening method used. - The phytoextraction performance of cultivars varies significantly depending on the screening method used

  12. Assessment of the phytoextraction potential of high biomass crop plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Allica, Javier [NEIKER-tecnalia, Basque Institute of Agricultural Research and Development, c/Berreaga 1, E-48160 Derio (Spain); Becerril, Jose M. [Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, University of the Basque Country, P.O. Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Garbisu, Carlos [NEIKER-tecnalia, Basque Institute of Agricultural Research and Development, c/Berreaga 1, E-48160 Derio (Spain)], E-mail: cgarbisu@neiker.net

    2008-03-15

    A hydroponic screening method was used to identify high biomass crop plants with the ability to accumulate metals. Highest values of shoot accumulation were found in maize cv. Ranchero, rapeseed cv. Karat, and cardoon cv. Peralta for Pb (18 753 mg kg{sup -1}), Zn (10 916 mg kg{sup -1}), and Cd (242 mg kg{sup -1}), respectively. Subsequently, we tested the potential of these three cultivars for the phytoextraction of a metal spiked compost, finding out that, in cardoon and maize plants, increasing Zn and Cd concentrations led to lower values of root and shoot DW. By contrast, rapeseed shoot growth was not significantly affected by Cd concentration. Finally, a metal polluted soil was used to check these cultivars' phytoextraction capacity. Although the soil was phytotoxic enough to prevent the growth of cardoon and rapeseed plants, maize plants phytoextracted 3.7 mg Zn pot{sup -1}. We concluded that the phytoextraction performance of cultivars varies depending on the screening method used. - The phytoextraction performance of cultivars varies significantly depending on the screening method used.

  13. Biotechnological Strategies to Improve Plant Biomass Quality for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Mario Peña-Castro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition from an economy dependent on nonrenewable energy sources to one with higher diversity of renewables will not be a simple process. It requires an important research effort to adapt to the dynamics of the changing energy market, sort costly processes, and avoid overlapping with social interest markets such as food and livestock production. In this review, we analyze the desirable traits of raw plant materials for the bioethanol industry and the molecular biotechnology strategies employed to improve them, in either plants already under use (as maize or proposed species (large grass families. The fundamentals of these applications can be found in the mechanisms by which plants have evolved different pathways to manage carbon resources for reproduction or survival in unexpected conditions. Here, we review the means by which this information can be used to manipulate these mechanisms for commercial uses, including saccharification improvement of starch and cellulose, decrease in cell wall recalcitrance through lignin modification, and increase in plant biomass.

  14. Biotechnological Strategies to Improve Plant Biomass Quality for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Moral, Sandra; Núñez-López, Lizeth; Barrera-Figueroa, Blanca E.; Amaya-Delgado, Lorena

    2017-01-01

    The transition from an economy dependent on nonrenewable energy sources to one with higher diversity of renewables will not be a simple process. It requires an important research effort to adapt to the dynamics of the changing energy market, sort costly processes, and avoid overlapping with social interest markets such as food and livestock production. In this review, we analyze the desirable traits of raw plant materials for the bioethanol industry and the molecular biotechnology strategies employed to improve them, in either plants already under use (as maize) or proposed species (large grass families). The fundamentals of these applications can be found in the mechanisms by which plants have evolved different pathways to manage carbon resources for reproduction or survival in unexpected conditions. Here, we review the means by which this information can be used to manipulate these mechanisms for commercial uses, including saccharification improvement of starch and cellulose, decrease in cell wall recalcitrance through lignin modification, and increase in plant biomass. PMID:28951875

  15. Directed plant cell-wall accumulation of iron: embedding co-catalyst for efficient biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien-Yuan Lin; Joseph E. Jakes; Bryon S. Donohoe; Peter N. Ciesielski; Haibing Yang; Sophie-Charlotte Gleber; Stefan Vogt; Shi-You Ding; Wendy A. Peer; Angus S. Murphy; Maureen C. McCann; Michael E. Himmel; Melvin P. Tucker; Hui Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Plant lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant, renewable feedstock for the production of biobased fuels and chemicals. Previously, we showed that iron can act as a co-catalyst to improve the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. However, directly adding iron catalysts into biomass prior to pretreatment is diffusion limited,...

  16. Status of Biomass Power Generation in California, July 31, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, G.

    2003-12-01

    This report describes the development of the biomass power industry in California over the past quarter century, and examines its future outlook. The development of a state biomass policy, which has been under discussion in California for the better part of the past decade, has never gotten off the ground, but a number of smaller initiatives have helped to keep the biomass power industry afloat and have promoted the use of some targeted types of residues. In this report we analyze the prospects for policy development and the application of new biomass technologies in California.

  17. Ash characteristics and plant nutrients in some aquatic biomasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masto, Reginald; Pandit, Ankita; George, Joshy; Mukhopadhyay, Sangeeta; Selvi, Vetrivel; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    Aquatic biomasses are explored as potential fuel source for direct combustion because of their faster growth and no land requirement. The energy density and the ash characteristics of the aquatic biomasses are to be evaluated for their suitability for energy extraction. In the study, four aquatic plant samples namely Eichornia crassipes, Hydrilla verticilleta, Lemna minor, Spirogyra spp were collected from a pond in Digwadih Campus of Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research, Dhanbad. The biomasses were air dried, powdered and ashed at different temperatures. Volatile C was relatively lower in Spirogyra and Hydrilla (53 %) than Eichornia (62.6 %) or Lemna (59.7 %), whereas fixed C was higher for Eichornia and Lemna (about 10 %) and lower for Hydrilla (1 %). Ultimate analysis showed that the carbon content was in the order Eichornia > Lemna > Spirogyra > Hydrilla. The IR spectra of each raw biomass is compared to their respective ashes obtained at different temperatures (500-900°C). With increase in ashing temperature from 500-900°C there is gradual breakdown of the cellulosic structure hence, peaks around 2900-2800cm-1 caused by aliphatic C-H vibration tends to disappear slowly in ash. More number of peaks appears at lower wavenumbers in ashes of all the biomass samples indicating towards increased percentage of inorganic ion species. Considerable enrichment of SiO2 is validated with prominent peaks at 1100-900 cm-1 in all the ashes. Lemna and Spirogyra has a similar ash composition (Si > Al > Ca > K), whereas, Ca was higher in Hydrilla (Si > Ca > K > Al). Eichornia (Si > K > Ca > Al) has higher K and Ca than Al. SiO2 and Al2O3 were higher in Spirogyra, while SiO2 and CaO in Eichornia and Hydrilla. K first increased from 500-700/800⁰C, and then decreased from 800-900⁰C. Cl is lost slowly in ash from 500-700/800⁰C and then by a drastic reduction from 800-900⁰C. S is enhanced in ash at all temperatures although the change is quite small. Most of the Cl

  18. BAAD: a Biomass And Allometry Database for woody plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falster, Daniel; Duursma, Remko; Ishihara, Masae; Barneche, Diego; Fitzjohn, Richard; Varhammar, Angelica; Aiba, Masahiro; Ando, M.; Anten, Niels; Aspinwall, Michael J.; Baltzer, Jennifer; Baraloto, Christopher; Battaglia, Michael; Battles, John; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; van Breugel, Michiel; Camac, James; Claveau, Yves; Coll Mir, Llus; Dannoura, Dannoura; Delagrange, Sylvain; Domec, Jean-Cristophe; Fatemi, Farrah; Feng, Wang; Gargaglione, Veronica; Goto, Yoshiaki; Hagihara, Akio; Hall, Jefferson S.; Hamilton, Steve; Harja, Degi; Hiura, Tsutom; Holdaway, Robert; Hutley, L. B.; Ichie, Tomoaki; Jokela, Eric; Kantola, Anu; Kelly, Jeffery W.; Kenzo, Tanaka; King, David A.; Kloeppel, Brian; Kohyama, Takashi; Komiyama, Akira; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Lusk, Christopher; Maguire, Doug; le Maire, Guerric; Makela, Annikki; Markesteijn, Lars; Marshall, John; McCulloh, Kate; Miyata, Itsuo; Mokany, Karen; Mori, Shigeta; Myster, Randall; Nagano, Masahiro; Naidu, Shawna; Nouvellon, Yann; O' Grady, Anthony; O' Hara, Kevin; Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki; Osada, Noriyuki; Osunkoya, Olusegun O.; Luis Peri, Pablo; Petritan, Mary; Poorter, Lourens; Portsmuth, Angelika; Potvin, Catherine; Ransijn, Johannes; Reid, Douglas; Ribeiro, Sabina C.; Roberts, Scott; Rodriguez, Rolando; Saldana-Acosta, Angela; Santa-Regina, Ignacio; Sasa, Kaichiro; Gailia Selaya, Nadezhda; Sillett, Stephen; Sterck, Frank; Takagi, Kentaro; Tange, Takeshi; Tanouchi, Hiroyuki; Tissue, David; Umehara, Tohru; Utsugi, Hajime; Vadeboncoeur, Matthew; Valladares, Fernando; Vanninen, Petteri; Wang, Jian; Wenk, Elizabeth; Williams, Dick; Ximenes, Fabiano de Aquino; Yamaba, Atsushi; Yamada, Toshihiro; Yamakura, Takuo; Yanai, Ruth; York, Robert

    2015-05-07

    Quantifying the amount of mass or energy invested in plant tissues is of fundamental interest across a range of disciplines, including ecology, forestry, ecosystem science, and climate change science (Niklas, 1994; Chave et al. 2005; Falster et al. 2011). The allocation of net primary production into different plant components is an important process affecting the lifetime of carbon in ecosystems, and resource use and productivity by plants (Cannell & Dewar, 1994; Litton et al. 2007; Poorter et al. 2012). While many studies in have destructively harvested woody plants in the name of science, most of these data have only been made available in the form of summary tables or figures included in publications. Until now, the raw data has resided piecemeal on the hard drives of individual scientists spread around the world. Several studies have gathered together the fitted (allometric) equations for separate datasets (Ter-Mikaelian & Korzukhin, 1997; Jenkins et al. 2003; Zianis et al. 2005; Henry et al. 2013), but none have previously attempted to organize and share the raw individual plant data underpinning these equations on a large scale. Gathered together, such data would represent an important resource for the community, meeting a widely recognised need for rich, open data resources to solve ecological problems (Costello et al. 2013; Fady et al. 2014; Harfoot & Roberts, 2014; Costello et al. 2013). We (D.S. Falster and R.A. Duursma, with the help of D.R. Barneche, R.G. FitzJohn and A. Vårhammar) set out to create such a resource, by asking authors directly whether they would be willing to make their raw data files freely available. The response was overwhelming: nearly everyone we contacted was interested to contribute their raw data. Moreover, we were invited to incorporate another compilation led by M. Ishihara and focussing on Japanese literature. As a result, we present BAAD: a Biomass And Allometry Database for woody plants, comprising data collected in 174

  19. Biomass and biomass and biogas yielding potential of sorghum as affected by planting density, sowing time and cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, A.; Hussain, A.; Shahzad, A. N.; Honermeier, B.

    2015-01-01

    Biogas from biomass is a promising renewable energy source whose importance is increasing in European as well as in other countries. A field experiment at one location (Experimental Station Giessen, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Germany) over two years was designed to study the effect of altering sowing time (ST), planting density and cultivar on the biomass yield and chemical composition of biomass sorghum, and its potential for methane production. Of the two cultivars tested, cv. Goliath (intraspecific hybrid) was more productive with respect to biomass yield than cv. Bovital (S. bicolor x S. sudanense hybrid). ST also influenced biomass yield and most of the quality parameters measured. Delayed sowing was in general advantageous. The choice of cultivar had a marked effect on biogas and methane yield. The highest biogas and methane yields were produced by late sown cv. Bovital. Sub-optimal planting densities limited biomass accumulation of the crop, however neither the chemical composition nor the methane yield was affected by planting density. (author)

  20. Recent advances in AFB biomass gasification pilot plant with catalytic reactors in a downstream slip flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M P; Gil, J; Martin, J A; Frances, E; Olivares, A; Caballero, M A; Perez, P [Saragossa Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry and Environment; Corella, J [Madrid Univ. (Spain)

    1997-12-31

    A new 3rd generation pilot plant is being used for hot catalytic raw gas cleaning. It is based on a 15 cm. i.d. fluidized bed with biomass throughputs of 400-650 kg/h.m{sup 2}. Gasification is performed using mixtures of steam and oxygen. The produced gas is passed in a slip flow by two reactors in series containing a calcined dolomite and a commercial reforming catalyst. Tars are periodically sampled and analysed after the three reactors. Tar conversions of 99.99 % and a 300 % increase of the hydrogen content in the gas are obtained. (author) (2 refs.)

  1. Recent advances in AFB biomass gasification pilot plant with catalytic reactors in a downstream slip flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M.P.; Gil, J.; Martin, J.A.; Frances, E.; Olivares, A.; Caballero, M.A.; Perez, P. [Saragossa Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry and Environment; Corella, J. [Madrid Univ. (Spain)

    1996-12-31

    A new 3rd generation pilot plant is being used for hot catalytic raw gas cleaning. It is based on a 15 cm. i.d. fluidized bed with biomass throughputs of 400-650 kg/h.m{sup 2}. Gasification is performed using mixtures of steam and oxygen. The produced gas is passed in a slip flow by two reactors in series containing a calcined dolomite and a commercial reforming catalyst. Tars are periodically sampled and analysed after the three reactors. Tar conversions of 99.99 % and a 300 % increase of the hydrogen content in the gas are obtained. (author) (2 refs.)

  2. Comparative Analysis of Woody Plants Biomass on the Affected

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nwokem et al.

    stands that were generated from the field using sample quadrats and measuring ... woody plants on the affected and restricted land management practices. F u ll L en .... divided into 6 strata that served as a guide to locate the quadrat samples.

  3. Biomass: towards more co-generation than gasification? Interview with Jean-Christophe Pouet; Figures for the heat fund; biomass in the Parisian heat network; gasification still at the promise stage; Engie bets on bio-methane of 2. generation; a new bidding for biomass co-generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitot, Pauline; De Santis, Audrey; Mary, Olivier; Signoret, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    After some brief presentations of some highlights in the biomass sector in France, Ukraine, UK and Brazil, a set of articles proposes an overview of recent developments and perspectives for the biomass-based energy and heat production in France. It presents and comments some emerging projects based on biomass gasification as technologies have evolved for a higher economic profitability. It discusses the action of the Heat Fund (Fonds chaleur) which supports investors in a context constrained by the hard competition with fossil energies, notably with gas as discussed in an interview with a member of the ADEME. Some tables and graphs give data about biomass installations supported by the Heat fund, about subsidies awarded by the ADEME, about the production of the various heat sources. An article comments the operation of a biomass-based plant near Paris which supplies the Parisian heat network. A project of methane production from dry biomass from local resources by Engie near Lyons (methane of second generation). The last article comments a new bidding process for co-generation projects which can be an opportunity for new projects, and not only big ones

  4. Environmental life cycle assessment of high temperature nuclear fission and fusion biomass gasification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Shutaro; Sakurai, Shigeki; Kasada, Ryuta; Konishi, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    The authors propose nuclear biomass gasification plant as an advancement of conventional gasification plants. Environmental impacts of both fission and fusion plants were assessed through life cycle assessment. The result suggested the reduction of green-house gas emissions would be as large as 85.9% from conventional plants, showing a potential for the sustainable future for both fission and fusion plants. (author)

  5. Pollutants generated by the combustion of solid biomass fuels

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Jenny M; Ma, Lin; Williams, Alan; Pourkashanian, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    This book considers the pollutants formed by the combustion of solid biomass fuels. The availability and potential use of solid biofuels is first discussed because this is the key to the development of biomass as a source of energy.This is followed by details of the methods used for characterisation of biomass and their classification.The various steps in the combustion mechanisms are given together with a compilation of the kinetic data. The chemical mechanisms for the formation of the pollutants: NOx, smoke and unburned hydrocarbons, SOx, Cl compounds, and particulate metal aerosols

  6. Experience with a biomass-fuelled power plant in Peru. Peru kokunai no biomass nenryoka no hatsuden plant no keiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    This paper describes the result of operating a 25-kW biomass-fuelled power plant for 500 hours installed for people in a small village in jungle along the Amazon basin in Peru. The gasifier plant consists of two invert type gas combustors combined with series cyclone dryer filters. Filtration used activated carbons and cotton cloths. The fuel for the plant is wood chips containing water at 5.5% to 11% with calorific power of 20 mJ/kg, consumed at 2.0 kg of lumber per kWh (25 kWh). A gas analysis showed values of CO2 at 13%, CO at 14%, H2 at 18%, CH4 at 3%, and N2 at 52%. Because the fuel of wood chips may cause problems if the size is too large, a size of about 10[times]20[times]30 mm was selected finally. Pressure drop in the gas purifying system was measured using a manometer, which verified that a textile filtering material can be used. The gasoline engine rotation was fixed at 2700 rpm upon discussions. The gasoline engine had no need of modification except at a pipe to the carburetor. This system can be installed at any small village. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  7. Plant Biomass Leaching for Nutrient Recovery in Closed Loop Systems Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Nancy P.; Wheeler, Raymond (Compiler); Lunn, Griffin

    2015-01-01

    Plants will be important for food and O2 production during long term human habitation in space. Recycling of nutrients (e.g., from waste materials) could reduce the resupply costs of fertilizers for growing these plants. Work at NASA's Kennedy Space Center has shown that ion exchange resins can extract fertilizer (plant essential nutrients) from human waste water, after which the residual brine could be treated with electrodialysis to recover more water and produce high value chemicals (e.g., acids and bases). In habitats with significant plant production, inedible biomass becomes a major source of solid waste. To "close the loop" we also need to recover useful nutrients and fertilizer from inedible biomass. We are investigating different approaches to retrieve nutrients from inedible plant biomass, including physical leaching with water, processing the biomass in bioreactors, changing the pH of leaching processing, and/or conducting multiple leaches of biomass residues.

  8. Effects of the distribution density of a biomass combined heat and power plant network on heat utilisation efficiency in village-town systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifei; Kang, Jian

    2017-11-01

    The building of biomass combined heat and power (CHP) plants is an effective means of developing biomass energy because they can satisfy demands for winter heating and electricity consumption. The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of the distribution density of a biomass CHP plant network on heat utilisation efficiency in a village-town system. The distribution density is determined based on the heat transmission threshold, and the heat utilisation efficiency is determined based on the heat demand distribution, heat output efficiency, and heat transmission loss. The objective of this study was to ascertain the optimal value for the heat transmission threshold using a multi-scheme comparison based on an analysis of these factors. To this end, a model of a biomass CHP plant network was built using geographic information system tools to simulate and generate three planning schemes with different heat transmission thresholds (6, 8, and 10 km) according to the heat demand distribution. The heat utilisation efficiencies of these planning schemes were then compared by calculating the gross power, heat output efficiency, and heat transmission loss of the biomass CHP plant for each scenario. This multi-scheme comparison yielded the following results: when the heat transmission threshold was low, the distribution density of the biomass CHP plant network was high and the biomass CHP plants tended to be relatively small. In contrast, when the heat transmission threshold was high, the distribution density of the network was low and the biomass CHP plants tended to be relatively large. When the heat transmission threshold was 8 km, the distribution density of the biomass CHP plant network was optimised for efficient heat utilisation. To promote the development of renewable energy sources, a planning scheme for a biomass CHP plant network that maximises heat utilisation efficiency can be obtained using the optimal heat transmission threshold and the nonlinearity

  9. Economic analysis of biomass power generation schemes under renewable energy initiative with Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji-Hong; Lee, Jeung-Woo; Lee, Uen-Do

    2011-10-01

    An economic analysis of biomass power generation was conducted. Two key technologies--direct combustion with a steam turbine and gasification with a syngas engine--were mainly examined. In view of the present domestic biomass infrastructure of Korea, a small and distributed power generation system ranging from 0.5 to 5 MW(e) was considered. It was found that gasification with a syngas engine becomes more economically feasible as the plant size decreases. Changes in the economic feasibilities with and without RPS or heat sales were also investigated. A sensitivity analysis of each system was conducted for representative parameters. Regarding the cost of electricity generation, electrical efficiency and fuel cost significantly affect both direct combustion and gasification systems. Regarding the internal rate of return (IRR), the heat sales price becomes important for obtaining a higher IRR, followed by power generation capacity and electrical efficiency. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Second Generation Gaseous Biofuels: from Biomass to Gas Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrini, O.; Perrin, M.; Marchand, B.; Prieur-Vernat, A.

    2013-01-01

    Gaseous biofuels and biomethane production by thermochemical pathway has many assets and, already, it should be seen as an essential component of future French and European energy panorama by 2020. As a biomass gasification process is used, a very wide range of biomass is accessible, guaranteeing a significant development potential of the sector. Because of the inherent advantages of the methanation reaction, methanation processes have very high overall energy efficiency, today comparable to other technologies for energy recovery from biomass. Moreover, these can be further enhanced by a waste heat valorization. The existence of technology adapted to installations of medium size (20-80 MW biomethane) promotes strong integration in the local area and is exemplary in a framework of sustainable development. Most of the steps of the process of biomethane production from biomass are at present commercially available. However, the technical feasibility of the whole production line of biomethane was not demonstrated to an industrial scale yet. (authors)

  11. Steam gasification of plant biomass using molten carbonate salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathaway, Brandon J.; Honda, Masanori; Kittelson, David B.; Davidson, Jane H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the use of molten alkali-carbonate salts as a reaction and heat transfer medium for steam gasification of plant biomass with the objectives of enhanced heat transfer, faster kinetics, and increased thermal capacitance compared to gasification in an inert gas. The intended application is a solar process in which concentrated solar radiation is the sole source of heat to drive the endothermic production of synthesis gas. The benefits of gasification in a molten ternary blend of lithium, potassium, and sodium carbonate salts is demonstrated for cellulose, switchgrass, a blend of perennial plants, and corn stover through measurements of reaction rate and product composition in an electrically heated reactor. The feedstocks are gasified with steam at 1200 K in argon and in the molten salt. The use of molten salt increases the total useful syngas production by up to 25%, and increases the reactivity index by as much as 490%. Secondary products, in the form of condensable tar, are reduced by 77%. -- Highlights: ► The presence of molten salt increases the rate of gasification by up to 600%. ► Reaction rates across various feedstocks are more uniform with salt present. ► Useful syngas yield is increased by up to 30% when salt is present. ► Secondary production of liquid tars are reduced by 77% when salt is present.

  12. Hydrolytic bacteria in mesophilic and thermophilic degradation of plant biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zverlov, Vladimir V.; Hiegl, Wolfgang; Koeck, Daniela E.; Koellmeier, Tanja; Schwarz, Wolfgang H. [Department of Microbiology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Kellermann, Josef [Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz, Martinsried (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Adding plant biomass to a biogas reactor, hydrolysis is the first reaction step in the chain of biological events towards methane production. Maize silage was used to enrich efficient hydrolytic bacterial consortia from natural environments under conditions imitating those in a biogas plant. At 55-60 C a more efficient hydrolyzing culture could be isolated than at 37 C. The composition of the optimal thermophilic bacterial consortium was revealed by sequencing clones from a 16S rRNA gene library. A modified PCR-RFLP pre-screening method was used to group the clones. Pure anaerobic cultures were isolated. 70% of the isolates were related to Clostridium thermocellum. A new culture-independent method for identification of cellulolytic enzymes was developed using the isolation of cellulose-binding proteins. MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis and end-sequencing of peptides from prominent protein bands revealed cellulases from the cellulosome of C. thermocellum and from a major cellulase of Clostridium stercorarium. A combined culture of C. thermocellum and C. stercorarium was shown to excellently degrade maize silage. A spore preparation method suitable for inoculation of maize silage and optimal hydrolysis was developed for the thermophilic bacterial consortium. This method allows for concentration and long-term storage of the mixed culture for instance for inoculation of biogas fermenters. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Feasibilities of a Coal-Biomass to Liquids Plant in Southern West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Debangsu [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); DVallance, David [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Henthorn, Greg [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Grushecky, Shawn [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This project has generated comprehensive and realistic results of feasibilities for a coal-biomass to liquids (CBTL) plant in southern West Virginia; and evaluated the sensitivity of the analyses to various anticipated scenarios and parametric uncertainties. Specifically the project has addressed economic feasibility, technical feasibility, market feasibility, and financial feasibility. In the economic feasibility study, a multi-objective siting model was developed and was then used to identify and rank the suitable facility sites. Spatial models were also developed to assess the biomass and coal feedstock availabilities and economics. Environmental impact analysis was conducted mainly to assess life cycle analysis and greenhouse gas emission. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also investigated in this study. Sensitivity analyses on required selling price (RSP) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of CBTL fuels were conducted according to feedstock availability and price, biomass to coal mix ratio, conversion rate, internal rate of return (IRR), capital cost, operational and maintenance cost. The study of siting and capacity showed that feedstock mixed ratio limited the CBTL production. The price of coal had a more dominant effect on RSP than that of biomass. Different mix ratios in the feedstock and conversion rates led to RSP ranging from $104.3 - $157.9/bbl. LCA results indicated that GHG emissions ranged from 80.62 kg CO2 eq to 101.46 kg CO2 eq/1,000 MJ of liquid fuel at various biomass to coal mix ratios and conversion rates if carbon capture and storage (CCS) was applied. Most of water and fossil energy were consumed in conversion process. Compared to petroleum-derived-liquid fuels, the reduction in GHG emissions could be between -2.7% and 16.2% with CBTL substitution. As for the technical study, three approaches of coal and biomass to liquids, direct, indirect and hybrid, were considered in the analysis. The process models including

  14. Effects of uranium on soil microbial biomass carbon, enzymes, plant biomass and microbial diversity in yellow soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, X.; Zhang, Y.; Luo, X.; Yu, L.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted an experiment to investigate the effects of uranium (U) on soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), enzymes, plant biomass and microbial diversity in yellow soils under three concentrations: 0 mg kg"-"1 (T1, control), 30 mg kg"-"1 (T2) and 60 mg kg"-"1 (T3). Under each treatment, elevated U did not reduce soil MBC or plant biomass, but inhibited the activity of the soil enzymes urease (UR), dehydrogenase (DH) and phosphatase (PHO). The microbial diversity was different, with eight dominant phyla in T1 and six in T2 and T3. Furthermore, Proteobacteria and material X were both detected in each treatment site (T1, T2 and T3). Pseudomonas sp. was the dominant strain, followed by Acidiphilium sp. This initial study provided valuable data for further research toward a better understanding of U contamination in yellow soils in China. (authors)

  15. Comparative analysis for power generation and ethanol production from sugarcane residual biomass in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabra, Joaquim E.A.; Macedo, Isaias C.

    2011-01-01

    This work compares the technical, economic and environmental (GHG emissions mitigation) performance of power generation and ethanol production from sugarcane residual biomass, considering conversion plants adjacent to a sugarcane mill in Brazil. Systems performances were simulated for a projected enzymatic saccharification co-fermentation plant (Ethanol option) and for a commercial steam-Rankine power plant (Electricity option). Surplus bagasse from the mill would be used as fuel/raw material for conversion, while cane trash collected from the field would be used as supplementary fuel at the mill. For the Electricity option, the sugarcane biorefinery (mill+adjacent plant) would produce 91 L of ethanol per tonne of cane and export 130 kWh/t of cane, while for the Ethanol option the total ethanol production would be 124 L/t of cane with an electricity surplus of 50 kWh/t cane. The return on investment (ROI) related to the biochemical conversion route was 15.9%, compared with 23.2% for the power plant, for the conditions in Brazil. Considering the GHG emissions mitigation, the environmentally preferred option is the biochemical conversion route: the net avoided emissions associated to the adjacent plants are estimated to be 493 and 781 kgCO 2 eq/t of dry bagasse for the Electricity and Ethanol options, respectively. - Research Highlights: → Power generation would present better profitability than ethanol production from sugarcane residues in Brazil, in the reference scenario adopted here. → The Ethanol option would be able to mitigate more GHG emissions in Brazil. → The economics for the ethanol production technology are more likely to improve in the future.

  16. Evaluation on the Efficiency of Biomass Power Generation Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqi Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a developing country with large population, China is facing the problems of energy resource shortage and growing environmental pollution arising from the coal-dominated energy structure. Biomass energy, as a kind of renewable energy with the characteristics of being easy to store and friendly to environment, has become the focus of China’s energy development in the future. Affected by the advanced power generation technology and diversified geography environment, the biomass power generation projects show new features in recent years. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the efficiency of biomass power generation industry by employing proper method with the consideration of new features. In this paper, the regional difference as a new feature of biomass power generation industry is taken into consideration, and the AR model is employed to modify the zero-weight issue when using data envelopment analysis (DEA method to evaluate the efficiency of biomass power generation industry. 30 biomass power generation enterprises in China are selected as the sample, and the efficiency evaluation is performed. The result can provide some insights into the sustainable development of biomass power generation industry in China.

  17. Biomass equipments. The wood-fueled heating plants; Materiels pour la biomasse. Les chaudieres bois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chieze, B. [SA Compte R, 63 - Arlanc (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyzes the consequences of the classification of biomass fuels in the French 2910 by-law on the classification of biomass-fueled combustion installations. Biomass fuels used in such installations must be only wood wastes without any treatment or coating. The design of biomass combustion systems must follow several specifications relative to the fueling system, the combustion chamber, the heat exchanger and the treatment of exhaust gases. Other technical solutions must be studied for other type of wood wastes in order to respect the environmental pollution laws. (J.S.)

  18. Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol

    2001-01-01

    Biomass, the contraction for biological mass, is the amount of living material provided by a given area or volume of the earth's surface, whether terrestrial or aquatic. Biomass is important for commercial uses (e.g., fuel and fiber) and for national development planning, as well as for scientific studies of ecosystem productivity, energy and nutrient flows, and...

  19. The Use of Biomass for Electricity Generation: A Scoping Review of Health Effects on Humans in Residential and Occupational Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Freiberg

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of biomass for power generation has become more prevalent globally. To survey the status of evidence concerning resulting health impacts and to depict potential research needs, a scoping-review was conducted. Biomass life cycle phases of interest were the conversion and combustion phases. Studies from occupational and residential settings were considered. The scoping review was conducted systematically, comprising an extensive literature search, a guided screening process, in-duplicate data extraction, and critical appraisal. Two reviewers executed most review steps. Nine articles of relevance were identified. In occupational settings of biomass plants, exposure to endotoxins and fungi might be associated with respiratory disorders. An accidental leakage of hydrogen sulfide in biogas plants may lead to fatalities or severe health impacts. Living near biomass power plants (and the accompanied odorous air pollution may result in an increased risk for several symptoms and odor annoyance, mediated by perception about air pollution or an evaluation of a resulting health risk. The methodological quality of included studies varied a lot. Overall, the body of evidence on the topic is sparse and future high-quality research is strongly recommended.

  20. The Use of Biomass for Electricity Generation: A Scoping Review of Health Effects on Humans in Residential and Occupational Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiberg, Alice; Scharfe, Julia; Murta, Vanise C; Seidler, Andreas

    2018-02-16

    The utilization of biomass for power generation has become more prevalent globally. To survey the status of evidence concerning resulting health impacts and to depict potential research needs, a scoping-review was conducted. Biomass life cycle phases of interest were the conversion and combustion phases. Studies from occupational and residential settings were considered. The scoping review was conducted systematically, comprising an extensive literature search, a guided screening process, in-duplicate data extraction, and critical appraisal. Two reviewers executed most review steps. Nine articles of relevance were identified. In occupational settings of biomass plants, exposure to endotoxins and fungi might be associated with respiratory disorders. An accidental leakage of hydrogen sulfide in biogas plants may lead to fatalities or severe health impacts. Living near biomass power plants (and the accompanied odorous air pollution) may result in an increased risk for several symptoms and odor annoyance, mediated by perception about air pollution or an evaluation of a resulting health risk. The methodological quality of included studies varied a lot. Overall, the body of evidence on the topic is sparse and future high-quality research is strongly recommended.

  1. ZERO-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF A DIMETHYL ETHER (DME) PLANT BASED ON GASIFICATION OF TORREFIED BIOMASS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels

    2009-01-01

    similar to coal, which enables the use of commercially available coal gasification processing equipment. The DME plant model is integrated with a steam cycle that utilizes waste heat from the plant and covers the on-site electricity consumption. The plant model predicts a fuel production efficiency of 67...... % (LHV) from torrefied biomass to DME and 70 % (LHV) if the exported electricity is included. When accounting for raw, untreated biomass, the efficiency for DME production is reduced to about 60 %....

  2. Fluid selection for the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) in biomass power and heat plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drescher, Ulli; Brueggemann, Dieter

    2007-01-01

    In small solid biomass power and heat plants, the ORC is used for cogeneration. This application shows constraints different from other ORC. These constraints are described and an adapted power plant design is presented. The new design influences the selection criteria of working fluids. A software has been developed to find thermodynamic suitable fluids for ORC in biomass power and heat plants. Highest efficiencies are found within the family of alkylbenzenes

  3. Biomass energy: Employment generation and its contribution to poverty alleviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Openshaw, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Studies were undertaken in Malawi from 1995 to 1997 and 2007 to 2008 to estimate the supply and demand of household energy. Because little is known about the supply chain for biomass, surveys were carried out for urban areas on its production, transport and trade as well as sustainable supply. Also, because biomass is used by all people for a multitude of purposes, a complete picture was made of regional and urban biomass supply and demand. The results indicated that biomass is not only the principal energy, accounting for 89 percent of demand, but also the main traded energy in the two time periods accounting for 56-59 percent of commercial demand. Petroleum products supplied 26-27 percent, electricity 8-12 percent and coal 6-10 percent. The market value of traded woodfuel was US$ 48.8 million and US$ 81.0 million in 1996 and 2008 respectively, about 3.5 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). The study found that in 1996 and 2008 respectively, the equivalent of 93,500 and 133,000 full-time people was employed in the biomass supply chain, approximately 2 percent of the potential workforce. In contrast, about 3400 and 4600 people were employed in the supply chain of other fuels in these years. If the Malawi findings are applied to the current estimated wood energy consumption in sub-Saharan Africa, then approximately 13 million people could be employed in commercial biomass energy; this highlights its importance as a means to assist with sustainable development and poverty alleviation. (author)

  4. Biomass gasification hot gas cleanup for power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiant, B.C.; Bachovchin, D.M. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States); Carty, R.H.; Onischak, M. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Horazak, D.A. [Gilbert/Commonwealth, Reading, PA (United States); Ruel, R.H. [The Pacific International Center for High Technology Research, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    In support of the US Department of Energy`s Biomass Power Program, a Westinghouse Electric led team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), Gilbert/Commonwealth (G/C), and the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR), is conducting a 30 month research and development program. The program will provide validation of hot gas cleanup technology with a pressurized fluidized bed, air-blown, biomass gasifier for operation of a gas turbine. This paper discusses the gasification and hot gas cleanup processes, scope of work and approach, and the program`s status.

  5. Simulated performance of biomass gasification based combined power and refrigeration plant for community scale application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, S., E-mail: suman.mech09@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, NIT, Agarpara, Kolkata – 700109, West Bengal (India); Mondal, P., E-mail: mondal.pradip87@gmail.com; Ghosh, S., E-mail: sudipghosh.becollege@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIEST, Shibpur, Howrah – 711103, West Bengal (India)

    2016-07-12

    Thermal performance analysis and sizing of a biomass gasification based combined power and refrigeration plant (CPR) is reported in this study. The plant is capable of producing 100 kWe of electrical output while simultaneously producing a refrigeration effect, varying from 28-68 ton of refrigeration (TR). The topping gas turbine cycle is an indirectly heated all-air cycle. A combustor heat exchanger duplex (CHX) unit burns producer gas and transfer heat to air. This arrangement avoids complex gas cleaning requirements for the biomass-derived producer gas. The exhaust air of the topping GT is utilized to run a bottoming ammonia absorption refrigeration (AAR) cycle via a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), steam produced in the HRSG supplying heat to the generator of the refrigeration cycle. Effects of major operating parameters like topping cycle pressure ratio (r{sub p}) and turbine inlet temperature (TIT) on the energetic performance of the plant are studied. Energetic performance of the plant is evaluated via energy efficiency, required biomass consumption and fuel energy savings ratio (FESR). The FESR calculation method is significant for indicating the savings in fuel of a combined power and process heat plant instead of separate plants for power and process heat. The study reveals that, topping cycle attains maximum power efficiency of 30%in pressure ratio range of 8-10. Up to a certain value of pressure ratio the required air flow rate through the GT unit decreases with increase in pressure ratio and then increases with further increase in pressure ratio. The capacity of refrigeration of the AAR unit initially decreases up to a certain value of topping GT cycle pressure ratio and then increases with further increase in pressure ratio. The FESR is found to be maximized at a pressure ratio of 9 (when TIT=1100°C), the maximum value being 53%. The FESR is higher for higher TIT. The heat exchanger sizing is also influenced by the topping cycle pressure ratio

  6. Steam explosion and its combinatorial pretreatment refining technology of plant biomass to bio-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Zhang; Liu, Zhi-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Pretreatment is a key unit operation affecting the refinery efficiency of plant biomass. However, the poor efficiency of pretreatment and the lack of basic theory are the main challenges to the industrial implementation of the plant biomass refinery. The purpose of this work is to review steam explosion and its combinatorial pretreatment as a means of overcoming the intrinsic characteristics of plant biomass, including recalcitrance, heterogeneity, multi-composition, and diversity. The main advantages of the selective use of steam explosion and other combinatorial pretreatments across the diversity of raw materials are introduced. Combinatorial pretreatment integrated with other unit operations is proposed as a means to exploit the high-efficiency production of bio-based products from plant biomass. Finally, several pilot- and demonstration-scale operations of the plant biomass refinery are described. Based on the principle of selective function and structure fractionation, and multi-level and directional composition conversion, an integrated process with the combinatorial pretreatments of steam explosion and other pretreatments as the core should be feasible and conform to the plant biomass refinery concept. Combinatorial pretreatments of steam explosion and other pretreatments should be further exploited based on the type and intrinsic characteristics of the plant biomass used, the bio-based products to be made, and the complementarity of the processes. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Gene stacking of multiple traits for high yield of fermentable sugars in plant biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Aude; Chalvin, Camille; Shih, Patrick M.

    2018-01-01

    the ratio of C6 to C5 sugars in the cell wall and decreasing the lignin content are two important targets in engineering of plants that are more suitable for downstream processing for second-generation biofuel production.Results: We have studied the basic mechanisms of cell wall biosynthesis and identified...... genes involved in biosynthesis of pectic galactan, including the GALS1 galactan synthase and the UDP-galactose/UDP-rhamnose transporter URGT1. We have engineered plants with a more suitable biomass composition by applying these findings, in conjunction with synthetic biology and gene stacking tools...... to vessels where this polysaccharide is essential. Finally, the high galactan and low xylan traits were stacked with the low lignin trait obtained by expressing the QsuB gene encoding dehydroshikimate dehydratase in lignifying cells.Conclusion: The results show that approaches to increasing C6 sugar content...

  8. Design of novel DME/methanol synthesis plants based on gasification of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    -scale DME plants based on gasification of torrefied biomass. 2. Small-scale DME/methanol plants based on gasification of wood chips. 3. Alternative methanol plants based on electrolysis of water and gasification of biomass. The plants were modeled by using the component based thermodynamic modeling...... why the differences, in biomass to DME/methanol efficiency, between the small-scale and the large-scale plants, showed not to be greater, was the high cold gas efficiency of the gasifier used in the small-scale plants (93%). By integrating water electrolysis in a large-scale methanol plant, an almost...... large-scale DME plant) to 63%, due to the relatively inefficient electrolyser....

  9. Plant diversity and biomass of Marudu bay mangroves in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanum, F.; Kudus, K.A.; Saari, N.S

    2012-01-01

    The mangroves of Marudu Bay in the state of Sabah is situated at the tip of Borneo Island, and at the southern limit of the Coral Triangle whose waters hold the highest diversity of corals, fish, molluscks, crustaceans and marine plant species in the world. The ecosystem shows a deterioration due to unsustainable fishing, pollution and encroachment, and these are impacting the Marudu Bay coastal communities economically. Fishing is the major economic activity here. Realising the importance of conserving the mangroves to uplift the socio-economic livelihood of the coastal community, a resource inventory of the mangroves and its productivity study were carried out. A total of 16 plant species in 12 genera and 9 families were identified. It was also found that 0.7 ha is capable of capturing all the species in the mangrove forest. The mangrove forests of Marudu Bay are dominated by Rhizopora apiculata and R. mucronata. The highest Importance Value index (IVI) was given by Rhizophora mucronata. Total Above Ground Biomass (TAGB) for 1-ha of mangrove forest in Marudu Bay was estimated to be 98.4 t/ha. It was found in other parallel studies that the mangroves of Marudu Bay are productive ecosystems that provide valuable habitats, nurseries and spawning grounds for various commercially important species of fish and invertebrates such as shrimp besides many species of wildlife. The mangroves at Marudu Bay are not only aesthetically attractive but provide opportunities for ecotourism activities that can be undertaken by the local community inhabiting the area to uplift their meagre income, These activities include mangrove cruising, recreational fishing, educational tourism and mangrove honey production, amongst others. This way, the degradation of the mangrove in Marudu Bay can be halted and reversed. (author)

  10. Climate-related variation in plant peak biomass and growth phenology across Pacific Northwest tidal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, Kevin J.; Dugger, Bruce D.; Thorne, Karen M.

    2018-01-01

    The interannual variability of tidal marsh plant phenology is largely unknown and may have important ecological consequences. Marsh plants are critical to the biogeomorphic feedback processes that build estuarine soils, maintain marsh elevation relative to sea level, and sequester carbon. We calculated Tasseled Cap Greenness, a metric of plant biomass, using remotely sensed data available in the Landsat archive to assess how recent climate variation has affected biomass production and plant phenology across three maritime tidal marshes in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. First, we used clipped vegetation plots at one of our sites to confirm that tasseled cap greenness provided a useful measure of aboveground biomass (r2 = 0.72). We then used multiple measures of biomass each growing season over 20–25 years per study site and developed models to test how peak biomass and the date of peak biomass varied with 94 climate and sea-level metrics using generalized linear models and Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) model selection. Peak biomass was positively related to total annual precipitation, while the best predictor for date of peak biomass was average growing season temperature, with the peak 7.2 days earlier per degree C. Our study provides insight into how plants in maritime tidal marshes respond to interannual climate variation and demonstrates the utility of time-series remote sensing data to assess ecological responses to climate stressors.

  11. Climate-related variation in plant peak biomass and growth phenology across Pacific Northwest tidal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, Kevin J.; Dugger, Bruce D.; Thorne, Karen M.

    2018-03-01

    The interannual variability of tidal marsh plant phenology is largely unknown and may have important ecological consequences. Marsh plants are critical to the biogeomorphic feedback processes that build estuarine soils, maintain marsh elevation relative to sea level, and sequester carbon. We calculated Tasseled Cap Greenness, a metric of plant biomass, using remotely sensed data available in the Landsat archive to assess how recent climate variation has affected biomass production and plant phenology across three maritime tidal marshes in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. First, we used clipped vegetation plots at one of our sites to confirm that tasseled cap greenness provided a useful measure of aboveground biomass (r2 = 0.72). We then used multiple measures of biomass each growing season over 20-25 years per study site and developed models to test how peak biomass and the date of peak biomass varied with 94 climate and sea-level metrics using generalized linear models and Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) model selection. Peak biomass was positively related to total annual precipitation, while the best predictor for date of peak biomass was average growing season temperature, with the peak 7.2 days earlier per degree C. Our study provides insight into how plants in maritime tidal marshes respond to interannual climate variation and demonstrates the utility of time-series remote sensing data to assess ecological responses to climate stressors.

  12. Fusion of Plant Height and Vegetation Indices for the Estimation of Barley Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Tilly

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant biomass is an important parameter for crop management and yield estimation. However, since biomass cannot be determined non-destructively, other plant parameters are used for estimations. In this study, plant height and hyperspectral data were used for barley biomass estimations with bivariate and multivariate models. During three consecutive growing seasons a terrestrial laser scanner was used to establish crop surface models for a pixel-wise calculation of plant height and manual measurements of plant height confirmed the results (R2 up to 0.98. Hyperspectral reflectance measurements were conducted with a field spectrometer and used for calculating six vegetation indices (VIs, which have been found to be related to biomass and LAI: GnyLi, NDVI, NRI, RDVI, REIP, and RGBVI. Furthermore, biomass samples were destructively taken on almost the same dates. Linear and exponential biomass regression models (BRMs were established for evaluating plant height and VIs as estimators of fresh and dry biomass. Each BRM was established for the whole observed period and pre-anthesis, which is important for management decisions. Bivariate BRMs supported plant height as a strong estimator (R2 up to 0.85, whereas BRMs based on individual VIs showed varying performances (R2: 0.07–0.87. Fused approaches, where plant height and one VI were used for establishing multivariate BRMs, yielded improvements in some cases (R2 up to 0.89. Overall, this study reveals the potential of remotely-sensed plant parameters for estimations of barley biomass. Moreover, it is a first step towards the fusion of 3D spatial and spectral measurements for improving non-destructive biomass estimations.

  13. The determination of mercury content in the biomass untended for industrial power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is one of the oldest and most widely used renewable energy sources. The biomass is the whole organic matter of vegetable or animal origin which is biodegradable. Biomass includes leftovers from agricultural production, forestry residues, and industrial and municipal waste. The use of biomass in the power industry has become a standard and takes place in Poland and other European countries. This paper discusses the correlation of mercury content in different biomass types used in the power industry and in products of biomass combustion. Different biomass types, which are currently burned in a commercial power plant in Poland, were discussed. A photographic documentation of different biomass types, such as straw briquettes, wood briquettes, pellets from energy crops (sunflower husk and wood husk, wood pellets, wood chips, and agro-biomass (seeds was carried out. The presented paper discusses the results obtained for 15 biomass samples. Five selected biomass samples were burned in controlled conditions in the laboratory at the University of Silesia. The ash resulting from the combustion of five biomass samples was tested for mercury content. A total of twenty biomass samples and its combustion products were tested. Based on the obtained results, it was found that any supply of biomass, regardless of its type, is characterized by variable mercury content in dry matter. In the case of e.g. wood chips, the spread of results reaches 235.1 μm/kg (in dry matter. Meanwhile, the highest mercury content, 472.4 μm/kg (in dry matter was recorded in the biomass of straw, wood pellets, and pellets from energy crops (sunflower husk. In the case of combustion products of five selected biomass types, a three or four fold increase in the mercury content has been observed.

  14. Pilot project concerning the establishment of a collective biomass conversion plant on the island of Mors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This pilot project comprises a feasibility study in connection with plans to establish a biomass conversion plant, on the Danish island of Mors, which would provide methane to be used as fuel, in combination with natural gas, for a cogeneration plant serving six villages. The subjects of location, organization, the transportation of biomass, the design of the biomass conversion plant, economical aspects and conditions of the use of the methane are discussed as a basis for decisions in this respect. Environmental considerations are also dealt with. (AB)

  15. An Investigation of Sustainable Power Generation from Oil Palm Biomass: A Case Study in Sarawak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Aghamohammadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sarawak is the largest state in Malaysia, with 22% of the nation's oil palm plantation area, making it the second largest contributor to palm biomass production. Despite the enormous amount of palm biomass in the state, the use of biomass as fuel for power generation remains low. This study is designed to investigate the sustainability of power generation from palm biomass specifically in Sarawak by conducting a survey among the palm oil mill developers. To conduct this investigation, several key sustainability factors were identified: the security of the biomass supply, the efficiency of conversion technology, the existing network system, challenges and future prospects for power generation from palm biomass. These factors were assessed through a set of questionnaires. The returned questionnaires were then analysed using statistical tools. The results of this study demonstrate that Sarawak has biomass in abundance, and that it is ready to be exploited for large scale power generation. The key challenge to achieving the renewable energy target is the inadequate grid infrastructure that inhibits palm oil developers from benefiting from the Feed-in-Tariff payment scheme. One way forward, a strategic partnership between government and industrial players, offers a promising outcome, depending on an economic feasibility study. The decentralization of electricity generation to support rural electrification is another feasible alternative for renewable energy development in the state.

  16. The opportunities for obtaining of the biogas on methane fermentation from marine algae biomass and water plant biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jachniak Ewa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to try to obtain of the biogas on a laboratory scale from marine algae biomass and water plant biomass. The research was conducted in 2016 year and samples were taken from the Polish coast of the Baltic Sea. In laboratory work, algae and plant species were first identified. The next, in order to subject them to methane fermentation processes and to obtain biogas,partial mechanical treatment of the biomass was conducted. Dry matter content and dry organic matter content were also determined. The research has shown different production of the biogas depending on the various species of the algae and plants. The percentage composition of the biogas was also determined (% CO2 and % CH4. In this research some kinds and species of algae and aquatic plants were distinguished: Scytosiphon cf. S. tortilis, Fucus vesiculosus, Cladophora, Audouinella, Potamogeton perfoliatus. Production of biogas from selected algae and water plants oscillated between 0.023 dm3·g-1 and 0.303 dm3·g-1. The highest content of the methane in biogas was obtained from the mixture of Ectocarpus from spring and autumn harvest (values oscillated from 80.7 % to 81.2 %, while the highest percentage share of carbon dioxide in the biogas was characterized by the mixture Fucus vesiculosus and Audouinella (22 %. Due to a small amount of the research in this field, more research is needed.

  17. Policies to improve biomass-electricity generation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, Suani T.; Bolognini, Marly F.; Zylbersztajn, David

    1999-01-01

    Electricity consumption in Brazil has grown twice from 1979 to 1994 and, for the future, official forecasts estimate high risks of deficit. Brazilian generation system presents highly seasonal characteristics due to its hydroelectric origin and sugar cane origin electricity could be used as complementation for the dry period, instead of conventional thermoelectric power plants, with the corresponding environmental advantages. Nowadays, most sugar/alcohol industries in the state of Sao Paulo are energy self-sufficient and some of them already export a small electricity surplus to the grid. The potential for such surplus is significant, moreover with the introduction of more efficient technologies, but prices are not yet attractive when compared to conventional market prices, besides the existing barriers related to the current legislation. On the other hand, existing studies show that more efficient technologies become competitive when externalities are included. This paper analyses worthing methodologies, externalities-based decisions and policy mechanisms to guide governments, planners, decision-makers and managers in the correct evaluation of bioenergy use and production faced to other alternatives. (Author)

  18. Steam generators for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillequin, Jean

    1975-01-01

    The role and the general characteristics of steam generators in nuclear power plants are indicated, and particular types are described according to the coolant nature (carbon dioxide, helium, light water, heavy water, sodium) [fr

  19. Refurbishment of hydropower generation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kofler, W.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents the factors taken into consideration and the methods used for the management of refurbishment work in the hydropower installations of the TUWAG - a Tyrolean hydropower company in Austria. The technical and financial advantages to be gained from refurbishment are discussed and the requirements placed on the structuring of refurbishment projects are described. Various factors such as plant operation and maintenance, increased returns through better efficiency and cost reduction through lower wear and tear and reduced risk of failure are discussed. Annexes to the article cover monitoring and measurement techniques, the simulation of mechanical and hydraulic conditions, profitability calculations and turbine management

  20. Biomass Thermogravimetric Analysis: Uncertainty Determination Methodology and Sampling Maps Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazó, Jose A.; Granada, Enrique; Saavedra, Ángeles; Eguía, Pablo; Collazo, Joaquín

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a methodology for the determination of the maximum sampling error and confidence intervals of thermal properties obtained from thermogravimetric analysis (TG), including moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash content. The sampling procedure of the TG analysis was of particular interest and was conducted with care. The results of the present study were compared to those of a prompt analysis, and a correlation between the mean values and maximum sampling errors of the methods were not observed. In general, low and acceptable levels of uncertainty and error were obtained, demonstrating that the properties evaluated by TG analysis were representative of the overall fuel composition. The accurate determination of the thermal properties of biomass with precise confidence intervals is of particular interest in energetic biomass applications. PMID:20717532

  1. Biomass CCS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavezzali, S.

    2009-11-15

    The use of biomass in power generation is one of the important ways in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Specifically, the cofiring of biomass with coal could be regarded as a common feature to any new build power plant if a sustainable supply of biomass fuel is readily accessible. IEA GHG has undertaken a techno-economic evaluation of the use of biomass in biomass fired and co-fired power generation, using post-combustion capture technology. This report is the result of the study undertaken by Foster Wheeler Italiana.

  2. Balance sheet of the first year of O&M at the Ence biomass plant in Mérida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Having received the Final Commissioning Protocol from the Ministry of Agriculture, Rural Development, Environment and Energy of the Extremadura Regional Government, Ence’s biomass generation plant in Mérida started to deliver energy to the electrical system in April 2014. With the construction and commissioning of the Sener turnkey project for the biomass plant having been completed, Ence - the engineering and technology group – set up the company Biomasa Mérida O&M S.L. to provide operation and maintenance works for the facility’s first two years of operation. Following signature of the provisional acceptance of the plant by Ence, Biomasa Mérida O&M S.L. accepted its mission and started work on 15 September 2014. (Author)

  3. Demonstration of a 1 MWe biomass power plant at USMC Base Camp Lejeune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, J.; Purvis, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    A biomass energy conversion project is being sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to demonstrate an environmentally and economically sound electrical power option for government installations, industrial sites, rural cooperatives, small municipalities, and developing countries. Under a cooperative agreement with EPA, Research Triangle Institute is initiating operation of the Camp Lejeune Energy from Wood (CLEW) biomass plant. Wood gasification combined with internal combustion engines was chosen because of (1) recent improvements in gas cleaning, (2) simple, economical operation for units less than 10 MW, and (3) the option of a clean, cheap fuel for the many existing facilities generating expensive electricity from petroleum fuels with reciprocating engines. The plant incorporates a downdraft, moving bed gasifier utilizing hogged waste wood from the Marine Corps Base at Camp Lejeune, NC. A moving bed bulk wood dryer and both spark ignition and diesel engines are included. Unique process design features are briefly described relative to the gasifier, wood drying, tar separation, and process control. A test plan for process optimization and demonstration of reliability, economics, and environmental impact is outlined. (author)

  4. Increase in efficiency and reduction of generation cost at hard coal-fired power plants. Post-combustion of combustion residues from co-firing of RDF and biomass during dry ash removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, Guenter [Magaldi Power GmbH, Esslingen (Germany); Spindeldreher, Olaf [RWE Generation SE, Werne (Germany); RWE Generation SE, Essen (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    Secondary as well as substitute fuels are being used in hard coal-fired power plants to improve efficiency and to enlarge fuel flexibility. However, grinding and firing systems of the existing coal-fired plants are not designed for those co-fuels. Any deterioration of the combustion performance would reduce the power output and increase ash disposal costs by increased content of combustion residues. The application of air-cooled ash removal, with simultaneous and controlled post-combustion of unburned residues on the conveyor belt, enlarges the furnace and maintains combustion efficiency even with different fuel qualities. Plant efficiency can also be increased through heat recovery. (orig.)

  5. Retrofit options to enable biomass firing at Irish peat plants: Background report 4.2 for the EU Joule 2+ project: Energy from biomass: An assessment of two promising systems for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Broek, R.; Faaij, A.; Blaney, G.

    1995-05-01

    An overview is given of the most promising options for retrofitting existing Irish peat plants to accept biomass fuel. It is expected that with low investment costs the existing peat stations can be adapted to enable them to fire biomass. It will also be possible to co-fire peat and biomass, this option will become a way of using biomass in power generation with relatively low risk, both on the field of initial investments and supply security. The objectives of this report are: assessing the different technical options for retrofitting the plants to enable biomass firing; provide investment costs, efficiencies, emissions and expected lifetimes for the different retrofit options. The results from this study are used in the final integration phase of the EU-Joule project 'Energy from biomass'. Chapter 2 deals with methodological considerations which have been made in estimation of the investment costs. In chapter 3 the present situation is described. Both peat harvesting and power plant operation of both sod and milled peat plants are explained. Also some past experiences with wood chips firing in Irish peat stations are discussed. Chapter 4 gives a general view on retrofitting peat plants to enable biomass firing. Some starting points like biomass fuel feeding and emission standards that have to be met are highlighted. The rationale behind four main choices are given. Finally, a technical description is presented of the two boiler adaptations that will be considered among the different retrofit options, namely conversion of milled peat units into bubbling fluidized bed and into a whole tree energy unit. Six retrofit options are described in more detail in chapter 5. Information is given on the present status of the plants, the technical considerations of the retrofit, expected performance and an estimation of a range in which the investment costs can be expected. 4 figs., 10 tabs., 5 appendices

  6. Minimum emissions from biomass FBC. Improved energy generation based on biomass FBC with minimum emission. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallgren, A. [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2002-02-01

    The primary aim of the project is to improve the performance of biomass fired FBC (fluidised bed combustion) through a concurrent detailed experimental and modelling approach. The expected results shall establish in experimental investigations, the thermochemical performance of a selection of fuels separately and in combination with suitable bed materials, stipulate recommendations, based on labscale via test rig and pilot scale to commercial scale investigations, how to repress agglomeration and defluidisation in fluidised bed combustion systems, indicate, based on the experimental findings, how to utilise primary measures to minimise the formation of nitrogen oxide compounds in the FB and provide a logistic assessment, based on case studies, identifying optimum logistic strategies for the selected fuels in commercial heat and power production. The investigation programme comprises straw, meat and bone meal (MBM) and forest residues as biofuels, quartz sand, bone ash, magnesium oxide and mullite as bed materials, sodium and ammonia carbonate as NO{sub x} reduction additives, and dolomite, kaolinite and coal ash for suppression of bed defluidisation. All materials have undergone a very detailed characterisation programme generating basic data on their chemical and structural composition as well as their sintering propensities. Combustion residues such as bottom and fly ashes have run through the same characterisation programme. The knowledge obtained by the characterisation programme supports the experimental combustion campaigns which are performed at 20, 90 and 350 kW FBC reactors. The information produced is validated in a 3 MW and 25 MW commercial FBC reactor. NO{sub x} formation and destruction mechanisms and rates have been included in a 3-D CFD software code used for NO{sub x} formation modelling. Parameter assessments confirmed the theoretical achievement of a 20-30 % reduction of NO{sub x} formation through implementation of the alkali injection concept as

  7. Aspen Plus simulation of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle systems at corn ethanol plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Huixiao; Kaliyan, Nalladurai; Morey, R. Vance

    2013-01-01

    Biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) systems and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) systems are employed to provide heat and electricity to a 0.19 hm 3 y −1 (50 million gallon per year) corn ethanol plant using different fuels (syrup and corn stover, corn stover alone, and natural gas). Aspen Plus simulations of BIGCC/NGCC systems are performed to study effects of different fuels, gas turbine compression pressure, dryers (steam tube or superheated steam) for biomass fuels and ethanol co-products, and steam tube dryer exhaust treatment methods. The goal is to maximize electricity generation while meeting process heat needs of the plant. At fuel input rates of 110 MW, BIGCC systems with steam tube dryers provide 20–25 MW of power to the grid with system thermal efficiencies (net power generated plus process heat rate divided by fuel input rate) of 69–74%. NGCC systems with steam tube dryers provide 26–30 MW of power to the grid with system thermal efficiencies of 74–78%. BIGCC systems with superheated steam dryers provide 20–22 MW of power to the grid with system thermal efficiencies of 53–56%. The life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction for conventional corn ethanol compared to gasoline is 39% for process heat with natural gas (grid electricity), 117% for BIGCC with syrup and corn stover fuel, 124% for BIGCC with corn stover fuel, and 93% for NGCC with natural gas fuel. These GHG emission estimates do not include indirect land use change effects. -- Highlights: •BIGCC and natural gas combined cycle systems at corn ethanol plants are simulated. •The best performance results in 25–30 MW power to grid. •The best performance results in 74–78% system thermal efficiencies. •GHG reduction for corn ethanol with BIGCC systems compared to gasoline is over 100%

  8. Performance of Generating Plant: Managing the Changes. Part 3: Renewable energy plant: reports on wind, photovoltaics and biomas energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoha, Bruno; Cohen, Martin [Electricite de France (France)

    2008-05-15

    The WEC Committee on the Performance of Generating Plant (PGP) has been collecting and analysing power plant performance statistics worldwide for more than 30 years and has produced regular reports, which include examples of advanced techniques and methods for improving power plant performance through benchmarking. A series of reports from the various working groups was issued in 2008. This reference presents the results of Working Group 3 (WG3). WG3 will promote the introduction of performance indicators for renewable energy generating plant (wind, geothermal, solar and biomass) developed by the Committee. It will also assess selected transitional technology issues and environmental factors related to non-conventional technologies. The WG3 report includes sections on Wind Energy Today, Photovoltaics Energy Today, Biomass Electricity Today and appendices.

  9. Drag forces of common plant species in temperate streams: consequences of morphology, velocity and biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Sand

    2008-01-01

    Swift flow in streams may physically influence the morphology and distribution of plants. I quantified drag as a function of velocity, biomass and their interaction on the trailing canopy of seven European stream species in an experimental flume and evaluated its importance for species distributi...... than an uneven distribution with the same biomass confined to dense patches surrounded by open flow channels. Thus, management strategies to ensure a patchy plants distribution should be suitable for combining agricultural drainage and ecological stream quality....

  10. Permitting a biomass-fired power plant in California -- A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisman, J.I.; Needham, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the process of preparing an air permit application for a proposed biomass-fired power plant. The plant is designed to produce a net electric power output of 16 megawatts (MW) for sale to Pacific Gas and Electric Company. The biomass fuel will consist of urban wood waste, construction wood waste, and waste from agricultural products, such as tree prunings and fruit pits. The site is located in an industrial park in Soledad, California

  11. [Effects of large-area planting water hyacinth on macro-benthos community structure and biomass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Feng; Liu, Hai-Qin; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Yan, Shao-Hua; Zhong, Ji-Cheng; Fan, Cheng-Xin

    2010-12-01

    The effects on macro-benthos and benthos environment of planting 200 hm2 water hyacinth (E. crassipens) in Zhushan Bay, Lake Taihu, were studied during 8-10 months consecutive surveys. Results indicated that average densities of mollusca (the main species were Bellamya aeruginosa) in far-planting, near-planting and planting area were 276.67, 371.11 and 440.00 ind/m2, respectively, and biomass were 373.15, 486.57 and 672.54 g/m2, respectively, showed that average density and biomass of planting area's were higher than those of others. However, the average density and biomass of Oligochaeta (the main species was Limodrilus hoffmeisteri) and Chironomidae in planting area were lower than that of outside planting area. The density and biomass of three dominant species of benthic animal increased quickly during 8-9 months, decreased quickly in October inside and outside water hyacinth planting area. The reason of this phenomenon could be possible that lots of cyanobacteria cells died and consumed dissolve oxygen in proceed decomposing. Algae cells released lots of phosphorus and nitrogen simultaneously, so macro-benthos died in this environment. The indexes of Shannon-Weaver and Simpson indicated that water environment was in moderate polluted state. On the basis of the survey results, the large-area and high-density planting water hyacinth haven't demonstrated a great impact on macrobenthos and benthos environment in short planting time (about 6 months planting time).

  12. Sewage sludge conditioning with the application of ash from biomass-fired power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Marta; Stachowicz, Feliks; Masłoń, Adam

    2018-02-01

    During biomass combustion, there are formed combustion products. Available data indicates that only 29.1 % of biomass ashes were recycled in Poland in 2013. Chemical composition and sorptive properties of ashes enable their application in the sewage sludge treatment. This paper analyses the impact of ashes from biomass-combustion power plant on sewage sludge dewatering and higienisation. The results obtained in laboratory tests proved the possitive impact of biomass ashes on sewage sludge hydration reduction after dewatering and the increase of filtrate volume. After sludge conditioning with the use of biomass combustion by-products, the final moisture content decreased by approximatelly 10÷25 % in comparison with raw sewage sludge depending on the method of dewatering. The application of biomass combustion products in sewage sludge management could provide an alternative method of their utilization according to law and environmental requirements.

  13. Thermodynamic evaluation of a novel solar-biomass hybrid power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Zhang; Liu, Qibin; Lei, Jing; Wang, Xiaohe; Sun, Jie; Jin, Hongguang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A solar-biomass hybrid power system with zero carbon dioxide emission is proposed. • The internal mechanisms of the solar-biomass utilization are discussed. • The on-design and off-design properties of the system are numerically investigated. • The configurations of the proposed system are optimized. - Abstract: A solar-biomass hybrid power generation system, which integrates a solar thermal energy collection subsystem, a biomass steam boiler and a steam turbine power generation block, is developed for efficiently utilizing renewable energies. The solar thermal energy is concentrated by parabolic trough collectors and is used to heat the feed-water to the superheated steam of 371 °C, then the generated solar steam is further heated to a higher temperature level of 540 °C via a second-stage heating process in a biomass boiler, the system power generation capacity is about 50 MW. The hybrid process of the solar energy and biomass contributes to ameliorating the system thermodynamic performances and reducing of the exergy loss within the steam generation process. The off-design evaluation results indicate that the annual net solar-to-electric efficiency of the hybrid power system is improved to 18.13%, which is higher than that of the typical parabolic trough solar power system as 15.79%. The levelized cost of energy drops to 0.077 $/(kW h) from 0.192 $/(kW h). The annual biomass consumption rate is reduced by 22.53% in comparison with typical biomass power systems. The research findings provide a promising approach for the efficient utilization of the abundant renewable energies resources and the reduction of carbon dioxide emission.

  14. Biomass of tree species as a response to planting density and interspecific competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Planting trees is an important way to promote the recovery of degraded areas in the Caatinga region. Experiments (E1, E2, and E3 were conducted in a randomized blocks design, with three, three, and five replicates, respectively. The objectives were to evaluate biomass of the shoots of: a gliricidia (G and sabiá (S, as a response to planting density; b G, S, and neem (N in competition; c G, and S in agroforestry. E1 was conducted in split-plots, and planting densities (400, 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 plants ha-1 as subplots. E2 consisted of a factorial comprising the following plots: GGG, NGN, SGS, NNN, GNG, SNS, SSS, GSG, NSN (each letter represents a row of plants. E3 was conducted with G and S in agroforestry experiment. The trees were harvested after 54, 42, and 27 months old, in E1, E2 and E3, respectively. In E1, G presented higher green biomass of the stems and leaf at smaller densities than S, but lower green biomass of branches at most densities. The species did not differ for mean stem dry biomass and leaf dry biomass, but G showed higher branch dry biomass at most densities. Higher planting densities increased green and dry biomass of stems, branches, and leaves in S, but decreased those characteristics in G, with the exception of leaf dry mass, which was not influenced by density. In E2, the behavior of each species was identical in plots containing the same or different species. Griricidia showed the highest green biomass of stems and branches, and the highest values for geren biomass of the leaf were observed for gliricidia and neem. The highest stem, branch, and leaf dry biomass values were obtained for G, S, and N, respectively. In E3, G was superior for stem and leaf green biomass, and for stem and branch dry biomass. There were no differences between species for the other biomass values.

  15. Biomass direct-fired power generation system in China: An integrated energy, GHG emissions, and economic evaluation for Salix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Changbo; Zhang, Lixiao; Chang, Yuan; Pang, Mingyue

    2015-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the options of biomass power generation in China, this study presented an integrated energy, environmental, and economic evaluation for Salix in China, and a typical Salix direct-fired power generation system (SDPGS) in Inner Mongolia was selected for case study. A tiered hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) model was developed to calculate the “planting-to-wire” (PTW) energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and economic cost and profit of the SDPGS, including feedstock cultivation, power plant construction and operation, and on-grid price with/without government subsidies. The results show that the PTW energy consumption and GHG emissions of Salix are 0.8 MJ/kWh and 114 g CO 2 -eq/kWh, respectively, indicating an energy payback time (EPBT) of 3.2 years. The SDPGS is not economically feasible without government subsidies. The PTW costs are dominated by feedstock cultivation. The energy saving and GHG mitigation benefits are still robust, even when the power plant runs at only 60% design capacity. For future development of biomass power in China, scientific planning is necessary to guarantee a sufficient feedstock supply. In addition, technology progress, mature industrial chains, and reasonable price setting policy are required to enable potential energy and environmental advantages of biomass power moving forward. -- Highlights: •A hybrid LCA model was used to evaluate overall performance of the SDPGS. •On-site processes dominate the “planting-to-wire” footprints. •The energy saving and GHG mitigation benefits of the SDPGS are robust. •The economic profit of the SDPGS is feeble without government subsidies. •Generating efficiency promotion has a comprehensive positive effect on the system

  16. Biomass Supply Planning for Combined Heat and Power Plants using Stochastic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guericke, Daniela; Blanco, Ignacio; Morales González, Juan Miguel

    method using stochastic optimization to support the biomass supply planning for combined heat and power plants. Our two-phase approach combines mid-term decisions about biomass supply contracts with the short-term decisions regarding the optimal market participation of the producer to ensure......During the last years, the consumption of biomass to produce power and heat has increased due to the new carbon neutral policies. Nowadays, many district heating systems operate their combined heat and power (CHP) plants using different types of biomass instead of fossil fuel, especially to produce......, and heat demand and electricity prices vary drastically during the planning period. Furthermore, the optimal operation of combined heat and power plants has to consider the existing synergies between the power and heating systems while always fulfilling the heat demand of the system. We propose a solution...

  17. Manipulating microRNAs for improved biomass and biofuels from plant feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Jennifer Lynn; Zhang, Baohong; Stewart, Charles Neal

    2015-04-01

    Petroleum-based fuels are nonrenewable and unsustainable. Renewable sources of energy, such as lignocellulosic biofuels and plant metabolite-based drop-in fuels, can offset fossil fuel use and reverse environmental degradation through carbon sequestration. Despite these benefits, the lignocellulosic biofuels industry still faces many challenges, including the availability of economically viable crop plants. Cell wall recalcitrance is a major economic barrier for lignocellulosic biofuels production from biomass crops. Sustainability and biomass yield are two additional, yet interrelated, foci for biomass crop improvement. Many scientists are searching for solutions to these problems within biomass crop genomes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in almost all biological and metabolic process in plants including plant development, cell wall biosynthesis and plant stress responses. Because of the broad functions of their targets (e.g. auxin response factors), the alteration of plant miRNA expression often results in pleiotropic effects. A specific miRNA usually regulates a biologically relevant bioenergy trait. For example, relatively low miR156 overexpression leads to a transgenic feedstock with enhanced biomass and decreased recalcitrance. miRNAs have been overexpressed in dedicated bioenergy feedstocks such as poplar and switchgrass yielding promising results for lignin reduction, increased plant biomass, the timing of flowering and response to harsh environments. In this review, we present the status of miRNA-related research in several major biofuel crops and relevant model plants. We critically assess published research and suggest next steps for miRNA manipulation in feedstocks for increased biomass and sustainability for biofuels and bioproducts. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Advanced power generation using biomass wastes from palm oil mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, Muhammad; Kurniawan, Tedi; Oda, Takuya; Kashiwagi, Takao

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the energy-efficient utilization of both solid and liquid wastes from palm oil mills, particularly their use for power generation. It includes the integration of a power generation system using empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME). The proposed system mainly consists of three modules: EFB gasification, POME digestion, and additional organic Rankine cycle (ORC). EFBs are dried and converted into a syngas fuel with high calorific value through integrated drying and gasification processes. In addition, POME is converted into a biogas fuel for power generation. Biogas engine-based cogenerators are used for generating both electricity and heat. The remaining unused heat is recovered by ORC module to generate electricity. The influences of three EFB gasification temperatures (800, 900 and 1000 °C) in EFB gasification module; and working fluids and pressure in ORC module are evaluated. Higher EFB gasification leads to higher generated electricity and remaining heat for ORC module. Power generation efficiency increases from 11.2 to 24.6% in case of gasification temperature is increased from 800 to 1000 °C. In addition, cyclohexane shows highest energy efficiency compared to toluene and n-heptane in ORC module. Higher pressure in ORC module also leads to higher energy efficiency. Finally, the highest total generated power and power generation efficiency obtained by the system are 8.3 MW and 30.4%, respectively.

  19. An exploratory game-theoretic analysis of biomass electricity generation supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasiri, Fuzhan; Zaccour, Georges

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes a game-theoretic approach to model and analyze the process of utilizing biomass for power generation considering three players: distributor, facility developer, and participating farmer. We characterize the Nash equilibrium of the sequential game and discuss its features. A special attention is devoted to the analysis of the impact of incentives and initial target on the equilibrium, in which the biomass is part of electricity production.

  20. Recent patents on genetic modification of plants and microbes for biomass conversion to biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubieniechi, Simona; Peranantham, Thinesh; Levin, David B

    2013-04-01

    Development of sustainable energy systems based on renewable biomass feedstocks is now a global effort. Lignocellulosic biomass contains polymers of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, bound together in a complex structure. Liquid biofuels, such as ethanol, can be made from biomass via fermentation of sugars derived from the cellulose and hemicellulose within lignocellulosic materials, but pre-treatment of the biomass to release sugars for microbial conversion is a significant barrier to commercial success of lignocellulosic biofuel production. Strategies to reduce the energy and cost inputs required for biomass pre-treatment include genetic modification of plant materials to reduce lignin content. Significant efforts are also underway to create recombinant microorganisms capable of converting sugars derived from lignocellulosic biomass to a variety of biofuels. An alternative strategy to reduce the costs of cellulosic biofuel production is the use of cellulolytic microorganisms capable of direct microbial conversion of ligno-cellulosic biomass to fuels. This paper reviews recent patents on genetic modification of plants and microbes for biomass conversion to biofuels.

  1. Reduction of CO2 emission by INCAM model in Malaysia biomass power plants during the year 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Nor Aishah Saidina; Talebian-Kiakalaieh, Amin

    2018-03-01

    As the world's second largest palm oil producer and exporter, Malaysia could capitalize on its oil palm biomass waste for power generation. The emission factors from this renewable energy source are far lower than that of fossil fuels. This study applies an integrated carbon accounting and mitigation (INCAM) model to calculate the amount of CO 2 emissions from two biomass thermal power plants. The CO 2 emissions released from biomass plants utilizing empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME), as alternative fuels for powering steam and gas turbines, were determined using the INCAM model. Each section emitting CO 2 in the power plant, known as the carbon accounting center (CAC), was measured for its carbon profile (CP) and carbon index (CI). The carbon performance indicator (CPI) included electricity, fuel and water consumption, solid waste and waste-water generation. The carbon emission index (CEI) and carbon emission profile (CEP), based on the total monthly carbon production, were determined across the CPI. Various innovative strategies resulted in a 20%-90% reduction of CO 2 emissions. The implementation of reduction strategies significantly reduced the CO 2 emission levels. Based on the model, utilization of EFB and POME in the facilities could significantly reduce the CO 2 emissions and increase the potential for waste to energy initiatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Precise plant height monitoring and biomass estimation with Terrestrial Laser Scanning in paddy rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tilly

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing crop management is a major topic in the field of precision agriculture as the growing world population puts pressure on the efficiency of field production. Accordingly, methods to measure plant parameters with the needed precision and within-field resolution are required. Studies show that Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS is a suitable method to capture small objects like crop plants. In this contribution, the results of multi-temporal surveys on paddy rice fields with the TLS system Riegl LMS-Z420i are presented. Three campaigns were carried out during the key vegetative stage of rice plants in the growing period 2012 to monitor the plant height. The TLS-derived point clouds are interpolated to visualize plant height above ground as crop surface models (CSMs with a high resolution of 0.01 m. Spatio-temporal differences within the data of one campaign and between consecutive campaigns can be detected. The results were validated against manually measured plant heights with a high correlation (R2 = 0.71. Furthermore, the dependence of actual biomass from plant height was evaluated. To the present, no method for the non-destructive determination of biomass is found yet. Thus, plant parameters, like the height, have to be used for biomass estimations. The good correlation (R2 = 0.66 leads to the assumption that biomass can be estimated from plant height measurements. The results show that TLS can be considered as a very promising tool for precision agriculture.

  3. A hyperspectral approach to estimating biomass and plant production in a heterogeneous restored temperate peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, K. B.; Schile, L. M.; Windham-Myers, L.; Kelly, M.; Hatala, J.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2012-12-01

    Restoration of drained peatlands that are managed to reverse subsidence through organic accretion holds significant potential for large-scale carbon storage and sequestration. This potential has been demonstrated in an experimental wetland restoration site established by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1997 on Twitchell Island in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, where soil carbon storage is up to 1 kg C m-2 and root and rhizome production can reach over 7 kg m-2 annually. Remote sensing-based estimation of biomass and productivity over a large spatial extent helps to monitor carbon storage potential of these restored peatlands. Extensive field measurements of plant biophysical characteristics such as biomass, leaf area index, and the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) [an important variable in light-use efficiency (LUE) models] have been collected for agricultural systems and forests. However the small size and local spatial variability of U.S. Pacific Coast wetlands pose new challenges for measuring these variables in the field and generating estimates through remote sensing. In particular background effects of non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV), floating aquatic vegetation, and inundation of wetland vegetation influence the relationship between field measurements and multispectral or hyperspectral indices. Working at the USGS experimental wetland site, characterized by variable water depth and substantial NPV, or thatch, we collected field data on hardstem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus) and cattail (Typha spp.) coupled with reflectance data from a field spectrometer (350-2500 nm) every two to three weeks during the summers of 2011 and 2012. We calculated aboveground biomass with existing allometric relationships, and fAPAR was measured with line and point quantum sensors. We analyzed reflectance data to develop hyperspectral and multispectral indices that predict biomass and fAPAR and account for background effects of water

  4. System analysis of CO_2 sequestration from biomass cogeneration plants (Bio-CHP-CCS). Technology, economic efficiency, sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Claus

    2014-10-01

    In the present work a system analysis is carried out to determine the extent to which a combination of the three areas of energetic biomass use, combined heat and power (CHP) and CO_2 sequestration (CCS - Carbon Capture and Storage) is fundamentally possible and meaningful. The term ''CO_2 sequestration'' refers to the process chain from CO_2 capture, CO_2 transport and CO_2 storage. While the use of biomass in combined heat and power plants is a common practice, CO_2 sequestration (based on fossil fuels) is at the research and development stage. A combination of CCS with biomass has so far been little studied, a combination with combined heat and power plants has not been investigated at all. The two technologies for the energetic use of biomass and cogeneration represent fixed variables in the energy system of the future in the planning of the German federal government. According to the lead scenario of the Federal Ministry of the Environment, electricity generation from biomass is to be almost doubled from 2008 to 2020. At the same time, the heat generated in cogeneration is to be trebled [cf. Nitsch and Wenzel, 2009, p. 10]. At the same time, the CCS technology is to be used in half of all German coal-fired power plants until 2030 [cf. Krassuki et al., 2009, p. 17]. The combination of biomass and CCS also represents an option which is conceivable for the German federal policy [cf. Bundestag, 2008b, p. 4]. In addition, the CCS technology will provide very good export opportunities for the German economy in the future [cf. Federal Government, 2010, p. 20]. The combination of biomass combined heat and power plants with CCS offers the interesting opportunity to actively remove CO_2 from the atmosphere as a future climate protection instrument by means of CO_2 neutrality. Therefore, in the energy concept of the German federal government called for a storage project for industrial or biogenic CO_2 emissions to be established until 2020, as well as the use of CO_2 as

  5. Integrated firewood production, ensures fuel security for self sustaining Biomass Power Plants reduces agricultural cost and provides livestock production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Growing concerns on the impact of climate change, constraints on fossil fuel electricity generation and the likelihood of oil depletion is driving unprecedented growth and investment in renewable energy across the world. The consistency of biomass power plants makes them capable of replacing coal and nuclear for base-load. However experience had shown otherwise, climate change reduces yields, uncontrolled approvals for biomass boilers increased demands and at times motivated by greedy farmers have raised price of otherwise a problematic agricultural waste to high secondary income stream forcing disruption to fuel supply to power plants and even their shutting down. The solution is to established secured fuel sources, fortunately in Asia there are several species of trees that are fast growing and have sufficient yields to make their harvesting economically viable for power production. (author)

  6. Statistics for PV, wind and biomass generators and their impact on distribution grid planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nykamp, Stefan; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy generation leads to major challenges for distribution grid operators. When the feed-in of photovoltaic (PV), biomass and wind generators exceed significantly the local consumption, large investments are needed. To improve the knowledge on the interaction between

  7. Accumulation of americium-241 in the biomass of aquatic plants of the Yenisei river: experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotina, T.A.; Bolsunovsky, A.Y.A.; Bondareva, L.G. [Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Due to the operation of the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (Krasnoyarsk-26), which has been manufacturing weapons-grade plutonium for several decades, the Yenisei River is contaminated with transuranic elements (including {sup 241}Am). {sup 241}Am was found in the riverside soil, sediment and in the biomass of aquatic plants (Bolsunovsky et al., 1999, 2002). Aquatic plants are an important link in the migration of radionuclides in an aquatic ecosystem. In laboratory experiments, we investigated accumulation of {sup 241}Am by the submerged macrophyte from the Yenisei River: the pond weed (Elodea canadensis) and the aquatic moss (Fontinalis antipyretica), and release of {sup 241}Am from the biomass. The content of {sup 241}Am was measured on a Canberra (USA) gamma-spectrometer. The experiments showed that specific accumulation and concentration factors of {sup 241}Am in the plants were in inverse proportion to their biomass. We obtained new data on release of {sup 241}Am from the biomass of macrophyte. Americium-241 was more firmly fixed in the biomass of the aquatic moss. In 12 months, the biomass of the aquatic moss released about 30% of the initial americium activity into the water. To compare, the biomass of the pond weed released into the water medium up to 64% of the initial {sup 241}Am activity in 1.5 4 months. The release rate was dependent on the decomposition rate of the plant biomass. The experiments showed that submerged macrophyte of the Yenisei River can accumulate considerable activities of {sup 241}Am and retain americium for long periods of time in biomass. (author)

  8. Accumulation of americium-241 in the biomass of aquatic plants of the Yenisei river: experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotina, T.A.; Bolsunovsky, A.Y.A.; Bondareva, L.G.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the operation of the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (Krasnoyarsk-26), which has been manufacturing weapons-grade plutonium for several decades, the Yenisei River is contaminated with transuranic elements (including 241 Am). 241 Am was found in the riverside soil, sediment and in the biomass of aquatic plants (Bolsunovsky et al., 1999, 2002). Aquatic plants are an important link in the migration of radionuclides in an aquatic ecosystem. In laboratory experiments, we investigated accumulation of 241 Am by the submerged macrophyte from the Yenisei River: the pond weed (Elodea canadensis) and the aquatic moss (Fontinalis antipyretica), and release of 241 Am from the biomass. The content of 241 Am was measured on a Canberra (USA) gamma-spectrometer. The experiments showed that specific accumulation and concentration factors of 241 Am in the plants were in inverse proportion to their biomass. We obtained new data on release of 241 Am from the biomass of macrophyte. Americium-241 was more firmly fixed in the biomass of the aquatic moss. In 12 months, the biomass of the aquatic moss released about 30% of the initial americium activity into the water. To compare, the biomass of the pond weed released into the water medium up to 64% of the initial 241 Am activity in 1.5 4 months. The release rate was dependent on the decomposition rate of the plant biomass. The experiments showed that submerged macrophyte of the Yenisei River can accumulate considerable activities of 241 Am and retain americium for long periods of time in biomass. (author)

  9. Comparison of metaheuristic techniques to determine optimal placement of biomass power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reche-Lopez, P.; Ruiz-Reyes, N.; Garcia Galan, S.; Jurado, F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the application and comparison of several metaheuristic techniques to optimize the placement and supply area of biomass-fueled power plants. Both, trajectory and population-based methods are applied for our goal. In particular, two well-known trajectory method, such as Simulated Annealing (SA) and Tabu Search (TS), and two commonly used population-based methods, such as Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) are hereby considered. In addition, a new binary PSO algorithm has been proposed, which incorporates an inertia weight factor, like the classical continuous approach. The fitness function for the metaheuristics is the profitability index, defined as the ratio between the net present value and the initial investment. In this work, forest residues are considered as biomass source, and the problem constraints are: the generation system must be located inside the supply area, and its maximum electric power is 5 MW. The comparative results obtained by all considered metaheuristics are discussed. Random walk has also been assessed for the problem we deal with.

  10. Comparison of metaheuristic techniques to determine optimal placement of biomass power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reche-Lopez, P.; Ruiz-Reyes, N.; Garcia Galan, S. [Telecommunication Engineering Department, University of Jaen Polytechnic School, C/ Alfonso X el Sabio 28, 23700 Linares, Jaen (Spain); Jurado, F. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Jaen Polytechnic School, C/ Alfonso X el Sabio 28, 23700 Linares, Jaen (Spain)

    2009-08-15

    This paper deals with the application and comparison of several metaheuristic techniques to optimize the placement and supply area of biomass-fueled power plants. Both, trajectory and population-based methods are applied for our goal. In particular, two well-known trajectory method, such as Simulated Annealing (SA) and Tabu Search (TS), and two commonly used population-based methods, such as Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) are hereby considered. In addition, a new binary PSO algorithm has been proposed, which incorporates an inertia weight factor, like the classical continuous approach. The fitness function for the metaheuristics is the profitability index, defined as the ratio between the net present value and the initial investment. In this work, forest residues are considered as biomass source, and the problem constraints are: the generation system must be located inside the supply area, and its maximum electric power is 5 MW. The comparative results obtained by all considered metaheuristics are discussed. Random walk has also been assessed for the problem we deal with. (author)

  11. Power generation by nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear power plays an important role in the world, European (33%) and French (75%) power generation. This article aims at presenting in a synthetic way the main reactor types with their respective advantages with respect to the objectives foreseen (power generation, resources valorization, waste management). It makes a fast review of 50 years of nuclear development, thanks to which the nuclear industry has become one of the safest and less environmentally harmful industry which allows to produce low cost electricity: 1 - simplified description of a nuclear power generation plant: nuclear reactor, heat transfer system, power generation system, interface with the power distribution grid; 2 - first historical developments of nuclear power; 3 - industrial development and experience feedback (1965-1995): water reactors (PWR, BWR, Candu), RBMK, fast neutron reactors, high temperature demonstration reactors, costs of industrial reactors; 4 - service life of nuclear power plants and replacement: technical, regulatory and economical lifetime, problems linked with the replacement; 5 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  12. Trade-Offs between Economic and Environmental Optimization of the Forest Biomass Generation Supply Chain in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of forest residue to produce forest biomass energy can mitigate CO2 emissions and generate additional revenue for related eco-enterprises and farmers. In China, however, the benefit of this utilization is still in question because of high costs and CO2 emissions in the entire supply chain. In this paper, a multi-objective linear programming model (MLP is employed to analyze the trade-offs between the economic and environmental benefits of all nodes within the forest biomass power generation supply chain. The MLP model is tested in the Mao Wu Su biomass Thermoelectric Company. The optimization results show that (1 the total cost and CO2 emissions are decreased by US$98.4 thousand and 60.6 thousand kg, respectively; 3750 thousand kg of waste-wood products is reduced and 3750 thousand kg of sandy shrub stubble residue is increased; (2 64% of chipped sandy shrub residue is transported directly from the forestland to the power plant, 36% of non-chipped sandy shrub residue is transported from the forestland to the power plant via the chipping plant; (3 transportation and chipping play a significant role in the supply chain; and (4 the results of a sensitivity analysis show that the farmer’s average transportation distance should be 84.13 km and unit chipping cost should be $0.01022 thousand for the optimization supply cost and CO2 emissions. Finally, we suggest the following: (1 develop long-term cooperation with farmers; (2 buy chain-saws for regularly used farmers; (3 build several chipping plants in areas that are rich in sandy shrub.

  13. Tactical supply chain planning for a forest biomass power plant under supply uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabani, Nazanin; Sowlati, Taraneh; Ouhimmou, Mustapha; Rönnqvist, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainty in biomass supply is a critical issue that needs to be considered in the production planning of bioenergy plants. Incorporating uncertainty in supply chain planning models provides improved and stable solutions. In this paper, we first reformulate a previously developed non-linear programming model for optimization of a forest biomass power plant supply chain into a linear programming model. The developed model is a multi-period tactical-level production planning problem and considers the supply and storage of forest biomass as well as the production of electricity. It has a one-year planning horizon with monthly time steps. Next, in order to incorporate uncertainty in monthly available biomass into the planning, we develop a two-stage stochastic programming model. Finally, to balance the risk and profit, we propose a bi-objective model. The results show that uncertainty in availability of biomass has an additional cost of $0.4 million for the power plant. Using the proposed stochastic optimization model could reduce this cost by half. - Highlights: • Developed a two-stage stochastic optimization model to consider supply uncertainty. • Maximized the profit of a forest biomass power plant value chain. • Minimized two risk measures, variability index and downside risk, to manage risks. • Stochastic optimization model provided feasible solution for all scenarios. • Results showed a trade-off between profit and risk management

  14. Major plant retrofits at Monticello nuclear generating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, D.E.; Hogg, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    For the past several years, Northern States Power (NSP) has been making major plant retrofits to Monticello Nuclear generating Station in order to improve plant availability and upgrade the plant components for the potential extension of the operating license (life extension). This paper discusses in detail three major retrofits that have been completed or in the process of completion; recirculation loop piping replacement, reactor pressure vessel (RPV) water level-instrumentation modification, core spray piping replacement, the authors will address the scope of work, design and installation concerns, and life extension considerations during the design and procurement process for these three projects

  15. Testing of downstream catalysts for tar destruction with a guard bed in a fluidised bed biomass gasifier at pilot plant scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M.P.; Frances, E.; Campos, I.J.; Martin, J.A.; Gil, J. [Saragossa Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry and Environment Engineering; Corella, J. [Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A new pilot plant for advanced gasification of biomass in a fast fluidised bed is now fully operative at University of Saragossa, Spain. It is a `3rd generation` pilot plant. It has been built up after having used two previous pilot plants for biomass gasification. The main characteristic of this pilot plant is that it has two catalytic reactors connected in series, downstream the biomass gasifier. Such reactors, of 4 cm i.d., are placed in a slip stream in a by-pass from the main gasifier exit gas. The gasification is made at atmospheric pressure, with flow rates of 3-50 kg/in, using steam + O{sub 2} mixtures as the gasifying agent. Several commercial Ni steam-reforming catalyst are being tested under a realistic raw gas composition. Tar eliminations or destructions higher than 99 % are easily achieved. (orig.) 2 refs.

  16. Testing of downstream catalysts for tar destruction with a guard bed in a fluidised bed biomass gasifier at pilot plant scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M P; Frances, E; Campos, I J; Martin, J A; Gil, J [Saragossa Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry and Environment Engineering; Corella, J [Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-12-31

    A new pilot plant for advanced gasification of biomass in a fast fluidised bed is now fully operative at University of Saragossa, Spain. It is a `3rd generation` pilot plant. It has been built up after having used two previous pilot plants for biomass gasification. The main characteristic of this pilot plant is that it has two catalytic reactors connected in series, downstream the biomass gasifier. Such reactors, of 4 cm i.d., are placed in a slip stream in a by-pass from the main gasifier exit gas. The gasification is made at atmospheric pressure, with flow rates of 3-50 kg/in, using steam + O{sub 2} mixtures as the gasifying agent. Several commercial Ni steam-reforming catalyst are being tested under a realistic raw gas composition. Tar eliminations or destructions higher than 99 % are easily achieved. (orig.) 2 refs.

  17. Establishment of a communal biomass conversion plant in the municipal area of Sydthy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The report should form the basis for an application to the Danish Energy Agency regarding potentials for a planned biomass conversion plant demonstration project, including effective storage of liquid manures. A survey of the needed resources in the form of organic wastes is given in addition to a description of immediate heat demand and heat production prices. The location of the plant and the supply of manures are discussed and the design of the plant is described in detail. The concentration of the biomass after conversion in order to facilitate storage and the organization and financing of the project are elucidated in addition to agricultural, environmental and administrational aspects. (AB)

  18. Plant biomass and species composition along an environmental gradient in montane riparian meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen A. Dwire; J. Boone Kauffman; E. N. Jack Brookshire; John E. Baham

    2004-01-01

    In riparian meadows, narrow zonation of the dominant vegetation frequently occurs along the elevational gradient from the stream edge to the floodplain terrace. We measured plant species composition and above- and belowground biomass in three riparian plant communities - a priori defined as wet, moist, and dry meadow - along short streamside topographic gradients in...

  19. Uncovering the abilities of Agaricus bisporus to degrade plant biomass throughout its life cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patyshakuliyeva, A.; Post, H.; Zhou, M.; Jurak, E.; Heck, A.J.R.; Hilden, K.S.; Kabel, M.A.; Makela, M.R.; Altenaar, M.A.F.; Vries, de R.P.

    2015-01-01

    The economically important edible basidiomycete mushroom Agaricus bisporus thrives on decaying plant material in forests and grasslands of North America and Europe. It degrades forest litter and con-tributes to global carbon recycling, depolymerizing (hemi-)cellulose and lignin in plant biomass.

  20. Out of the shadows : multiple nutrient limitations drive relationships among biomass, light and plant diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harpole, W. Stanley; Sullivan, Lauren L.; Lind, Eric M.; Firn, Jennifer; Adler, Peter B.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Chase, Jonathan; Fay Jennifer Firn, Philip A.; Hautier, Yann; Hillebrand, Helmut; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Cadotte, Marc W; Chaneton, Enrique J; Chu, Chengjin; Hagenah, Nicole; Kirkman, Kevin; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Moore, Joslin L.; Morgan, John W.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Risch, Anita C.; Schuetz, Martin; Stevens, Carly J.

    2017-01-01

    The paradigmatic hypothesis for the effect of fertilisation on plant diversity represents a one-dimensional trade-off for plants competing for below-ground nutrients (generically) and above-ground light: fertilisation reduces competition for nutrients while increasing biomass and thereby shifts

  1. Assessment of plant biomass and nitrogen nutrition with plant height in early-to mid-season corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xinhua; Hayes, Robert M; McClure, M Angela; Savoy, Hubert J

    2012-10-01

    The physiological basis for using non-destructive high-resolution measurements of plant height through plant height sensing to guide variable-rate nitrogen (N) applications on corn (Zea mays L.) during early (six-leaf growth stage, V6) to mid (V12) season is largely unknown. This study was conducted to assess the relationships of plant biomass and leaf N with plant height in early- to mid-season corn under six different N rate treatments. Corn plant biomass was significantly and positively related to plant height under an exponential model when both were measured at V6. This relationship explained 62-78% of the variations in corn biomass production. Leaf N concentration was, in general, significantly and positively related to plant height when both were measured at V6, V8, V10 and V12. This relationship became stronger as the growing season progressed from V6 to V12. The relationship of leaf N with plant height in early- to mid-season corn was affected by initial soil N fertility and abnormal weather conditions. The relationship of leaf N concentration with plant height may provide a physiological basis for using plant height sensing to guide variable-rate N applications on corn. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Modeling Woody Biomass Procurement for Bioenergy Production at the Atikokan Generating Station in Northwestern Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Upadhyay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficient procurement and utilization of woody biomass for bioenergy production requires a good understanding of biomass supply chains. In this paper, a dynamic optimization model has been developed and applied to estimate monthly supply and procurement costs of woody biomass required for the Atikokan Generating Station (AGS in northwestern Ontario, based on its monthly electricity production schedule. The decision variables in the model are monthly harvest levels of two types of woody biomass, forest harvest residues and unutilized biomass, from 19,315 forest depletion cells (each 1 km2 for a one year planning horizon. Sixteen scenarios are tested to examine the sensitivity of the cost minimization model to changing economic and technological parameters. Reduction in moisture content and improvement of conversion efficiency showed relatively higher reductions in monthly and total costs of woody biomass feedstock for the AGS. The results of this study help in understanding and designing decision support systems for optimal biomass supply chains under dynamic operational frameworks.

  3. Pyrolysis conditions and ozone oxidation effects on ammonia adsorption in biomass generated chars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, James R; Miller, Joby; Das, K C

    2009-05-30

    Ammonia adsorbents were generated via pyrolysis of biomass (peanut hulls and palm oil shells) over a range of temperatures and compared to a commercially available activated carbon (AC) and solid biomass residuals (wood and poultry litter fly ash). Dynamic ammonia adsorption studies (i.e., breakthrough curves) were performed using these adsorbents at 23 degrees C from 6 to 17 ppmv NH(3). Of the biomass chars, palm oil char generated at 500 degrees C had the highest NH(3) adsorption capacity (0.70 mg/g, 6 ppmv, 10% relative humidity (RH)), was similar to the AC, and contrasted to the other adsorbents (including the AC), the NH(3) adsorption capacity significantly increased if the relative humidity was increased (4 mg/g, 7 ppmv, 73% RH). Room temperature ozone treatment of the chars and activated carbon significantly increased the NH(3) adsorption capacity (10% RH); resultant adsorption capacity, q (mg/g) increased by approximately 2, 6, and 10 times for palm oil char, peanut hull char (pyrolysis only), and activated carbon, respectively. However, water vapor (73% RH at 23 degrees C) significantly reduced NH(3) adsorption capacity in the steam and ozone treated biomass, yet had no effect on the palm shell char generated at 500 degrees C. These results indicate the feasibility of using a low temperature (and thus low energy input) pyrolysis and activation process for the generation of NH(3) adsorbents from biomass residuals.

  4. How efficient work biomass cogeneration plants? A survey of plant operators; Wie effizient arbeiten Biomasseheiz(kraft)werke? Befragung von Anlagenbetreibern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiller, Martin; Jakuttis, Michael [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany); Binder, Samir [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany); Bayerischer Forschungsverbund Foreta, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    The use of biomass has increased very much in recent years. Due to the intensive use, the price of biomass fuels such as wood chips has increased substantially. This development bothers mainly biomass cogeneration plants. Many operators suffered considerable financial losses or even had to file for bankruptcy. The topic of efficiency is one of the central and critical success factors for the long-term viability of biomass-fired plants. (orig.)

  5. Input of biomass in stand-alone small-scale installations for power generation. Calculation of the financial gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tilburg, X.; De Vries, H.J.; Pfeiffer, A.E.; Beekes, M.; Cleijne, J.W.

    2005-09-01

    A number of new initiatives in which bio-oil is used in stand-alone plants for power generation has been reviewed. The question to be answered is whether the reference case for stand alone biomass projects based on burning of wood chips can still be considered representative for the costs and benefits in this category. ECN, in cooperation with KEMA, have determined the financial gap between the costs and benefits of projects in which bio-oil is used in stand alone plants for power generation. The ranges and reference case for bio-oil in stand alone applications show that these projects have a substantially lower financial gap than the current reference case based on wood chips [nl

  6. Second generation bioethanol potential from selected Malaysia's biodiversity biomasses: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditiya, H B; Chong, W T; Mahlia, T M I; Sebayang, A H; Berawi, M A; Nur, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Rising global temperature, worsening air quality and drastic declining of fossil fuel reserve are the inevitable phenomena from the disorganized energy management. Bioethanol is believed to clear out the effects as being an energy-derivable product sourced from renewable organic sources. Second generation bioethanol interests many researches from its unique source of inedible biomass, and this paper presents the potential of several selected biomasses from Malaysia case. As one of countries with rich biodiversity, Malaysia holds enormous potential in second generation bioethanol production from its various agricultural and forestry biomasses, which are the source of lignocellulosic and starch compounds. This paper reviews potentials of biomasses and potential ethanol yield from oil palm, paddy (rice), pineapple, banana and durian, as the common agricultural waste in the country but uncommon to be served as bioethanol feedstock, by calculating the theoretical conversion of cellulose, hemicellulose and starch components of the biomasses into bioethanol. Moreover, the potential of the biomasses as feedstock are discussed based on several reported works. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. First-Generation Transgenic Plants and Statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nap, Jan-Peter; Keizer, Paul; Jansen, Ritsert

    1993-01-01

    The statistical analyses of populations of first-generation transgenic plants are commonly based on mean and variance and generally require a test of normality. Since in many cases the assumptions of normality are not met, analyses can result in erroneous conclusions. Transformation of data to

  8. Intelligent Control Framework for the Feeding System in the Biomass Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an intelligent control framework for biomass drying process with flue gases based on FLC (fuzzy logic controller and CAN (Controller Area Network bus. In the operation of a biomass drying process, in order to get the biomass with the set-point low moisture content dried by waste high temperature flue gases, it is necessary to intelligent control for the biomass flow rate. Use of an experiment with varied materials at different initial moisture contents enables acquisition of the biomass flow rates as initial setting values. Set the error between actual straw moisture content and set-point, and rate of change of error as two inputs. the biomass flow rate can be acquired by the fuzzy logic computing as the output. Since the length of dryer is more than twenty meters, the integration by the CAN bus can ensure real-time reliable data acquisition and processing. The control framework for biomass drying process can be applied to a variety of biomass, such as, cotton stalk, corn stalk, rice straw, wheat straw, sugar cane. It has strong potential for practical applications because of its advantages on intelligent providing the set-point low moisture content of biomass feedstock for power generation equipment.

  9. Planting Date and Seeding Rate Effects on Sunn Hemp Biomass and Nitrogen Production for a Winter Cover Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kipling S. Balkcom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. is a tropical legume that produces plant biomass and nitrogen (N quickly. Our objectives were to assess the growth of a new sunn hemp cultivar breed to produce seed in a temperate climate and determine the residual N effect on a rye (Secale cereale L. cover crop in east-central Alabama from 2007 to 2009. Plant populations, plant height, stem diameter, biomass production, and N content were determined for two sunn hemp planting dates, following corn (Zea mays L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. harvest, across different seeding rates (17, 34, 50, and 67 kg/ha. Rye biomass was measured the following spring. Sunn hemp biomass production was inconsistent across planting dates, but did relate to growing degree accumulation. Nitrogen concentrations were inversely related to biomass production, and subsequent N contents corresponded to biomass levels. Neither planting date nor seeding rate affected rye biomass production, but rye biomass averaged over both planting dates following wheat/sunn hemp averaged 43% and 33% greater than rye following fallow. Rye biomass following corn/sunn hemp was equivalent to fallow plots. Early planting dates are recommended for sunn hemp with seeding rates between 17 and 34 kg/ha to maximize biomass and N production.

  10. GIS Methodology for Location of Biomass Power Plants Via Multi -Criteria Evaluation and Network Analysis. Location-Allocation Models for Forest Biomass Use; Metodologia SIG para la Localizacion de Centrales de Biomasa mediante Evaluacion Multicriterio y Analisis de Redes. Modelos de Localizacion-Asignacion para el Aprovechamiento de Biomasa Forestal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz, C de la; Dominguez, J; Perez, M E

    2013-02-01

    The main purpose of this study is to find optimal areas for the installation of Biomass Plants for electric generation and grid connected. In order to achieve this goal, a methodology based on Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) and implemented by means a Geographic Information System (GIS) has been developed. Factors and restrictions for biomass resource and power plants location of biomass have been obtained through the dataset. The methodology output includes maps of greater aptitude areas for resource use (forest biomass available), as well as suitable locations for the placement of Forest Biomass facilities. Both cartographic products have been related by means Network Analysis. It generates Location-Allocation Models which allows locating Forest Biomass Facilities according with an optimization of the supply chain from the resource areas. (Author)

  11. Assessment of the Potential of Biomass Gasification for Electricity Generation in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barun Kumar Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is an agriculture based country where more than 65 percent of the people live in rural areas and over 70% of total primary energy consumption is covered by biomass, mainly agricultural waste and wood. Only about 6% of the entire population has access to natural gas, primarily in urban areas. Electricity production in Bangladesh largely depends on fossil fuel whose reserve is now under threat and the government is now focusing on the alternating sources to harness electricity to meet the continuous increasing demand. To reduce the dependency on fossil fuels, biomass to electricity could play a vital role in this regard. This paper explores the biomass based power generation potential of Bangladesh through gasification technology—an efficient thermochemical process for distributed power generation. It has been estimated that the total power generation from the agricultural residue is about 1178 MWe. Among them, the generation potential from rice husk, and bagasses is 1010 MWe, and 50 MWe, respectively. On the other hand, wheat straw, jute stalks, maize residues, lentil straw, and coconut shell are also the promising biomass resources for power generation which counted around 118 MWe. The forest residue and municipal solid waste could also contribute to the total power generation 250 MWe and 100 MWe, respectively.

  12. Extraction of solubles from plant biomass for use as microbial growth stimulant and methods related thereto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Ming Woei

    2015-12-08

    A method for producing a microbial growth stimulant (MGS) from a plant biomass is described. In one embodiment, an ammonium hydroxide solution is used to extract a solution of proteins and ammonia from the biomass. Some of the proteins and ammonia are separated from the extracted solution to provide the MGS solution. The removed ammonia can be recycled and the proteins are useful as animal feeds. In one embodiment, the method comprises extracting solubles from pretreated lignocellulosic biomass with a cellulase enzyme-producing growth medium (such T. reesei) in the presence of water and an aqueous extract.

  13. ASEAN grid-connected biomass residues fired cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adnan, M.F.; Alias, R.

    2006-01-01

    Energy supply is one of the major concerns in the world. With uncertainty in the main oil suppliers, the oil price is expected to remain high due to continuous demand from the world. Since oil is mostly used for electricity and transportation, its shortage would cause major disruptions in our daily activities. Thus to counter this scenario and faster depletion of fossil fuel resources, various measures have been taken to find alternative source of energy such as renewable energy. One of the renewable energy sources is from biomass residues which is aplenty particularly in ASEAN. Through one of the collaboration programme between ASEAN and EC which is The EC-ASEAN Cogeneration Programme, a number of Full-Scale Demonstration Projects (FSDP) using biomass residues have been commissioned and implemented successfully. Four of the FSDPs in Thailand and Malaysia are connected to the grid. These projects have been operating very well and since the fuel is commonly available in this ASEAN region, duplication should not be a problem. Thus, this paper would highlight the success stories in implementing biomass residues grid connected project while enhancing cooperation between ASEAN and EC. (Author)

  14. Experimental effects of herbivore density on above-ground plant biomass in an alpine grassland ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Austrheim, Gunnar; Speed, James David Mervyn; Martinsen, Vegard; Mulder, Jan; Mysterud, Atle

    2014-01-01

    Herbivores may increase or decrease aboveground plant productivity depending on factors such as herbivore density and habitat productivity. The grazing optimization hypothesis predicts a peak in plant production at intermediate herbivore densities, but has rarely been tested experimentally in an alpine field setting. In an experimental design with three densities of sheep (high, low, and no sheep), we harvested aboveground plant biomass in alpine grasslands prior to treatment and after five y...

  15. Biomass Allocation Patterns Are Linked to Genotypic Differences in Whole-Plant Transpiration Efficiency in Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Velázquez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased transpiration efficiency (the ratio of biomass to water transpired, TE could lead to increased drought tolerance under some water deficit scenarios. Intrinsic (i.e., leaf-level TE is usually considered as the primary source of variation in whole-plant TE, but empirical data usually contradict this assumption. Sunflower has a significant variability in TE, but a better knowledge of the effect of leaf and plant-level traits could be helpful to obtain more efficient genotypes for water use. The objective of this study was, therefore, to assess if genotypic variation in whole-plant TE is better related to leaf- or plant-level traits. Three experiments were conducted, aimed at verifying the existence of variability in whole-plant TE and whole-plant and leaf-level traits, and to assess their correlation. Sunflower public inbred lines and a segregating population of recombinant inbred lines were grown under controlled conditions and subjected to well-watered and water-deficit treatments. Significant genotypic variation was found for TE and related traits. These differences in whole-plant transpiration efficiency, both between genotypes and between plants within each genotype, showed no association to leaf-level traits, but were significantly and negatively correlated to biomass allocation to leaves and to the ratio of leaf area to total biomass. These associations are likely of a physiological origin, and not only a consequence of genetic linkage in the studied population. These results suggest that genotypic variation for biomass allocation could be potentially exploited as a source for increased transpiration efficiency in sunflower breeding programmes. It is also suggested that phenotyping for TE in this species should not be restricted to leaf-level measurements, but also include measurements of plant-level traits, especially those related to biomass allocation between photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic organs.

  16. How Fencing Affects the Soil Quality and Plant Biomass in the Grassland of the Loess Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Quanchao; Liu, Yang; Xiao, Li; Huang, Yimei

    2017-09-25

    Overgrazing is a severe problem in several regions in Northwestern China and has caused serious land degradation. Secondary natural succession plays an important role in the accumulation of soil carbon and nitrogen contents. Estimating the effects of grazing exclusion on soil quality and plant diversity will improve our understanding of the succession process after overgrazing and promote judicious management of degraded pastures. This experiment was designed to measure soil properties and plant diversity following an age chronosequence of grasslands (ages ranged from one year, 12 years, 20 years, and 30 years) in Northwestern China. The results showed that continuous fencing resulted in a considerable increase in plant coverage, plant biomass (above- and below-ground biomass), and plant diversity, which can directly or indirectly improve the accumulation of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen content. The plant coverage and the above- and below-ground biomass linearly increased along the succession time, whereas soil organic C and N contents showed a significant decline in the first 12 years and, subsequently, a significant increase. The increased plant biomass caused an increase in soil organic carbon and soil total nitrogen. These results suggested that soil restoration and plant cover were an incongruous process. Generally, soil restoration is a slow process and falls behind vegetation recovery after grazing exclusion. Although the accumulation of soil C and N stocks needed a long term, vegetation restoration was a considerable option for the degraded grassland due to the significant increase of plant biomass, diversity, and soil C and N stocks. Therefore, fencing with natural succession should be considered in the design of future degraded pastures.

  17. Biomass Allocation Patterns Are Linked to Genotypic Differences in Whole-Plant Transpiration Efficiency in Sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Luciano; Alberdi, Ignacio; Paz, Cosme; Aguirrezábal, Luis; Pereyra Irujo, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Increased transpiration efficiency (the ratio of biomass to water transpired, TE) could lead to increased drought tolerance under some water deficit scenarios. Intrinsic (i.e., leaf-level) TE is usually considered as the primary source of variation in whole-plant TE, but empirical data usually contradict this assumption. Sunflower has a significant variability in TE, but a better knowledge of the effect of leaf and plant-level traits could be helpful to obtain more efficient genotypes for water use. The objective of this study was, therefore, to assess if genotypic variation in whole-plant TE is better related to leaf- or plant-level traits. Three experiments were conducted, aimed at verifying the existence of variability in whole-plant TE and whole-plant and leaf-level traits, and to assess their correlation. Sunflower public inbred lines and a segregating population of recombinant inbred lines were grown under controlled conditions and subjected to well-watered and water-deficit treatments. Significant genotypic variation was found for TE and related traits. These differences in whole-plant transpiration efficiency, both between genotypes and between plants within each genotype, showed no association to leaf-level traits, but were significantly and negatively correlated to biomass allocation to leaves and to the ratio of leaf area to total biomass. These associations are likely of a physiological origin, and not only a consequence of genetic linkage in the studied population. These results suggest that genotypic variation for biomass allocation could be potentially exploited as a source for increased transpiration efficiency in sunflower breeding programmes. It is also suggested that phenotyping for TE in this species should not be restricted to leaf-level measurements, but also include measurements of plant-level traits, especially those related to biomass allocation between photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic organs.

  18. Evaluation of the Environmental DNA Method for Estimating Distribution and Biomass of Submerged Aquatic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhashi, Saeko; Doi, Hideyuki; Fujiwara, Ayaka; Watanabe, Sonoko; Minamoto, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    The environmental DNA (eDNA) method has increasingly been recognized as a powerful tool for monitoring aquatic animal species; however, its application for monitoring aquatic plants is limited. To evaluate eDNA analysis for estimating the distribution of aquatic plants, we compared its estimated distributions with eDNA analysis, visual observation, and past distribution records for the submerged species Hydrilla verticillata. Moreover, we conducted aquarium experiments using H. verticillata and Egeria densa and analyzed the relationships between eDNA concentrations and plant biomass to investigate the potential for biomass estimation. The occurrences estimated by eDNA analysis closely corresponded to past distribution records, and eDNA detections were more frequent than visual observations, indicating that the method is potentially more sensitive. The results of the aquarium experiments showed a positive relationship between plant biomass and eDNA concentration; however, the relationship was not always significant. The eDNA concentration peaked within three days of the start of the experiment in most cases, suggesting that plants do not release constant amounts of DNA. These results showed that eDNA analysis can be used for distribution surveys, and has the potential to estimate the biomass of aquatic plants.

  19. Analysis of a furnace for heat generation using polydisperse biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Edney Alves; Silva, Juarez de Sousa e; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Oliveira Filho, Delly [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola; Donzeles, Sergio Mauricio Lopes [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG), Vicosa, MG (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In many agro-industrial activities, the processing of raw material generates a substantial amount of fine materials. Examples include the production of soluble coffee, processing of rice, and wood processing, among others. In many regions, these by-products keep piling up on the courtyard of companies or become an environmental problem for land dumps. However, detailed tests of these byproducts indicate that they are excellent sources of energy. With this in mind, a furnace was developed to generate clean and hot air, using the alimentation system for pneumatic transport. Wood sawdust was used as fuel for analysis. The obtained results were considered satisfactory, proven by the small heat losses, primarily by the non-burned carbon monoxide (less than 0.2%) and the cooling of the furnace (less than 2.5%) whereas the losses by the exhaust gases were a little more than 23%. The thermal efficiency of the furnace was considered high when compared to others with an indirect heating system, obtaining an average value of 73%. The developed furnace, beyond being efficient, allows the use of the waste from the wood industry, which is important in the reduction of environmental impacts and minimizing production costs associated with the acquisition of conventional energy. (author)

  20. Present situation, problems and solutions of China's biomass power generation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jicheng; Wang, Sijia; Wei, Qiushuang; Yan, Suli

    2014-01-01

    With the reduction of global oil reserves, developing renewable energy has become an important issue for each country. Biomass power is an important kind of clean energy, as it has abundant resource and is environmental friendly. In the past few years, China biomass power industry has developed rapidly accompanied with some problems. This paper analyzes the current situation of China biomass power generation from several aspects such as power structure, resource distribution, investment strength, and policy environment, etc. We focus on the problems existed in practical operation and analyze the outstanding problems. At last, this paper offers several suggestions for future development on the relevant fields, such as cost, strategic planning and policy. - Highlights: • Review and analyze the internal and external environment of biomass power in China. • Summarize and classify policies of China biomass power according to time sequence. • Describe the distribution of biomass resources in China accurately on the map. • Use data to draw a picture for grasping current situation. • Provide valuable suggestions for practitioners to improve their business strategies

  1. Can biomass responses to warming at plant to ecosystem levels be predicted by leaf-level responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, J.; Shao, J.; Zhou, X.; Yan, W.; Lu, M.

    2015-12-01

    Global warming has the profound impacts on terrestrial C processes from leaf to ecosystem scales, potentially feeding back to climate dynamics. Although numerous studies had investigated the effects of warming on C processes from leaf to plant and ecosystem levels, how leaf-level responses to warming scale up to biomass responses at plant, population, and community levels are largely unknown. In this study, we compiled a dataset from 468 papers at 300 experimental sites and synthesized the warming effects on leaf-level parameters, and plant, population and ecosystem biomass. Our results showed that responses of plant biomass to warming mainly resulted from the changed leaf area rather than the altered photosynthetic capacity. The response of ecosystem biomass to warming was weaker than those of leaf area and plant biomass. However, the scaling functions from responses of leaf area to plant biomass to warming were different in diverse forest types, but functions were similar in non-forested biomes. In addition, it is challenging to scale the biomass responses from plant up to ecosystem. These results indicated that leaf area might be the appropriate index for plant biomass response to warming, and the interspecific competition might hamper the scaling of the warming effects on plant and ecosystem levels, suggesting that the acclimation capacity of plant community should be incorporated into land surface models to improve the prediction of climate-C cycle feedback.

  2. A CSP plant combined with biomass CHP using ORC-technology in Bronderslev Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Yuan, Guofeng

    2017-01-01

    A new CSP plant combined with biomass CHP, using ORC technology, will be built and taken into operation in Bronderslev, Denmark during spring 2017. The price for Biomass is expected to increase with more and more use of this very limited energy source and then CSP will be cost effective in the long...... run, also in the Danish climate. Oil is used as heat transfer fluid instead of steam giving several advantages in this application for district heating at high latitudes. Total efficiencies and costs, competitive to PV plants. are expected....

  3. Sugar catabolism during growth on plant biomass in Aspergillus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khosravi, C.

    2017-01-01

    A growing industrial sector in which plant degrading enzymes are used is the production of alternative fuels, such as bio-ethanol, and biochemicals. Plant polysaccharides can be converted to fermentable sugars by fungal enzymes. The sugars are then fermented to ethanol and other products mainly by

  4. BAAD: a biomass and allometry database for woody plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel S. Falster; Remko A. Duursma; Masae I. Ishihara; Diego R. Barneche; Richard G. FitzJohn; Angelica Varhammar; Masahiro Aiba; Makoto Ando; Niels Anten; Michael J. Aspinwall; Jennifer L. Baltzer; Christopher Baraloto; Michael Battaglia; John J. Battles; Ben Bond-Lamberty; Michiel van Breugel; Yves Claveau; Masako Dannoura; Sylvain Delagrange; Jean-Christophe Domec; Farrah Fatemi; Wang Feng; Veronica Gargaglione; Yoshiaki Goto; Akio Hagihara; Jefferson S. Hall; Steve Hamilton; Degi Harja; Tsutom Hiura; Robert Holdaway; Lindsay S. Hutley; Tomoaki Ichie; Eric J. Jokela; Anu Kantola; Jeff W. G. Kelly; Tanaka Kenzo; David King; Brian D. Kloeppel; Takashi Kohyama; Akira Komiyama; Jean-Paul Laclau; Christopher H. Lusk; Douglas A. Maguire; Guerric Le Maire; Ammikki Makela; Lars Markesteijn; John Marshall; Katherine McCulloh; Itsuo Miyata; Karel Mokany; Shugeta Mori; Randall W. Myster; Masahiro Nagano; Shawna L. Naidu; Yann Nouvellon; Anthony P. O' Grady; Kevin L. O' Hara; Toshiyuki Ohtsuka; Noriyuki Osada; Olusegun O. Osunkoya; Pablo Luis Peri; Any Mary Petritan; Lourens Poorter; Angelika Portsmuth; Catherine Potvin; Johannes Ransijn; Douglas Reid; Sabina C. Ribeiro; Scott D. Roberts; Rolando Rodriguez; Angela Saldana-Acosta; Ignacio Santa-Regina; Kaichiro Sasa; N. Galia Selaya; Stephen C. Sillett; Frank Sterck; Kentaro Takagi; Takeshi Tange; Hiroyuki Tanouchi; David Tissue; Toru Umehara; Matthew A. Vadeboncoeur; Fernando Valladares; Petteri Vanninen; Jian R. Wang; Elizabeth Wenk; Richard Williams; Fabiano de Aquino Ximenes; Atsushi Yamaba; Toshihiro Yamada; Takuo Yamakura; Ruth D. Yanai; Robert A. York

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how plants are constructed—i.e., how key size dimensions and the amount of mass invested in different tissues varies among individuals—is essential for modeling plant growth, carbon stocks, and energy fluxes in the terrestrial biosphere. Allocation patterns can differ through ontogeny, but also among coexisting species and among species adapted to...

  5. Guideline for implementing Co-generation based on biomass waste from Thai industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lybaek, R.

    2005-07-01

    Due to the large-scale industrial development in Thailand the consumption of energy - primarily based on fossil fuels - has increased enormously, even though the economic growth has slowed down since the economic crisis in 1997. It is, therefore, important to reduce the environmental impact of this energy consumption, which can be achieved by energy conservation, higher efficiency in the production of energy, or by the use of different kinds of renewable energy. This thesis seeks to develop new strategies for the use of waste heat as a part of the industrial process heat, which can be supplied to industries by a district-heating network. By substituting process heat - produced by electricity or by boilers using fossil fuel in individual industries - with process heat, produced by a co-generation plant - using the industries own biomass waste as fuel - process heat can be supplied to industries participating in a small scale district heating network. Thus, an Industrial Materials Network can be created, which is environmentally as well as economically beneficial for both industry and society. On the basis of a case study of the industrial area, Navanakorn Industrial Promotion Zone in Thailand, such initiatives for efficient materials and energy uses have been conducted and proved successful, and industries - as well as local and national governmental agencies, NGOs and branch organizations etc. - have shown interest in supporting the implementation of such scheme. In this thesis, a Guideline for large-scale implementation of Industrial Materials Network in Thailand was developed. By following a series of actions, the Guideline defines the initiatives that must be taken in order to ensure correct implementation. Chronologically, the emphasis of the Guideline is on pointing to relevant stakeholders who can pursue the implementation, and then appropriate areas and types of industries for Industrial Materials Network implementation. Thereafter, guidance for the

  6. Designer biomass for next-generation biorefineries: leveraging recent insights into xylan structure and biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter J; Wang, Hsin-Tzu; York, William S; Peña, Maria J; Urbanowicz, Breeanna R

    2017-01-01

    Xylans are the most abundant noncellulosic polysaccharides in lignified secondary cell walls of woody dicots and in both primary and secondary cell walls of grasses. These polysaccharides, which comprise 20-35% of terrestrial biomass, present major challenges for the efficient microbial bioconversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks to fuels and other value-added products. Xylans play a significant role in the recalcitrance of biomass to degradation, and their bioconversion requires metabolic pathways that are distinct from those used to metabolize cellulose. In this review, we discuss the key differences in the structural features of xylans across diverse plant species, how these features affect their interactions with cellulose and lignin, and recent developments in understanding their biosynthesis. In particular, we focus on how the combined structural and biosynthetic knowledge can be used as a basis for biomass engineering aimed at developing crops that are better suited as feedstocks for the bioconversion industry.

  7. Evaluation of next generation biomass derived fuels for the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsita, Katerina G.; Pilavachi, Petros A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates next generation biomass derived fuels for the transport sector, employing the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Eight different alternatives of fuels are considered in this paper: bio-hydrogen, bio-synthetic natural gas, bio-dimethyl ether, bio-methanol, hydro thermal upgrading diesel, bio-ethanol, algal biofuel and electricity from biomass incineration. The evaluation of alternative fuels is performed according to various criteria that include economic, technical, social and policy aspects. In order to evaluate each alternative fuel, one base scenario and five alternative scenarios with different weight factors selection per criterion are presented. After deciding the alternative fuels’ scoring against each criterion and the criteria weights, their synthesis gives the overall score and ranking for all alternative scenarios. It is concluded that synthetic natural gas and electricity from biomass incineration are the most suitable next generation biomass derived fuels for the transport sector. -- Highlights: •Eight alternative fuels for the transport sector have been evaluated. •The method of the AHP was used. •The evaluation is performed according to economic, technical, social and policy criteria. •Bio-SNG and electricity from biomass incineration are the most suitable fuels

  8. Electric power generation from biomass gasification; Geracao de eletricidade a partir da gaseificacao de biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, Cristina Aparecida Vilas Boas de; Andrade, Rubenildo Vieira; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (NEST/IEM/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Estudos em Sistemas Termicos], e-mails: cristinasales@unifei.edu.br, ruben@unifei.edu.br, electo@unifei.edu.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a techno-economical evaluation of the biomass gasification utilization with different technologies such as: reciprocating engine, gas micro turbine, Stirling engine and fuel cells for small scale electricity generation. The comparative evaluation about the technologies is limited to the utilization in isolated areas. This paper shows the principal characteristics of these technologies. (author)

  9. A financial evaluation of biomass-gasifier-based power generation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, A.K.; Iyer, P.V.R.; Kandpal, T.C.

    1997-01-01

    A preliminary financial evaluation of biomass-gasifier-based power generation in India was undertaken. Simple cost functions were developed and used for this purpose. The unit cost of electricity has been estimated for a variety of scenarios taking into account some of the uncertainties associated with this emerging technology in India. (author)

  10. Next Generation Nuclear Plant System Requirements Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Not Listed

    2008-01-01

    System Requirements Manual for the NGNP Project. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (H.R. 6; EPAct), which was signed into law by President George W. Bush in August 2005, required the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to establish a project to be known as the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. According to the EPAct, the NGNP Project shall consist of the research, development, design, construction, and operation of a prototype plant (to be referred to herein as the NGNP) that (1) includes a nuclear reactor based on the research and development (R and D) activities supported by the Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems initiative, and (2) shall be used to generate electricity, to produce hydrogen, or to both generate electricity and produce hydrogen. The NGNP Project supports both the national need to develop safe, clean, economical nuclear energy and the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI), which has the goal of establishing greenhouse-gas-free technologies for the production of hydrogen. The DOE has selected the helium-cooled High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) as the reactor concept to be used for the NGNP because it is the only near-term Generation IV concept that has the capability to provide process heat at high-enough temperatures for highly efficient production of hydrogen. The EPAct also names the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), the DOE's lead national laboratory for nuclear energy research, as the site for the prototype NGNP

  11. Improvements to thermal plants for generating energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacault, P.H.

    1975-01-01

    Said invention relates to a procedure for superheating steam intended for steam cycled thermal plants of energy production, and particularly nuclear power plants. Said procedure combines two different working modes. According to the first working mode, the live steam is taken from the steam generator, mechanically compressed and the heat is partly transferred to the working fluid. According to the second working mode the heat is taken from an auxiliary fluid heated by an independent thermal source, distinct from the principal thermal source of the plant and this heat is partly transferred to the working fluid. A combination of both working modes enables the superheating of the working fluid to be obtained before it inflows the turbine and/or between two stages of said turbine [fr

  12. Biomass from agriculture in small-scale combined heat and power plants - A comparative life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimming, M.; Sundberg, C.; Nordberg, A.; Baky, A.; Bernesson, S.; Noren, O.; Hansson, P.-A.

    2011-01-01

    Biomass produced on farm land is a renewable fuel that can prove suitable for small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants in rural areas. However, it can still be questioned if biomass-based energy generation is a good environmental choice with regards to the impact on greenhouse gas emissions, and if there are negative consequences of using of agricultural land for other purposes than food production. In this study, a simplified life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted over four scenarios for supply of the entire demand of power and heat of a rural village. Three of the scenarios are based on utilization of biomass in 100 kW (e) combined heat and power (CHP) systems and the fourth is based on fossil fuel in a large-scale plant. The biomass systems analyzed were based on 1) biogas production with ley as substrate and the biogas combusted in a microturbine, 2) gasification of willow chips and the product gas combusted in an IC-engine and 3) combustion of willow chips for a Stirling engine. The two first scenarios also require a straw boiler. The results show that the biomass-based scenarios reduce greenhouse gas emissions considerably compared to the scenario based on fossil fuel, but have higher acidifying emissions. Scenario 1 has by far the best performance with respect to global warming potential and the advantage of utilizing a byproduct and thus not occupying extra land. Scenario 2 and 3 require less primary energy and less fossil energy input than 1, but set-aside land for willow production must be available. The low electric efficiency of scenario 3 makes it an unsuitable option.

  13. Soil microbial species loss affects plant biomass and survival of an introduced bacterial strain, but not inducible plant defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurm, Viola; van der Putten, Wim H; Pineda, Ana; Hol, W H Gera

    2018-02-12

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains can influence plant-insect interactions. However, little is known about the effect of changes in the soil bacterial community in general and especially the loss of rare soil microbes on these interactions. Here, the influence of rare soil microbe reduction on induced systemic resistance (ISR) in a wild ecotype of Arabidopsis thaliana against the aphid Myzus persicae was investigated. To create a gradient of microbial abundances, soil was inoculated with a serial dilution of a microbial community and responses of Arabidopsis plants that originated from the same site as the soil microbes were tested. Plant biomass, transcription of genes involved in plant defences, and insect performance were measured. In addition, the effects of the PGPR strain Pseudomonas fluorescens SS101 on plant and insect performance were tested under the influence of the various soil dilution treatments. Plant biomass showed a hump-shaped relationship with soil microbial community dilution, independent of aphid or Pseudomonas treatments. Both aphid infestation and inoculation with Pseudomonas reduced plant biomass, and led to downregulation of PR1 (salicylic acid-responsive gene) and CYP79B3 (involved in synthesis of glucosinolates). Aphid performance and gene transcription were unaffected by soil dilution. Neither the loss of rare microbial species, as caused by soil dilution, nor Pseudomonas affect the resistance of A. thaliana against M. persicae. However, both Pseudomonas survival and plant biomass respond to rare species loss. Thus, loss of rare soil microbial species can have a significant impact on both above- and below-ground organisms. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Tundra plant above-ground biomass and shrub dominance mapped across the North Slope of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Logan T.; Jantz, Patrick; Tape, Ken D.; Goetz, Scott J.

    2018-03-01

    Arctic tundra is becoming greener and shrubbier due to recent warming. This is impacting climate feedbacks and wildlife, yet the spatial distribution of plant biomass in tundra ecosystems is uncertain. In this study, we mapped plant and shrub above-ground biomass (AGB; kg m-2) and shrub dominance (%; shrub AGB/plant AGB) across the North Slope of Alaska by linking biomass harvests at 28 field sites with 30 m resolution Landsat satellite imagery. We first developed regression models (p plant AGB (r 2 = 0.79) and shrub AGB (r 2 = 0.82) based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from imagery acquired by Landsat 5 and 7. We then predicted regional plant and shrub AGB by combining these regression models with a regional Landsat NDVI mosaic built from 1721 summer scenes acquired between 2007 and 2016. Our approach employed a Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis that propagated sampling and sensor calibration errors. We estimated that plant AGB averaged 0.74 (0.60, 0.88) kg m-2 (95% CI) and totaled 112 (91, 135) Tg across the region, with shrub AGB accounting for ~43% of regional plant AGB. The new maps capture landscape variation in plant AGB visible in high resolution satellite and aerial imagery, notably shrubby riparian corridors. Modeled shrub AGB was strongly correlated with field measurements of shrub canopy height at 25 sites (rs  = 0.88) and with a regional map of shrub cover (rs  = 0.76). Modeled plant AGB and shrub dominance were higher in shrub tundra than graminoid tundra and increased between areas with the coldest and warmest summer air temperatures, underscoring the fact that future warming has the potential to greatly increase plant AGB and shrub dominance in this region. These new biomass maps provide a unique source of ecological information for a region undergoing rapid environmental change.

  15. Genotoxic potential generated by biomass burning in the Brazilian Legal Amazon by Tradescantia micronucleus bioassay: a toxicity assessment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artaxo Paulo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brazilian Amazon has suffered impacts from non-sustainable economic development, especially owing to the expansion of agricultural commodities into forest areas. The Tangará da Serra region, located in the southern of the Legal Amazon, is characterized by non-mechanized sugar cane production. In addition, it lies on the dispersion path of the pollution plume generated by biomass burning. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic potential of the atmosphere in the Tangará da Serra region, using Tradescantia pallida as in situ bioindicator. Methods The study was conducted during the dry and rainy seasons, where the plants were exposed to two types of exposure, active and passive. Results The results showed that in all the sampling seasons, irrespective of exposure type, there was an increase in micronucleus frequency, compared to control and that it was statistically significant in the dry season. A strong and significant relationship was also observed between the increase in micronucleus incidence and the rise in fine particulate matter, and hospital morbidity from respiratory diseases in children. Conclusions Based on the results, we demonstrated that pollutants generated by biomass burning in the Brazilian Amazon can induce genetic damage in test plants that was more prominent during dry season, and correlated with the level of particulates and elevated respiratory morbidity.

  16. Environmental status of plant-based industries. Biomass and bio-materials; Bilan environnemental des filieres vegetales. Biomasse et biomateriaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vindimian, E; Boeglin, N; Houillon, G; Osset, Ph; Vial, E; Leguern, Y; Gosse, G; Gabrielle, B; Dohy, M; Bewa, H; Rigal, L; Guilbert, St; Cesar, G; Pandard, P; Oster, D; Normand, N; Piccardi, M; Garoux, V; Arnaud, L; Barbier, J; Mougin, G; Krausz, P; Pluquet, V; Massacrier, L; Dussaud, J

    2005-07-01

    The French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) and the agency of Agriculture for chemistry and energy (Agrice) have jointly organized these technical days about the potentialities of plant-based products in front of the big environmental stakes of the diversification of energy sources, the development of new outputs for agriculture and the opening of new fields of industrial innovation. This document gathers the articles and transparencies of the presentations given during these 2 days of conference: 1 - Biomass and life cycle analysis (LCA) - impacts and benefits: introduction to LCA (E. Vindimian), keys to understand this environmental evaluation tool (N. Boeglin); environmental status of plant-based industries for chemistry, materials and energy: LCA knowledge status, plant versus fossil (G. Houillon), detailed analysis of 2 industries: agro-materials and bio-polymers (J. Payet); example of environmental and LCA studies: energy and greenhouse gas statuses of the biofuel production processes (P. Osset, E. Vial), LCA of collective and industrial wood-fueled space heating (Y. Leguern), contribution and limitations of LCA for plant-based industries (G. Gosse, B. Gabrielle), conclusion of the first day (M. Dohy). 2 - Biomass and materials: a reality: biomaterials in the Agrice program (H. Bewa), plant-derived materials: resources, status and perspectives (L. Rigal); biopolymers: overview of the industrial use of biopolymers: materials and markets, applications (S. Guibert), degradation mechanisms of biopolymers used in agriculture: biodegradability, eco-toxicity and accumulation in soils (G. Cesar, P. Pandard), present and future regulatory framework: specifications and methods of biodegradability evaluation of materials for agriculture and horticulture (D. Oster), standardization: necessity and possibilities (N. Normand); vegetable fibers and composite materials: market of new vegetable fiber uses (M. Piccardi, V. Garoux), vegetable particulates and

  17. Changes in carbon footprint when integrating production of filamentous fungi in 1st generation ethanol plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancoli, Pedro; Ferreira, Jorge A; Bolton, Kim; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2018-02-01

    Integrating the cultivation of edible filamentous fungi in the thin stillage from ethanol production is presently being considered. This integration can increase the ethanol yield while simultaneously producing a new value-added protein-rich biomass that can be used for animal feed. This study uses life cycle assessment to determine the change in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when integrating the cultivation of filamentous fungi in ethanol production. The result shows that the integration performs better than the current scenario when the fungal biomass is used as cattle feed for system expansion and when energy allocation is used. It performs worse if the biomass is used as fish feed. Hence, integrating the cultivation of filamentous fungi in 1st generation ethanol plants combined with proper use of the fungi can lead to a reduction of GHG emissions which, considering the number of existing ethanol plants, can have a significant global impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of Biomass from Palm Oil Mill for Organic Rankine Cycle to Generate Power in North Sumatera Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, T. B.; Pane, Z.; Amin, M. N.

    2017-03-01

    Due to increasing oil and gas demand with the depletion of fossil resources in the current situation make efficient energy systems and alternative energy conversion processes are urgently needed. With the great potential of resources in Indonesia, make biomass has been considered as one of major potential fuel and renewable resource for the near future. In this paper, the potential of palm oil mill waste as a bioenergy source has been investigated. An organic Rankine cycle (ORC) small scale power plant has been preliminary designed to generate electricity. The working fluid candidates for the ORC plant based on the heat source temperature domains have been investigated. The ORC system with a regenerator has higher thermal efficiency than the basic ORC system. The study demonstrates the technical feasibility of ORC solutions in terms of resources optimizations and reducing of greenhouse gas emissions.

  19. Base-line data on everglades soil-plant systems: elemental composition, biomass, and soil depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, B.G.; Schemnitz, S.D.; Gamble, J.F.; Sartain, J.B.

    1975-01-01

    Plants and soils from plots in the Everglades Wildlife Management Area, Conservation Area 3, were examined. Chemical composition (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Co, Sr, Pb, Ni, Cr, Al, and Si) of most plant and soil digests was determined. Cladium jamaicense was the predominant plant species contributing to biomass in all plots except the wet prairie, where Rhynchospora sp. and Panicum hemitomon were most common. The biomass of dead C. jamaicense was greater than that of the living plants in unburned saw-grass plots. The burned saw grass, muck burn, and wet prairie were characterized by a large number of plant species per square meter but smaller average biomass production than the unburned saw-grass locations. Levels of Cu, Mn, Ca, Mg, K, and N in C. jamaicense differed significantly across locations. Highly significant differences in elemental composition existed between plant species. Concentrations of several elements (particularly Zn, Ca, Mg, P, and N) were low in live C. jamaicense compared with other plant species. Cesium-137 levels ranged from 670 to 3100 pCi/kg in sandy and in organic soils, respectively. Polygonum had a 137 Cs level of 11,600 pCi/kg. Dead C. jamaicense indicated a rapid leaching loss of 137 Cs from dead tissue

  20. Accurate inference of shoot biomass from high-throughput images of cereal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tester Mark

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the establishment of advanced technology facilities for high throughput plant phenotyping, the problem of estimating plant biomass of individual plants from their two dimensional images is becoming increasingly important. The approach predominantly cited in literature is to estimate the biomass of a plant as a linear function of the projected shoot area of plants in the images. However, the estimation error from this model, which is solely a function of projected shoot area, is large, prohibiting accurate estimation of the biomass of plants, particularly for the salt-stressed plants. In this paper, we propose a method based on plant specific weight for improving the accuracy of the linear model and reducing the estimation bias (the difference between actual shoot dry weight and the value of the shoot dry weight estimated with a predictive model. For the proposed method in this study, we modeled the plant shoot dry weight as a function of plant area and plant age. The data used for developing our model and comparing the results with the linear model were collected from a completely randomized block design experiment. A total of 320 plants from two bread wheat varieties were grown in a supported hydroponics system in a greenhouse. The plants were exposed to two levels of hydroponic salt treatments (NaCl at 0 and 100 mM for 6 weeks. Five harvests were carried out. Each time 64 randomly selected plants were imaged and then harvested to measure the shoot fresh weight and shoot dry weight. The results of statistical analysis showed that with our proposed method, most of the observed variance can be explained, and moreover only a small difference between actual and estimated shoot dry weight was obtained. The low estimation bias indicates that our proposed method can be used to estimate biomass of individual plants regardless of what variety the plant is and what salt treatment has been applied. We validated this model on an independent

  1. Waste-based biomass to power plants with high portions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, M.; Taipale, R. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)); Hupa, M.; Yrjas, P. (Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)); Jokiniemi, J.; Sippula, O. (Univ. of Kuopio (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    Recycling of chemicals back to processes as effectively as possible is sustainable development. Landfilling and agricultural use of sewage sludge (SWS) produces methane which is a strong greenhouse gas. Our earlier project 'Corraway' funded by Tekes ClimBus programme and Finnish industry indicated that iron and aluminium sulphates can destroy effectively alkali chlorides at furnace conditions preventing Cl deposition to heat transfer surfaces. Cl in the deposits is the main reason to superheater corrosion with biomass- containing feedstocks. These sulphates have been used as process chemicals in wastewater treatment, and therefore they are present in SWS. SWS-originated combustion products will pass the whole furnace when SWS is mixed to the main fuel. The furnace includes oxidising and reducing zones. Therefore it is not clear if the SWS-originated sulphur remains in an effective form in the point view of alkali chlorides destruction. The project work included thorough fuel analysis, pilot-scale combustion tests with blends of risky biomass and SWS and research of sampling techniques to detect alkali compounds. The combustion experiments proved the power of SWS originated sulphur to destroy alkali chlorides in the furnace and suggest strongly to continue this research. The order of power of the two SWS tested was different than expected indicating need to produce more thorough results. SWS may contain much minerals which lowers its value as a fuel. It can be possible to increase sulphur content and to decrease ash content in the sludge during SWS processing and dry and pelletise the sludge to strengthen further its value as a protective and as a fuel. (orig.)

  2. Design and process integration of organic Rankine cycle utilizing biomass for power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ependi, S.; Nur, T. B.

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia has high potential biomass energy sources from palm oil mill industry activities. The growing interest on Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) application to produce electricity by utilizing biomass energy sources are increasingly due to its successfully used for generating electricity from rejected waste heat to the environment in industrial processes. In this study, the potential of the palm oil empty fruit bunch, and wood chip have been used as fuel for biomass to generate electricity based ORC with combustion processes. The heat from combustion burner was transfer by thermal oil heater to evaporate ORC working fluid in the evaporator unit. The Syltherm-XLT thermal oil was used as the heat carrier from combustion burner, while R245fa was used as the working fluid for ORC unit. Appropriate designs integration from biomass combustion unit to ORC unit have been analyzed and proposed to generate expander shaft-work. Moreover, the effect of recuperator on the total system efficiency has also been investigated. It was observed that the fuel consumption was increased when the ORC unit equipped recuperator operated until certain pressure and decreased when operated at high pressure.

  3. Operating of Small Wind Power Plants with Induction Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Jakub Nevrala; Stanislav Misak

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes different systems of small wind power plants with induction generators used in the Czech Republic. Problems of wind power plants running with induction generators are solved within partial target of the research project MSM 6198910007. For small wind power plants is used induction motor as a generator. Parameters of the name plate of motor must be resolved for generator running on measuring base. These generators are running as a separately working generators or generator...

  4. Power generation based on biomass by combined fermentation and gasification--a new concept derived from experiments and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methling, Torsten; Armbrust, Nina; Haitz, Thilo; Speidel, Michael; Poboss, Norman; Braun-Unkhoff, Marina; Dieter, Heiko; Kempter-Regel, Brigitte; Kraaij, Gerard; Schliessmann, Ursula; Sterr, Yasemin; Wörner, Antje; Hirth, Thomas; Riedel, Uwe; Scheffknecht, Günter

    2014-10-01

    A new concept is proposed for combined fermentation (two-stage high-load fermenter) and gasification (two-stage fluidised bed gasifier with CO2 separation) of sewage sludge and wood, and the subsequent utilisation of the biogenic gases in a hybrid power plant, consisting of a solid oxide fuel cell and a gas turbine. The development and optimisation of the important processes of the new concept (fermentation, gasification, utilisation) are reported in detail. For the gas production, process parameters were experimentally and numerically investigated to achieve high conversion rates of biomass. For the product gas utilisation, important combustion properties (laminar flame speed, ignition delay time) were analysed numerically to evaluate machinery operation (reliability, emissions). Furthermore, the coupling of the processes was numerically analysed and optimised by means of integration of heat and mass flows. The high, simulated electrical efficiency of 42% including the conversion of raw biomass is promising for future power generation by biomass. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Utilization of emergent aquatic plants for biomass-energy-systems development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kresovich, S.; Wagner, C.K.; Scantland, D.A.; Groet, S.S.; Lawhon, W.T.

    1982-02-01

    A review was conducted of the available literature pertaining to the following aspects of emergent aquatic biomass: identification of prospective emergent plant species for management; evaluation of prospects for genetic manipulation; evaluation of biological and environmental tolerances; examination of current production technologies; determination of availability of seeds and/or other propagules, and projections for probable end-uses and products. Species identified as potential candidates for production in biomass systems include Arundo donax, Cyperus papyrus, Phragmites communis, Saccharum spontaneum, Spartina alterniflora, and Typha latifolia. If these species are to be viable candidates in biomass systems, a number of research areas must be further investigated. Points such as development of baseline yield data for managed systems, harvesting conceptualization, genetic (crop) improvement, and identification of secondary plant products require refinement. However, the potential pay-off for developing emergent aquatic systems will be significant if development is successful.

  6. Characterization of three plant biomass-degrading microbial consortia by metagenomics- and metasecretomics-based approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Brossi, Maria Julia de Lima; Schuckel, Julia; Kracun, Stjepan Kresimir; Willats, William George Tycho; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The selection of microbes by enrichment on plant biomass has been proposed as an efficient way to develop new strategies for lignocellulose saccharification. Here, we report an in-depth analysis of soil-derived microbial consortia that were trained to degrade once-used wheat straw (WS1-M),

  7. Forest biomass and tree planting for fossil fuel offsets in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike A. Battaglia; Kellen Nelson; Dan Kashian; Michael G. Ryan

    2010-01-01

    This study estimates the amount of carbon available for removal in fuel reduction and reforestation treatments in montane forests of the Colorado Front Range based on site productivity, pre-treatment basal area, and planting density. Thinning dense stands will yield the greatest offsets for biomass fuel. However, this will also yield the greatest carbon losses, if the...

  8. Analyzing the biomass filter behavior in an anaerobic wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos-Hernandez, S.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, waste emissions in air, water and soil must be reduced in order to reach the more and more strict environmental rules. In the case of wastewater, there exists a big interest to improve treatment plants performances. The paper deals with the analysis, via the phase protratis method, of a biomass filter behavior in a completely stirred tank reactor deals with the analysis. (Author)

  9. On polydispersity of plant biomass recalcitrance and its effects on pretreatment optimization for sugar production

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; Steve P. Verrill; Hao Liu; Victoria L. Herian; Xuejun Pan; Donald L. Rockwood

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses a property associated with plant biomass recalcitrance to enzyme and microbial deconstructions in sugar production from cellulose and hemicelluloses. The hemicelluloses are more readily hydrolyzed to sugars than is cellulose. As a result, optimization to maximize individual glucose and hemicellulose sugar recovery is not possible. This property is...

  10. Quantification of Lignin and Its Structural Features in Plant Biomass Using

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erven, Van Gijs; Visser, de Ries; Merkx, Donny W.H.; Strolenberg, Willem; Gijsel, de Peter; Gruppen, Harry; Kabel, Mirjam A.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying plant biomass recalcitrance at the molecular level can only be achieved by accurate analyses of both the content and structural features of the molecules involved. Current quantification of lignin is, however, majorly based on unspecific gravimetric

  11. 1064nm FT-Raman spectroscopy for investigations of plant cell walls and other biomass materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy with its various special techniques and methods has been applied to study plant biomass for about 30 years. Such investigations have been performed at both macro- and micro-levels. However, with the availability of the Near Infrared (NIR) (1064 nm) Fourier Transform (FT)-Raman instruments where, in most materials, successful fluorescence suppression...

  12. Systems and synthetic biology approaches to alter plant cell walls and reduce biomass recalcitrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Udaya C; Yin, Hengfu; Yang, Xiaohan; Davison, Brian H

    2014-12-01

    Fine-tuning plant cell wall properties to render plant biomass more amenable to biofuel conversion is a colossal challenge. A deep knowledge of the biosynthesis and regulation of plant cell wall and a high-precision genome engineering toolset are the two essential pillars of efforts to alter plant cell walls and reduce biomass recalcitrance. The past decade has seen a meteoric rise in use of transcriptomics and high-resolution imaging methods resulting in fresh insights into composition, structure, formation and deconstruction of plant cell walls. Subsequent gene manipulation approaches, however, commonly include ubiquitous mis-expression of a single candidate gene in a host that carries an intact copy of the native gene. The challenges posed by pleiotropic and unintended changes resulting from such an approach are moving the field towards synthetic biology approaches. Synthetic biology builds on a systems biology knowledge base and leverages high-precision tools for high-throughput assembly of multigene constructs and pathways, precision genome editing and site-specific gene stacking, silencing and/or removal. Here, we summarize the recent breakthroughs in biosynthesis and remodelling of major secondary cell wall components, assess the impediments in obtaining a systems-level understanding and explore the potential opportunities in leveraging synthetic biology approaches to reduce biomass recalcitrance. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Novel transcriptional activators of Aspergillus involved in plant biomass utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruben, B.S.

    2012-01-01

    Fungi play an important role in the carbon cycle on Earth. Many fungi can degrade dead or living plant material that consist mainly of polysaccharides. These polysaccharides need to be degraded to monosaccharides before they can be taken up and used as nutrients by the fungal cell. Different

  14. Annual Removal of Aboveground Plant Biomass Alters Soil Microbial Responses to Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xue

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Clipping (i.e., harvesting aboveground plant biomass is common in agriculture and for bioenergy production. However, microbial responses to clipping in the context of climate warming are poorly understood. We investigated the interactive effects of grassland warming and clipping on soil properties and plant and microbial communities, in particular, on microbial functional genes. Clipping alone did not change the plant biomass production, but warming and clipping combined increased the C4 peak biomass by 47% and belowground net primary production by 110%. Clipping alone and in combination with warming decreased the soil carbon input from litter by 81% and 75%, respectively. With less carbon input, the abundances of genes involved in degrading relatively recalcitrant carbon increased by 38% to 137% in response to either clipping or the combined treatment, which could weaken long-term soil carbon stability and trigger positive feedback with respect to warming. Clipping alone also increased the abundance of genes for nitrogen fixation, mineralization, and denitrification by 32% to 39%. Such potentially stimulated nitrogen fixation could help compensate for the 20% decline in soil ammonium levels caused by clipping alone and could contribute to unchanged plant biomass levels. Moreover, clipping tended to interact antagonistically with warming, especially with respect to effects on nitrogen cycling genes, demonstrating that single-factor studies cannot predict multifactorial changes. These results revealed that clipping alone or in combination with warming altered soil and plant properties as well as the abundance and structure of soil microbial functional genes. Aboveground biomass removal for biofuel production needs to be reconsidered, as the long-term soil carbon stability may be weakened.

  15. Biomass gasification for electricity generation with internal combustion engines. Process efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesme-Jaén, René; Garcia Faure, Luis; Recio Recio, Angel; Oliva Ruiz, Luis; Pajarín Rodríguez, Juan; Revilla Suarez, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is a renewable source of energy worldwide increased prospects for its potential and its lower environmental impact compared to fossil fuels. By processes and energy conversion technologies it is possible to obtain fuels in solid, liquid and gaseous form from any biomass. The biomass gasification is the thermal conversion thereof into a gas, which can be used for electricity production with the use of internal combustion engines with a certain level of efficiency, which depends on the characteristics of biomass and engines used. In this work the evaluation of thermal and overall efficiency of the gasification in Integrated Forestry Enterprise of Santiago de Cuba, designed to generate electricity from waste from the forest industry is presented. Is a downdraft gasifier reactor, COMBO-80 model and engine manufacturing Hindu (diesel) model Leyland modified to work with producer gas. The evaluation was carried out for different loads (electric power generated) engine from experimental measurements of flow and composition of the gas supplied to the engine. The results show that the motor operates with a thermal efficiency in the range of 20-32% with an overall efficiency between 12-25%. (full text)

  16. Investigation of thermodynamic performances for two solar-biomass hybrid combined cycle power generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qibin; Bai, Zhang; Wang, Xiaohe; Lei, Jing; Jin, Hongguang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Two solar-biomass hybrid combined cycle power generation systems are proposed. • The characters of the two proposed systems are compared. • The on-design and off-design properties of the system are numerically investigated. • The favorable performances of thermochemical hybrid routine are validated. - Abstract: Two solar-biomass hybrid combined cycle power generation systems are proposed in this work. The first system employs the thermochemical hybrid routine, in which the biomass gasification is driven by the concentrated solar energy, and the gasified syngas as a solar fuel is utilized in a combined cycle for generating power. The second system adopts the thermal integration concept, and the solar energy is directly used to heat the compressed air in the topping Brayton cycle. The thermodynamic performances of the developed systems are investigated under the on-design and off-design conditions. The advantages of the hybrid utilization technical mode are demonstrated. The solar energy can be converted and stored into the chemical fuel by the solar-biomass gasification, with the net solar-to-fuel efficiency of 61.23% and the net solar share of 19.01% under the specific gasification temperature of 1150 K. Meanwhile, the proposed system with the solar thermochemical routine shows more favorable behaviors, the annual system overall energy efficiency and the solar-to-electric efficiency reach to 29.36% and 18.49%, while the with thermal integration concept of 28.03% and 15.13%, respectively. The comparison work introduces a promising approach for the efficient utilization of the abundant solar and biomass resources in the western China, and realizes the mitigation of CO_2 emission.

  17. Responses of plant community composition and biomass production to warming and nitrogen deposition in a temperate meadow ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Guo, Rui; Gao, Song; Guo, Jixun; Sun, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Climate change has profound influences on plant community composition and ecosystem functions. However, its effects on plant community composition and biomass production are not well understood. A four-year field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of warming, nitrogen (N) addition, and their interactions on plant community composition and biomass production in a temperate meadow ecosystem in northeast China. Experimental warming had no significant effect on plant species richness, evenness, and diversity, while N addition highly reduced the species richness and diversity. Warming tended to reduce the importance value of graminoid species but increased the value of forbs, while N addition had the opposite effect. Warming tended to increase the belowground biomass, but had an opposite tendency to decrease the aboveground biomass. The influences of warming on aboveground production were dependent upon precipitation. Experimental warming had little effect on aboveground biomass in the years with higher precipitation, but significantly suppressed aboveground biomass in dry years. Our results suggest that warming had indirect effects on plant production via its effect on the water availability. Nitrogen addition significantly increased above- and below-ground production, suggesting that N is one of the most important limiting factors determining plant productivity in the studied meadow steppe. Significant interactive effects of warming plus N addition on belowground biomass were also detected. Our observations revealed that environmental changes (warming and N deposition) play significant roles in regulating plant community composition and biomass production in temperate meadow steppe ecosystem in northeast China.

  18. Future changes in South American biomass distributions, biome distributions and plant trait spectra is dependent on applied atmospheric forcings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Liam; Scheiter, Simon; Higgins, Steven

    2017-04-01

    It remains poorly understood why the position of the forest-savanna biome boundary, in a domain defined by precipitation and temperature, differs in South America, Africa and Australia. Process based Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) are a valuable tool to investigate the determinants of vegetation distributions, however, many DGVMs fail to predict the spatial distribution or indeed presence of the South American savanna biome. Evidence suggests fire plays a significant role in mediating forest-savanna biome boundaries, however, fire alone appear to be insufficient to predict these boundaries in South America. We hypothesize that interactions between precipitation, constraints on tree rooting depth and fire, affect the probability of savanna occurrence and the position of the savanna-forest boundary. We tested our hypotheses at tropical forest and savanna sites in Brazil and Venezuela using a novel DGVM, aDGVM2, which allows plant trait spectra, constrained by trade-offs between traits, to evolve in response to abiotic and biotic conditions. Plant hydraulics is represented by the cohesion-tension theory, this allowed us to explore how soil and plant hydraulics control biome distributions and plant traits. The resulting community trait distributions are emergent properties of model dynamics. We showed that across much of South America the biome state is not determined by climate alone. Interactions between tree rooting depth, fire and precipitation affected the probability of observing a given biome state and the emergent traits of plant communities. Simulations where plant rooting depth varied in space provided the best match to satellite derived biomass estimates and generated biome distributions that reproduced contemporary biome maps well. Future projections showed that biomass distributions, biome distributions and plant trait spectra will change, however, the magnitude of these changes are highly dependent on the applied atmospheric forcings.

  19. Strategy for optimal operation of a biomass-fired cogeneration power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasertsan, S.; Krukanont, P.; Nigamsritragul, P.; Kirirat, P.

    2001-01-01

    Biomass-fired cogeneration not only is an environmentally friendly energy production, but also possesses high energy conversion efficiency. Generally, the wood product industry requires both heat and electricity. Combined heat and power generation (cogeneration) using wood residue has a three-fold benefit: waste minimization, reduction of an energy-related production cost and additional income from selling the excess electricity to the utility. In reality, the process heat demand fluctuates according to the production activities in the factory. The fluctuation of process heat demand affects the cogeneration efficiency and the electricity output and, consequently, the financial return, since the prices of heat and electricity are different. A study by computer simulation to establish a guideline for optimum operation of a process heat fluctuating cogeneration power plant is presented. The power plant was designed for a sawmill and an adjacent plywood factory using wood wastes from these two processes. The maximum boiler thermal load is 81.9 MW while the electricity output is in the range 19-24 MW and the process heat 10-30 MW. Two modes of operation were studied, namely the full (boiler) load and the partial (boiler) load. In the full load operation, the power plant is operated at a maximum boiler thermal load, while the extracted steam is varied to meet the steam demand of the wood-drying kilns and the plywood production. The partial load operation was designed for the partially fuelled boiler to provide sufficient steam for the process and to generate electricity at a desired capacity ranging from the firmed contract of 19 MW to the turbine maximum capacity of 24 MW. It was found that the steam for process heat has an allowable extracting range, which is limited by the low pressure feed water heater. The optimum operation for both full and partial load occurs at the lower limit of the extracting steam. A guideline for optimum operation at various combinations of

  20. Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus Paecilomyces sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J.F.

    1985-08-08

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Community analysis of plant biomass-degrading microorganisms from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D; Podar, Mircea; Mosher, Jennifer J; Palumbo, Anthony V; Phelps, Tommy J; Keller, Martin; Elkins, James G

    2015-02-01

    The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels can potentially be improved by employing robust microorganisms and enzymes that efficiently deconstruct plant polysaccharides at elevated temperatures. Many of the geothermal features of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are surrounded by vegetation providing a source of allochthonic material to support heterotrophic microbial communities adapted to utilize plant biomass as a primary carbon and energy source. In this study, a well-known hot spring environment, Obsidian Pool (OBP), was examined for potential biomass-active microorganisms using cultivation-independent and enrichment techniques. Analysis of 33,684 archaeal and 43,784 bacterial quality-filtered 16S rRNA gene pyrosequences revealed that archaeal diversity in the main pool was higher than bacterial; however, in the vegetated area, overall bacterial diversity was significantly higher. Of notable interest was a flooded depression adjacent to OBP supporting a stand of Juncus tweedyi, a heat-tolerant rush commonly found growing near geothermal features in YNP. The microbial community from heated sediments surrounding the plants was enriched in members of the Firmicutes including potentially (hemi)cellulolytic bacteria from the genera Clostridium, Anaerobacter, Caloramator, Caldicellulosiruptor, and Thermoanaerobacter. Enrichment cultures containing model and real biomass substrates were established at a wide range of temperatures (55-85 °C). Microbial activity was observed up to 80 °C on all substrates including Avicel, xylan, switchgrass, and Populus sp. Independent of substrate, Caloramator was enriched at lower (65 °C) temperatures.

  2. Emerging Technologies for the Production of Renewable Liquid Transport Fuels from Biomass Sources Enriched in Plant Cell Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwei-Ting Tan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell walls are composed predominantly of cellulose, a range of non-cellulosic polysaccharides and lignin. The walls account for a large proportion not only of crop residues such as wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse, but also of residues of the timber industry and specialist grasses and other plants being grown specifically for biofuel production. The polysaccharide components of plant cell walls have long been recognized as an extraordinarily large source of fermentable sugars that might be used for the production of bioethanol and other renewable liquid transport fuels. Estimates place annual plant cellulose production from captured light energy in the order of hundreds of billions of tonnes. Lignin is synthesised in the same order of magnitude and, as a very large polymer of phenylpropanoid residues, lignin is also an abundant, high energy macromolecule. However, one of the major functions of these cell wall constituents in plants is to provide the extreme tensile and compressive strengths that enable plants to resist the forces of gravity and a broad range of other mechanical forces. Over millions of years these wall constituents have evolved under natural selection to generate extremely tough and resilient biomaterials. The rapid degradation of these tough cell wall composites to fermentable sugars is therefore a difficult task and has significantly slowed the development of a viable lignocellulose-based biofuels industry. However, good progress has been made in overcoming this so-called recalcitrance of lignocellulosic feedstocks for the biofuels industry, through modifications to the lignocellulose itself, innovative pre-treatments of the biomass, improved enzymes and the development of superior yeasts and other microorganisms for the fermentation process. Nevertheless, it has been argued that bioethanol might not be the best or only biofuel that can be generated from lignocellulosic biomass sources and that hydrocarbons with

  3. Emerging Technologies for the Production of Renewable Liquid Transport Fuels from Biomass Sources Enriched in Plant Cell Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hwei-Ting; Corbin, Kendall R.; Fincher, Geoffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Plant cell walls are composed predominantly of cellulose, a range of non-cellulosic polysaccharides and lignin. The walls account for a large proportion not only of crop residues such as wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse, but also of residues of the timber industry and specialist grasses and other plants being grown specifically for biofuel production. The polysaccharide components of plant cell walls have long been recognized as an extraordinarily large source of fermentable sugars that might be used for the production of bioethanol and other renewable liquid transport fuels. Estimates place annual plant cellulose production from captured light energy in the order of hundreds of billions of tons. Lignin is synthesized in the same order of magnitude and, as a very large polymer of phenylpropanoid residues, lignin is also an abundant, high energy macromolecule. However, one of the major functions of these cell wall constituents in plants is to provide the extreme tensile and compressive strengths that enable plants to resist the forces of gravity and a broad range of other mechanical forces. Over millions of years these wall constituents have evolved under natural selection to generate extremely tough and resilient biomaterials. The rapid degradation of these tough cell wall composites to fermentable sugars is therefore a difficult task and has significantly slowed the development of a viable lignocellulose-based biofuels industry. However, good progress has been made in overcoming this so-called recalcitrance of lignocellulosic feedstocks for the biofuels industry, through modifications to the lignocellulose itself, innovative pre-treatments of the biomass, improved enzymes and the development of superior yeasts and other microorganisms for the fermentation process. Nevertheless, it has been argued that bioethanol might not be the best or only biofuel that can be generated from lignocellulosic biomass sources and that hydrocarbons with intrinsically higher energy

  4. Plant biomass degrading ability of the coprophilic ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Marie; Tangthirasunun, Narumon; Ning, Xie; Brun, Sylvain; Gautier, Valérie; Bennati-Granier, Chloé; Silar, Philippe; Berrin, Jean-Guy

    2016-01-01

    The degradation of plant biomass is a major challenge towards the production of bio-based compounds and materials. As key lignocellulolytic enzyme producers, filamentous fungi represent a promising reservoir to tackle this challenge. Among them, the coprophilous ascomycete Podospora anserina has been used as a model organism to study various biological mechanisms because its genetics are well understood and controlled. In 2008, the sequencing of its genome revealed a great diversity of enzymes targeting plant carbohydrates and lignin. Since then, a large array of lignocellulose-acting enzymes has been characterized and genetic analyses have enabled the understanding of P. anserina metabolism and development on plant biomass. Overall, these research efforts shed light on P. anserina strategy to unlock recalcitrant lignocellulose deconstruction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Total generating costs: coal and nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    The study was confined to single and multi-unit coal- and nuclear-fueled electric-generating stations. The stations are composed of 1200-MWe PWRs; 1200-MWe BWRs; 800-and 1200-MWe High-Sulfur Coal units, and 800- and 1200-MWe Low-Sulfur Coal units. The total generating cost estimates were developed for commercial operation dates of 1985 and 1990; for 5 and 8% escalation rates, for 10 and 12% discount rates; and, for capacity factors of 50, 60, 70, and 80%. The report describes the methodology for obtaining annualized capital costs, levelized coal and nuclear fuel costs, levelized operation and maintenance costs, and the resulting total generating costs for each type of station. The costs are applicable to a hypothetical Middletwon site in the Northeastern United States. Plant descriptions with general design parameters are included. The report also reprints for convenience, summaries of capital cost by account type developed in the previous commercial electric-power cost studies. Appropriate references are given for additional detailed information. Sufficient detail is given to allow the reader to develop total generating costs for other cases or conditions

  6. Biomass analysis at palm oil factory as an electric power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusniati; Parinduri, Luthfi; Krianto Sulaiman, Oris

    2018-04-01

    Biomassa found in palm oil mill industryis a by-product such as palm shell, fiber, empty fruit bunches and pome. The material can be used as an alternative fuel for fossil fuel. On PTPN IVpalm oil millDolokSinumbah with a capacity of 30 tons tbs/hour of palm fruit fiber and palm shells has been utilized as boiler fuel to produce steam to supplyboilers power plant. With this utilization, the use of generators that using fossil fuel can be reduced, this would provide added value for the company. From the analysis, the fiber and shell materials were sufficient to supply 18 tons/hoursteam for the boiler. Shell material even excess as much as 441,5 tons per month. By utilizing the 2 types of biomass that is available alone, the electricity needs of the factory of 734 Kwh can be met. While other materials such as empty bunches and pome can be utilized to increase the added value and profitability for the palm oil mill.

  7. Effect of γ-ray irradiation on sugar production from plant biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Y.W.; Ciegler, A.

    1982-01-01

    During the past several years, evidence has indicated the effectiveness of gamma radiation in altering lignocellulosic polymers to enhance their susceptibility to chemical and enzymatic attack. Reassessment of high-energy radiation as a tool in reducing the use of fossil fuel suggested that the procedure might have practical value in modification of lignocellulosics prior to hydrolysis to sugars for use in fermentation. Select combinations of chemical pretreatment and gamma radiation can also lead to production of feedstocks useful to the chemical synthesis industry. Preliminary research indicated that the properties of lignocellulosics are changed and a variety of compounds are produced by gamma irradiation. In general, gamma irradiation of lignocellulosics such as wood, paper, and crop residues causes depolymerization of biopolymers and decomposition of carbohydrates at dosages between 10 and 100 Mrad, and the resulting materials shows a loss of crystallinity and increase in digestibility by subsequent hydrolysis by acid and enzymes. These changes may be advantageously used for production of energy from biomass. Large quantities of gamma-emitting 137 Cs are found in fission-product wastes stored since the initiation of 239 Pu production during World War II. The task of disposing of the radioactive wastes produced by nuclear power plants is often cited as one of the principal drawbacks to the use of nuclear fission for electric power generation. 1 figure, 3 tables

  8. Externalities of biomass based electricity production compared to power generation from coal in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faaij, A.; Meuleman, B.

    1997-12-01

    Externalities of electricity production from biomass and coal are investigated and compared for the Dutch context. Effects on economic activity and employment are investigated by means of Input/Output and multiplier tables. Valuations of damage from emissions to air are based on generic data from other studies. In addition, external costs are estimated for nitrogen leaching and for the use of agrochemicals for energy crop production. The average private costs for biomass and coal based power generation are projected to be 68 and 38 mECU/kWh respectively in the year 2005. It is assumed that biomass production takes place on fallow land. Coal mining is excluded from the analysis. If the quantified external damages and benefits are included the cost range for bio-electricity is 53-70 mECU/kWh and 45-72 mECU/kWh for coal. Indirect economic effects (increment of Gross Domestic Product) and the difference in CO2 emissions are the most important distinguishing factors between coal and biomass in economic terms. Damage costs of other emissions to air (NOx, SO2, dust and CO) are of the same order of magnitude for both coal and biomass (coal mining excluded). In this analysis environmental impacts of energy farming are compared mainly to fallow land focused on the use of fertilizers and agrochemicals. The related damage costs appear to be low but should be considered as a preliminary estimate only. The quantitative outcomes should not be considered as the external costs of the two fuel cycles studied. Many impacts have not been valued and large uncertainties persist e.g. with respect to the costs of climate change and numerous dose response relations. More detailed analysis is required with respect to macro-economic impacts. The results serve as a first indication, but the outcomes plead for the support of bio-electricity production and/or taxation of coal based power generation. 88 refs

  9. Thermodynamic optimization of biomass gasification for decentralized power generation and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buragohain, Buljit; Mahanta, Pinakeswar; Moholkar, Vijayanand S.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, biomass gasification has emerged as a viable option for decentralized power generation, especially in developing countries. Another potential use of producer gas from biomass gasification is in terms of feedstock for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis - a process for manufacture of synthetic gasoline and diesel. This paper reports optimization of biomass gasification process for these two applications. Using the non-stoichometric equilibrium model (SOLGASMIX), we have assessed the outcome of gasification process for different combinations of operating conditions. Four key parameters have been used for optimization, viz. biomass type (saw dust, rice husk, bamboo dust), air or equivalence ratio (AR = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1), temperature of gasification (T = 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 o C), and gasification medium (air, air-steam 10% mole/mole mixture, air-steam 30%mole/mole mixture). Performance of the gasification process has been assessed with four measures, viz. molar content of H 2 and CO in the producer gas, H 2 /CO molar ratio, LHV of producer gas and overall efficiency of gasifier. The optimum sets of operating conditions for gasifier for FT synthesis are: AR = 0.2-0.4, Temp = 800-1000 o C, and gasification medium as air. The optimum sets of operating conditions for decentralized power generation are: AR = 0.3-0.4, Temp = 700-800 o C with gasification medium being air. The thermodynamic model and methodology presented in this work also presents a general framework, which could be extended for optimization of biomass gasification for any other application.

  10. ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC CONFLICTS: AGRICULTURAL USE OR CULTIVATION BIOMASS SECOND GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Trohlyuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To negotiate the consequences of agricultural modernization as an example of nature Polissya areas in Ukraine. Studies addressing the conceptual foundations of ecological and economic conflict over agricultural use or cultivation of second generation biomass due to the transformation of land use during the economic reforms in the country. Proposed to solve it through socio-ecological-economic assessment of environmental audit procedure in the context of the strategy of "green" economy.

  11. Occupational exposure at a contemplated Belarussian power plant fired with contaminated biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Fogh, C.L.; Roed, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    To meet the current demand in Belarus for remediation of the vast forest areas that were contaminated by the Chernobyl accident and at the same time establish a much needed energy production, applying contaminated forest biomass as fuel in special power plants is being considered. This paper......-called 'big bags' filled with fly ash waste. Inhalation doses were estimated to be low. External doses received while working at the power plant do not appear to be highly significant compared with the doses from environmental contamination in the area where the power plant is expected to be constructed....

  12. Exergy analysis of a coal/biomass co-hydrogasification based chemical looping power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Linbo; Yue, Guangxi; He, Boshu

    2015-01-01

    Power generation from co-utilization of coal and biomass is very attractive since this technology can not only save the coal resource but make sufficient utilization of biomass. In addition, with this concept, net carbon discharge per unit electric power generation can also be sharply reduced. In this work, a coal/biomass co-hydrogasification based chemical looping power generation system is presented and analyzed with the assistance of Aspen Plus. The effects of different operating conditions including the biomass mass fraction, R_b, the hydrogen recycle ratio, R_h_r, the hydrogasification pressure, P_h_g, the iron to fuel mole ratio, R_i_f, the reducer temperature, T_r_e, the oxidizer temperature, T_o_x, and the fuel utilization factor, U_f of the SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell) on the system operation results including the energy efficiency, η_e, the total energy efficiency, η_t_e, the exergy efficiency, η_e_x, the total exergy efficiency, η_t_e_x and the carbon capture rate, η_c_c, are analyzed. The energy and exergy balances of the whole system are also calculated and the corresponding Sankey diagram and Grassmann diagram are drawn. Under the benchmark condition, exergy efficiencies of different units in the system are calculated. η_t_e, η_t_e_x and η_c_c of the system are also found to be 43.6%, 41.2% and 99.1%, respectively. - Highlights: • A coal/biomass co-hydrogasification based chemical looping power generation system is setup. • Sankey and Grassmann diagrams are presented based on the energy and exergy balance calculations. • Sensitivity analysis is done to understand the system operation characteristics. • Total energy and exergy efficiencies of this system can be 43.6% and 41.2%, respectively. • About 99.1% of the carbon contained in coal and biomass can be captured in this system.

  13. Cofiring versus biomass-fired power plants: GHG (Greenhouse Gases) emissions savings comparison by means of LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, F.; Royo, J.; Gomez, M.

    2011-01-01

    One way of producing nearly CO 2 free electricity is by using biomass as a combustible. In many cases, removal of CO 2 in biomass grown is almost the same as the emissions for the bioelectricity production at the power plant. For this reason, bioelectricity is generally considered CO 2 neutral. For large-scale biomass electricity generation two alternatives can be considered: biomass-only fired power plants, or cofiring in an existing coal power plant. Among other factors, two important aspects should be analyzed in order to choose between the two options. Firstly, which is the most appealing alternative if their Greenhouse Gases (GHG) Emissions savings are taken into account. Secondly, which biomass resource is the best, if the highest impact reduction is sought. In order to quantify all the GHG emissions related to each system, a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology has been performed and all the processes involved in each alternative have been assessed in a cradle-to-grave manner. Sensitivity analyses of the most dominant parameters affecting GHG emissions, and comparisons between the obtained results, have also been carried out.

  14. Progress and challenges in utilization of palm oil biomass as fuel for decentralized electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazmi, Aqeel Ahmed [Process Systems Engineering Centre (PROSPECT), Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, University Technology Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor Bahru, JB (Malaysia); Biomass Conversion Research Center (BCRC), Department of Chemical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Zahedi, Gholamreza; Hashim, Haslenda [Process Systems Engineering Centre (PROSPECT), Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, University Technology Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor Bahru, JB (Malaysia)

    2011-01-15

    It has been broadly accepted worldwide that global warming, indeed, is the greatest threat of the time to the environment. Renewable energy (RE) is expected as a perfect solution to reduce global warming and to endorse sustainable development. Progressive release of greenhouse gases (GHG) from increasing energy-intensive industries has eventually caused human civilization to suffer. Realizing the exigency of reducing emissions and simultaneously catering to needs of industries, researchers foresee the RE as the perfect entrant to overcome these challenges. RE provides an effective option for the provision of energy services from the technical point of view while biomass, a major source of energy in the world until before industrialization when fossil fuels become dominant, appears an important renewable source of energy and researches have proven from time to time its viability for large-scale production. Being a widely spread source, biomass offers the execution of decentralized electricity generation gaining importance in liberalized electricity markets. The decentralized power is characterized by generation of electricity nearer to the demand centers, meeting the local energy needs. Researchers envisaged an increasing decentralization of power supply, expected to make a particular contribution to climate protection. This article investigates the progress and challenges for decentralized electricity generation by palm oil biomass according to the overall concept of sustainable development. (author)

  15. Progress and challenges in utilization of palm oil biomass as fuel for decentralized electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazmi, Aqeel Ahmed; Zahedi, Gholamreza; Hashim, Haslenda

    2011-01-01

    It has been broadly accepted worldwide that global warming, indeed, is the greatest threat of the time to the environment. Renewable energy (RE) is expected as a perfect solution to reduce global warming and to endorse sustainable development. Progressive release of greenhouse gases (GHG) from increasing energy-intensive industries has eventually caused human civilization to suffer. Realizing the exigency of reducing emissions and simultaneously catering to needs of industries, researchers foresee the RE as the perfect entrant to overcome these challenges. RE provides an effective option for the provision of energy services from the technical point of view while biomass, a major source of energy in the world until before industrialization when fossil fuels become dominant, appears an important renewable source of energy and researches have proven from time to time its viability for large-scale production. Being a widely spread source, biomass offers the execution of decentralized electricity generation gaining importance in liberalized electricity markets. The decentralized power is characterized by generation of electricity nearer to the demand centers, meeting the local energy needs. Researchers envisaged an increasing decentralization of power supply, expected to make a particular contribution to climate protection. This article investigates the progress and challenges for decentralized electricity generation by palm oil biomass according to the overall concept of sustainable development. (author)

  16. Development of biomass power plant technologies in Malaysia: niche development and the formation of innovative capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer

    The objective of this thesis is to contribute to advance further the emerging research agenda on the transfer and diffusion of low-carbon technologies in developing countries by adopting a study of the development of biomass power plant technologies in Malaysia. The main research question addresses...... successive periods of fieldwork in Malaysia. The thesis conceptualises the diffusion of biomass technologies in Malaysia as a niche development process and finds that the development of a palm oil biomass waste-to-energy niche in Malaysia has only made limited progress despite a period of twenty years...... of niche formation. The thesis identifies the reluctance to implement an efficient energy policy as the main limiting factor for niche development in this case. Although a number of donor programs have advocated the introduction of a stronger enabling framework for niche development, they have generally...

  17. Environmental and socioeconomic aspects in the strategic analysis of a biomass power plant integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, M.; Lechon, Y.; Saez, R.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the work was to assess the potential weaknesses and threats of the integration of a biomass power plant proposed in a depressed area of Spain as well as to analyse the inherent strengths and opportunities that such a project could have in economic, technical or environmental terms. For this purpose an analysis of site, biomass resources, problems associated to fuel mix combustion, electricity production and connection were assessed. The socioeconomic (employment, GDP effects or tax revenue impact) and environmental (human health, soil erosion, fertiliser application) outcomes associated with the proposed biomass scheme have been evaluated. Finally, a list of actions to take into account for successful implementation of this proposed project has been defined. (author)

  18. Power generation from biomass: Status report on catalytic-allothermal wood gasification. Papers; Energetische Nutzung von Biomasse: Stand der Realisierung der katalytisch-allothermen Holzvergasung. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, H.; Bauermeister, U.; Kliche, H.; Seiffarth, K. (comps.)

    2001-12-01

    The topic of this event is bound up with the activities of FOeST in the field of gasification of biomass in decentralized small plants (< 2 MW{sub el}). The start project was a research work in 1993 to select a gasification process for using wood, sludge or plastic waste, continued 1995 by a research project with gasification tests of tar oil contaminated wood in a small gasification reactor with good results in environmental compatibility. But the following planning process of a demonstration plant for 500 kW{sub el} has shown, that the biomass gasification couldn't reach economic efficiency. Due to the development of an catalytic-partial allothermal gasification process of GNS ltd. it was clear, that the technical efficiency could be increased considerably. So, in 2000, a project started to test this catalytic-partial allothermal gasification in a pilot plant. Today the results of research, development and testing of biomass gasification with catalytic-partial allothermal processing as well as practically experience with a gasification plant, general conditions and further activities for energetically utilisation of biomass in Saxonia-Anhalt will be presented. (orig.)

  19. Gas, power and heat generation from biomass by allothermal gasification; Gas-, Strom- und Waermeerzeugung aus Biomasse durch allotherme Vergasung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaqub Chughtai, M [H und C Engineering GmbH, Gummersbach (Germany); Muehlen, H J [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The allothermal DMT gasification process for biomass is a newcomer. The process, its initial materials, the uses of the product gas, and advantages of the allothermal process are described here. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Der Einsatz des allothermen DMT-Vergasungsverfahrens fuer Biomasse ist neu. Verfahren, Einsatzstoffe und Produktgasnutzung, sowie Vorteile des allothermen Verfahrens werden hier beschrieben. (orig./SR)

  20. Electricity generation from woody biomass fuels compared with other renewable energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, R.E.H.

    1994-01-01

    Currently the annual electricity demand in New Zealand is around 30,000 GWh 70% of which is generated by hydro power. Natural gas, a resource with estimated reserves of approximately 14 years currently supplies 25% of generating capacity. This paper describes how part replacement of gas by biomass could be a feasible proposition for the future. Life cycle cost analyses showed electricity could be generated from arisings for (US)4.8-6 c/kWh; from residues for (US)2.4-4.8 c/kWh; and from plantations for (US)4.8-7.2 c/kWh. For comparison, the current retail electricity price is around (US)4-5.5 c/kWh and estimates for wind power generation range from (US)5-10 c/kWh. Future hydro power schemes will generate power between (US)4-9 c/kWh depending on site suitability. (author)

  1. An insect herbivore microbiome with high plant biomass-degrading capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garret Suen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbivores can gain indirect access to recalcitrant carbon present in plant cell walls through symbiotic associations with lignocellulolytic microbes. A paradigmatic example is the leaf-cutter ant (Tribe: Attini, which uses fresh leaves to cultivate a fungus for food in specialized gardens. Using a combination of sugar composition analyses, metagenomics, and whole-genome sequencing, we reveal that the fungus garden microbiome of leaf-cutter ants is composed of a diverse community of bacteria with high plant biomass-degrading capacity. Comparison of this microbiome's predicted carbohydrate-degrading enzyme profile with other metagenomes shows closest similarity to the bovine rumen, indicating evolutionary convergence of plant biomass degrading potential between two important herbivorous animals. Genomic and physiological characterization of two dominant bacteria in the fungus garden microbiome provides evidence of their capacity to degrade cellulose. Given the recent interest in cellulosic biofuels, understanding how large-scale and rapid plant biomass degradation occurs in a highly evolved insect herbivore is of particular relevance for bioenergy.

  2. Production of marine plant biomass: Management, cultivation, and genetic modification of macrophytic algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeer, J. P.

    1982-12-01

    Every second of every day, the Sun's fusion reactions convert thousands of tons of hydrogen into helium with the release of almost unimaginable amounts of energy. Through the photosynthetic activity of plants, both aquatic and terrestrial, a small fraction of this energy is trapped and stored as plant biomass. The oceans cover a greater fraction of the globe than do the land masses, making it appropriate to consider their contribution to the total biomass production, and their potential as a source of raw materials for the extraction of chemicals and fuels. A rather broad synthesis, convering the total seaweed resource and some of the constraints placed on harvesting these plants, attempts to farm the oceans to increase the supply of desirable species, attempts to cultivate seaweeds in enclosures where environmental parameters are controlled, and finally, the limited amount of genetic manipulation that was applied to these plants was presented. Only the larger red and brown seaweeds were considered because they represent the bulk of the biomass.

  3. An Insect Herbivore Microbiome with High Plant Biomass-Degrading Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suen, Garret; Barry, Kerrie; Goodwin, Lynne; Scott, Jarrod; Aylward, Frank; Adams, Sandra; Pinto-Tomas, Adrian; Foster, Clifton; Pauly, Markus; Weimer, Paul; Bouffard, Pascal; Li, Lewyn; Osterberger, Jolene; Harkins, Timothy; Slater, Steven; Donohue, Timothy; Currie, Cameron; Tringe, Susannah G.

    2010-09-23

    Herbivores can gain indirect access to recalcitrant carbon present in plant cell walls through symbiotic associations with lignocellulolytic microbes. A paradigmatic example is the leaf-cutter ant (Tribe: Attini), which uses fresh leaves to cultivate a fungus for food in specialized gardens. Using a combination of sugar composition analyses, metagenomics, and whole-genome sequencing, we reveal that the fungus garden microbiome of leaf-cutter ants is composed of a diverse community of bacteria with high plant biomass-degrading capacity. Comparison of this microbiome?s predicted carbohydrate-degrading enzyme profile with other metagenomes shows closest similarity to the bovine rumen, indicating evolutionary convergence of plant biomass degrading potential between two important herbivorous animals. Genomic and physiological characterization of two dominant bacteria in the fungus garden microbiome provides evidence of their capacity to degrade cellulose. Given the recent interest in cellulosic biofuels, understanding how large-scale and rapid plant biomass degradation occurs in a highly evolved insect herbivore is of particular relevance for bioenergy.

  4. Horse grazing systems: understory biomass and plant biodiversity of a Pinus radiata stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rigueiro-Rodríguez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Horse grazing systems may affect productivity and biodiversity of understory developed under Pinus radiata D. Don silvopastoral systems, while acting as a tool to reduce the risk of fire. This study compared continuous and rotational grazing systems effect upon biomass, fractions of stem, sprouts, leaves and woody parts of Ulex europaeus L. and alpha (Species Richness, Shannon-Wiener and beta (Jaccard and Magurran biodiversity for a period of four years in a P. radiata silvopastoral system. The experiment consisted of a randomized block design of two treatments (continuous and rotational grazing. Biomass, and species abundances were measured - biodiversity metrics were calculated based on these results for a two years of grazing and two years of post-grazing periods. Both continuous and rotational grazing systems were useful tools for reducing biomass and, therefore, fire risk. The rotational grazing system caused damage to the U. europaeus shrub, limiting its recovery once grazing was stopped. However, the more intensive grazing of U. europaeus plants under rotational had a positive effect on both alpha and beta biodiversity indexes due to the low capacity of food selection in the whole plot rather than continuous grazing systems. Biomass was not affected by the grazing system; however the rotational grazing system is more appropriate to reduce U. europaeus biomass and therefore forest fire risk at a long term and to enhance pasture biodiversity than the continuous grazing system.

  5. Tracking dynamics of plant biomass composting by changes in substrate structure, microbial community, and enzyme activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the dynamics of the microbial communities that, along with their secreted enzymes, are involved in the natural process of biomass composting may hold the key to breaking the major bottleneck in biomass-to-biofuels conversion technology, which is the still-costly deconstruction of polymeric biomass carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, the complexity of both the structure of plant biomass and its counterpart microbial degradation communities makes it difficult to investigate the composting process. Results In this study, a composter was set up with a mix of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera wood-chips and mown lawn grass clippings (85:15 in dry-weight and used as a model system. The microbial rDNA abundance data obtained from analyzing weekly-withdrawn composted samples suggested population-shifts from bacteria-dominated to fungus-dominated communities. Further analyses by an array of optical microscopic, transcriptional and enzyme-activity techniques yielded correlated results, suggesting that such population shifts occurred along with early removal of hemicellulose followed by attack on the consequently uncovered cellulose as the composting progressed. Conclusion The observed shifts in dominance by representative microbial groups, along with the observed different patterns in the gene expression and enzymatic activities between cellulases, hemicellulases, and ligninases during the composting process, provide new perspectives for biomass-derived biotechnology such as consolidated bioprocessing (CBP and solid-state fermentation for the production of cellulolytic enzymes and biofuels.

  6. Tracking dynamics of plant biomass composting by changes in substrate structure, microbial community, and enzyme activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the dynamics of the microbial communities that, along with their secreted enzymes, are involved in the natural process of biomass composting may hold the key to breaking the major bottleneck in biomass-to-biofuels conversion technology, which is the still-costly deconstruction of polymeric biomass carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, the complexity of both the structure of plant biomass and its counterpart microbial degradation communities makes it difficult to investigate the composting process. Results In this study, a composter was set up with a mix of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) wood-chips and mown lawn grass clippings (85:15 in dry-weight) and used as a model system. The microbial rDNA abundance data obtained from analyzing weekly-withdrawn composted samples suggested population-shifts from bacteria-dominated to fungus-dominated communities. Further analyses by an array of optical microscopic, transcriptional and enzyme-activity techniques yielded correlated results, suggesting that such population shifts occurred along with early removal of hemicellulose followed by attack on the consequently uncovered cellulose as the composting progressed. Conclusion The observed shifts in dominance by representative microbial groups, along with the observed different patterns in the gene expression and enzymatic activities between cellulases, hemicellulases, and ligninases during the composting process, provide new perspectives for biomass-derived biotechnology such as consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) and solid-state fermentation for the production of cellulolytic enzymes and biofuels. PMID:22490508

  7. Power generation in small scale from gasification of biomass; Geracao eletrica em pequena escala a partir da gaseificacao de biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva; Andrade, Rubenildo Vieira; Aradas, Maria Eugenia Corria [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Excelencia em Geracao Termeletrica e Distribuida (NEST)

    2004-07-01

    This paper present a review about biomass gasifier technology and discuss its advantages, disadvantages and applications as well as shows some succeeded experiences in this area. The paper also presents an analysis of the biomass gas use in alternative engines and in new distributed generation technology such as Stirling engines and microturbines. (author)

  8. Genetic Improvement of Switchgrass and Other Herbaceous Plants for Use as Biomass Fuel Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, K.P.

    2001-01-11

    It should be highly feasible to genetically modify the feedstock quality of switchgrass and other herbaceous plants using both conventional and molecular breeding techniques. Effectiveness of breeding to modify herbages of switchgrass and other perennial and annual herbaceous species has already been demonstrated. The use of molecular markers and transformation technology will greatly enhance the capability of breeders to modify the plant structure and cell walls of herbaceous plants. It will be necessary to monitor gene flow to remnant wild populations of plants and have strategies available to curtail gene flow if it becomes a potential problem. It also will be necessary to monitor plant survival and long-term productivity as affected by genetic changes that improve forage quality. Information on the conversion processes that will be used and the biomass characteristics that affect conversion efficiency and rate is absolutely essential as well as information on the relative economic value of specific traits. Because most forage or biomass quality characteristics are highly affected by plant maturity, it is suggested that plant material of specific maturity stages be used in research to determining desirable feedstock quality characteristics. Plant material could be collected at various stages of development from an array of environments and storage conditions that could be used in conversion research. The same plant material could be used to develop NIRS calibrations that could be used by breeders in their selection programs and also to develop criteria for a feedstock quality assessment program. Breeding for improved feedstock quality will likely affect the rate of improvement of biomass production per acre. If the same level of resources are used, multi-trait breeding simply reduces the selection pressure and hence the breeding progress that can be made for a single trait unless all the traits are highly correlated. Since desirable feedstock traits are likely

  9. A comparison of circulating fluidised bed combustion and gasification power plant technologies for processing mixtures of coal, biomass and plastic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIlveen-Wright, D.R.; Huang, Y.; McMullan, J.T.; Pinto, F.; Franco, C.; Gulyurtlu, I.; Armesto, L.; Cabanillas, A.; Caballero, M.A.; Aznar, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental regulations concerning emission limitations from the use of fossil fuels in large combustion plants have stimulated interest in biomass for electricity generation. The main objective of the present study was to examine the technical and economic viability of using combustion and gasification of coal mixed with biomass and plastic wastes, with the aim of developing an environmentally acceptable process to decrease their amounts in the waste stream through energy recovery. Mixtures of a high ash coal with biomass and/or plastic using fluidised bed technologies (combustion and gasification) were considered. Experiments were carried out in laboratory and pilot plant fluidised bed systems on the combustion and air/catalyst and air/steam gasification of these feedstocks and the data obtained were used in the techno-economic analyses. The experimental results were used in simulations of medium to large-scale circulating fluidised bed (CFB) power generation plants. Techno-economic analysis of the modelled CFB combustion systems showed efficiencies of around 40.5% (and around 46.5% for the modelled CFB gasification systems) when fuelled solely by coal, which were only minimally affected by co-firing with up to 20% biomass and/or wastes. Specific investments were found to be around $2150/kWe to $2400/kWe ($1350/kWe to $1450/kWe) and break-even electricity selling prices to be around $68/MWh to $78/MWh ($49/MWh to $54/MWh). Their emissions were found to be within the emission limit values of the large combustion plant directive. Fluidised bed technologies were found to be very suitable for co-firing coal and biomass and/or plastic waste and to offer good options for the replacement of obsolete or polluting power plants. (author)

  10. French nuclear power plants for heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The considerable importance that France attributes to nuclear energy is well known even though as a result of the economic crisis and the energy savings it is possible to observe a certain downward trend in the rate at which new power plants are being started up. In July 1983, a symbolic turning-point was reached - at more than 10 thousand million kW.h nuclear power accounted, for the first time, for more than 50% of the total amount of electricity generated, or approx. 80% of the total electricity output of thermal origin. On the other hand, the direct contribution - excluding the use of electricity - of nuclear energy to the heat market in France remains virtually nil. The first part of this paper discusses the prospects and realities of the application, at low and intermediate temperatures, of nuclear heat in France, while the second part describes the French nuclear projects best suited to the heat market (excluding high temperatures). (author)

  11. Vogtle Electric Generating Plant ETE Analysis Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diediker, Nona H.; Jones, Joe A.

    2006-12-09

    Under contract with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), staff from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL)-Albuquerque reviewed the evacuation time estimate (ETE) analysis dated April 2006 prepared by IEM for the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant (VEGP). The ETE analysis was reviewed for consistency with federal regulations using the NRC guidelines in Review Standard (RS)-002, Supplement 2 and Appendix 4 to NUREG-0654, and NUREG/CR-4831. Additional sources of information referenced in the analysis and used in the review included NUREG/CR-6863 and NUREG/CR-6864. The PNNL report includes general comments, data needs or clarifications, and requests for additional information (RAI) resulting from review of the ETE analysis.

  12. Wind power plant for electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landsiedel, E

    1978-11-09

    The invention concerns a wind power plant which rotates on a vertical axis and is suitable for the generation of electricity. This wind power machine with a vertical axis can be mounted at any height, so that it can catch the wind on the vertical axis of rotation. Further, it does not have to be turned into the direction of the wind and fixed. The purpose of the invention is to obtain equal load on the structure due to the vertical axis. The purpose of the invention is fulfilled by having the wind vanes fixed above one another from the bottom to the top in 6 different directions. The particular advantage of the invention lies in the fact that the auxiliary blades can bring the other blades to the operating position in good time, due to their particular method of fixing.

  13. Biomass power generation in competitive markets - The impact of instruments and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, Thomas; Soeder, Lennart

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents and briefly evaluates the most important existing market instruments and market schemes which support the development of renewable energy generation as well as the impact of market regulations on the development of biomass power generation. The evaluation of the existing instruments focuses on the incentives provided by the various instruments to reduce production costs. The instruments and schemes are: Feed-in Tariffs, Net Metering, Bidding Process, Fixed Quotas, Green Certificate Trading, Green Power Exchange, Green Pricing. Feed-in tariffs and net metering are important instruments to get the different technologies 'off the ground', however, they can only be considered an interim solution as they do not necessarily lead to cost reduction. A bidding process is one way to achieve these cost reductions, but high transaction costs will support the development of large renewable energy projects, which is not always the desired effect. Fixed quotas combined with green certificate trading or a power exchange in combination with Green Pricing seem to lead to similar costs reduction, however, so far there is only limited experience with such instruments. The analysis of the impact of market regulations focuses on international electricity markets with a power exchange. Such markets exist, for example, in Scandinavia, England and Wales, Australia, New Zealand and California. The analysis showed that new distributed generation, for example based on biomass, faces significant market barriers. Furthermore, distributed generation is not treated equally within the market regulations compared to large-scale power generation

  14. Calculating the share of process energy consumed by biomass conversion plants. Bestimmung der Anteile der Prozessenergie bei einer Biogasanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, W

    1984-06-01

    During the winter season the process energy consumption of biomass conversion plants is relatively high. Apart from the quantity and temperature of manures and insulation of the fermentation tank the process energy consumption depends on the efficiency of the heating system. Moreover, heat losses decide on the required quantities of process energy. Compared with the process energy consumption the electric power consumption of the engines supplying the biomass conversion plant is relatively low. Along with calculations tests and measurements in a biomass conversion plant during the winter season of 1981/1982 give access to the interrelation between process energy and electric power consumption.

  15. Radiative Effects of Aerosols Generated from Biomass Burning, Dust Storms, and Forest Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Sundar A.; Vulcan, Donna V.; Welch, Ronald M.

    1996-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles, both natural and anthropogenic, are important to the earth's radiative balance. They scatter the incoming solar radiation and modify the shortwave reflective properties of clouds by acting as Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN). Although it has been recognized that aerosols exert a net cooling influence on climate (Twomey et al. 1984), this effect has received much less attention than the radiative forcings due to clouds and greenhouse gases. The radiative forcing due to aerosols is comparable in magnitude to current anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing but opposite in sign (Houghton et al. 1990). Atmospheric aerosol particles generated from biomass burning, dust storms and forest fires are important regional climatic variables. A recent study by Penner et al. (1992) proposed that smoke particles from biomass burning may have a significant impact on the global radiation balance. They estimate that about 114 Tg of smoke is produced per year in the tropics through biomass burning. The direct and indirect effects of smoke aerosol due to biomass burning could add up globally to a cooling effect as large as 2 W/sq m. Ackerman and Chung (1992) used model calculations and the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) data to show that in comparison to clear days, the heavy dust loading over the Saudi Arabian peninsula can change the Top of the Atmosphere (TOA) clear sky shortwave and longwave radiant exitance by 40-90 W/sq m and 5-20 W/sq m, respectively. Large particle concentrations produced from these types of events often are found with optical thicknesses greater than one. These aerosol particles are transported across considerable distances from the source (Fraser et al. 1984). and they could perturb the radiative balance significantly. In this study, the regional radiative effects of aerosols produced from biomass burning, dust storms and forest fires are examined using the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Local Area

  16. Selective detection of crystalline cellulose in plant cell walls with sum-frequency-generation (SFG) vibration spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnette, Anna L; Bradley, Laura C; Veres, Brandon D; Schreiner, Edward P; Park, Yong Bum; Park, Junyeong; Park, Sunkyu; Kim, Seong H

    2011-07-11

    The selective detection of crystalline cellulose in biomass was demonstrated with sum-frequency-generation (SFG) vibration spectroscopy. SFG is a second-order nonlinear optical response from a system where the optical centrosymmetry is broken. In secondary plant cell walls that contain mostly cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin with varying concentrations, only certain vibration modes in the crystalline cellulose structure can meet the noninversion symmetry requirements. Thus, SFG can be used to detect and analyze crystalline cellulose selectively in lignocellulosic biomass without extraction of noncellulosic species from biomass or deconvolution of amorphous spectra. The selective detection of crystalline cellulose in lignocellulosic biomass is not readily achievable with other techniques such as XRD, solid-state NMR, IR, and Raman analyses. Therefore, the SFG analysis presents a unique opportunity to reveal the cellulose crystalline structure in lignocellulosic biomass.

  17. Next Generation Nuclear Plant GAP Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Sydney J [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Corwin, William R [ORNL; Fisher, Stephen Eugene [ORNL; Forsberg, Charles W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Morris, Robert Noel [ORNL; Moses, David Lewis [ORNL

    2008-12-01

    As a follow-up to the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) studies conducted recently by NRC on next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) safety, a study was conducted to identify the significant 'gaps' between what is needed and what is already available to adequately assess NGNP safety characteristics. The PIRT studies focused on identifying important phenomena affecting NGNP plant behavior, while the gap study gives more attention to off-normal behavior, uncertainties, and event probabilities under both normal operation and postulated accident conditions. Hence, this process also involved incorporating more detailed evaluations of accident sequences and risk assessments. This study considers thermal-fluid and neutronic behavior under both normal and postulated accident conditions, fission product transport (FPT), high-temperature metals, and graphite behavior and their effects on safety. In addition, safety issues related to coupling process heat (hydrogen production) systems to the reactor are addressed, given the limited design information currently available. Recommendations for further study, including analytical methods development and experimental needs, are presented as appropriate in each of these areas.

  18. Technoeconomic analysis of a methanol plant based on gasification of biomass and electrolysis of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Houbak, N.; Elmegaard, Brian

    2010-01-01

    , and the low-temperature waste heat is used for district heat production. This results in high total energy efficiencies (similar to 90%) for the plants. The specific methanol costs for the six plants are in the range 11.8-25.3 (sic)/GJ(exergy). The lowest cost is obtained by a plant using electrolysis......Methanol production process configurations based on renewable energy sources have been designed. The processes were analyzed in the thermodynamic process simulation tool DNA. The syngas used for the catalytic methanol production was produced by gasification of biomass, electrolysis of water, CO2...... with a different syngas production method, were compared. The plants achieve methanol exergy efficiencies of 59-72%, the best from a configuration incorporating autothermal reforming of biogas and electrolysis of water for syngas production. The different processes in the plants are highly heat integrated...

  19. Economic analysis of biomass gasification for generating electricity in rural areas in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, H.; Suria, T.; Pranolo, S. H.

    2018-03-01

    The gaseous fuel from biomass gasification might reduce the consumption of diesel fuel by 70%. The investment cost of the whole unit with a capacity of 45 kWe was about IDR 220 million in 2008 comprised of 24% for gasification unit, 54% for diesel engine and electric generator, 22% for transportation of the whole unit from Bandung to the site in South Borneo. The gasification unit was made in local workshop in Bandung, while the diesel-generator was purchased also in a local market. To anticipate the development of biomass based electricity in remote areas, an economic analysis has been made for implementations in 2019. A specific investment cost of 600 USD/kW has been estimated taking account to the escalation and capacity factors. Using a discounted factor of 11% and biomass cost in the range of 0.03-0.07 USD/kg, the production cost of electricity would be in the range of 0.09-0.16 USD/kWh. This production cost was lower than that of diesel engine fueled with full oil commonly implemented in many remote areas in Indonesia at this moment. This production cost was also lower than the Feed in Tariff in some regions established by Indonesian government in 2017.

  20. Biomass power in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, D.K. [Zurn/NEPCO, Redmond, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Electricity production from biomass fuel has been hailed in recent years as an environmentally acceptable energy source that delivers on its promise of economically viable renewable energy. A Wall Street Journal article from three years ago proclaimed wood to be {open_quotes}moving ahead of costly solar panels and wind turbines as the leading renewable energy alternative to air-fouling fossils fuels and scary nuclear plants.{close_quotes} Biomass fuel largely means wood; about 90% of biomass generated electricity comes from burning waste wood, the remainder from agricultural wastes. Biomass power now faces an uncertain future. The maturing of the cogeneration and independent power plant market, restructuring of the electric industry, and technological advances with power equipment firing other fuels have placed biomass power in a competitive disadvantage with other power sources.

  1. Micro scale CHP based on biomass intelligent heat transfer with thermoelectric generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, W.; Aigenbauer, S.; Heckmann, M.; Friedl, G. (Austrian Bioenergy Centre GmbH, Wieselburg (Austria)); Hofbauer, H. (Institute of Chemical Engineering, Vienna University of Technology (Austria))

    2007-07-01

    Pellet burners need auxiliary electrical power to provide CO{sub 2} balanced heat in a comfortable and environment friendly way. The idea is to produce this and some extra electricity within the device in order to save resources and to gain operation reliability and independency. An option for micro scale CHP is the usage of thermoelectric generators (TEGs). They allow direct conversion of heat into electrical power. They have the advantage of a long maintenance free durability and noiseless operation without moving parts or any working fluid. The useful heat remains almost unaffected and can still be used for heating. TEGs are predestined for the use in micro scale CHP based on solid biomass. In this paper the first results from the fully integrated prototype are presented. The performance of the TEG was observed for different loads and operating conditions in order to realise an optimised micro scale CHP based on solid biomass. (orig.)

  2. Thermodynamic analyses of a biomass-coal co-gasification power generation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Linbo; Yue, Guangxi; He, Boshu

    2016-04-01

    A novel chemical looping power generation system is presented based on the biomass-coal co-gasification with steam. The effects of different key operation parameters including biomass mass fraction (Rb), steam to carbon mole ratio (Rsc), gasification temperature (Tg) and iron to fuel mole ratio (Rif) on the system performances like energy efficiency (ηe), total energy efficiency (ηte), exergy efficiency (ηex), total exergy efficiency (ηtex) and carbon capture rate (ηcc) are analyzed. A benchmark condition is set, under which ηte, ηtex and ηcc are found to be 39.9%, 37.6% and 96.0%, respectively. Furthermore, detailed energy Sankey diagram and exergy Grassmann diagram are drawn for the entire system operating under the benchmark condition. The energy and exergy efficiencies of the units composing the system are also predicted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant hydrogen generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.B.; King, A.D. Jr.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.

    1996-02-01

    The most promising method for the disposal of highly radioactive nuclear wastes is a vitrification process in which the wastes are incorporated into borosilicate glass logs, the logs are sealed into welded stainless steel canisters, and the canisters are buried in suitably protected burial sites for disposal. The purpose of the research supported by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) project of the Department of Energy through Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and summarized in this report was to gain a basic understanding of the hydrogen generation process and to predict the rate and amount of hydrogen generation during the treatment of HWVP feed simulants with formic acid. The objectives of the study were to determine the key feed components and process variables which enhance or inhibit the.production of hydrogen. Information on the kinetics and stoichiometry of relevant formic acid reactions were sought to provide a basis for viable mechanistic proposals. The chemical reactions were characterized through the production and consumption of the key gaseous products such as H 2 . CO 2 , N 2 0, NO, and NH 3 . For this mason this research program relied heavily on analyses of the gases produced and consumed during reactions of the HWVP feed simulants with formic acid under various conditions. Such analyses, used gas chromatographic equipment and expertise at the University of Georgia for the separation and determination of H 2 , CO, CO 2 , N 2 , N 2 O and NO

  4. Bioenergy guide. Projecting, operation and economic efficiency of biomass power plants; Leitfaden Bioenergie. Planung, Betrieb und Wirtschaftlichkeit von Bioenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deimling, S. [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER); Kaltschmitt, M; Schneider, B. [and others

    2000-07-01

    This guide gives an survey over planning, operation and economics of biomass conversion plants. Main topics are: production and supply of biomass fuels, combustion properties, licensing, cost and financing. It shows planning and management of projects and the legal background for Germany and the European Union.

  5. Poly generation property of agricultural straw based on biomass pyrolysis/gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yingquan; Zhu, Bo; Chen, Han Ping; Yang, Hai-Ping; Wang, Xian Hua; Zhang, Shihong

    2010-01-01

    Full text: A large mount of agricultural waste generated annually in China. The efficient and clean utilization of these biomass resources is seem to an opportunity not only enhancing the standard of living of peasant but also significantly reducing the emission of greenhouse gas. Poly generation of biomass not only generating gas product with high heat value but also producing bio-char with high quality, is one of the most promising technology for Chinese rural. Currently, fixed bed pyrolysis technology is attracted major concern, however, it resulted a no-continuous and unstable production. In this paper, a novel pyrolysis technology is introduced, and the pyrolysis property of local typical agricultural straw was investigated under variant condition. A pyrolysis gases containing CO, H 2 , CO 2 , CH 4 , and trace of small-molecule hydrocarbon were produced, and the heat value was above 17 MJ/ m 3 . It is sufficient for the requirement of local resident. The tar yield is very low since it condensed on the heated materials in the low temperature zone and was further cracked to a lower molecule gases in the high temperature zone, and the main liquid product is wood vinegar. It contained above 80 % wt of water, 5-12 % wt of acetic acid and some furan and phonetic. The wood charcoal is another important product possessing rather higher benefits than gas product. The heat value of the charcoal is over 27 MJ/ kg and without smoke during combustion, so there is a huge market on the catering industry for the charcoal whose cost is lower than the charcoal form forests woods, simultaneously the char have a good porosity as the BET surface area about 100 m 2 / g, so can be used as a lower cost adsorbent in the environment industry. As the commercialization of biomass poly generation technology, the high value conversion and utilization of wood vinegar and charcoal would bring considerable benefits for consumer. (author)

  6. BioOil presents: Free-flowing alternative to traditional biomass energy generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McChesney, S.

    2003-12-01

    A new technology, called fast pyrolysis, is described. Fast pyrolysis is a process for converting biomass collected from agricultural and forest residues into an organic liquid fuel, called BioOil, that's easily transported, stored and handled. BioOil's principal virtue is that it can be used to generate carbon-neutral, cost-effective process heat and electricity; it also disposes of organic waste, and creates new jobs and industries. As an indication of interest in BioOil, two recent developments are cited as worthy of note: an award of $23 million for biomass research jointly by the USDA and the USDOE and a commitment of $30 million by the Government of Canada to support the development and demonstration of bio-based systems and technologies. (The Canadian investment is part of the $1 billion commitment toward implementation of the Climate Change Program for Canada). The fast pyrolysis process is carbon dioxide neutral, i.e. when biomass is converted into thermal energy, the carbon dioxide that is released is equal to the amount of carbon dioxide that went into growing the biomass. The process is particularly appealing to energy companies in areas with large forestry or agricultural potential. In Canada, DynaMotive Energy Systems Corporation is the most advanced in developing and commercializing environmentally friendly fuels produced from biomass; the company is also a world leader in fast pyrolysis technology. Ontario Power Generation is cooperating with DynaMotive on a project to produce BioOil from residue supplied by Erie Flooring and Wood Products. The 2.5 megawatt gas turbine that will combust the bio-oil and generate electricity will be supplied by the Magellan Aerospace Corporation. Beyond meeting the energy requirements of Erie Flooring and Wood Products, the project will also contribute about 1.5 megawatts of power to OPG's green energy portfolio in 2004. It is expected that the example of a commercial project of this scale, will serve

  7. Impact of financial environmental incentives in the potential of electric power generation on the sugar cane plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Claudio Plaza; Walter, Arnaldo

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the work is to present the electric power generation from biomass and the economic potential from sugar cane plants in Brazil. Computerized electricity costs simulation are presented and several financial incentives and external market effects are considered. The results are also presented and criticized

  8. Microbiological Contamination at Workplaces in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP Station Processing Plant Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Szulc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbial contamination at a plant biomass processing thermal power station (CHP. We found 2.42 × 103 CFU/m3 of bacteria and 1.37 × 104 CFU/m3 of fungi in the air; 2.30 × 107 CFU/g of bacteria and 4.46 × 105 CFU/g of fungi in the biomass; and 1.61 × 102 CFU/cm2 bacteria and 2.39 × 101 CFU/cm2 fungi in filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs. Using culture methods, we found 8 genera of mesophilic bacteria and 7 of fungi in the air; 10 genera each of bacteria and fungi in the biomass; and 2 and 5, respectively, on the FFRs. Metagenomic analysis (Illumina MiSeq revealed the presence of 46 bacterial and 5 fungal genera on the FFRs, including potential pathogens Candida tropicalis, Escherichia coli, Prevotella sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp.. The ability of microorganisms to create a biofilm on the FFRs was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. We also identified secondary metabolites in the biomass and FFRs, including fumigaclavines, quinocitrinines, sterigmatocistin, and 3-nitropropionic acid, which may be toxic to humans. Due to the presence of potential pathogens and mycotoxins, the level of microbiological contamination at workplaces in CHPs should be monitored.

  9. High plant availability of phosphorus and low availability of cadmium in four biomass combustion ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaoxi; Rubæk, Gitte H.; Sørensen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    For biomass combustion to become a sustainable energy production system, it is crucial to minimise landfill of biomass ashes, to recycle the nutrients and to minimise the undesirable impact of hazardous substances in the ash. In order to test the plant availability of phosphorus (P) and cadmium (Cd) in four biomass ashes, we conducted two pot experiments on a P-depleted soil and one mini-plot field experiment on a soil with adequate P status. Test plants were spring barley and Italian ryegrass. Ash applications were compared to triple superphosphate (TSP) and a control without P application. Both TSP and ash significantly increased crop yields and P uptake on the P-depleted soil. In contrast, on the adequate-P soil, the barley yield showed little response to soil amendment, even at 300–500 kg P ha"−"1 application, although the barley took up more P at higher applications. The apparent P use efficiency of the additive was 20% in ryegrass - much higher than that of barley for which P use efficiencies varied on the two soils. Generally, crop Cd concentrations were little affected by the increasing and high applications of ash, except for relatively high Cd concentrations in barley after applying 25 Mg ha"−"1 straw ash. Contrarily, even modest increases in the TSP application markedly increased Cd uptake in plants. This might be explained by the low Cd solubility in the ash or by the reduced Cd availability due to the liming effect of ash. High concentrations of resin-extractable P (available P) in the ash-amended soil after harvest indicate that the ash may also contribute to P availability for the following crops. In conclusion, the biomass ashes in this study had P availability similar to the TSP fertiliser and did not contaminate the crop with Cd during the first year. - Highlights: • Effects of four biomass ashes vs. a P fertiliser (TSP) on two crops were studied. • Ashes increased crop yields with P availability similar to TSP on P-depleted soil.

  10. High plant availability of phosphorus and low availability of cadmium in four biomass combustion ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoxi, E-mail: Xiaoxi.Li@agro.au.dk; Rubæk, Gitte H.; Sørensen, Peter

    2016-07-01

    For biomass combustion to become a sustainable energy production system, it is crucial to minimise landfill of biomass ashes, to recycle the nutrients and to minimise the undesirable impact of hazardous substances in the ash. In order to test the plant availability of phosphorus (P) and cadmium (Cd) in four biomass ashes, we conducted two pot experiments on a P-depleted soil and one mini-plot field experiment on a soil with adequate P status. Test plants were spring barley and Italian ryegrass. Ash applications were compared to triple superphosphate (TSP) and a control without P application. Both TSP and ash significantly increased crop yields and P uptake on the P-depleted soil. In contrast, on the adequate-P soil, the barley yield showed little response to soil amendment, even at 300–500 kg P ha{sup −1} application, although the barley took up more P at higher applications. The apparent P use efficiency of the additive was 20% in ryegrass - much higher than that of barley for which P use efficiencies varied on the two soils. Generally, crop Cd concentrations were little affected by the increasing and high applications of ash, except for relatively high Cd concentrations in barley after applying 25 Mg ha{sup −1} straw ash. Contrarily, even modest increases in the TSP application markedly increased Cd uptake in plants. This might be explained by the low Cd solubility in the ash or by the reduced Cd availability due to the liming effect of ash. High concentrations of resin-extractable P (available P) in the ash-amended soil after harvest indicate that the ash may also contribute to P availability for the following crops. In conclusion, the biomass ashes in this study had P availability similar to the TSP fertiliser and did not contaminate the crop with Cd during the first year. - Highlights: • Effects of four biomass ashes vs. a P fertiliser (TSP) on two crops were studied. • Ashes increased crop yields with P availability similar to TSP on P-depleted soil

  11. The impacts of the generation of biomass power plants in the Brazilian hydrothermal dispatch and its influence on the formation of prices of electric power in Brazil; Os impactos da geracao de usinas a biomassa no despacho hidrotermico brasileiro e sua influencia na formacao do preco da energia eletrica no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Luiz Eduardo S.; Ribeiro, Paulo [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil)], Emails: luizeduardo_jf@yahoo.com.br, pfribeiro@ieee.org; Tardin, Thiago V. [Engenho Pesquisa, Desenvolvimento e Consultoria Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: thiago@engenho.com

    2009-07-01

    The positive and negative impacts of the electric energy generation from biomass of sugar in the Brazilian energy matrix are presented, as well as in the hydrothermal dispatch. Studies on the impacts of the generation sources using sugar cane bagasse in the operational planning and in the composition of the electric energy price are done. Computational implementations using optimized methods, as the stochastic dual dynamic programing, are done, to support the decision making and to compare the obtained results. It is, also presented the commercialization rules for energy in the Free Contracting Environment and in the Regulated Contracting Environment related to the alternative sources of energy, as well as the mechanisms of encouraged energy auction (reserve auction) and the rules for commercialization of energy applied to encouraged sources.

  12. Techno-Environmental Assessment Of Co-Gasification Of Low-Grade Turkish Lignite With Biomass In A Trigeneration Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirabedin Ehsan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trigeneration or Combined Cooling, Heat and Power (CCHP which is based upon combined heat and power (CHP systems coupled to an absorption chiller can be recognized as one of the best technologies recovering biomass effectively to heat, cooling and power. Co-gasification of the lignite and biomass can provide the possibility for safe and effective disposal of different waste types as well as for sustainable and environmentally-friendly production of energy. In this article, a trigeneration system based on an IC engine and gasifier reactor has been simulated and realized using Thermoflex simulation software. Performance results suggest that utilization of sustainably-grown biomass in a Tri-Generation Power Plant (TGPP can be a possibility for providing cooling, heat and power demands with local renewable sources and reducing the environmental impacts of the energy conversion systems.

  13. 7 CFR 1726.125 - Generating plant facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... desulfurization system, particulate removal system, electric wiring and control systems, mechanical equipment installation (including turbine installation and plant piping), power plant building (foundation and... installations. Engineering services, turbine/generator, civil works and powerhouse construction, electrical...

  14. Assessment of productivity at four generating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarlas, M.; Nelson, M.

    1976-01-01

    The 1975 FEA study of power plant reliability was undertaken as a first step in improving the productivity of large (larger than 400 MW) generating units by attempting to trace outages to their root causes so that meaningful corrective action can be taken at the root of the problem. Trident Engineering Associates studied the operation, maintenance, management, and manning of two fossil-fueled and two nuclear-fueled units, one each of above average and one below average reliability (high availability and low forced outage rate). It was expected that the differences between a highly reliable unit and a less reliable unit would lead to recommendations which would be useful for improving productivity of units throughout the country. The findings are of two basic types: (1) general concepts covering problem areas, fundamental reasons and immediate symptoms behind the problems, methods used to eliminate or alleviate the problems, and proposed solutions; (2) details which provide statistics that establish the relative lost productivity by fundamental causes. Eight root causes (fundamental reasons for failures or outages) were established into which most failures and outages could be assigned. Twenty nine cause factors (causes of failure) were established which assisted in assigning the failures and outages to a root cause

  15. Carbon Storage and Allocation Pattern in Plant Biomass among Different Forest Plantation Stands in Guangdong, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanqi Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand how carbon storage and allocation patterns vary among plantation types, we estimated carbon allocation between above- and below-ground compartments in four subtropical plantations and a naturally recovered shrubland (as a control. Results indicated that the carbon storage and allocation pattern varied greatly among forest types and was highly dependent on specific traits of trees and understory vegetation. The fast-growing species, such as Eucalyptus urophylla, accumulated more carbon in plant biomass. The biomass carbon was about 1.9- and 2.2-times greater than the 10-species mixed plantation and Castanopsis hystrix plantations, respectively. Meanwhile, the plantations sequestered 1.5- to 3-times more carbon in biomass than naturally recovered shrubland. The carbon allocation pattern between above- and below-ground compartments also varied with plantation type and stand age. The ratio of tree root carbon to tree aboveground carbon decreased with stand age for Eucalyptus urophylla and the 10-species mixed plantation. In contrast, the ratio increased for Acacia crassicarpa. Our data suggested that planting the fast-growing species in the degraded land of subtropical China was an effective choice in terms of carbon sequestration. The information about carbon allocation patterns was also valuable for decision making in sustainable forest management and climate change mitigation.

  16. Assessment of Hydrogen Generation Potential from Biomass and its Application for Power Generation in Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaya C. Mathad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Andaman and Nicobar Islands located southeast of Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean comprises of several small islands separated by sea over large distances which makes it impractical for electrifying all the islands by a single grid. A population of 380,581 (Census, 2011 living in these group of islands get their electricity demand catered through Diesel Generator Sets from 34 power houses with an aggregate capacity of 67.8 MW. Unavailability of any form of conventional fossil fuel reserves in the islands makes the diesel supplied in barges from southeastern coast of India as a sole lifeline for its power generation. Hence there is an urgent need for the development of a self sustainable model from non conventional energy resources to not only cater for the power demands but also to reduce the GHG emissions related with diesel powered generator sets. This paper discusses a self sustainable model for Andaman and Nicobar Islands that would cater the electrical demand through hydrogen produced from waste biomass resource which has a potential of replacing 86.65% of the diesel utilized in the diesel generator sets. The reduction in both the GHG emission and the cost of power generation would be evaluated to understand the impact of the self sustainable model on the environment and the livelihood of the local population of Andaman and Nicobar Islands

  17. ORC power plant for electricity production from forest and agriculture biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsukiewicz-Gozdur, A.; Wiśniewski, S.; Mocarski, S.; Bańkowski, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Results for three variants of CHP plant fuelled by sawmill biomass are presented. • Octamethyltrisiloxane, MDM, methanol and H 2 O working fluids was conducted in CHP. • CHP with internal regeneration and “dry” working fluid has the highest electric power. • Power output, drying heat and drying temperature depend on CHP variant and ORC fluid. - Abstract: The paper presents the calculation results for three variants of CHP plant fuelled by sawmill biomass. The plant shall produce electricity and heat for a drying chamber. An analysis of the system efficiency for four different working fluids was conducted: octamethyltrisiloxane, methylcyclohexane, methanol and water. The highest electric power was obtained for the system with internal regeneration and methylcyclohexane applied as the “dry” working fluid, the highest temperature to supply the drying chamber was obtained for the system with external regeneration and octamethyltrisiloxane applied as the working fluid. The results of the analysis indicate that, by proper choice of the working fluid and of the regeneration variant (internal or external), it is possible to “adjust” the work of the system to the needs and expectations of the plant investor (user)

  18. Thermoeconomic analysis of Biomass Integrated Gasification Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (BIG GT CC) cogeneration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrieta, Felipe Raul Ponce; Lora, Electo Silva [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Estudos de Sistemas Termicos]. E-mails: aponce@iem.efei.br; electo@iem.efei.br; Perez, Silvia Azucena Nebra de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: sanebra@fem. unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    Using thermoeconomics as a tool to identify the location and magnitude of the real thermodynamic losses (energy waste, or exergy destruction and exergy losses) it is possible to assess the production costs of each product (electric power and heat) and the exergetic and exergoeconomic cost of each flow in a cogeneration plant to assist in decision-marketing procedures concerning to plant design, investment, operation and allocations of research funds. Thermo economic analysis of Biomass Integrated Gasification Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (BIG GT CC) cogeneration plant for its applications in sugar cane mills brings the following results: the global exergetic efficiency is low; the highest irreversibilities occur in the following equipment, by order: scrubber (38%), gas turbine (16%), dryer (12%), gasifier and HRSG (6%); due to the adopted cost distribution methodology, the unit exergetic cost of the heat (4,11) is lower than electricity (4,71); the lower market price of biomass is one of the most sensible parameter in the possible implementation of BIG-GT technology in sugar cane industry; the production costs are 31 US$/MWh and 32 US$/MWh for electricity and heat, respectively. The electricity cost is, after all, competitive with the actual market price. The electricity and heat costs are lower or almost equal than other values reported for actual Rankine cycle cogeneration plants. (author)

  19. Functional diversity of carbohydrate-active enzymes enabling a bacterium to ferment plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutard, Magali; Cerisy, Tristan; Nogue, Pierre-Yves; Alberti, Adriana; Weissenbach, Jean; Salanoubat, Marcel; Tolonen, Andrew C

    2014-11-01

    Microbial metabolism of plant polysaccharides is an important part of environmental carbon cycling, human nutrition, and industrial processes based on cellulosic bioconversion. Here we demonstrate a broadly applicable method to analyze how microbes catabolize plant polysaccharides that integrates carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) assays, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), and anaerobic growth screening. We apply this method to study how the bacterium Clostridium phytofermentans ferments plant biomass components including glucans, mannans, xylans, galactans, pectins, and arabinans. These polysaccharides are fermented with variable efficiencies, and diauxies prioritize metabolism of preferred substrates. Strand-specific RNA-seq reveals how this bacterium responds to polysaccharides by up-regulating specific groups of CAZymes, transporters, and enzymes to metabolize the constituent sugars. Fifty-six up-regulated CAZymes were purified, and their activities show most polysaccharides are degraded by multiple enzymes, often from the same family, but with divergent rates, specificities, and cellular localizations. CAZymes were then tested in combination to identify synergies between enzymes acting on the same substrate with different catalytic mechanisms. We discuss how these results advance our understanding of how microbes degrade and metabolize plant biomass.

  20. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuvien dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E; Staahlberg, P; Solantausta, Y; Wilen, C

    1996-12-31

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (a) suitability to small scale electricity production (< 5-10 MWe), (b) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (c) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (a) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (b) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT. Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers

  1. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuvien dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y.; Wilen, C.

    1995-12-31

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (a) suitability to small scale electricity production (< 5-10 MWe), (b) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (c) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (a) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (b) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT. Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers

  2. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuen dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (1) suitability to small scale electricity production (<5-10 MWe), (2) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (3) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (1) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (2) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT. Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers. The studies are scheduled to be completed in March 1996. (author)

  3. Development and delivery of a workshop methodology: planning for biomass power plant projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, A.J.; Delbridge, P.; Trevorrow, E.; Pile, C.

    2001-07-01

    This report gives details of the approach used to develop a workshop methodology to help planners and stakeholders address key issues that may arise when submitting a planning application for a biomass power plant in the light of the UK government's energy and climate change targets. The results of interviews with stakeholders (central government, regulatory authorities, developers, planners, non-governmental organisations, local community, resident groups) are summarised, and the NIMBY (not in my back yard) syndrome, the lack of trust in the developer, and lack of awareness of the use of biomass are discussed. Details are given of the design and testing of the workshop methodology and the resulting workshop methodology and workbook guide aimed at understanding the stakeholder issues and concerns through stakeholder discussions.

  4. Water stress mitigates the negative effects of ozone on photosynthesis and biomass in poplar plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Catalayud, Vicent; Paoletti, Elena; Hoshika, Yasutomo; Feng, Zhaozhong

    2017-11-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) pollution frequently overlaps with drought episodes but the combined effects are not yet understood. We investigated the physiological and biomass responses of an O 3 sensitive hybrid poplar clone ('546') under three O 3 levels (charcoal-filtered ambient air, non-filtered ambient air (NF), and NF plus 40 ppb) and two watering regimes (well-watered (WW) and reduced watering (RW), i.e. 40% irrigation) for one growing season. Water stress increased chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, protecting leaves from pigment degradation by O 3 . Impairment of photosynthesis by O 3 was also reduced by stomatal closure due to water stress, which preserved light-saturated CO 2 assimilation rate, and the maximum carboxylation efficiency. Water stress increased water use efficiency of the leaves while O 3 decreased it, showing significant interactions. Effects were more evident in older leaves than in younger leaves. Water stress reduced biomass production, but the negative effects of O 3 were less in RW than in WW for total biomass per plant. A stomatal O 3 flux-based dose-response relationship was parameterized considering water stress effects, which explained biomass losses much better than a concentration-based approach. The O 3 critical level of Phytotoxic Ozone Dose over a threshold of 7 nmol O 3 .m -2 .s -1 (POD 7 ) for a 4% biomass loss in this poplar clone under different water regimes was 4.1 mmol m -2 . Our results suggest that current O 3 levels in most parts of China threaten poplar growth and that interaction with water availability is a key factor for O 3 risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Production of syngas and oil at biomass refinery and their application in low speed two stroke engines for combined cycle electric energy generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinatti, Daltro Garcia [Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina (UNISUL), Tubarao, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: pinatti@demar.eel.usp.br; Oliveira, Isaias de; Ferreira, Joao Carlos; Romao, Erica Leonor [RM Materiais Refratarios Ltd., Lorena, SP (Brazil)], Emails: isaias@rm-gpc.com.br, joaocarlos@rm-gpc.com.br, ericaromao@rm-gpc.com.br; Conte, Rosa Ana [University of Sao Paulo (DEMAR/EEL/USP), SP (Brazil). Lorena School of Engineering. Dept. of Materials Engineering], E-mail: rosaconte@demar.eel.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    Low speed two stroke engines burn fuels of medium quality with high efficiency (47%) and allows a flexible use of oil (> 8% of total power) and syngas (< 92%, low heating value-LHV>11.2MJ/m{sup 3}). Biomass refinery (BR) generates oil from sludge and oleaginous biomass by low temperature conversion and syngas from lignocellulosic biomass treated by diluted acidic prehydrolysis. BR has low investment cost (US$1,500.00/kW) compared with hydroelectric plants (US$2,500.00/kW) and both generate electric energy with sales price below US$75.00/MWh. It allows distributed generation from 30 MW up to 170 MW or centralized power of 1 GW with six motor generator sets. BR matrix, mass and energy balance, fuels compositions, modulations and scope of supply will be presented. Besides electric energy BR can be tailored to supply other products such as ethanol, H{sub 2} for fuel cells, biodiesel, fertilizer recycling, char and simultaneously maximizes the production of animal protein. (author)

  6. Bioaugmentation for Electricity Generation from Corn Stover Biomass Using Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xin

    2009-08-01

    Corn stover is usually treated by an energy-intensive or expensive process to extract sugars for bioenergy production. However, it is possible to directly generate electricity from corn stover in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) through the addition of microbial consortia specifically acclimated for biomass breakdown. A mixed culture that was developed to have a high saccharification rate with corn stover was added to singlechamber, air-cathode MFCs acclimated for power production using glucose. The MFC produced a maximum power of 331 mW/ m 2 with the bioaugmented mixed culture and corn stover, compared to 510 mW/m2 using glucose. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed the communities continued to evolve on both the anode and corn stover biomass over 60 days, with several bacteria identified including Rhodopseudomonas palustris. The use of residual solids from the steam exploded corn stover produced 8% more power (406 mW/m2) than the raw corn stover. These results show that it is possible to directly generate electricity from waste corn stover in MFCs through bioaugmentation using naturally occurring bacteria. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  7. Increased saccharification yields from aspen biomass upon treatment with enzymatically generated peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Shona; Jing, Qing; Katona, Adrian; Kazlauskas, Romas J; Schilling, Jonathan; Tschirner, Ulrike; Aldajani, Waleed Wafa

    2010-03-01

    The recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass to enzymatic release of sugars (saccharification) currently limits its use as feedstock for biofuels. Enzymatic hydrolysis of untreated aspen wood releases only 21.8% of the available sugars due primarily to the lignin barrier. Nature uses oxidative enzymes to selectively degrade lignin in lignocellulosic biomass, but thus far, natural enzymes have been too slow for industrial use. In this study, oxidative pretreatment with commercial peracetic acid (470 mM) removed 40% of the lignin (from 19.9 to 12.0 wt.% lignin) from aspen and enhanced the sugar yields in subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis to about 90%. Increasing the amount of lignin removed correlated with increasing yields of sugar release. Unfortunately, peracetic acid is expensive, and concentrated forms can be hazardous. To reduce costs and hazards associated with using commercial peracetic acid, we used a hydrolase to catalyze the perhydrolysis of ethyl acetate generating 60-70 mM peracetic acid in situ as a pretreatment to remove lignin from aspen wood. A single pretreatment was insufficient, but multiple cycles (up to eight) removed up to 61.7% of the lignin enabling release of >90% of the sugars during saccharification. This value corresponds to a predicted 581 g of fermentable sugars from 1 kg of aspen wood. Improvements in the enzyme stability are needed before the enzymatically generated peracetic acid is a commercially viable alternative.

  8. Generating electricity with forest biomass: Consistency and payment timeframe effects in choice experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliño, Mario; Farizo, Begoña A.; Vázquez, María X.; Prada, Albino

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a choice experiment analyzing the consumers' preferences towards a policy for replacing conventional electricity with electricity generated from forest biomass. The results show that consumers specially prefer the effects related to the lower risk of forest fires and to the decrease in pressure on non-renewable resources. The article also presents a methodological test in relation to the payment timeframe and its effect on marginal willingness to pay and consistency of responses using choice experiments. The most frequent and realistic payments are associated with lower presence of inconsistent responses. Finally, we cannot reject the null hypothesis of no effects of payment timeframe on marginal willingness to pay. - Highlights: ▶ Analysis of preferences towards electricity generated from forest biomass. ▶ Lowering the risk of forest fires is a high valued external effect. ▶ Less pressure on non-renewable resources is highly valued. ▶ Frequent payments are associated with lower presence of inconsistent responses. ▶ Effects of payment timeframe on marginal willingness to pay.

  9. Biomass, Leaf Area, and Resource Availability of Kudzu Dominated Plant Communities Following Herbicide Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.T. Rader

    2001-10-01

    Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens the forests of the southern U.S. Five herbicides were tested with regard to their efficacy in controlling kudzu, community recover was monitored, and interactions with planted pines were studied. The sites selected were old farm sites dominated by kudzu.These were burned following herbicide treatment. The herbicides included triclopyr, clopyralid, metsulfuron, tebuthiuron, and picloram plus 2,4-D. Pine seedlings were planted the following year. Regression equations were developed for predicting biomass and leaf area. Four distinct plant communities resulted from the treatments. The untreated check continued to be kudzu dominated. Blackberry dominated the clopyradid treatment. Metsulfron, trychlopyr and picloram treated sites resulted in herbaceous dominated communities. The tebuthiuron treatment maintained all vegetation low.

  10. Corrosion and Materials Performance in biomass fired and co-fired power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, OH; Biede, O

    2003-01-01

    not previously encountered in coal-fired power plants. The type of corrosion attack can be directly ascribed to the composition of the deposit and the metal surface temperature. In woodchip boilers, a similar corrosion rate and corrosion mechanism has on some occasions been observed. Co-firing of straw (10...... and 20% energy basis) with coal has shown corrosion rates lower than those in straw-fired plants. With both 10 and 20% straw, no chlorine corrosion was seen. This paper will describe the results from in situ investigations undertaken in Denmark on high temperature corrosion in biomass fired plants....... Results from 100% straw-firing, woodchip and co-firing of straw with coal will be reported. The corrosion mechanisms observed are summarized and the corrosion rates for 18-8 type stainless steels are compared....

  11. Geographical distributions of biomass and potential sites of rubber wood fired power plants in Southern Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krukanont, P.; Prasertsan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Biomass residues from rubber trees in rubber producing countries have immense potential for power production. This paper presents the case of the south peninsular of Thailand, where the rubber industry is intense. Mathematical models were developed to determine the maximum affordable fuel cost and optimum capacity of the power plant for a given location of known area-based fuel availability density. GIS data of rubber growing was used to locate the appropriate sites and sizes of the power plants. Along 700 km of the highway network in the region, it was found that 8 power plants are financially feasible. The total capacity is 186.5 MW e . The fuel procurement area is in the range of less than 35 km. (Author)

  12. The PBMR electric power generation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez S, G.; Santacruz I, I.; Martin del Campo M, C.

    2003-01-01

    This work has as purpose to diffuse in a general way the technology of the one modulate reactor of pebble bed. Because our country is in developing ways, the electric power demand goes in increase with that which it is presented the great challenge of satisfying this necessity, not only being in charge of the one fact per se, but also involving the environmental aspect and of security. Both factors are covered by the PBMR technology, which we approach in their basic aspects with the purpose that the public opinion knows it and was familiarized with this type of reactors that well could represent a solution for our growing electricity demand. We will treat this reactor visualizing it like part of a generation plant defining in first place to the itself reactor. We will see because that the system PBMR consists of 2 main sections: the reactor and the unit of energy conversion, highlighting that the principle of the PBMR reactor operation is based on the thermodynamic Brayton cycle cooled by helium and that, in turn, it transmits the energy in form of heat toward a gas turbine. In what concerns to the fuel, it peculiar design due to its spherical geometry is described, aspect that make to this reactor different from the traditional ones that use fuel rods. In fact in the fuel spheres of the PBMR it is where it resides great part of it inherent security since each particle of fuel, consistent in uranium dioxide, is lined one with coal and silicon carbide those which form an impenetrable barrier containing to the fuel and those radioactive products that result of the nuclear reactions. Such particles are encapsulated in graphite to form the sphere or 'pebble', of here born the name of this innovative technology. (Author)

  13. GIS-BASED location optimization of a biomass conversion plant on contaminated willow in the Campine region (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voets, Thomas; Neven, An; Thewys, Theo; Kuppens, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The Campine region is diffusely contaminated with heavy metals like cadmium. Since traditional excavation techniques are too expensive, phytoremediation is preferred as a remediation technique. In a previous study, the biomass potential from phytoremediation of contaminated agricultural land in the Campine region in Belgium was assessed. Based on recently upgraded figures of willow potential from phytoremediation on agricultural land in the seven most contaminated municipalities of the Belgian Campine region, the current paper uses GIS-knowledge to investigate which of three previously identified locations is most suitable for a biomass plant, taking into account the spatial distribution of the contaminated willow supply and the total cost of willow transport. Biomass transport distance from the centroid of each contaminated agricultural parcel to each of the three potential biomass plant locations was determined following Euclidian distance calculations and distance calculations over the existing road network. A transport cost model consisting of distance fixed and distance dependent biomass transport costs was developed. Of the locations identified, the Overpelt Fabriek site results in the lowest biomass transport distance and costs. When willow allocation for each parcel occurs based on the nearest potential plant location, transport costs are on average 23% lower than when all biomass is transported to the single Overpelt Fabriek site location. Therefore, when only considering transport costs, installing a smaller plant at each of the three potential plant locations would be less expensive than when installing a single biomass plant at the Overpelt Fabriek site. -- Highlights: ► Overpelt Fabriek site most attractive for time frames considered. ► Average tortuosity factor in Campine region between 1.27 and 1.42. ► Share of willow transport costs in willow supply costs 21%. ► Optimal allocation of willow results in lower transport costs

  14. Romania biomass energy. Country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, M; Easterly, J L; Mark, P E; Keller, A [DynCorp, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The present report was prepared under contract to UNIDO to conduct a case study of biomass energy use and potential in Romania. The purpose of the case study is to provide a specific example of biomass energy issues and potential in the context of the economic transition under way in eastern Europe. The transition of Romania to a market economy is proceeding at a somewhat slower pace than in other countries of eastern Europe. Unfortunately, the former regime forced the use of biomass energy with inadequate technology and infrastructure, particularly in rural areas. The resulting poor performance thus severely damaged the reputation of biomass energy in Romania as a viable, reliable resource. Today, efforts to rejuvenate biomass energy and tap into its multiple benefits are proving challenging. Several sound biomass energy development strategies were identified through the case study, on the basis of estimates of availability and current use of biomass resources; suggestions for enhancing potential biomass energy resources; an overview of appropriate conversion technologies and markets for biomass in Romania; and estimates of the economic and environmental impacts of the utilization of biomass energy. Finally, optimal strategies for near-, medium- and long-term biomass energy development, as well as observations and recommendations concerning policy, legislative and institutional issues affecting the development of biomass energy in Romania are presented. The most promising near-term biomass energy options include the use of biomass in district heating systems; cofiring of biomass in existing coal-fired power plants or combined heat and power plants; and using co-generation systems in thriving industries to optimize the efficient use of biomass resources. Mid-term and long-term opportunities include improving the efficiency of wood stoves used for cooking and heating in rural areas; repairing the reputation of biogasification to take advantage of livestock wastes

  15. Romania biomass energy. Country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, M.; Easterly, J.L.; Mark, P.E.; Keller, A.

    1995-01-01

    The present report was prepared under contract to UNIDO to conduct a case study of biomass energy use and potential in Romania. The purpose of the case study is to provide a specific example of biomass energy issues and potential in the context of the economic transition under way in eastern Europe. The transition of Romania to a market economy is proceeding at a somewhat slower pace than in other countries of eastern Europe. Unfortunately, the former regime forced the use of biomass energy with inadequate technology and infrastructure, particularly in rural areas. The resulting poor performance thus severely damaged the reputation of biomass energy in Romania as a viable, reliable resource. Today, efforts to rejuvenate biomass energy and tap into its multiple benefits are proving challenging. Several sound biomass energy development strategies were identified through the case study, on the basis of estimates of availability and current use of biomass resources; suggestions for enhancing potential biomass energy resources; an overview of appropriate conversion technologies and markets for biomass in Romania; and estimates of the economic and environmental impacts of the utilization of biomass energy. Finally, optimal strategies for near-, medium- and long-term biomass energy development, as well as observations and recommendations concerning policy, legislative and institutional issues affecting the development of biomass energy in Romania are presented. The most promising near-term biomass energy options include the use of biomass in district heating systems; cofiring of biomass in existing coal-fired power plants or combined heat and power plants; and using co-generation systems in thriving industries to optimize the efficient use of biomass resources. Mid-term and long-term opportunities include improving the efficiency of wood stoves used for cooking and heating in rural areas; repairing the reputation of biogasification to take advantage of livestock wastes

  16. Nano-cellulose biopolymer based nano-biofilm biomaterial using plant biomass: An innovative plant biomaterial dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.M. Sharif hossain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The nano-cellulose derived nano-biofilm keeps a magnificent role in medical, biomedical, bioengineering and pharmaceutical industries. Plant biomaterial is naturally organic and biodegradable. This study has been highlighted as one of the strategy introducing biomass based nano-bioplastic (nanobiofilm to solve dependency on petroleum and environment pollution because of non-degradable plastic. The data study was carried out to investigate the nano-biopolymer (nanocellulose based nano-biofilm data from corn leaf biomass coming after bioprocess technology without chemicals. Corn leaf biomass was used to produce biodegradable nano-bioplastic for medical and biomedical and other industrial uses. Data on water absorption, odor, pH, cellulose content, shape and firmness, color coating and tensile strength test have been exhibited under standardization of ASTM (American standard for testing and materials. Moreover, the chemical elements of nanobiofilm like K+, CO3−−, Cl−, Na+ showed standard data using the EN (166. Keywords: Nanocellulose, Nanobiofilm, Nanobioplastic, Biodegradable, Corn leaf

  17. Generating renewable energy from oil palm biomass in Malaysia: The Feed-in Tariff policy framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umar, Mohd Shaharin; Jennings, Philip; Urmee, Tania

    2014-01-01

    The renewable energy (RE) industry in Malaysia began in 2001 in the context of the growing concern about future depletion of conventional fuels and the global environmental concerns about greenhouse gas emissions. The Small Renewable Energy Programme (SREP) is a tool that was first designed to drive the development of the industry based on the abundance of oil palm biomass reserves and other identified renewable energy resources. Due to the slow uptake of this scheme, a new system, the Feed-in Tariff (FiT) was introduced in 2011 to stimulate the industry. By considering the deficiencies of the previous scheme, this paper examines the sustainability of the FiT policy framework in steering the future expansion of small-scale biomass renewable energy businesses in Malaysia. Resulting from the evaluation of the current policy settings and a market based appraisal, this work outlines strategies for enhancing the scheme and suggests future studies aimed at improving the flaws in the present system. - Highlights: • Extend the FiT bandwidth capacity restrictions to all of the eligible renewable technologies under the FiT systems. • Differentiate the tariff level by considering the location and local conditions of the plant site. • Modify the revenue streams from the renewable fund. • Revise the quota system

  18. Steam generation unit in a simple version of biomass based small cogeneration unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sornek Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The organic Rankine cycle (ORC is a very promising process for the conversion of low or medium temperature heat to electricity in small and micro scale biomass powered systems. Classic ORC is analogous to Clausius–Rankine cycle in a steam power plant, but instead of water it uses low boiling, organic working fluids. Seeking energy and economical optimization of biomass-based ORC systems, we have proposed some modifications e.g. in low boiling fluid circuit construction. Due to the fact that the operation of a micro steam turbine is rather inefficient from the technical and economic point of view, a specially modified air compressor can be used as a steam piston engine. Such engine should be designed to work at low pressure of the working medium. Studies regarding the first version of the prototype installation were focused on the confirmation of applicability of a straw boiler in the prototype ORC power system. The results of the previous studies and the studies described in the paper (on the new cogeneration unit confirmed the high potential of the developed solution. Of course, many further studies have to be carried out.

  19. Soil Properties and Plant Biomass Production in Natural Rangeland Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu de Souza Werner

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Improper management of rangelands can cause land degradation and reduce the economic efficiency of livestock activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate soil properties and quantify plant biomass production in four natural rangeland management systems in the Santa Catarina Plateau (Planalto Catarinense of Brazil. The treatments, which included mowed natural rangeland (NR, burned natural rangeland (BR, natural rangeland improved through the introduction of plant species after harrowing (IH, and natural rangeland improved through the introduction of plant species after chisel plowing (IC, were evaluated in a Nitossolo Bruno (Nitisol. In the improved treatments, soil acidity was corrected, phosphate fertilizer was applied, and intercropped annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, velvet grass (Holcus lanatus, and white clover (Trifolium repens were sown. Management systems with harrowed or chisel plowed soil showed improved soil physical properties; however, the effect decreased over time and values approached those of burned and mowed natural rangelands. Natural rangeland systems in the establishment phase had little influence on soil organic C. The mowed natural rangeland and improved natural rangeland exhibited greater production of grazing material, while burning the field decreased production and increased the proportion of weeds. Improvement of the natural rangelands increased leguminous biomass for pasture.

  20. National renewable energy policy and local opposition in the UK: the failed development of a biomass electricity plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upreti, B.R.; Horst, Dan van der

    2004-01-01

    Biomass energy developments in the UK are supported by central government but face considerable opposition from the public. The purpose of this study is to explore the causes and consequences of public opposition to biomass energy development in North Wiltshire where Ambient Energy Ltd. proposed the development of a 5 MWe wood gasification plant near the town of Cricklade. The case study was conducted through in-depth interviews, content analysis, person to person questionnaire survey, focus group discussion and participatory appraisal methods. Though biomass energy plants in general have fewer environmental impacts than plants which use fossil fuel, there could still be local impacts which give rise to concerns and local opposition to the development. The opposition could be partially explained by the fact that the general public is relatively unfamiliar with biomass energy. Public acceptance or rejection was mainly based on the public trust or mistrust. The case study demonstrates two distinctly rigid characteristics among the key stakeholders of biomass energy development. These are the 'not-in-my-back-yard' attitude from the public and the 'there-is-no-alternative' attitude of the developers. These rigid stances were widely contributing to the failure of the project to gain planning permission. The environmental justification of biomass energy at the national level is not always sufficient to convince the local residents. Winning public support to promote biomass energy requires an alternative approach of planning and action through interactive communication, public participation and collective learning among all the stakeholders

  1. Importance of whole-plant biomass allocation and reproductive timing to habitat differentiation across the North American sunflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Chase M; Goolsby, Eric W; Davis, Kaleigh E; Bullock, Devon V; Donovan, Lisa A

    2017-05-01

    Trait-based plant ecology attempts to use small numbers of functional traits to predict plant ecological strategies. However, a major gap exists between our understanding of organ-level ecophysiological traits and our understanding of whole-plant fitness and environmental adaptation. In this gap lie whole-plant organizational traits, including those that describe how plant biomass is allocated among organs and the timing of plant reproduction. This study explores the role of whole-plant organizational traits in adaptation to diverse environments in the context of life history, growth form and leaf economic strategy in a well-studied herbaceous system. A phylogenetic comparative approach was used in conjunction with common garden phenotyping to assess the evolution of biomass allocation and reproductive timing across 83 populations of 27 species of the diverse genus Helianthus (the sunflowers). Broad diversity exists among species in both relative biomass allocation and reproductive timing. Early reproduction is strongly associated with resource-acquisitive leaf economic strategy, while biomass allocation is less integrated with either reproductive timing or leaf economics. Both biomass allocation and reproductive timing are strongly related to source site environmental characteristics, including length of the growing season, temperature, precipitation and soil fertility. Herbaceous taxa can adapt to diverse environments in many ways, including modulation of phenology, plant architecture and organ-level ecophysiology. Although leaf economic strategy captures one key aspect of plant physiology, on their own leaf traits are not particularly predictive of ecological strategies in Helianthus outside of the context of growth form, life history and whole-plant organization. These results highlight the importance of including data on whole-plant organization alongside organ-level ecophysiological traits when attempting to bridge the gap between functional traits and plant

  2. Second generation plant health clinics in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Solveig; Matsiko, Frank; Mutebi, Emmanuel

    coverage, Regularity/timeliness and Quality of plant healthcare. Field work was carried out over 15 months between July 2010 and September 2011 in 13 districts in the eastern, central and western parts of Uganda. A total of 205 plant clinic sessions were held in the period. The plant clinics received 2...... from the clinics to diagnostic laboratories. Although the plant clinics have become part of Ministry policy and districts showed increasing interest and commitment, there are some structural barriers that made it difficult for the districts to institutionalise the clinics and for the Ministry to play...... their leading role. A mismatch between institutional mandates/authority and allocated resources limited the scope of the actions both at district and national level. The plant clinics risk ‘falling between the two chairs’ of extension and pest and disease control. Finding a solid institutional base...

  3. Electric energy generation using biomass gasification; Generacion de energia electrica a partir de la gasificacion de biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, J.; Arauzo, J.; Gonzalo, Alberto; Sanchez, Jose Luis [Universidad de Zaragoza, Aragon (Spain). Inst. de Investigacion. Grupo de Procesos Termoquimicos; Rocha, J.D. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE); Mesa Perez, J.M. [Bioware Tecnologia, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Gasification experiments have been carried out with a atmospheric pressure down draft gasifier of a capacity of 250 kg/h of biomass. Biomass used have been almond shells and olive cut. Results obtained show a similar behaviour in gas composition with two biomass. A small fraction of the generated gas from the gasifier has been fed to a small generator of 4 kV A. The gas has been previously cleaned and dried by means of a scrubber and a condenser, to remove tar products. The generator has been operated with a great stability without any modification, and energy generated with gas from gasification are relatively close to the values obtained with conventional fuels such as gasoline or commercial butane. (author)

  4. Microstructural investigations of Ni and Ni2Al3 coatings exposed in biomass power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, D. L.; Dahl, K. V.; Christiansen, T. L.

    2018-01-01

    The present work investigates the corrosion resistance of Ni and Ni2Al3 coated austenitic stainless steel (TP347H) tubes, which were exposed in a biomass-fired boiler with an outlet steam temperature of 540 °C for 6757 h. The Ni2Al3 coating was produced by electroplating Ni followed by low...... temperature pack cementation. After exposure, microstructural investigations were performed by light optical and electron microscopy (SEM-EDS). Electroplated Ni coatings were not protective in straw firing power plants and exhibited similar corrosion morphology as uncoated tubes. For Ni2Al3 coatings...

  5. Upgrading to lead firm position via international acquisition: learning from the global biomass power plant industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Fold, Niels; Hansen, Teis

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the case of a Chinese firm that has upgraded to lead firm position in the global biomass power plant industry mainly through acquisitions of technological frontier firms in Denmark. Sustaining the lead firm position was, however, challenged by difficulties in developing...... innovative capability. Drawing on the literature on (i) firm-level technological capability and (ii) knowledge transfer in international acquisitions, we explain the reasons for insufficient innovative capability building. Based on these empirical findings, we suggest maintaining the existing upgrading...

  6. Insights into plant cell wall structure, architecture, and integrity using glycome profiling of native and AFEXTM-pre-treated biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G.; Dale, Bruce E.; Chundawat, Shishir P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Cell walls, which constitute the bulk of plant biomass, vary considerably in their structure, composition, and architecture. Studies on plant cell walls can be conducted on both native and pre-treated plant biomass samples, allowing an enhanced understanding of these structural and compositional variations. Here glycome profiling was employed to determine the relative abundance of matrix polysaccharides in several phylogenetically distinct native and pre-treated plant biomasses. Eight distinct biomass types belonging to four different subgroups (i.e. monocot grasses, woody dicots, herbaceous dicots, and softwoods) were subjected to various regimes of AFEX™ (ammonia fiber expansion) pre-treatment [AFEX is a trademark of MBI, Lansing (http://www.mbi.org]. This approach allowed detailed analysis of close to 200 cell wall glycan epitopes and their relative extractability using a high-throughput platform. In general, irrespective of the phylogenetic origin, AFEX™ pre-treatment appeared to cause loosening and improved accessibility of various xylan epitope subclasses in most plant biomass materials studied. For most biomass types analysed, such loosening was also evident for other major non-cellulosic components including subclasses of pectin and xyloglucan epitopes. The studies also demonstrate that AFEX™ pre-treatment significantly reduced cell wall recalcitrance among diverse phylogenies (except softwoods) by inducing structural modifications to polysaccharides that were not detectable by conventional gross composition analyses. It was found that monitoring changes in cell wall glycan compositions and their relative extractability for untreated and pre-treated plant biomass can provide an improved understanding of variations in structure and composition of plant cell walls and delineate the role(s) of matrix polysaccharides in cell wall recalcitrance. PMID:25911738

  7. Characterization plan for the Hanford Generating Plant (HGP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marske, S.G.

    1996-09-01

    This characterization plan describes the sample collection and sample analysis activities to characterize the Hanford Generating Plant and associated solid waste management units (SWMUs). The analytical data will be used to identify the radiological contamination in the Hanford Generating Plant as well as the presence of radiological and hazardous materials in the SWMUs to support further estimates of decontamination interpretation for demolition

  8. Electrical performance analysis and economic evaluation of combined biomass cook stove thermoelectric (BITE) generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertsatitthanakorn, C

    2007-05-01

    The use of biomass cook stoves is widespread in the domestic sector of developing countries, but the stoves are not efficient. To advance the versatility of the cook stove, we investigated the feasibility of adding a commercial thermoelectric (TE) module made of bismuth-telluride based materials to the stove's side wall, thereby creating a thermoelectric generator system that utilizes a proportion of the stove's waste heat. The system, a biomass cook stove thermoelectric generator (BITE), consists of a commercial TE module (Taihuaxing model TEP1-1264-3.4), a metal sheet wall which acts as one side of the stove's structure and serves as the hot side of the TE module, and a rectangular fin heat sink at the cold side of the TE module. An experimental set-up was built to evaluate the conversion efficiency at various temperature ranges. The experimental set-up revealed that the electrical power output and the conversion efficiency depended on the temperature difference between the cold and hot sides of the TE module. At a temperature difference of approximately 150 degrees C, the unit achieved a power output of 2.4W. The conversion efficiency of 3.2% was enough to drive a low power incandescent light bulb or a small portable radio. A theoretical model approximated the power output at low temperature ranges. An economic analysis indicated that the payback period tends to be very short when compared with the cost of the same power supplied by batteries. Therefore, the generator design formulated here could be used in the domestic sector. The system is not intended to compete with primary power sources but serves adequately as an emergency or backup source of power.

  9. Experimental fact-finding in CFB biomass gasification for ECN's 500 kWth pilot-plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Prins, W.; van der Drift, A.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2003-01-01

    CFB biomass gasification has been studied by experimentation with ECN's pilot facility and a cold-flow model of this plant. Data obtained by normal operation of this plant and the results of some special experiments have provided new insight into the behavior of circulating fluidized bed reactors

  10. Large-scale biodiesel production using flue gas from coal-fired power plants with Nannochloropsis microalgal biomass in open raceway ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Baohua; Sun, Faqiang; Yang, Miao; Lu, Lin; Yang, Guanpin; Pan, Kehou

    2014-12-01

    The potential use of microalgal biomass as a biofuel source has raised broad interest. Highly effective and economically feasible biomass generating techniques are essential to realize such potential. Flue gas from coal-fired power plants may serve as an inexpensive carbon source for microalgal culture, and it may also facilitate improvement of the environment once the gas is fixed in biomass. In this study, three strains of the genus Nannochloropsis (4-38, KA2 and 75B1) survived this type of culture and bloomed using flue gas from coal-fired power plants in 8000-L open raceway ponds. Lower temperatures and solar irradiation reduced the biomass yield and lipid productivities of these strains. Strain 4-38 performed better than the other two as it contained higher amounts of triacylglycerols and fatty acids, which are used for biodiesel production. Further optimization of the application of flue gas to microalgal culture should be undertaken. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Numerical simulation of a hybrid CSP/Biomass 5 MWel power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, João; Oliveira, Armando

    2017-06-01

    The fundamental benefit of using renewable energy systems is undeniable since they rely on a source that will not run out. Nevertheless, they strongly depend on meteorological conditions (solar, wind, etc.), leading to uncertainty of instantaneous energy supply and consequently to grid connection issues. An interesting concept is renewable hybridisation. This consists in the strategic combination of different renewable sources in the power generation portfolio by taking advantage of each technology. Hybridisation of concentrating solar power with biomass denotes a powerful way of assuring system stability and reliability. The main advantage is dispatchability through the whole extent of the operating range. Regarding concentrating solar power heat transfer fluid, direct steam generation is one of the most interesting concepts. Nevertheless, it presents itself technical challenges that are mostly related to the two-phase fluid flow in horizontal pipes, as well as the design of an energy storage system. Also, the use of reheat within the turbine is usually indirectly addressed, hindering system efficiency. These challenges can be addressed through hybridisation with biomass. In this paper, a hybrid renewable electricity generation system is presented. The system relies on a combination of solar and biomass sources to drive a 5 MWel steam turbine. System performance is analysed through numerical simulation using Ebsilon professional software. The use of direct reheat in the turbine is addressed. Results show that hybridisation results in an enhancement of system dispatchability and generation stability. Furthermore, hybridisation enhanced the annual solar field and power block efficiencies, and thus the system annual efficiency (from 7.6% to 20%). The use of direct reheat eliminates steam wetness in the last turbine stage and also improves system efficiency.

  12. Fossil fuel savings, carbon emission reduction and economic attractiveness of medium-scale integrated biomass gasification combined cycle cogeneration plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper theoretically investigates the system made up of fluidized bed gasifier, SGT-100 gas turbine and bottoming steam cycle. Different configurations of the combined cycle plant are examined. A comparison is made between systems with producer gas (PG and natural gas (NG fired turbine. Supplementary firing of the PG in a heat recovery steam generator is also taken into account. The performance of the gas turbine is investigated using in-house built Engineering Equation Solver model. Steam cycle is modeled using GateCycleTM simulation software. The results are compared in terms of electric energy generation efficiency, CO2 emission and fossil fuel energy savings. Finally there is performed an economic analysis of a sample project. The results show relatively good performance in the both alternative configurations at different rates of supplementary firing. Furthermore, positive values of economic indices were obtained. [Acknowledgements. This work was carried out within the frame of research project no. N N513 004036, titled: Analysis and optimization of distributed energy conversion plants integrated with gasification of biomass. The project is financed by the Polish Ministry of Science.

  13. Co-combustion of wood biomass in coal power plants, a contribution to energy turnaround and climate protection?; Die Mitverbrennung holzartiger Biomasse in Kohlekraftwerken. Ein Beitrag zur Energiewende und zum Klimaschutz?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Claudia; Herr, Michael; Edel, Matthias; Seidl, Hannes

    2011-08-15

    Co-combustion of wood biomass in coal power plants is feasible at short notice and can is a low-cost option for climate protection. While other EU states have already provided funding mechanism, Germany has not followed this lead so far. Domestic wood resources are limited and unevenly distributed among the German regions, so that wood materials will have to be imported. During the past few years, the basic requirements for imports of wood were provided with the initiation of a global pellets market. Sustainability criteria for wood consumption were defined, and international certification systems were developed. The sustainability criteria should be extended to cover also wood-like materials and other biomass for power generation. The German EEG (Renewables Act) is a first step in this direction. Further, investments must be made in logistics capacities. The available logistics of coal power plants can be used with some minor modifications. In all, successful and sustainable international biomass markets may soon be available.

  14. Thermal Properties of Biochars Derived from Waste Biomass Generated by Agricultural and Forestry Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste residues produced by agricultural and forestry industries can generate energy and are regarded as a promising source of sustainable fuels. Pyrolysis, where waste biomass is heated under low-oxygen conditions, has recently attracted attention as a means to add value to these residues. The material is carbonized and yields a solid product known as biochar. In this study, eight types of biomass were evaluated for their suitability as raw material to produce biochar. Material was pyrolyzed at either 350 °C or 500 °C and changes in ash content, volatile solids, fixed carbon, higher heating value (HHV and yield were assessed. For pyrolysis at 350 °C, significant correlations (p < 0.01 between the biochars’ ash and fixed carbon content and their HHVs were observed. Masson pine wood and Chinese fir wood biochars pyrolyzed at 350 °C and the bamboo sawdust biochar pyrolyzed at 500 °C were suitable for direct use in fuel applications, as reflected by their higher HHVs, higher energy density, greater fixed carbon and lower ash contents. Rice straw was a poor substrate as the resultant biochar contained less than 60% fixed carbon and a relatively low HHV. Of the suitable residues, carbonization via pyrolysis is a promising technology to add value to pecan shells and Miscanthus.

  15. Topo-edaphic controls over woody plant biomass in South African savannas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Colgan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of woody biomass in savannas reflects spatial patterns fundamental to ecosystem processes, such as water flow, competition, and herbivory, and is a key contributor to savanna ecosystem services, such as fuelwood supply. While total precipitation sets an upper bound on savanna woody biomass, the extent to which substrate and terrain constrain trees and shrubs below this maximum remains poorly understood, often occluded by local-scale disturbances such as fire and trampling. Here we investigate the role of hillslope topography and soil properties in controlling woody plant aboveground biomass (AGB in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Large-area sampling with airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR provided a means to average across local-scale disturbances, revealing an unexpectedly linear relationship between AGB and hillslope-position on basalts, where biomass levels were lowest on crests, and linearly increased toward streams (R2 = 0.91. The observed pattern was different on granite substrates, where AGB exhibited a strongly non-linear relationship with hillslope position: AGB was high on crests, decreased midslope, and then increased near stream channels (R2 = 0.87. Overall, we observed 5-to-8-fold lower AGB on clayey, basalt-derived soil than on granites, and we suggest this is due to herbivore-fire interactions rather than lower hydraulic conductivity or clay shrinkage/swelling, as previously hypothesized. By mapping AGB within and outside fire and herbivore exclosures, we found that basalt-derived soils support tenfold higher AGB in the absence of fire and herbivory, suggesting high clay content alone is not a proximal limitation on AGB. Understanding how fire and herbivory contribute to AGB heterogeneity is critical to predicting future savanna carbon storage under a changing climate.

  16. Advanced Systems for Preprocessing and Characterizing Coal-Biomass Mixtures as Next-Generation Fuels and Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmis, Michael [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Luttrell, Gerald [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Ripepi, Nino [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Bratton, Robert [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Dohm, Erich [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The research activities presented in this report are intended to address the most critical technical challenges pertaining to coal-biomass briquette feedstocks. Several detailed investigations were conducted using a variety of coal and biomass feedstocks on the topics of (1) coal-biomass briquette production and characterization, (2) gasification of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, (3) combustion of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, and (4) conceptual engineering design and economic feasibility of briquette production. The briquette production studies indicate that strong and durable co-firing feedstocks can be produced by co-briquetting coal and biomass resources commonly available in the United States. It is demonstrated that binderless coal-biomass briquettes produced at optimized conditions exhibit very high strength and durability, which indicates that such briquettes would remain competent in the presence of forces encountered in handling, storage and transportation. The gasification studies conducted demonstrate that coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes are exceptional gasification feedstocks, particularly with regard to the synergistic effects realized during devolatilization of the blended materials. The mixture combustion studies indicate that coal-biomass mixtures are exceptional combustion feedstocks, while the briquette combustion study indicates that the use of blended briquettes reduces NOx, CO2, and CO emissions, and requires the least amount of changes in the operating conditions of an existing coal-fired power plant. Similar results were obtained for the physical durability of the pilot-scale briquettes compared to the bench-scale tests. Finally, the conceptual engineering and feasibility analysis study for a commercial-scale briquetting production facility provides preliminary flowsheet and cost simulations to evaluate the various feedstocks, equipment selection and operating parameters.

  17. Generator technology for HTGR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomba, D.; Thiot, D.

    1997-01-01

    Approximately 15% of the worlds installed capacity in electric energy production is from generators developed and manufactured by GEC Alsthom. GEC Alsthom is now working on the application of generators for HTGR power conversion systems. The main generator characteristics induced by the different HTGR power conversion technology include helium immersion, high helium pressure, brushless excitation system, magnetic bearings, vertical lineshaft, high reliability and long periods between maintenance. (author)

  18. Estimation of potential biomass resource and biogas production from aquatic plants in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, R. E.; Laurino, C. N.; Vallejos, R. H.

    1982-08-01

    The use of aquatic plants in artificial lakes as a biomass source for biogas and fertilizer production through anaerobic fermentation is evaluated, and the magnitude of this resource and the potential production of biogas and fertilizer are estimated. The specific case considered is the artificial lake that will be created by the construction of Parana Medio Hydroelectric Project on the middle Parana River in Argentina. The growth of the main aquatic plant, water hyacinth, on the middle Parana River has been measured, and its conversion to methane by anaerobic fermentation is determined. It is estimated that gross methane production may be between 1.0-4.1 x 10 to the 9th cu cm/year. The fermentation residue can be used as a soil conditioner, and it is estimated production of the residue may represent between 54,900-221,400 tons of nitrogen/year, a value which is 2-8 times the present nitrogen fertilizer demand in Argentina.

  19. Feasibility study of a biomass-fired cogeneration plant Groningen, Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijk, P.J.; Van Loo, S.; Webb, R.

    1996-06-01

    The feasibility of the title plant is determined for district heating and electricity supply of more than 1,000 houses in Groningen, Netherlands. Also attention is paid to the feasibility of such installations in a planned area of the city. Prices and supply of several biomass resources are dealt with: prunings of parks, public and private gardens, clean wood wastes, wood wastes from forests, wood from newly planted forests, specific energy crops (willows in high densities and short cycles). Prices are calculated, including transport to the gate of the premises where the cogeneration installations is situated. For the conversion attention is paid to both the feasibility of the use of a conventional cogeneration installation (by means of a steam turbine) and the use of a new conversion technique: combined cycle of a gasification installation and a cogeneration installation. 5 figs., 5 ills., 22 tabs., 1 appendix, 33 refs

  20. Plant adaptation to fluctuating environment and biomass production are strongly dependent on guard cell potassium channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebaudy, Anne; Vavasseur, Alain; Hosy, Eric; Dreyer, Ingo; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Thibaud, Jean-Baptiste; Véry, Anne-Aliénor; Simonneau, Thierry; Sentenac, Hervé

    2008-01-01

    At least four genes encoding plasma membrane inward K+ channels (Kin channels) are expressed in Arabidopsis guard cells. A double mutant plant was engineered by disruption of a major Kin channel gene and expression of a dominant negative channel construct. Using the patch-clamp technique revealed that this mutant was totally deprived of guard cell Kin channel (GCKin) activity, providing a model to investigate the roles of this activity in the plant. GCKin activity was found to be an essential effector of stomatal opening triggered by membrane hyperpolarization and thereby of blue light-induced stomatal opening at dawn. It improved stomatal reactivity to external or internal signals (light, CO2 availability, and evaporative demand). It protected stomatal function against detrimental effects of Na+ when plants were grown in the presence of physiological concentrations of this cation, probably by enabling guard cells to selectively and rapidly take up K+ instead of Na+ during stomatal opening, thereby preventing deleterious effects of Na+ on stomatal closure. It was also shown to be a key component of the mechanisms that underlie the circadian rhythm of stomatal opening, which is known to gate stomatal responses to extracellular and intracellular signals. Finally, in a meteorological scenario with higher light intensity during the first hours of the photophase, GCKin activity was found to allow a strong increase (35%) in plant biomass production. Thus, a large diversity of approaches indicates that GCKin activity plays pleiotropic roles that crucially contribute to plant adaptation to fluctuating and stressing natural environments. PMID:18367672

  1. Optimization of animal manure vermicomposting based on biomass production of earthworms and higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Yan V; Alves, Luciano; Bianchi, Ivan; Espíndola, Jonas C; Oliveira, Juahil M De; Radetski, Claudemir M; Somensi, Cleder A

    2017-11-02

    The goal of this study was to optimize the mixture of swine manure (SM) and cattle manure (CM) used in the vermicomposting process, seeking to increase the manure biodegradation rate and enhance the biomass production of both earthworms and higher plants. To achieve this goal, physico-chemical parameters were determined to assess the final compost quality after 50 days of vermicomposting. The different manure ratios used to produce the composts (C) were as follows (SM:CM, % m/m basis): C1 100:0, C2 (75:25), C3 (50:50), C4 (25:75), and C5 (0:100). In addition, the earthworm biomass and the phytoproductivity of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) plants grown in mixtures (1:1) of natural soil and the most viable vermicomposts were investigated. The C1 and C2 compost compositions were associated with high earthworm mortality rates. The C3 compost provided the highest mineral concentrations and C5 showed the highest lettuce yield (wet biomass). The results verify that stabilized cattle manure is an excellent substrate for the vermicomposting process and that fresh swine manure must be mixed with pre-stabilized cattle manure to ensure an optimized vermicomposting process, which must be controlled in terms of temperature and ammonia levels. It is concluded that small livestock farmers could add value to swine manure by applying the vermicomposting process, without the need for high investments and with a minimal requirement for management of the biodegradation process. These are important technical aspects to be considered when circular economy principles are applied to small farms.

  2. A Honey Bee Foraging approach for optimal location of a biomass power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, David; Jurado, Francisco [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, University of Jaen, 23700 EPS Linares, Jaen (Spain); Carabias, Julio; Ruiz-Reyes, Nicolas [Dept. of Telecommunication Engineering, University of Jaen, 23700 EPS Linares, Jaen (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Over eight million hectares of olive trees are cultivated worldwide, especially in Mediterranean countries, where more than 97% of the world's olive oil is produced. The three major olive oil producers worldwide are Spain, Italy, and Greece. Olive tree pruning residues are an autochthonous and important renewable source that, in most of cases, farmers burn through an uncontrolled manner. Besides, industrial uses have not yet been developed. The aim of this paper consists of a new calculation tool based on particles swarm (Binary Honey Bee Foraging, BHBF). Effectively, this approach will make possible to determine the optimal location, biomass supply area and power plant size that offer the best profitability for investor. Moreover, it prevents the accurate method (not feasible from computational viewpoint). In this work, Profitability Index (PI) is set as the fitness function for the BHBF approach. Results are compared with other evolutionary optimization algorithms such as Binary Particle Swarm Optimization (BPSO), and Genetic Algorithms (GA). All the experiments have shown that the optimal plant size is 2 MW, PI = 3.3122, the best location corresponds to coordinate: X = 49, Y = 97 and biomass supply area is 161.33 km{sup 2}. The simulation times have been reduced to the ninth of time than the greedy (accurate) solution. Matlab registered is used to run all simulations. (author)

  3. The UK biomass industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billins, P.

    1998-01-01

    A brief review is given of the development of the biomass industry in the UK. Topics covered include poultry litter generation of electricity, gasification plants fuelled by short-rotation coppice, on-farm anaerobic digestion and specialized combustion systems, e.g. straw, wood and other agricultural wastes. (UK)

  4. Small scale electricity generation from a portable biomass cookstove: Prototype design and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Shaughnessy, S.M.; Deasy, M.J.; Kinsella, C.E.; Doyle, J.V.; Robinson, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We have integrated a thermoelectric generator with a cooking stove. ► The device has been deployed into a village in rural Malawi for up to 3 months. ► The stoves are equipped with temperature and power data logging equipment. ► Users have already charged mobile phones, lights and radios from the stove generator. ► Data loggers will provide stove usage and power usage data. -- Abstract: The World Health Organisation estimates that over 20% of the global population (∼1.4 billion people) lack access to electricity. Furthermore, 40% of the global population (∼2.7 billion people) rely on the traditional use of biomass for cooking (WHO 2011, OEDC/IEA, 2010). This study details the development of a prototype electrical generator for portable stoves commonly in use in the developing world. This generator is capable of delivering small amounts of off-grid electricity. Power is generated using the thermoelectric effect. A single thermoelectric module is utilised to convert a small portion of heat from the stove to electricity. The electricity produced is used to charge a single 3.3 V lithium–iron phosphate battery and drive a low power fan, as well as some other auxiliary features. The airflow produced by the fan is used in conjunction with a commercially available heat pipe heat sink to maintain an adequate temperature difference across the thermoelectric module. From experiments in the laboratory, a maximum TEG power output of 5.9 W has been obtained. On average, 3 W h of energy was stored in a battery during a typical 1 h long burn. Three 1 h long burns produced sufficient energy to fully charge the battery. The performance of the electricity generating cooking stove has subsequently been tested in Malawi using locally sourced fuel and fire stoking methods.

  5. Biomass recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes - this co......Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes...... - this collective resistance is known as "biomass recalcitrance." Breakthrough technologies are needed to overcome barriers to developing cost-effective processes for converting biomass to fuels and chemicals. This book examines the connection between biomass structure, ultrastructure, and composition......, to resistance to enzymatic deconstruction, with the aim of discovering new cost-effective technologies for biorefineries. It contains chapters on topics extending from the highest levels of biorefinery design and biomass life-cycle analysis, to detailed aspects of plant cell wall structure, chemical treatments...

  6. Quantification of crystalline cellulose in lignocellulosic biomass using sum frequency generation (SFG) vibration spectroscopy and comparison with other analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnette, Anna L; Lee, Christopher; Bradley, Laura C; Schreiner, Edward P; Park, Yong Bum; Shin, Heenae; Cosgrove, Daniel J; Park, Sunkyu; Kim, Seong H

    2012-07-01

    The non-centrosymmetry requirement of sum frequency generation (SFG) vibration spectroscopy allows the detection and quantification of crystalline cellulose in lignocellulose biomass without spectral interferences from hemicelluloses and lignin. This paper shows a correlation between the amount of crystalline cellulose in biomass and the SFG signal intensity. Model biomass samples were prepared by mixing commercially available cellulose, xylan, and lignin to defined concentrations. The SFG signal intensity was found sensitive to a wide range of crystallinity, but varied non-linearly with the mass fraction of cellulose in the samples. This might be due to the matrix effects such as light scattering and absorption by xylan and lignin, as well as the non-linear density dependence of the SFG process itself. Comparison with other techniques such as XRD, FT-Raman, FT-IR and NMR demonstrate that SFG can be a complementary and sensitive tool to assess crystalline cellulose in biomass. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Operating of Small Wind Power Plants with Induction Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Nevrala

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes different systems of small wind power plants with induction generators used in the Czech Republic. Problems of wind power plants running with induction generators are solved within partial target of the research project MSM 6198910007. For small wind power plants is used induction motor as a generator. Parameters of the name plate of motor must be resolved for generator running on measuring base. These generators are running as a separately working generators or generators connected to the power grid. Methods of control these systems as a separately working, directly connecting to power grid, control by frequency converter and wiring by synchronous cascade are confronted on the measuring base too.

  8. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Evaluation of Siting a HTGR Co-generation Plant on an Operating Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demick, L.E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes an evaluation by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project of siting a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) plant on an existing nuclear plant site that is located in an area of significant industrial activity. This is a co-generation application in which the HTGR Plant will be supplying steam and electricity to one or more of the nearby industrial plants.

  9. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Evaluation of Siting a HTGR Co-generation Plant on an Operating Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.E. Demick

    2011-10-01

    This paper summarizes an evaluation by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project of siting a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) plant on an existing nuclear plant site that is located in an area of significant industrial activity. This is a co-generation application in which the HTGR Plant will be supplying steam and electricity to one or more of the nearby industrial plants.

  10. Investigating Potential Toxicity of Leachate from Wood Chip Piles Generated by Roadside Biomass Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rex

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Roadside processing of wood biomass leaves chip piles of varying size depending upon whether they were created for temporary storage, spillage, or equipment maintenance. Wood chips left in these piles can generate leachate that contaminates streams when processing sites are connected to waterways. Leachate toxicity and chemistry were assessed for pure aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx., lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl., hybrid white spruce (Picea engelmannii x glauca Parry, and black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. Britton as well as from two wood chipping sites using mixes of lodgepole pine and hybrid or black spruce. Leachate was generated using rainfall simulation, a static 28-day laboratory assay, and a field-based exposure. Leachate generated by these exposures was analyzed for organic matter content, phenols, ammonia, pH, and toxicity. Findings indicate that all wood chip types produced a toxic leachate despite differences in their chemistry. The consistent toxicity response highlights the need for runoff management that will disconnect processing sites from aquatic environments.

  11. Testing the generality of above-ground biomass allometry across plant functional types at the continent scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Keryn I; Roxburgh, Stephen H; Chave, Jerome; England, Jacqueline R; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Specht, Alison; Lewis, Tom; Bennett, Lauren T; Baker, Thomas G; Adams, Mark A; Huxtable, Dan; Montagu, Kelvin D; Falster, Daniel S; Feller, Mike; Sochacki, Stan; Ritson, Peter; Bastin, Gary; Bartle, John; Wildy, Dan; Hobbs, Trevor; Larmour, John; Waterworth, Rob; Stewart, Hugh T L; Jonson, Justin; Forrester, David I; Applegate, Grahame; Mendham, Daniel; Bradford, Matt; O'Grady, Anthony; Green, Daryl; Sudmeyer, Rob; Rance, Stan J; Turner, John; Barton, Craig; Wenk, Elizabeth H; Grove, Tim; Attiwill, Peter M; Pinkard, Elizabeth; Butler, Don; Brooksbank, Kim; Spencer, Beren; Snowdon, Peter; O'Brien, Nick; Battaglia, Michael; Cameron, David M; Hamilton, Steve; McAuthur, Geoff; Sinclair, Jenny

    2016-06-01

    Accurate ground-based estimation of the carbon stored in terrestrial ecosystems is critical to quantifying the global carbon budget. Allometric models provide cost-effective methods for biomass prediction. But do such models vary with ecoregion or plant functional type? We compiled 15 054 measurements of individual tree or shrub biomass from across Australia to examine the generality of allometric models for above-ground biomass prediction. This provided a robust case study because Australia includes ecoregions ranging from arid shrublands to tropical rainforests, and has a rich history of biomass research, particularly in planted forests. Regardless of ecoregion, for five broad categories of plant functional type (shrubs; multistemmed trees; trees of the genus Eucalyptus and closely related genera; other trees of high wood density; and other trees of low wood density), relationships between biomass and stem diameter were generic. Simple power-law models explained 84-95% of the variation in biomass, with little improvement in model performance when other plant variables (height, bole wood density), or site characteristics (climate, age, management) were included. Predictions of stand-based biomass from allometric models of varying levels of generalization (species-specific, plant functional type) were validated using whole-plot harvest data from 17 contrasting stands (range: 9-356 Mg ha(-1) ). Losses in efficiency of prediction were <1% if generalized models were used in place of species-specific models. Furthermore, application of generalized multispecies models did not introduce significant bias in biomass prediction in 92% of the 53 species tested. Further, overall efficiency of stand-level biomass prediction was 99%, with a mean absolute prediction error of only 13%. Hence, for cost-effective prediction of biomass across a wide range of stands, we recommend use of generic allometric models based on plant functional types. Development of new species

  12. Pilot scale testing of biomass feedstocks for use in gasification/gas turbine based power generation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najewicz, D.J.; Furman, A.H. [General Electric Corporate Research and Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A biomass gasification pilot program was performed at the GE Corporate Research and Development Center using two types of biomass feedstock. The object of the testing was to determine the properties of biomass product gas and its` suitability as a fuel for gas turbine based power generation cycles. The test program was sponsored by the State of Vermont, the US Environmental Protection Agency, the US Department of Energy and Winrock International/US Agency for International Development. Gasification of bagasse and wood chip feedstock was performed at a feed rate of approximately one ton per hour, using the Ge pressurized fixed bed gasifier and a single stage of cyclone particulate removal, operating at a temperature of 1,000 F. Both biomass feedstocks were found to gasify easily, and gasification capacity was limited by volumetric capacity of the fuel feed equipment. The biomass product gas was analyzed for chemical composition, particulate loading, fuel bound nitrogen levels, sulfur and alkali metal content. The results of the testing indicated the combustion characteristics of the biomass product gas are compatible with gas turbine combustor requirements. However, the particulate removal performance of the pilot facility single stage cyclone was found to be inadequate to meet turbine particulate contamination specifications. In addition, alkali metals found in biomass based fuels, which are known to cause corrosion of high temperature gas turbine components, were found to exceed allowable levels in the fuel gas. These alkali metal compounds are found in the particulate matter (at 1000 F) carried over from the gasifier, thus improved particulate removal technology, designed specifically for biomass particulate characteristics could meet the turbine requirements for both particulate and alkali loading. The paper will present the results of the biomass gasification testing and discuss the development needs in the area of gas clean-up and turbine combustion.

  13. Development of second-generation PFB combustion plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, A.; Domeracki, W.; Horazak, D. [and others

    1995-12-31

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (USDOE) Contract DE-AC21-86MC21023 to develop a new type of coal-fueled plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant--called an Advanced or Second-generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (APFBC) plant--offers the promise of efficiencies greater than 45 percent (HHV), with both emissions and a cost of electricity that are significantly lower than conventional pulverized-coal-fired plants with scrubbers. This paper summarizes the pilot-plant R&D work being conducted to develop this new type of plant and discusses a proposed design that should reduce demonstration-plant risks and costs.

  14. Environmental burdens over the entire life cycle of a biomass CHP plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungmeier, G.; Spitzer, J.; Resch, G.

    1998-01-01

    To increase the use of biomass for energy production it is important to know the possible and significant environmental effects. A life cycle inventory (LCI) was made on a 1.3 MW el biomass CHP plant located in Reuthe/Vorarlberg/Austria with the purpose of analysing the different environmental burdens over the entire life cycle. The plant is fired with coarse and small fuelwood (10,000 t/yr) from industrial waste and forest residues. The boiler for the steam process has a moving grate burner and a muffle burner. The annual production is 4700 MWh of electricity and 29,000 MWh of district heat. The methodology of the analysis is orientated on the ISO Committee Draft of the Series 13,600. The analysis was carried out for the different sections of the biomass plant over their entire life cycle-construction (1 yr), operation (20 yrs) and dismantling (1 yr). The plant in Reuthe, which is the first cogeneration system of this kind in Austria, is a model for other similar projects. The results are shown as environmental burdens of one year and of the entire life cycle. Some results of the life cycle inventory, like the mass and energy balances, selected emissions to air, allocation results and effects on carbon storage pools are given. The results demonstrate that depending on the stage and the period of life, different environmental burdens become significant, i.e. CO 2 emissions of fossil fuels during construction. NO x emission during operation, emissions to soil during dismantling. The different options for allocation the environmental burdens to electricity and heat show a wide range of possible results, depending on the choice of allocation parameters (energy, exergy, credits for heat or electricity, price) i.e. for the particles emissions: 161 mg/kWh el to minus 566 mg/kWh el , 0 mg/kWh th to 118 mg/kWh th . With the results of the analysis it is thus possible for future similar projects to know when and where significant environmental burdens might be further

  15. Phylogeny is a powerful tool for predicting plant biomass responses to nitrogen enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooliver, Rachel C; Marion, Zachary H; Peterson, Christopher R; Potts, Brad M; Senior, John K; Bailey, Joseph K; Schweitzer, Jennifer A

    2017-08-01

    Increasing rates of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) enrichment to soils often lead to the dominance of nitrophilic plant species and reduce plant diversity in natural ecosystems. Yet, we lack a framework to predict which species will be winners or losers in soil N enrichment scenarios, a framework that current literature suggests should integrate plant phylogeny, functional tradeoffs, and nutrient co-limitation. Using a controlled fertilization experiment, we quantified biomass responses to N enrichment for 23 forest tree species within the genus Eucalyptus that are native to Tasmania, Australia. Based on previous work with these species' responses to global change factors and theory on the evolution of plant resource-use strategies, we hypothesized that (1) growth responses to N enrichment are phylogenetically structured, (2) species with more resource-acquisitive functional traits have greater growth responses to N enrichment, and (3) phosphorus (P) limits growth responses to N enrichment differentially across species, wherein P enrichment increases growth responses to N enrichment more in some species than others. We built a hierarchical Bayesian model estimating effects of functional traits (specific leaf area, specific stem density, and specific root length) and P fertilization on species' biomass responses to N, which we then compared between lineages to determine whether phylogeny explains variation in responses to N. In concordance with literature on N limitation, a majority of species responded strongly and positively to N enrichment. Mean responses ranged three-fold, from 6.21 (E. pulchella) to 16.87 (E. delegatensis) percent increases in biomass per g N·m -2 ·yr -1 added. We identified a strong difference in responses to N between two phylogenetic lineages in the Eucalyptus subgenus Symphyomyrtus, suggesting that shared ancestry explains variation in N limitation. However, our model indicated that after controlling for phylogenetic non

  16. Increased power to heat ratio of small scale CHP plants using biomass fuels and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savola, Tuula; Fogelholm, Carl-Johan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a systematic study of process changes for increased power production in 1-20 MW e combined heat and power (CHP) plants. The changes are simulated, and their economic feasibility evaluated by using existing small scale CHP case plants. Increasing power production in decentralised CHP plants that operate according to a certain heat demand could reduce the fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions per power unit produced and improve the feasibility of CHP plant investments. The CHP plant process changes were simulated under design and off design conditions and an analysis of power and heat production, investment costs and CO 2 emissions was performed over the whole annual heat demand. The results show that using biomass fuels, there are profitable possibilities to increase the current power to heat ratios, 0.23-0.48, of the small scale CHP plants up to 0.26-0.56, depending on the size of the plant. The profitable changes were a two stage district heat exchanger and the addition of a steam reheater and a feed water preheater. If natural gas is used as an additional fuel, the power to heat ratio may be increased up to 0.35-0.65 by integrating a gas engine into the process. If the CO 2 savings from the changes are also taken into account, the economic feasibility of the changes increases. The results of this work offer useful performance simulation and investment cost knowledge for the development of more efficient and economically feasible small scale CHP processes

  17. Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens Are Biphasic Mixed Microbial Bioreactors That Convert Plant Biomass to Polyols with Biotechnological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somera, Alexandre F.; Lima, Adriel M.; dos Santos-Neto, Álvaro J.; Lanças, Fernando M.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf-cutter ants use plant matter to culture the obligate mutualistic basidiomycete Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. This fungus mediates ant nutrition on plant resources. Furthermore, other microbes living in the fungus garden might also contribute to plant digestion. The fungus garden comprises a young sector with recently incorporated leaf fragments and an old sector with partially digested plant matter. Here, we show that the young and old sectors of the grass-cutter Atta bisphaerica fungus garden operate as a biphasic solid-state mixed fermenting system. An initial plant digestion phase occurred in the young sector in the fungus garden periphery, with prevailing hemicellulose and starch degradation into arabinose, mannose, xylose, and glucose. These products support fast microbial growth but were mostly converted into four polyols. Three polyols, mannitol, arabitol, and inositol, were secreted by L. gongylophorus, and a fourth polyol, sorbitol, was likely secreted by another, unidentified, microbe. A second plant digestion phase occurred in the old sector, located in the fungus garden core, comprising stocks of microbial biomass growing slowly on monosaccharides and polyols. This biphasic operation was efficient in mediating symbiotic nutrition on plant matter: the microbes, accounting for 4% of the fungus garden biomass, converted plant matter biomass into monosaccharides and polyols, which were completely consumed by the resident ants and microbes. However, when consumption was inhibited through laboratory manipulation, most of the plant polysaccharides were degraded, products rapidly accumulated, and yields could be preferentially switched between polyols and monosaccharides. This feature might be useful in biotechnology. PMID:25911490

  18. BENEFIT COST FOR BIOMASS CO-FIRING IN ELECTRICITY GENERATION: CASE OF UTAH, U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Keun Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Policy making regarding biomass co-firing is difficult. The article provides a benefit-cost analysis for decision makers to facilitate policy making process to implement efficient biomass co-firing policy. The additional cost is the sum of cost of the biomass procurement and biomass transportation. Co-benefits are sales of greenhouse gas emission credits and health benefit from reducing harmful air pollutants, especially particulate matter. The benefit-cost analysis is constructed for semi-arid U.S. region, Utah, where biomass supply is limited. Results show that biomass co-firing is not economically feasible in Utah but would be feasible when co-benefits are considered. Benefit-cost ratio is critically dependent upon biomass and carbon credit prices. The procedure to build the benefit-cost ratio can be applied for any region with other scenarios suggested in this study.

  19. The influence of gadolinium and yttrium on biomass production and nutrient balance of maize plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saatz, Jessica; Vetterlein, Doris; Mattusch, Jürgen; Otto, Matthias; Daus, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are expected to become pollutants by enriching in the environment due to their wide applications nowadays. The uptake and distribution of gadolinium and yttrium and its influence on biomass production and nutrient balance was investigated in hydroponic solution experiments with maize plants using increasing application doses of 0.1, 1 and 10 mg L −1 . It could be shown that concentrations of up to 1 mg L −1 of Gd and Y did not reduce or enhance the plant growth or alter the nutrient balance. 10 mg L −1  Gd or Y resulted in REE concentrations of up to 1.2 weight-% in the roots and severe phosphate deficiency symptoms. Transfer rates showed that there was only little transport of Gd and Y from roots to shoots. Significant correlations were found between the concentration of Gd and Y in the nutrient solution and the root tissue concentration of Ca, Mg and P. - Highlights: • Roots accumulate REE in very high concentrations. • Transfer factors from root to shoot tissue are very low, with HREE higher than MREE. • The nutrient balance of the plant is severely influenced by REE addition. • Phosphate deficiency appears at high concentrations of REE addition. - The addition of the rare-earth elements Gd and Y results in less Ca and Mg uptake and phosphate deficiency in maize plants grown in hydroponics

  20. Topical report on sources and systems for aquatic plant biomass as an energy resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, J.C.; Ryther, J.H.; Waaland, R.; Wilson, E.H.

    1977-10-21

    Background information is documented on the mass cultivation of aquatic plants and systems design that is available from the literature and through consultation with active research scientists and engineers. The biology of microalgae, macroalgae, and aquatic angiosperms is discussed in terms of morphology, life history, mode of existence, and ecological significance, as they relate to cultivation. The requirements for growth of these plants, which are outlined in the test, suggest that productivity rates are dependent primarily on the availability of light and nutrients. It is concluded that the systems should be run with an excess of nutrients and with light as the limiting factor. A historical review of the mass cultivation of aquatic plants describes the techniques used in commercial large-scale operations throughout the world and recent small-scale research efforts. This review presents information on the biomass yields that have been attained to date in various geographical locations with different plant species and culture conditions, emphasizing the contrast between high yields in small-scale operations and lower yields in large-scale operations.

  1. Herbivory alters plant carbon assimilation, patterns of biomass allocation and nitrogen use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschiutta, María Laura; Scholz, Fabián Gustavo; Goldstein, Guillermo; Bucci, Sandra Janet

    2018-01-01

    Herbivory can trigger physiological processes resulting in leaf and whole plant functional changes. The effects of chronic infestation by an insect on leaf traits related to carbon and nitrogen economy in three Prunus avium cultivars were assessed. Leaves from non-infested trees (control) and damaged leaves from infested trees were selected. The insect larvae produce skeletonization of the leaves leaving relatively intact the vein network of the eaten leaves and the abaxial epidermal tissue. At the leaf level, nitrogen content per mass (Nmass) and per area (Narea), net photosynthesis per mass (Amass) and per area (Aarea), photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE), leaf mass per area (LMA) and total leaf phenols content were measured in the three cultivars. All cultivars responded to herbivory in a similar fashion. The Nmass, Amass, and PNUE decreased, while LMA and total content of phenols increased in partially damaged leaves. Increases in herbivore pressure resulted in lower leaf size and total leaf area per plant across cultivars. Despite this, stem cumulative growth tended to increase in infected plants suggesting a change in the patterns of biomass allocation and in resources sequestration elicited by herbivory. A larger N investment in defenses instead of photosynthetic structures may explain the lower PNUE and Amass observed in damaged leaves. Some physiological changes due to herbivory partially compensate for the cost of leaf removal buffering the carbon economy at the whole plant level.

  2. Nutrient-enhanced decomposition of plant biomass in a freshwater wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodker, James E.; Turner, Robert Eugene; Tweel, Andrew; Schulz, Christopher; Swarzenski, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    We studied soil decomposition in a Panicum hemitomon (Schultes)-dominated freshwater marsh located in southeastern Louisiana that was unambiguously changed by secondarily-treated municipal wastewater effluent. We used four approaches to evaluate how belowground biomass decomposition rates vary under different nutrient regimes in this marsh. The results of laboratory experiments demonstrated how nutrient enrichment enhanced the loss of soil or plant organic matter by 50%, and increased gas production. An experiment demonstrated that nitrogen, not phosphorus, limited decomposition. Cellulose decomposition at the field site was higher in the flowfield of the introduced secondarily treated sewage water, and the quality of the substrate (% N or % P) was directly related to the decomposition rates. We therefore rejected the null hypothesis that nutrient enrichment had no effect on the decomposition rates of these organic soils. In response to nutrient enrichment, plants respond through biomechanical or structural adaptations that alter the labile characteristics of plant tissue. These adaptations eventually change litter type and quality (where the marsh survives) as the % N content of plant tissue rises and is followed by even higher decomposition rates of the litter produced, creating a positive feedback loop. Marsh fragmentation will increase as a result. The assumptions and conditions underlying the use of unconstrained wastewater flow within natural wetlands, rather than controlled treatment within the confines of constructed wetlands, are revealed in the loss of previously sequestered carbon, habitat, public use, and other societal benefits.

  3. How does biomass distribution change with size and differ among species? An analysis for 1200 plant species from five continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorter, Hendrik; Jagodzinski, Andrzej M; Ruiz-Peinado, Ricardo; Kuyah, Shem; Luo, Yunjian; Oleksyn, Jacek; Usoltsev, Vladimir A; Buckley, Thomas N; Reich, Peter B; Sack, Lawren

    2015-11-01

    We compiled a global database for leaf, stem and root biomass representing c. 11 000 records for c. 1200 herbaceous and woody species grown under either controlled or field conditions. We used this data set to analyse allometric relationships and fractional biomass distribution to leaves, stems and roots. We tested whether allometric scaling exponents are generally constant across plant sizes as predicted by metabolic scaling theory, or whether instead they change dynamically with plant size. We also quantified interspecific variation in biomass distribution among plant families and functional groups. Across all species combined, leaf vs stem and leaf vs root scaling exponents decreased from c. 1.00 for small plants to c. 0.60 for the largest trees considered. Evergreens had substantially higher leaf mass fractions (LMFs) than deciduous species, whereas graminoids maintained higher root mass fractions (RMFs) than eudicotyledonous herbs. These patterns do not support the hypothesis of fixed allometric exponents. Rather, continuous shifts in allometric exponents with plant size during ontogeny and evolution are the norm. Across seed plants, variation in biomass distribution among species is related more to function than phylogeny. We propose that the higher LMF of evergreens at least partly compensates for their relatively low leaf area : leaf mass ratio. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Design of a 2.5MW(e) biomass gasification power generation module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLellan, R.

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this contract was to produce a detailed process and mechanical design of a gasification and gas clean up system for a 2.5MW(e) power generation module based on the generation of electrical power from a wood chip feed stock. The design is to enable the detailed economic evaluation of the process and to verify the technical performance data provided by the pilot plant programme. Detailed process and equipment design also assists in the speed at which the technology can be implemented into a demonstration project. (author)

  5. Development and Genetic Control of Plant Architecture and Biomass in the Panicoid Grass, Setaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Mauro-Herrera

    Full Text Available The architecture of a plant affects its ability to compete for light and to respond to environmental stresses, thus affecting overall fitness and productivity. Two components of architecture, branching and height, were studied in 182 F7 recombinant inbred lines (RILs at the vegetative, flowering and mature developmental stages in the panicoid C4 model grass system, Setaria. The RIL population was derived from a cross between domesticated S. italica (foxtail millet and its wild relative S. viridis (green foxtail. In both field and greenhouse trials the wild parent was taller initially, started branching earlier, and flowered earlier, while the domesticated parent was shorter initially, but flowered later, producing a robust tall plant architecture with more nodes and leaves on the main culm and few or no branches. Biomass was highly correlated with height of the plant and number of nodes on the main culm, and generally showed a negative relationship with branch number. However, several of the RILs with the highest biomass in both trials were significantly more branched than the domesticated parent of the cross. Quantitative trait loci (QTL analyses indicate that both height and branching are controlled by multiple genetic regions, often with QTL for both traits colocalizing in the same genomic regions. Genomic positions of several QTL colocalize with QTL in syntenic regions in other species and contain genes known to control branching and height in sorghum, maize, and switchgrass. Included in these is the ortholog of the rice SD-1 semi-dwarfing gene, which underlies one of the major Setaria height QTL. Understanding the relationships between height and branching patterns in Setaria, and their genetic control, is an important step to gaining a comprehensive knowledge of the development and genetic regulation of panicoid grass architecture.

  6. Development and Genetic Control of Plant Architecture and Biomass in the Panicoid Grass, Setaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro-Herrera, Margarita; Doust, Andrew N

    2016-01-01

    The architecture of a plant affects its ability to compete for light and to respond to environmental stresses, thus affecting overall fitness and productivity. Two components of architecture, branching and height, were studied in 182 F7 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) at the vegetative, flowering and mature developmental stages in the panicoid C4 model grass system, Setaria. The RIL population was derived from a cross between domesticated S. italica (foxtail millet) and its wild relative S. viridis (green foxtail). In both field and greenhouse trials the wild parent was taller initially, started branching earlier, and flowered earlier, while the domesticated parent was shorter initially, but flowered later, producing a robust tall plant architecture with more nodes and leaves on the main culm and few or no branches. Biomass was highly correlated with height of the plant and number of nodes on the main culm, and generally showed a negative relationship with branch number. However, several of the RILs with the highest biomass in both trials were significantly more branched than the domesticated parent of the cross. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses indicate that both height and branching are controlled by multiple genetic regions, often with QTL for both traits colocalizing in the same genomic regions. Genomic positions of several QTL colocalize with QTL in syntenic regions in other species and contain genes known to control branching and height in sorghum, maize, and switchgrass. Included in these is the ortholog of the rice SD-1 semi-dwarfing gene, which underlies one of the major Setaria height QTL. Understanding the relationships between height and branching patterns in Setaria, and their genetic control, is an important step to gaining a comprehensive knowledge of the development and genetic regulation of panicoid grass architecture.

  7. Availability of waste and biomass for energy generation in the Netherlands; Beschikbaarheid van afval en biomassa voor energieopwekking in Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weterings, R.A.P.M.; Koppejan, J. [TNO Milieu, Energie- en Processinnovatie TNO-MEP, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Bergsma, G.C. [Centrum voor Energiebesparing en schone technologie CE, Delft (Netherlands); Meeusen-van Onna, M.J.G. [Landbouw Economisch Instituut LEI, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    1999-12-01

    The Netherlands agency for energy and the environment (Novem) commissioned a consortium to carry out the ABC (Dutch abbreviation for Waste and Biomass Conversion) project in three separate studies: (A) a scenario study of the availability of biomass and waste for energy generation in the Netherlands; (B) a 'three-level assessment' of biomass availability on national, European and global levels; and (C) a scenario study of the feasibility / profitability of energy crops in the Netherlands. The results of the ABC project are published in two separate reports. This present report gives the results of the combined scenario study of availability (A) and the three-level assessment (B). The results of the energy crops study (C) are presented elsewhere. The goal of the present project is to gain insight into the current availability of biomass and waste flows for energy generation, and of the driving forces and constraints that can affect their availability up to the year 2020. First, it is examined whether the availability of biomass and waste is or could become problematic. This is an important aspect for market parties that want to invest in energy from biomass and biomass. Second, it is examined what additional policy measures the Dutch government would need to take to achieve the set policy goal of savings of fossil fuels. The combined scenario study of waste availability (in the Netherlands) and biomass availability (in the Netherlands, the European Union, and worldwide) for energy generation started off with a Definition Phase. In this phase, the project's framework and key issues were formulated and relevant sources of information were outlined. On the basis of these sources, a Quick Scan was carried out to map the existing information as well as any gaps in knowledge and uncertainties about the availability of biomass and waste. In the subsequent In-depth Phase the results of the Quick Scan were submitted to a number of national experts for comment

  8. Optimised heat recovery steam generators for integrated solar combined cycle plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterseim, Jürgen H.; Huschka, Karsten

    2017-06-01

    The cost of concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is decreasing but, due to the cost differences and the currently limited value of energy storage, implementation of new facilities is still slow compared to photovoltaic systems. One recognized option to lower cost instantly is the hybridization of CSP with other energy sources, such as natural gas or biomass. Various references exist for the combination of CSP with natural gas in combined cycle plants, also known as Integrated Solar Combined Cycle (ISCC) plants. One problem with current ISCC concepts is the so called ISCC crisis, which occurs when CSP is not contributing and cycle efficiency falls below efficiency levels of solely natural gas only fired combined cycle plants. This paper analyses current ISCC concepts and compares them with two optimised designs. The comparison is based on a Kuraymat type ISCC plant and shows that cycle optimization enables a net capacity increase of 1.4% and additional daily generation of up to 7.9%. The specific investment of the optimised Integrated Solar Combined Cycle plant results in a 0.4% cost increase, which is below the additional net capacity and daily generation increase.

  9. Evaluation of biogas and syngas as energy vectors for heat and power generation using lignocellulosic biomass as raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo Solarte-Toro

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of nonrenewable energy sources to provide the worldwide energy needs has caused different problems such as global warming, water pollution, and smog production. In this sense, lignocellulosic biomass has been postulated as a renewable energy source able to produce energy carriers that can cover this energy demand. Biogas and syngas are two energy vectors that have been suggested to generate heat and power through their use in cogeneration systems. Therefore, the aim of this review is to develop a comparison between these energy vectors considering their main features based on literature reports. In addition, a techno-economic and energy assessment of the heat and power generation using these vectors as energy sources is performed. If lignocellulosic biomass is used as raw material, biogas is more commonly used for cogeneration purposes than syngas. However, syngas from biomass gasification has a great potential to be employed as a chemical platform in the production of value-added products. Moreover, the investment costs to generate heat and power from lignocellulosic materials using the anaerobic digestion technology are higher than those using the gasification technology. As a conclusion, it was evidenced that upgraded biogas has a higher potential to produce heat and power than syngas. Nevertheless, the implementation of both energy vectors into the energy market is important to cover the increasing worldwide energy demand.How to cite: Solarte-Toro JC, Chacón-Pérez Y, Cardona-Alzate CA. Evaluation of biogas and syngas as energy vectors for heat and power generation using lignocellulosic biomass as raw material. Electron J Biotechnol 2018:33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejbt.2018.03.005 Keywords: Anaerobic digestion, Biogas power generation, Biomass gasification, Biomethane, Energy sources, Energy vectors, Heat generation, Lignocellulosic energy production, Power generation, Renewable energy, Syngas production

  10. Electricity generation from solid biomass via co-combustion with coal. Energy and emission balances from a German case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, D.; Kaltschmitt, M.

    1999-01-01

    The environmental effects of electricity production from different biofuels by means of co-combustion with hard coal in existing coal fired power plants are analysed and compared to electricity production from hard coal alone based on Life Cycle Analysis (LCA). The use of straw and residual wood at a 10% blend with coal in an existing power plant in the southern part of Germany shows that all investigated environmental effects are significantly lower if biomass is used instead of coal. Thus based on the available and proven technology of co-combustion of hard coal and biomass in existing power plants a significant contribution could be made to a more environmentally sound energy system compared to using coal alone. (author)

  11. Comparison of two biomass-electricity generation technologies in Peninsular Malaysia using linear programming method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaran, P.; Hari, Z.; Boosroh, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Two technologies have been considered to generate electricity using palm oil mill waste, the Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) as power plant fuel. One technology is to build new 100% EFB fired power plants, located in the vicinity of the palm oil mill, in which the produced electricity would be connected to the national electricity grid system. The other technology is to transport all the available EFB fuel to an existing coal power station in which the EFB fuel would be blended with coal and co-fired in conventional coal power plant to produce electricity. A study intended to compare the difference between these two technologies, to obtain the same electricity generation, has been done. Linear programming software was used simulate the two technologies to generate 5% of Peninsular Malaysia's electricity demand in the year 2005. The study indicated that the co firing technology total cost is 43.7% cheaper than EFB technology and the fuel coat is competitive until transport cost reaches 78 RM/tone

  12. Relative crystallinity of plant biomass: studies on assembly, adaptation and acclimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darby Harris

    Full Text Available Plant biomechanical design is central to cell shape, morphogenesis, reproductive performance and protection against environmental and mechanical stress. The cell wall forms the central load bearing support structure for plant design, yet a mechanistic understanding of its synthesis is incomplete. A key tool for studying the structure of cellulose polymorphs has been x-ray diffraction and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Relative crystallinity index (RCI is based on the x-ray diffraction characteristics of two signature peaks and we used this technique to probe plant assembly, adaptation and acclimation. Confocal microscopy was used to visualize the dynamics of cellulose synthase in transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing a homozygous YFP::CESA6. Assembly: RCI values for stems and roots were indistinguishable but leaves had 23.4 and 21.6% lower RCI than stems and roots respectively. Adaptation: over 3-fold variability in RCI was apparent in leaves from 35 plant species spanning Ordovician to Cretaceous periods. Within this study, RCI correlated positively with leaf geometric constraints and with mass per unit area, suggestive of allometry. Acclimation: biomass crystallinity was found to decrease under conditions of thigmomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis. Further, in etiolated pea hypocotyls, RCI values also decreased compared to plants that were grown in light, consistent with alterations in FTIR cellulose fingerprint peaks and live cell imaging experiments revealing rapid orientation of the YFP::cellulose synthase-6 array in response to light. Herein, results and technical challenges associated with the structure of the cell wall that gives rise to sample crystallinity are presented and examined with respect to adaptation, acclimation and assembly in ecosystem-level processes.

  13. 2nd generation lignocellulosic bioethanol: is torrefaction a possible approach to biomass pretreatment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiaramonti, David; Rizzo, Andrea Maria; Prussi, Matteo [University of Florence, CREAR - Research Centre for Renewable Energy and RE-CORD, Florence (Italy); Tedeschi, Silvana; Zimbardi, Francesco; Braccio, Giacobbe; Viola, Egidio [ENEA - Laboratory of Technology and Equipment for Bioenergy and Solar Thermal, Rotondella (Italy); Pardelli, Paolo Taddei [Spike Renewables s.r.l., Florence (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    Biomass pretreatement is a key and energy-consuming step for lignocellulosic ethanol production; it is largely responsible for the energy efficiency and economic sustainability of the process. A new approach to biomass pretreatment for the lignocellulosic bioethanol chain could be mild torrefaction. Among other effects, biomass torrefaction improves the grindability of fibrous materials, thus reducing energy demand for grinding the feedstock before hydrolysis, and opens the biomass structure, making this more accessible to enzymes for hydrolysis. The aim of the preliminary experiments carried out was to achieve a first understanding of the possibility to combine torrefaction and hydrolysis for lignocellulosic bioethanol processes, and to evaluate it in terms of sugar and ethanol yields. In addition, the possibility of hydrolyzing the torrefied biomass has not yet been proven. Biomass from olive pruning has been torrefied at different conditions, namely 180-280 C for 60-120 min, grinded and then used as substrate in hydrolysis experiments. The bioconversion has been carried out at flask scale using a mixture of cellulosolytic, hemicellulosolitic, {beta}-glucosidase enzymes, and a commercial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The experiments demonstrated that torrefied biomass can be enzymatically hydrolyzed and fermented into ethanol, with yields comparable with grinded untreated biomass and saving electrical energy. The comparison between the bioconversion yields achieved using only raw grinded biomass or torrefied and grinded biomass highlighted that: (1) mild torrefaction conditions limit sugar degradation to 5-10%; and (2) torrefied biomass does not lead to enzymatic and fermentation inhibition. Energy consumption for ethanol production has been preliminary estimated, and three different pretreatment steps, i.e., raw biomass grinding, biomass-torrefaction grinding, and steam explosion were compared. Based on preliminary results, steam explosion still has a

  14. Improved pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using enzymatically-generated peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, DeLu Tyler; Jing, Qing; AlDajani, Waleed Wafa; Duncan, Shona; Tschirner, Ulrike; Schilling, Jonathan; Kazlauskas, Romas J

    2011-04-01

    Release of sugars from lignocellulosic biomass is inefficient because lignin, an aromatic polymer, blocks access of enzymes to the sugar polymers. Pretreatments remove lignin and disrupt its structure, thereby enhancing sugar release. In previous work, enzymatically generated peracetic acid was used to pretreat aspen wood. This pretreatment removed 45% of the lignin and the subsequent saccharification released 97% of the sugars remaining after pretreatment. In this paper, the amount of enzyme needed is reduced tenfold using first, an improved enzyme variant that makes twice as much peracetic acid and second, a two-phase reaction to generate the peracetic acid, which allows enzyme reuse. In addition, the eight pretreatment cycles are reduced to only one by increasing the volume of peracetic acid solution and increasing the temperature to 60 °C and the reaction time to 6h. For the pretreatment step, the weight ratio of peracetic acid to wood determines the amount of lignin removed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Turbines, generators and associated plant incorporating modern power system practice

    CERN Document Server

    Littler, DJ

    1992-01-01

    The introduction of new 500 MW and 660 MW turbine generator plant in nuclear, coal- and oil-fired power stations has been partly responsible for the increase in generating capacity of the CEGB over the last 30 years. This volume provides a detailed account of experience gained in the development, design, manufacture, operation and testing of large turbine-generators in the last 20 years. With the advance in analytical and computational techniques, the application of this experience to future design and operation of large turbine-generator plant will be of great value to engineers in the indust

  16. Decentralised power generation using solid biomass - Know-how on combined heat and power generation for investors; Dezentrale Stromerzeugung mit Feststoffbiomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, M.; Gaegauf, Ch.; Sattler, M.

    2007-01-15

    This comprehensive report made by the Centre of Appropriate Technology and Social Ecology in Langenbruck, Switzerland presents a summary of know-how for investors on combined heat and power generation using solid biomass in installations with an electrical rating of up to one megawatt. Topics covered include a review of the reasons for using biomass to generate electricity - with the results of an analysis of potential in Switzerland and the European Union - and of economic assessment methods for the choice of technology and manufacturers. A SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis of technologies is presented and existing biomass-fired installations in Switzerland are listed. A comparison with centrally-refined combustibles is presented and examples of cost and profitability calculations are given. Finally technological background information is presented, including information on 'forgotten' technologies.

  17. Ethanol production using whole plant biomass of Jerusalem artichoke by Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS1555.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonghun; Park, Jang Min; Kim, Chul Ho

    2013-03-01

    Jerusalem artichoke is a low-requirement sugar crop containing cellulose and hemicellulose in the stalk and a high content of inulin in the tuber. However, the lignocellulosic component in Jerusalem artichoke stalk reduces the fermentability of the whole plant for efficient bioethanol production. In this study, Jerusalem artichoke stalk was pretreated sequentially with dilute acid and alkali, and then hydrolyzed enzymatically. During enzymatic hydrolysis, approximately 88 % of the glucan and xylan were converted to glucose and xylose, respectively. Batch and fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of both pretreated stalk and tuber by Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS1555 were effectively performed, yielding 29.1 and 70.2 g/L ethanol, respectively. In fed-batch fermentation, ethanol productivity was 0.255 g ethanol per gram of dry Jerusalem artichoke biomass, or 0.361 g ethanol per gram of glucose, with a 0.924 g/L/h ethanol productivity. These results show that combining the tuber and the stalk hydrolysate is a useful strategy for whole biomass utilization in effective bioethanol fermentation from Jerusalem artichoke.

  18. Korea's choice of a new generation of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redding, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The ABWR and SBWR design, both under development at GE, provide the best platform for developing the next generation advanced plants. The ABWR, which is rapidly setting the standard for new nuclear reactor plants, is clearly the best choice to meet the present energy needs of Korea. And through a GE/Korea partnership to develop the plant of the next century, Korea will establish itself as a leader in innovative reactor technology

  19. Targeted enrichment strategies for next-generation plant biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Cronn; Brian J. Knaus; Aaron Liston; Peter J. Maughan; Matthew Parks; John V. Syring; Joshua. Udall

    2012-01-01

    The dramatic advances offered by modem DNA sequencers continue to redefine the limits of what can be accomplished in comparative plant biology. Even with recent achievements, however, plant genomes present obstacles that can make it difficult to execute large-scale population and phylogenetic studies on next-generation sequencing platforms. Factors like large genome...

  20. Generation IV nuclear plant design strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altin, V.

    2007-01-01

    In this presentation Generation IV nuclear reactor design criteria are examined under the light of known nuclear properties of fissile and fertile nuclei. Their conflicting nature is elucidated along with the resulting inevitability of a multitude of designs. The designs selected as candidates for further development are evaluated with respect to their potential to serve the different design criteria, thereby revealing their more difficult aspects of realization and the strong research challenges lying ahead

  1. Methanol from biomass and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    For Hawaii in the near term, the only liquid fuels indigenous sources will be those that can be made from biomass, and of these, methanol is the most promising. In addition, hydrogen produced by electrolysis can be used to markedly increase the yield of biomass methanol. This paper calculates cost of producing methanol by an integrated system including a geothermal electricity facility plus a plant producing methanol by gasifying biomass and adding hydrogen produced by electrolysis. Other studies cover methanol from biomass without added hydrogen and methanol from biomass by steam and carbon dioxide reforming. Methanol is made in a two-step process: the first is the gasification of biomass by partial oxidation with pure oxygen to produce carbon oxides and hydrogen, and the second is the reaction of gases to form methanol. Geothermal steam is used to generate the electricity used for the electrolysis to produce the added hydrogen

  2. SCR in biomass and waste fuelled plants. Benchmarking of Swedish and European plants; SCR i biobraensle- och avfallseldade anlaeggningar. Erfarenheter fraan svenska och europeiska anlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Barbara; Olsson, Henrik; Lindstroem, Erica

    2010-11-15

    In this report the state-of-art of SCR technology in biomass and waste fired plants is investigated. The aim of the investigation is to answer the question why new Swedish biomass combustion and co-combustion plants often prefer SNCR technology, whilst European waste combustion plants often choose SCR technology. In the report positives and negatives of various types of SCR installations are discussed, high-dust versus tail-end, 'normal' SCR versus low-temperature SCR, etc. Experiences, e g catalyst lifetime, deactivation and maintenance requirement, are discussed. The investigation is based partly on literature, but mainly on interviews with plant owners and with suppliers of SCR installations. The interviewed suppliers are mentioned in the reference list and the interviewed plant owners are mentioned in appendix A and B. The experiences from the Swedish and European plants are quite similar. Tail-end SCR is often operated without serious problems in both biomass and waste fuelled plants. The catalyst lifetimes are as long or even longer than for coal fired plants with high-dust SCR. In waste incineration plants high-dust SCR causes big problems and these plants are almost always equipped with tail-end SCR. In co-combustion boilers, where coal and biomass is co-combusted, high-dust SCR is more common, especially if the boilers were originally coal fired. In plants with both SNCR and high-dust SCR, i.e. slip-SCR, the SCR installation is considered to be much less of a problem. Although the activity loss of the catalyst is as quick as in conventional high-dust SCR, the catalyst can be changed less often. This is due to the fact that installed slip-SCR catalysts often are as large as conventional SCR catalysts, although less NO{sub x} reduction is required after the initial SNCR step. Thus, the catalyst lifetime is prolonged.

  3. Plant biomass carbon store after water-level drawdown of pine mires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, R; Laine, J [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology

    1997-12-31

    Tall-sedge pine fen is the site type most commonly drained in Finland. In their natural undrained condition sites of this type are rather wet with sparse, Scots pine dominated forest growing on hummocks and with large lawns dominated by sedges, usually Carex rostrata and/or C. lasiocarpa. Most of the primary production takes place in the field and ground layers. The major pathway for carbon accumulation in the system is via Sphagna and sedge roots, carbon accumulation by the tree stand being very slow. After drainage the situation changes radically as the sedges die out and the tree stand growth increases considerably. The aim of this study is to produce means of estimating the post-drainage dynamics of the plant biomass carbon store. The study is based on the assumption that sites similar before drainage will change in a similar manner following drainage. (5 refs.)

  4. Engineering Plant Biomass Lignin Content and Composition for Biofuels and Bioproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassie Marie Welker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is an aromatic biopolymer involved in providing structural support to plant cell walls. Compared to the other cell wall polymers, i.e., cellulose and hemicelluloses, lignin has been considered a hindrance in cellulosic bioethanol production due to the complexity involved in its separation from other polymers of various biomass feedstocks. Nevertheless, lignin is a potential source of valuable aromatic chemical compounds and upgradable building blocks. Though the biosynthetic pathway of lignin has been elucidated in great detail, the random nature of the polymerization (free radical coupling process poses challenges for its depolymerization into valuable bioproducts. The absence of specific methodologies for lignin degradation represents an important opportunity for research and development. This review highlights research development in lignin biosynthesis, lignin genetic engineering and different biological and chemical means of depolymerization used to convert lignin into biofuels and bioproducts.

  5. Life cycle cost of biomass power plant: Monte Carlo simulation of investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odavić Petrana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of life cycle cost is considered as an important instrument for designing and evaluating success of every project. The aim of this work is to determine the precise impact of the investment costs and future operating and maintenance costs of CHP biomass plant. By using the Monte Carlo simulation are determined variations in the settings and the possible impact on the investment risk. The results show that the investment is justified, thanks to the positive outcome of the net present value (NPV, internal rate of return (IRR and the payback period. The greatest impact on the variability of annual profits have operating costs, which have the highest coefficient of variation of 6.44% and the largest share. Variability of net present value of 4% is acceptable, and the investment is considered as stable.

  6. Plant biomass carbon store after water-level drawdown of pine mires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, R.; Laine, J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology

    1996-12-31

    Tall-sedge pine fen is the site type most commonly drained in Finland. In their natural undrained condition sites of this type are rather wet with sparse, Scots pine dominated forest growing on hummocks and with large lawns dominated by sedges, usually Carex rostrata and/or C. lasiocarpa. Most of the primary production takes place in the field and ground layers. The major pathway for carbon accumulation in the system is via Sphagna and sedge roots, carbon accumulation by the tree stand being very slow. After drainage the situation changes radically as the sedges die out and the tree stand growth increases considerably. The aim of this study is to produce means of estimating the post-drainage dynamics of the plant biomass carbon store. The study is based on the assumption that sites similar before drainage will change in a similar manner following drainage. (5 refs.)

  7. Biomass energy in the making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Wood, straw, agricultural residues, organic wastes, biomass is everywhere you look. But the efficient use of this source of green electricity - the world's second largest renewable energy source - requires optimization of biomass collection and combustion processes. Biomass is back on the political agenda. In mid-June of this year, the French government gave this renewable energy a boost by selecting twenty-two projects to generate power and heat with biomass. The plants, to be commissioned by 2010, will be located in eleven different regions and will consume energy from organic plant matter. The power generated will be bought at a firm price of 128 euros per megawatt-hour. Most of the fuel will come from forest and paper industry waste, but straw and even grape pomace will be used in some cases. The plants will have a combined generating capacity of 300 MWh, raising France's installed biomass capacity to a total of 700 MWe. A drop of water in the ocean in the overall scheme of France's electricity. It is true that France has long neglected biomass. In 2004, electricity generated from biological resources represented a mere 1.74 TWhe in France, just 0.3% of its power consumption. This will rise to 0.6% once the new plants have come on line. The trend is the same in all of the EU's 27 member states, according to Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Communities: the amount of electricity generated from biomass (including biogas, municipal waste and wood) has practically doubled in six years, rising from 40 to 80 TWhe between 2000 and 2005. This is an improvement, but it still only represents 2.5% of the electricity supplied to Europeans. On a global scale, biomass contributes just 1% of total electric power generation. Yet biomass is an energy resource found all over the world, whether as agricultural waste, wood chips, or dried treatment plant sludge, to name but a few. Biomass power plants have managed to gain a foothold mainly in countries that produce

  8. Production of electricity through biomass gasification system downdraft and generator group with a capacity of 50 kVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrízio Luiz Figueiredo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of tests performed with an internal combustion engine adapted to MWM Otto cycle, coupled to an electricity generator with a capacity of 50 kVA, fed exclusively with synthesis gas from a biomass gasifier downdraft, using wood eucalyptus. Also featured are the characteristics and efficiency of the generator set, in order to assess the feasibility of applying the system in remote locations, where biomass is available and the system of conventional electric power transmission is hampered by distance. The synthesis gas generated showed the average composition of 16,9% H2, 20% CO, 10,9% CO2, CH4, 2% and 50,1% N2. The performance of the span was monitored by applying loads of 0, 7, 13, 20,1 and 26,4 kW, the generator, keeping the average voltage of 222 V and currents of 0, 18,5, 33, 51, 84 and 67 A.

  9. Competition overwhelms the positive plant-soil feedback generated by an invasive plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Kerri M; Knight, Tiffany M

    2017-01-01

    Invasive plant species can modify soils in a way that benefits their fitness more than the fitness of native species. However, it is unclear how competition among plant species alters the strength and direction of plant-soil feedbacks. We tested how community context altered plant-soil feedback between the non-native invasive forb Lespedeza cuneata and nine co-occurring native prairie species. In a series of greenhouse experiments, we grew plants individually and in communities with soils that differed in soil origin (invaded or uninvaded by L. cuneata) and in soils that were live vs. sterilized. In the absence of competition, L. cuneata produced over 60% more biomass in invaded than uninvaded soils, while native species performance was unaffected. The absence of a soil origin effect in sterile soil suggests that the positive plant-soil feedback was caused by differences in the soil biota. However, in the presence of competition, the positive effect of soil origin on L. cuneata growth disappeared. These results suggest that L. cuneata may benefit from positive plant-soil feedback when establishing populations in disturbed landscapes with few interspecific competitors, but does not support the hypothesis that plant-soil feedbacks influence competitive outcomes between L. cuneata and native plant species. These results highlight the importance of considering whether competition influences the outcome of interactions between plants and soils.

  10. Direct radiative effect due to brownness in organic carbon aerosols generated from biomass combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathod, T.D.; Sahu, S.K.; Tiwari, M.; Pandit, G.G.

    2016-01-01

    We report the enhancement in the direct radiative effect due the presence of Brown carbon (BrC) as a part of organic carbon aerosols. The optical properties of organic carbon aerosols generated from pyrolytic combustion of mango tree wood (Magnifera Indica) and dung cake at different temperatures were considered. Mie codes were used to calculate absorption and scattering coefficients coupled with experimentally derived imaginary complex refractive index. The direct radiative effect (DRE) for sampled organic carbon aerosols was estimated using a wavelength dependent radiative transfer equation. The BrC DRE was estimated taking virtually non absorbing organic aerosols as reference. The BrC DRE from wood and dung cake was compared at different combustion temperatures and conditions. The BrC contributed positively to the direct top of the atmosphere radiative effect. Dung cake generated BrC aerosols were found to be strongly light absorbing as compared to BrC from wood combustion. It was noted that radiative effects of BrC from wood depended on its generation temperature and conditions. For BrC aerosols from dung cake such strong dependence was not observed. The average BrC aerosol DRE values were 1.53±0.76 W g"−"1 and 17.84±6.45 W g"−"1 for wood and dung cake respectively. The DRE contribution of BrC aerosols came mainly (67–90%) from visible light absorption though they exhibited strong absorption in shorter wavelengths of the UV–visible spectrum. - Highlights: • Biomass fuels (wood and dung cake) were studied for brown carbon direct radiative effects. • Model calculations predicted positive contribution of Brown carbon aerosols to organic carbon direct radiative effect. • Average direct radiative values for brown carbon from dung cake were higher compare to wood. • The visible light absorption played major role in brown carbon contribution (67–90 %) to total direct radiative effect.

  11. Biogas Production from Vietnamese Animal Manure, Plant Residues and Organic Waste: Influence of Biomass Composition on Methane Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. T. Cu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4 production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL CH4 kg−1 volatile solids (VS compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg−1 VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam.

  12. Biogas production from vietnamese animal manure, plant residues and organic waste: influence of biomass composition on methane yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cu, T T T; Nguyen, T X; Triolo, J M; Pedersen, L; Le, V D; Le, P D; Sommer, S G

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4) production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL) CH4 kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza) was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square) at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam.

  13. Microbiome selection could spur next-generation plant breeding strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Gopal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants, though sessile, have developed a unique strategy to counter biotic and abiotic stresses by symbiotically co-evolving with microorganisms and tapping into their genome for this purpose. Soil is the bank of microbial diversity from which a plant selectively sources its microbiome to suit its needs. Besides soil, seeds, which carry the genetic blueprint of plants during trans-generational propagation, are home to diverse microbiota that acts as the principal source of microbial inoculum in crop cultivation. Overall, a plant is ensconced both on the outside and inside with a diverse assemblage of microbiota. Together, the plant genome and the genes of the microbiota that the plant harbours in different plant tissues i.e the ‘plant microbiome’, form the holobiome which is now considered as unit of selection: ‘the holobiont’. The ‘plant microbiome’ not only helps plants to remain fit but also offers critical genetic variability, hitherto, not employed in the breeding strategy by plant breeders, who traditionally have exploited the genetic variability of the host for developing high yielding or disease tolerant or drought resistant varieties. This fresh knowledge of the microbiome, particularly of the rhizosphere, offering genetic variability to plants, opens up new horizons for breeding that could usher in cultivation of next-generation crops depending less on inorganic inputs, resistant to insect pest and diseases and resilient to climatic perturbations. We surmise, from ever increasing evidences, that plants and their microbial symbionts need to be co-propagated as life-long partners in future strategies for plant breeding.

  14. Aromatic metabolism of filamentous fungi in relation to the presence of aromatic compounds in plant biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Marinović, Mila; Nousiainen, Paula; Liwanag, April J M; Benoit, Isabelle; Sipilä, Jussi; Hatakka, Annele; de Vries, Ronald P; Hildén, Kristiina S

    2015-01-01

    The biological conversion of plant lignocellulose plays an essential role not only in carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems but also is an important part of the production of second generation biofuels and biochemicals. The presence of the recalcitrant aromatic polymer lignin is one of the major

  15. Effect of single and mixed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination on plant biomass yield and PAH dissipation during phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afegbua, Seniyat Larai; Batty, Lesley Claire

    2018-04-27

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated sites have a mixture of PAH of varying concentration which may affect PAH dissipation differently to contamination with a single PAH. In this study, pot experiments investigated the impact of PAH contamination on Medicago sativa, Lolium perenne, and Festuca arundinacea biomass and PAH dissipation from soils spiked with phenanthrene (Phe), fluoranthene (Flu), and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in single and mixed treatments. Stimulatory or inhibitory effects of PAH contamination on plant biomass yields were not different for the single and mixed PAH treatments. Results showed significant effect of PAH treatments on plant growth with an increased root biomass yield for F. arundinacea in the Phe (175%) and Flu (86%) treatments and a root biomass decrease in the mixed treatment (4%). The mean residual PAHs in the planted treatments and unplanted control for the single treatments were not significantly different. B[a]P dissipation was enhanced for single and mixed treatments (71-72%) with F. arundinacea compared to the unplanted control (24-50%). On the other hand, B[a]P dissipation was inhibited with L. perenne (6%) in the single treatment and M. sativa (11%) and L. perenne (29%) in the mixed treatment. Abiotic processes had greater contribution to PAH dissipation compared to rhizodegradation in both treatments. In most cases, a stimulatory effect of PAH contamination on plant biomass yield without an enhancement of PAH dissipation was observed. Plant species among other factors affect the relative contribution of PAH dissipation mechanisms during phytoremediation. These factors determine the effectiveness and suitability of phytoremediation as a remedial strategy for PAH-contaminated sites. Further studies on impact of PAH contamination, plant selection, and rhizosphere activities on soil microbial community structure and remediation outcome are required.

  16. Microbiome Selection Could Spur Next-Generation Plant Breeding Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Murali; Gupta, Alka

    2016-01-01

    " No plant is an island too …" Plants, though sessile, have developed a unique strategy to counter biotic and abiotic stresses by symbiotically co-evolving with microorganisms and tapping into their genome for this purpose. Soil is the bank of microbial diversity from which a plant selectively sources its microbiome to suit its needs. Besides soil, seeds, which carry the genetic blueprint of plants during trans-generational propagation, are home to diverse microbiota that acts as the principal source of microbial inoculum in crop cultivation. Overall, a plant is ensconced both on the outside and inside with a diverse assemblage of microbiota. Together, the plant genome and the genes of the microbiota that the plant harbors in different plant tissues, i.e., the 'plant microbiome,' form the holobiome which is now considered as unit of selection: 'the holobiont.' The 'plant microbiome' not only helps plants to remain fit but also offers critical genetic variability, hitherto, not employed in the breeding strategy by plant breeders, who traditionally have exploited the genetic variability of the host for developing high yielding or disease tolerant or drought resistant varieties. This fresh knowledge of the microbiome, particularly of the rhizosphere, offering genetic variability to plants, opens up new horizons for breeding that could usher in cultivation of next-generation crops depending less on inorganic inputs, resistant to insect pest and diseases and resilient to climatic perturbations. We surmise, from ever increasing evidences, that plants and their microbial symbionts need to be co-propagated as life-long partners in future strategies for plant breeding. In this perspective, we propose bottom-up approach to co-propagate the co-evolved, the plant along with the target microbiome, through - (i) reciprocal soil transplantation method, or (ii) artificial ecosystem selection method of synthetic microbiome inocula, or (iii) by exploration of microRNA transfer

  17. Strain measurements of nuclear power plant steam generator antiseismic supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulichevsky, R.

    1997-01-01

    The nuclear power plants steam generators have different types of structural supports. One of these types are the antiseismic supports, which are intended to be under stress only if a seismic event takes place. Nevertheless, the antiseismic supports lugs, that are welded to the steam generator vessel, are subjected to thermal fatigue because of the temperature cycles related with the shut down and start up operations performed during the life of the nuclear power plant. In order to evaluate the stresses that the lugs are subjected to, several strain gages were welded on two supports lugs, positioned at two heights of one of the Embalse nuclear power plant steam generators. In this paper, the instrumentation used and the strain measurements obtained during two start up operations are presented. The influence of the plant start up operation parameters on the lugs strain evolution is also analyzed. (author) [es

  18. Soil-derived microbial consortia enriched with different plant biomass reveal distinct players acting in lignocellulose degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lima Brossi, Maria Julia; Jiménez Avella, Diego; Cortes Tolalpa, Larisa; van Elsas, Jan

    Here, we investigated how different plant biomass, and-for one substrate-pH, drive the composition of degrader microbial consortia. We bred such consortia from forest soil, incubated along nine aerobic sequential - batch enrichments with wheat straw (WS1, pH 7.2; WS2, pH 9.0), switchgrass (SG, pH

  19. Safety - a Neglected Issue When Introducing Solid Biomass Fuel in Thermal Power Plants? Some Evidence of an Emerging Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess; Astad, John

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines recent evidence from Denmark and abroad with climate change projects that aim to reduce global carbon dioxide emissions by converting coal fired thermal power plants to solid biomass fuel. The paper argues that projects appear to be pursued narrow-mindedly with insufficient att...

  20. Genetic Factors in Rhizobium Affecting the Symbiotic Carbon Costs of N2 Fixation and Host Plant Biomass Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, L.; Hirsch, P. R.; Witty, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of genetic factors in Rhizobium on host plant biomass production and on the carbon costs of N2 fixation in pea root nodules was studied. Nine strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum were constructed, each containing one of three symbiotic plasmids in combination with one of three different ...

  1. Renewable energies: the choice of invitation to tender candidates for the electric power plants supplied by biomass or biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    To contribute to the french objectives of renewable energies development, the Ministry of Industry proposed an invitation to tender for the realization at the first of january 2007 of electric power plants (more than 12 MW) from biomass and biogas. This document presents the selected projects. (A.L.B.)

  2. Cultivation of Podospora anserina on soybean hulls results in an efficient enzyme cocktail for plant biomass hydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Bouzid, Ourdia; Ruiz-Robleto, J.; Post, Harm|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341667374; Peng, Mao; Heck, Albert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/105189332; Altelaar, Maarten|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833517; de Vries, Ronald P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/186324960

    2017-01-01

    The coprophilic ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina was cultivated on three different plant biomasses, i.e. cotton seed hulls (CSH), soybean hulls (SBH) and acid-pretreated wheat straw (WS) for four days, and the potential of the produced enzyme mixtures was compared in the enzymatic

  3. Planting date and seeding rate effects on sunn hemp biomass and nitrogen production for a winter cover crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is a tropical legume that produces plant biomass and nitrogen (N) quickly. Our objectives were to assess the growth of a new sunn hemp cultivar breed to produce seed in a temperate climate and determine the residual N effect on a subsequent rye (Secale cereale L.) wi...

  4. The contrasting effects of nutrient enrichment on growth, biomass allocation and decomposition of plant tissue in coastal wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayes, Matthew A.; Jesse, Amber; Tabet, Basam; Reef, Ruth; Keuskamp, Joost A.; Lovelock, Catherine E.

    2017-01-01

    Eutrophication of coastal waters can have consequences for the growth, function and soil processes of coastal wetlands. Our aims were to assess how nutrient enrichment affects growth, biomass allocation and decomposition of plant tissues of a common and widespread mangrove, Avicennia marina, and how

  5. Energy from biomass: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Toorn, L.J.; Elliott, T.P.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is paid to the effect of the use of energy from biomass on the greenhouse effect. An overview is given of the aspects of forest plantation, carbon dioxide fixation and energy from biomass, in particular with regard to the potential impact of the use of biomass energy on the speed of accumulation of carbon in the atmosphere. A simple model of the carbon cycle to illustrate the geochemical, biological and antropogenic characteristics of the cycle is presented and briefly discussed. Biomass, which is appropriate for energy applications, can be subdivided into three categories: polysaccharides, vegetable oils, and lignocellulosis. The costs for the latter are discussed. Three important options to use biomass as a commercial energy source are solid fuels, liquid fuels, and power generation. For each option the value of energy (on a large-scale level) is compared to the costs of several types of biomass. Recent evaluation of new techniques show that small biomass conversion plants can realize an electricity efficiency of 40%, with capitalized costs far below comparable conventional biomass conversion plants. One of the policy instruments to stimulate the use of biomass as an energy source is the carbon levy, in which the assumed external costs to reduce carbon dioxide emission are expressed. Political and administrative feasibility are important factors in the decision making with regard to carbon storage and energy plantations. 6 figs

  6. Microbial Community Activity And Plant Biomass Are Insensitive To Passive Warming In A Semiarid Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, N. J.; Fehmi, J. S.; Rasmussen, C.; Gallery, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    Soil microorganisms drive biogeochemical and nutrient cycling through the production of extracellular enzymes that facilitate organic matter decomposition and the flux of large amounts of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Although dryland ecosystems occupy over 40% of land cover and are projected to expand due to climate change, much of our current understanding of these processes comes from mesic temperate ecosystems. Understanding the responses of these globally predominant dryland ecosystems is therefore important yet complicated by co-occurring environmental changes. For example, the widespread and pervasive transition from grass to woody dominated landscapes is changing the hydrology, fire regimes, and carbon storage potential of semiarid ecosystems. In this study, we used a novel passive method of warming to conduct a warming experiment with added plant debris as either woodchip or biochar, to simulate different long-term carbon additions that accompany woody plant encroachment in semiarid ecosystems. The response of heterotrophic respiration, plant biomass, and microbial activity was monitored bi-annually. We hypothesized that the temperature manipulations would have direct and indirect effects on microbial activity. Warmer soils directly reduce the activity of soil extracellular enzymes through denaturation and dehydration of soil pores and indirectly through reducing microbe-available substrates and plant inputs. Overall, reduction in extracellular enzyme activity may reduce decomposition of coarse woody debris and potentially enhance soil carbon storage in semiarid ecosystems. For all seven hydrolytic enzymes examined as well as heterotrophic respiration, there was no consistent or significant response to experimental warming, regardless of seasonal climatic and soil moisture variation. The enzyme results observed here are consistent with the few other experimental results for warming in semiarid ecosystems and indicate that the controls over soil

  7. DESIGNING AND OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2004-06-01

    During the period July 1, 2000-March 31, 2004, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) conducted an extensive demonstration of woody biomass cofiring at its Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. This demonstration, cofunded by USDOE and Allegheny, and supported by the Biomass Interest Group (BIG) of EPRI, evaluated the impacts of sawdust cofiring in both cyclone boilers and tangentially-fired pulverized coal boilers. The cofiring in the cyclone boiler--Willow Island Generating Station Unit No.2--evaluated the impacts of sawdust alone, and sawdust blended with tire-derived fuel. The biomass was blended with the coal on its way to the combustion system. The cofiring in the pulverized coal boiler--Albright Generating Station--evaluated the impact of cofiring on emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) when the sawdust was injected separately into the furnace. The demonstration of woody biomass cofiring involved design, construction, and testing at each site. The results addressed impacts associated with operational issues--capacity, efficiency, and operability--as well as formation and control of airborne emissions such as NO{sub x}, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}2), opacity, and mercury. The results of this extensive program are detailed in this report.

  8. Morphology and biomass variations in root system of young tomato plants (Solanum sp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez Gil, Marta A.; Fernández, Ana Fita; Ruiz Sánchez, María del C.; Bolarín Jiménez, María del C.

    2016-01-01

    The scarce exploitation of genotypic variability present in plant roots is an attractive breeding choice with regard to abiotic stresses and supports the objective of this work, which is to identify genotypic variation in root system traits of tomato genotypes (Solanum sp.). Thus, five tomato genotypes were studied: the commercial hybrid cultivar Jaguar (S. lycopersicum), Pera, Volgogradiskij and PE-47 entry (S. pennellii), which were collected in Peru, and the interspecific hybrid PeraxPE-47. Plants were grown in hydroponics for 26 days since germination; their roots were extracted and images were digitalized on scanner to evaluate total length, average diameter, the projected area and root length, following the categories per diameter of the whole root system through software Win Rhizo Pro 2003. The dry mass of roots and aerial parts was also recorded. Results indicated that genotypes differed in morphology, length according to diameter, root system spatial configuration and biomass, mainly with respect to the wild salinity resistant species PE-47. The interspecific hybrid PxPE-47 could be used as a rootstock to increase salt tolerance of susceptible cultivars. (author)

  9. Taxonomic and Functional Responses of Soil Microbial Communities to Annual Removal of Aboveground Plant Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xue; Zhou, Xishu; Hale, Lauren; Yuan, Mengting; Feng, Jiajie; Ning, Daliang; Shi, Zhou; Qin, Yujia; Liu, Feifei; Wu, Liyou; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Liu, Xueduan; Luo, Yiqi; Tiedje, James M.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2018-01-01

    Clipping, removal of aboveground plant biomass, is an important issue in grassland ecology. However, few studies have focused on the effect of clipping on belowground microbial communities. Using integrated metagenomic technologies, we examined the taxonomic and functional responses of soil microbial communities to annual clipping (2010–2014) in a grassland ecosystem of the Great Plains of North America. Our results indicated that clipping significantly (P microbial respiration rates. Annual temporal variation within the microbial communities was much greater than the significant changes introduced by clipping, but cumulative effects of clipping were still observed in the long-term scale. The abundances of some bacterial and fungal lineages including Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were significantly (P microbial communities were significantly correlated with soil respiration and plant productivity. Intriguingly, clipping effects on microbial function may be highly regulated by precipitation at the interannual scale. Altogether, our results illustrated the potential of soil microbial communities for increased soil organic matter decomposition under clipping land-use practices. PMID:29904372

  10. Report on technical measurements concerning measurement of the suction of tanks at Fangel biomass conversion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The inconveniences caused by the odours emerging from the biomass conversion plant in Fangel, Denmark, and the actions taken in an attempt to reduce them, are described. The plant has on several occasions been threatened with being closed down because of the smell. Airtight coverings have been fixed on all the open tanks, and the suction element has been tested to see if it is airtight. Ozone has been added in order to help get rid of the smell. Measurements have shown that it is possible to attain a small vacuum in the storage tank under normal operation, if there is a surfeit of pumping there will be too high pressure. In relation to pumping-in the pressure can be too high in the first and medium tank. Flow, pressure, hydrogen sulphide and methane concentration changes significantly in relation to the various pumping frequences. The level of hydrogen sulphide removal in the biofilter was 70-85%. The flow of hydrogen sulphide becomes less after the addition of ozone. Measurements implied that the tanks were airtight. Larger vacuums can be achieved by changing the shape of the pipe system and increasing the flow. (AB)

  11. No Evidence for Differential Biomass and Mineral Content in Adult Plants Grown from Dimorphic Suaeda Aralocaspica Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Wang, H. L.; Tian, C. Y.; Huang, Z. Y.

    2016-01-01

    The production of two or more seed types by a single plant is known as seed heteromorphism. There have been many comparisons of seed traits or growth between plants grown from heteromorphic seeds. However, information is scarce regarding the mineral contents of adult plants from heteromorphic seeds. We herein present biomass and mineral profiles of adult plants grown from dimorphic seeds (non-dormant brown seeds and black seeds with non-deep physiological dormancy) of the annual desert halophyte Suaeda aralocaspica at different nutrient and salinity levels. Although nutrient and salinity treatments affected dry weight and mineral content, there were no significant differences among S. aralocaspica seed-dimorphic plants under the same experimental conditions. This study is one of the few to compare the physiological responses between seed-heteromorphic plants, and reveals that mineral status corresponds with growth performance in these plants. (author)

  12. The ecological effects of different loading rates of metalaxyl on microbial biomass in unplanted and planted soils under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mansourzadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fungicides are most widely used pesticides in Iran and the world. Application of fungicides may affect the populations and activity of soil microorganisms, particularly fungi, with a consequence for soil fertility and crop growth. In the current study, the effects of different levels of metalaxyl on soil microbial biomass carbon (C and nitrogen (N, microbial biomass C/N ratio and metabolic quotient under field conditions were assessed. Two levels of metalaxyl (30 and 60 kg.ha-1 were applied in planted soils with corn and unplanted calcareous soils, using a split-plots experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications. The C and N contents in soil microbial biomass as well as metabolic quotient were measured at 30 and 90 days after the onset of the experiment. Results showed that in cultivated soils metalaxyl application at 30 kg.ha-1 increased (15-80% significantly (p≤0.01 the amounts of microbial biomass C and N at both intervals (except microbial biomass C at 90 days compared to the control soil (0 kg.ha-1, while in uncultivated soils both microbial biomass C and N reduced by almost 1-34%. Microbial biomass C/N ratios in unplanted soils decreased (15 and 53% with increasing loading rates of metalaxyl, without a clear effect in cultivated soils. On the other hand, metabolic quotient values reduced (48% at 30 and 60 kg.ha-1 metalaxyl in corn-cultivated soils when compared to untreated soils while in uncultivated soils metalaxyl rate at 30 kg.a-1 had the greatest values at 30 days, and increased with increasing the levels of metalaxyl at 90 days. In summary, application of metalaxyl can either reduce or increase soil biological indices, and the direction and changes are depended upon the application rate of metalaxyl, time elapsed since metalaxyl application and the presence or absence of plant.

  13. System analysis of CO{sub 2} sequestration from biomass cogeneration plants (Bio-CHP-CCS). Technology, economic efficiency, sustainability; Systemanalyse der CO{sub 2}-Sequestrierung aus Biomasse-Heizkraftwerken (Bio-KWK-CCS). Technik, Wirtschaftlichkeit, Nachhaltigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Claus

    2014-10-15

    In the present work a system analysis is carried out to determine the extent to which a combination of the three areas of energetic biomass use, combined heat and power (CHP) and CO{sub 2} sequestration (CCS - Carbon Capture and Storage) is fundamentally possible and meaningful. The term ''CO{sub 2} sequestration'' refers to the process chain from CO{sub 2} capture, CO{sub 2} transport and CO{sub 2} storage. While the use of biomass in combined heat and power plants is a common practice, CO{sub 2} sequestration (based on fossil fuels) is at the research and development stage. A combination of CCS with biomass has so far been little studied, a combination with combined heat and power plants has not been investigated at all. The two technologies for the energetic use of biomass and cogeneration represent fixed variables in the energy system of the future in the planning of the German federal government. According to the lead scenario of the Federal Ministry of the Environment, electricity generation from biomass is to be almost doubled from 2008 to 2020. At the same time, the heat generated in cogeneration is to be trebled [cf. Nitsch and Wenzel, 2009, p. 10]. At the same time, the CCS technology is to be used in half of all German coal-fired power plants until 2030 [cf. Krassuki et al., 2009, p. 17]. The combination of biomass and CCS also represents an option which is conceivable for the German federal policy [cf. Bundestag, 2008b, p. 4]. In addition, the CCS technology will provide very good export opportunities for the German economy in the future [cf. Federal Government, 2010, p. 20]. The combination of biomass combined heat and power plants with CCS offers the interesting opportunity to actively remove CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere as a future climate protection instrument by means of CO{sub 2} neutrality. Therefore, in the energy concept of the German federal government called for a storage project for industrial or biogenic CO{sub 2

  14. Biomass torrefaction mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  15. RESULTS OF THE TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR A NOVEL BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED POWER GENERATION SYSTEM FOR THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Sunil Ghose; Jim Patel

    2003-11-01

    In 2001, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) entered into Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41108 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for an Agenda 2020 project to develop an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system for near-term deployment in the Forest Products Industry (FPI). The advanced power system combines three advanced components, including biomass gasification, 3-stage stoker-fired combustion for biomass conversion, and externally recuperated gas turbines (ERGTs) for power generation. The primary performance goals for the advanced power system are to provide increased self-generated power production for the mill and to increase wastewood utilization while decreasing fossil fuel use. Additional goals are to reduce boiler NOx and CO{sub 2} emissions. The current study was conducted to determine the technical and economic feasibility of an Advanced Power Generation System capable of meeting these goals so that a capital investment decision can be made regarding its implementation at a paper mill demonstration site in DeRidder, LA. Preliminary designs and cost estimates were developed for all major equipment, boiler modifications and balance of plant requirements including all utilities required for the project. A three-step implementation plan was developed to reduce technology risk. The plant design was found to meet the primary objectives of the project for increased bark utilization, decreased fossil fuel use, and increased self-generated power in the mill. Bark utilization for the modified plant is significantly higher (90-130%) than current operation compared to the 50% design goal. For equivalent steam production, the total gas usage for the fully implemented plant is 29% lower than current operation. While the current average steam production from No.2 Boiler is about 213,000 lb/h, the total steam production from the modified plant is 379,000 lb/h. This steam production increase will be accomplished at a grate heat release rate

  16. Biomass and Biogas for Sustainable Energy Generation: Recent Development and Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa Omer, Abdeen

    2017-01-01

    Biogas from biomass appears to have potential as an alternative energy source, which is potentially rich in biomass resources. This is an overview of some salient points and perspectives of biogas technology. The current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impacts of biogas technology. This article gives an overview of present and future use of biomass as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels, chemicals and other materials. However, to be truly competitive in an open market situation, higher value products are required. Results suggest that biogas technology must be encouraged, promoted, invested, implemented, and demonstrated, but especially in remote rural areas. (author)

  17. Accelerating the commercialization of biomass energy generation within New York State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proakis, G.J. [New York State Technology Enterprise Corp., Rome, NY (United States); Vasselli, J.J. [Syracuse Research Corp., North Syracuse, NY (United States); Neuhauser, E. [Niagara Mohawk Power Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States); Volk, T.A. [State University of New York, Syracuse, NY (United States)

    1999-07-01

    A significant obstacle to establishing a commercially viable, self-sustaining willow biomass industry is the initial capital investment required to establish the crop. One approach to overcoming this challenge is an incentive program to reduce the initial capital investment costs for landowners. This study quantifies the start-up investment costs, economic development impact, and environmental pollution reduction benefits associated with the creation of a biomass energy industry in New York State. The study recommends the creation of a state-sponsored revolving loan fund that would be used by landowners to finance the cost of establishing willow biomass crops. (author)

  18. Biosorption of Cd+2 by green plant biomass, Araucaria heterophylla: characterization, kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarada, B.; Krishna Prasad, M.; Kishore Kumar, K.; Murthy, Ch V. R.

    2017-11-01

    The present study attempted to analyze the biosorption behavior of novel biosorbent, Araucaria heterophylla (green plant) biomass, to remove Cd+2 from solutions against various parameters, i.e., initial metal ion concentration, pH, temperature, sorbent dosage and biomass particle size. The maximum biosorption was found to be 90.02% at pH 5.5 and biosorption capacity ( q e) of Cd+2 is 9.2506 mg g-1. The Langmuir and Freundlich equilibrium adsorption isotherms were studied and it was observed that Freundlich model is the best fit than the Langmuir model with correlation co-efficient of 0.999. Kinetic studies indicated that the biosorption process of Cd+2 well followed the pseudo-second-order model with R 2 0.999. Thermodynamic studies observed that the process is exothermic (Δ H ° negative). Free energy change (Δ G °) with negative sign reflected the feasibility and spontaneous nature of the process. The chemical functional -OH groups, CH2 stretching vibrations, C=O carbonyl group of alcohol, C=O carbonyl group of amide, P=O stretching vibrations and -CH groups were involved in the biosorption process. The XRD pattern of the A. heterophylla was found to be mostly amorphous in nature. The SEM studies showed Cd+2 biosorption on selective grains of the biosorbent. It was concluded that A. heterophylla leaf powder can be used as an effective, low-cost, and environmentally friendly biosorbent for the removal of Cd+2 from aqueous solution.

  19. Fuel gas production from renewable biomass in a circulating fluidized bed as a bases for zero-CO{sub 2} power generation in a combined-cycle power plant; Brenngaserzeugung aus nachwachsenden Biomassen in der zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht als Grundlage fuer eine CO{sub 2}-neutrale Stromerzeugung in einem GUD Kraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, J.; Loeffler, J.; Hirschfelder, H. [Lurgi Energie und Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    A pilot circulating fluidized bed plant in the range of 1.7 MW{sub th} has been operated successfully with fossil fuels, residues, wood bark and wood chips, reet grass and sorghum pellets. Depending on the specifications for product gas and fuel quality, air, oxygen-enriched air or oxygen/steam mixtures are used as gasification agents in the gas generator. (orig) [Deutsch] In einer ZWS-Pilotanlage mit ca. 1.7 MW thermischer Leistung wurden bisher ausser fossilen und Abfallbrennstoffen auch Rindenabfaelle, Holzschnitzel, Schilfgras und Sorghumpellets erfolgreich zur Brenngaserzeugung eingesetzt. Entsprechend den Anforderungen an das Produktgas und der Brennstoffqualitaet wird Luft, sauerstoffangereicherte Luft oder Sauerstoff/Dampfgemische als Vergasungsmittel im ZWS-Gaserzeuger eingesetzt. (orig)

  20. Fuel gas production from renewable biomass in a circulating fluidized bed as a bases for zero-CO{sub 2} power generation in a combined-cycle power plant; Brenngaserzeugung aus nachwachsenden Biomassen in der zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht als Grundlage fuer eine CO{sub 2}-neutrale Stromerzeugung in einem GUD Kraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, J; Loeffler, J; Hirschfelder, H [Lurgi Energie und Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    A pilot circulating fluidized bed plant in the range of 1.7 MW{sub th} has been operated successfully with fossil fuels, residues, wood bark and wood chips, reet grass and sorghum pellets. Depending on the specifications for product gas and fuel quality, air, oxygen-enriched air or oxygen/steam mixtures are used as gasification agents in the gas generator. (orig) [Deutsch] In einer ZWS-Pilotanlage mit ca. 1.7 MW thermischer Leistung wurden bisher ausser fossilen und Abfallbrennstoffen auch Rindenabfaelle, Holzschnitzel, Schilfgras und Sorghumpellets erfolgreich zur Brenngaserzeugung eingesetzt. Entsprechend den Anforderungen an das Produktgas und der Brennstoffqualitaet wird Luft, sauerstoffangereicherte Luft oder Sauerstoff/Dampfgemische als Vergasungsmittel im ZWS-Gaserzeuger eingesetzt. (orig)

  1. BIOMASS ACCUMULATION AND NUTRITION IN MICROPROPAGATED PLANTS OF THE BANANA ‘PRATA CATARINA’ UNDER BIOFERTILISERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDER DE OLIVEIRA SANTOS

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Banana farming is an activity of great economic and social importance, and is carried out in most tropical countries. The aim of this work was to evaluate the biomass accumulation and levels of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg in micropropagated plants of the banana “Prata Catarina” during the acclimatization phase, under different types and doses of biofertilisers. The experimental design included randomised blocks in a 2 × 5 + (2 factorial scheme, with two types of liquid biofertilisers (bovine biofertiliser with anaerobic and aerobic fermentation and five biofertiliser doses (0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, and 1.25 L plant-1 week-1, as well as two additional treatments (control and recommended mineral fertilisation. The following variables were analysed: dry weight of the leaves and roots, and mineral element content (N, P, K, Ca, and Mg in different parts of the plant (leaf and root. During 90 days of acclimatization, the nutritional contribution of bovine biofertiliser with anaerobic fermentation was greater in comparison with the biofertiliser with aerobic fermentation and the control, but lower in comparison with mineral fertilisation. The 1000-mL dose of the biofertiliser with anaerobic fermentation promoted greater dry weight accumulation in the leaves and roots of the banana “Prata Catarina”. The biofertiliser with anaerobic fermentation promoted higher levels of N, K, and Ca in the leaves, whereas the biofertiliser with aerobic fermentation promoted higher levels of P in the leaves and roots.

  2. Voltage Control in Wind Power Plants with Doubly Fed Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Jorge Martinez

    In this work, the process of designing a wind power plant composed of; doubly fed induction generators, a static compensator unit, mechanically switched capacitors and on-load tap changer, for voltage control is shown. The selected control structure is based on a decentralized system, since...... supplied by the doubly fed induction generator wind turbines is overcome by installing a reactive power compensator, i.e. a static compensator unit, which is coordinated with the plant control by a specific dispatcher. This dispatcher is set according to the result of the wind power plant load flow....... To release the operation of the converters during steady-state disturbances, mechanically switched capacitors are installed in the wind power plant, which due to their characteristics, they are appropriate for permanent disturbances compensation. The mechanically switched capacitors are controlled to allow...

  3. Development of a new steady state zero-dimensional simulation model for woody biomass gasification in a full scale plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formica, Marco; Frigo, Stefano; Gabbrielli, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A simulation model with Aspen Plus is created for a full scale biomass gasification plant. • Test results, equipment data and control logics are considered in the simulation model. • The simulation results are in agreement with the experimental data. • The gasifying air temperature affects largely the energy performance of the gasification plant. • Increasing the equivalent ratio implies a strong reduction of the gasification efficiency. - Abstract: A new steady state zero-dimensional simulation model for a full-scale woody biomass gasification plant with fixed-bed downdraft gasifier has been developed using Aspen Plus®. The model includes the technical characteristics of all the components (gasifier, cyclone, exchangers, piping, etc.) of the plant and works in accordance with its actual main control logics. Simulation results accord with those obtained during an extensive experimental activity. After the model validation, the influence of operating parameters such as the equivalent ratio, the biomass moisture content and the gasifying air temperature on syngas composition have been analyzed in order to assess the operative behavior and the energy performance of the experimental plant. By recovering the sensible heat of the syngas at the outlet of the gasifier, it is possible to obtain higher values of the gasifying air temperature and an improvement of the overall gasification performances.

  4. Waste generation comparison: Coal-fired versus nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaGuardia, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste generation and disposal attract a great deal of attention whenever the nuclear industry is scrutinized by concerned parties, be it the media, the public, or political interests. It is therefore important to the nuclear industry that this issue be put into perspective relative to other current forms of energy production. Most of the country's fossil-fueled power comes from coal-fired plants, with oil and gas as other fuel sources. Most of the generated waste also comes from coal plants. This paper, therefore, compares waste quantities generated by a typical (1150-MW(electric)) pressurized water reactor (PWR) to that of a comparably sized coal-fired power plant

  5. Bioaugmentation for Electricity Generation from Corn Stover Biomass Using Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xin; Feng, Yujie; Wang, Heming; Qu, Youpeng; Yu, Yanling; Ren, Nanqi; Li, Nan; Wang, Elle; Lee, He; Logan, Bruce E.

    2009-01-01

    of microbial consortia specifically acclimated for biomass breakdown. A mixed culture that was developed to have a high saccharification rate with corn stover was added to singlechamber, air-cathode MFCs acclimated for power production using glucose. The MFC

  6. Algal capture of carbon dioxide; biomass generation as a tool for greenhouse gas mitigation with reference to New Zealand energy strategy and policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The use of algae to capture carbon dioxide as a method for greenhouse gas mitigation is discussed. A small fraction of the sunlight energy that bathes Earth is captured by photosynthesis and drives most living systems. Life on Earth is carbon-based and the energy is used to fix atmospheric carbon dioxide into biological material (biomass), indeed fossil fuels that we consume today are a legacy of mostly algal photosynthesis. Algae can be thought of as marine and freshwater plants that have higher photosynthetic efficiencies than terrestrial plants and are more efficient capturing carbon (Box 1). They have other favourable characteristics for this purpose. In the context of New Zealand energy strategy and policy I discuss progress in growing algae and seaweeds with emphasis on their application for exhaust flue carbon recycling for possible generation of useful biomass. I also introduce schemes utilising wild oceanic algae for carbon dioxide sequestration and the merits and possible adverse effects of using this approach. This paper is designed as an approachable review of the science and technology for policy makers and a summary of the New Zealand policy environment for those wishing to deploy biological carbon sequestration.

  7. Biomass Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, Steve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brunecky, Roman [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lin, Chien-Yuan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Amore, Antonella [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wei, Hui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chen, Xiaowen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tucker, Melvin P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Czernik, Stefan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sluiter, Amie D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Min [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Magrini, Kimberly A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Himmel, Michael E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheehan, John [Formerly NREL; Dayton, David C. [Formerly NREL; Bozell, Joseph J. [Formerly NREL; Adney, William S. [Formerly NREL; Aden, Andy [Formerly NREL; Hames, Bonnie [Formerly NREL; Thomas, Steven R. [Formerly NREL; Bain, Richard L. [Formerly NREL

    2017-08-02

    Biomass constitutes all the plant matter found on our planet, and is produced directly by photosynthesis, the fundamental engine of life on earth. It is the photosynthetic capability of plants to utilize carbon dioxide from the atmosphere that leads to its designation as a 'carbon neutral' fuel, meaning that it does not introduce new carbon into the atmosphere. This article discusses the life cycle assessments of biomass use and the magnitude of energy captured by photosynthesis in the form of biomass on the planet to appraise approaches to tap this energy to meet the ever-growing demand for energy.

  8. The Forest Energy Chain in Tuscany: Economic Feasibility and Environmental Effects of Two Types of Biomass District Heating Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Fagarazzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine two biomass district heating plants operating in Tuscany, with a specific focus on the ex-post evaluation of their economic and financial feasibility and of their environmental benefits. The former biomass district heating plant supplies only public users (Comunità Montana della Lunigiana, CML: administrative body that coordinates the municipalities located in mountain areas, the latter supplies both public and private users (Municipality of San Romano in Garfagnana. Ex-post investment analysis was performed to check both the consistency of results with the forecasts made in the stage of the project design and on the factors, which may have reduced or jeopardized the estimated economic performance of the investment (ex-ante assessment. The results of the study point out appreciable results only in the case of biomass district heating plants involving private users and fuelled by biomasses sourced from third parties. In this case, the factors that most influence ex-post results include the conditions of the woody biomass local market (market prices, the policies of energy selling prices to private users and the temporal dynamics of private users’ connection. To ensure the consistency of ex-post economic outcome with the expected results it is thus important to: (i have good knowledge of the woody local market; (ii define energy selling prices that should be cheap for private users but consistent with energy production costs and (iii constrain private users beforehand to prevent errors in the plant design and in the preliminary estimate of return on investment. Moreover, the results obtained during the monitoring activities could help in providing information on the effectiveness of the supporting measures adopted and also to orient future choices of policy makers and particularly designers, to identify the most efficient configuration of district heating organization for improving energy and

  9. Next-Generation Sequencing and Genome Editing in Plant Virology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hadidi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing (NGS has been applied to plant virology since 2009. NGS provides highly efficient, rapid, low cost DNA or RNA high-throughput sequencing of the genomes of plant viruses and viroids and of the specific small RNAs generated during the infection process. These small RNAs, which cover frequently the whole genome of the infectious agent, are 21-24 nt long and are known as vsRNAs for viruses and vd-sRNAs for viroids. NGS has been used in a number of studies in plant virology including, but not limited to, discovery of novel viruses and viroids as well as detection and identification of those pathogens already known, analysis of genome diversity and evolution, and study of pathogen epidemiology. The genome engineering editing method, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR-Cas9 system has been successfully used recently to engineer resistance to DNA geminiviruses (family, Geminiviridae by targeting different viral genome sequences in infected Nicotiana benthamiana or Arabidopsis plants. The DNA viruses targeted include tomato yellow leaf curl virus and merremia mosaic virus (begomovirus; beet curly top virus and beet severe curly top virus (curtovirus; and bean yellow dwarf virus (mastrevirus. The technique has also been used against the RNA viruses zucchini yellow mosaic virus, papaya ringspot virus and turnip mosaic virus (potyvirus and cucumber vein yellowing virus (ipomovirus, family, Potyviridae by targeting the translation initiation genes eIF4E in cucumber or Arabidopsis plants. From these recent advances of major importance, it is expected that NGS and CRISPR-Cas technologies will play a significant role in the very near future in advancing the field of plant virology and connecting it with other related fields of biology.Keywords: Next-generation sequencing, NGS, plant virology, plant viruses, viroids, resistance to plant viruses by CRISPR-Cas9

  10. Analysis of biomass and waste gasification lean syngases combustion for power generation using spark ignition engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marculescu, Cosmin; Cenuşă, Victor; Alexe, Florin

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a study for food processing industry waste to energy conversion using gasification and internal combustion engine for power generation. The biomass we used consisted in bones and meat residues sampled directly from the industrial line, characterised by high water content, about 42% in mass, and potential health risks. Using the feedstock properties, experimentally determined, two air-gasification process configurations were assessed and numerically modelled to quantify the effects on produced syngas properties. The study also focused on drying stage integration within the conversion chain: either external or integrated into the gasifier. To comply with environmental regulations on feedstock to syngas conversion both solutions were developed in a closed system using a modified down-draft gasifier that integrates the pyrolysis, gasification and partial oxidation stages. Good quality syngas with up to 19.1% - CO; 17% - H2; and 1.6% - CH4 can be produced. The syngas lower heating value may vary from 4.0 MJ/Nm(3) to 6.7 MJ/Nm(3) depending on process configuration. The influence of syngas fuel properties on spark ignition engines performances was studied in comparison to the natural gas (methane) and digestion biogas. In order to keep H2 molar quota below the detonation value of ⩽4% for the engines using syngas, characterised by higher hydrogen fraction, the air excess ratio in the combustion process must be increased to [2.2-2.8]. The results in this paper represent valuable data required by the design of waste to energy conversion chains with intermediate gas fuel production. The data is suitable for Otto engines characterised by power output below 1 MW, designed for natural gas consumption and fuelled with low calorific value gas fuels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Vibrations measurement at the Embalse nuclear power plant's electrical generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomoni, R.C.; Belinco, C.G.; Pastorini, A.J.; Sacchi, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    After the modifications made at the Embalse nuclear power plant's electrical generator to reduce its vibration level produced by electromagnetic phenomena, it was necessary to perform measurements at the new levels, under different areas and power conditions. To this purpose, a work was performed jointly with the 'Vibrations Team' of the ANSALDO Company (the generator constructor) and the Hydrodynamic Assays Division under the coordination and supervision of the plant's electrical maintenance responsible. This paper includes the main results obtained and the instrumentation criteria and analysis performed. (Author)

  12. Simulation of gaseous emissions from electricity generating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellhouse, G.M.; Whittington, H.W.

    1996-01-01

    In electricity supply networks, traditional dispatch algorithms are based on features such as economics and plant availability. Annual limits on emissions from fossil-fuelled stations are regarded as a restriction and set a ceiling on generation from particular stations. With the impending introduction of financial penalties on emissions, for example cal bon taxation, algorithms will have to be developed which allow the dispatch engineer to assess the cost in real-time of different generation options involving fossil-fuelled plants. Such an algorithm is described in this paper. (UK)

  13. Risks of turbine generators at WWER-440 nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virolainen, T.; Marttila, J.; Aulamo, H.

    1998-01-01

    Many serious fires and incidents have occurred in the turbine halls of nuclear power plants, resulting in serious damage and long shutdown outages. Some of these incidents have endangered the safe shutdown of the plants because of the location of lack of vital fire protection safety systems. A detailed analysis is necessary for all those plants that have equipment important for safe shutdown located in the turbine hall or its vicinity without strict fire separation by fire rated barriers. A reduction in the fire frequencies of the turbine hall is an additional way of improving safety. This is possible by improving all aspects of turbine generator operation. (author)

  14. Power generation prior food safety? Biomass in the conflict area of energy security and hunger crisis; Energieerzeugung vor Ernaehrungssicherung? Biomasse im Spannungsfeld von Energiesicherung und Hungerkrise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Monika C.M. (ed.)

    2011-07-01

    Within the international meeting of the Evangelische Akademie Loccum (Rehburg-Loccum, Federal Republic of Germany) at 13rd to 15th May, 2009 the following lectures were held: (1) Biomass - Energy of the future (Daniela Thraen); (2) Bio energy and cultivation of energy crops in Lower Saxony. State of the art and perspectives (Gerd Carsten Hoeher); (3) Bioenergy and food security project in FAO (Mirella Salvatore); (4) Appetite for hunger and competition in land use (Elmar Altvater); (5) Biodiesel poles in Northeast Brasilia. Efficiencies and experiences of a project for the integration of small farmers into the national Biodiesel program (Stefan Goertz); (6) Bioenergy in Africa: Chance to overcome energy poverty or driver of hunger (Hamimu Hongo); (7) Cultivation of Jatropha for direct utilization of oil: Win-Win situation for small farmers and companies? (Lorenz Kirchner); (8) Energy security by means of sufficient power generation. Energy and fuels from biomass result in renaissance of the agriculture and offer chances for fight against poverty and for avoidance of hunger to developing countries (Nasir El Bassam).

  15. A hybrid model for mapping relative differences in belowground biomass and root: Shoot ratios using spectral reflectance, foliar N and plant biophysical data within coastal marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica L. O'Connell,; Byrd, Kristin B.; Maggi Kelly,

    2015-01-01

    Broad-scale estimates of belowground biomass are needed to understand wetland resiliency and C and N cycling, but these estimates are difficult to obtain because root:shoot ratios vary considerably both within and between species. We used remotely-sensed estimates of two aboveground plant characteristics, aboveground biomass and % foliar N to explore biomass allocation in low diversity freshwater impounded peatlands (Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, CA, USA). We developed a hybrid modeling approach to relate remotely-sensed estimates of % foliar N (a surrogate for environmental N and plant available nutrients) and aboveground biomass to field-measured belowground biomass for species specific and mixed species models. We estimated up to 90% of variation in foliar N concentration using partial least squares (PLS) regression of full-spectrum field spectrometer reflectance data. Landsat 7 reflectance data explained up to 70% of % foliar N and 67% of aboveground biomass. Spectrally estimated foliar N or aboveground biomass had negative relationships with belowground biomass and root:shoot ratio in both Schoenoplectus acutus and Typha, consistent with a balanced growth model, which suggests plants only allocate growth belowground when additional nutrients are necessary to support shoot development. Hybrid models explained up to 76% of variation in belowground biomass and 86% of variation in root:shoot ratio. Our modeling approach provides a method for developing maps of spatial variation in wetland belowground biomass.

  16. Minimisation of Generation Variability of a Group of Wind Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravko Sabolić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Minimisation of variability of energy delivered from a group of wind plants into the power system using portfolio theory approach was studied. One of the assumptions of that theory is Gaussian distribution of the sample, which is not satisfied in case of wind generation. Therefore, optimisation of a “portfolio” of plants with different goal functions was studied. It was supposed that a decision on distribution of a fixed amount of generation capacity to be installed among a set of geographical locations with known wind statistics is to be made with minimised variability of generation as a goal. In that way the statistical cancellation of variability would be used in the best possible manner. This article is a brief report on results of such an investigation. An example of nine locations in Croatia was used. These locations’ wind statistics are known from historic generation data.

  17. Clinch river breeder reactor plant steam generator water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoesen, D.; Lowe, P.A.

    1975-01-01

    The recent problems experienced by some LWR Steam Generators have drawn attention to the importance of system water quality and water/ steam side corrosion. Several of these reactor plants have encountered steam generator failures due to accelerated tube corrosion caused, in part, by poor water quality and corrosion control. The CRBRP management is aware of these problems, and the implications that they have for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CPBRP) Steam Generator System (SGS). Consequently, programs are being implemented which will: 1) investigate the corrosion mechanisms which may be present in the CRBRP SGS; 2) assure steam generator integrity under design and anticipated off-normal water quality conditions; and 3) assure that the design water quality levels are maintained at all times. However, in order to understand the approach being used to examine this potential problem, it is first necessary to look at the CRBRP SGS and the corrosion mechanisms which may be present

  18. Clinch river breeder reactor plant steam generator water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoesen, D; Lowe, P A

    1975-07-01

    The recent problems experienced by some LWR Steam Generators have drawn attention to the importance of system water quality and water/ steam side corrosion. Several of these reactor plants have encountered steam generator failures due to accelerated tube corrosion caused, in part, by poor water quality and corrosion control. The CRBRP management is aware of these problems, and the implications that they have for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CPBRP) Steam Generator System (SGS). Consequently, programs are being implemented which will: (1) investigate the corrosion mechanisms which may be present in the CRBRP SGS; (2) assure steam generator integrity under design and anticipated off-normal water quality conditions; and (3) assure that the design water quality levels are maintained at all times. However, in order to understand the approach being used to examine this potential problem, it is first necessary to look at the CRBRP SGS and the corrosion mechanisms which may be present.

  19. Evaluation of design and operation of fuel handling systems for 25 MW biomass fueled CFB power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precht, D.

    1991-01-01

    Two circulating fluidized bed, biomass fueled, 25MW power plants were placed into operation by Thermo Electron Energy Systems in California during late 1989. This paper discusses the initial fuel and system considerations, system design, actual operating fuel characterisitics, system operation during the first year and modifications. Biomass fuels handled by the system include urban/manufacturing wood wastes and agricultural wastes in the form of orchard prunings, vineyard prunings, pits, shells, rice hulls and straws. Equipment utilized in the fuel handling system are described and costs are evaluated. Lessons learned from the design and operational experience are offered for consideration on future biomass fueled installations where definition of fuel quality and type is subject to change

  20. Review about corrosion of superheaters tubes in biomass plants; Revision sobre la corrosion de tubos sobrecalentadores en plantas de biomasa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlanga-Labari, C.; Fernandez-Carrasquilla, J.

    2006-07-01

    The design of new biomass-fired power plants with increased steam temperature raises concerns of high-temperature corrosion. The high potassium and chlorine contents in many biomass, specially in wheat straw, are potentially harmful elements with regard to corrosion. Chlorine may cause accelerated corrosion resulting in increased oxidation, metal wastage, internal attack, void formations and loose non-adherent scales. The most severe corrosion problems in biomass-fired systems are expected to occur due to Cl-rich deposits formed on superheater tubes. In the first part of this revision the corrosion mechanism proposed are described in function of the conditions and compounds involved. The second part is focused on the behaviour of the materials tested so far in the boiler and in the laboratory. First the traditional commercial alloys are studied and secondly the new alloys and the coasting. (Author). 102 refs.

  1. Power plant project success through total productive generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaivola, R.; Tamminen, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Total Productive Generation concept (TPG) defines the lines of action adopted by IVO Generation Services Ltd (IGS) for the operation and maintenance of power plants. The TPG concept is based on procedures tested in practice. The main idea of TPG is continuous development of quality, which is a joint effort of the entire staff. Its objective is to benefit IGS`s own staff and, in particular, the company`s customers. (orig.)

  2. Soviet steam generator technology: fossil fuel and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosengaus, J.

    1987-01-01

    In the Soviet Union, particular operational requirements, coupled with a centralized planning system adopted in the 1920s, have led to a current technology which differs in significant ways from its counterparts elsewhere in the would and particularly in the United States. However, the monograph has a broader value in that it traces the development of steam generators in response to the industrial requirements of a major nation dealing with the global energy situation. Specifically, it shows how Soviet steam generator technology evolved as a result of changing industrial requirements, fuel availability, and national fuel utilization policy. The monograph begins with a brief technical introduction focusing on steam-turbine power plants, and includes a discussion of the Soviet Union's regional power supply (GRES) networks and heat and power plant (TETs) systems. TETs may be described as large central co-generating stations which, in addition to electricity, provide heat in the form of steam and hot water. Plants of this type are a common feature of the USSR today. The adoption of these cogeneration units as a matter of national policy has had a central influence on Soviet steam generator technology which can be traced throughout the monograph. The six chapters contain: a short history of steam generators in the USSR; steam generator design and manufacture in the USSR; boiler and furnace assemblies for fossil fuel-fired power stations; auxiliary components; steam generators in nuclear power plants; and the current status of the Soviet steam generator industry. Chapters have been abstracted separately. A glossary is included containing abbreviations and acronyms of USSR organizations. 26 references

  3. Particulate emissions from biomass combustion in small district heating plants; Partikelemissioner fraan biobraensleeldade mindre fjaerrvaermecentraler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Henrik; Johansson, Linda; Tullin, Claes; Oesterberg, Stefan; Johansson, Mathias [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Leckner, Bo [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Energy Conversion

    2001-12-01

    In recent years, negative health effects associated with increased levels of PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} (particles less then 10 and 2.5 {mu}m, respectively) in the ambient air have been highlighted. The development towards a sustainable society will lead to an increased use of biomass in Sweden. Conversion from oil to biomass can lead to increased local levels of particulate matter. In smaller district heating plants (up to a few MW), the dust reduction of