WorldWideScience

Sample records for biomass energy feedstocks

  1. Effect of biomass feedstock chemical and physical properties on energy conversion processes: Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butner, R.S.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J., Jr.; Pyne, J.W.

    1988-12-01

    This report presents an exploration of the relationships between biomass feedstocks and the conversion processes that utilize them. Specifically, it discusses the effect of the physical and chemical structure of biomass on conversion yields, rates, and efficiencies in a wide variety of available or experimental conversion processes. A greater understanding of the complex relationships between these conversion systems and the production of biomass for energy uses is required to help optimize the complex network of biomass production, collection, transportation, and conversion to useful energy products. The review of the literature confirmed the scarcity of research aimed specifically at identifying the effect of feedstock properties on conversion. In most cases, any mention of feedstock-related effects was limited to a few brief remarks (usually in qualitative terms) in the conclusions, or as a topic for further research. Attempts to determine the importance of feedstock parameters from published data were further hampered by the lack of consistent feedstock characterization and the difficulty of comparing results between different experimental systems. Further research will be required to establish quantitative relationships between feedstocks and performance criteria in conversion. 127 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Development of High Yield Feedstocks and Biomass Conversion Technology for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Andrew G. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Crow, Susan [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); DeBeryshe, Barbara [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ha, Richard [Hamakua Springs County Farms, Hilo, HI (United States); Jakeway, Lee [Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company, Puunene, HI (United States); Khanal, Samir [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Nakahata, Mae [Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company, Puunene, HI (United States); Ogoshi, Richard [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Shimizu, Erik [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Stern, Ivette [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Turano, Brian [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Turn, Scott [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Yanagida, John [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2015-04-09

    This project had two main goals. The first goal was to evaluate several high yielding tropical perennial grasses as feedstock for biofuel production, and to characterize the feedstock for compatible biofuel production systems. The second goal was to assess the integration of renewable energy systems for Hawaii. The project focused on high-yield grasses (napiergrass, energycane, sweet sorghum, and sugarcane). Field plots were established to evaluate the effects of elevation (30, 300 and 900 meters above sea level) and irrigation (50%, 75% and 100% of sugarcane plantation practice) on energy crop yields and input. The test plots were extensive monitored including: hydrologic studies to measure crop water use and losses through seepage and evapotranspiration; changes in soil carbon stock; greenhouse gas flux (CO2, CH4, and N2O) from the soil surface; and root morphology, biomass, and turnover. Results showed significant effects of environment on crop yields. In general, crop yields decrease as the elevation increased, being more pronounced for sweet sorghum and energycane than napiergrass. Also energy crop yields were higher with increased irrigation levels, being most pronounced with energycane and less so with sweet sorghum. Daylight length greatly affected sweet sorghum growth and yields. One of the energy crops (napiergrass) was harvested at different ages (2, 4, 6, and 8 months) to assess the changes in feedstock characteristics with age and potential to generate co-products. Although there was greater potential for co-products from younger feedstock, the increased production was not sufficient to offset the additional cost of harvesting multiple times per year. The feedstocks were also characterized to assess their compatibility with biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes. The project objectives are being continued through additional support from the Office of Naval Research, and the Biomass Research and Development

  3. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, Laura [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Feedstock Platform Review meeting.

  4. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.; Broderick, Thomas F.

    2011-10-11

    A novel class of flowable biomass feedstock particles with unusually large surface areas that can be manufactured in remarkably uniform sizes using low-energy comminution techniques. The feedstock particles are roughly parallelepiped in shape and characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially with the grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. The particles exhibit a disrupted grain structure with prominent end and surface checks that greatly enhances their skeletal surface area as compared to their envelope surface area. The L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers. The W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers. The L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top surfaces characterized by some surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The feedstock particles are manufactured from a variety of plant biomass materials including wood, crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  5. Forest based biomass for energy in Uganda: Stakeholder dynamics in feedstock production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insufficient energy supply and low levels of development are closely linked. Both are major issues in Uganda where growing demand cannot be met by overstretched infrastructure and the majority still rely on traditional biomass use. Uganda's renewable energy policy focuses on decentralised sources including modern biomass. In this paper, stakeholder dynamics and potential socio-economic impacts of eight modern bioenergy feedstock production models in Uganda are considered, and key considerations for future planning provided. For these models the main distinctions were land ownership (communal or private) and feedstock type (by-product or plantation). Key social issues varied by value chain (corporate, government or farmer/NGO), and what production arrangement was in place (produced for own use or sale). Small, privately owned production models can be profitable but are unlikely to benefit landless poor and, if repeated without strategic planning, could result in resource depletion. Larger projects can have greater financial benefits, though may have longer term natural resource impacts felt by adjacent communities. Bioenergy initiatives which allow the rural poor to participate through having a collaborative stake, rather than receiving information, and provide opportunities for the landless are most likely to result in socio-economic rural development to meet policy goals. The structured approach to understanding stakeholder dynamics used was found to be robust and sufficiently adaptable to provide meaningful analysis. In conclusion; local, context-specific planning and assessment for bioenergy projects, where all stakeholders have the opportunity to be collaborators in the process throughout its full lifecycle, is required to achieve rural development objectives. -- Highlights: • Stakeholder dynamics and socio-economics in 8 Ugandan bioenergy projects considered. • Key distinctions were ownership, feedstock, value chain and production arrangement. • Small

  6. Biomass feedstock analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Moilanen, A.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The overall objectives of the project `Feasibility of electricity production from biomass by pressurized gasification systems` within the EC Research Programme JOULE II were to evaluate the potential of advanced power production systems based on biomass gasification and to study the technical and economic feasibility of these new processes with different type of biomass feed stocks. This report was prepared as part of this R and D project. The objectives of this task were to perform fuel analyses of potential woody and herbaceous biomasses with specific regard to the gasification properties of the selected feed stocks. The analyses of 15 Scandinavian and European biomass feed stock included density, proximate and ultimate analyses, trace compounds, ash composition and fusion behaviour in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. The wood-derived fuels, such as whole-tree chips, forest residues, bark and to some extent willow, can be expected to have good gasification properties. Difficulties caused by ash fusion and sintering in straw combustion and gasification are generally known. The ash and alkali metal contents of the European biomasses harvested in Italy resembled those of the Nordic straws, and it is expected that they behave to a great extent as straw in gasification. Any direct relation between the ash fusion behavior (determined according to the standard method) and, for instance, the alkali metal content was not found in the laboratory determinations. A more profound characterisation of the fuels would require gasification experiments in a thermobalance and a PDU (Process development Unit) rig. (orig.) (10 refs.)

  7. Preparation of gasification feedstock from leafy biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shone, C M; Jothi, T J S

    2016-05-01

    Dried leaves are a potential source of energy although these are not commonly used beside to satisfy daily energy demands in rural areas. This paper aims at preparing a leafy biomass feedstock in the form of briquettes which can be directly used for combustion or to extract the combustible gas using a gasifier. Teak (Tectona grandis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) leaves are considered for the present study. A binder-assisted briquetting technique with tapioca starch as binder is adopted. Properties of these leafy biomass briquettes such as moisture content, calorific value, compressive strength, and shatter index are determined. From the study, briquettes with biomass-to-binder ratio of 3:5 are found to be stable. Higher mass percentage of binder is considered for preparation of briquettes due to the fact that leafy biomasses do not adhere well on densification with lower binder content. Ultimate analysis test is conducted to analyze the gasification potential of the briquettes. Results show that the leafy biomass prepared from teak and rubber leaves has calorific values of 17.5 and 17.8 MJ/kg, respectively, which are comparable with those of existing biomass feedstock made of sawdust, rice husk, and rice straw. PMID:26289326

  8. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.; Broderick, Thomas F.

    2012-04-17

    A new class of plant biomass feedstock particles characterized by consistent piece size and shape uniformity, high skeletal surface area, and good flow properties. The particles of plant biomass material having fibers aligned in a grain are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. In particular, the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces. The L.times.W surfaces of particles with L/H dimension ratios of 4:1 or less are further elaborated by surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The length dimension L is preferably aligned within 30.degree. parallel to the grain, and more preferably within 10.degree. parallel to the grain. The plant biomass material is preferably selected from among wood, agricultural crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  9. Process energy comparison for the production and harvesting of algal biomass as a biofuel feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weschler, Matthew K; Barr, William J; Harper, Willie F; Landis, Amy E

    2014-02-01

    Harvesting and drying are often described as the most energy intensive stages of microalgal biofuel production. This study analyzes two cultivation and eleven harvest technologies for the production of microalgae biomass with and without the use of drying. These technologies were combined to form 122 different production scenarios. The results of this study present a calculation methodology and optimization of total energy demand for the production of algal biomass for biofuel production. The energetic interaction between unit processes and total process energy demand are compared for each scenario. Energy requirements are shown to be highly dependent on final mass concentration, with thermal drying being the largest energy consumer. Scenarios that omit thermal drying in favor of lipid extraction from wet biomass show the most promise for energy efficient biofuel production. Scenarios which used open ponds for cultivation, followed by settling and membrane filtration were the most energy efficient.

  10. Macroalgae as a Biomass Feedstock: A Preliminary Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesijadi, Guritno; Jones, Susanne B.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2010-09-26

    A thorough of macroalgae analysis as a biofuels feedstock is warranted due to the size of this biomass resource and the need to consider all potential sources of feedstock to meet current biomass production goals. Understanding how to harness this untapped biomass resource will require additional research and development. A detailed assessment of environmental resources, cultivation and harvesting technology, conversion to fuels, connectivity with existing energy supply chains, and the associated economic and life cycle analyses will facilitate evaluation of this potentially important biomass resource.

  11. Preprocessing Moist Lignocellulosic Biomass for Biorefinery Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal Yancey; Christopher T. Wright; Craig Conner; J. Richard Hess

    2009-06-01

    Biomass preprocessing is one of the primary operations in the feedstock assembly system of a lignocellulosic biorefinery. Preprocessing is generally accomplished using industrial grinders to format biomass materials into a suitable biorefinery feedstock for conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Many factors affect machine efficiency and the physical characteristics of preprocessed biomass. For example, moisture content of the biomass as received from the point of production has a significant impact on overall system efficiency and can significantly affect the characteristics (particle size distribution, flowability, storability, etc.) of the size-reduced biomass. Many different grinder configurations are available on the market, each with advantages under specific conditions. Ultimately, the capacity and/or efficiency of the grinding process can be enhanced by selecting the grinder configuration that optimizes grinder performance based on moisture content and screen size. This paper discusses the relationships of biomass moisture with respect to preprocessing system performance and product physical characteristics and compares data obtained on corn stover, switchgrass, and wheat straw as model feedstocks during Vermeer HG 200 grinder testing. During the tests, grinder screen configuration and biomass moisture content were varied and tested to provide a better understanding of their relative impact on machine performance and the resulting feedstock physical characteristics and uniformity relative to each crop tested.

  12. Bibliography on Biomass Feedstock Research: 1978-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, J.H.

    2003-05-01

    This report provides bibliographic citations for more than 1400 reports on biomass feedstock development published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and its collaborators from 1978 through 2002. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is engaged in analysis of biomass resource supplies, research on the sustainability of feedstock resources, and research on feedstock engineering and infrastructure. From 1978 until 2002, Oak Ridge National Laboratory also provided technical leadership for the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program (BFDP), which supported research to identify and develop promising energy crops. This bibliography lists reports published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and by its collaborators in the BFDP, including graduate student theses and dissertations.

  13. Roadmap for Agriculture Biomass Feedstock Supply in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Richard Hess; Thomas D. Foust; Reed Hoskinson; David Thompson

    2003-11-01

    accomplished in a sustainable manner • Feedstock Infrastructure – An integrated feedstock supply system must be developed and implemented that can serve the feedstock needs of the biorefinery at the cost, quality, and consistency of the set targets • System Profitability – Economic profitability and sustainability need to be ensured for all required participants in the feedstock supply system. For each step in the biomass supply process—production, harvesting and collection, storage, preprocessing, system integration, and transportation—this roadmap addresses the current technical situations, performance targets, technical barriers, R&D needs, and R&D priorities to overcome technical barriers and achieve performance targets. Crop residue biomass is an attractive starting feedstock, which shows the best near-term promise as a biorefinery feedstock. Because crop residue is a by-product of grain production, it is an abundant, underutilized, and low cost biomass resource. Corn stover and cereal straw are the two most abundant crop residues available in the United States. Therefore, this roadmap focuses primarily on the R&D needed for using these biomass sources as viable biorefinery feedstocks. However, achieving the goal of 1 billion dry tons of lignocellulosic feedstock will require the use of other biomass sources such as dedicated energy crops. In the long term, the R&D needs identified in this roadmap will need to accommodate these other sources of biomass as well.

  14. Biomass Program 2007 Program Peer Review - Feedstock Platform Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Feedstock Platform Portfolio Peer Review held on August 21st through 23rd in Washington D.C.

  15. Environmental emissions and socioeconomic considerations in the production, storage, and transportation of biomass energy feedstocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis was conducted to identify major sources and approximate levels of emissions to land, air, and water, that may result, in the year 2010, from supplying biofuel conversion facilities with energy crops. Land, fuel, and chemicals are all used in the establishment, maintenance, harvest, handling and transport of energy crops. The operations involved create soil erosion and compaction, particulate releases, air emissions from fuel use and chemical applications, and runoff or leachate. The analysis considered five different energy facility locations (each in a different major crop growing region) and three classes of energy crops -- woody crops, perennial herbaceous grasses, and an annual herbaceous crop (sorghum). All projections had to be based on reasonable assumptions regarding probable species used, type of land used, equipment requirements, chemical input requirements, and transportation fuel types. Emissions were summarized by location and class of energy crop

  16. Environmental emissions and socioeconomic considerations in the production, storage, and transportation of biomass energy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D.; Ranney, J.W.; Wright, L.L.

    1992-07-01

    An analysis was conducted to identify major sources and approximate levels of emissions to land, air, and water, that may result, in the year 2010, from supplying biofuel conversion facilities with energy crops. Land, fuel, and chemicals are all used in the establishment, maintenance, harvest, handling and transport of energy crops. The operations involved create soil erosion and compaction, particulate releases, air emissions from fuel use and chemical applications, and runoff or leachate. The analysis considered five different energy facility locations (each in a different major crop growing region) and three classes of energy crops -- woody crops, perennial herbaceous grasses, and an annual herbaceous crop (sorghum). All projections had to be based on reasonable assumptions regarding probable species used, type of land used, equipment requirements, chemical input requirements, and transportation fuel types. Emissions were summarized by location and class of energy crop.

  17. Evaluation of the potential for using old-field vegetation as an energy feedstock: Biomass yield, chemical composition, environmental concerns, and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, J.W. Jr.

    1990-07-01

    The major focus of current research on production of biomass for use as energy feedstock involves selection of species and genotypes best suited for specific regions of the United States and development of crop management techniques that maximize biomass productivity while minimizing environmental impacts and economic costs. The two experimental sites, and abandoned soybean field (AS) and an abandoned pasture (AP) were studied. At the AS site, the effects of two harvest frequencies (1 or 2 harvests annually), two nitrogen fertilizer treatments (1 or 2 harvests annually), two nitrogen fertilizer treatments (0 or 87 kg{center dot}ha{sup {minus}1}{center dot}yr{sup {minus}1}), and two phosphorous fertilizer treatments (0 or 111 kg{center dot}ha{sup {minus}1}{center dot}yr{sup {minus}1}) were determined. At the AP site, the effects of two harvest treatments (1 or 2 harvests annually), two fertilizer treatments (56:56:135 kg of N:P:K{center dot}ha{sup {minus}1}{center dot}yr{sup {minus}1}), and two lime treatments (0 or 4600 kg{center dot}ha{sup {minus}1}{center dot}yr{sup {minus}1}) were determined. At both sites, treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block 2 {times} 2 {times} 2 factorial experiment. The results of this research indicated that old-field vegetation is: (1) sufficiently productive to provide significant quantities of energy feedstock; (2) chemically suitable as an energy feedstock; (3) environmentally benign with respect to impacts related to soil erosion and nutrient depletion; (4) relatively unresponsive to fertilizer and lime inputs; and (5) economically competitive with other biomass energy feedstock candidates. 38 refs., 8 figs., 68 tabs.

  18. Processing Cost Analysis for Biomass Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, P.C.

    2002-11-20

    The receiving, handling, storing, and processing of woody biomass feedstocks is an overlooked component of biopower systems. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to identify and characterize all the receiving, handling, storing, and processing steps required to make woody biomass feedstocks suitable for use in direct combustion and gasification applications, including small modular biopower (SMB) systems, and (2) to estimate the capital and operating costs at each step. Since biopower applications can be varied, a number of conversion systems and feedstocks required evaluation. In addition to limiting this study to woody biomass feedstocks, the boundaries of this study were from the power plant gate to the feedstock entry point into the conversion device. Although some power plants are sited at a source of wood waste fuel, it was assumed for this study that all wood waste would be brought to the power plant site. This study was also confined to the following three feedstocks (1) forest residues, (2) industrial mill residues, and (3) urban wood residues. Additionally, the study was confined to grate, suspension, and fluidized bed direct combustion systems; gasification systems; and SMB conversion systems. Since scale can play an important role in types of equipment, operational requirements, and capital and operational costs, this study examined these factors for the following direct combustion and gasification system size ranges: 50, 20, 5, and 1 MWe. The scope of the study also included: Specific operational issues associated with specific feedstocks (e.g., bark and problems with bridging); Opportunities for reducing handling, storage, and processing costs; How environmental restrictions can affect handling and processing costs (e.g., noise, commingling of treated wood or non-wood materials, emissions, and runoff); and Feedstock quality issues and/or requirements (e.g., moisture, particle size, presence of non-wood materials). The study found that over the

  19. C4 Plants as Biofuel Feedstocks: Optimising Biomass Production and Feedstock Quality from a Lignocellulosic Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caitlin S.Byrt; Christopher P.L.Grof; Robert T.Furbank

    2011-01-01

    The main feedstocks for bioethanol are sugarcane (Saccharum offic-inarum) and maize (Zea mays), both of which are C4 grasses, highly efficient at converting solar energy into chemical energy, and both are food crops. As the systems for lignocellulosic bioethanol production become more efficient and cost effective, plant biomass from any source may be used as a feedstock for bioethanol production. Thus, a move away from using food plants to make fuel is possible, and sources of biomass such as wood from forestry and plant waste from cropping may be used. However, the bioethanol industry will need a continuous and reliable supply of biomass that can be produced at a low cost and with minimal use of water, fertilizer and arable land. As many C4 plants have high light, water and nitrogen use efficiency, as compared with C3 species, they are ideal as feedstock crops. We consider the productivity and resource use of a number of candidate plant species, and discuss biomass 'quality', that is, the composition of the plant cell wall.

  20. C4 plants as biofuel feedstocks: optimising biomass production and feedstock quality from a lignocellulosic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrt, Caitlin S; Grof, Christopher P L; Furbank, Robert T

    2011-02-01

    The main feedstocks for bioethanol are sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and maize (Zea mays), both of which are C(4) grasses, highly efficient at converting solar energy into chemical energy, and both are food crops. As the systems for lignocellulosic bioethanol production become more efficient and cost effective, plant biomass from any source may be used as a feedstock for bioethanol production. Thus, a move away from using food plants to make fuel is possible, and sources of biomass such as wood from forestry and plant waste from cropping may be used. However, the bioethanol industry will need a continuous and reliable supply of biomass that can be produced at a low cost and with minimal use of water, fertilizer and arable land. As many C(4) plants have high light, water and nitrogen use efficiency, as compared with C(3) species, they are ideal as feedstock crops. We consider the productivity and resource use of a number of candidate plant species, and discuss biomass 'quality', that is, the composition of the plant cell wall. PMID:21205189

  1. Feedstock quality : an important consideration in forest biomass supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryans, M. [FP Innovations, Vancouver, BC (Canada). FERIC

    2009-07-01

    The move to forest-based sources of biomass requires an emphasis on the quality of forest residues. Customers set the feedstock requirements, and demand homogeneous and predictable quality. The top quality factors are appropriate moisture content, consistent particle size, chlorine content, and clean material. The seasonal variability of the resource means that suppliers must determine how to deliver a year-round supply with appropriate moisture content. Methods such as pre-piling and covering with a tarp are being tested. Although mills tailored for biomass deliveries have modernized boilers capable of burning a variety of biomass feedstocks at varying moisture contents, a 10 per cent reduction in moisture content can offer a good return on investment because suppliers could transports more energy content and less water per tonne of biomass. This presentation also discussed the range of equipment choices available for delivering the right-sized biomass, and outlined the right and wrong practices that influence biomass quality along the supply chain. figs.

  2. Simulation-based life cycle assessment of energy efficiency of biomass-based ethanol fuel from different feedstocks in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interests in biomass-based fuel ethanol (BFE) have been re-boosted due to oil shortage and environmental deterioration. Biomass-based fuel ethanol is renewable and, apparently, environmentally friendly. Biomass-based E10 (a blend of 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline by volume) is a promising conventional gasoline substitute, because vehicle engines require no modifications to run on E10 and vehicle warranties are unaffected. This paper presented life cycle assessments (LCAs) of energy efficiency of wheat-based E10 from central China, corn-based E10 from northeast China, and cassava-based E10 from southwest China. The respective energy flow-based evaluation model of wheat-, corn-, and cassava-based E10 was built based on data from pilot BFE plants. Monte Carlo method is applied to deal with the uncertain parameters and input and output variables of the evaluation model because of its wide application and easy development of statistical dispersion of calculated quantities. According to the assessment results, the average energy input/output ratio of wheat-based fuel ethanol (WFE), corn-based fuel ethanol (CFE), and cassava-based fuel ethanol (KFE) is 0.70, 0.75, and 0.54, respectively, and biomass-based E10 vehicle can have less fossil energy demand than gasoline-fueled ones.

  3. Feedstock Supply and Logistics: Biomass as a Commodity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-05-06

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office and its partners are developing the technologies and systems needed to sustainably and economically deliver a broad range of biomass in formats that enable their efficient use as feedstocks for biorefineries.

  4. Paving the way for sustainable bioenergy in Europe: technological options and research avenues for large-scale biomass feedstock supply

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielle, Benoit; Bamière, Laure; Caldes, Natalia; Cara, Stéphane; Decocq, Guillaume; Ferchaud, Fabien; Lechon, Yolanda; Loyce, Chantal,; Pelzer, Elise; Wohlfahrt, Julie; Richard, Guy

    2013-01-01

    submitted to Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Meeting future policy targets for bioenergy development worldwide poses major challenges for biomass feedstock supply chains in terms of competitiveness, reliability and sustainability. This paper reviews current knowledge on the sustainability of agricultural feedstock supply chains and emphasize future research needs. It covers annual and perennial feedstocks, and environmental, economic and social aspects. Knowledge gaps and technolo...

  5. Sophorolipid production from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Abdul

    , the yield of SLs was 0.55 g/g carbon (sugars plus oil) for cultures with bagasse hydrolysates. Further, SL production was investigated using sweet sorghum bagasse and corn stover hydrolysates derived from different pretreatment conditions. For the former and latter sugar sources, yellow grease or soybean oil was supplemented at different doses to enhance sophorolipid yield. 14-day batch fermentation on bagasse hydrolysates with 10, 40 and 60 g/L of yellow grease had cell densities of 5.7 g/L, 6.4 g/L and 7.8 g/L, respectively. The study also revealed that the yield of SLs on bagasse hydrolysate decreased from 0.67 to 0.61 and to 0.44 g/g carbon when yellow grease was dosed at 10, 40 and 60 g/L. With aforementioned increasing yellow grease concentration, the residual oil left after 14 days was recorded as 3.2 g/L, 8.5 g/L and 19.9 g/L. For similar experimental conditions, the cell densities observed for corn stover hydrolysate combined with soybean oil at 10, 20 and 40 g/L concentration were 6.1 g/L, 5.9 g/L, and 5.4 g/L respectively. Also, in the same order of oil dose supplemented, the residual oil recovered after 14-day was 8.5 g/L, 8.9 g/L, and 26.9 g/L. Corn stover hydrolysate mixed with the 10, 20 and 40 g/L soybean oil, the SL yield was 0.19, 0.11 and 0.09 g/g carbon. Overall, both hydrolysates supported cell growth and sophorolipid production. The results from this research show that hydrolysates derived from the different lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks can be utilized by C. bombicola to achieve substantial yields of SLs. Based upon the results revealed by several batch-stage experiments, it can be stated that there is great potential for scaling up and industrial scale production of these high value products in future.

  6. Biomass Feedstock and Conversion Supply System Design and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Mohammad S. Roni; Patrick Lamers; Kara G. Cafferty

    2014-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy’s bioenergy research program. As part of the research program INL investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. A series of reports were published between 2000 and 2013 to demonstrate the feedstock logistics cost. Those reports were tailored to specific feedstock and conversion process. Although those reports are different in terms of conversion, some of the process in the feedstock logistic are same for each conversion process. As a result, each report has similar information. A single report can be designed that could bring all commonality occurred in the feedstock logistics process while discussing the feedstock logistics cost for different conversion process. Therefore, this report is designed in such a way that it can capture different feedstock logistics cost while eliminating the need of writing a conversion specific design report. Previous work established the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $55/dry ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, low-cost feedstock. The 2017 programmatic target is to supply feedstock to the conversion facility that meets the in-feed conversion process quality specifications at a total logistics cost of $80/dry T. The $80/dry T. target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all conversion in-feed quality targets

  7. A Review on Biomass Densification Systems to Develop Uniform Feedstock Commodities for Bioenergy Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Christopher T. Wright; J. Richard Hess; Kevin L. Kenney

    2011-11-01

    Developing uniformly formatted, densified feedstock from lignocellulosic biomass is of interest to achieve consistent physical properties like size and shape, bulk and unit density, and durability, which significantly influence storage, transportation and handling characteristics, and, by extension, feedstock cost and quality. A variety of densification systems are considered for producing a uniform format feedstock commodity for bioenergy applications, including (a) baler, (b) pellet mill, (c) cuber, (d) screw extruder, (e) briquette press, (f) roller press, (g) tablet press, and (g) agglomerator. Each of these systems has varying impacts on feedstock chemical and physical properties, and energy consumption. This review discusses the suitability of these densification systems for biomass feedstocks and the impact these systems have on specific energy consumption and end product quality. For example, a briquette press is more flexible in terms of feedstock variables where higher moisture content and larger particles are acceptable for making good quality briquettes; or among different densification systems, a screw press consumes the most energy because it not only compresses but also shears and mixes the material. Pretreatment options like preheating, grinding, steam explosion, torrefaction, and ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) can also help to reduce specific energy consumption during densification and improve binding characteristics. Binding behavior can also be improved by adding natural binders, such as proteins, or commercial binders, such as lignosulphonates. The quality of the densified biomass for both domestic and international markets is evaluated using PFI (United States Standard) or CEN (European Standard).

  8. Pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, Serdar E-mail: yamans@itu.edu.tr

    2004-03-01

    This review presents the summary of new studies on pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks. A number of biomass species, varying from woody and herbaceous biomass to municipal solid waste, food processing residues and industrial wastes, were subjected to different pyrolysis conditions to obtain liquid, gas and solid products. The results of various biomass pyrolysis investigations connected with the chemical composition and some properties of the pyrolysis products as a result of the applied pyrolysis conditions were combined. The characteristics of the liquid products from pyrolysis were examined, and some methods, such as catalytic upgrading or steam reforming, were considered to improve the physical and chemical properties of the liquids to convert them to economic and environmentally acceptable liquid fuels or chemical feedstocks. Outcomes from the kinetic studies performed by applying thermogravimetric analysis were also presented.

  9. Pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serdar Yaman [Istanbul Technical University (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    2004-03-01

    This review presents the summary of new studies on pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks. A number of biomass species, varying from woody and herbaceous biomass to municipal solid waste, food processing residues and industrial wastes, were subjected to different pyrolysis conditions to obtain liquid, gas and solid products. The results of various biomass pyrolysis investigations connected with the chemical composition and some properties of the pyrolysis products as a result of the applied pyrolysis conditions were combined. The characteristics of the liquid products from pyrolysis were examined, and some methods, such as catalytic upgrading or steam reforming, were considered to improve the physical and chemical properties of the liquids to convert them to economic and environmentally acceptable liquid fuels or chemical feedstocks. Outcomes from the kinetic studies performed by applying thermogravimetric analysis were also presented. (author)

  10. Impact of feedstock, land use change, and soil organic carbon on energy and greenhouse gas performance of biomass cogeneration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Comparison of 40 bioenergy pathways to a fossil-fuel based CHP system. • Not all energy efficient pathways led to lower GHG emissions. • iLUC through intensification increased the total energy input and GHG emissions. • Fluidized bed technologies maximize the energy and GHG benefits of all pathways. • Perennial crops are in some cases better than residues on GHG emissions criteria. - Abstract: Bioenergy (i.e., bioheat and bioelectricity) could simultaneously address energy insecurity and climate change. However, bioenergy’s impact on climate change remains incomplete when land use changes (LUC), soil organic carbon (SOC) changes, and the auxiliary energy consumption are not accounted for in the life cycle. Using data collected from Belgian farmers, combined heat and power (CHP) operators, and a life cycle approach, we compared 40 bioenergy pathways to a fossil-fuel CHP system. Bioenergy required between 0.024 and 0.204 MJ (0.86 MJth + 0.14 MJel)−1, and the estimated energy ratio (energy output-to-input ratio) ranged from 5 to 42. SOC loss increased the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of residue based bioenergy. On average, the iLUC represented ∼67% of the total GHG emissions of bioenergy from perennial energy crops. However, the net LUC (i.e., dLUC + iLUC) effects substantially reduced the GHG emissions incurred during all phases of bioenergy production from perennial crops, turning most pathways based on energy crops to GHG sinks. Relative to fossil-fuel based CHP all bioenergy pathways reduced GHG emissions by 8–114%. Fluidized bed technologies maximize the energy and the GHG benefits of all pathways. The size and the power-to-heat ratio for a given CHP influenced the energy and GHG performance of these bioenergy pathways. Even with the inclusion of LUC, perennial crops had better GHG performance than agricultural and forest residues. Perennial crops have a high potential in the multidimensional approach to increase energy security

  11. Synthesis gas production from various biomass feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Conesa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition of five different biomass samples was studied in a horizontal laboratory reactor. The samples consisted of esparto grass, straw, Posidonea Oceanic seaweed, waste from urban and agricultural pruning and waste from forest pruning. Both pyrolysis in inert atmosphere and combustion in the presence of oxygen were studied. Different heating rates were used by varying the input speed. Major gas compounds were analyzed. The experimental results show that the amount of CO formed is lower in less dense species. It is also found that there is an increase of hydrocarbons formed at increasing feeding rates, in particular methane, while there is a decrease in the production of hydrogen.

  12. Catalytic Hydrothermal Conversion of Wet Biomass Feedstocks and Upgrading – Process Design and Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse

    Liquid biofuels will play a major role for a more sustainable energy system of the future. The CatLiq® process is a 2nd generation biomass conversion process that is based on hydrothermal liquefaction. Hydrothermal liquefaction offers a very efficient and feedstock flexible way of converting...

  13. Biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioenergy systems can provide an energy supply that is environmentally sound and sustainable, although, like all energy systems, they have an environmental impact. The impact often depends more on the way the whole system is managed than on the fuel or on the conversion technology. The authors first describe traditional biomass systems: combustion and deforestation; health impact; charcoal conversion; and agricultural residues. A discussion of modern biomass systems follows: biogas; producer gas; alcohol fuels; modern wood fuel resources; and modern biomass combustion. The issue of bioenergy and the environment (land use; air pollution; water; socioeconomic impacts) and a discussion of sustainable bioenergy use complete the paper. 53 refs., 9 figs., 14 tabs

  14. MODEL BASED BIOMASS SYSTEM DESIGN OF FEEDSTOCK SUPPLY SYSTEMS FOR BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Muth, Jr.; Jacob J. Jacobson; Kenneth M. Bryden

    2013-08-01

    Engineering feedstock supply systems that deliver affordable, high-quality biomass remains a challenge for the emerging bioenergy industry. Cellulosic biomass is geographically distributed and has diverse physical and chemical properties. Because of this feedstock supply systems that deliver cellulosic biomass resources to biorefineries require integration of a broad set of engineered unit operations. These unit operations include harvest and collection, storage, preprocessing, and transportation processes. Design decisions for each feedstock supply system unit operation impact the engineering design and performance of the other system elements. These interdependencies are further complicated by spatial and temporal variances such as climate conditions and biomass characteristics. This paper develops an integrated model that couples a SQL-based data management engine and systems dynamics models to design and evaluate biomass feedstock supply systems. The integrated model, called the Biomass Logistics Model (BLM), includes a suite of databases that provide 1) engineering performance data for hundreds of equipment systems, 2) spatially explicit labor cost datasets, and 3) local tax and regulation data. The BLM analytic engine is built in the systems dynamics software package PowersimTM. The BLM is designed to work with thermochemical and biochemical based biofuel conversion platforms and accommodates a range of cellulosic biomass types (i.e., herbaceous residues, short- rotation woody and herbaceous energy crops, woody residues, algae, etc.). The BLM simulates the flow of biomass through the entire supply chain, tracking changes in feedstock characteristics (i.e., moisture content, dry matter, ash content, and dry bulk density) as influenced by the various operations in the supply chain. By accounting for all of the equipment that comes into contact with biomass from the point of harvest to the throat of the conversion facility and the change in characteristics, the

  15. Compositional and Agronomic Evaluation of Sorghum Biomass as a Potential Feedstock for Renewable Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, J.; Wolfrum, E.; Bean, B.; Rooney, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    One goal of the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee was to replace 30% of current U.S. petroleum consumption with biofuels by 2030. This will take mixtures of various feedstocks; an annual biomass feedstock such as sorghum will play an important role in meeting this goal. Commercial forage sorghum samples collected from field trials grown in Bushland, TX in 2007 were evaluated for both agronomic and compositional traits. Biomass compositional analysis of the samples was performed at the National Renewable Energy Lab in Golden, CO following NREL Laboratory Analytical Procedures. Depending on the specific cultivar, several additional years of yield data for this location were considered in establishing agronomic potential. Results confirm that sorghum forages can produce high biomass yields over multiple years and varied growing conditions. In addition, the composition of sorghum shows significant variation, as would be expected for most crops. Using theoretical estimates for ethanol production, the sorghum commercial forages examined in this study could produce an average of 6147 L ha{sup -1} of renewable fuels. Given its genetic variability, a known genomic sequence, a robust seed industry, and biomass composition, sorghum will be an important annual feedstock to meet the alternative fuel production goals legislated by the US Energy Security Act of 2007.

  16. Uncertainties in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Advanced Biomass Feedstock Logistics Supply Chains in Kansas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Nguyen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To meet Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA cellulosic biofuel mandates, the United States will require an annual domestic supply of about 242 million Mg of biomass by 2022. To improve the feedstock logistics of lignocellulosic biofuels in order to access available biomass resources from areas with varying yields, commodity systems have been proposed and designed to deliver quality-controlled biomass feedstocks at preprocessing “depots”. Preprocessing depots densify and stabilize the biomass prior to long-distance transport and delivery to centralized biorefineries. The logistics of biomass commodity supply chains could introduce spatially variable environmental impacts into the biofuel life cycle due to needing to harvest, move, and preprocess biomass from multiple distances that have variable spatial density. This study examines the uncertainty in greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of corn stover logistics within a bio-ethanol supply chain in the state of Kansas, where sustainable biomass supply varies spatially. Two scenarios were evaluated each having a different number of depots of varying capacity and location within Kansas relative to a central commodity-receiving biorefinery to test GHG emissions uncertainty. The first scenario sited four preprocessing depots evenly across the state of Kansas but within the vicinity of counties having high biomass supply density. The second scenario located five depots based on the shortest depot-to-biorefinery rail distance and biomass availability. The logistics supply chain consists of corn stover harvest, collection and storage, feedstock transport from field to biomass preprocessing depot, preprocessing depot operations, and commodity transport from the biomass preprocessing depot to the biorefinery. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the spatial uncertainty in the feedstock logistics gate-to-gate sequence. Within the logistics supply chain GHG emissions are most sensitive to the

  17. Thermo-chemical and biological conversion potential of various biomass feedstocks to ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the potential and the economy of producing ethanol from gasification-fermentation of various biomass feedstocks. The biomass feedstocks include winter cover crops (wheat, rye, clover, hairy betch), summer cover crop (sunhemp), chicken litter, and woody biomass. ...

  18. Manipulating microRNAs for improved biomass and biofuels from plant feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Jennifer Lynn; Zhang, Baohong; Stewart, Charles Neal

    2015-04-01

    Petroleum-based fuels are nonrenewable and unsustainable. Renewable sources of energy, such as lignocellulosic biofuels and plant metabolite-based drop-in fuels, can offset fossil fuel use and reverse environmental degradation through carbon sequestration. Despite these benefits, the lignocellulosic biofuels industry still faces many challenges, including the availability of economically viable crop plants. Cell wall recalcitrance is a major economic barrier for lignocellulosic biofuels production from biomass crops. Sustainability and biomass yield are two additional, yet interrelated, foci for biomass crop improvement. Many scientists are searching for solutions to these problems within biomass crop genomes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in almost all biological and metabolic process in plants including plant development, cell wall biosynthesis and plant stress responses. Because of the broad functions of their targets (e.g. auxin response factors), the alteration of plant miRNA expression often results in pleiotropic effects. A specific miRNA usually regulates a biologically relevant bioenergy trait. For example, relatively low miR156 overexpression leads to a transgenic feedstock with enhanced biomass and decreased recalcitrance. miRNAs have been overexpressed in dedicated bioenergy feedstocks such as poplar and switchgrass yielding promising results for lignin reduction, increased plant biomass, the timing of flowering and response to harsh environments. In this review, we present the status of miRNA-related research in several major biofuel crops and relevant model plants. We critically assess published research and suggest next steps for miRNA manipulation in feedstocks for increased biomass and sustainability for biofuels and bioproducts. PMID:25707745

  19. The use of conservation biomass feedstocks as potential bioenergy resources in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D; Mitchell, E J S; Lea-Langton, A R; Parmar, K R; Jones, J M; Williams, A

    2016-07-01

    A number of countries have introduced energy policies to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide which, in the case of bio-heat, has resulted in increased use of small wood burning stoves and boilers, particularly in Europe. There are issues surrounding the supply of sustainable wood feedstock, prompting a desire to utilise local biomass resources. This includes biomass generated through the management of natural woodlands in nature reserves and conservation areas. These management practices can also extend to other areas, such as raised bog wildernesses and estuary Reed beds. We term the biomass from this resource as conservation biomass. This study is concerned with the viability of this resource as a fuel within the United Kingdom, and combustion tests were carried out using a small domestic stove. It was concluded that there is as much as 500kty(-1) that could be used in this way.

  20. The use of conservation biomass feedstocks as potential bioenergy resources in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D; Mitchell, E J S; Lea-Langton, A R; Parmar, K R; Jones, J M; Williams, A

    2016-07-01

    A number of countries have introduced energy policies to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide which, in the case of bio-heat, has resulted in increased use of small wood burning stoves and boilers, particularly in Europe. There are issues surrounding the supply of sustainable wood feedstock, prompting a desire to utilise local biomass resources. This includes biomass generated through the management of natural woodlands in nature reserves and conservation areas. These management practices can also extend to other areas, such as raised bog wildernesses and estuary Reed beds. We term the biomass from this resource as conservation biomass. This study is concerned with the viability of this resource as a fuel within the United Kingdom, and combustion tests were carried out using a small domestic stove. It was concluded that there is as much as 500kty(-1) that could be used in this way. PMID:27107483

  1. Pectin-rich biomass as feedstock for fuel ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Meredith C.; Doran-Peterson, Joy [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Microbiology

    2012-08-15

    The USA has proposed that 30 % of liquid transportation fuel be produced from renewable resources by 2030 (Perlack and Stokes 2011). It will be impossible to reach this goal using corn kernel-based ethanol alone. Pectin-rich biomass, an under-utilized waste product of the sugar and juice industry, can augment US ethanol supplies by capitalizing on this already established feedstock. Currently, pectin-rich biomass is sold (at low value) as animal feed. This review focuses on the three most studied types of pectin-rich biomass: sugar beet pulp, citrus waste and apple pomace. Fermentations of these materials have been conducted with a variety of ethanologens, including yeasts and bacteria. Escherichia coli can ferment a wide range of sugars including galacturonic acid, the primary component of pectin. However, the mixed acid metabolism of E. coli can produce unwanted side products. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally ferment galacturonic acid nor pentose sugars but has a homoethanol pathway. Erwinia chrysanthemi is capable of degrading many of the cell wall components of pectin-rich materials, including pectin. Klebsiella oxytoca can metabolize a diverse array of sugars including cellobiose, one degradation product of cellulose. However, both E. chrysanthemi and K. oxytoca produce side products during fermentation, similar to E. coli. Using pectin-rich residues from industrial processes is beneficial because the material is already collected and partially pretreated to facilitate enzymatic deconstruction of the plant cell walls. Using biomass already produced for other purposes is an attractive practice because fewer greenhouse gases (GHG) will be anticipated from land-use changes. (orig.)

  2. Biomass supply chain management in North Carolina (part 2: biomass feedstock logistical optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Caffrey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomass logistics operations account for a major portion of the feedstock cost of running a biorefinery, and make up a significant portion of total system operational costs. Biomass is a bulky perishable commodity that is required in large quantities year round for optimal biorefinery operations. As a proof of concept for a decision making tool for biomass production and delivery, a heuristic was developed to determine biorefinery location, considering city size, agricultural density, and regional demographics. Switchgrass and sorghum (with winter canola were selected to examine as viable biomass feedstocks based on positive economic results determined using a predictive model for cropland conversion potential. Biomass harvest systems were evaluated to examine interrelationships of biomass logistical networks and the least cost production system, with results demonstrating a need to shift to maximize supply-driven production harvest operations and limit storage requirements. For this supply-driven production harvest operations approach a harvest window from September until March was selected for producing big square bales of switchgrass for storage until use, forage chopped sorghum from September to December, and forage chopped switchgrass from December to March. A case study of the three major regions of North Carolina (Mountains, Piedmont, and Coastal Plain was used to assess logistical optimization of the proposed supply-driven production harvest system. Potential biomass production fields were determined within a hundred mile radius of the proposed biorefinery location, with individual fields designated for crop and harvest system by lowest transportation cost. From these selected fields, crops and harvest system regional storage locations were determined using an alternate location-allocation heuristic with set storage capacity per site. Model results showed that the supply-driven production harvest system greatly reduced system complexity

  3. Gasification reactivity and ash sintering behaviour of biomass feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moilanen, A.; Nasrullah, M.

    2011-12-15

    Char gasification reactivity and ash sintering properties of forestry biomass feedstocks selected for large-scale gasification process was characterised. The study was divided into two parts: (1) Internal variation of the reactivity and the ash sintering of feedstocks. (2) Measurement of kinetic parameters of char gasification reactions to be used in the modelling of a gasifier. The tests were carried out in gases relevant to pressurized oxygen gasification, i.e. steam and carbon dioxide, as well as their mixtures with the product gases H{sub 2} and CO. The work was based on experimental measurements using pressurized thermobalance. In the tests, the temperatures were below 1000 deg C, and the pressure range was between 1 and 20 bar. In the first part, it was tested the effect of growing location, storage, plant parts and debarking method. The following biomass types were tested: spruce bark, pine bark, aspen bark, birch bark, forestry residue, bark feedstock mixture, stump chips and hemp. Thick pine bark had the lowest reactivity (instantaneous reaction rate 14%/min) and hemp the highest (250%/min); all other biomasses laid between these values. There was practically no difference in the reactivities among the spruce barks collected from the different locations. For pine bark, the differences were greater, but they were probably due to the thickness of the bark rather than to the growth location. For the spruce barks, the instantaneous reaction rate measured at 90% fuel conversion was 100%/min, for pine barks it varied between 14 and 75%/min. During storage, quite large local differences in reactivity seem to develop. Stump had significantly lower reactivity compared with the others. No clear difference in the reactivity was observed between barks obtained with the wet and dry debarking, but, the sintering of the ash was more enhanced for the bark from dry debarking. Char gasification rate could not be modelled in the gas mixture of H{sub 2}O + CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2

  4. Performance Analysis of an Integrated Fixed Bed Gasifier Model for Different Biomass Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmina Begum

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy recovery from biomass by gasification technology has attracted significant interest because it satisfies a key requirement of environmental sustainability by producing near zero emissions. Though it is not a new technology, studies on its integrated process simulation and analysis are limited, in particular for municipal solid waste (MSW gasification. This paper develops an integrated fixed bed gasifier model of biomass gasification using the Advanced System for Process ENngineering (Aspen Plus software for its performance analysis. A computational model was developed on the basis of Gibbs free energy minimization. The model is validated with experimental data of MSW and food waste gasification available in the literature. A reasonable agreement between measured and predicted syngas composition was found. Using the validated model, the effects of operating conditions, namely air-fuel ratio and gasifier temperature, on syngas production are studied. Performance analyses have been done for four different feedstocks, namely wood, coffee bean husks, green wastes and MSWs. The ultimate and proximate analysis data for each feedstock was used for model development. It was found that operating parameters have a significant influence on syngas composition. An air-fuel ratio of 0.3 and gasifier temperature of 700 °C provides optimum performance for a fixed bed gasifier for MSWs, wood wastes, green wastes and coffee bean husks. The developed model can be useful for gasification of other biomasses (e.g., food wastes, rice husks, poultry wastes and sugarcane bagasse to predict the syngas composition. Therefore, the study provides an integrated gasification model which can be used for different biomass feedstocks.

  5. Biomass Cost Index: mapping biomass-to-biohydrogen feedstock costs by a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantopoulou, L K; Karaoglanoglou, L S; Koukios, E G

    2011-02-01

    Making decisions and developing policy in the field of biofuel and bioenergy is complex because of the large number and potential arrangements of feedstocks, technologies and supply chain options. Although, the technical optimisation and sustainability of any biomass to biofuel production chain is of major importance, the overall chain cost is still considered as the key for their market deployment. A significant percentage of this cost is attributed to primary generation, transportation/handling and pretreatment of the biomass. The separation of the system into smaller semi-independent sub-systems and dealing with their interfaces, provides the pathway to map this complex landscape. The main scope of this work is to present a tool, which was developed for the comparison of diverse biomass-to-biofuel systems, in order to facilitate the cost-wise decision making on this field. PMID:21074419

  6. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Wright, Lynn L [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2011-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the fourth edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also two appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  7. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2010-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the third edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also four appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  8. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Lynn L [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Badger, Philip C [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the second edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also four appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, assumptions for selected tables and figures, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  9. Biomass power; Biomasse-Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woergetter, M.

    2003-07-01

    The author reports about use of biomass in Austria and Bavaria: power generation, production of biodiesel, bioethanol, energy efficiency of small biomass furnaces. (uke) [German] Bioenergie wird von breiten Kreisen als wichtiger Ansatz in Richtung einer nachhaltigen Entwicklung in Europa gesehen. Die Herausforderung liegt dabei im neuen Herangehen an Entscheidungen; Dimensionen der Wirtschaft, der Umwelt und der Gesellschaft sind dabei zu beruecksichtigen. Bioenergie ist somit keine reine Frage der Umwelt, sondern zielt auf den Umbau unseres Systems in Richtung Nachhaltigkeit. (orig.)

  10. Analyzing and Comparing Biomass Feedstock Supply Systems in China: Corn Stover and Sweet Sorghum Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammad S. Roni; Kara G. Cafferty; Christopher T Wright; Lantian Ren

    2015-06-01

    China has abundant biomass resources, which can be used as a potential source of bioenergy. However, China faces challenges implementing biomass as an energy source, because China has not developed the highly networked, high-volume biomass logistics systems and infrastructure. This paper analyzes the rural Chinese biomass supply system and models supply chain operations according to the U.S. concepts of logistical unit operations: harvest and collection, storage, transportation, preprocessing, and handling and queuing. In this paper, we quantify the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum under different scenarios in China. We analyze three scenarios of corn stover logistics from northeast China and three scenarios of sweet sorghum stalks logistics from Inner Mongolia in China. The case study shows that the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk will be $52.95/dry metric ton and $52.64/ dry metric ton, respectively, for the current labor-based biomass logistics system. However, if the feedstock logistics operation is mechanized, the cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk will be down to $36.01/ dry metric ton and $35.76/dry metric ton, respectively. The study also performed a sensitivity analysis to find the cost factors that cause logistics cost variation. A sensitivity analysis shows that labor price has the most influence on the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk, causing a variation of $6 to $12/metric ton.

  11. Co-firing in coal power plants and its impact on biomass feedstock availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several states have a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and allow for biomass co-firing to meet the RPS requirements. In addition, a federal renewable fuel standard (RFS) mandates an increase in cellulosic ethanol production over the next decade. This paper quantifies the effects on local biomass supply and demand of different co-firing policies imposed on 398 existing coal-fired power plants. Our model indicates which counties are most likely to be able to sustain cellulosic ethanol plants in addition to co-firing electric utilities. The simulation incorporates the county-level biomass market of corn stover, wheat straw, switchgrass, and forest residues as well as endogenous crop prices. Our scenarios indicate that there is sufficient feedstock availability in Southern Minnesota, Iowa, and Central Illinois. Significant supply shortages are observed in Eastern Ohio, Western Pennsylvania, and the tri-state area of Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky which are characterized by a high density of coal-fired power plants with high energy output. - Highlights: • Co-firing in coal-power plants can lead to biomass supply shortage. • The level of shortage depends also on the switchgrass production cost. • Little to no shortages occur in the Corn Belt and the Great Plains. • Biomass co-firing in power plants limits the supply for cellulosic ethanol plants

  12. Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertjens, Steve; Wright, Angie; Lieurance, Mike; berguson, bill; Buchman, Dan

    2012-12-31

    The Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project evaluated the potential for biomass energy production and utilization throughout the Driftless Region of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin. The research and demonstration aspect of the project specifically focused on biomass energy feedstock availability and production potential in the region, as well as utilization potential of biomass feedstocks for heat, electrical energy production, or combined heat and power operations. The Driftless Region was evaluated because the topography of the area offers more acres of marginal soils on steep slopes, wooded areas, and riparian corridors than the surrounding “Corn Belt”. These regional land characteristics were identified as potentially providing opportunity for biomass feedstock production that could compete with traditional agriculture commodity crops economically. The project researched establishment methods and costs for growing switchgrass on marginal agricultural lands to determine the economic and quantitative feasibility of switchgrass production for biomass energy purposes. The project was successful in identifying the best management and establishment practices for switchgrass in the Driftless Area, but also demonstrated that simple economic payback versus commodity crops could not be achieved at the time of the research. The project also analyzed the availability of woody biomass and production potential for growing woody biomass for large scale biomass energy production in the Driftless Area. Analysis determined that significant resources exist, but costs to harvest and deliver to the site were roughly 60% than that of natural gas at the time of the study. The project contributed significantly to identifying both production potential of biomass energy crops and existing feedstock availability in the Driftless Area. The project also analyzed the economic feasibility of dedicated energy crops in the Driftless Area. High commodity crop prices and

  13. Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Angie [Northeast Iowa Resource Conservation & Development, Inc., Postville, IA (United States); Bertjens, Steve [Natural Resources Conservation Service, Madison, WI (United States); Lieurance, Mike [Northeast Iowa Resource Conservation & Development, Inc., Postville, IA (United States); Berguson, Bill [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Natural Resources Research Inst.; Buchman, Dan [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Natural Resources Research Inst.

    2012-12-31

    The Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project evaluated the potential for biomass energy production and utilization throughout the Driftless Region of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin. The research and demonstration aspect of the project specifically focused on biomass energy feedstock availability and production potential in the region, as well as utilization potential of biomass feedstocks for heat, electrical energy production, or combined heat and power operations. The Driftless Region was evaluated because the topography of the area offers more acres of marginal soils on steep slopes, wooded areas, and riparian corridors than the surrounding “Corn Belt”. These regional land characteristics were identified as potentially providing opportunity for biomass feedstock production that could compete with traditional agriculture commodity crops economically. The project researched establishment methods and costs for growing switchgrass on marginal agricultural lands to determine the economic and quantitative feasibility of switchgrass production for biomass energy purposes. The project was successful in identifying the best management and establishment practices for switchgrass in the Driftless Area, but also demonstrated that simple economic payback versus commodity crops could not be achieved at the time of the research. The project also analyzed the availability of woody biomass and production potential for growing woody biomass for large scale biomass energy production in the Driftless Area. Analysis determined that significant resources exist, but costs to harvest and deliver to the site were roughly 60% greater than that of natural gas at the time of the study. The project contributed significantly to identifying both production potential of biomass energy crops and existing feedstock availability in the Driftless Area. The project also analyzed the economic feasibility of dedicated energy crops in the Driftless Area. High commodity crop prices

  14. Apparatus and method for converting biomass to feedstock for biofuel and biochemical manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, John; Qiao, Ming; Woods, Elizabeth M.; Cortright, Randy D.; Myren, Paul

    2015-12-15

    The present invention includes improved systems and methods for producing biomass-derived feedstocks for biofuel and biochemical manufacturing processes. The systems and methods use components that are capable of transferring relatively high concentrations of solid biomass utilizing pressure variations between vessels, and allows for the recovery and recycling of heterogeneous catalyst materials.

  15. Fiscalini Farms Biomass Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Stringfellow; Mary Kay Camarillo; Jeremy Hanlon; Michael Jue; Chelsea Spier

    2011-09-30

    In this final report describes and documents research that was conducted by the Ecological Engineering Research Program (EERP) at the University of the Pacific (Stockton, CA) under subcontract to Fiscalini Farms LP for work under the Assistance Agreement DE-EE0001895 'Measurement and Evaluation of a Dairy Anaerobic Digestion/Power Generation System' from the United States Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory. Fiscalini Farms is operating a 710 kW biomass-energy power plant that uses bio-methane, generated from plant biomass, cheese whey, and cattle manure via mesophilic anaerobic digestion, to produce electricity using an internal combustion engine. The primary objectives of the project were to document baseline conditions for the anaerobic digester and the combined heat and power (CHP) system used for the dairy-based biomass-energy production. The baseline condition of the plant was evaluated in the context of regulatory and economic constraints. In this final report, the operation of the plant between start-up in 2009 and operation in 2010 are documented and an interpretation of the technical data is provided. An economic analysis of the biomass energy system was previously completed (Appendix A) and the results from that study are discussed briefly in this report. Results from the start-up and first year of operation indicate that mesophilic anaerobic digestion of agricultural biomass, combined with an internal combustion engine, is a reliable source of alternative electrical production. A major advantage of biomass energy facilities located on dairy farms appears to be their inherent stability and ability to produce a consistent, 24 hour supply of electricity. However, technical analysis indicated that the Fiscalini Farms system was operating below capacity and that economic sustainability would be improved by increasing loading of feedstocks to the digester. Additional operational modifications, such as increased utilization of

  16. Self-deconstructing algae biomass as feedstock for transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan Wesley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Biomass Science and Conversion Technologies

    2014-09-01

    The potential for producing biofuels from algae has generated much excitement based on projections of large oil yields with relatively little land use. However, numerous technical challenges remain for achieving market parity with conventional non-renewable liquid fuel sources. Among these challenges, the energy intensive requirements of traditional cell rupture, lipid extraction, and residuals fractioning of microalgae biomass have posed significant challenges to the nascent field of algal biotechnology. Our novel approach to address these problems was to employ low cost solution-state methods and biochemical engineering to eliminate the need for extensive hardware and energy intensive methods for cell rupture, carbohydrate and protein solubilization and hydrolysis, and fuel product recovery using consolidated bioprocessing strategies. The outcome of the biochemical deconstruction and conversion process consists of an emulsion of algal lipids and mixed alcohol products from carbohydrate and protein fermentation for co-extraction or in situ transesterification.

  17. The potential impacts of biomass feedstock production on water resource availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, K C; Hunt, P G; Cantrell, K B; Ro, K S

    2010-03-01

    Biofuels are a major topic of global interest and technology development. Whereas bioenergy crop production is highly dependent on water, bioenergy development requires effective allocation and management of water. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the bioenergy production relative to the impacts on water resource related factors: (1) climate and weather impact on water supplies for biomass production; (2) water use for major bioenergy crop production; and (3) potential alternatives to improve water supplies for bioenergy. Shifts to alternative bioenergy crops with greater water demand may produce unintended consequences for both water resources and energy feedstocks. Sugarcane and corn require 458 and 2036 m(3) water/m(3) ethanol produced, respectively. The water requirements for corn grain production to meet the US-DOE Billion-Ton Vision may increase approximately 6-fold from 8.6 to 50.1 km(3). Furthermore, climate change is impacting water resources throughout the world. In the western US, runoff from snowmelt is occurring earlier altering the timing of water availability. Weather extremes, both drought and flooding, have occurred more frequently over the last 30 years than the previous 100 years. All of these weather events impact bioenergy crop production. These events may be partially mitigated by alternative water management systems that offer potential for more effective water use and conservation. A few potential alternatives include controlled drainage and new next-generation livestock waste treatment systems. Controlled drainage can increase water available to plants and simultaneously improve water quality. New livestock waste treatments systems offer the potential to utilize treated wastewater to produce bioenergy crops. New technologies for cellulosic biomass conversion via thermochemical conversion offer the potential for using more diverse feedstocks with dramatically reduced water requirements. The development of bioenergy

  18. Cost Methodology for Biomass Feedstocks: Herbaceous Crops and Agricultural Residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    This report describes a set of procedures and assumptions used to estimate production and logistics costs of bioenergy feedstocks from herbaceous crops and agricultural residues. The engineering-economic analysis discussed here is based on methodologies developed by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) and the American Agricultural Economics Association (AAEA). An engineering-economic analysis approach was chosen due to lack of historical cost data for bioenergy feedstocks. Instead, costs are calculated using assumptions for equipment performance, input prices, and yield data derived from equipment manufacturers, research literature, and/or standards. Cost estimates account for fixed and variable costs. Several examples of this costing methodology used to estimate feedstock logistics costs are included at the end of this report.

  19. Agricultural Residues and Biomass Energy Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    There are many opportunities to leverage agricultural resources on existing lands without interfering with production of food, feed, fiber, or forest products. In the recently developed advanced biomass feedstock commercialization vision, estimates of potentially available biomass supply from agriculture are built upon the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) Long-Term Forecast, ensuring that existing product demands are met before biomass crops are planted. Dedicated biomass energy crops and agricultural crop residues are abundant, diverse, and widely distributed across the United States. These potential biomass supplies can play an important role in a national biofuels commercialization strategy.

  20. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Lynn L [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Saulsbury, Bo [ORNL

    2006-09-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of the Biomass Program and the Office of Planning, Budget and Analysis in the Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use. This is the first edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book and is currently only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and BioOil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is about the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include measures of conversions, biomass characteristics and assumptions for selected tables and figures. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  1. Genetic Modification of Short Rotation Poplar Biomass Feedstock for Efficient Conversion to Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinus, R.J.

    2000-08-30

    The Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing poplars (Populus species and hybrids) as sources of renewable energy, i.e., ethanol. Notable increases in adaptability, volume productivity, and pest/stress resistance have been achieved via classical selection and breeding and intensified cultural practices. Significant advances have also been made in the efficiencies of harvesting and handling systems. Given these and anticipated accomplishments, program leaders are considering shifting some attention to genetically modifying feedstock physical and chemical properties, so as to improve the efficiency with which feedstocks can be converted to ethanol. This report provides an in-depth review and synthesis of opportunities for and feasibilities of genetically modifying feedstock qualities via classical selection and breeding, marker-aided selection and breeding, and genetic transformation. Information was collected by analysis of the literature, with emphasis on that published since 1995, and interviews with prominent scientists, breeders, and growers. Poplar research is well advanced, and literature is abundant. The report therefore primarily reflects advances in poplars, but data from other species, particularly other shortrotation hardwoods, are incorporated to fill gaps. An executive summary and recommendations for research, development, and technology transfer are provided immediately after the table of contents. The first major section of the report describes processes most likely to be used for conversion of poplar biomass to ethanol, the various physical and chemical properties of poplar feedstocks, and how such properties are expected to affect process efficiency. The need is stressed for improved understanding of the impact of change on both overall process and individual process step efficiencies. The second part documents advances in trait measurement instrumentation and methodology

  2. Processes for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to chemicals and liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Andrew; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy; Gray, Matthew

    2016-07-05

    The present invention provides processes, methods, and systems for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to liquid fuels and chemicals. The method generally includes the reaction of a hydrolysate from a biomass deconstruction process with hydrogen and a catalyst to produce a reaction product comprising one of more oxygenated compounds. The process also includes reacting the reaction product with a condensation catalyst to produce C.sub.4+ compounds useful as fuels and chemicals.

  3. Energy use of biomass

    OpenAIRE

    HOLEČKOVÁ, Michaela

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is the research of different types of biomass, description of the various types of methods and technologies for energy usage of biomass and the mapping of large power plant units in the Czech Republic. The first part of this thesis deals with the definition of biomass, its distribution and the description of basic essential attributes describing its composition. The downstream part of this work is focused on the technologies of gaining energy out of biomass or ...

  4. Fiscalini Farms Biomass Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Stringfellow; Mary Kay Camarillo; Jeremy Hanlon; Michael Jue; Chelsea Spier

    2011-09-30

    In this final report describes and documents research that was conducted by the Ecological Engineering Research Program (EERP) at the University of the Pacific (Stockton, CA) under subcontract to Fiscalini Farms LP for work under the Assistance Agreement DE-EE0001895 'Measurement and Evaluation of a Dairy Anaerobic Digestion/Power Generation System' from the United States Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory. Fiscalini Farms is operating a 710 kW biomass-energy power plant that uses bio-methane, generated from plant biomass, cheese whey, and cattle manure via mesophilic anaerobic digestion, to produce electricity using an internal combustion engine. The primary objectives of the project were to document baseline conditions for the anaerobic digester and the combined heat and power (CHP) system used for the dairy-based biomass-energy production. The baseline condition of the plant was evaluated in the context of regulatory and economic constraints. In this final report, the operation of the plant between start-up in 2009 and operation in 2010 are documented and an interpretation of the technical data is provided. An economic analysis of the biomass energy system was previously completed (Appendix A) and the results from that study are discussed briefly in this report. Results from the start-up and first year of operation indicate that mesophilic anaerobic digestion of agricultural biomass, combined with an internal combustion engine, is a reliable source of alternative electrical production. A major advantage of biomass energy facilities located on dairy farms appears to be their inherent stability and ability to produce a consistent, 24 hour supply of electricity. However, technical analysis indicated that the Fiscalini Farms system was operating below capacity and that economic sustainability would be improved by increasing loading of feedstocks to the digester. Additional operational modifications, such as increased utilization of

  5. Value of Distributed Preprocessing of Biomass Feedstocks to a Bioenergy Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher T Wright

    2006-07-01

    Biomass preprocessing is one of the primary operations in the feedstock assembly system and the front-end of a biorefinery. Its purpose is to chop, grind, or otherwise format the biomass into a suitable feedstock for conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Many variables such as equipment cost and efficiency, and feedstock moisture content, particle size, bulk density, compressibility, and flowability affect the location and implementation of this unit operation. Previous conceptual designs show this operation to be located at the front-end of the biorefinery. However, data are presented that show distributed preprocessing at the field-side or in a fixed preprocessing facility can provide significant cost benefits by producing a higher value feedstock with improved handling, transporting, and merchandising potential. In addition, data supporting the preferential deconstruction of feedstock materials due to their bio-composite structure identifies the potential for significant improvements in equipment efficiencies and compositional quality upgrades. Theses data are collected from full-scale low and high capacity hammermill grinders with various screen sizes. Multiple feedstock varieties with a range of moisture values were used in the preprocessing tests. The comparative values of the different grinding configurations, feedstock varieties, and moisture levels are assessed through post-grinding analysis of the different particle fractions separated with a medium-scale forage particle separator and a Rototap separator. The results show that distributed preprocessing produces a material that has bulk flowable properties and fractionation benefits that can improve the ease of transporting, handling and conveying the material to the biorefinery and improve the biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes.

  6. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasability of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D.

    2005-12-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) are both strongly committed to expanding the role of biomass as an energy source. In particular, they support biomass fuels and products as a way to reduce the need for oil and gas imports; to support the growth of agriculture, forestry, and rural economies; and to foster major new domestic industries--biorefineries--making a variety of fuels, chemicals, and other products. As part of this effort, the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee, a panel established by the Congress to guide the future direction of federally funded biomass R&D, envisioned a 30 percent replacement of the current U.S. petroleum consumption with biofuels by 2030. Biomass--all plant and plant-derived materials including animal manure, not just starch, sugar, oil crops already used for food and energy--has great potential to provide renewable energy for America's future. Biomass recently surpassed hydropower as the largest domestic source of renewable energy and currently provides over 3 percent of the total energy consumption in the United States. In addition to the many benefits common to renewable energy, biomass is particularly attractive because it is the only current renewable source of liquid transportation fuel. This, of course, makes it invaluable in reducing oil imports--one of our most pressing energy needs. A key question, however, is how large a role could biomass play in responding to the nation's energy demands. Assuming that economic and financial policies and advances in conversion technologies make biomass fuels and products more economically viable, could the biorefinery industry be large enough to have a significant impact on energy supply and oil imports? Any and all contributions are certainly needed, but would the biomass potential be sufficiently large to justify the necessary capital replacements in the fuels and automobile sectors? The purpose of this report is to determine

  7. Low temperature microwave-assisted vs conventional pyrolysis of various biomass feedstocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Shuttleworth; Vitaliy Budarin; Mark Gronnow; James H. Clark; Rafael Luque

    2012-01-01

    A comparison between conventional pyrolysis and a novel developed low-temperature microwave-assisted pyrolysis methodology has been performed for the valorisation of a range of biomass feedstocks including waste residues.Microwave pyrolysis was found to efficiently deliver comparable evolution of bio-gases in the system as compared with conventional pyrolysis at significantly reduced temperatures (120-180 ℃ vs 250-400 ℃).The gas obtained from microwave-assistet pyrolysis was found to contain CO2,CH4 and CO as major components as well as other related chemicals (e.g.acids,aldehydes,alkanes) which were obtained in different proportions depending on the selected feedstock.

  8. Energy from Biomass for Conversion of Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolins, J.; Gravitis, J.

    2009-01-01

    Along with estimates of minimum energy required by steam explosion pre-treatment of biomass some general problems concerning biomass conversion into chemicals, materials, and fuels are discussed. The energy necessary for processing biomass by steam explosion auto-hydrolysis is compared with the heat content of wood and calculated in terms of the amount of saturated steam consumed per unit mass of the dry content of wood biomass. The fraction of processed biomass available for conversion after steam explosion pre-treatment is presented as function of the amount of steam consumed per unit mass of the dry content of wood. The estimates based on a simple model of energy flows show the energy required by steam explosion pre-treatment of biomass being within 10% of the heat content of biomass - a realistic amount demonstrating that energy for the process can be supplied from a reasonable proportion of biomass used as the source of energy for steam explosion pre-treatment.

  9. Biomass supply chain management in North Carolina (part 1: predictive model for cropland conversion to biomass feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Caffrey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in biomass cultivation requires detailed analysis of spatial production potential of possible biorefinery locations, with emphasis on feedstock production cost minimization. Integrated assessment of publicly available spatial data on current crop production, soil type, and yield potential, coupled with techno-economic production cost estimates, can support a functional method for rapid analysis of potential biorefinery sites. A novel predictive model was developed to determine cropland conversion using a probabilistic profit based equation for multiple biomass crops: giant reed, miscanthus, switchgrass, and sorghum (with either canola or barley as a winter crop. The three primary regions of North Carolina (Mountains, Piedmont, and Coastal Plain were used as a case study and with a single parameter uncertainty analysis was completed. According to the model, the county chosen to represent the Coastal Plain (Duplin County had the largest potential acreage that would be converted (15,071 ha, 7.1% total land, 9.3% of cropland primarily to sorghum with canola as a winter crop. Large portions were also predicted to convert to giant reed and switchgrass, depending on the price and yield parameters used. The Piedmont (Granville County, 7697 ha, 5.5% total land, 6.9% cropland and Mountain (Henderson County, 2117 ha, 2.2% total land, 2.3% cropland regions were predicted to convert primarily to switchgrass acreage for biomass production, with much less available biomass overall compared to the Coastal Plain. This model provided meaningful insight into regional cropping systems and feedstock availability, allowing for improved business planning in designated regions. Determination of cropland conversion is imperative to develop realistic biomass logistical operations, which in conjunction can assist with rapid determination of profitable biomass availability. After this rapid analysis method is conducted in-depth on-ground biorefinery

  10. Insight on Biomass Supply and Feedstock Definition for Fischer-Tropsch Based BTL Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process chains of thermo chemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass through gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (known as BTL) represent promising alternatives for biofuels production. Since biomass is heterogeneous and not homogeneously spread over territories, one of the major technological stakes of the project is to develop a flexible industrial chain capable of co-treating the widest possible range of biomass and fossil fuel feedstock. The present study aims at characterizing biomass diversity (availability and potentials by area, cost and mineral composition) by carrying out a state of the art, as a preliminary step in order to define a series of biomass to be tested in the demonstration plant and therefore define specifications for the process. Fifty different biomass were considered for their bio-energy application potential and were finally classified into four categories: agricultural by-products, dedicated energy crops, (Very) Short Rotation Coppice ((V)SRC) and forestry biomass. Biomass availability and potentials were investigated by the mean of a literature review of past and current projects (e.g. RENEW project, Biomass Energy Europe Project, etc.) and scientific articles. Most collected data are technical potentials, meaning that they take into account biophysical limits of crops and forests, technological possibilities, competition with other land uses and ecological constraints (e.g. natural reserves). Results show various emerging markets: North and South America have considerable amounts of agricultural by-products, forest residues, and large land areas which could be dedicated to energy crops; Africa shows relevant possibilities to grow Short Rotation Forestry (SRF) and energy crops; Russia has large available quantities of agricultural by-products and forest residues, as well as little valuable land where energy crops and SRC could be grown, and Asia shows relevant amounts of forest residues and possibilities of growing SRC, as well

  11. Biomass to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the biomass to energy. It explains the biomass principle, the possibility of biomass to energy conversion, the first generation of biofuels (bio ethanol, ETBE, bio diesel, flex fuel) and their advantages and limitations, the european regulatory framework and policy with the evolutions and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  12. A Saponification Method for Chlorophyll Removal from Microalgae Biomass as Oil Feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Xu, Jin; Wu, Hualian; Wang, Guanghua; Dai, Shikun; Fan, Jiewei; He, Hui; Xiang, Wenzhou

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae oil is an optimal feedstock for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and biodiesel production, but its high levels of chlorophyll limit its large-scale application. To date, few effective approaches have been developed to remove chlorophyll from microalgae oil. The main purpose of this study was to present a preprocessing method of algae oil feedstock (Scenedesmus) to remove chlorophyll by saponification. The results showed that 96% of chlorophyll in biomass was removed. High quality orange transparent oil could be extracted from the chlorophyll reduced biomass. Specifically, the proportion of neutral lipids and saturation levels of fatty acids increased, and the pigments composition became carotenoids-based. The critical parameters of chlorophyll reduced biodiesel conformed to the standards of the USA, China and EU. Sodium copper chlorophyllin could be prepared from the bleaching effluent. The results presented herein offer a useful pathway to improve the quality of microalgae oil and reduce the cost of microalgae biodiesel. PMID:27618070

  13. A Saponification Method for Chlorophyll Removal from Microalgae Biomass as Oil Feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Xu, Jin; Wu, Hualian; Wang, Guanghua; Dai, Shikun; Fan, Jiewei; He, Hui; Xiang, Wenzhou

    2016-09-07

    Microalgae oil is an optimal feedstock for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and biodiesel production, but its high levels of chlorophyll limit its large-scale application. To date, few effective approaches have been developed to remove chlorophyll from microalgae oil. The main purpose of this study was to present a preprocessing method of algae oil feedstock (Scenedesmus) to remove chlorophyll by saponification. The results showed that 96% of chlorophyll in biomass was removed. High quality orange transparent oil could be extracted from the chlorophyll reduced biomass. Specifically, the proportion of neutral lipids and saturation levels of fatty acids increased, and the pigments composition became carotenoids-based. The critical parameters of chlorophyll reduced biodiesel conformed to the standards of the USA, China and EU. Sodium copper chlorophyllin could be prepared from the bleaching effluent. The results presented herein offer a useful pathway to improve the quality of microalgae oil and reduce the cost of microalgae biodiesel.

  14. Genetic Improvement of Switchgrass and Other Herbaceous Plants for Use as Biomass Fuel Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, K.P.

    2001-01-11

    It should be highly feasible to genetically modify the feedstock quality of switchgrass and other herbaceous plants using both conventional and molecular breeding techniques. Effectiveness of breeding to modify herbages of switchgrass and other perennial and annual herbaceous species has already been demonstrated. The use of molecular markers and transformation technology will greatly enhance the capability of breeders to modify the plant structure and cell walls of herbaceous plants. It will be necessary to monitor gene flow to remnant wild populations of plants and have strategies available to curtail gene flow if it becomes a potential problem. It also will be necessary to monitor plant survival and long-term productivity as affected by genetic changes that improve forage quality. Information on the conversion processes that will be used and the biomass characteristics that affect conversion efficiency and rate is absolutely essential as well as information on the relative economic value of specific traits. Because most forage or biomass quality characteristics are highly affected by plant maturity, it is suggested that plant material of specific maturity stages be used in research to determining desirable feedstock quality characteristics. Plant material could be collected at various stages of development from an array of environments and storage conditions that could be used in conversion research. The same plant material could be used to develop NIRS calibrations that could be used by breeders in their selection programs and also to develop criteria for a feedstock quality assessment program. Breeding for improved feedstock quality will likely affect the rate of improvement of biomass production per acre. If the same level of resources are used, multi-trait breeding simply reduces the selection pressure and hence the breeding progress that can be made for a single trait unless all the traits are highly correlated. Since desirable feedstock traits are likely

  15. Economic assessment of solar and conventional biomass gasification technologies: Financial and policy implications under feedstock and product gas price uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four configurations of a novel solar-heated biomass gasification facility and one configuration of conventional biomass gasification are analyzed through financial and policy scenarios. The purpose of this study is to determine the potential financial position for varying configurations of a novel technology, as compared to the current state-of-the-art gasification technology. Through the use of project finance and policy scenario development, we assess the baseline breakeven syngas price (normalized against natural gas prices and based upon annual feedstock consumption), the sensitivity of major cost components for the novel facilities, and the implications of policy levers on the economic feasibility of the solar facilities. Findings show that certain solar configurations may compete with conventional facilities on a straightforward economic basis. However, with renewable energy policy levers in place the solar technologies become increasingly attractive options. - Highlights: • We model four solar and one conventional biomass gasification systems. • We assess economic feasibility of these systems with and without policy incentives. • Solar facilities compete with the conventional system in certain scenarios. • Feedstock costs are the largest contributor to system cost sensitivity. • Policy incentives create an economically favorable scenario for solar facilities

  16. Design of a biomass-to-biorefinery logistics system through bio-inspired metaheuristic optimization considering multiple types of feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueba, Isidoro

    Bioenergy has become an important alternative source of energy to alleviate the reliance on petroleum energy. Bioenergy offers significant potential to mitigate climate change by reducing life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions relative to fossil fuels. The Energy Independence and Security Act mandate the use of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels including 16 billion gallons of cellulosic biofuels by the year 2022. It is clear that Biomass can make a substantial contribution to supplying future energy demand in a sustainable way. However, the supply of sustainable energy is one of the main challenges that mankind will face over the coming decades. For instance, many logistical challenges will be faced in order to provide an efficient and reliable supply of quality feedstock to biorefineries. 700 million tons of biomass will be required to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually to meet the projected use of biofuels by the year of 2022. This thesis is motivated by the urgent need of advancing knowledge and understanding of the highly complex biofuel supply chain. While corn ethanol production has increased fast enough to keep up with the energy mandates, production of biofuels from different types of feedstocks has also been incremented. A number of pilot and demonstration scale advanced biofuel facilities have been set up, but commercial scale facilities are yet to become operational. Scaling up this new biofuel sector poses significant economic and logistical challenges for regional planners and biofuel entrepreneurs in terms of feedstock supply assurance, supply chain development, biorefinery establishment, and setting up transport, storage and distribution infrastructure. The literature also shows that the larger cost in the production of biomass to ethanol originates from the logistics operation therefore it is essential that an optimal logistics system is designed in order to keep low the costs of producing ethanol and make possible the shift from

  17. Release of soluble elements from biochars derived from various biomass feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hailu; Che, Xiaodong; Ding, Zhuhong; Hu, Xin; Creamer, Anne Elise; Chen, Hao; Gao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Biochar as soil amendment can increase soil carbon (C) sequestration and mineral nutrients; however, some of its soluble elements may also be unintentionally released during the application. In this work, eight types of biochars were derived from herbaceous, woody, and waste (tailing, manure, sludge) biomass feedstocks through slow pyrolysis at 600 °C in N2. The elemental composition, specific surface area, morphology, crystalline phases, thermal stability, surface functional groups, and pH of the point of zero charge of the biochars were determined using various methods. These properties varied significantly among the tested biochars, suggesting that feedstock type played an important role in controlling their properties. Laboratory release and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure extraction experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential release of nutritious and toxic element from biochars. Results showed that all the biochars released nutritious elements and thus, may be beneficial to plants when amended in soils. In general, biochars produced from herbaceous and woody biomass feedstocks showed low risks of releasing toxic elements. Biochar derived from sludge, however, might present ecotoxicological challenges for its environmental applications due to the release of toxic elements, such as heavy metals. PMID:26408115

  18. Biomass living energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Any energy source originating from organic matter is biomass, which even today is the basic source of energy for more than a quarter of humanity. Best known for its combustible properties, biomass is also used to produce biofuels. This information sheet provides also information on the electricity storage from micro-condensers to hydroelectric dams, how to save energy facing the increasing of oil prices and supply uncertainties, the renewable energies initiatives of Cork (Ireland) and the Switzerland european energy hub. (A.L.B.)

  19. From a single pellet press to a bench scale pellet mill - Pelletizing six different biomass feedstocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Shang, Lei; Sárossy, Zsuzsa;

    2016-01-01

    (SPP) can be extrapolated to larger scale pellet mills. The single pellet press was used to find the optimum moisture content and die operating temperature for pellet production. Then, these results were compared with those obtained from a bench-scale pellet mill. A moisture content of around 10 wt......The increasing demand for biomass pellets requires the investigation of alternative raw materials for pelletizetion. In the present paper, the pelletization process of fescue, alfalfa, sorghum, triticale, miscanthus and willow is studied to determine if results obtained in a single pellet press.......% was found to be optimal for the six biomass feedstocks. A friction increase was seen when the die temperature increased from room temperature to 60-90 degrees C for most biomass types, and then a friction decrease when the die temperature increased further. The results obtained in the bench...

  20. Advanced Systems for Preprocessing and Characterizing Coal-Biomass Mixtures as Next-Generation Fuels and Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmis, Michael [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Luttrell, Gerald [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Ripepi, Nino [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Bratton, Robert [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Dohm, Erich [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The research activities presented in this report are intended to address the most critical technical challenges pertaining to coal-biomass briquette feedstocks. Several detailed investigations were conducted using a variety of coal and biomass feedstocks on the topics of (1) coal-biomass briquette production and characterization, (2) gasification of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, (3) combustion of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, and (4) conceptual engineering design and economic feasibility of briquette production. The briquette production studies indicate that strong and durable co-firing feedstocks can be produced by co-briquetting coal and biomass resources commonly available in the United States. It is demonstrated that binderless coal-biomass briquettes produced at optimized conditions exhibit very high strength and durability, which indicates that such briquettes would remain competent in the presence of forces encountered in handling, storage and transportation. The gasification studies conducted demonstrate that coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes are exceptional gasification feedstocks, particularly with regard to the synergistic effects realized during devolatilization of the blended materials. The mixture combustion studies indicate that coal-biomass mixtures are exceptional combustion feedstocks, while the briquette combustion study indicates that the use of blended briquettes reduces NOx, CO2, and CO emissions, and requires the least amount of changes in the operating conditions of an existing coal-fired power plant. Similar results were obtained for the physical durability of the pilot-scale briquettes compared to the bench-scale tests. Finally, the conceptual engineering and feasibility analysis study for a commercial-scale briquetting production facility provides preliminary flowsheet and cost simulations to evaluate the various feedstocks, equipment selection and operating parameters.

  1. Advanced Systems for Preprocessing and Characterizing Coal-Biomass Mixtures as Next-Generation Fuels and Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmis, Michael; Luttrell, Gerald; Ripepi, Nino; Bratton, Robert; Dohm, Erich

    2014-06-30

    The research activities presented in this report are intended to address the most critical technical challenges pertaining to coal-biomass briquette feedstocks. Several detailed investigations were conducted using a variety of coal and biomass feedstocks on the topics of (1) coal-biomass briquette production and characterization, (2) gasification of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, (3) combustion of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, and (4) conceptual engineering design and economic feasibility of briquette production. The briquette production studies indicate that strong and durable co-firing feedstocks can be produced by co-briquetting coal and biomass resources commonly available in the United States. It is demonstrated that binderless coal-biomass briquettes produced at optimized conditions exhibit very high strength and durability, which indicates that such briquettes would remain competent in the presence of forces encountered in handling, storage and transportation. The gasification studies conducted demonstrate that coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes are exceptional gasification feedstocks, particularly with regard to the synergistic effects realized during devolatilization of the blended materials. The mixture combustion studies indicate that coal-biomass mixtures are exceptional combustion feedstocks, while the briquette combustion study indicates that the use of blended briquettes reduces NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}, and CO emissions, and requires the least amount of changes in the operating conditions of an existing coal-fired power plant. Similar results were obtained for the physical durability of the pilot-scale briquettes compared to the bench-scale tests. Finally, the conceptual engineering and feasibility analysis study for a commercial-scale briquetting production facility provides preliminary flowsheet and cost simulations to evaluate the various feedstocks, equipment selection and operating parameters.

  2. The potential of freshwater macroalgae as a biofuels feedstock and the influence of nutrient availability on freshwater macroalgal biomass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jin-Ho

    Extensive efforts have been made to evaluate the potential of microalgae as a biofuel feedstock during the past 4-5 decades. However, filamentous freshwater macroalgae have numerous characteristics that favor their potential use as an alternative algal feedstock for biofuels production. Freshwater macroalgae exhibit high rates of areal productivity, and their tendency to form dense floating mats on the water surface imply significant reductions in harvesting and dewater costs compared to microalgae. In Chapter 1, I reviewed the published literature on the elemental composition and energy content of five genera of freshwater macroalgae. This review suggested that freshwater macroalgae compare favorably with traditional bio-based energy sources, including terrestrial residues, wood, and coal. In addition, I performed a semi-continuous culture experiment using the common Chlorophyte genus Oedogonium to investigate whether nutrient availability can influence its higher heating value (HHV), productivity, and proximate analysis. The experimental study suggested that the most nutrient-limited growth conditions resulted in a significant increase in the HHV of the Oedogonium biomass (14.4 MJ/kg to 16.1 MJ/kg). Although there was no significant difference in productivity between the treatments, the average dry weight productivity of Oedogonium (3.37 g/m2/day) was found to be much higher than is achievable with common terrestrial plant crops. Although filamentous freshwater macroalgae, therefore, have significant potential as a renewable source of bioenergy, the ultimate success of freshwater macroalgae as a biofuel feedstock will depend upon the ability to produce biomass at the commercial-scale in a cost-effective and sustainable manner. Aquatic ecology can play an important role to achieve the scale-up of algal crop production by informing the supply rates of nutrients to the cultivation systems, and by helping to create adaptive production systems that are resilient to

  3. Test Plan for Evaluating Hammer and Fixed Cutter Grinders Using Multiple Varieties and Moistures of Biomass Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Not listed

    2007-07-01

    Biomass preprocessing is a critical operation in the preparation of feedstock for the front-end of a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery. Its purpose is to chop, grind, or otherwise format the biomass material into a suitable feedstock for optimum conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Without this operation, the natural size, bulk density, and flowability characteristics of harvested biomass would decrease the capacities and efficiencies of feedstock assembly unit operations and biorefinery conversion processes to the degree that programmatic cost targets could not be met. The preprocessing unit operation produces a bulk flowable material that 1) improves handling and conveying efficiencies throughout the feedstock assembly system and biorefinery 2) increases biomass surface areas for improved pretreatment efficiencies, 3) reduces particle sizes for improved feedstock uniformity and density, and 4) fractionates structural components for improved compositional quality. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is tasked with defining the overall efficiency/effectiveness of current commercial hammer and fixed cutter grinding systems and other connecting systems such as harvest and collection, storage, transportation, and handling for a wide variety of feedstock types used in bioethanol or syngas production. This test plan details tasks and activities for two separate full-scale grinding tests: Material Characterization Test and Machine Characterization Test. For the Material Characterization Test, a small amount (~5-7 tons each) of several feedstock varieties will be ground. This test will define the fractionation characteristics of the grinder that affect the bulk density, particle size distribution, and quality of the size reduced biomass resulting from different separation screen sizes. A specific screen size will be selected based on the characteristics of the ground material. The Machine Characterization Test will then use this selected screen to grind several 30

  4. Effects of Biomass Feedstocks and Gasification Conditions on the Physiochemical Properties of Char

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond L. Huhnke

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Char is a low-value byproduct of biomass gasification and pyrolysis with many potential applications, such as soil amendment and the synthesis of activated carbon and carbon-based catalysts. Considering these high-value applications, char could provide economic benefits to a biorefinery utilizing gasification or pyrolysis technologies. However, the properties of char depend heavily on biomass feedstock, gasifier design and operating conditions. This paper reports the effects of biomass type (switchgrass, sorghum straw and red cedar and equivalence ratio (0.20, 0.25 and 0.28, i.e., the ratio of air supply relative to the air that is required for stoichiometric combustion of biomass, on the physiochemical properties of char derived from gasification. Results show that the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface areas of most of the char were 1–10 m2/g and increased as the equivalence ratio increased. Char moisture and fixed carbon contents decreased while ash content increased as equivalence ratio increased. The corresponding Fourier Transform Infrared spectra showed that the surface functional groups of char differed between biomass types but remained similar with change in equivalence ratio.

  5. Development of a system for characterizing biomass quality of lignocellulosic feedstocks for biochemical conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick Thomas

    The purpose of this research was twofold: (i) to develop a system for screening lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks for biochemical conversion to biofuels and (ii) to evaluate brown midrib corn stover as feedstock for ethanol production. In the first study (Chapter 2), we investigated the potential of corn stover from bm1-4 hybrids for increased ethanol production and reduced pretreatment intensity compared to corn stover from the isogenic normal hybrid. Corn stover from hybrid W64A X A619 and respective isogenic bm hybrids was pretreated by aqueous ammonia steeping using ammonium hydroxide concentrations from 0 to 30%, by weight, and the resulting residues underwent simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) to ethanol. Dry matter (DM) digested by SSCF increased with increasing ammonium hydroxide concentration across all genotypes (P>0.0001) from 277 g kg-1 DM in the control to 439 g kg-1 DM in the 30% ammonium hydroxide pretreatment. The bm corn stover materials averaged 373 g kg-1 DM of DM digested by SSCF compared with 335 g kg-1 DM for the normal corn stover (Pcell-wall carbohydrate hydrolysis of corn stover, (ii) the lowest initial cell-wall carbohydrate concentration, (iii) the lowest dry matter remaining after pretreatment, and (iv) the highest amount of monosaccharides released during enzymatic hydrolysis. However, bm corn stover did not reduce the severity of aqueous ammonia steeping pretreatment needed to maximize DM hydrolysis during SSCF compared with normal corn stover. In the remaining studies (Chapters 3 thru 5), a system for analyzing the quality of lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks for biochemical conversion to biofuels (i.e., pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation) was developed. To accomplish this, a carbohydrate availability model was developed to characterize feedstock quality. The model partitions carbohydrates within a feedstock material into fractions based on their availability to be converted to fermentable

  6. An assessment of biomass feedstock availability for the supply of bioenergy to University College Dublin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, Peter G.; McDonnell, Kevin P. [Bioresource Research Centre, Biosystems Engineering, School of Agriculture, Food Science and Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2010-12-15

    As the cost of energy rises due to an increase in fossil fuels prices, the need to develop a sustainable alternative that will reduce green house gas emissions has increased in importance. One such alternative to reduce dependency on fossil fuels is the use of biomass for bioenergy generation. This study aims to quantify how much biomass can be produced in a specific area with a maximum haulage distance of 75 km to its end location, in this case, a large residential campus, to supply fuel to a biomass boiler. The study is carried out by identifying potential sources of biomass within the catchment zone and then quantifying it under different scenarios. The first scenario focuses on minimum land use impact, which quantifies how much biomass could be achieved taking just 10% of biomass from the sources identified. The second scenario is the maximum energy scenario and is set out to establish the maximum amount of energy that could be generated within the catchment zone using 50-100% of available biomass. The final scenario is the environmental scenario which looks to quantify biomass while not infringing on existing land uses such as agriculture and forestry. Results show that scenario one could produce almost 6 PJ of energy which is, scenario two could produce over 31 PJ of energy and scenario three could produce almost 14 PJ of energy. (author)

  7. Chemicals from biomass: an assessment of the potential for production of chemical feedstocks from renewable resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Culberson, O.L.

    1983-06-01

    This assessment of the potential for production of commodity chemicals from renewable biomass resources is based on (1) a Delphi study with 50 recognized authorities to identify key technical issues relevant to production of chemicals from biomass, and (2) a systems model based on linear programming for a commodity chemicals industry using renewable resources and coal as well as gas and petroleum-derived resources. Results from both parts of the assessment indicate that, in the absence of gas and petroleum, coal undoubtedly would be a major source of chemicals first, followed by biomass. The most attractive biomass resources are wood, agricultural residues, and sugar and starch crops. A reasonable approximation to the current product slate for the petrochemical industry could be manufactured using only renewable resources for feedstocks. Approximately 2.5 quads (10/sup 15/ Btu (1.055 x 10/sup 18/ joules)) per year of oil and gas would be released. Further use of biomass fuels in the industry could release up to an additional 1.5 quads. however, such an industry would be unprofitable under current economic conditions with existing or near-commercial technology. As fossil resources become more expensive and biotechnology becomes more efficient, the economics will be more favorable. Use of the chemicals industry model to evaluate process technologies is demonstrated. Processes are identified which have potential for significant added value to the system if process improvements can be made to improve the economics. Guidelines and recommendations for research and development programs to improve the attractiveness of chemicals from biomass are discussed.

  8. Biomass energy conversion: conventional and advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing interest in biomass energy conversion in recent years has focused attention on enhancing the efficiency of technologies converting biomass fuels into heat and power, their capital and operating costs and their environmental emissions. Conventional combustion systems, such as fixed-bed or grate units and entrainment units, deliver lower efficiencies (<25%) than modem coal-fired combustors (30-35%). The gasification of biomass will improve energy conversion efficiency and yield products useful for heat and power generation and chemical synthesis. Advanced biomass gasification technologies using pressurized fluidized-bed systems, including those incorporating hot-gas clean-up for feeding gas turbines or fuel cells, are being demonstrated. However, many biomass gasification processes are derivatives of coal gasification technologies and do not exploit the unique properties of biomass. This paper examines some existing and upcoming technologies for converting biomass into electric power or heat. Small-scale 1-30 MWe units are emphasized, but brief reference is made to larger and smaller systems, including those that bum coal-biomass mixtures and gasifiers that feed pilot-fuelled diesel engines. Promising advanced systems, such as a biomass integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) with combined-cycle operation and a biomass gasifier coupled to a fuel cell, giving cycle efficiencies approaching 50% are also described. These advanced gasifiers, typically fluid-bed designs, may be pressurized and can use a wide variety of biomass materials to generate electricity, process steam and chemical products such as methanol. Low-cost, disposable catalysts are becoming available for hot-gas clean-up (enhanced gas composition) for turbine and fuel cell systems. The advantages, limitations and relative costs of various biomass gasifier systems are briefly discussed. The paper identifies the best known biomass power projects and includes some information on proposed and

  9. Ecosystems and biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass, particularly fuelwood and charcoal, is one of the main sources of fuel to meet the energy needs of traditional, commercial and industrial activities in developing countries. While it satisfies only about 14% of the world's primary energy needs, in some countries it satisfies up to 80% of those needs. As a result of population growth, urbanization, economic reforms, restructuring and new development targets in most of these countries, new forms of energy and a more intensive use of energy are expected for the years ahead. This additional demand for energy will be met mainly by hydroelectricity, coal and fossil fuels. However, where biomass is available or can be planted, bio fuels can be converted into new forms of energy (electricity and power) and energy carriers (liquid and gaseous fuels) to meet not only the energy needs of the modem sectors but also to maintain a sustainable supply to traditional users. In fact, FAO estimates that biomass could provide nearly three times more energy than it does without affecting the current supply of other commodities and goods such as food, fodder, fuel, timber and non-wood fuel products. The benefits derived from the utilization of biomass as a source of energy are twofold: (a) the task of supplying bio fuels can help to attract new investment, create new employment and income opportunities in rural areas, raise the value of natural resources and preserve the environment and (b) new forms of energy and energy carriers could foster increased production and productivity at the rural and community level, particularly in remote areas where conventional fuels are not easily available at affordable prices. Bioenergy can be easily developed in modular and decentralized schemes and offers many advantages. It could be an inexpensive source of energy, even at present energy prices, and it requires less capital investment for its implementation than alternative solutions. However, there are many disadvantages, too. For

  10. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Conversion Pathway: Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons The 2017 Design Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL conducted a campaign to quantify the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from standing in the field or stand to the throat of the biomass conversion process. The goal of this program was to establish the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes, design improvements to the current system, and to mark annual improvements based on higher efficiencies or better designs. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $35/dry ton. This goal was successfully achieved in 2012 by implementing field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. Looking forward to 2017, the programmatic target is to supply biomass to the conversion facilities at a total cost of $80/dry ton and on specification with in-feed requirements. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, abundant, low-cost feedstock. If this goal is not achieved, biofuel plants are destined to be small and/or clustered in select regions of the country that have a lock on low-cost feedstock. To put the 2017 cost target into perspective of past accomplishments of the cellulosic ethanol pathway, the $80 target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all

  11. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels Conversion Pathway: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil Pathway "The 2017 Design Case"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin L. Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J. Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; J. Richard Hess; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass sustainable supply, logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL quantified and the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from the field or stand to the throat of the conversion process using conventional equipment and processes. All previous work to 2012 was designed to improve the efficiency and decrease costs under conventional supply systems. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a biomass logistics cost of $55/dry Ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model.

  12. Biohydrogen production from lignocellulosic feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chieh-Lun; Lo, Yung-Chung; Lee, Kuo-Shing; Lee, Duu-Jong; Lin, Chiu-Yue; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2011-09-01

    Due to the recent energy crisis and rising concern over climate change, the development of clean alternative energy sources is of significant interest. Biohydrogen produced from cellulosic feedstock, such as second generation feedstock (lignocellulosic biomass) and third generation feedstock (carbohydrate-rich microalgae), is a promising candidate as a clean, CO2-neutral, non-polluting and high efficiency energy carrier to meet the future needs. This article reviews state-of-the-art technology on lignocellulosic biohydrogen production in terms of feedstock pretreatment, saccharification strategy, and fermentation technology. Future developments of integrated biohydrogen processes leading to efficient waste reduction, low CO2 emission and high overall hydrogen yield is discussed.

  13. Paper and biomass for energy? : The impact of paper recycling on energy and CO2 emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurijssen, J.; Marsidi, M.; Westenbroek, A.; Worrell, E.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    The pulp and paper industry is placed in a unique position as biomass used as feedstock is now in increasingly high demand from the energy sector. Increased demand for biomass increases pressure on the availability of this resource, which might strengthen the need for recycling of paper. In this stu

  14. Study on thermochemical liquefaction of biomass feedstocks; Biomass genryo no yuka hanno tokusei ni kansuru kisoteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-10

    Liquefaction is applied to various biomass wastes and unused biomass to study characteristics of the liquefaction in each case. The paper described the system of the conversion and use of biomass into energy, conducted the positioning of the liquefaction, and outlined a history of the liquefaction chemistry and the study. To obtain basic data of characteristics of the liquefaction of various biomass raw materials, the liquefaction was conducted changing operational factors for the purpose of clarifying the product distribution of oil and by-products and oil properties. A comprehensive consideration was made of the liquefaction based on basic data and literature reports on the liquefaction of various biomass. From the above-mentioned studies, it was concluded that the energy can be recovered in a form of oil by applying the liquefaction to various biomass materials. A series of the study clarified effects of various operational factors on characteristics of the liquefaction as well as effects of classification of biomass materials and composition of the materials on characteristics of the liquefaction. 141 refs., 78 figs., 56 tabs.

  15. Romania biomass energy. Country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report was prepared under contract to UNIDO to conduct a case study of biomass energy use and potential in Romania. The purpose of the case study is to provide a specific example of biomass energy issues and potential in the context of the economic transition under way in eastern Europe. The transition of Romania to a market economy is proceeding at a somewhat slower pace than in other countries of eastern Europe. Unfortunately, the former regime forced the use of biomass energy with inadequate technology and infrastructure, particularly in rural areas. The resulting poor performance thus severely damaged the reputation of biomass energy in Romania as a viable, reliable resource. Today, efforts to rejuvenate biomass energy and tap into its multiple benefits are proving challenging. Several sound biomass energy development strategies were identified through the case study, on the basis of estimates of availability and current use of biomass resources; suggestions for enhancing potential biomass energy resources; an overview of appropriate conversion technologies and markets for biomass in Romania; and estimates of the economic and environmental impacts of the utilization of biomass energy. Finally, optimal strategies for near-, medium- and long-term biomass energy development, as well as observations and recommendations concerning policy, legislative and institutional issues affecting the development of biomass energy in Romania are presented. The most promising near-term biomass energy options include the use of biomass in district heating systems; cofiring of biomass in existing coal-fired power plants or combined heat and power plants; and using co-generation systems in thriving industries to optimize the efficient use of biomass resources. Mid-term and long-term opportunities include improving the efficiency of wood stoves used for cooking and heating in rural areas; repairing the reputation of biogasification to take advantage of livestock wastes

  16. Conversion of poultry wastes into energy feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarli, Ismail Cem; Kabadayi, Arzu; Ucar, Suat; Yanik, Jale

    2016-10-01

    In this study, conversion of wastes from poultry farming and industry into biochar and bio-oil via thermochemical processes was investigated. Fuel characteristics and chemical structure of biochars and bio-oils have been investigated using standard fuel analysis and spectroscopic methods. Biochars were produced from poultry litter through both hydrothermal carbonization (sub-critical water, 175-250°C) and pyrolysis over a temperature range between 250 and 500°C. In comparison to hydrothermal carbonization, pyrolysis at lower temperatures produced biochar with greater energy yield due to the higher mass yield. Biochars obtained by both processes were comparable to coal. Hydrothermal liquefaction of poultry meal at different temperatures (200-325°C) was conducted and compared to optimize its process conditions. Higher temperatures favored the formation of bio-crude oil, with a maximum yield of 35wt.% at 300°C. The higher heating values of bio-oils showed that bio-oil could be a potential source of synthetic fuels. However, elemental analysis demonstrated the high nitrogen content of bio-oils. Therefore, bio-oils obtained from hydrothermal liquefaction of poultry meal should be upgraded for utilization as a transport and heating fuel. PMID:27440220

  17. Biomass Compositional Analysis for Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Bonnie R.

    In its broadest definition, biomass can be described as all material that was or is a part of a living organism. For renewable energy applications, however, the definition of biomass is usually limited to include only materials that are plant-derived such as agricultural residues (e.g., wheat straw, corn stover) by-products of industrial processes (e.g., sawdust, sugar cane bagasse, pulp residues, distillers grains), or dedicated energy crops (e.g., switchgrass, sorghum, Miscanthus, short-rotation woody crops). This chapter describes analytical methods developed to measure plant components with an emphasis on the measurement of components that are important for biomass conversion. The methods described here can be viewed as a portfolio of analytical methods, with consistent assumptions and compatible sample preparation steps, selected for simplicity, robust application, and the ability to obtain a summative mass closure on most samples that accurately identifies greater than 95% of the mass of a plant biomass sample. The portfolio of methods has been successfully applied to a wide variety of biomass feedstock as well as liquid and solid fractions of both thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification (1).

  18. Identifying the point of departures for the detailed sustainability assessment of biomass feedstocks for biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Dalgaard, Tommy

    aspects between the current application and future potentials. In Denmark, straw is widely used as a source of energy for heat and power production and for animal production. Thus, the overall sustainability and the year-round supply should be examined, particularly if it acts as a principal feedstock...... for biorefineries and potential impacts to the existing market. This study aims to assist in the sustainability assessment of straw conversion in the biochemical conversion routes to deliver bioethanol and other biobased products. For the comparison, conversion of straw to produce heat and electricity in a Combined...

  19. Biomass plantations - energy farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, S.

    1981-02-01

    Mounting oil import bills in India are restricting her development programmes by forcing the cutting down of the import of other essential items. But the countries of the tropics have abundant sunlight and vast tracts of arable wastelands. Energy farming is proposed in the shape of energy plantations through forestry or energy cropping through agricultural media, to provide power fuels for transport and the industries and also to provide fuelwoods for the domestic sector. Short rotation cultivation is discussed and results are given of two main species that are being tried, ipil-ipil and Casuarina. Evaluations are made on the use of various crops such as sugar cane, cassava and kenaf as fuel crops together with hydrocarbon plants and aquatic biomass. (Refs. 20)

  20. Development of a multicriteria assessment model for ranking biomass feedstock collection and transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Flynn, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    This study details multicriteria assessment methodology that integrates economic, social, environmental, and technical factors in order to rank alternatives for biomass collection and transportation systems. Ranking of biomass collection systems is based on cost of delivered biomass, quality of biomass supplied, emissions during collection, energy input to the chain operations, and maturity of supply system technologies. The assessment methodology is used to evaluate alternatives for collecting 1.8 x 10(6) dry t/yr based on assumptions made on performance of various assemblies of biomass collection systems. A proposed collection option using loafer/ stacker was shown to be the best option followed by ensiling and baling. Ranking of biomass transport systems is based on cost of biomass transport, emissions during transport, traffic congestion, and maturity of different technologies. At a capacity of 4 x 10(6) dry t/yr, rail transport was shown to be the best option, followed by truck transport and pipeline transport, respectively. These rankings depend highly on assumed maturity of technologies and scale of utilization. These may change if technologies such as loafing or ensiling (wet storage) methods are proved to be infeasible for large-scale collection systems. PMID:16915632

  1. Using biomass of starch-rich transgenic Arabidopsis vacuolar as feedstock for fermentative hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Yung-Chung; Cheng, Chieh-Lun; Chen, Chun-Yen [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Huang, Li-Fen; Chang, Jo-Shu [Yuan Ze Univ., Tao-yuan, Taiwan (China). Graduate School of Biotechnology and Bioengineering

    2010-07-01

    Cellulose is the major constitute of plant biomass and highly available in agricultural wastes and industrial effluents, thereby being a cost-effective feedstock for bioenergy production. However, most hydrogen producing bacteria (HPB) could not directly convert cellulosic materials (such as rice husk and rice straw) into hydrogen whereas most HPB could utilize sugar and starch for hydrogen production. In this work, we used an indigenous bacterial isolate Clostridium butyricum CGS2 as HPB, which could directly convert soluble starch into H2 with a maximum H2 production rate and a H2 yield of 205.07 ml H2/h/l and 6.46 mmol H2/g starch, respectively. However, C. butyricum CGS2 could not ferment pure cellulosic materials such as carboxymethyl cellulose and xylan. Moreover, we found that C. butyricum CGS2 could utilize rich husk to produce H2 at a rate of 13.19 ml H2/h/l due to the starch content in rice husk (H2 yield = 1.49 mmol H2/g rice husk). In contrast, since lacking starch content, rice straw cannot be converted to H2 by C. butyricum CGS2. The foregoing results suggest that increasing the starch content in the natural agricultural wastes may make them better feedstock for fermentative H2 production. Hence, a genetically modified plant (Arabidopsis vacuolar) was constructed to enhance its starch concentration. The starch concentration of mutant plant S1 increased to 10.67 mg/fresh weight, which is four times higher than that of wild type plant. Using mutant plant S1 as carbon source, C. butyricum CGS2 was able to give a high cumulative H2 production and H2 production rate of 285.4 ml H2/l and 43.6 ml/h/l, respectively. The cumulative H2 production and H2 production rate both increased when the concentration of the transgenic plant was increased. Therefore, this study successful demonstrated the feasibility of expressing starch on genetically-modified plants to create a more effective feedstock for dark H2 fermentation. (orig.)

  2. Biomass for energy versus food and feed, land use analyses and water supply

    OpenAIRE

    Ladanai, Svetlana; Vinterbäck, Johan

    2010-01-01

    The global growth in energy demand continues, but the way of meeting rising energy needs is not sustainable. The use of biomass energy is a widely accepted strategy towards sustainable development that sees the fastest rate with the most of increase in power generation followed by strong rises in the consumption of biofuels for transport. Agriculture, forestry and wood energy sector are the leading sources of biomass for bioenergy. However, to be acceptable, biomass feedstock must be produced...

  3. The Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI): Developing New Biofuels by Overcoming Biomass Recalcitrance

    OpenAIRE

    Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Singh, Seema; Blanch, Harvey; Keasling, Jay D.

    2010-01-01

    The mission of the Joint BioEnergy Institute is to advance the development of the next-generation of biofuels—liquid fuels derived from the solar energy stored in plant biomass. The papers in this volume describe some of the research conducted in the area of feedstocks development and biomass deconstruction.

  4. Energy crops for biofuel feedstocks: facts and recent patents on genetic manipulation to improve biofuel crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh

    2013-12-01

    Burning fossil-fuels to meet the global energy requirements by human being has intensified the concerns of increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. Therefore, serious efforts are required to develop nonfossil-based renewable energy sources. Plants are more efficient in utilizing solar energy to convert it into biomass which can be used as feedstocks for biofuel production. Hence with the increasing demands of energy and the needs of cost-effective, sustainable production of fuels, it has become necessary to switch over to plant biomass as a renewable source of energy. Biofuels derived from more sustainable biological materials such as lignocellulosic plant residues, considered as second generation biofuels, are more dependable. However, there are technical challenges such as pretreatment and hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass to convert it into fermentable sugars. Plant genetic engineering has already proven its potential in modifying cell wall composition of plants for enhancing the efficiency of biofuel production. Interest and potential in the area are very much evident from the growing number of patents in the recent years on the subject. In this review, recent trends in genetic engineering of energy crops for biofuel production have been introduced, and strategies for the future developments have been discussed.

  5. Energy crops for biofuel feedstocks: facts and recent patents on genetic manipulation to improve biofuel crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh

    2013-12-01

    Burning fossil-fuels to meet the global energy requirements by human being has intensified the concerns of increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. Therefore, serious efforts are required to develop nonfossil-based renewable energy sources. Plants are more efficient in utilizing solar energy to convert it into biomass which can be used as feedstocks for biofuel production. Hence with the increasing demands of energy and the needs of cost-effective, sustainable production of fuels, it has become necessary to switch over to plant biomass as a renewable source of energy. Biofuels derived from more sustainable biological materials such as lignocellulosic plant residues, considered as second generation biofuels, are more dependable. However, there are technical challenges such as pretreatment and hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass to convert it into fermentable sugars. Plant genetic engineering has already proven its potential in modifying cell wall composition of plants for enhancing the efficiency of biofuel production. Interest and potential in the area are very much evident from the growing number of patents in the recent years on the subject. In this review, recent trends in genetic engineering of energy crops for biofuel production have been introduced, and strategies for the future developments have been discussed. PMID:24456235

  6. Biomass, energy for the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains a brief presentation of a book in which the authors examine whether biomass will be able to participate to energy transition and respond to the increasing energy needs. They define the biomass, describe its use, recall its history, and discuss its role in energy transition. They question the use of biomass and wander whether it's a good idea to burn wood, if biofuels will be able to replace oil, whether biofuels are good for the environment, if biomass will be able to respond to the needs of building and chemical industries, whether it is worth to produce electricity from biomass, and whether methane has a future as energy vector. They examine the role of forest as a source of biomass-energy (how France could get the best out of its forests, whether it is better to plant trees or to exploit the forests). They discuss the role of agriculture, the role of wastes as a source of biomass-energy (whether it is better to burn or methanize wastes, what to choose between manure and corn for local energies). They examine the perspectives for biomass-energy, and notably whether there is enough land to feed humans and produce energy, how to decide between food, energy, materials and chemistry

  7. Biomass energy: Sustainable solution for greenhouse gas emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrul Islam, A. K. M.; Ahiduzzaman, M.

    2012-06-01

    Biomass is part of the carbon cycle. Carbon dioxide is produced after combustion of biomass. Over a relatively short timescale, carbon dioxide is renewed from atmosphere during next generation of new growth of green vegetation. Contribution of renewable energy including hydropower, solar, biomass and biofuel in total primary energy consumption in world is about 19%. Traditional biomass alone contributes about 13% of total primary energy consumption in the world. The number of traditional biomass energy users expected to rise from 2.5 billion in 2004 to 2.6 billion in 2015 and to 2.7 billion in 2030 for cooking in developing countries. Residential biomass demand in developing countries is projected to rise from 771 Mtoe in 2004 to 818 Mtoe in 2030. The main sources of biomass are wood residues, bagasse, rice husk, agro-residues, animal manure, municipal and industrial waste etc. Dedicated energy crops such as short-rotation coppice, grasses, sugar crops, starch crops and oil crops are gaining importance and market share as source of biomass energy. Global trade in biomass feedstocks and processed bioenergy carriers are growing rapidly. There are some drawbacks of biomass energy utilization compared to fossil fuels viz: heterogeneous and uneven composition, lower calorific value and quality deterioration due to uncontrolled biodegradation. Loose biomass also is not viable for transportation. Pelletization, briquetting, liquefaction and gasification of biomass energy are some options to solve these problems. Wood fuel production is very much steady and little bit increase in trend, however, the forest land is decreasing, means the deforestation is progressive. There is a big challenge for sustainability of biomass resource and environment. Biomass energy can be used to reduce greenhouse emissions. Woody biomass such as briquette and pellet from un-organized biomass waste and residues could be used for alternative to wood fuel, as a result, forest will be saved and

  8. Biomass for energy. Danish solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Information is given on a number of typical and recently established plants of all types and sizes, for converting the main Danish biomass resources (manures, straw and wood derived from agricultural activities and forestry)into energy. Danish biomass resources and energy and environmental policies are described. In Denmark there is a very wide range of technologies for converting biomass into energy, and these are clarified. In addition, performance data from a number of plants fuelled with biomass fuels are presented. The course of further developments within this field is suggested. The text is illustrated with a considerable number of coloured photographs and also with graphs and diagrams. (ARW)

  9. Catalytic conversion of biomass-derived feedstocks into olefins and aromatics with ZSM-5: the hydrogen to carbon effective ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Huiyan; Cheng, Yu-Ting; Vispute, Tushar; Xiao, R; Huber, George W.

    2011-01-01

    Catalytic conversion of ten biomass-derived feedstocks, i.e.glucose, sorbitol, glycerol, tetrahydrofuran, methanol and different hydrogenated bio-oil fractions, with different hydrogen to carbon effective (H/C{sub eff}) ratios was conducted in a gas-phase flow fixed-bed reactor with a ZSM-5 catalyst. The aromatic + olefin yield increases and the coke yield decreases with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio of the feed. There is an inflection point at a H/C{sub eff} ratio = 1.2, where the aromatic + olefin yield does not increase as rapidly as it does prior to this point. The ratio of olefins to aromatics also increases with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio. CO and CO₂ yields go through a maximum with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio. The deactivation rate of the catalyst decreases significantly with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio. Coke was formed from both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for the ten feedstocks showed that the formation of coke from homogeneous reactions decreases with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio. Feedstocks with a H/C{sub eff} ratio less than 0.15 produce large amounts of undesired coke (more than 12 wt%) from homogeneous decomposition reactions. This paper shows that the conversion of biomass-derived feedstocks into aromatics and olefins using zeolite catalysts can be explained by the H/C{sub eff} ratio of the feed.

  10. A feasibility study of agricultural and sewage biomass as biochar, bioenergy and biocomposite feedstock: production, characterization and potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Prakash; Sarmah, Ajit K; Smernik, Ron; Das, Oisik; Farid, Mohammed; Gao, Wei

    2015-04-15

    In this study, we pyrolysed six waste derived biomass: pine sawdust (PSD), paunch grass (PG), broiler litter (BL), sewage sludge (SS), dewatered pond sludge (DWP), and dissolved air-floatation sludge (DAF) into biochar. Biochars were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry, (13)C-solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to evaluate their feasibility for potential agronomic and environmental applications. Syngas produced during the pyrolysis process was also analyzed to determine the energy values. Results show that PSD biochar has the utmost potential for carbon sequestration and contaminant remediation due to its high surface area, aromaticity and carbon content. Additionally given its low ash content, PSD biochar could also potentially be used as filler in wood plastic biocomposites. Low levels of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) in all biochars suggest that biochars are also applicable for land application according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency regulation 40 CFR part 503. The composition of syngas evolved during the pyrolysis of feedstocks showed little difference in the calorific values, ranging from 12-16 MJ/dsm with PSD having the maximum calorific value of 16 MJ/dsm. PMID:25644846

  11. Considerations in implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass energy is emerging as a real option for satisfying power needs in developing countries. Experience has shown improvements in GDP are directly linked to increased consumption of energy. Biomass energy can also be environmentally and developmentally beneficial where it will be both grown and used. Biomass production can offset deforestation, reduce soil erosion, increase rural employment, and stimulate development. Moreover, when biomass is grown renewably there is no net buildup of atmospheric carbon. Issues and barriers associated with implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries are discussed. An integrated biomass energy system is dependent on sustainably grown and managed energy crops, supportive of rural development, and environmentally beneficial, adapted to local conditions; takes advantage of by- and co-products and uses conversion technologies that have been optimized for biomass. A preliminary evaluation of a biomass to electricity project relying on plantation grown feedstocks in Southwest China indicates that biomass could be grown and converted to electricity at costs lower than alternatives and yield an internal rate of return of about 15%. The IRR based on a social and environmental benefits are substantial and investment in the facility is well-justified. However, assessing biomass energy systems is exceedingly complex. Considerations are grouped into biomass production, biomass logistics and transport, and biomass conversion. Implementation requires considerations of energy and economics, institutional and social issues, and environmental issues. The conclusion that such a project would be viable in rural China is shadowed by many site-specific circumstances and highlights the need for systematic and integrated appraisal

  12. Energy from biomass and waste

    OpenAIRE

    FAAIJ A.p.c.

    2001-01-01

    Biomass, a broad term for all organic matter of plants, trees and crops, is currently regarded as a renewable energy source which can contribute substantially to the world's energy supply in the future. Various scenarios for the development of energy supply and demand, such as compiled by the World Energy Council (WEC), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Shell and the Stockholm Environmental Institute (SEI), indicate that biomass has the potential to make a large contributi...

  13. Development of a lactic acid production process using lignocellulosic biomass as feedstock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der E.C.

    2016-01-01

    The availability of crude oil is finite. Therefore, an alternative feedstock has to be found for the production of fuels and plastics. Lignocellulose is such an alternative feedstock. It is present in large quantities in agricultural waste material such as sugarcane bagasse. In this PhD thesis, lign

  14. Investigating the impact of biomass quality on near-infrared models for switchgrass feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey M. Kline

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the impact of incorporating switchgrass samples that have been in long term storage on the development of near-infrared (NIR multivariate calibration models and their predictive capabilities. Stored material contains more variation in their respective spectral signatures due to chemical changes in the bales with storage time. Partial least squares (PLS regression models constructed using NIR spectra of stored switchgrass possessed an instability that interfered with the correlation between the spectral data and measured chemical composition. The models were improved using calibration sample sets of equal parts stored and fresh switchgrass to more accurately predict the chemical composition of stored switchgrass. Acceptable correlation values (rcalibration were obtained using a calibration sample set composed of 25 stored samples and 25 samples of fresh switchgrass for cellulose (0.91, hemicellulose (0.74, total carbohydrates (0.76, lignin (0.98, extractives (0.92, and ash (0.87. Increasing the calibration sample set to 100 samples of equal parts stored to senesced material resulted in statistically increased (p = 0.05 correlations for total carbohydrates (0.89 and ash (0.96. When these models were applied to a separate validation set (equal to 10% of the calibration sample set, high correlation coefficients (r for predicted versus measured constituent content were observed for cellulose (0.94, total carbohydrates (0.98, lignin (0.91, extractives (0.97, and ash (0.90. For optimization of processing economics, the impact of feedstock storage must be investigated for implementation in conversion processes. While NIR is a well-known high-throughput technique for characterization of senesced switchgrass, the selection of appropriate calibration samples and consequent multivariate models must be taken into careful consideration for NIR application in a biomass storage facility for rapid chemical compositional

  15. Biomass living energy; Biomasse l'energie vivante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Any energy source originating from organic matter is biomass, which even today is the basic source of energy for more than a quarter of humanity. Best known for its combustible properties, biomass is also used to produce biofuels. This information sheet provides also information on the electricity storage from micro-condensers to hydroelectric dams, how to save energy facing the increasing of oil prices and supply uncertainties, the renewable energies initiatives of Cork (Ireland) and the Switzerland european energy hub. (A.L.B.)

  16. Strategies for 2nd generation biofuels in EU - Co-firing to stimulate feedstock supply development and process integration to improve energy efficiency and economic competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present biofuel policies in the European Union primarily stimulate 1st generation biofuels that are produced based on conventional food crops. They may be a distraction from lignocellulose based 2nd generation biofuels - and also from biomass use for heat and electricity - by keeping farmers' attention and significant investments focusing on first generation biofuels and the cultivation of conventional food crops as feedstocks. This article presents two strategies that can contribute to the development of 2nd generation biofuels based on lignocellulosic feedstocks. The integration of gasification-based biofuel plants in district heating systems is one option for increasing the energy efficiency and improving the economic competitiveness of such biofuels. Another option, biomass co-firing with coal, generates high-efficiency biomass electricity and reduces CO2 emissions by replacing coal. It also offers a near-term market for lignocellulosic biomass, which can stimulate development of supply systems for biomass also suitable as feedstock for 2nd generation biofuels. Regardless of the long-term priorities of biomass use for energy, the stimulation of lignocellulosic biomass production by development of near term and cost-effective markets is judged to be a no-regrets strategy for Europe. Strategies that induce a relevant development and exploit existing energy infrastructures in order to reduce risk and reach lower costs, are proposed an attractive complement the present and prospective biofuel policies. (author)

  17. Strategies for 2nd generation biofuels in EU - Co-firing to stimulate feedstock supply development and process integration to improve energy efficiency and economic competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present biofuel policies in the European Union primarily stimulate 1st generation biofuels that are produced based on conventional food crops. They may be a distraction from lignocellulose based 2nd generation biofuels - and also from biomass use for heat and electricity - by keeping farmers' attention and significant investments focusing on first generation biofuels and the cultivation of conventional food crops as feedstocks. This article presents two strategies that can contribute to the development of 2nd generation biofuels based on lignocellulosic feedstocks. The integration of gasification-based biofuel plants in district heating systems is one option for increasing the energy efficiency and improving the economic competitiveness of such biofuels. Another option, biomass co-firing with coal, generates high-efficiency biomass electricity and reduces CO2 emissions by replacing coal. It also offers a near-term market for lignocellulosic biomass, which can stimulate development of supply systems for biomass also suitable as feedstock for 2nd generation biofuels. Regardless of the long-term priorities of biomass use for energy, the stimulation of lignocellulosic biomass production by development of near term and cost-effective markets is judged to be a no-regrets strategy for Europe. Strategies that induce a relevant development and exploit existing energy infrastructures in order to reduce risk and reach lower costs, are proposed an attractive complement the present and prospective biofuel policies.

  18. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply, April 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30 percent or more of the country’s present petroleum consumption – the goal set by the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee in their vision for biomass technologies. Accomplishing this goal would require approximately 1 billion dry tons of biomass feedstock per year.

  19. Considerations in implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D.; Ranney, J.W.

    1993-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss the issues and barriers associated with implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries. An integrated biomass energy system in dependent on sustainably grown and managed energy crops, is supportive of rural development, is environmentally beneficial (locally and globally), is adapted to local conditions, takes advantage of by- and co-products, and uses conversion technologies that have been optimized for biomass. A preliminary evaluation of a biomass to electricity project relying on plantation grown feedstocks in rural Yunnan Province in Southwest China provided some financial/economic results, general conclusions, and an initial framework for conducting such assessments. Our assessment indicates that social and environmental benefits are substantial and that investment in the facility is well-justified. However, there are so many considerations to take into account when assessing biomass energy systems that their evaluation is exceedingly complex. These considerations are grouped into biomass production, biomass logistics and transport, and biomass conversion. Implementing such systems requires another grouping of considerations into energy and economics, institutional and social issues, and environmental issues. These are further defined in an effort to establish a framework of evaluation and assessment for other such projects. The conclusions that such a project would be viable in rural China is shadowed by many site-specific circumstances and highlights the need for systematic and integrated appraisal.

  20. BIOMASS TO ENERGY IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES: SUPPLY CHAIN AND DELIVERED COST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronalds W. Gonzalez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain and delivered cost models for seven feedstocks (loblolly pine, Eucalyptus, natural hardwood, switchgrass, Miscanthus, sweet sorghum, and corn stover were built, simulating a supply of 453,597 dry tons per year to a biorefinery. Delivered cost of forest-based feedstocks ranged from $69 to $71 per dry ton. On the other hand, delivered cost of agricultural biomass ranged from $77.60 to $102.50 per dry ton. The total production area required for fast growing feedstocks was estimated as between 22,500 to 27,000 hectares, while the total production area for feedstocks with lower biomass productivity ranged from 101,200 to 202,300 hectares (corn stover and natural hardwood, respectively. Lower delivered cost per ton of carbohydrate and million BTU were found for loblolly pine, Eucalyptus, and natural hardwood. In addition, agricultural biomass had higher delivered costs for carbohydrate and energy value.

  1. Wind, biomass, hydrogen: renewable energies; Vent, biomasse, hydrogene: energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakotosson, V.; Brousse, Th.; Guillemet, Ph.; Scudeller, Y.; Crosnier, O.; Dugas, R.; Favier, F.; Zhou, Y.; Taberna, P.M.; Simon, P.; Toupin, M.; Belanger, D.; Ngo, Ch.; Djamie, B.; Guyard, Ch.; Tamain, B.; Ruer, J.; Ungerer, Ph.; Bonal, J.; Flamant, G

    2007-06-15

    This press kit gathers a series of articles about renewable energies: the compared availabilities of renewable energy sources (comparison at a given time); offshore wind turbines (projects under development, cost optimisation); hydrogen for transports: present day situation (production, transport and storage, hydrogen conversion into mechanical energy, indirect use in biomass conversion); biomass: future carbon source (resource potential in France, pyrolysis and fermentation, development of biofuels and synthetic fuels, stakes for agriculture); beneficial standards for the heat pumps market (market organization and quality approach); collecting solar energy (solar furnaces and future solar power plants, hydrogen generation). (J.S.)

  2. Energy from biomass and waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a review of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) Energy Demonstration Programme in the sector of Energy from biomass and waste, and examines the current status of the energy technologies associated with the sector, in relation to projects supported under the Programme, those included under various national programmes and by reference to the published literature. Detailed overviews of five sub-categories represented in the Energy from biomass and waste sector are presented to illustrate their relative significance in terms of estimated energy potential, technological and economic status and the nature of future research, development and demonstration needs. Finally the potential role of the biomass and waste energy technologies in meeting the energy needs of the developing world is discussed. 33 refs; 2 figs; 11 tabs

  3. A feasibility study of agricultural and sewage biomass as biochar, bioenergy and biocomposite feedstock: Production, characterization and potential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we pyrolysed six waste derived biomass: pine sawdust (PSD), paunch grass (PG), broiler litter (BL), sewage sludge (SS), dewatered pond sludge (DWP), and dissolved air-floatation sludge (DAF) into biochar. Biochars were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry, 13C-solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to evaluate their feasibility for potential agronomic and environmental applications. Syngas produced during the pyrolysis process was also analyzed to determine the energy values. Results show that PSD biochar has the utmost potential for carbon sequestration and contaminant remediation due to its high surface area, aromaticity and carbon content. Additionally given its low ash content, PSD biochar could also potentially be used as filler in wood plastic biocomposites. Low levels of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) in all biochars suggest that biochars are also applicable for land application according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency regulation 40 CFR part 503. The composition of syngas evolved during the pyrolysis of feedstocks showed little difference in the calorific values, ranging from 12–16 MJ/dsm with PSD having the maximum calorific value of 16 MJ/dsm. - Highlights: • PSD biochar was found to have the highest surface, carbon content and lowest ash content. • PSD biochar is suitable for carbon sequestration, remediation and biocomposite construction. • Syngas from PSD and PG pyrolysis yielded syngas having highest calorific values (15-16 MJ/dsm). • BL, PG and SS derived biochars have potential as liming agents due to their high ash content

  4. A feasibility study of agricultural and sewage biomass as biochar, bioenergy and biocomposite feedstock: Production, characterization and potential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, Prakash [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Sarmah, Ajit K., E-mail: a.sarmah@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Smernik, Ron [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005 (Australia); Das, Oisik [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Farid, Mohammed; Gao, Wei [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Auckland, 20 Symonds Street, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2015-04-15

    In this study, we pyrolysed six waste derived biomass: pine sawdust (PSD), paunch grass (PG), broiler litter (BL), sewage sludge (SS), dewatered pond sludge (DWP), and dissolved air-floatation sludge (DAF) into biochar. Biochars were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry, {sup 13}C-solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to evaluate their feasibility for potential agronomic and environmental applications. Syngas produced during the pyrolysis process was also analyzed to determine the energy values. Results show that PSD biochar has the utmost potential for carbon sequestration and contaminant remediation due to its high surface area, aromaticity and carbon content. Additionally given its low ash content, PSD biochar could also potentially be used as filler in wood plastic biocomposites. Low levels of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) in all biochars suggest that biochars are also applicable for land application according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency regulation 40 CFR part 503. The composition of syngas evolved during the pyrolysis of feedstocks showed little difference in the calorific values, ranging from 12–16 MJ/dsm with PSD having the maximum calorific value of 16 MJ/dsm. - Highlights: • PSD biochar was found to have the highest surface, carbon content and lowest ash content. • PSD biochar is suitable for carbon sequestration, remediation and biocomposite construction. • Syngas from PSD and PG pyrolysis yielded syngas having highest calorific values (15-16 MJ/dsm). • BL, PG and SS derived biochars have potential as liming agents due to their high ash content.

  5. Carbon and Water Vapor Fluxes of Dedicated Bioenergy Feedstocks: Switchgrass and High Biomass Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagle, P.; Kakani, V. G.; Huhnke, R.

    2015-12-01

    We compared eddy covariance measurements of carbon and water vapor fluxes from co-located two major dedicated lignocellulosic feedstocks, Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and high biomass sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), in Oklahoma during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons. Monthly ensemble averaged net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) reached seasonal peak values of 36-37 μmol m-2 s-1 in both ecosystems. Similar magnitudes (weekly average of daily integrated values) of NEE (10-11 g C m-2 d-1), gross primary production (GPP, 19-20 g C m-2 d-1), ecosystem respiration (ER, 10-12 g C m-2 d-1), and evapotranspiration (ET, 6.2-6.7 mm d-1) were observed in both ecosystems. Carbon and water vapor fluxes of both ecosystems had similar response to air temperature (Ta) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). An optimum Ta was slightly over 30 °C for NEE and approximately 35 °C for ET, and an optimum VPD was approximately 3 kPa for NEE and ET in both ecosystems. The switchgrass field was a larger carbon sink, with a cumulative seasonal carbon uptake of 406-490 g C m-2 compared to 261-330 g C m-2 by the sorghum field. Despite similar water use patterns during the active growing period, seasonal cumulative ET was higher in switchgrass than in sorghum. The ratio of seasonal sums of GPP to ET yielded ecosystem water use efficiency (EWUE) of 9.41-11.32 and 8.98-9.17 g CO2 mm-1 ET in switchgrass and sorghum, respectively. The ratio of seasonal sums of net ecosystem production (NEP) to ET was 2.75-2.81 and 2.06-2.18 g CO2 mm-1 ET in switchgrass and sorghum, respectively. The switchgrass stand was a net carbon sink for four to five months (April/May-August), while sorghum was a net carbon sink only for three months (June-August). Our results imply that the difference in carbon sink strength and water use between two ecosystems was driven mainly by the length of the growing season.

  6. Preliminary life-cycle assessment of biomass-derived refinery feedstocks for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, J.J. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rogers, S. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Spath, P.L.; Mann, M.K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The US by ratification of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change has pledged to emit no higher levels of greenhouse gases in the year 2000 than it did in 1990. Biomass-derived products have been touted as a possible solution to the potential problem of global warming. However, past studies related to the production of liquid fuels, chemicals, gaseous products, or electricity from biomass, have only considered the economics of producing these commodities. The environmental benefits have not been fully quantified and factored into these estimates until recently. Evaluating the environmental impact of various biomass systems has begun using life-cycle assessment. A refinery Linear Programming model previously developed has been modified to examine the effects of CO{sub 2}-capping on the US refining industry and the transportation sector as a whole. By incorporating the results of a CO{sub 2} emissions inventory into the model, the economic impact of emissions reduction strategies can be estimated. Thus, the degree to which global warming can be solved by supplementing fossil fuels with biomass-derived products can be measured, allowing research and development to be concentrated on the most environmentally and economically attractive technology mix. Biomass gasification to produce four different refinery feedstocks was considered in this analysis. These biomass-derived products include power, fuel gas, hydrogen for refinery processing, and Fischer-Tropsch liquids for upgrading and blending into finished transportation fuels.

  7. Biomass energy in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of biomass to energy issues and opportunities in Central America. In this region, made up of seven countries (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama), the biomass sector has the potential to play a crucial role in alleviating the environmental and development predicaments faced by all economies of the region. This paper assesses the available biomass resources at the regional and country levels and gives an overview of the current utilization of biomass fuels. It also describes the overall context in which the biomass-to-energy initiatives are immersed. At the regional level, biomass energy consumption accounts for more than 50% of total energy consumption. In regard to the utilization of biomass for energy purposes, it is clear that Central America faces a critical juncture at two levels, both mainly in rural areas: in the productive sector and at the household level. The absence of sustainable development policies and practices has jeopardized the availability of biomass fuels, particularly wood. Firewood is an important source of energy for rural industries such as coffee processing, which is one of the largest productive activities in the region. This paper comments on some of the most successful technological innovations already in place in the region, for instance, the rapid development of co-generation projects by the sugar cane industry, especially in El Salvador and Guatemala, the substitution of coffee husks for firewood in coffee processing plants in Costa Rica and El Salvador and the sustainable use of pine forests for co-generation in Honduras. Only one out of every two inhabitants in Central America now has access to electricity from the public grid. Biomass fuels, mainly firewood but also, to a lesser extent, other crop residues such as corn stalks, are the main source of energy for cooking and heating by most of the population. (It is foreseen that by the end

  8. Energy from biomass and waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2001-01-01

    Biomass, a broad term for all organic matter of plants, trees and crops, is currently regarded as a renewable energy source which can contribute substantially to the world's energy supply in the future. Various scenarios for the development of energy supply and demand, such as compiled by the World

  9. Evolution and Development of Effective Feedstock Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garold Gresham; Rachel Emerson; Amber Hoover; Amber Miller; William Bauer; Kevin Kenney

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blend stocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. The 2012 feedstock logistics milestone demonstrated that for high-yield areas that minimize the transportation distances of a low-density, unstable biomass, we could achieve a delivered cost of $35/ton. Based on current conventional equipment and processes, the 2012 logistics design is able to deliver the volume of biomass needed to fulfill the 2012 Renewable Fuel Standard’s targets for ethanol. However, the Renewable Fuel Standard’s volume targets are continuing to increase and are expected to peak in 2022 at 36 billion gallons. Meeting these volume targets and achieving a national-scale biofuels industry will require expansion of production capacity beyond the 2012 Conventional Feedstock Supply Design Case to access diverse available feedstocks, regardless of their inherent ability to meet preliminary biorefinery quality feedstock specifications. Implementation of quality specifications (specs), as outlined in the 2017 Design Case – “Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels” (in progress), requires insertion of deliberate, active quality controls into the feedstock supply chain, whereas the 2012 Conventional Design only utilizes passive quality controls.

  10. Renewable energy obtained by thermochemical conversion of biomass and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The production of energy from alternative sources is one of the main strategic tools for the sustainable development of modern society. In this regard, different kinds of biomass and wastes can contribute to the production of energy by means of chemical, thermal and biological processes. Energy technologies based on biomass and waste are undergoing rapid development: processes are optimized, new ideas are proposed for technical application. Despite the growing interest for the use of these technologies, in many countries their implementation still is at a low level, mainly for reasons other than technical and economical (i.e., low public acceptability, bad experience from the past, insufficient knowledge and experience, and others). Due to the wide range of feedstocks, biomass has a broad geographic distribution, in some cases offering a least-cost and near-term alternative. Renewable sources of energy will have a major role to the energy balance in upcoming years. Romania has an important renewable energy potential in solar, wind energy and biomass and offers utilization availabilities at local and national level. The 'Strategy of capitalizing renewable energy sources', drawn up by the Ministry of Economy and Commerce proposes year 2015 as target for the share of renewable sources to reach about 10-12 % of the overall energy supply. Thermochemical biomass conversion does include a number of possible roots to produce useful fuels and chemicals from the initial biomass feedstock. The basis of thermochemical conversion is the pyrolysis process. This paper focuses on this process in order to produce gas mixtures with high H2 content as the main products, significant amounts of liquid and a reactive carbon-rich char as the main by-products.The relationship between the composition of the starting materials, the process conditions and the desired product yields has also investigated to find out what are the optimum parameters of thermochemical conversion

  11. Energy from biomass. Teaching material; Energie aus Biomasse. Ein Lehrmaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    The textbook discusses the available options for power and heat generation from biomass as well as the limits of biomass-based power supply. The main obstacle apart from the high cost is a lack of knowledge, which the book intends to remedy. It addresses students of agriculture, forestry, environmental engineering, heating systems engineering and apprentice chimney sweepers, but it will also be useful to all other interested readers. [German] Biomasse kann aufgrund seiner vielfaeltigen Erscheinungs- und Umwandlungsformen sowohl als Brennstoff zur Waerme- und Stromgewinnung oder als Treibstoff eingesetzt werden. Die energetische Nutzung von Biomasse birgt zudem nicht zu verachtende Vorteile. Zum einen wegen des Beitrags zum Klimaschutz aufgrund der CO{sub 2}-Neutralitaet oder einfach, weil Biomasse immer wieder nachwaechst und von fossilen Ressourcen unabhaengig macht. All den bisher erschlossenen Moeglichkeiten der energetischen Nutzung von Biomasse moechte dieses Lehrbuch Rechnung tragen. Es zeigt aber auch die Grenzen auf, die mit der Energieversorgung durch Bioenergie einhergehen. Hohe Kosten und ein erhebliches Informationsdefizit behinderten bisher eine verstaerkte Nutzung dieses Energietraeges. Letzterem soll dieses Lehrbuch entgegenwirken. Das vorliegende Lehrbuch wurde fuer die Aus- und Weiterbildung erstellt. Es richtet sich vor allem an angehende Land- und Forstwirte, Umwelttechniker, Heizungsbauer und Schornsteinfeger, ist aber auch fuer all diejenigen interessant, die das Thema ''Energie aus Biomasse'' verstehen und ueberblicken moechten. (orig.)

  12. Life-cycle assessment of biomass-derived refinery feedstocks for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, J.; Rogers, S. [Federal Energy Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Spath, P.L.; Mann, M.K. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The U.S., by ratification of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, has pledged to emit no higher levels of greenhouse gases in the year 2000 than it did in 1990. Biomass-derived products have been touted as a possible solution to the potential problem of global warming. However, past studies related to the production of liquid fuels, chemicals, gaseous products, or electricity from biomass have considered only the economics of producing these commodities. The environmental benefits have not been fully quantified. Evaluating the environmental impact of various biomass-based systems has begun using life-cycle assessment. A refinery Linear Programming model previously developed has been modified to examine the effects of CO{sub 2}-capping on the U.S. refining industry and the transportation sector as a whole. By incorporating the results of a CO{sub 2} emissions inventory into the model, the economic impact of emissions-reduction strategies can be estimated. Thus, the degree to which global warming can be solved by supplementing fossil fuels with biomass-derived products can be measured, allowing research and development to be concentrated on the most environmental and economically attractive technology mix. Biomass gasification to produce four different refinery feedstocks was considered in this analysis. (author)

  13. Carbohydrate-enriched cyanobacterial biomass as feedstock for bio-methane production through anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markou, Giorgos; Angelidaki, Irini; Georgakakis, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion performance using carbohydrate-enriched biomass of Arthrospira platensis was studied. The carbohydrate enrichment was achieved after the cultivation of A. platensis under phosphorus limitation conditions. Three biomass compositions (60%, 40% and 20% carbohydrates content) ...

  14. Forestry and biomass energy projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swisher, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    biomass energy development and forestry measures including reforestation and forest protection can contribute significantly to the reduction of global CO2 emissions, and that local land-use capacity must determine the type of project that is appropriate in specific cases. No single approach alone...... energy projects in a possible CO2 emission reduction regime....

  15. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks. Progress report, March 1-August 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D. I.C.

    1980-09-01

    Progress is reported in this coordinated research program to effect the microbiological degradation of cellulosic biomass by anaerobic microorganisms possessing cellulolytic enzymes. Three main areas of research are discussed: increasing enzyme levels through genetics, mutations, and genetic manipulation; the direct conversion of cellulosic biomass to liquid fuel (ethanol); and the production of chemical feedstocks from biomass (acrylic acid, acetone/butanol, and acetic acid). (DMC)

  16. Microalgae as sustainable renewable energy feedstock for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medipally, Srikanth Reddy; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Shariff, M

    2015-01-01

    The world energy crisis and increased greenhouse gas emissions have driven the search for alternative and environmentally friendly renewable energy sources. According to life cycle analysis, microalgae biofuel is identified as one of the major renewable energy sources for sustainable development, with potential to replace the fossil-based fuels. Microalgae biofuel was devoid of the major drawbacks associated with oil crops and lignocelluloses-based biofuels. Algae-based biofuels are technically and economically viable and cost competitive, require no additional lands, require minimal water use, and mitigate atmospheric CO2. However, commercial production of microalgae biodiesel is still not feasible due to the low biomass concentration and costly downstream processes. The viability of microalgae biodiesel production can be achieved by designing advanced photobioreactors, developing low cost technologies for biomass harvesting, drying, and oil extraction. Commercial production can also be accomplished by improving the genetic engineering strategies to control environmental stress conditions and by engineering metabolic pathways for high lipid production. In addition, new emerging technologies such as algal-bacterial interactions for enhancement of microalgae growth and lipid production are also explored. This review focuses mainly on the problems encountered in the commercial production of microalgae biofuels and the possible techniques to overcome these difficulties. PMID:25874216

  17. Microalgae as Sustainable Renewable Energy Feedstock for Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth Reddy Medipally

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The world energy crisis and increased greenhouse gas emissions have driven the search for alternative and environmentally friendly renewable energy sources. According to life cycle analysis, microalgae biofuel is identified as one of the major renewable energy sources for sustainable development, with potential to replace the fossil-based fuels. Microalgae biofuel was devoid of the major drawbacks associated with oil crops and lignocelluloses-based biofuels. Algae-based biofuels are technically and economically viable and cost competitive, require no additional lands, require minimal water use, and mitigate atmospheric CO2. However, commercial production of microalgae biodiesel is still not feasible due to the low biomass concentration and costly downstream processes. The viability of microalgae biodiesel production can be achieved by designing advanced photobioreactors, developing low cost technologies for biomass harvesting, drying, and oil extraction. Commercial production can also be accomplished by improving the genetic engineering strategies to control environmental stress conditions and by engineering metabolic pathways for high lipid production. In addition, new emerging technologies such as algal-bacterial interactions for enhancement of microalgae growth and lipid production are also explored. This review focuses mainly on the problems encountered in the commercial production of microalgae biofuels and the possible techniques to overcome these difficulties.

  18. Biomass conversion processes for energy and fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, S. S.; Zaborsky, O. R.

    The book treats biomass sources, promising processes for the conversion of biomass into energy and fuels, and the technical and economic considerations in biomass conversion. Sources of biomass examined include crop residues and municipal, animal and industrial wastes, agricultural and forestry residues, aquatic biomass, marine biomass and silvicultural energy farms. Processes for biomass energy and fuel conversion by direct combustion (the Andco-Torrax system), thermochemical conversion (flash pyrolysis, carboxylolysis, pyrolysis, Purox process, gasification and syngas recycling) and biochemical conversion (anaerobic digestion, methanogenesis and ethanol fermentation) are discussed, and mass and energy balances are presented for each system.

  19. Lignocellulosic agriculture wastes as biomass feedstocks for second-generation bioethanol production: concepts and recent developments

    OpenAIRE

    Saini, Jitendra Kumar; Saini, Reetu; Tewari, Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Production of liquid biofuels, such as bioethanol, has been advocated as a sustainable option to tackle the problems associated with rising crude oil prices, global warming and diminishing petroleum reserves. Second-generation bioethanol is produced from lignocellulosic feedstock by its saccharification, followed by microbial fermentation and product recovery. Agricultural residues generated as wastes during or after processing of agricultural crops are one of such renewable and lignocellulos...

  20. Characterization of Various Biomass Feedstocks for Energy Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica;

    2013-01-01

    hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process. The methods used to analyze involved performing proximate, ultimate and thermogravimetry analysis. On the basis of proximate, ultimate, and thermogravimetry analysis, the dried distiller grains with solubles (DDGS), corn silage, chlorella vulgaris, spirulina platensis...

  1. Biomass to energy; La valorisation energetique de la biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the biomass to energy. It explains the biomass principle, the possibility of biomass to energy conversion, the first generation of biofuels (bio ethanol, ETBE, bio diesel, flex fuel) and their advantages and limitations, the european regulatory framework and policy with the evolutions and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  2. Biomass as an energy source: an Asian-Pacific perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass is the most commonly used renewable source of energy in the region covered by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, making up an average of 50% of energy supplies in the developing countries. However, experience over the past one and a half decades in rural energy supply in the ESCAP region suggests that biomass resources are unlikely to compete with conventional supplies in meeting expanded rural energy needs for fuel, electricity and fertilizers. Nevertheless, biomass, especially wood and agricultural residues, will remain the main energy source in most countries of the region for the next two decades. The development of biomass energy systems in the ESCAP region is at different stages for different types of biomass resources. Efforts have been concentrated in six areas: direct combustion, gasification, co-generation, anaerobic digestion, densification and dendrothermal processes. Among the biomass technologies presently being promoted in the region, biogas and cooking stove programmes are the largest in terms of scale, operations and coverage. Co-generation is promising as its economic advantages make it attractive to industrial consumers, particularly the booming food and fibre production and processing industries, which produce enough biomass feedstock to warrant installing co-generation facilities. Despite its potential, the production of liquid fuel from energy crops is presently taking place in only a few countries. The major constraints on extending the use of biomass include the difficulty of assessing resources, poor local acceptance of technology (mainly for social and economic reasons), lack of financial resources and manpower, environmental concerns, the absence of up-to-date local technology and the lack of after-sales services. Appropriate technologies to develop and harness the region's vast biomass resource base to augment energy supplies, particularly in rural areas, has been a major issue in the developing

  3. 2009 Feedstocks Platform Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program‘s Feedstock platform review meeting, held on April 8–10, 2009, at the Grand Hyatt Washington, Washington, D.C.

  4. DEVELOPING HERBACEOUS ENERGY CROPS AS FEEDSTOCKS FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perennial herbaceous crops with high biomass yields are promising substrates for producing bioethnaol. A variety of biomasses including cool and warm season grasses and a legume are being evaluated for this purpose. As a first approach, biomass materials were pretreated with dilute-sulfuric acid a...

  5. Effects of Biomass Feedstock on the Yield and Reactivity of Soot from Fast Pyrolysis at High Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Peter A.; Glarborg, Peter;

    that of beechwood soot (from 33.2 to 102 nm) and wheat straw soot (from 11.5 to 165.3 nm). In addition, pinewood soot particles contained mainly multi-core structures at 1250°C. The potassium content played a more important role on the soot reactivity than the particle size and nanostructure.......This study investigated the effect of feedstock on the yield, nanostructure and reactivity of soot. Woody and herbaceous biomass were pyrolyzed at high heating rates and temperatures of 1250 and 1400°C in a drop tube furnace. The collected solid residues were structurally characterized by electron...... respect to the alkali content, particle size and nanostructure. Potassium was incorporated in the soot matrix and to a significant extent influenced the soot reactivity. The particle size distribution of pinewood soot produced at 1250°C was in the range from 27.2 to 263 nm which was broader compared to...

  6. Growth kinetics of Chlorococcum humicola - A potential feedstock for biomass with biofuel properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jibu; Jayachithra, E V

    2015-11-01

    Economically viable production facilities for microalgae depend on the optimization of growth parameters with regard to nutrient requirements. Using microalgae to treat industrial effluents containing heavy metals presents an alternative to the current practice of using physical and chemical methods. Present work focuses on the statistical optimization of growth of Chlorococcum humicola to ascertain the maximum production of biomass. Plackett Burman design was carried out to screen the significant variables influencing biomass production. Further, Response Surface Methodology was employed to optimize the effect of inoculum, light intensity and pH on net biomass yield. Optimum conditions for maximum biomass yield were identified to be inoculum at 15%, light intensity to be 1500lx and pH 8.5. Theoretical and predicted values were in agreement and thus the model was found to be significant. Gas chromatography analyses of the FAME derivatives showed a high percentage of saturated fatty acids thereby confirming the biofuel properties of the oil derived from algal biomass.

  7. Unconventional biomasses as feedstocks for production of biofuels and succinic acid in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi

    production mainly due to their high carbohydrate content. A case study of a proposed macroalgae biorefinery concept highlighted the potential of post hydrolysis solid residue (PHSR) for the production of numerous additional products such as ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, biodiesel, protein, feed, biogas......Biorefinery has the potential of displacing fossil fuels and oil-refinery based products. Within the biorefinery a palette of marketable commodities can be produced from biomass, including food, feed, biochemicals and biofuels. Which bioproducts are produced is largely dependent on the chemical....... The chemical composition of biomasses was determined in order to demonstrate their biorefinery potential. Bioethanol and biogas along with succinic acid production were the explored bioconversion routes, while potential production of other compounds was also investigated. Differences and changes in biomass...

  8. Field-to-Fuel Performance Testing of Various Biomass Feedstocks: Production and Catalytic Upgrading of Bio-Oil to Refinery Blendstocks (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.; Westover, T.; Howe, D.; Evans, R.; French, R.; Kutnyakov, I.

    2014-09-01

    Large-scale, cost-competitive deployment of thermochemical technologies to replace petroleum oil with domestic biofuels will require inclusion of high volumes of low-cost, diverse biomass types into the supply chain. However, a comprehensive understanding of the impacts of feedstock thermo-physical and chemical variability, particularly inorganic matter (ash), on the yield and product distribution

  9. Production potential of biomass feedstocks. Final report. [Saltbush, Johnsongrass, Kochia, Mesquite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodin, J.R.; Newton, R.J.

    1983-08-31

    This final report summarizes biomass research on unconventional plants utilizing the concept that semi-arid lands may be advantageous and unique for biomass production because there would be little competition for irrigation water and land areas traditionally used for food and fiber production. The objectives are to: (1) evaluate the establishment and productivity potential of plant species in west Texas as influenced by rainfall, temperature and minimum cultural practices; and (2) accurately assess the present distribution and acreages inhabited by the four candidates in west Texas as well as the soil, geographical and climatic factors which govern their adaptation; and (3) provide productivity data in order to make adequate economic and sociological assessments of biomass production in west Texas. Seedlings of four biomass plant species originally screened from 2900 potential species have been established in a greenhouse and transplants of saltbush (Atriplex canescens), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), kochia (Kochia scoparia), and mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) have been planted at Brady, Big Lake, El Paso and Lubbock. Saltbush seedlings have also been established at Pecos. 35 references, 12 figures, 21 tables.

  10. Biomass gasification for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, H.; Morris, M.; Rensfelt, E. [TPS Termiska Prosesser Ab, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Biomass and waste are becoming increasingly interesting as fuels for efficient and environmentally sound power generation. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification for biomass and waste has been developed and applied to kilns both in the pulp and paper industry and the cement industry. A demonstration plant in Greve-in- Chianti, Italy includes two 15 MW{sub t}h RDF-fuelled CFB gasifiers of TPS design, the product gas from which is used in a cement kiln or in steam boiler for power generation. For CFB gasification of biomass and waste to reach a wider market, the product gas has to be cleaned effectively so that higher fuel to power efficiencies can be achieved by utilizing power cycles based on engines or gas turbines. TPS has developed both CFB gasification technology and effective secondary stage tar cracking technology. The integrated gasification - gas-cleaning technology is demonstrated today at pilot plant scale. To commercialise the technology, the TPS`s strategy is to first demonstrate the process for relatively clean fuels such as woody biomass and then extend the application to residues from waste recycling. Several demonstration projects are underway to commercialise TPS`s gasification and gas cleaning technology. In UK the ARBRE project developed by ARBRE Energy will construct a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10 MW and exporting 8 Mw of electricity. It has been included in the 1993 tranche of the UK`s Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and has gained financial support from EC`s THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. (author)

  11. Uniform-Format Solid Feedstock Supply System: A Commodity-Scale Design to Produce an Infrastructure-Compatible Bulk Solid from Lignocellulosic Biomass -- Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Richard Hess; Christopher T. Wright; Kevin L. Kenney; Erin M. Searcy

    2009-04-01

    This report, Uniform-Format Solid Feedstock Supply System: A Commodity-Scale Design to Produce an Infrastructure-Compatible Bulk Solid from Lignocellulosic Biomass, prepared by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), acknowledges the need and provides supportive designs for an evolutionary progression from present day conventional bale-based supply systems to a uniform-format, bulk solid supply system that transitions incrementally as the industry launches and matures. These designs couple to and build from current state of technology and address science and engineering constraints that have been identified by rigorous sensitivity analyses as having the greatest impact on feedstock supply system efficiencies and costs.

  12. Unconventional plants for biomass feedstocks in semi-arid West Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodin, J.R.; Newton, R.J.

    1981-08-01

    The objectives of the reported project are: to evaluate the establishment and productivity potential of four plant species in West Texas as influenced by rainfall, temperature, and minimum cultural practices; to accurately assess the present distribution and acreages inhabited by the four candidates in West Texas as well as the soil, geographical, and climatic factors which govern their adaptation; and to provide productivity data in order to make adequate economic and sociological assessments of biomass production in West Texas. The four species selected are HONEY MESQUITE (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.), JOHNSONGRASS (Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers), KOCHIA (Kochia scoparia (L.) Roth), and SALTBUSH (Atriplex canescens (Pursh.) (Nutt.). (LEW)

  13. Launching Plan B:Biomass Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China’s first biomass electricity company focuses on helping farmers as it strives to expand In April 2011,the world’s largest biomass power company,China National Bio Energy Co.Ltd.(NBE),began building a biomass power plant in Shangcai County of central China’s Henan Province.The new plant,due to reach

  14. Cyanobacterial biomass as carbohydrate and nutrient feedstock for bioethanol production by yeast fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllers, K Benedikt; Canella, D.; Jørgensen, Henning;

    2014-01-01

    cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was fermented using yeast into bioethanol. Results: The cyanobacterium accumulated a total carbohydrate content of about 60% of cell dry weight when cultivated under nitrate limitation. The cyanobacterial cells were harvested by centrifugation and subjected to enzymatic......H was adjusted to the optimal value. The highest ethanol yield and concentration obtained was 0.27 g ethanol per g cell dry weight and 30 g ethanol L-1, respectively. About 90% of the glucose in the biomass was converted to ethanol. The cyanobacterial hydrolysate was rapidly fermented (up to 20 g ethanol L-1 day...... hydrolysis using lysozyme and two alpha-glucanases. This enzymatic hydrolysate was fermented into ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae without further treatment. All enzyme treatments and fermentations were carried out in the residual growth medium of the cyanobacteria with the only modification being that p...

  15. New market potential: Torrefaction of Woody Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; J. Richard Hess

    2015-07-01

    According to researchers in Idaho National Laboratory’s Bioenergy Program, torrefaction of woody biomass could reduce variability in biomass feedstock and enable development of a commodity-type product for green energy generation and usage.

  16. Estimates of US biomass energy consumption 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the seventh in a series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to quantify the biomass-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It presents estimates of 1991 and 1992 consumption. The objective of this report is to provide updated estimates of biomass energy consumption for use by Congress, Federal and State agencies, biomass producers and end-use sectors, and the public at large

  17. Estimates of US biomass energy consumption 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-06

    This report is the seventh in a series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to quantify the biomass-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It presents estimates of 1991 and 1992 consumption. The objective of this report is to provide updated estimates of biomass energy consumption for use by Congress, Federal and State agencies, biomass producers and end-use sectors, and the public at large.

  18. 非粮生物质原料体系研发进展及方向%Progress and direction of non-food biomass feedstock supply research and development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢光辉

    2012-01-01

    非粮生物质原料供应是生物质能产业发展的最主要限制因素。本文系统分析了适合中国国情的非粮生物质和宜能非粮地概念,阐述粮食安全和生物质能源发展的关系,认为发展可持续非粮生物质能源是实现粮食、能源、生态、农村经济多赢的战略举措。进而,重点综述了当前中国非粮生物质原料及其供应体系研究进展,分析了当前迫切需要研发的重点任务,内容包括废弃物生物质资源及其可获得性,非粮能源植物种类筛选、育种和生产技术,原料生产、收获、收集和物流及其机械化,宜能非粮地的面积、分布和生产潜力,原料生产与供应的可持续性和标准化,供应产业模式及能源农业发展,发展规划和政策。%Non-food biomass feedstock supply is one of the most important limiting factors in fluencing biofuel development.In this article,the definitions of non-food biomass feedstock and non-food land for bioenergy crops are clarified according to the situation present in China.After identifying the relationship between food security and biomass energy development,it is shown that sustainable non-food biofuel will be a multi-win-win industry to improve food and energy production,eco-environment,and the rural economy and would not have negative effects on food security of the country.This article also reviews the progress of non-food biomass feedstock research,its supply system and further studies currently need in China.It includes the following areas:1)availability of residue biomass,2)nonfood bioenergy plant screening,breeding,and production technology,3)feedstock production,collection,and logistics and mechanization,4)distribution and potential of the non-food land for biomass production,5)sustainability and standardization of nonfood biomass feedstock production and supply,6)development of demonstration and bioenergy agriculture,and 7)planning and policy on the non-food biomass feedstock

  19. Biomass energy systems and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein, H. M.; Kanciruk, P.; Roop, R. D.; Sharples, F. E.; Tatum, J. S.; Oakes, K. M.

    The technology, resources, applied, and experimental features of biomass energy resources are explored, with an emphasis on environmental and social implications of large-scale biomass development. The existing land and water based biomass resource is described in terms of available energy, ecological concerns, agricultural crops, livestock production, freshwater systems, and ocean systems. Attention is given to proposed systems of biomass energy production from forestry and silviculture, agricultural crops, livestock wastes, and freshwater and ocean systems. A survey is made of various biomass materials, techniques for conversion to gas, liquid fuels, or for direct combustion, and impacts of large-scale biomass production and harvest are examined. Particular note is made of the effects of scaling biomass conversion systems, including near- and long-term applications, and ethics and aesthetic concerns.

  20. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.I.C.; Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Gomez, R.F.; Sinskey, A.J.

    1977-11-01

    Progress in studies on the production of reducing sugars and other products by Clostridium thermocellum on cellulosic biomass is reported. The rate of reducing sugar production using corn residue was found to be equal if not greater than on solka floc. Current work is being devoted towards elucidating discrepancies between reducing sugar analysis and high pressure liquid chromatography sugar analysis in order to permit accurate material balances to be completed. Studies are reported in further characterizing the plasmics of C. thermocellum and in the development of protoplasts of the same microorganism. A process and economic analysis for the production of 200 x 10/sup 6/ pounds (90 x 10/sup 6/ kilograms) per year of soluble reducing sugars from corn stover cellulose, using enzymes derived from Clostridium thermocellum was designed. Acrylic acid was produced in resting cell preparation of Clostridium propionicum from both ..beta..-alanine and from propionic acid. Results from the conversion of corn stover hydrolyzates to lactic acid, a precursor to acrylic acid, show that up to 70% of the sugars produced are converted to lactic acid. Efforts are proceeding to improve the conversion yield and carry out the overall conversion of corn stover to acrylic acid in the same fermentor. Results on the production of acetone and butanol by Clostridium acetobutylicum demonstrated the capability of the strain to produce mixed solvents in concentration and conversion similar to that achieved in industrial processes. Various studies on the production of acetic acid by Clostridium thermoaceticum are also reported.

  1. Pretreating lignocellulosic biomass by the concentrated phosphoric acid plus hydrogen peroxide (PHP) for enzymatic hydrolysis: evaluating the pretreatment flexibility on feedstocks and particle sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Zhanghong; Shen, Fei; Hu, Jinguang; Sun, Fubao; Lin, Lili; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Deng, Shihuai

    2014-08-01

    In order to seek a high-efficient pretreatment path for converting lignocellulosic feedstocks to fermentable sugars by enzymatic hydrolysis, the concentrated H₃PO₄ plus H₂O₂ (PHP) was attempted to pretreat different lignocellulosic biomass for evaluating the pretreatment flexibility on feedstocks. Meanwhile, the responses of pretreatment to particle sizes were also evaluated. When the PHP-pretreatment was employed (final H₂O₂ and H₃PO₄ concentration of 1.77% and 80.0%), 71-96% lignin and more than 95% hemicellulose in various feedstocks (agricultural residues, hardwood, softwood, bamboo, and their mixture, and garden wastes mixture) can be removed. Consequently, more than 90% glucose conversion was uniformly achieved indicating PHP greatly improved the pretreatment flexibility to different feedstocks. Moreover, when wheat straw and oak chips were PHP-pretreated with different sizes, the average glucose conversion reached 94.9% and 100% with lower coefficient of variation (7.9% and 0.0%), which implied PHP-pretreatment can significantly weaken the negative effects of feedstock sizes on subsequent conversion.

  2. A review of biomass quality research relevant to the use of poplar and willow for energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenney, W.A. (Toronto Univ., Ontario (CA). Faculty of Forestry); Sennerby-Forsse, L. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (SE). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research); Layton, P. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-01-01

    It has been recognized that the chemical and physical properties of biomass feedstocks can play an important role in the efficiency of most energy conversion processes. These properties include the ratio of bark to wood, moisture content, specific gravity, calorific or heating value, and the relative content of extractives, {alpha}-cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. A review of the literature dealing with the quality of poplar and willow biomass feedstock for energy conversion revealed that considerable variation existed in many of these traits. This variation may make it possible to improve the quality of feedstock through breeding and selection. Little information exists with respect to heritability (both in the broad sense and narrow sense), the genetic correlation between characters, and the presence of genotype-environment interaction. A better understanding of these parameters is essential if the apparent variability is to be used to improve biomass quality. (author).

  3. 3rd annual biomass energy systems conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The main objectives of the 3rd Annual Biomass Energy Systems Conference were (1) to review the latest research findings in the clean fuels from biomass field, (2) to summarize the present engineering and economic status of Biomass Energy Systems, (3) to encourage interaction and information exchange among people working or interested in the field, and (4) to identify and discuss existing problems relating to ongoing research and explore opportunities for future research. Abstracts for each paper presented were edited separately. (DC)

  4. Evaluation of Brazilian biomasses as potential feedstocks for fuel production via fast pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The utilization of lignocellulosic materials to generate energy is constantly expanding around the world. In addition to the well-known biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, advanced biofuels obtained by thermochemical conversion routes have been explored, including pyrolysis oil, biochar and syng...

  5. Great Lakes Regional Biomass Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Great Lakes Regional Biomass Energy Program (GLRBEP) was initiated September, 1983, with a grant from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The program provides resources to public and private organizations in the Great Lakes region to increase the utilization and production of biomass fuels. The objectives of the GLRBEP are to: (1) improve the capabilities and effectiveness of biomass energy programs in the state energy offices; (2) assess the availability of biomass resources for energy in light of other competing needs and uses; (3) encourage private sector investments in biomass energy technologies; (4) transfer the results of government-sponsored biomass research and development to the private sector; (5) eliminate or reduce barriers to private sector use of biomass fuels and technology; (6) prevent or substantially mitigate adverse environmental impacts of biomass energy use. The Program Director is responsible for the day-to-day activities of the GLRBEP and for implementing program mandates. A 40 member Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) sets priorities and recommends projects. The governor of each state in the region appoints a member to the Steering Council, which acts on recommendations of the TAC and sets basic program guidelines. The GLRBEP is divided into three separate operational elements. The State Grants component provides funds and direction to the seven state energy offices in the region to increase their capabilities in biomass energy. State-specific activities and interagency programs are emphasized. The Subcontractor component involves the issuance of solicitations to undertake projects that address regional needs, identified by the Technical Advisory Committee. The Technology Transfer component includes the development of nontechnical biomass energy publications and reports by Council staff and contractors, and the dissemination of information at conferences, workshops and other events

  6. Fundamental Study of two Selected Tropical Biomasses for Energy : coconut and cashew nut shells

    OpenAIRE

    Tsamba, Alberto Júlio

    2008-01-01

     Cashew nut and coconut shells are two potential renewable and environmentally friendly energy sources that are commonly found as agro-industrial wastes in tropical countries. Despite this fact, they are not yet widely studied as such. Given this lack of specific technical and reliable data, technologies for their conversion into energy cannot be designed with confidence as it happens with other commonly studied biomass feedstock. Thus, the need to generate these data guided this research in ...

  7. Biomass as feedstock for the industry: road to perdition or the promised land?

    OpenAIRE

    Kok, Ad de

    2013-01-01

    Are we at the eve of a transformation in our economic system? “Yes”, according to several visionary scientists and policymakers. They predict the rise of an economy that is based on biological materials, the so-called bio-based economy. The key challenge is that due to several socio-economic developments, the world is expected to consume vastly more resources than today. The total demand for energy is projected to almost double in the next century. Increased scarcity will be accompanied by a ...

  8. Biomass energy - Definitions, resources and transformation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass energy is today considered as a new renewable energy source, and thus, has entered a regulatory framework aiming at encouraging its development for CO2 pollution abatement. This book addresses the constraints, both natural and technological, of the exploitation of the biomass resource, and then the economical and regulatory aspects of this industry. This second edition provides a complement about the plants used and the new R and D progresses made in this domain. Content: 1 - Definitions and general considerations: natural organic products, regulatory and standardized definitions, energy aspects of biomass fuels; 2 - Resources: energy production dedicated crops, biomass by-products, biomass from wastes; 3 - Biomass to energy transformation processes: combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, torrefaction, methanation, alcoholic fermentation, landfill biogas, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, methanol synthesis, trans-esterification, synthetic natural gas production, bio-hydrogen production; 4 - Biofuels: solid fuels, solid automotive biofuels, gaseous biofuels, liquid biofuels, comparative efficiency; 5 - Situation of biomass energy: regulations, impact on non-energy purpose biomass, advantages and drawbacks

  9. IMPROVING SPECIFIC POWER CONSUMPTION FOR MECHANICAL MIXING OF THE FEEDSTOCK IN A BIOGAS FERMENTER BY MECHANICAL DISINTEGRATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSE BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Kratky

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass particles in biogas fermenter batch either sediment towards vessel bottom or rise towards batch surface, where they float and form a compact thick scum. These processes have primarily the negative influence on batch homogeneity, on evenness of batch temperature field, on removal of produced biogas bubbles out of liquid batch and also on mass transfer among microorganisms. These facts result in non-effective usage of biomass energy-potential that entails in low biogas yields. Therefore, good mixing of bioreactor batch is very important in order to stabilize anaerobic digestion process. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the impact of wheat straw disintegration and its hydration on hydrodynamic behaviour and on specific power consumption for mechanical mixing of wheat straw-water suspension. Based on experimental results, it was concluded that both hydration and mechanical disintegration of lignocellulosic biomass significantly improve homogeneity and pump-ability of biomass-water batches. Wheat straw hydration itself decreases specific power consumption for batch mixing by 60 % towards untreated straw. Moreover, mechanical disintegration itself decreases specific power consumption by 50 % at least towards untreated hydrated straw.

  10. The release of organic compounds during biomass drying depends upon the feedstock and/or altering drying heating medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupar, K.; Sanati, M. [Vaxjo University (Sweden). School of Biosciences and Process Technology

    2003-12-01

    The release of organic compounds during the drying of biomass is a potential environmental problem, it may contribute to air pollution or eutrophication. In many countries there are legal restrictions on the amounts of terpenes that may be released into the atmosphere. When considering bioenergy in future energy systems, it is important that information on the environmental effects is available. The emissions of organic compounds from different green and dried biofuels that have been dried in hot air and steam medium, were analyzed by using different techniques. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography mass spectrometry have been used to identify the organic matter. The terpene content was significantly affected by the following factors: changing of the drying medium and the way the same biomass was handled from different localities in Sweden. Comparison between spectra from dried and green fuels reveal that the main compounds emitted during drying are monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, while the emissions of diterpene hydrocarbons seem to be negligible. The relative proportionality between emitted monoterpene, diterpene and sesquiterpene change when the drying medium shifts from steam to hot air. The obtained result of this work implies a parameter optimization study of the dryer with regard to environmental impact. With assistance of this result it might be foreseen that choice of special drying medium, diversity of biomass and low temperature reduce the emissions. A thermo-gravimetric analyzer was used for investigating the biomass drying rate. (author)

  11. Biomass in a sustainable energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis, aspects of an increase in the utilization of biomass in the Swedish energy system are treated. Modern bioenergy systems should be based on high energy and land use efficiency since biomass resources and productive land are limited. The energy input, including transportation, per unit biomass produced is about 4-5% for logging residues, straw and short rotation forest (Salix). Salix has the highest net energy yield per hectare among the various energy crops cultivated in Sweden. The CO2 emissions from the production and transportation of logging residues, straw and Salix, are equivalent to 2-3% of those from a complete fuel-cycle for coal. Substituting biomass for fossil fuels in electricity and heat production is, in general, less costly and leads to a greater CO2 reduction per unit biomass than substituting biomass derived transportation fuels for petrol or diesel. Transportation fuels produced from cellulosic biomass provide larger and less expensive CO2 emission reductions than transportation fuels from annual crops. Swedish CO2 emissions could be reduced by about 50% from the present level if fossil fuels are replaced and the energy demand is unchanged. There is a good balance between potential regional production and utilization of biomass in Sweden. Future biomass transportation distances need not be longer than, on average, about 40 km. About 22 TWh electricity could be produced annually from biomass in large district heating systems by cogeneration. Cultivation of Salix and energy grass could be utilized to reduce the negative environmental impact of current agricultural practices, such as the emission of greenhouse gases, nutrient leaching, decreased soil fertility and erosion, and for the treatment of municipal waste and sludge, leading to increased recirculation of nutrients. About 20 TWh biomass could theoretically be produced per year at an average cost of less than 50% of current production cost, if the economic value of these local

  12. Biomass in a sustainable energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    1998-04-01

    In this thesis, aspects of an increase in the utilization of biomass in the Swedish energy system are treated. Modern bioenergy systems should be based on high energy and land use efficiency since biomass resources and productive land are limited. The energy input, including transportation, per unit biomass produced is about 4-5% for logging residues, straw and short rotation forest (Salix). Salix has the highest net energy yield per hectare among the various energy crops cultivated in Sweden. The CO{sub 2} emissions from the production and transportation of logging residues, straw and Salix, are equivalent to 2-3% of those from a complete fuel-cycle for coal. Substituting biomass for fossil fuels in electricity and heat production is, in general, less costly and leads to a greater CO{sub 2} reduction per unit biomass than substituting biomass derived transportation fuels for petrol or diesel. Transportation fuels produced from cellulosic biomass provide larger and less expensive CO{sub 2} emission reductions than transportation fuels from annual crops. Swedish CO{sub 2} emissions could be reduced by about 50% from the present level if fossil fuels are replaced and the energy demand is unchanged. There is a good balance between potential regional production and utilization of biomass in Sweden. Future biomass transportation distances need not be longer than, on average, about 40 km. About 22 TWh electricity could be produced annually from biomass in large district heating systems by cogeneration. Cultivation of Salix and energy grass could be utilized to reduce the negative environmental impact of current agricultural practices, such as the emission of greenhouse gases, nutrient leaching, decreased soil fertility and erosion, and for the treatment of municipal waste and sludge, leading to increased recirculation of nutrients. About 20 TWh biomass could theoretically be produced per year at an average cost of less than 50% of current production cost, if the economic

  13. Microalgae as Sustainable Renewable Energy Feedstock for Biofuel Production

    OpenAIRE

    Srikanth Reddy Medipally; Fatimah Md. Yusoff; Sanjoy Banerjee; Shariff, M

    2015-01-01

    The world energy crisis and increased greenhouse gas emissions have driven the search for alternative and environmentally friendly renewable energy sources. According to life cycle analysis, microalgae biofuel is identified as one of the major renewable energy sources for sustainable development, with potential to replace the fossil-based fuels. Microalgae biofuel was devoid of the major drawbacks associated with oil crops and lignocelluloses-based biofuels. Algae-based biofuels are technical...

  14. Biomass energy potential in Brazil. Country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper was prepared as a country study about the biomass potential for energy production in Brazil. Information and analysis of the most relevant biomass energy sources and their potential are presented in six chapters. Ethanol fuel, sugar-cane bagasse, charcoal, vegetable oil, firewood and other biomass-derived fuels are the objects of a historical review, in addition to the presentation of state-of-the-art technologies, economic analysis and discussion of relevant social and environmental issues related to their production and use. Wherever possible, an evaluation, from the available sources of information and based on the author's knowledge, is performed to access future perspectives of each biomass energy source. Brazil is a country where more than half of the energy consumed is provided from renewable sources of energy, and biomass provides 28% of the primary energy consumption. Its large extension, almost all located in the tropical and rainy region, provides an excellent site for large-scale biomass production, which is a necessity if biomass is to be used to supply a significant part of future energy demand. Even so, deforestation has occurred and is occurring in the country, and the issue is discussed and explained as mainly the result of non-energy causes or the use of old and outdated technologies for energy production. (author)

  15. Biomass energy, forests and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass in all its forms currently provides about 14% of the world's energy, equivalent to 25 million bbl oil/day; in developing countries where it is the major energy source, biomass supplies 35% of total energy use. Although biomass energy use affects the flux of carbon to the atmosphere, the main carbon emission problem is caused by fossil fuels and land clearance for agriculture. Biomass fuels make no net contribution to atmospheric CO2 if used sustainably. A major global revegetation and reforestation effort is a possible strategy to reduce CO2 emissions and to slow the pace of climatic change. However, a more attractive alternative strategy might be to substitute fossil fuels, especially coal, with biomass grown specifically for this purpose producing modern fuels such as electricity, liquids and gases. This paper examines biomass energy use, devegetation, biomass burning, the implications for global warming and the ability of biomass to sequester CO2 and substitute for fossil fuels. It also discusses some socioeconomic and political issues. (author)

  16. LIGNOCELLULOSIC FEEDSTOCK BIOREFINERY—THE FUTURE OF CHEMICAL AND ENERGY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengdong Zhu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable development of the chemical and energy industry is an indispensable component of our sustainable society. However, the traditional chemical and energy industry depends heavily on such non-renewable fossil resources as oil, coal, and natural gas. Its feedstock shortage and the resultant environmental and climatic problems pose a great threat for any type of sustainable development. Lignocellulosic materials are the most abundant renewable resources in the world and their efficient utilization provides a practical route to address these challenges. The lignocellulosic feedstock bio-refinery is an effective model for the comprehensive utilization of lignocellulosic materials, and it will play vital role in the future development of chemical and energy industry.

  17. Bio-energy feedstock yields and their water quality benefits in Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parajuli, Prem B.

    2011-08-10

    Cellulosic and agricultural bio-energy crops can, under careful management, be harvested as feedstock for bio-fuels production and provide environmental benefits. However, it is required to quantify their relative advantages in feedstock production and water quality. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate potential feedstock yield and water quality benefit scenarios of bioenergy crops: Miscanthus (Miscanthus-giganteus), Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), Soybean {Glycine max (L.) Merr.}, and Corn (Lea mays) in the Upper Pearl River watershed (UPRW), Mississippi using a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The SWAT model was calibrated (January 1981 to December 1994) and validated (January 1995 to September 2008) using monthly measured stream flow data. The calibrated and validated model determined good to very good performance for stream flow prediction (R2 and E from 0.60 to 0.86). The RMSE values (from 14 m3 s-1 to 37 m3 s-1) were estimated at similar levels of errors during model calibration and validation. The long-term average annual potential feedstock yield as an alternative energy source was determined the greatest when growing Miscanthus grass (373,849 Mg) as followed by Alfalfa (206,077 Mg), Switchgrass (132,077 Mg), Johnsongrass (47,576 Mg), Soybean (37,814 Mg), and Corn (22,069 Mg) in the pastureland and cropland of the watershed. Model results determined that average annual sediment yield from the Miscanthus grass scenario determined the least (1.16 Mg/ha) and corn scenario the greatest (12.04 Mg/ha). The SWAT model simulated results suggested that growing Miscanthus grass in the UPRW would have the greatest potential feedstock yield and water quality benefits.

  18. International biomass. International markets of biomass-energy - Public synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication proposes a synthesis of a study which aimed at analysing the present and future place of wood-energy in the European Union as the main renewable resource used to produce heat and electricity. This study comprised an analysis of European markets of solid biomass and of regulation, case studies on wood-energy producer markets (North America, Eastern Europe, Brazil and Africa), a study of preparation modes (shredding, granulation, roasting) and biomass transport. This study is based on bibliographical searches in national and European sources, and on field data collected by the various bodies involved in this study. This synthesis notably discusses the following issues: solid biomass is the main renewable resource for the EU and has many applications; European objectives for solid biomass by 2020 are very ambitious; markets are becoming international to face the EU's increasing demand; pellet production in North America is strongly increasing; in Europe, eastern European countries are the main exporters; Brazil has an export potential which is still to be confirmed; the African trade with Europe is still in its infancy. Finally, the development perspectives of roasted wood trade are discussed

  19. Carbon dioxide, the feedstock for using renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extrapolation of world energy consumption between 1990 and 2007 to the future reveals the complete exhaustion of petroleum, natural gas, uranium and coal reserves on Earth in 2040, 2044, 2049 and 2054, respectively. We are proposing global carbon dioxide recycling to use renewable energy so that all people in the whole world can survive. The electricity will be generated by solar cell in deserts and used to produce hydrogen by seawater electrolysis at t nearby desert coasts. Hydrogen, for which no infrastructures of transportation and combustion exist, will be converted to methane at desert coasts by the reaction with carbon dioxide captured by energy consumers. Among systems in global carbon dioxide recycling, seawater electrolysis and carbon dioxide methanation have not been performed industrially. We created energy-saving cathodes for hydrogen production and anodes for oxygen evolution without chlorine formation in seawater electrolysis, and ideal catalysts for methane formation by the reaction of carbon dioxide with hydrogen. Prototype plant and industrial scale pilot plant have been built.

  20. Carbon dioxide, the feedstock for using renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, K.; Kumagai, N.; Izumiya, K.; Kato, Z.

    2011-03-01

    Extrapolation of world energy consumption between 1990 and 2007 to the future reveals the complete exhaustion of petroleum, natural gas, uranium and coal reserves on Earth in 2040, 2044, 2049 and 2054, respectively. We are proposing global carbon dioxide recycling to use renewable energy so that all people in the whole world can survive. The electricity will be generated by solar cell in deserts and used to produce hydrogen by seawater electrolysis at t nearby desert coasts. Hydrogen, for which no infrastructures of transportation and combustion exist, will be converted to methane at desert coasts by the reaction with carbon dioxide captured by energy consumers. Among systems in global carbon dioxide recycling, seawater electrolysis and carbon dioxide methanation have not been performed industrially. We created energy-saving cathodes for hydrogen production and anodes for oxygen evolution without chlorine formation in seawater electrolysis, and ideal catalysts for methane formation by the reaction of carbon dioxide with hydrogen. Prototype plant and industrial scale pilot plant have been built.

  1. Carbon dioxide, the feedstock for using renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, K; Kato, Z [Tohoku Institute of Technology, Sendai, 982-8577 (Japan); Kumagai, N; Izumiya, K, E-mail: koji@imr.tohku.ac.jp [Daiki Ataka Engineering Co. Ltd. Kashiwa, 277-8515 (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Extrapolation of world energy consumption between 1990 and 2007 to the future reveals the complete exhaustion of petroleum, natural gas, uranium and coal reserves on Earth in 2040, 2044, 2049 and 2054, respectively. We are proposing global carbon dioxide recycling to use renewable energy so that all people in the whole world can survive. The electricity will be generated by solar cell in deserts and used to produce hydrogen by seawater electrolysis at t nearby desert coasts. Hydrogen, for which no infrastructures of transportation and combustion exist, will be converted to methane at desert coasts by the reaction with carbon dioxide captured by energy consumers. Among systems in global carbon dioxide recycling, seawater electrolysis and carbon dioxide methanation have not been performed industrially. We created energy-saving cathodes for hydrogen production and anodes for oxygen evolution without chlorine formation in seawater electrolysis, and ideal catalysts for methane formation by the reaction of carbon dioxide with hydrogen. Prototype plant and industrial scale pilot plant have been built.

  2. Landscape management for sustainable supplies of bio energy feedstock and enhanced soil quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agriculture can simultaneously address global food, feed, fiber, and energy challenges provided our soil, water, and air resources are not compromised in doing so. Our objective is to present a landscape management concept as an approach for integrating multiple bio energy feedstock sources into current crop production systems. This is done to show how multiple, increasing global challenges can be met in a sustainable manner. We discuss how collaborative research among Usda-Agricultural Research Service (ARS), US Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL), several university extension and research partners, and industry representatives [known as the Renewable Energy Assessment Project (Reap) team] has led to the development of computer-based decision aids for guiding sustainable bio energy feedstock production. The decision aids, known initially as the Corn Stover Tool and more recently as the Landscape Environmental Assessment Framework (Leaf) are tools designed to recognize the importance of nature s diversity and can therefore be used to guide sustainable feedstock production without having negative impacts on critical ecosystem services. Using a 57 ha farm site in central Iowa, USA, we show how producer decisions regarding corn (Zea mays L.) stover harvest within the US Corn Belt can be made in a more sustainable manner. This example also supports Reap team conclusions that stover should not be harvested if average grain yields are less than 11 Mg ha-1 unless more balanced landscape management practices are implemented. The tools also illustrate the importance of sub-field management and site-specific stover harvest strategies

  3. Energy Production from Marine Biomass (Ulva lactuca)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolaisen, Lars; Daugbjerg Jensen, Peter; Svane Bech, Karin;

    The background for this research activity is that the 2020 goals for reduction of the CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are so challenging that exorbitant amounts of biomass and other renewable sources of energy must be mobilised in order to – maybe – fulfil the ambitious 2020 goals. The macroalgae...... is an unexploited, not researched, not developed source of biomass and is at the same time an enormous resource by mass. It is therefore obvious to look into this vast biomass resource and by this report give some of the first suggestions of how this new and promising biomass resource can be exploited....

  4. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks. Progress report, December 1, 1978-February 28, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.I.C.; Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Gomez, R.F.; Sinskey, A.J.

    1979-02-01

    The ongoing progress of a coordinated research program aimed at optimizing the biodegradation of cellulosic biomass to ethanol and chemical feedstocks is summarized. Growth requirements and genetic manipulations of clostridium thermocellum for selection of high cellulose producers are reported. The enzymatic activity of the cellulase produced by these organisms was studied. The soluble sugars produced from hydrolysis were analyzed. Increasing the tolerance of C. thermocellum to ethanol during liquid fuel production, increasing the rate of product formation, and directing the catabolism to selectively achieve high ethanol concentrations with respect to other products were studied. Alternative substrates for C. thermocellum were evaluated. Studies on the utilization of xylose were performed. Single stage fermentation of cellulose using mixed cultures of C. thermocellum and C. thermosaccharolyticum were studied. The study of the production of chemical feedstocks focused on acrylic acid, acetone/butanol, acetic acid, and lactic acid.

  5. Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. (Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States))

    1992-03-01

    This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

  6. Introduction to energy balance of biomass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During last years, energy crops have been envisaged as an interesting alternative to biomass residues utilization as renewable energy source. In this work, main parameters used in calculating the energy balance of an energy crop are analyzed. The approach consists of determining energy equivalents for the different inputs and outputs of the process, thus obtaining energy ratios of the system, useful to determine if the energy balance is positive, that is, if the system generates energy. Energy costs for inputs and assessment approaches for energy crop yields (output) are provided. Finally, as a way of illustration, energy balances of some representative energy crops are shown. (Author) 15 refs

  7. Potentialities of energy generation from waste and feedstock produced by the agricultural sector in Brazil: The case of the State of Paraná

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The State of Paraná contributes significantly for the Brazilian production of sugar cane, ethanol, soybeans and pigs. In addition to the current production of ethanol, the State has a huge potential for electricity, biodiesel and biogas production. This paper presents an overview of the current situation regarding energy generation from the agricultural sector in the State, an assessment of the potentialities of energy generation from sugar cane residues and pig agricultural chains, as well as an analysis of the socioeconomic factors underlying the availability of feedstock for biodiesel production. This study has shown that it is possible to expand the energy supply in the State using residual biomass from the sugar cane and pig production. On the other side, the biodiesel production increase in the State will depend on the expansion in the consumption of products that use the cake as raw material; the increase in the feedstock availability other than canola, castor beans and sunflower; the increase of the number of family farmers as feedstock providers, so as to ensure access for biodiesel producers to the Social Fuel Stamp. - Highlights: • Potentialities of energy generation from agriculture at Paraná State were assessed. • Energy offer from the sugar cane sector will triple if residual biomass is used. • The use of pig production wastes can increase energy offer up to 103 GW h. • Paraná produces 25% of oil seeds and only 3% of the biodiesel in Brazil. • Economic factors explaining the low share of biodiesel production are pointed out

  8. Biomass energy systems program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    Research programs in biomass which were funded by the US DOE during fiscal year 1978 are listed in this program summary. The conversion technologies and their applications have been grouped into program elements according to the time frame in which they are expected to enter the commercial market. (DMC)

  9. Switchgrass a valuable biomass crop for energy

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The demand of renewable energies is growing steadily both from policy and from industry which seeks environmentally friendly feed stocks. The recent policies enacted by the EU, USA and other industrialized countries foresee an increased interest in the cultivation of energy crops; there is clear evidence that switchgrass is one of the most promising biomass crop for energy production and bio-based economy and compounds. Switchgrass: A Valuable Biomass Crop for Energy provides a comprehensive guide to  switchgrass in terms of agricultural practices, potential use and markets, and environmental and social benefits. Considering this potential energy source from its biology, breed and crop physiology to its growth and management to the economical, social and environmental impacts, Switchgrass: A Valuable Biomass Crop for Energy brings together chapters from a range of experts in the field, including a foreword from Kenneth P. Vogel, to collect and present the environmental benefits and characteristics of this a ...

  10. Integration of biomass fast pyrolysis and precedent feedstock steam drying with a municipal combined heat and power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass fast pyrolysis (BFP) is a promising pre-treatment technology for converting biomass to transport fuel and in the future also for high-grade chemicals. BFP can be integrated with a municipal combined heat and power (CHP) plant. This paper shows the influence of BFP integration on a CHP plant's main parameters and its effect on the energetic and environmental performance of the connected district heating network. The work comprises full- and part-load operation of a CHP plant integrated with BFP and steam drying. It also evaluates different usage alternatives for the BFP products (char and oil). The results show that the integration is possible and strongly beneficial regarding energetic and environmental performance. Offering the possibility to provide lower district heating loads, the operation hours of the plant can be increased by up to 57%. The BFP products should be sold rather than applied for internal use as this increases the district heating network's primary energy efficiency the most. With this integration strategy future CHP plants can provide valuable products at high efficiency and also can help to mitigate global CO2 emissions. - Highlights: • Part load simulation of a cogeneration plant integrated with biomas fast pyrolysis. • Analysis of energetic and environmental performance. • Assessment of different uses of the pyrolysis products

  11. BioBoost. Biomass based energy intermediates boosting bio-fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niebel, Andreas [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Institut fuer Katalyseforschung und -technologie (IKFT)

    2013-10-01

    To increase the share of biomass for renewable energy in Europe conversion pathways which are economic, flexible in feedstock and energy efficient are needed. The BioBoost project concentrates on dry and wet residual biomass and wastes as feedstock for de-central conversion by fast pyrolysis, catalytic pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization to the intermediate energy carriers oil, coal or slurry. Based on straw the energy density increases from 2 to 20-30 GJ/m{sup 3}, enabling central GW scale gasification plants for bio-fuel production. A logistic model for feedstock supply and connection of de-central with central conversion is set up and validated allowing the determination of costs, the number and location of de-central and central sites. Techno/economic and environmental assessment of the value chain supports the optimization of products and processes. The utilization of energy carriers is investigated in existing and coming applications of heat and power production and synthetic fuels and chemicals. (orig.)

  12. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks. Final report, February 1, 1978-January 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    This is a coordinated program to effect the microbiological degradation of cellulosic biomasses and will focus on the use of anaerobic microorganisms which possess cellulolytic enzyme. The studies will attempt to increase the enzyme levels through genetics, mutation and strain selection. In addition, the direct conversion from cellulosic biomasses to liquid fuel (ethanol) and/or soluble sugars by the cellulolytic, anaerobic organism is also within the scope of this program. Process and engineering scale-up, along with economic analyses, will be performed throughout the course of the program. The second area of our major effort is devoted to the production of chemical feedstocks. In particular, three fermentations have been identified for exploration. These are: acrylic acid, acetone/butanol and acetic acid. The main efforts in these fermentations will address means for the reduction of the cost of manufacturing for these large volume chemicals.

  13. Novel storage technologies for raw and clarified syrup biomass feedstocks from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attention is currently focused on developing sustainable supply chains of sugar feedstocks for new, flexible biorefineries. Fundamental processing needs identified by industry for the large-scale manufacture of biofuels and bioproducts from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) include stabiliz...

  14. Effect of Agricultural Feedstock to Energy Conversion Rate on Bioenergy and GHG Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chun Kung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan is eager to develop renewable energy because it is vulnerable to energy price distortion and ocean level rise. Previous studies show bioenergy technologies can be applied mutually, but pay little attention on feedstocks to energy conversion rate, which has potential influences on policy making in renewable energy and environment. This study employs a price endogenous mathematical programming model to simultaneously simulate the market operations under various feedstocks to energy conversion rates, energy prices, and greenhouse gas (GHG prices. The result shows pyrolysis-based electricity can reach up to 2.75 billion kWh annually, but it will be driven out at low conversion rate and high GHG price. Pyrolysis plus biochar application will be the optimal option in terms of carbon sequestration. Market valuation on potential threats of extreme weather could have substantial influences on ethanol and renewable electricity generation. To achieve aimed GHG emission reduction and/or bioenergy production, government intervention may be involved to align the market operation with Taiwan’s environmental policy.

  15. Energy from biomass and wastes: 1979 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klass, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    The R and D activities in progress in the United States on the development of biomass and wastes as renewable energy sources have reached the point where all phases of the technology are under active investigation. Highlights of this effort are briefly reviewed from the standpoint of energy impact, funding, carbon dioxide build-up in the atmosphere, and biomass production and its conversion to energy and synthetic fuels. Special attention is given to alcohols because of the current interest in gasohol. Significant accomplishments were reported in 1979, and it is expected that commercial utilization of this information will begin to gather more momentum.

  16. The role of microalgae as biodiesel feedstock in a tropical setting: Economics, agro-energy competitiveness, and potential impacts on regional agricultural feedstock production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Matias G.

    The objective of this study is to obtain a realistic evaluation of the potential role of microalgae as a biodiesel feedstock in a tropical setting. First, microalgae economics are estimated, including the detailed design of a 400 ha microalgae open pond production farm together with the microalgae biomass and crude oil production costs calculations. Sensitivity analysis and a stochastic evaluation of the microalgae venture chances for profit are also included. Next, microalgae potential for biodiesel production is compared to traditional oil crops such as soybeans and African palm. This comparison is performed using the Northeast Region (NER) of Brazil as background. Six potential biodiesel feedstock sources produced in the NER and microalgae are compared considering selected environmental, economic and social sustainability indicators. Finally, in the third chapter, the study proposes a cropland allocation model for the NER. The model aims to offer insights to the decision maker concerning biofuel development strategies and their impact on regional agricultural feedstock production. In the model, cropland allocation among three agriculture feedstock sectors, namely staple food, commodity export and biofuel is optimized through the use of the multiple objective technique referred to as compromise programming (CP). Our results indicate a projected microalgae total production cost of R 78,359 ha-1 (US43,533), which has a breakdown as follows: R 34,133 ha-1 (US18,963) for operating costs and R 44,226 ha-1 (US24,570) for overhead (ownership) costs. Our stochastic analysis indicates that microalgae production under the conditions assumed in the baseline scenario of this study has a 0% chance to present a positive NPV for a microalgae crude oil price of R 1.86. This price corresponds to an international oil price around US 77 bbl-1. To obtain a reasonable investment return (IRR = 12%) from the microalgae farm, an international oil price as high as US 461 bbl-1 is

  17. Banana biomass as potential renewable energy resource: A Malaysian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tock, Jing Yan; Lai, Chin Lin; Lee, Keat Teong; Tan, Kok Tat; Bhatia, Subhash [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2010-02-15

    The world has been relying on fossil fuels as its primary source of energy. This unsustainable energy source is not going to last long and thus, gradual shift towards green renewable energy should be practiced. In Malaysia, even though fossil fuel dominates the energy production, renewable energies such as hydropower and biomass are gaining popularity due to the implementation of energy policies and greater understanding on the importance of green energy. Malaysia has been well endowed with natural resources in areas such as agriculture and forestry. Thus, with the availability of feedstock, biomass energy is practical to be conducted and oil palm topped the ranking as biomass source here because of its high production. However, new sources should be sought after as to avoid the over dependency on a single source. Hence, other agriculture biomass should be considered such as banana plant biomass. This paper will discuss on its potential as a new biomass source in Malaysia. Banana plant is chosen as the subject due to its availability, high growth rates, carbon neutrality and the fact that it bears fruit only once a lifetime. Conversion of the biomass to energy can be done via combustion, supercritical water gasification and digestion to produce thermal energy and biogas. The theoretical potential power generation calculated reached maximum of 950 MW meeting more than half of the renewable energy requirement in the Fifth Fuel Policy (Eighth Malaysia Plan 2001-2005). Thus, banana biomass is feasible as a source of renewable energy in Malaysia and also other similar tropical countries in the world. (author)

  18. Soil C storage and greenhouse gas emission perennial grasses managed for bio energy feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perennial grasses like switchgrass or big bluestem when managed as bioenergy feedstock require nitrogenous inputs. Nitrogen fertilizer frequently cause nitrous oxide emission. Therefore, managing grasses as feedstock may reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential expected from perennial. ...

  19. Design of Sustainable Biomass Value Chains – Optimising the supply logistics and use of biomass over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, B.

    2013-01-01

    Modern bioenergy systems have significant potential to cost-effectively substitute fossil energy carriers with substantial GHG emissions reduction benefits. To mobilise large-scale biomass supplies, large volumes of biomass feedstock need to be secured, and competitive feedstock value chains need to

  20. Biomass energy: Another driver of land acquisitions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo; Finnegan, Lynn; MacQueen, Duncan

    2011-08-15

    As governments in the global North look to diversify their economies away from fossil fuel and mitigate climate change, plans for biomass energy are growing fast. These are fuelling a sharp rise in the demand for wood, which, for some countries, could outstrip domestic supply capacity by as much as 600 per cent. It is becoming clear that although these countries will initially look to tap the temperate woodlands of developed countries, there are significant growth rate advantages that may lead them to turn to the tropics and sub-tropics to fill their biomass gap in the near future. Already there is evidence of foreign investors acquiring land in Africa, South America and Southeast Asia to establish tree plantations for biomass energy. If left unchecked, these trends could increase pressures on land access and food security in some of the world's poorest countries and communities.

  1. Framework methodology for increased energy efficiency and renewable feedstock integration in industrial clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Framework methodology for energy efficiency of process plants and total sites. • Identification of suitable biorefinery based on host site future energy systems. • Case study results show large energy savings of site wide heat integration. • Case study on refrigeration systems: 15% shaft work savings potential. • Case study on biorefinery integration: utility savings potential of up to 37%. - Abstract: Energy intensive industries, such as the bulk chemical industry, are facing major challenges and adopting strategies to face these challenges. This paper investigates options for clusters of chemical process plants to decrease their energy and emission footprints. There is a wide range of technologies and process integration opportunities available for achieving these objectives, including (i) decreasing fossil fuel and electricity demand by increasing heat integration within individual processes and across the total cluster site; (ii) replacing fossil feedstocks with renewables and biorefinery integration with the existing cluster; (iii) increasing external utilization of excess process heat wherever possible. This paper presents an overview of the use of process integration methods for development of chemical clusters. Process simulation, pinch analysis, Total Site Analysis (TSA) and exergy concepts are combined in a holistic approach to identify opportunities to improve energy efficiency and integrate renewable feedstocks within such clusters. The methodology is illustrated by application to a chemical cluster in Stenungsund on the West Coast of Sweden consisting of five different companies operating six process plants. The paper emphasizes and quantifies the gains that can be made by adopting a total site approach for targeting energy efficiency measures within the cluster and when investigating integration opportunities for advanced biorefinery concepts compared to restricting the analysis to the individual constituent plants. The

  2. Subtask 3.11 - Production of CBTL-Based Jet Fuels from Biomass-Based Feedstocks and Montana Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ramesh

    2014-06-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Accelergy Corporation, an advanced fuels developer with technologies exclusively licensed from Exxon Mobil, undertook Subtask 3.11 to use a recently installed bench-scale direct coal liquefaction (DCL) system capable of converting 45 pounds/hour of pulverized, dried coal to a liquid suitable for upgrading to fuels and/or chemicals. The process involves liquefaction of Rosebud mine coal (Montana coal) coupled with an upgrading scheme to produce a naphthenic fuel. The upgrading comprises catalytic hydrotreating and saturation to produce naphthenic fuel. A synthetic jet fuel was prepared by blending equal volumes of naphthenic fuel with similar aliphatic fuel derived from biomass and 11 volume % of aromatic hydrocarbons. The synthetic fuel was tested using standard ASTM International techniques to determine compliance with JP-8 fuel. The composite fuel thus produced not only meets but exceeds the military aviation fuel-screening criteria. A 500-milliliter synthetic jet fuel sample which met internal screening criteria was submitted to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright–Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, for evaluation. The sample was confirmed by AFRL to be in compliance with U.S. Air Force-prescribed alternative aviation fuel initial screening criteria. The results show that this fuel meets or exceeds the key specification parameters for JP-8, a petroleum-based jet fuel widely used by the U.S. military. JP-8 specifications include parameters such as freeze point, density, flash point, and others; all of which were met by the EERC fuel sample. The fuel also exceeds the thermal stability specification of JP-8 fuel as determined by the quartz crystalline microbalance (QCM) test also performed at an independent laboratory as well as AFRL. This means that the EERC fuel looks and acts identically to petroleum-derived jet fuel and can be used

  3. The Development of a Hydrothermal Method for Slurry Feedstock Preparation for Gasification Technology

    OpenAIRE

    He, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Liquid fuels produced via the steam hydrogasification of biomass feedstock followed by downstream gas to liquid processes appears to be a cost effective approach to replace fossil fuels, to decrease the dependence of imported oil and to decrease greenhouse gas emissions. A critical technical obstacle of using biomass feedstock effectively in many gasification processes, including steam hydrogasification, is the need to prepare a high carbon concentrated (i.e., high energy) slurry that can b...

  4. Waste and biomass as energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klass, Donald L.

    1978-11-01

    Organic fuels can be manufactured by converting major sources of continuously renewable nonfossil carbon to synfuels that are interchangeable with, or can be substituted for, natural gas and petroleum-derived fuels. Promising sources of this carbon are waste materials, such as urban refuse, and biomass produced from solar energy by photosynthesis. The development of this concept is presented in this paper. The broad scope of the technology and its potential impact on energy supplies are reviewed. The renewable feature of both wastes and biomass makes them valuable natural resources that inevitably will be fully developed and commercialized as sources of energy-intensive products and synfuels. The perpetual availability of organic fuels will permit the conservation of valuable fossil fuel reserves, and, as time passes, offer a long-term solution to independence from foreign energy supplies and fossil fuel depletion.

  5. Energy from biomass. Ethics and practice; Energie aus Biomasse. Ethik und Praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, Silke (ed.)

    2013-06-01

    The implementation of the energy policy turnaround inevitably results in modifications of the land use and landscape. Besides the discussion about the environmental consequences, a debate about ethical issues increasingly arose. Under this aspect, the booklet under consideration contains the following contributions: (1) Renewable energy sources - the role of bioenergy (Bernard Widmann); (2) Energy from biomass - An ethic analysis (Stephan Schleissing); (3) Culture for our landscapes - combination of biomass and water protection (Frank Wagener); (4) Cultivation of energy crops - short rotation coppices (Frank Burger); (5) Bioenergy region Straubing-Bogen: Excellent in the matter of renewable energy sources (Josefine Eichwald); (6) Rural development - motor for the energy policy turnaround (Roland Spiller).

  6. Biomass as feedstock for a bioenergy and bioproducts industry: The technical feasibility of a billion-ton annual supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, Robert D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wright, Lynn L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Turhollow, Anthony F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Graham, Robin L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stokes, Bryce J. [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. (United States); Erbach, Donald C. [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30% or more of the country's present petroleum consumption.

  7. Energy Ontologies: Wind, Biomass, and Fossil Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Heidi Scott

    2016-01-01

    This article uses literary sources to draw ontological distinctions among three distinct energy sources: wind power, biomass, and fossil fuels. The primary aim is to demonstrate how radically our fossil fuel regime has changed human ontology in the last two centuries during which we have entered the Anthropocene. Because this radical transformation contains myriad elements, this article will focus on transportation: the speed, quality, and quantity of travel permitted by successive energy sou...

  8. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks. Progress report, September 1-November 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.I.; Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Gomez, R.F.; Sinskey, A.J.

    1978-11-01

    Studies on the accumulation of glucose during the fermentation of cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum are discussed. Production of ethanol and its relationship to growth rate in C. thermocellum is reported. Different biomasses were tested for ethanol yields. These included exploded poplar, sugar cane, bagasse, corn cobs, sweet gum, rice straw, and wheat straw. Thermophilic bacteria were tested to determine relationship of temperature to yield of ethanol. A preliminary report on isolating plaque forming emits derived from C. thermocellum is presented as well as the utilization of carbohydrates in nutrition. A cellulose enzyme is being purified from C. thermocellum. The production of chemical feedstocks by fermentation is reported. Acrylic acid, acetone/butanol, and acetic acid, produced by C. propionicum, C. acetobutylicum, and C. thermoaceticum, are discussed. (DC)

  9. Mixed-waste pyrolysis of biomass and plastics waste – A modelling approach to reduce energy usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal co-processing of waste mixtures had gained a lot of attention in the last decade. This is largely due to certain synergistic effects such as higher quantity and better quality of oil, limited supply of certain feedstock and improving the overall pyrolysis process. Many experiments have been conducted via TGA analysis and different reactors to achieve the stated synergistic effects in co-pyrolysis of biomass and plastic wastes. The thermal behaviour of plastics during pyrolysis is different from that of biomass because its decomposition happens at a high temperature range with sudden release of volatile compared to biomass which have a wide range of thermal decomposition. A properly designed recipe and operational strategy of mixing feedstock can ease the operational difficulties and at the same time decrease energy consumption and/or improve the product yield. Therefore it is worthwhile to study the possible synergistic effects on the overall energy used during co-pyrolysis process. In this work, two different modelling approaches were used to study the energy related synergistic effect between polystyrene (PS) and bamboo waste. The mass loss and volatile generation profiles show that significant interactions between the two feedstocks exist. The results also show that both modelling approaches give an appreciable synergy effect of reduction in overall energy when PS and bamboo are co-pyrolysed together. However, the second approach which allows interaction between the two feedstocks gives a more reduction in overall energy usage up to 6.2% depending on the ratio of PS in the mixed blend. - Highlights: • Proposed the mixed-waste pyrolysis modelling via two modelling approaches. • Study the energy related synergistic effects when plastics and biomass are pyrolysed together. • Mass loss and volatile generation profiles show the existence of significant interactions. • Energy usage can be reduced by up to 6.2% depending on the percentage of the plastic

  10. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  11. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aden, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Uriarte, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Inman, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simpkins, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Argo, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  12. Glucanocellulosic ethanol: the undiscovered biofuel potential in energy crops and marine biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falter, Christian; Zwikowics, Claudia; Eggert, Dennis; Blümke, Antje; Naumann, Marcel; Wolff, Kerstin; Ellinger, Dorothea; Reimer, Rudolph; Voigt, Christian A

    2015-01-01

    Converting biomass to biofuels is a key strategy in substituting fossil fuels to mitigate climate change. Conventional strategies to convert lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol address the fermentation of cellulose-derived glucose. Here we used super-resolution fluorescence microscopy to uncover the nanoscale structure of cell walls in the energy crops maize and Miscanthus where the typical polymer cellulose forms an unconventional layered architecture with the atypical (1, 3)-β-glucan polymer callose. This raised the question about an unused potential of (1, 3)-β-glucan in the fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass. Engineering biomass conversion for optimized (1, 3)-β-glucan utilization, we increased the ethanol yield from both energy crops. The generation of transgenic Miscanthus lines with an elevated (1, 3)-β-glucan content further increased ethanol yield providing a new strategy in energy crop breeding. Applying the (1, 3)-β-glucan-optimized conversion method on marine biomass from brown macroalgae with a naturally high (1, 3)-β-glucan content, we not only substantially increased ethanol yield but also demonstrated an effective co-fermentation of plant and marine biomass. This opens new perspectives in combining different kinds of feedstock for sustainable and efficient biofuel production, especially in coastal regions. PMID:26324382

  13. Low Cost and Energy Efficient Methods for the Manufacture of Semi-Solid (SSM) Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diran Apelian; Qingyue Pan; Makhlouf Makhlouf

    2005-11-07

    The SSM Consortium (now ACRC) at WPI has been carrying out fundamental, pre-competitive research in SSM for several years. Current and past research (at WPI) has generated many results of fundamental and applied nature, which are available to the SSM community. These include materials characterization, yield stress effects, alloy development, rheological properties, process modeling/simulation, semi-solid slurry formation, etc. Alternative method to produce SSM slurries at lower processing costs and with reduced energy consumption is a critical need. The production of low cost SSM feedstock will certainly lead to a dramatic increase in the tonnage of castings produced by SSM, and will provide end users such as the transportation industry, with lighter, cheaper and high performance materials. In this program, the research team has addressed three critical issues in semi-solid processing. They are: (1) Development of low cost, reliable slurry-on-demand approaches for semi-solid processing; (2) Application of the novel permanent grain refining technology-SiBloy for the manufacture of high-quality SSM feedstock, and (3) Development of computational and modeling tools for semi-solid processing to enhance SSM process control. Salient results from these studies are summarized and detailed in our final technical report.

  14. Biomass in the future European energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Charles [DONG Energy, Fredericia (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    With Europe's ambitious target in mind to increase its share of renewable energy to 20% (a 34% share of energy for electricity production), this paper discusses the importance and challenges resulting from increased use of biomass. Biomass comprises a wide range of fuels featuring a variety of properties and qualities, and both usage and import will lead to dilemmas in relation to sustainability, area usage and food production. The paper also discusses Eurelectric's reasons why import criteria should be defined. The challenge of establishing the required capacity and the perspectives involved in added use are addressed here based on Danish experience and observations from two decades of development programmes. The development comprises generation of infrastructure, co-firing of straw and coal, gasification, new ways of exploiting the energy in household waste and second-generation bio-ethanol production. (orig.)

  15. Biomass energy systems information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-02-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on biomass energy systems are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. This report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. Results from 12 biomass groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: Federally Funded Researchers (2 groups), Nonfederally Funded Researchers (2 groups), Representatives of Manufacturers (2 groups), Representatives of State Forestry Offices, Private Foresters, Forest Products Engineers, Educators, Cooperative Extension Service County Agents, and System Managers. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  16. The California Biomass Crop Adoption Model estimates biofuel feedstock crop production across diverse agro-ecological zones within the state, under different future climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaffka, S.; Jenner, M.; Bucaram, S.; George, N.

    2012-12-01

    Both regulators and businesses need realistic estimates for the potential production of biomass feedstocks for biofuels and bioproducts. This includes the need to understand how climate change will affect mid-tem and longer-term crop performance and relative advantage. The California Biomass Crop Adoption Model is a partial mathematical programming optimization model that estimates the profit level needed for new crop adoption, and the crop(s) displaced when a biomass feedstock crop is added to the state's diverse set of cropping systems, in diverse regions of the state. Both yield and crop price, as elements of profit, can be varied. Crop adoption is tested against current farmer preferences derived from analysis of 10 years crop production data for all crops produced in California, collected by the California Department of Pesticide Regulation. Analysis of this extensive data set resulted in 45 distinctive, representative farming systems distributed across the state's diverse agro-ecological regions. Estimated yields and water use are derived from field trials combined with crop simulation, reported elsewhere. Crop simulation is carried out under different weather and climate assumptions. Besides crop adoption and displacement, crop resource use is also accounted, derived from partial budgets used for each crop's cost of production. Systematically increasing biofuel crop price identified areas of the state where different types of crops were most likely to be adopted. Oilseed crops like canola that can be used for biodiesel production had the greatest potential to be grown in the Sacramento Valley and other northern regions, while sugar beets (for ethanol) had the greatest potential in the northern San Joaquin Valley region, and sweet sorghum in the southern San Joaquin Valley. Up to approximately 10% of existing annual cropland in California was available for new crop adoption. New crops are adopted if the entire cropping system becomes more profitable. In

  17. Process Design Report for Stover Feedstock: Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ruth, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibsen, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jechura, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Neeves, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheehan, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wallace, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Montague, L. [Harris Group, Seattle, WA (United States); Slayton, A. [Harris Group, Seattle, WA (United States); Lukas, J. [Harris Group, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2002-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the development of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks as an alternative to conventional petroleum-based transportation fuels. DOE funds both fundamental and applied research in this area and needs a method for predicting cost benefits of many research proposals. To that end, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has modeled many potential process designs and estimated the economics of each process during the last 20 years. This report is an update of the ongoing process design and economic analyses at NREL.

  18. Biomass availability, energy consumption and biochar production in rural households of Western Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrolytic cook stoves in smallholder farms may require different biomass supply than traditional bioenergy approaches. Therefore, we carried out an on-farm assessment of the energy consumption for food preparation, the biomass availability relevant to conventional and pyrolytic cook stoves, and the potential biochar generation in rural households of western Kenya. Biomass availability for pyrolysis varied widely from 0.7 to 12.4 Mg ha-1 y-1 with an average of 4.3 Mg ha-1 y-1, across all 50 studied farms. Farms with high soil fertility that were recently converted to agriculture from forest had the highest variability (CV = 83%), which was a result of the wide range of farm sizes and feedstock types in the farms. Biomass variability was two times lower for farms with low than high soil fertility (CV = 37%). The reduction in variability is a direct consequence of the soil quality, coupled with farm size and feedstock type. The total wood energy available in the farms (5.3 GJ capita-1 y-1) was not sufficient to meet the current cooking energy needs using conventional combustion stoves, but may be sufficient for improved combustion stoves depending on their energy efficiency. However, the biomass that is usable in pyrolytic cook stoves including crop residues, shrub and tree litter can provide 17.2 GJ capita-1 y-1 of energy for cooking, which is well above the current average cooking energy consumption of 10.5 GJ capita-1 y-1. The introduction of a first-generation pyrolytic cook stove reduced wood energy consumption by 27% while producing an average of 0.46 Mg ha-1 y-1 of biochar. -- Highlights: → Total energy from wood fuel available on smallholder farms in Western Kenya was not sufficient to meet current cooking energy needs using conventional combustion stoves, but may be sufficient for improved combustion stoves. → Feedstock options acceptable to pyrolysis cook stoves which includes crop residues, exceeded the energy needs required for daily cooking.

  19. New energy technologies 3 - Geothermal and biomass energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This third tome of the new energy technologies handbook is devoted to two energy sources today in strong development: geothermal energy and biomass fuels. It gives an exhaustive overview of the exploitation of both energy sources. Geothermal energy is presented under its most common aspects. First, the heat pumps which encounter a revival of interest in the present-day context, and the use of geothermal energy in collective space heating applications. Finally, the power generation of geothermal origin for which big projects exist today. The biomass energies are presented through their three complementary aspects which are: the biofuels, in the hypothesis of a substitutes to fossil fuels, the biogas, mainly produced in agricultural-type facilities, and finally the wood-fuel which is an essential part of biomass energy. Content: Forewords; geothermal energy: 1 - geothermal energy generation, heat pumps, direct heat generation, power generation. Biomass: 2 - biofuels: share of biofuels in the energy context, present and future industries, economic and environmental status of biofuel production industries; 3 - biogas: renewable natural gas, involuntary bio-gases, man-controlled biogas generation, history of methanation, anaerobic digestion facilities or biogas units, biogas uses, stakes of renewable natural gas; 4 - energy generation from wood: overview of wood fuels, principles of wood-energy conversion, wood-fueled thermal energy generators. (J.S.)

  20. LCA of biomass-based energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2012-01-01

    on the reference year 2008, energy scenarios for 2030 and 2050 were assessed. For 2050 three alternatives for supply of transport fuels were considered: (1) fossil fuels, (2) rapeseed based biodiesel, and (3) Fischer–Tropsch based biodiesel. Overall, the results showed that greenhouse gas emissions per PJ energy......Decrease of fossil fuel consumption in the energy sector is an important step towards more sustainable energy production. Environmental impacts related to potential future energy systems in Denmark with high shares of wind and biomass energy were evaluated using life-cycle assessment (LCA). Based...... environmental impacts in the 2050 scenarios, in particular upstream impacts from land use changes (LUCs), fertilizer use and NOx emissions from the transport sector were critical. Land occupation (including LUC effects) caused by energy crop production increased to a range of 600–2100 × 106 m2/PJ depending...

  1. Economic sustainability of a biomass energy project located at a dairy in California, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous experience has demonstrated the tenuous nature of biomass energy projects located at livestock facilities in the U.S. In response, the economic sustainability of a 710 kW combined heat and power biomass energy system located on a dairy farm in California was evaluated. This biomass energy facility is unique in that a complete-mix anaerobic digester was used for treatment of manure collected in a flush-water system, co-digestates were used as additional digester feedstocks (whey, waste feed, and plant biomass), and the power plant is operating under strict regulatory requirements for stack gas emissions. Electricity was produced and sold wholesale, and cost savings resulted from the use of waste heat to offset propane demand. The impact of various operational factors was considered in the economic analysis, indicating that the system is economically viable as constructed but could benefit from introduction of additional substrates to increase methane and electricity production, additional utilization of waste heat, sale of digested solids, and possibly pursuing greenhouse gas credits. Use of technology for nitrogen oxide (NOx) removal had a minimal effect on economic sustainability. - Highlights: ► We evaluated the economic sustainability of a dairy biomass energy project. ► The project is economically sustainable as currently operated. ► The simple payback period could be reduced if the system is operated near capacity. ► Co-digestion of off-site waste streams is recommended to improve profitability.

  2. PERFORMANCE STUDIES ON DOWNDRAFT GASIFIER WITH BIOMASS ENERGY SOURCES AVAILABLE IN REMOTE VILLAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. ChristusJeya Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing global concern over the environmental issues and depletion of fossil fuels, significant interest has been shown by the researchers to develop alternate energy technologies like biomass, biogas, solar to meet the future energy demand. The prediction of the performance of different biomass energy sources in gasifiers is needed for the implementation of this technology to fulfil the need of decentralized heat and power applications, relevant to remote villages. This study presents the theoretical and experimental studies conducted on a 50 kW downdraft biomass gasifier with various biomass materials such as wood, coconut shell, rubber seed kernel and coir pith which are generally available in villages. Two-zone kinetic equilibrium model approach is used to predict the composition and temperature of the producer gas. The influence of equivalence ratio on the reaction temperature, quality of producer gas and gasifier conversion efficiency are discussed. The experimental and theoretical studies show that the rubber seed kernel can be effectively used as a feedstock of the biomass gasifier to meet the rural energy demand.

  3. Feedstock characterization and recommended procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using biomass for non-conventional applications such as feedstocks for fuels, chemicals, new materials, and electric power production requires knowledge of biomass characteristics important to these processes, and characterization techniques that are more appropriate than those employed today for conventional applications of food, feed, and fiber. This paper reviews feedstock characterization and standardization methodologies, and identifies research and development needs. It reviews the international cooperation involved in determining biomass characteristics and standards that has culminated in preparing four biomass samples currently available from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

  4. Optimal use of biomass for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to the EWAB programme, which is focused mainly on the application of waste and biomass for generating electricity, Novem is also working on behalf of the government on the development of a programme for gaseous and liquid energy carriers (GAVE). The Dutch ministries concerned have requested that Novem provide more insight concerning two aspects. The first aspect is the world-wide availability of biomass in the long term. A study group under the leadership of the University of Utrecht has elaborated this topic in greater detail in the GRAIN project. The second aspect is the question of whether the use of biomass for biofuels, as aimed at in the GAVE programme, can go hand in hand with the input for the electricity route. Novem has asked the Dutch research institute for the electric power industry (KEMA) to study the driving forces that determine the future use of biomass for electricity and biofuels, the competitive strength of each of the routes, and the possible future scenarios that emerge. The results of this report are presented in the form of copies of overhead sheets

  5. BIOMASS-TO-ENERGY FEASIBILITY STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecil T. Massie

    2002-09-03

    The purpose of this study was to assess the economic and technical feasibility of producing electricity and thermal energy from biomass by gasification. For an economic model we chose a large barley malting facility operated by Rahr Malting Co. in Shakopee, Minnesota. This plant provides an excellent backdrop for this study because it has both large electrical loads and thermal loads that allowed us to consider a wide range of sizes and technical options. In the end, eleven scenarios were considered ranging from 3.1 megawatts (MWe) to 19.8 MWe. By locating the gasification and generation at an agricultural product processing plant with large electrical and thermal loads, the expectation was that some of the limitations of stand-alone biomass power plants would be overcome. In addition, since the process itself created significant volumes of low value biomass, the hope was that most of the biomass gathering and transport issues would be handled as well. The development of low-BTU gas turbines is expected to fill a niche between the upper limit of multiple spark ignited engine set systems around 5 MWe and the minimum reasonable scale for steam turbine systems around 10 MWe.

  6. Green energy. Biomass fuels and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United Nations Environment Programme has been concerned with energy/environment issues since it was first set up after the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment held in Stockholm in 1972. In the late 1970s, UNEP compiled three comprehensive reports on the the environmental impacts of the production and use of fossil fuels, nuclear energy and renewable energy sources. In 1987 it was decided to update the volume on renewable energy since knowledge of biofuels and their effects on the environment had greatly improved. Among many innovations, Brazil's decision to embark on a major, and now successful, programme to produce ethanol from sugarcane as a substitute vehicle fuel is one of the most significant. At the same time, energy tree crops, agroforestry systems and the use of plantations for environmental improvement have become issues of key importance to sustainable development in developing countries. Biomass fuels, of course, have always been important in terms of the numbers of people who use them; the significant change during the 1980s was that the potential advantages of these fuels took on a new significance in the light of environmental degradation and related issues such as greenhouse warming. The biomass fuels began to be considered as attractive energy sources in their own right - not simply as 'last resort' fuels for developing countries with only limited energy options. While this development may solve some environmental problems, it certainly raises others - the improper utilization of biomass fuels in the past has been responsible for deforestation, desertification and the ill health of many millions of the women in developing countries who use biomass fuels in unventilated huts. These issues currently affect about half of the world population. The new UNEP study was intended to provide an up-to-date evaluation of the environmental issues raised by the use of biomass fuels, and hence to reduce or eliminate their adverse impacts while

  7. Prospective framework for collection and exploitation of waste cooking oil as feedstock for energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhabhandhu, Ampaitepin; Tezuka, Tetsuo [Energy Economics Laboratory, Department of Socio-Environmental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    From the viewpoint of waste-to-energy, waste cooking oil is one of the attractive and available recycled feedstocks, apart from agricultural residues. The generation of energy from waste cooking oil is considered as an effective technique for waste management, as well as a beneficial form of energy recovery. Two alternative systems and a conventional system of waste cooking oil collection and conversion are evaluated by the cost benefit analysis in order to find a suitable method for waste-to-energy conversion. The results show that the collection of waste cooking oil with waste lubricating oil (System II) a useful alternative to the management of waste cooking oil (B/C > 1). The total heat produced by the combustion of pyrolytic oil at maximum and minimum conversion rates is also determined. The separate collection of waste cooking oil, subjected to chemical pre-treatment prior to introduction in a pyrolysis reactor (System III), is considered an undesirable option (B/C < 1) due to the cost of the chemicals involved. Although the exclusion of chemical pre-treatment makes System III a desirable option, the total amount of heat of combustion generated is less. The increased electricity cost required for the process has no effect on the benefit-cost ratio of System II. However, System III, excluding chemical pre-treatment, becomes an unprofitable alternative when the electricity cost reaches 100% of the fixed capital cost at the minimum conversion rate. (author)

  8. EERC Center for Biomass Utilization 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygarlicke, Christopher J. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Hurley, John P. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Aulich, Ted R. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Folkedahl, Bruce C. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Strege, Joshua R. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Patel, Nikhil [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Shockey, Richard E. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center

    2009-05-27

    The Center for Biomass Utilization® 2006 project at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) consisted of three tasks related to applied fundamental research focused on converting biomass feedstocks to energy, liquid transportation fuels, and chemicals. Task 1, entitled Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Syngas and Chemical Feedstocks, involved three activities. Task 2, entitled Crop Oil Biorefinery Process Development, involved four activities. Task 3, entitled Management, Education, and Outreach, focused on overall project management and providing educational outreach related to biomass technologies through workshops and conferences.

  9. Biomass for energy production. Economic evaluation, efficiency comparison and optimal utilization of biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An optimized and/or goal-oriented use of available biomass feedstock for energetic conversion requires a detailed analysis of bioenergy production lines according to technical and economic efficiency indicators. Accordingly, relevant parameters of selected production lines supplying heat, electricity and fuel have been studied and used as data base for an optimization model. Most favorable combination of bioenergy lines considering political and economic objectives are analyzed by applying a specifically designed linear optimization model. Modeling results shall allow evaluation of political courses of action.

  10. Biomass Energy Systems and Resources in Tropical Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Lugano (KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology (Sweden))

    2010-07-01

    Tanzania has a characteristic developing economy, which is dependent on agricultural productivity. About 90% of the total primary energy consumption of the country is from biomass. Since the biomass is mostly consumed at the household level in form of wood fuel, it is marginally contributing to the commercial energy supply. However, the country has abundant energy resources from hydro, biomass, natural gas, coal, uranium, solar, wind and geothermal. Due to reasons that include the limited technological capacity, most of these resources have not received satisfactory harnessing. For instance: out of the estimated 4.7GW macro hydro potential only 561MW have been developed; and none of the 650MW geothermal potential is being harnessed. Furthermore, besides the huge potential of biomass (12 million tons of oil equivalent), natural gas (45 million cubic metres), coal (1,200 million tones), high solar insolation (4.5 - 6.5 kWh/m2), 1,424km of coastal strip, and availability of good wind regime (> 4 m/s wind speed), they are marginally contributing to the production of commercial energy. Ongoing exploration work also reveals that the country has an active system of petroleum and uranium. On the other hand, after commissioning the 229 km natural gas pipeline from SongoSongo Island to Dar es Salaam, there are efforts to ensure a wider application in electricity generation, households, automotive and industry. Due to existing environmental concerns, biomass resource is an attractive future energy for the world, Tanzania inclusive. This calls for putting in place sustainable energy technologies, like gasification, for their harnessing. The high temperature gasification (HTAG) of biomass is a candidate technology since it has shown to produce improved syngas quality in terms of gas heating value that has less tar. This work was therefore initiated in order to contribute to efforts on realizing a commercial application of biomass in Tanzania. Particularly, the work aimed at

  11. Biomass energy conversion workshop for industrial executives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The rising costs of energy and the risks of uncertain energy supplies are increasingly familiar problems in industry. Bottom line profits and even the simple ability to operate can be affected by spiralling energy costs. An often overlooked alternative is the potential to turn industrial waste or residue into an energy source. On April 9 and 10, 1979, in Claremont, California, the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), the California Energy Commission (CEC), and the Western Solar Utilization Network (WSUN) held a workshop which provided industrial managers with current information on using residues and wastes as industrial energy sources. Successful industrial experiences were described by managers from the food processing and forest product industries, and direct combustion and low-Btu gasification equipment was described in detail. These speakers' presentations are contained in this document. Some major conclusions of the conference were: numerous current industrial applications of wastes and residues as fuels are economic and reliable; off-the-shelf technologies exist for converting biomass wastes and residues to energy; a variety of financial (tax credits) and institutional (PUC rate structures) incentives can help make these waste-to-energy projects more attractive to industry. However, many of these incentives are still being developed and their precise impact must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  12. Energy Ontologies: Wind, Biomass, and Fossil Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Scott

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article uses literary sources to draw ontological distinctions among three distinct energy sources: wind power, biomass, and fossil fuels. The primary aim is to demonstrate how radically our fossil fuel regime has changed human ontology in the last two centuries during which we have entered the Anthropocene. Because this radical transformation contains myriad elements, this article will focus on transportation: the speed, quality, and quantity of travel permitted by successive energy sources. To consider the comparative literatures of energy as they relate to transportation, we will begin with wind, then consider muscle-driven biomass giving way to coal locomotion, and conclude with the highest octane fuel, petroleum. The central interest is in how the fuel depicted in literature illuminates historical moments in which the interfaces between self, society, and nature are configured by specific energy regimes. By using literature as a source text, we may arrive at an emotionally and philosophically more robust synthesis of energy history than the social and natural sciences, relying upon objective accounts and statistics, are able to provide. By re-reading literature through the lens of the Anthropocene, we gain perspective on how earlier insights into the relationship between energy and experience can inform our explorations of today’s ontological reality. Energy literature instructs us out of the fossil fuel mindset of world domination and back to a physical realm in which we are small actors in a world guided by capricious forces. Such a reality requires hard muscular work and emotional immersion to restore an ethic of care and sustainability.

  13. WOOD BIOMASS FOR ENERGY IN MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradimir Danon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood biomass has got its place in the energy balance of Montenegro. A little more than 6% of the total energy consumption is obtained by burning wood. Along with the appropriate state measures, it is economically and environmentally justified to expect Montenegro to more than double the utilization of the existing renewable energy sources including wood biomass, in the near future. For the purpose of achieving this goal, ‘Commercial Utilisation of the Wood Residue as a Resource for Economic Development in the North of Montenegro' project was carried out in 2007. The results of this project were included in the plan of the necessary interventions of the Government and its Agencies, associations or clusters, non-government organisations and interested enterprises. The plan was made on the basis of the wood residue at disposal and the attitude of individual subjects to produce and/or use solid bio-fuels and consists of a proposal of collection and utilisation of the wood residue for each individual district in the north of Montenegro. The basic factors of sustainability of future commercialisation of the wood residue were: availability of the wood raw material, and thereby the wood residue; the development of wood-based fuel markets, and the size of the profit.

  14. Uncertainty of biomass contributions from agriculture and forestry to renewable energy resources under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gutsch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the future, Germany's land-use policies and the impacts of climate change on yields will affect the amount of biomass available for energy production. We used recent published data on biomass potentials in the federal states of Germany to assess the uncertainty caused by climate change effects in the potential supply of biomass available for energy production. In this study we selected three climate scenarios representing the maximum, mean and minimum temperature increase for Germany out of 21 CMIP5-projections driven by the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP 8.5 scenario. Each of the three selected projections was downscaled using the regional statistical climate model STARS. We analysed the yield changes of four biomass feedstock crops (forest, short-rotation coppices (SRC, cereal straw (winter wheat and energy maize for the period 2031–2060 in comparison to 1981–2010. The mean annual yield changes of energy wood from forest and short-rotation coppices were modelled using the process-based forest growth model 4C. The yield changes of winter wheat and energy maize from agricultural production were simulated with the statistical yield model IRMA. Germany's annual biomass potential of 1500 PJ varies between minus 5 % and plus 8 % depending on the climate scenario realisation. Assuming that 1500 PJ of biomass utilisation can be achieved, climate change effects of minus 75 (5 % PJ or plus 120 (8 % PJ do not impede overall bioenergy targets of 1287 PJ in 2020 and 1534 PJ in 2050. In five federal states the climate scenarios lead to decreasing yields of energy maize and winter wheat. Impacts of climate scenarios on forest yields are mainly positive and show both positive and negative effects on yields of SRC.

  15. Modelling of biomass utilization for energy purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzybek, Anna (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    the overall farms structure, farms land distribution on several separate subfields for one farm, villages' overpopulation and very high employment in agriculture (about 27% of all employees in national economy works in agriculture). Farmers have low education level. In towns 34% of population has secondary education and in rural areas - only 15-16%. Less than 2% inhabitants of rural areas have higher education. The structure of land use is as follows: arable land 11.5%, meadows and pastures 25.4%, forests 30.1%. Poland requires implementation of technical and technological progress for intensification of agricultural production. The reason of competition for agricultural land is maintenance of the current consumption level and allocation of part of agricultural production for energy purposes. Agricultural land is going to be key factor for biofuels production. In this publication research results for the Project PL0073 'Modelling of energetical biomass utilization for energy purposes' have been presented. The Project was financed from the Norwegian Financial Mechanism and European Economic Area Financial Mechanism. The publication is aimed at moving closer and explaining to the reader problems connected with cultivations of energy plants and dispelling myths concerning these problems. Exchange of fossil fuels by biomass for heat and electric energy production could be significant input in carbon dioxide emission reduction. Moreover, biomass crop and biomass utilization for energetical purposes play important role in agricultural production diversification in rural areas transformation. Agricultural production widening enables new jobs creation. Sustainable development is going to be fundamental rule for Polish agriculture evolution in long term perspective. Energetical biomass utilization perfectly integrates in the evolution frameworks, especially on local level. There are two facts. The fist one is that increase of interest in energy crops in Poland

  16. Modelling of biomass utilization for energy purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzybek, Anna (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    the overall farms structure, farms land distribution on several separate subfields for one farm, villages' overpopulation and very high employment in agriculture (about 27% of all employees in national economy works in agriculture). Farmers have low education level. In towns 34% of population has secondary education and in rural areas - only 15-16%. Less than 2% inhabitants of rural areas have higher education. The structure of land use is as follows: arable land 11.5%, meadows and pastures 25.4%, forests 30.1%. Poland requires implementation of technical and technological progress for intensification of agricultural production. The reason of competition for agricultural land is maintenance of the current consumption level and allocation of part of agricultural production for energy purposes. Agricultural land is going to be key factor for biofuels production. In this publication research results for the Project PL0073 'Modelling of energetical biomass utilization for energy purposes' have been presented. The Project was financed from the Norwegian Financial Mechanism and European Economic Area Financial Mechanism. The publication is aimed at moving closer and explaining to the reader problems connected with cultivations of energy plants and dispelling myths concerning these problems. Exchange of fossil fuels by biomass for heat and electric energy production could be significant input in carbon dioxide emission reduction. Moreover, biomass crop and biomass utilization for energetical purposes play important role in agricultural production diversification in rural areas transformation. Agricultural production widening enables new jobs creation. Sustainable development is going to be fundamental rule for Polish agriculture evolution in long term perspective. Energetical biomass utilization perfectly integrates in the evolution frameworks, especially on local level. There are two facts. The fist one is that increase of interest in energy crops in Poland

  17. Hydropower and biomass as renewable energy sources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When talking about renewable energy sources today, the most important and economical energy sources for Turkey are hydropower and biomass.The present study gives a review of production, consumption, and economics of hydropower and biomass as renewable energy sources in Turkey. Turkey has a total gross hydropower potential of 433 GW, but only 125 GW of the total hydroelectric potential of Turkey can be economically used. By the commissioning of new hydropower plants, which are under construction, 36% of the economically usable potential of the country could be tapped. On the other hand, biomass (wood and wastes) energy is the second most important renewable energy source for Turkey. However, the biomass energy sources of Turkey are limited. In 1998, the biomass share of the total energy consumption of the country is 10%. In this study, the potential of important biomass energy sources and animal solid wastes of the country were determined. The effects of hydropower and biomass usage on the environment were also discussed. Considering total cereal products and fatty seed plants, approximately 50-60 million tons per year of biomass and 8-10 million tons of solid matter animal waste are produced, and 70% of total biomass is seen as being usable for energy. Some useful suggestions and recommendations are also presented. The present study shows that there is an important potential for hydropower and biomass energy sources in Turkey. (author)

  18. Energy from waste. Utilization of biomass and substitute fuels; Energie aus Abfall. Biomasse- und Ersatzbrennstoffverwertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, K.; Bergs, C.G.; Kosak, G.; Wallmann, R. (eds.)

    2008-07-01

    Within the 69th symposium of ANS e.V. (Braunschweig, Federal Republic of Germany) with the title 'Energy from waste - utilization of biomass and refuse-derived fuels' at 16th and 17th September, 2008, the following lectures were held: (1) Resource efficient operation in waste management (Klaus Fricke, Tobias Bahr, Timo Thiel, Oliver Kugelstadt); (2) A contribution of the waste management to a sustainable energy supply (principle lecture by Helge Wendenburg and Claus-Gerhard Bergs); (3) Energy from waste - Potentials and possibilities of utilization (Rainer Wallmann, Thomas Fritz); (4) Attempts of optimisation for the supply of secondary fuels and energy by waste incinerators (Bernhard Gallenkemper); (5) Supply of power by thermal waste treatment facilities (Arnd I. Urban); (6) Updating a fermentation compound in the compost heap Goettingen (Ottomar Ruehl); (7) An innovative concept for the utilization of waste biomass as an energy resource (Jens-Kai Wegener, Wolfgang Luecke); (8) A future orientated technological conversion of the energetical utilization of biomass (Achim Loewen); (9) Synergistic effects of a co-fermentation with clarification sludge and liquid manure (Norbert Dichtl, Wiebke Rand); (10) Further Development of anaerobic technology from microbiology to utilization of gas (Frank Scholwin, Michael Nelles); (11) Dry fermentation of biomass from waste (Rolf Lieberneiner, Ulf Theilen); (12) Solid-Liquid separation of municipal waste - an experience report VM press (Gregor Stadtmueller); (13) A cost effective total solution of the treatment of biological wastes with partial flow fermentation (Martin Mayer); (14) An exemplary economical optimisation in the composting of wastes by means of a preinstalled fermentation technology with utilization of waste heat (Peter Lutz); (15) Secondary fuels - processing and utilization (Thomas Pretz); (16) Sewage sludge - waste or substitute fuel? (Armin Uhrig); (17) Utilisation of substitute fuels in the paper

  19. Biomass Program 2007 Accomplishments - Full Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's (EERE’s) Biomass Program works with industry, academia and its national laboratory partners on a balanced portfolio of research in biomass feedstocks and conversion technologies. This document provides Program accomplishments for 2007.

  20. Do biomass harvesting guidelines influence herpetofauna following harvests of logging residues for renewable energy?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritts, Sarah; Moorman, Christopher; Grodsky, Steven; Hazel, Dennis; Homyack, Jessica; Farrell, Chris; Castleberry, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Forests are a major supplier of renewable energy; however, gleaning logging residues for use as woody biomass feedstock could negatively alter habitat for species dependent on downed wood. Biomass Harvesting Guidelines (BHGs) recommend retaining a portion of woody biomass on the forest floor following harvest. Despite BHGs being developed to help ensure ecological sustainability, their contribution to biodiversity has not been evaluated experimentally at operational scales. We compared herpetofauanal evenness, diversity, and richness and abundance of Anaxyrus terrestris and Gastrophryne carolinensis among six treatments that varied in volume and spatial arrangement of woody biomass retained after clearcutting loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantations in North Carolina, USA (n = 4), 2011-2014 and Georgia (n = 4), USA 2011-2013. Treatments were: (1) biomass harvest with no BHGs, (2) 15% retention with biomass clustered, (3) 15% retention with biomass dispersed, (4) 30% retention with biomass clustered, (5) 30% retention with biomass dispersed, and (6) no biomass harvest. We captured individuals with drift fence arrays and compared evenness, diversity, and richness metrics among treatments with repeated-measure, linear mixed-effects models. We determined predictors of A. terrestris and G. carolinensis abundances using a priori candidate N-mixture models with woody biomass volume, vegetation structure, and groundcover composition as covariates. We had 206 captures of 25 reptile species and 8710 captures of 17 amphibian species during 53690 trap nights. Herpetofauna diversity, evenness, and richness were similar among treatments. A. terrestris abundance was negatively related to volume of retained woody biomass in treatment units in North Carolina in 2013. G. carolinensis abundance was positively related with volume of retained woody debris in treatment units in Georgia in 2012. Other relationships between A. terrestris and G. carolinensis abundances and habitat metrics

  1. Do biomass harvesting guidelines influence herpetofauna following harvests of logging residues for renewable energy?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritts, Sarah; Moorman, Christopher; Grodsky, Steven; Hazel, Dennis; Homyack, Jessica; Farrell, Chris; Castleberry, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Forests are a major supplier of renewable energy; however, gleaning logging residues for use as woody biomass feedstock could negatively alter habitat for species dependent on downed wood. Biomass Harvesting Guidelines (BHGs) recommend retaining a portion of woody biomass on the forest floor following harvest. Despite BHGs being developed to help ensure ecological sustainability, their contribution to biodiversity has not been evaluated experimentally at operational scales. We compared herpetofauanal evenness, diversity, and richness and abundance of Anaxyrus terrestris and Gastrophryne carolinensis among six treatments that varied in volume and spatial arrangement of woody biomass retained after clearcutting loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantations in North Carolina, USA (n = 4), 2011-2014 and Georgia (n = 4), USA 2011-2013. Treatments were: (1) biomass harvest with no BHGs, (2) 15% retention with biomass clustered, (3) 15% retention with biomass dispersed, (4) 30% retention with biomass clustered, (5) 30% retention with biomass dispersed, and (6) no biomass harvest. We captured individuals with drift fence arrays and compared evenness, diversity, and richness metrics among treatments with repeated-measure, linear mixed-effects models. We determined predictors of A. terrestris and G. carolinensis abundances using a priori candidate N-mixture models with woody biomass volume, vegetation structure, and groundcover composition as covariates. We had 206 captures of 25 reptile species and 8710 captures of 17 amphibian species during 53690 trap nights. Herpetofauna diversity, evenness, and richness were similar among treatments. A. terrestris abundance was negatively related to volume of retained woody biomass in treatment units in North Carolina in 2013. G. carolinensis abundance was positively related with volume of retained woody debris in treatment units in Georgia in 2012. Other relationships between A. terrestris and G. carolinensis abundances and habitat metrics

  2. Biomass Conversion Factsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-05

    To efficiently convert algae, diverse types of cellulosic biomass, and emerging feedstocks into renewable fuels, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports research, development, and demonstration of technologies. This research will help ensure that these renewable fuels are compatible with today’s vehicles and infrastructure.

  3. CBTL Design Case Summary Conventional Feedstock Supply System - Woody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher T. Wright; Erin M. Searcy

    2012-02-01

    A conventional woody feedstock design has been developed that represents supply system technologies, costs, and logistics that are achievable today for supplying woody biomass as a blendstock with coal for energy production. Efforts are made to identify bottlenecks and optimize the efficiency and capacities of this supply system, within the constraints and consideration of existing local feedstock supplies, equipment, and permitting requirements. The feedstock supply system logistics operations encompass all of the activities necessary to move woody biomass from the production location to the conversion reactor ready for blending and insertion. This supply system includes operations that are currently available such that costs and logistics are reasonable and reliable. The system modeled for this research project includes the use of the slash stream since it is a more conservative analysis and represents the material actually used in the experimental part of the project.

  4. Process Design Report for Wood Feedstock: Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Desing and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Current and Futuristic Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooley, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheehan, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibsen, Kelly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Majdeski, Henry [Delta-T Corporation, Lexington, KY (United States); Galves, Adrian [Delta-T Corporation, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has undertaken a complete review and update of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process based on co-current dilute acid prehydrolysis, along with simultaneous saccharification (enzymatic) and co-fermentation. The process design includes the core technologies being researched by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE): prehydrolysis, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, and cellulase enzyme production.

  5. Current and potential utilisation of biomass energy in Fiji

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy from biomass accounts for an average of 43% of the primary energy used in developing countries, with some countries totally dependent on biomass for all their energy needs. The most common use for biomass for energy is the provision of heat for cooking and heating; other uses include steam and electricity generation and crop and food drying. Fiji, a developing country, uses energy from wood and coconut wastes for cooking and copra drying. Bagasse from sugar mills is used to generate process steam as well as some 15 MW of electricity, for mill consumption and for sale to the national grid. Other, relatively small scale uses for biomass include the generation of steam and electricity for industry. This paper attempts to quantify the amount of biomass, in its various forms, available in Fiji and assesses the current potential utilisation of biomass for energy in Fiji. (author)

  6. Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.

    2001-02-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a mission-oriented program of research and analysis whose goal is to develop and demonstrate cropping systems for producing large quantities of low-cost, high-quality biomass feedstocks for use as liquid biofuels, biomass electric power, and/or bioproducts. The program specifically supports the missions and goals of DOE's Office of Fuels Development and DOE's Office of Power Technologies. ORNL has provided technical leadership and field management for the BFDP since DOE began energy crop research in 1978. The major components of the BFDP include energy crop selection and breeding; crop management research; environmental assessment and monitoring; crop production and supply logistics operational research; integrated resource analysis and assessment; and communications and outreach. Research into feedstock supply logistics has recently been added and will become an integral component of the program.

  7. Biomass Energy Systems and Resources in Tropical Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Lugano

    2010-01-01

    Tanzania has a characteristic developing economy, which is dependent on agricultural productivity.  About 90% of the total primary energy consumption of the country is from biomass.  Since the biomass is mostly consumed at the household level in form of wood fuel, it is marginally contributing to the commercial energy supply.  However, the country has abundant energy resources from hydro, biomass, natural gas, coal, uranium, solar, wind and geothermal.  Due to reasons that include the limited...

  8. Opportunities for utilizing waste biomass for energy in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Bingh, Lars Petter

    2004-01-01

    The energy system in Uganda is largely based on biomass and especially wood. The high demand for wood results in fast reductions of the available wood stocks. This thesis is focusing on biomass waste as a supplement to the existing energy carriers. This thesis includes agricultural residues from the main cash and food crops in Uganda, as well as municipal solid waste (MSW) in Kampala. The available biomass waste resources are mapped, the energy content is examined and possible ways of utiliza...

  9. Current Status and Prospects of Biomass Energy Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    At present biomass energy industry is in its infancy in China and it has a bright future. Biomass energy production used grain as raw materials has entered industrialization phase.Some key technologies of biomass energy industry are coming to mature.China has issued relevant industrial standards laws and regulations,and has provided support in finance,loan,tax,etc.But China's biomass energy industry is faced with many problems which need to be solved.For example,taking grain as raw materials is unsustain...

  10. Economic development through biomass system integration. Volumes 2--4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLong, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    Report documents a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is the feedstock for a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle) in a way that benefits the facility owners.

  11. Effects of feedstocks on the process integration of biohydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foglia, Domenico; Wukovits, Walter; Friedl, Anton [Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Ljunggren, Mattias; Zacchi, Guido [Lund University, P. O. Box 124, Lund (Sweden); Urbaniec, Krzysztof; Markowski, Mariusz [Warsaw University of Technology, Plock (Poland)

    2011-08-15

    Future production of hydrogen must be sustainable. To obtain it, renewable resources have to be employed for its production. Fermentation of biomasses could be a viable way. The process evaluated is a two-step fermentation to produce hydrogen from biomass. Process options with barley straws, PSP, and thick juice as feedstocks have been compared on the basis of process balances. Aspen Plus has been used to calculate mass and energy balances taking into account the integration of the process. Results show that the production of hydrogen as energy carrier is technically feasible with all the considered feedstocks and thanks to heat integration, second generation biomass (PSP and barley straws) are competitive with food crops (thick juice). (orig.)

  12. BIOMASS AND NATURAL GAS AS CO-FEEDSTOCKS FOR PRODUCTION OF FUEL FOR FUEL-CELL VEHICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The article gives results of an examination of prospects for utilizing renewable energy crops as a source of liquid fuel to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from mobile sources and reduce dependence on imported petroleum. Fuel cells would provide an optimum vehicle technology fo...

  13. Biomass resources for energy in Ohio: The OH-MARKAL modeling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Bibhakar

    consequences of alternative energy scenarios for the future. The model can also be used to estimate the relative merits of various energy technologies. By developing OH-MARKAL as an empirical model, this study evaluates the prospects of biomass cofiring in Ohio to generate commercial electricity. As cofiring utilizes the existing infrastructure, it is an attractive option for utilizing biomass energy resources, with the objective of replacing non-renewable fuel (coal) with renewable and cleaner fuel (biomass). It addresses two key issues: first, the importance of diversifying the fuel resource base for the power industry; and second, the need to increase the use of biomass or renewable resources in Ohio. The results of the various model scenarios developed in this study indicate that policy interventions are necessary to make biomass co-firing competitive with coal, and that about 7 percent of electricity can be generated by using biomass feedstock in Ohio. This study recommends mandating an optimal level of a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) for Ohio to increase renewable electricity generation in the state. To set a higher goal of RPS than 7 percent level, Ohio needs to include other renewable sources such as wind, solar or hydro in its electricity generation portfolio. The results also indicate that the marginal price of electricity must increase by four fold to mitigate CO2 emissions 15 percent below the 2002 level, suggesting Ohio will also need to consider and invest in clean coal technologies and examine the option of carbon sequestration. Hence, Ohio's energy strategy should include a mix of domestic renewable energy options, energy efficiency, energy conservation, clean coal technology, and carbon sequestration options. It would seem prudent for Ohio to become proactive in reducing CO2 emissions so that it will be ready to deal with any future federal mandates, otherwise the consequences could be detrimental to the state's economy.

  14. High concentrations of dried sorghum stalks as a biomass feedstock for single cell oil production by Rhodosporidium toruloides

    OpenAIRE

    Matsakas, Leonidas; Bonturi, Nemailla; Miranda, Everson Alves; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Environmental crisis and concerns for energy security have made the research for renewable fuels that will substitute the usage of fossil fuels an important priority. Biodiesel is a potential substitute for petroleum, but its feasibility is hindered by the utilization of edible vegetable oil as raw material, which is responsible for a large fraction of the production cost and fosters the food versus fuel competition. Microbial oils are an interesting alternative as they do not comp...

  15. Renewable energy potential from biomass residues in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said, N.; Zamorano, M. [Civil Engineering Dept., Univ. of Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, Granada (Spain); El-Shatoury, S.A. [Botany Dept., Faculty of Sciences, Suez Canal Univ., Ismailia (Egypt)

    2012-11-01

    Egypt has been one of the developing countries following successful programs for the development of renewable energy resources, with special emphasis on solar, wind and biomass. Utilization of biomass as a source of energy is important from energetic as well as environmental viewpoint. Furthermore, Egypt produces millions of biomass waste every year causing pollution and health problems. So, the incorporation of biomass with other renewable energy will increase the impact of solving energy and environmental problem. There is a good potential for the utilization of biomass energy resources in Egypt. Four main types of biomass energy sources are included in this study: agricultural residues, municipal solid wastes, animal wastes and sewage sludge. Analysis of the potential biomass resource quantity and its theoretical energy content has been computed according to literature review. The agriculture crop residue represents the main source of biomass waste with a high considerable amount of the theoretical potential energy in Egypt. Rice straw is considered one of the most important of such residue due to its high amount and its produced energy through different conversion techniques represent a suitable candidate for crop energy production in Egypt.

  16. Biomass direct-fired power generation system in China: An integrated energy, GHG emissions, and economic evaluation for Salix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To gain a better understanding of the options of biomass power generation in China, this study presented an integrated energy, environmental, and economic evaluation for Salix in China, and a typical Salix direct-fired power generation system (SDPGS) in Inner Mongolia was selected for case study. A tiered hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) model was developed to calculate the “planting-to-wire” (PTW) energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and economic cost and profit of the SDPGS, including feedstock cultivation, power plant construction and operation, and on-grid price with/without government subsidies. The results show that the PTW energy consumption and GHG emissions of Salix are 0.8 MJ/kWh and 114 g CO2-eq/kWh, respectively, indicating an energy payback time (EPBT) of 3.2 years. The SDPGS is not economically feasible without government subsidies. The PTW costs are dominated by feedstock cultivation. The energy saving and GHG mitigation benefits are still robust, even when the power plant runs at only 60% design capacity. For future development of biomass power in China, scientific planning is necessary to guarantee a sufficient feedstock supply. In addition, technology progress, mature industrial chains, and reasonable price setting policy are required to enable potential energy and environmental advantages of biomass power moving forward. -- Highlights: •A hybrid LCA model was used to evaluate overall performance of the SDPGS. •On-site processes dominate the “planting-to-wire” footprints. •The energy saving and GHG mitigation benefits of the SDPGS are robust. •The economic profit of the SDPGS is feeble without government subsidies. •Generating efficiency promotion has a comprehensive positive effect on the system

  17. Limiting biomass consumption for heating in 100% renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Connolly, David

    2012-01-01

    -scale solar thermal, large heat pumps, geothermal heat, industrial surplus heat, and waste incineration. Where the energy density in the building stock is not high enough for DH to be economical, geothermal heat pumps can be recommended for individual heating systems, even though biomass consumption is higher......The utilisation of biomass poses large challenges in renewable energy systems while buildings account for a substantial part of the energy supply even in 100% renewable energy systems. In this paper the focus is on how the heating sector can reduce its consumption of biomass, thus leaving biomass...... for other sectors, but while still enabling a 100% renewable energy system. The analyses of heating technologies shows that district heating (DH) systems are important in limiting the dependence on biomass and create cost effective solutions. DH systems are especially important in renewable energy systems...

  18. Geographies of biomass and solar energy: Spatial decision support for regional energy sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Kirby Edward

    This thesis applies concepts and techniques in geography in order to contribute to our understanding of the opportunities and challenges associated with the transition toward renewable energy. The work is best understood as the sum of two parts. In the first part, the methodological and philosophical underpinnings of the field of energy geography are explored in order to situate the research in the broader constellation of geographical practices surrounding energy. I make the case that energy transitions are not merely shifts in energy supply but are also simultaneously fundamental shifts in prevailing spatial relations, so that energy transition management is best conceived as a spatial strategy with emphasis on regional level land-energy planning. In the second part of the thesis, I aim to provide decision support in favour of this spatial strategy. This begins in Chapter 4 with a comprehensive critical review of how GIScience and remote sensing has been applied in RE assessments and spatial planning. The next three chapters engage key gaps in this literature and are the analytical contributions of the thesis. The focus of the research is on biomass and solar energy in (eastern) Ontario. In Chapter 5 I develop geographically explicit supply-cost curves for forestry and agricultural biomass and assess the relative merits of a mixed biomass feedstock stream. In Chapter 6 I recognize and address the issue that developers of dedicated bioenergy crops and ground-mount solar PV systems prefer the same type of land. Land-energy trade-offs are modeled and their implications in the context of incentivizing RE development are discussed. In Chapter 7 I explore ways in which targeted facility siting can capture ancillary benefits related to RE production. I argue that focusing on the benefits as well as the costs of system siting is critical to linking developer and public interests. Ontario's feed-in tariff program is evaluated in the light of this claim. Chapter 8

  19. Biomass I. Science Activities in Energy [and] Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Designed for science students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, the activities in this unit illustrate principles and problems related to biomass as a form of energy. (The word biomass is used to describe all solid material of animal or vegetable origin from which energy may be extracted.) Twelve student activities using art, economics,…

  20. A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2014-02-21

    The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H{sub 2}Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H{sub 2}) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H{sub 2} is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H{sub 2}Bioil process for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on model compounds as well as real biomass

  1. Environmental impacts of biomass energy resource production and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of the environmental impacts associated with the production, conversion and utilization of biomass energy resources and compare them with the impacts of conventional fuels. The use of sustainable biomass resources can play an important role in helping developing nations meet their rapidly growing energy needs, while providing significant environmental advantages over the use of fossil fuels. Two of the most important environmental benefits biomass energy offers are reduced net emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly CO2, and reduced emissions of SO2, the primary contributor to acid rain. The paper also addresses the environmental impacts of supplying a range of specific biomass resources, including forest-based resources, numerous types of biomass residues and energy crops. Some of the benefits offered by the various biomass supplies include support for improved forest management, improved waste management, reduced air emissions (by eliminating the need for open-field burning of residues) and reduced soil erosion (for example, where perennial energy crops are planted on degraded or deforested land). The environmental impacts of a range of biomass conversion technologies are also addressed, including those from the thermochemical processing of biomass (including direct combustion in residential wood stoves and industrial-scale boilers, gasification and pyrolysis); biochemical processing (anaerobic digestion and fermentation); and chemical processing (extraction of organic oils). In addition to reducing CO2 and SO2, other environmental benefits of biomass conversion technologies include the distinctly lower toxicity of the ash compared to coal ash, reduced odours and pathogens from manure, reduced vehicle emissions of CO2, with the use of ethanol fuel blends, and reduced particulate and hydrocarbon emissions where biodiesel is used as a substitute for diesel fuel. In general, the key elements for achieving

  2. Energy analysis of using macroalgae from eutrophic waters as a bioethanol feedstock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghetta, Michele; Østergård, Hanne; Bastianoni, Simone

    2014-01-01

    , and in KB runoff from agricultural land constitutes 86%. The environmental support needed for producing one Joule of bioethanol is somewhat more than for a number of other bioethanol feedstocks being 2.12 x 106 solar equivalent Joules (seJ) for OL and 2.56 x 106 seJ for KB. However, a high percentage...

  3. Comparative Life Cycle Assessments: Carbon Neutrality and Wood Biomass Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Sedjo, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass energy is expected to play a major role in the substitution of renewable energy sources for fossil fuels over the next several decades. The US Energy Information Administration (EIA 2012) forecasts increases in the share of biomass in US energy production from 8 percent in 2009 to 15 percent by 2035. The general view has been that carbon emitted into the atmosphere from biological materials is carbon neutral—part of a closed loop whereby plant regrowth simply recaptures the carbon emi...

  4. Greenhouse gas and energy analysis of substitute natural gas from biomass for space heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the greenhouse gas and energy balances of the production and use for space heating of substitute natural gas from biomass (bio-SNG) for space heat are analysed. These balances are compared to the use of natural gas and solid biomass as wood chips to provide the same service. The reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions (CO2-eq.) – carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide – and of the fossil primary energy use is investigated in a life cycle assessment (LCA). This assessment was performed for nine systems for bio-SNG; three types of gasification technologies (O2-blown entrained flow, O2-blown circulating fluidised bed and air–steam indirect gasification) with three different types of feedstock (forest residues, miscanthus and short rotation forestry). The greenhouse gas analysis shows that forest residues using the air–steam indirect gasification technology result in the lowest greenhouse gas emissions (in CO2-eq. 32 kg MWh−1 of heat output). This combination results in 80% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions when compared to natural gas and a 29% reduction of greenhouse gases if the forest residues were converted to wood chips and combusted. The gasification technologies O2-blown entrained flow and O2-blown circulating fluidised bed gasification have higher greenhouse gas emissions that range between in CO2-eq. 41 to 75 kg MWh−1 of heat output depending on the feedstock. When comparing feedstocks in the bio-SNG systems, miscanthus had the highest greenhouse gas emissions bio-SNG systems producing in CO2-eq. 57–75 kg MWh−1 of heat output. Energy analysis shows that the total primary energy use is higher for bio-SNG systems (1.59–2.13 MWh MWh−1 of heat output) than for the reference systems (in 1.37–1.51 MWh MWh−1 of heat output). However, with bio-SNG the fossil primary energy consumption is reduced compared to natural gas. For example, fossil primary energy use is reduced by 92% when air–steam indirect gasification

  5. Assessing Ohio's Biomass Resources for Energy Potential Using GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanty, P. Wilner; Warren, Dave; Hitzhusen, Fred

    2004-01-01

    This recently completed AEDE study funded by Ohio DOD involves a geo-referenced inventory by county of Ohio biomass resources for energy. Categories include forest and crop residues, livestock manure, municipal solid waste and food processing waste. This is an update and expansion of an earlier (1982) inventory of biomass by Hitzhusen et al. It also disaggregates and expands a study by Walsh et al. in 2000 which ranked Ohio 11th among the 50 states in total biomass availability. By estimating...

  6. Biomass energy: the scale of the potential resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christopher B; Campbell, J Elliott; Lobell, David B

    2008-02-01

    Increased production of biomass for energy has the potential to offset substantial use of fossil fuels, but it also has the potential to threaten conservation areas, pollute water resources and decrease food security. The net effect of biomass energy agriculture on climate could be either cooling or warming, depending on the crop, the technology for converting biomass into useable energy, and the difference in carbon stocks and reflectance of solar radiation between the biomass crop and the pre-existing vegetation. The area with the greatest potential for yielding biomass energy that reduces net warming and avoids competition with food production is land that was previously used for agriculture or pasture but that has been abandoned and not converted to forest or urban areas. At the global scale, potential above-ground plant growth on these abandoned lands has an energy content representing approximately 5% of world primary energy consumption in 2006. The global potential for biomass energy production is large in absolute terms, but it is not enough to replace more than a few percent of current fossil fuel usage. Increasing biomass energy production beyond this level would probably reduce food security and exacerbate forcing of climate change. PMID:18215439

  7. The necessity of biomass energy for the Turkish economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surmen, Y. [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Faculty of Economics and Business Administrative Sciences, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2003-02-15

    Biomass energy is derived from plant and animal material, such as wood from natural forests, waste from agricultural and forestry processes, and industrial, human, or animal wastes. Various agricultural residues such as grain dust, wheat straw, and hazelnut shell are available in Turkey as the sources of biomass energy. Among the biomass energy sources, fuelwood seems to be one of the most interesting because its share of the total energy production of Turkey is high at 21% and the techniques for converting it to useful energy are not necessarily sophisticated. The total forest potential of Turkey is around 935 million m{sup 3} with an annual growth of about 28 million m{sup 3}. The consumption of forest biomass compared to total energy has slightly decreased from 22 to 14% during the last decade because the consumption of liquefied petroleum gases is increasing continuously. (Author)

  8. Biomass torrefaction mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  9. Exploring biomass energy of microorganisms using data mining methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy crisis is a global issue and biomass energy is treated as a potential alternative energy. Biomass energy is a renewable energy that is converted by the use of abundant biomass. Archaea, which are suitable microorganisms for biomass converting into biomass energy, can survive under ammonia oxidation environment and release energy through the genetic metabolism. In this study, we analyzed and classified 27 kinds of Archaea, by using Fuzzy C-Means algorithm. Based on the concept of genetic metabolism, 'codon usage bias' of three amino acids, Leucine, Serine and Arginine in Archaea, were chosen as the source for cluster analysis. Results showed a strong relationship between the finding clusters and traditional biological classifications, especially for the 'Codon Usage Number' of Leucine. It is concluded that No. 15, No. 21 and No. 23, which have significant correlation with biological classification due to the same Genus species, would be found out as the potential Archaea by Fuzzy C-Means algorithm for biomass conversion. In summary, this study provides a method of clustering analysis to explore the microorganism for biomass.

  10. Potential contribution of biomass to the sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass is a renewable energy source and its importance will increase as national energy policy and strategy focuses more heavily on renewable sources and conservation. Biomass is considered the renewable energy source with the highest potential to contribute to the energy needs of modern society for both the industrialized and developing countries worldwide. The most important biomass energy sources are wood and wood wastes, agricultural crops and their waste byproducts, municipal solid waste, animal wastes, waste from food processing, and aquatic plants and algae. Biomass is one potential source of renewable energy and the conversion of plant material into a suitable form of energy, usually electricity or as a fuel for an internal combustion engine, can be achieved using a number of different routes, each with specific pros and cons. Currently, much research has been focused on sustainable and environmental friendly energy from biomass to replace conventional fossil fuels. The main objective of the present study is to investigate global potential and use of biomass energy and its contribution to the sustainable energy development by presenting its historical development.

  11. Assessment of the externalise of biomass energy for electricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, P.; Leal, J.; Saez, R.M.

    1996-07-01

    This study presents a methodology for the quantification of the socioeconomic and environmental externalities of the biomass fuel cycle. It is based on the one developed by the ExternE Project of the European Commission, based in turm in the damage function approach, and which has been extended and modified for a better adaptation to biomass energy systems. The methodology has been applied to a 20 MW biomass power plant, fueled by Cynara cardunculus, in southern Spain. The externalities addressed have been macroeconomic effects, employment, CO2, fixation, erosion, and non-point source pollution. The results obtained should be considered only as subtotals, since there are still other externalities to be quantified. Anyway, and in spite of the uncertainty existing, these results suggest that the total cost (those including internal and external costs) of biomass energy are lower than those of conventional energy sources, what, if taken into account, would make biomass more competitive than it is now. (Author) 44 refs.

  12. Assessment of the externalise of biomass energy for electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents a methodology for the quantification of the socioeconomic and environmental externalities of the biomass fuel cycle. It is based on the one developed by the ExternE Project of the European Commission, based in turm in the damage function approach, and which has been extended and modified for a better adaptation to biomass energy systems. The methodology has been applied to a 20 MW biomass power plant, fueled by Cynara cardunculus, in southern Spain. The externalities addressed have been macroeconomic effects, employment, CO2, fixation, erosion, and non-point source pollution. The results obtained should be considered only as subtotals, since there are still other externalities to be quantified. Anyway, and in spite of the uncertainty existing, these results suggest that the total cost (those including internal and external costs) of biomass energy are lower than those of conventional energy sources, what, if taken into account, would make biomass more competitive than it is now. (Author) 44 refs

  13. Assessment of the externalities of biomass energy for electricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, P.; Leal, J.; Saez, R.M.

    1996-10-01

    This study presents a methodology for the quantification of the socioeconomic and environmental externalities of the biomass fuel cycle. It is based on the one developed by the ExternE Project of the European Commission, based in turn in the damage function approach, and which has been extended and modified for a better adaptation to biomass energy systems. The methodology has been applied to a 20 MW biomass power plant, fueled by Cynara cardunculus, in southern Spain. The externalities addressed have been macroeconomic effects, employment, CO{sub 2}, fixation, erosion, and non-point source pollution. The results obtained should be considered only as subtotals, since there are still other externalities to be quantified. anyway, and in spite of the uncertainty existing, these results suggest that total cost (those including internal and external costs) of biomass energy are lower than those of conventional energy sources, what, if taken into account, would make biomass more competitive than it is now. (Author)

  14. Energy production from marine biomass (Ulva lactuca)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaisen, L.; Daugbjerg Jensen, P.; Svane Bech, K. [Danish Technological Institute (DTI), Taastrup (Denmark)] [and others

    2011-11-15

    In this project, methods for producing liquid, gaseous and solid biofuel from the marine macroalgae Ulva lactuca has been studied. To get an understanding of the growth conditions of Ulva lactuca, laboratory scale growth experiments describing N, P, and CO{sub 2} uptake and possible N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} production are carried out. The macroalgae have been converted to bioethanol and methane (biogas) in laboratory processes. Further the potential of using the algae as a solid combustible biofuel is studied. Harvest and conditioning procedures are described together with the potential of integrating macroalgae production at a power plant. The overall conclusions are: 1. Annual yield of Ulva lactuca is 4-5 times land-based energy crops. 2. Potential for increased growth rate when bubbling with flue gas is up to 20%. 3. Ethanol/butanol can be produced from pretreated Ulva of C6 and - for butanol - also C5 sugars. Fermentation inhibitors can possibly be removed by mechanical pressing. The ethanol production is 0,14 gram pr gram dry Ulva lactuca. The butanol production is lower. 4. Methane yields of Ulva are at a level between cow manure and energy crops. 5. Fast pyrolysis produces algae oil which contains 78 % of the energy content of the biomass. 6. Catalytic supercritical water gasification of Ulva lactuca is feasible and a methane rich gas can be obtained. 7. Thermal conversion of Ulva is possible with special equipment as low temperature gasification and grate firing. 8. Co-firing of Ulva with coal in power plants is limited due to high ash content. 9. Production of Ulva only for energy purposes at power plants is too costly. 10. N{sub 2}O emission has been observed in lab scale, but not in pilot scale production. 11. Analyses of ash from Ulva lactuca indicates it as a source for high value fertilizers. 12. Co-digestion of Ulva lactuca together with cattle manure did not alter the overall fertilization value of the digested cattle manure alone. (LN)

  15. Valorization of jatropha fruit biomass for energy applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasabessy, A.

    2015-01-01

    Valorization of Jatropha fruit biomass for energy applications Ahmad Marasabessy

    Thesis Abstract

    Our research objectives were to develop sustainable technologies of Jatropha oil extraction and Jatropha biomass fractionatio

  16. Biomass energy research program 2008 - 2011; Energieforschungsprogramm Biomasse fuer die Jahre 2008-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermle, S.; Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2008-07-01

    This report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the Swiss research program on energy from biomass for the years 2008 to 2011. The Swiss government's energy research programs are defined every four years in co-operation with the Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission. This paper describes the concept for the biomass area. Research into modern technological concepts and ways of transforming biomass into energy are discussed and main areas of research to be addressed are discussed. Three main technological areas are defined: combustion, gasification and anaerobic fermentation. Important themes to be examined include system optimisation and integration, quality assurance and the promotion of new technologies. National and international networking between research and practice is commented on, as are the possibilities for the funding of the work.

  17. Biomass energy success stories: a portfolio illustrating current economic uses of renewable biomass energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-03-01

    This second edition of the Biomass Energy Success Stories covers a wide range of examples of organizations which have experienced economic benefits by substituting renewable biomass energy for non-renewable fossil fuels. In addition to the broader spectrum of industry seen to be pursuing this approach, the cases illustrate a move towards innovative and technologically more sophisticated approaches. For example, the Quebec Community's thermal accumulator acts as a buffer to accommodate the variable fuel value of boiler fuel consisting of unpredictable residues of variable moisture content. By this innovative approach, the quality of steam to its year-round customer can be held within the contractual limits. Another unique development appears in the use of the LAMB-CARGATE wet cell burner which is able to cope with wood residue fuels containing up to 70% moisture. Two of the more interesting and promising developments in the race to substitute renewable energy for fossil fuels are Fluidized Bed and Fuel-alcohol on-farm distilleries. For this reason appendices are included giving some useful insights concerning them.

  18. Energy generation from biomass with the aid of fuel cells; Energetische Nutzung von Biomasse mit Brennstoffzellenverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    To provide an opportunity for information exchange at the interface between biomass use for energy generation and developers of fuel cells, the workshop 'Energy generation from biomass with the aid of fuel cells' was held by the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe on 9 and 10 December 1998. The lectures and discussions permit to assess better the opportunities and restraints resulting from the use of biogenous fuel gas in fuel cells. (orig.) [German] Um an der Schnittstelle zwischen der energetischen Nutzung von Biomasse und den Entwicklern von Brennstoffzellen einen Informationsaustausch zu ermoeglichen, wurde am 9. und 10. Dezember 1998 der Workshop 'Energetische Nutzung von Biomasse mit Brennstoffzellenverfahren' von der FNR veranstaltet. Die Vortraege und die Diskussion erlauben eine bessere Einschaetzung der Moeglichkeiten und Restriktionen, die sich bei dem Einsatz von biogenen Brenngasen in Brennstoffzellen ergeben. (orig.)

  19. Technical analysis of the use of biomass for energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiewak, I.; Nichols, J. P.; Alvic, D.; Delene, J. G.; Fitzgerald, B. H.; Hightower, J. R.; Klepper, O. H.; Krummel, J. R.; Mills, J. B.

    1982-08-01

    Results of a technical and economic evaluation of the use of biomass for energy production are presented. Estimates are made of the current and projected production and uses of biomass in the forms of wood, crop residues, grass and herbage, special crops, and animal wastes in various sectors of the US energy market. These studies indicate that because of its higher-value uses, bulkiness, diffuseness, and high water content, biomass is generally not competitive with conventional energy sources and is expected to have only limited application for energy production in the major market sectors - including the commercial sector, manufacturing, transportation, and electric utilities. The use of biomass for energy production is increasing in the forest-products industry, in farm applications, and in home heating because it is readily available to those users.

  20. Evaluation of suitability of water hyacinth as feedstock for bio-energy production / Cornelis JohannesJ. Schabort

    OpenAIRE

    Schabort, Cornelis Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The suitability of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) as a viable feedstock for renewable energy production was investigated in this project. Water hyacinth used in this study was harvested from the Vaal River near Parys in the northwest region of the Free State province, South Africa (26°54′S 27°27′E). The wet plants were processed in the laboratory at the North-West University by separating the roots from the leaves and the stems, thus obtaining two separate water hyacinth ...

  1. Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. [Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States)

    1992-03-01

    This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

  2. Economic feasibility of a wood biomass energy system under evolving demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Guariso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In some European regions, particularly in mountainous areas, the demand for energy is evolving due to the decrease of resident population and the adoption of energy efficiency measures. Such changes are rapid enough to significantly impact on the planning process of wood-to-energy chains that are supposed to work for the following 20–25 years. The paper summarizes a study in an Italian pre-alpine district where some municipality shows a declining resident population together with increasing summer tourism. The planning of conversion plants to exploit the local availability of wood is formulated as a mathematical programming problem that maximizes the economic return of the investment, under time-varying parameters that account for the demand evolution. Such a demand is estimated from current trends, while biomass availability and transport is computed from the local cartography, through standard GIS operations. Altogether, the mixed integer optimization problem has 11 possible plant locations of different sizes and technologies taking their feedstock from about 200 parcels. The problem is solved with a commercial software package and shows that the optimal plan changes if one considers the foreseen evolution of the energy demand. As it always happen in this type of biomass-based plants, while the problem formulation is general and may be applied to other cases, the solution obtained is strongly dependent on local values and thus cannot be extrapolated to different contexts.

  3. Experiments on torrefied wood pellet: study by gasification and characterization for waste biomass to energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Andrew N; Williams, Orla

    2016-05-01

    Samples of torrefied wood pellet produced by low-temperature microwave pyrolysis were tested through a series of experiments relevant to present and near future waste to energy conversion technologies. Operational performance was assessed using a modern small-scale downdraft gasifier. Owing to the pellet's shape and surface hardness, excellent flow characteristics were observed. The torrefied pellet had a high energy density, and although a beneficial property, this highlighted the present inflexibility of downdraft gasifiers in respect of feedstock tolerance due to the inability to contain very high temperatures inside the reactor during operation. Analyses indicated that the torrefaction process had not significantly altered inherent kinetic properties to a great extent; however, both activation energy and pre-exponential factor were slightly higher than virgin biomass from which the pellet was derived. Thermogravimetric analysis-derived reaction kinetics (CO2 gasification), bomb calorimetry, proximate and ultimate analyses, and the Bond Work Index grindability test provided a more comprehensive characterization of the torrefied pellet's suitability as a fuel for gasification and also other combustion applications. It exhibited significant improvements in grindability energy demand and particle size control compared to other non-treated and thermally treated biomass pellets, along with a high calorific value, and excellent resistance to water.

  4. Experiments on torrefied wood pellet: study by gasification and characterization for waste biomass to energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Andrew N; Williams, Orla

    2016-05-01

    Samples of torrefied wood pellet produced by low-temperature microwave pyrolysis were tested through a series of experiments relevant to present and near future waste to energy conversion technologies. Operational performance was assessed using a modern small-scale downdraft gasifier. Owing to the pellet's shape and surface hardness, excellent flow characteristics were observed. The torrefied pellet had a high energy density, and although a beneficial property, this highlighted the present inflexibility of downdraft gasifiers in respect of feedstock tolerance due to the inability to contain very high temperatures inside the reactor during operation. Analyses indicated that the torrefaction process had not significantly altered inherent kinetic properties to a great extent; however, both activation energy and pre-exponential factor were slightly higher than virgin biomass from which the pellet was derived. Thermogravimetric analysis-derived reaction kinetics (CO2 gasification), bomb calorimetry, proximate and ultimate analyses, and the Bond Work Index grindability test provided a more comprehensive characterization of the torrefied pellet's suitability as a fuel for gasification and also other combustion applications. It exhibited significant improvements in grindability energy demand and particle size control compared to other non-treated and thermally treated biomass pellets, along with a high calorific value, and excellent resistance to water. PMID:27293776

  5. Experiments on torrefied wood pellet: study by gasification and characterization for waste biomass to energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Andrew N.; Williams, Orla

    2016-05-01

    Samples of torrefied wood pellet produced by low-temperature microwave pyrolysis were tested through a series of experiments relevant to present and near future waste to energy conversion technologies. Operational performance was assessed using a modern small-scale downdraft gasifier. Owing to the pellet's shape and surface hardness, excellent flow characteristics were observed. The torrefied pellet had a high energy density, and although a beneficial property, this highlighted the present inflexibility of downdraft gasifiers in respect of feedstock tolerance due to the inability to contain very high temperatures inside the reactor during operation. Analyses indicated that the torrefaction process had not significantly altered inherent kinetic properties to a great extent; however, both activation energy and pre-exponential factor were slightly higher than virgin biomass from which the pellet was derived. Thermogravimetric analysis-derived reaction kinetics (CO2 gasification), bomb calorimetry, proximate and ultimate analyses, and the Bond Work Index grindability test provided a more comprehensive characterization of the torrefied pellet's suitability as a fuel for gasification and also other combustion applications. It exhibited significant improvements in grindability energy demand and particle size control compared to other non-treated and thermally treated biomass pellets, along with a high calorific value, and excellent resistance to water.

  6. Upgrading of solid biofuels and feedstock quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burvall, Jan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Agricultural Research for Northern Sweden

    1998-06-01

    This paper treats upgrading of biomass to pellets, briquettes and powder and the quality needed of the initial feedstock. The main raw materials are wood and reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) 5 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  7. The development and utilization of biomass energy resources in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass energy resources are abundant in China and have reached 730 million tonnes of coal equivalent, representing about 70% of the energy consumed by households. China has attached great importance to the development and utilization of its biomass energy resources and has implemented programmes for biogas unit manufacture, more efficient stoves, fuelwood development and thermal gasification to meet new demands for energy as the economy grows. The conclusion is that the increased use of low-carbon and non-carbon energy sources instead of fossil fuels is an important option for energy and environment strategy and has bright prospects in China. (author)

  8. Energy conversion of biomass in coping with global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Shin-ya; Ogi, Tomoko; Minowa, Tomoaki [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The main purpose of the present paper is to propose energy conversion technologies of biomass in coping with global warming. Among thermochemical conversion, liquid fuel production by high pressure process is mainly introduced. Biomass is a term used to describe materials of biological origin, either purpose-grown or arising as by-products, residues or wastes from forestry, agriculture and food processing. Such biomass is a renewable energy sources dependent on solar energy. Through photosynthesis, plants converts carbon dioxide into organic materials used in their growth. Energy can be recovered from the plant materials by several processes, the simplest way is burning in air. As far as biomass is used in this way, there is no atmospheric accumulation of carbon dioxide making no effect on the Greenhouse Effect, provided that the cycle of regrowth and burning is sustained.

  9. Biomass supply management for advanced energy: applications in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced biomass energy systems, including new biomass resource enhancement technologies, should be developed only where compelling situations for investors or communities exist to economically do so. These situations, or minimum viable operating conditions, are assessed from a pragmatic perspective. They are determined by specific circumstances and divergent interests that take time to define and integrate. Customized solutions are necessary and can change quickly with geography and market circumstances New technologies offer more options but are not necessarily the best. The example of energy crop technology is used to demonstrate the interdependencies that exist between new resource enhancement technology and biomass energy systems operations. The ability to genetically increase the energy density of energy crops is compared to other enhancement measures such as increasing the number of tonnes grown per hectare-year, reducing costs per tonne and improving other characteristics. Issues that need to be considered include significant knowledge gaps, lack of commitments in R and D, specificity of conversion system requirements, handling capabilities and opportunity costs. Broader biomass procurement strategies, which may be more important than resource enhancement technologies, are discussed. Biomass cost-supply is utilized as a strong analytical feature to evaluate the effectiveness of biomass procurement strategies and new biomass production technologies. Some past experiences are reviewed. Cost-supply is assessed from the perspective of the whole biomass energy system to expose the interdependencies between production operations, conversion scale and technologies, and community markets and service. Investment limits, for example, may be as important a determinant as the cost-efficiency of a new technology, which, in turn, affects biomass cost-supply-quality requirements. The cost of new technologies can then be compared to the changed performance of the overall

  10. Biodiesel from conventional feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Liu, De-Hua

    2012-01-01

    At present, traditional fossil fuels are used predominantly in China, presenting the country with challenges that include sustainable energy supply, energy efficiency improvement, and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In 2007, China issued The Strategic Plan of the Mid-and-Long Term Development of Renewable Energy, which aims to increase the share of clean energy in the country's energy consumption to 15% by 2020 from only 7.5% in 2005. Biodiesel, an important renewable fuel with significant advantages over fossil diesel, has attracted great attention in the USA and European countries. However, biodiesel is still in its infancy in China, although its future is promising. This chapter reviews biodiesel production from conventional feedstocks in the country, including feedstock supply and state of the art technologies for the transesterification reaction through which biodiesel is made, particularly the enzymatic catalytic process developed by Chinese scientists. Finally, the constraints and perspectives for China's biodiesel development are highlighted. PMID:22085921

  11. Sustainable biomass production for energy in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, K.K.C.K.; Rathnasiri, P.G.; Sugathapala, A.G.T. [Moratuwa Univ., Moratuwa (Sri Lanka)

    2003-11-01

    The present study concentrates mainly on the estimation of land availability for biomass production and the estimation of sustainable biomass production potential for energy. The feasible surplus land area available for bioenergy plantation is estimated assuming two land availability scenarios (Scenarios 1 and 2) and three biomass demand scenarios (IBD Scenario, SBD Scenario and FBD Scenario). Scenario 1 assumes that 100% of the surplus area available in base year 1997 will be suitable for plantation without considering population growth and food production and that 75% of this surplus land is feasible for plantation. Scenario 2 assumes that future food requirement will grow by 20% and the potential surplus area will be reduced by that amount. The incremental biomass demand scenario (IBD Scenario) assumes that only the incremental demand for biomass in the year 2010 with respect to the base year 1997 has to be produced from new plantation. The sustainable biomass demand scenario (SBD Scenario) assumes that the total sustainable supply of biomass in 1997 is deducted from the future biomass demand in 2010 and only the balance is to be met by new plantation. The full biomass demand scenario (FBD Scenario) assumes that the entire projected biomass demand of the year 2010 needs to be produced from new plantation. The total feasible land area for the scenarios IBD-l, IBD-2, SBD-l, SBD-2, FBD-l and FBD-2 are approximately 0.96, 0.66, 0.80, 0.94, 0.60 and 0.30 Mha, respectively. Biomass production potential is estimated by selecting appropriate plant species, plantation spacing and productivity level. The results show that the total annual biomass production in the country could vary from 2 to 9.9 Mt. With the production option (i.e. 1.5 m x 1.5 m spacing plantation with fertilizer application) giving the highest yield, the total biomass production for energy under IBD Scenario would be 9.9 Mtyr{sup -l} for Scenario 1 and 6.7 Mtyr{sup -l} for Scenario 2. Under SBD Scenario

  12. Sustainable biomass production for energy in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study concentrates mainly on the estimation of land availability for biomass production and the estimation of sustainable biomass production potential for energy. The feasible surplus land area available for bioenergy plantation is estimated assuming two land availability scenarios (Scenarios 1 and 2) and three biomass demand scenarios (IBD Scenario, SBD Scenario and FBD Scenario). Scenario 1 assumes that 100% of the surplus area available in base year 1997 will be suitable for plantation without considering population growth and food production and that 75% of this surplus land is feasible for plantation. Scenario 2 assumes that future food requirement will grow by 20% and the potential surplus area will be reduced by that amount. The incremental biomass demand scenario (IBD Scenario) assumes that only the incremental demand for biomass in the year 2010 with respect to the base year 1997 has to be produced from new plantation. The sustainable biomass demand scenario (SBD Scenario) assumes that the total sustainable supply of biomass in 1997 is deducted from the future biomass demand in 2010 and only the balance is to be met by new plantation. The full biomass demand scenario (FBD Scenario) assumes that the entire projected biomass demand of the year 2010 needs to be produced from new plantation. The total feasible land area for the scenarios IBD-1, 1BD-2, SBD-1, SBD-2, FBD-1 and FBD-2 are approximately 0.96, 0.66, 0.80, 0.94, 0.60 and 0.30 Mha, respectively. Biomass production potential is estimated by selecting appropriate plant species, plantation spacing and productivity level. The results show that the total annual biomass production in the country could vary from 2 to 9.9 Mt. With the production option (i.e. 1.5 mx1.5 m spacing plantation with fertilizer application) giving the highest yield, the total biomass production for energy under IBD Scenario would be 9.9 Mt yr-1 for Scenario 1 and 6.7 Mt yr-1 for Scenario 2. Under SBD Scenario, the

  13. Wood Biomass Sustainability under the Renewable Energy Directive

    OpenAIRE

    GORDEEVA, Yelena

    2014-01-01

    The article studies the role of wood biomass as a source of renewable energy in the EU and the potential sustainability risks associated with the rapid growth in the use of wood stimulated by the Renewable Energy Directive (RED). Secondly the article discusses the RED's sustainability criteria and their applicability to wood biomass. Thirdly, the article analyzes the current legal framework for forest management that is referred to by the European Commission as "enough to provide assurances f...

  14. Integration of Lignocellulosic Biomass into Renewable Energy Generation Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUSCH Sigrid

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In all European countries various lignocellulosic biomasses such as agricultural residues (straw, strawcontaining dung or fractions from municipal solid waste are available in large amounts, but currently hardly any of thispotential is being used for energy generation. This paper reviews the different options for including lignocellulosicbiomass into renewable energy generation schemes. Not all wastes are suitable to be treated by principally availabletechniques such as anaerobic digestion, ethanol production or thermal valorisation. The present paper gives an overviewof utilisation options for lignocellulosic biomass to either produce biofuels or to integrate such biomass into anaerobicdigestion. Biorefinery concepts are discussed as well.

  15. The feasibility of biomass production for the Netherlands energy economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysen, E.H. (Lysen Consulting Engineer (Netherlands)); Daey Ouwens, C. (CDO, Province of Nort-Holland (Netherlands)); Van Onna, M.J.G. (Agricultural Economics Research Institute LEI, The Hague (Netherlands)); Blok, K. (Group NWS, Univ. of Utrecht (Netherlands)); Okken, P.A. (Business Unit ESC-Energy Studies, Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, Petten (Netherlands)); Goudriaan, J. (Group TPE,

    1992-05-01

    The title study aims at providing a reliable overview of the technical and financial parameters for the available and potential methods of energy production through biomass. In the study the production of biomass has been separated as much as possible from the transport and the conversion of energy carriers such as fuels or electricity. The assessment of the feasibility is based upon data analysis in phase A of the study and subsequent interviews with key institutes and industries in the Netherlands in phase B. The problems in agriculture and environment justify an active policy with respect to the use of biomass for the Netherlands' energy economy. The developments and the programmes in other European countries and the USA, the fact that a good infrastructure is present in the Netherlands, and the possible spin-off for developing countries justify this conclusion. It is recommended to initiate a focused national programme in the field of biomass energy, properly coordinated with the present ongoing Energy from Waste programme (EWAB) and with ongoing international programmes. The programme should encompass both research and development, as well as a few demonstration projects. Research to reduce costs of biomass is important, largely through reaching higher yields. In view of the competitive kWh costs of combined biomass gasifier/steam and gas turbines systems, based upon energy and environmental considerations, development and demonstration of this system is appropriate. 14 figs., 24 tabs., 6 app., 99 refs.

  16. Financing models for biomass-energy; Modeles de financement de la biomasse-energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khennas, S.

    2000-06-01

    There is a direct link between the market value of biomass and the demand. Investments are always directed towards projects where cost effectiveness is the greatest. On the African continent, the lack of coherent regional policies concerning biomass-energy and its financing hindered their spread and effectiveness. The author suggested means to rectify the situation. The first conclusion was that financing was not available for small scale projects. The description of the following five different models of financing by intermediate financing partners was presented: (1) rural development banks using public funds, (2) proximity financing, the multiplier effect, (3) direct financial intermediation through non-government agencies, (4) traditional savings, and (5) the use of bilateral development agencies. As far as medium and large scale projects were concerned, market niches were required to ensure the cost effectiveness of a project. One such niche was the production of electricity using biomass in the vicinity of centres where refuse was abundant. For large scale projects, one major constraint was the need for additional funds to prepare feasibility studies before applying for financing, since the information was not always readily available. In addition, funds for the implementation of viable projects were not available. Therefore, it became clear that the lack of projects which could interest the financing community explained the low direct investment in Africa. The author concluded by indicating that projects where the social impact was greatest should be allocated additional funds in the form of low interest loans or subsidies. The absence of a structured political and institutional framework was recognized as the major constraint in all cases.

  17. Evaluation the potential economic impacts of Taiwanese biomass energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Taiwanese rice paddy land set-aside program diverts a substantial land area. Given today's high energy prices and interests in energy security, that set-aside area could be converted to produce bioenergy feedstocks. This study evaluates the economic and environmental impacts of such a policy change using a Taiwanese agricultural sector model. The results show that such a strategy provides increased farm revenue, increased rural employment, increased energy sufficiency and reduced greenhouse gas emissions but also increased government expenditures. These outcomes indicate that the agricultural sector could play a positive role by producing renewable energy. -- Highlights: → This paper evaluates the economic and environmental impacts of converting set-aside area to produce bioenergy feedstocks. → Taiwanese agricultural sector model is built and applied to evaluate such impacts. → The empirical results show that producing bioenergy using set-aside area could provide increased farm revenue, increased rural employment, increased energy sufficiency and reduced greenhouse gas emissions but also increased government expenditures. → Agricultural sector in Taiwan could play a positive role by producing renewable energy.

  18. Energy Efficiency of Biogas Produced from Different Biomass Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Shahida; Nazri, A. H.

    2013-06-01

    Malaysia has different sources of biomass like palm oil waste, agricultural waste, cow dung, sewage waste and landfill sites, which can be used to produce biogas and as a source of energy. Depending on the type of biomass, the biogas produced can have different calorific value. At the same time the energy, being used to produce biogas is dependent on transportation distance, means of transportation, conversion techniques and for handling of raw materials and digested residues. An energy systems analysis approach based on literature is applied to calculate the energy efficiency of biogas produced from biomass. Basically, the methodology is comprised of collecting data, proposing locations and estimating the energy input needed to produce biogas and output obtained from the generated biogas. The study showed that palm oil and municipal solid waste is two potential sources of biomass. The energy efficiency of biogas produced from palm oil residues and municipal solid wastes is 1.70 and 3.33 respectively. Municipal solid wastes have the higher energy efficiency due to less transportation distance and electricity consumption. Despite the inherent uncertainties in the calculations, it can be concluded that the energy potential to use biomass for biogas production is a promising alternative.

  19. Energy Efficiency of Biogas Produced from Different Biomass Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia has different sources of biomass like palm oil waste, agricultural waste, cow dung, sewage waste and landfill sites, which can be used to produce biogas and as a source of energy. Depending on the type of biomass, the biogas produced can have different calorific value. At the same time the energy, being used to produce biogas is dependent on transportation distance, means of transportation, conversion techniques and for handling of raw materials and digested residues. An energy systems analysis approach based on literature is applied to calculate the energy efficiency of biogas produced from biomass. Basically, the methodology is comprised of collecting data, proposing locations and estimating the energy input needed to produce biogas and output obtained from the generated biogas. The study showed that palm oil and municipal solid waste is two potential sources of biomass. The energy efficiency of biogas produced from palm oil residues and municipal solid wastes is 1.70 and 3.33 respectively. Municipal solid wastes have the higher energy efficiency due to less transportation distance and electricity consumption. Despite the inherent uncertainties in the calculations, it can be concluded that the energy potential to use biomass for biogas production is a promising alternative.

  20. Influence of feedstock particle size on lignocellulose conversion--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Bernardo C; Dien, Bruce S; Ting, K C; Singh, Vijay

    2011-08-01

    Feedstock particle sizing can impact the economics of cellulosic ethanol commercialization through its effects on conversion yield and energy cost. Past studies demonstrated that particle size influences biomass enzyme digestibility to a limited extent. Physical size reduction was able to increase conversion rates to maximum of ≈ 50%, whereas chemical modification achieved conversions of >70% regardless of biomass particle size. This suggests that (1) mechanical pretreatment by itself is insufficient to attain economically feasible biomass conversion, and, therefore, (2) necessary particle sizing needs to be determined in the context of thermochemical pretreatment employed for lignocellulose conversion. Studies of thermochemical pretreatments that have taken into account particle size as a factor have exhibited a wide range of maximal sizes (i.e., particle sizes below which no increase in pretreatment effectiveness, measured in terms of the enzymatic conversion resulting from the pretreatment, were observed) from pretreatment employed, with maximal size range decreasing as follows: steam explosion > liquid hot water > dilute acid and base pretreatments. Maximal sizes also appeared dependent on feedstock, with herbaceous or grassy biomass exhibiting lower maximal size range (biomass (>3 mm). Such trends, considered alongside the intensive energy requirement of size reduction processes, warrant a more systematic study of particle size effects across different pretreatment technologies and feedstock, as a requisite for optimizing the feedstock supply system.

  1. Sustainability of perennial grass yields as bioenergy feedstock for the southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warm-season perennial grasses will be part of the biomass production system in the Southeast for the emerging bioenergy industry. Among the candidates for dedicated feedstocks are energy cane (Sacchurum sp.), Miscanthus x gigantius, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and napiergrass (Pennistem purpure...

  2. A Spatial Model of the Biomass to Energy Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2003-01-01

    A major source of biomass for energy production is the New Zealand forest industry, with 1.5 M tons of in-forest residues and additional 0.4 M tons as unused residues from sawmills. Transportation and handling are the main contributors for biomass costs at a specific consumer site, and they vary...... and the costs of accumulated amounts of wood residues can now be calculated almost instantly for each location in the country. It is assumed that this approach will facilitate the assessment of future biomass markets....

  3. Microbial renewable feedstock utilization: A substrate-oriented approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rumbold, K.; Buijsen, H.J.J. van; Gray, V.M.; Groenestijn, J.W. van; Overkamp, K.M.; Slomp, R.S.; Werf, M.J. van der; Punt, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates are used as the feedstock for industrial fermentations. These biomass hydrolysates consist of complex mixtures of different fermentable sugars, but also contain inhibitors and salts that affect the performance of the productgenerating microbes. The p

  4. Energy-Based Evaluations on Eucalyptus Biomass Production

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago L. Romanelli; Marcos Milan; Rafael Cesar Tieppo

    2012-01-01

    Dependence on finite resources brings economic, social, and environmental concerns. Planted forests are a biomass alternative to the exploitation of natural forests. In the exploitation of the planted forests, planning and management are key to achieve success, so in forestry operations, both economic and noneconomic factors must be considered. This study aimed to compare eucalyptus biomass production through energy embodiment of anthropogenic inputs and resource embodiment including environm...

  5. Valorization of jatropha fruit biomass for energy applications

    OpenAIRE

    Marasabessy, A.

    2015-01-01

    Valorization of Jatropha fruit biomass for energy applications Ahmad Marasabessy Thesis Abstract Our research objectives were to develop sustainable technologies of Jatropha oil extraction and Jatropha biomass fractionation within a framework of bioconversions (enzymatic and microbial processings).  Microbial extraction of oil from Jatropha kernels using whole cells of Bacillus pumilus yields 73% oil, and this is comparable to the known processes such as by using expeller or by enzymati...

  6. Low-Energy Electron Scattering by Sugarcane Lignocellulosic Biomass Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Eliane; Sanchez, Sergio; Bettega, Marcio; Lima, Marco; Varella, Marcio

    2012-06-01

    The use of second generation (SG) bioethanol instead of fossil fuels could be a good strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, the efficient production of SG bioethanol has being a challenge to researchers around the world. The main barrier one must overcome is the pretreatment, a very important step in SG bioethanol aimed at breaking down the biomass and facilitates the extraction of sugars from the biomass. Plasma-based treatment, which can generate reactive species, could be an interesting possibility since involves low-cost atmospheric-pressure plasma. In order to offer theoretical support to this technique, the interaction of low-energy electrons from the plasma with biomass is investigated. This study was motived by several works developed by Sanche et al., in which they understood that DNA damage arises from dissociative electron attachment, a mechanism in which electrons are resonantly trapped by DNA subunits. We will present elastic cross sections for low-energy electron scattering by sugarcane biomass molecules, obtained with the Schwinger multichannel method. Our calculations indicate the formation of π* shape resonances in the lignin subunits, while a series of broad and overlapping σ* resonances are found in cellulose and hemicellulose subunits. The presence of π* and σ* resonances could give rise to direct and indirect dissociation pathways in biomass. Then, theoretical resonance energies can be useful to guide the plasma-based pretreatment to break down specific linkages of interest in biomass.

  7. Biomasse til energi og økologisk jordbrug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent T; Meyer, Niels I; Nielsen, Vilhjalmur;

    Biomass is foreseen to play an important role in the Danish energy supply in the future. In recent years however, concerned ecological farmers have claimed that crop residues and animal manure should be returned to the fields with as small loss in carbon and nutrients content as possible. This has...... created uncertainty concerning the realistic potential of biomass for energy. In order to analyse this question the Danish Energy Agency has funded a preliminary, interdiciplinary study concerning the relevance of the claims of the ecological farmers. The principles of ecological farming and the claims...... of ecological farmers on the use of biomass for energy are described, and empirical studies and models of the impact of soil carbon and nutrients on soil productivity are presented. The impact on the soil carbon balance of incorporating straw and manure to the field and the effects of land use changes...

  8. Life-Cycle Energy and GHG Emissions of Forest Biomass Harvest and Transport for Biofuel Production in Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengli Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available High dependence on imported oil has increased U.S. strategic vulnerability and prompted more research in the area of renewable energy production. Ethanol production from renewable woody biomass, which could be a substitute for gasoline, has seen increased interest. This study analysed energy use and greenhouse gas emission impacts on the forest biomass supply chain activities within the State of Michigan. A life-cycle assessment of harvesting and transportation stages was completed utilizing peer-reviewed literature. Results for forest-delivered ethanol were compared with those for petroleum gasoline using data specific to the U.S. The analysis from a woody biomass feedstock supply perspective uncovered that ethanol production is more environmentally friendly (about 62% less greenhouse gas emissions compared with petroleum based fossil fuel production. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with key inputs associated with harvesting and transportation operations. The results showed that research focused on improving biomass recovery efficiency and truck fuel economy further reduced GHG emissions and energy consumption.

  9. Evaluation of energy consumption and CO2 emissions in the production of biohydrogen from sugar rich feedstock

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Ana F.; Moura, Patrícia; Carla M. Silva

    2013-01-01

    The use of alternative fuels is increasing in order to reduce the energy consumption and emissions. The 2003/30/EC European Directive aims to promote the use of biofuels and other renewable fuels instead of oil derivatives for transport purposes. In long term this is expected to contribute to the fulfillment of European climate change agreements. Therefore, hydrogen appears as a promising alternative fuel and “energy carrier”. Hydrogen can be produced from renewable sources, namely biomass [1...

  10. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid-and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass production, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the conceptual production economics of these fuels. This includes fuel pathways from lignocellulosic (terrestrial) biomass, as well as from algal (aquatic) biomass systems.

  11. Process Design and Economicsfor the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid-and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass production, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the conceptual production economics of these fuels. This includes fuel pathways from lignocellulosic (terrestrial) biomass, as well as from algal (aquatic) biomass systems.

  12. Energy potential of fruit tree pruned biomass in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilandzija, N.; Voca, N.; Kricka, T.; Martin, A.; Jurisic, V.

    2012-11-01

    The world's most developed countries and the European Union (EU) deem that the renewable energy sources should partly substitute fossil fuels and become a bridge to the utilization of other energy sources of the future. This paper will present the possibility of using pruned biomass from fruit cultivars. It will also present the calculation of potential energy from the mentioned raw materials in order to determine the extent of replacement of non-renewable sources with these types of renewable energy. One of the results of the intensive fruit-growing process, in post pruning stage, is large amount of pruned biomass waste. Based on the calculated biomass (kg ha{sup 1}) from intensively grown woody fruit crops that are most grown in Croatia (apple, pear, apricots, peach and nectarine, sweet cherry, sour cherry, prune, walnut, hazelnut, almond, fig, grapevine, and olive) and the analysis of combustible (carbon 45.55-49.28%, hydrogen 5.91-6.83%, and sulphur 0.18-0.21%) and non-combustible matters (oxygen 43.34-46.6%, nitrogen 0.54-1.05%, moisture 3.65-8.83%, ashes 1.52-5.39%) with impact of lowering the biomass heating value (15.602-17.727 MJ kg{sup 1}), the energy potential of the pruned fruit biomass is calculated at 4.21 PJ. (Author) 31 refs.

  13. Breaking the biomass bottleneck of the fossil free society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    be converted to high-density fuels for mobility purposes, and it is a key source of carbon feedstock All in all, everything points to the fact, that biomass (and agricultural land) may be a severe bottleneck in the fossil free society and that excessive use can have severe consequences for the world’s forest...... resources, the food sector and the poorest part of the world population. We can, however, break this bottleneck. First of all, we must seek further energy savings. Secondly, we need to look for ways to de-carbonize society. There is a growing consensus among energy scientists and energy planners...... by hydrogenation and CCR, can approximately five-double our biomass potential for providing storable and high-density fuels and carbon feedstock compared to the presently applied technologies for converting biomass to fuels and feedstock. This can fully and effectively break the biomass bottleneck of the fossil...

  14. Targets and tools for optimizing lignocellulosic biomass quality of miscanthus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijde, van der R.T.

    2016-01-01

    Miscanthus is a perennial energy grass characterized by a high productivity and resource-use efficiency, making it an ideal biomass feedstock for the production of cellulosic biofuels and a wide range of other biobased value-chains. However, the large-scale commercialization of converting biomass in

  15. Department of Energy Recovery Act Investment in Biomass Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-11-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) provided more than $36 billion to the Department of Energy (DOE) to accelerate work on existing projects, undertake new and transformative research, and deploy clean energy technologies across the nation. Of this funding, $1029 million is supporting innovative work to advance biomass research, development, demonstration, and deployment.

  16. Biomass for Energy and the Impacts on Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonhebel, Sanderine; Barbir, F; Ulgiati, S

    2010-01-01

    In climate policies in the developed world the use of biomass as an energy source plays an important role Indications exist that these policies are affecting global food security In this chapter we compare the global demands for food, feed and energy in the near future We distinguish between develop

  17. Biomass for energy production. Economic evaluation, efficiency comparison and optimal utilization of biomass; Biomasse zur Energiegewinnung. Oekonomische Bewertung, Effizienzvergleich und optimale Biomassenutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeddies, Juergen [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Landwirtschaftliche Betriebslehre; Schoenleber, Nicole

    2015-07-01

    An optimized and/or goal-oriented use of available biomass feedstock for energetic conversion requires a detailed analysis of bioenergy production lines according to technical and economic efficiency indicators. Accordingly, relevant parameters of selected production lines supplying heat, electricity and fuel have been studied and used as data base for an optimization model. Most favorable combination of bioenergy lines considering political and economic objectives are analyzed by applying a specifically designed linear optimization model. Modeling results shall allow evaluation of political courses of action.

  18. Comparative study of different waste biomass for energy application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motghare, Kalyani A; Rathod, Ajit P; Wasewar, Kailas L; Labhsetwar, Nitin K

    2016-01-01

    Biomass is available in many varieties, consisting of crops as well as its residues from agriculture, forestry, and the agro-industry. These different biomass find their way as freely available fuel in rural areas but are also responsible for air pollution. Emissions from such solid fuel combustion to indoor, regional and global air pollution largely depend on fuel types, combustion device, fuel properties, fuel moisture, amount of air supply for combustion and also on climatic conditions. In both economic and environment point of view, gasification constitutes an attractive alternative for the use of biomass as a fuel, than the combustion process. A large number of studies have been reported on a variety of biomass and agriculture residues for their possible use as renewable fuels. Considering the area specific agriculture residues and biomass availability and related transportation cost, it is important to explore various local biomass for their suitability as a fuel. Maharashtra (India) is the mainstay for the agriculture and therefore, produces a significant amount of waste biomass. The aim of the present research work is to analyze different local biomass wastes for their proximate analysis and calorific value to assess their potential as fuel. The biomass explored include cotton waste, leaf, soybean waste, wheat straw, rice straw, coconut coir, forest residues, etc. mainly due to their abundance. The calorific value and the proximate analysis of the different components of the biomass helped in assessing its potential for utilization in different industries. It is observed that ash content of these biomass species is quite low, while the volatile matter content is high as compared to Indian Coal. This may be appropriate for briquetting and thus can be used as a domestic fuel in biomass based gasifier cook stoves. Utilizing these biomass species as fuel in improved cook-stove and domestic gasifier cook-stoves would be a perspective step in the rural energy and

  19. Socio-economic impact of wood biomass utilization for energy production and its impact on small communities in Northwestern Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanzida Baten, C.; Pulkki, R. (Lakehead Univ., Thunder Bay, ON (Canada), Faculty of Natural Resources Management), e-mail: csanzida@lakeheadu.ca, e-mail: rpulkki@lakehaedu.ca

    2010-07-01

    Bioenergy refers to all forms of renewable energy that are derived from plant materials produced by photosynthesis. Biomass fuels can be derived from wood, agricultural crops and other organic residues. These fuels can be obtained from many sources in Canada, including sawmills, woodworking shops, forest operations and farms. This study deals with the socio-economic aspects of bioenergy development. Normally, the socio-economic impact of bioenergy can be measured in terms of economic indices, such as employment, monetary gains, etc. Recently some pulp and paper mills in northwestern Ontario have initiated bioenergy plants to generate heat and electricity for their use. The Ontario Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure is investigating the possibility of replacing coal with renewable forest biomass as feedstock for the Atikokan Power Generating Station (APGS) located in northwestern Ontario. The APGS has already successfully tested 100 % wood biomass feedstock instead of coal. This study evaluates the socio-economic impacts of wood biomass utilization for energy production in small communities in northwestern Ontario Canada. (orig.)

  20. Potential of forestry biomass for energy in economies in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid increase in the world's population, the gradual exhaustion of fossil fuels and serious ecological problems are making developed countries more attentive to the utilization of renewable energy sources, mainly biomass, which should form part of the global energy mix during the twenty-first century. The economies in transition have been experiencing a transformation of their political, economic and social systems and a modernization of their industry, including the energy industry. Energy supply in the transition economies is based on coal, oil, gas and nuclear power. Of the renewable sources, only hydroelectric power is utilized to any significant extent. The forest biomass resources of these economies are quantified in this paper. The economies in transition have a big potential for biomass from forestry and timber industry wastes and agricultural wastes that are not being utilized and could become a source of energy. So far, biomass is used as a source of energy in only small amounts in the wood and pulp industries and as fuelwood in forestry. The governments of some countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia) have energy plans through the year 2010 that aim to develop renewable energy sources. Economic, institutional, technical and other barriers to the development of renewable sources and their utilization are analysed in this paper and some remedies are proposed. In cooperation with countries such as Austria, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, the United States of America and others, which have achieved remarkable results in the utilization of biomass for energy, it would be possible for the transition economies to quickly develop the technological know-how needed to satisfy the demand for energy of approximately 350 million inhabitants. (author)

  1. Scenario uncertainties in estimating direct land-use change emissions in biomass-to-energy life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of biomass for energy production has increasingly been encouraged in the United States, in part motivated by the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to fossil fuels. However, the GHG-intensity of biomass-derived energy is highly dependent on how the biomass is obtained and used. We explore scenario uncertainty in GHG estimates in the Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions (CUBE) model and find that direct land-use change emissions that result during the biomass production often dominate the total “farm-to-hopper” GHGs. CUBE represents each land-use change decision as a conversion of land from one of four specified baseline ecosystem to produce one of seven feedstock crops, both distinct by geographic region, and then determines the implied changes in soil organic carbon, root carbon, and above-ground biomass. CUBE therefore synthesizes and organizes the existing literature to represent direct land-use change emissions in a way that can be more readily incorporated into life cycle assessment. Our approach to representing direct land-use change literature has been applied to a specific set of data and offers immediate implications for decisionmakers, but it can also be generalized and replicated in the future, making use of improved scientific data on the magnitude and rates of direct land-use change emissions as it becomes available. -- Highlights: ► The GHG-intensity of bioenergy depends on how the biomass is obtained and used. ► Total GHG emissions may be dominated by direct land-use change emissions. ► There is significant scenario uncertainty in emissions based on the location of production. ► Emissions vary based on time elapsed since land-use change conversions. ► Our approach can be generalized to use improved scientific data in the future.

  2. Biomass for energy - small scale technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvesen, F.; Joergensen, P.F. [KanEnergi, Rud (Norway)

    1997-12-31

    The bioenergy markets and potential in EU region, the different types of biofuels, the energy technology, and the relevant applications of these for small-scale energy production are reviewed in this presentation

  3. National and regional generation of municipal residue biomass and the future potential for waste-to-energy implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Municipal residue biomass (MRB) in the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream is a potential year-round bioenergy feedstock. A method is developed to estimate the amount of residue biomass generated by the end-user at the scale of a country using a throughput approach. Given the trade balance of food and forestry products, the amount of MRB generated is calculated by estimating product lifetimes, discard rates, rates of access to MSW collection services, and biomass recovery rates. A wet tonne of MRB could be converted into about 8 GJ of energy and 640 kg of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, or buried in a landfill where it would decompose into 1800 kg of CO2 equivalent (in terms of global warming potential) methane (CH4) and CO2 emissions. It is estimated that approximately 1.5 Gt y-1 of MRB are currently collected worldwide. The energy content of this biomass is approximately 12 EJ, but only a fraction is currently utilized. An integrated assessment model is used to project future MRB generation and its utilization for energy, with and without a hypothetical climate policy to stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Given an anticipated price for biomass energy (and carbon under a policy scenario), by the end of the century, it is projected that nearly 60% of global MRB would be converted to about 8 EJ y-1 of energy in a reference scenario, and nearly all of global MRB would be converted into 16 EJ y-1 of energy by the end of the century under a climate policy scenario. (author)

  4. A REVIEW ON BIOMASS DENSIFICATION TECHNOLOGIE FOR ENERGY APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JAYA SHANKAR TUMULURU; CHRISTOPHER T. WRIGHT

    2010-08-01

    The world is currently facing challenges to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and to achieve a sustainable renewable supply. Renewable energies represent a diversity of energy sources that can help to maintain the equilibrium of different ecosystems. Among the various sources of renewable energy, biomass is finding more uses as it is considered carbon neutral since the carbondioxide released during its use is already part of the carbon cycle (Arias et al., 2008). Increasing the utilization of biomass for energy can help to reduce the negative CO2 impact on the environment and help to meet the targets established in the Kyoto Protocol (UN, 1998). Energy from biomass can be produced from different processes like thermochemical (combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis), biological (anaerobic digestion, fermentation) or chemical (esterification) where direct combustion can provide a direct near-term energy solution (Arias et al., 2008). Some of the inherent problems with raw biomass materials, like low bulk density, high moisture content, hydrophilic nature and low calorific value, limit the ease of use of biomass for energy purposes (Arias et al., 2008). In fact, due to its low energy density compared to fossil fuels, high volumes of biomass will be needed; adding to problems associated with storage, transportation and feed handling at a cogeneration plant. Furthermore, grinding biomass pulverizes, can be very costly and in some cases impractical. All of these drawbacks have given rise to the development of new technologies in order to increase the quality of biomass fuels. The purpose of the work is mainly in four areas 1) Overview of the torrefaction process and to do a literature review on i) Physical properties of torrefied raw material and torrefaction gas composition. 2) Basic principles in design of packed bed i) Equations governing the flow of material in packed bed ii) Equations governing the flow of the gases in packed bed iii) Effect of physical

  5. The potential opportunities for using wood biomass in energy production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parzych Stanisław

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of a meta-analysis on the theoretical and economic aspects of using wood biomass for the production of energy in Poland. The source data used in the analyses were obtained from various official sources and statistics as well as previously published scientific studies. The results lead to the conclusion that the wood biomass supplied for energy production in the year 2012 amounted to a total of 18 million cubic meters, of which forestry supplied 6.8 million m3, the wood industry 6.5 million m3 and public utilities provided 4.5 million m3.

  6. Carbon and nitrogen trade-offs in biomass energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucek, Lidija; Klemes, Jiri Jaromir [University of Pannonia, Centre for Process Integration and Intensification (CPI" 2), Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, Veszprem (Hungary); Kravanja, Zdravko [University of Maribor, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Maribor (Slovenia)

    2012-06-15

    This contribution provides an overview of carbon (CFs) and nitrogen footprints (NFs) concerning their measures and impacts on the ecosystem and human health. The adversarial relationship between them is illustrated by the three biomass energy production applications, which substitute fossil energy production applications: (i) domestic wood combustion where different fossil energy sources (natural gas, coal, and fuel oil) are supplemented, (ii) bioethanol production from corn grain via the dry-grind process, where petrol is supplemented, and (iii) rape methyl ester production from rape seed oil via catalytic trans-esterification, where diesel is supplemented. The life cycle assessment is applied to assess the CFs and NFs resulting from different energy production applications from 'cradle-to-grave' span. The results highlighted that all biomass-derived energy generations have lower CFs and higher NFs whilst, on the other hand, fossil energies have higher CFs and lower NFs. (orig.)

  7. ANALYSIS OF THERMAL-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOMASS ENERGY PELLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Gluvakov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern life conditions, when emphasis is on environmental protection and sustainable development, fuels produced from biomass are increasingly gaining in importance, and it is necessary to consider the quality of end products obtained from biomass. Based on the existing European standards, collected literature and existing laboratory methods, this paper presents results of testing individual thermal - chemical properties of biomass energy pellets after extrusion and cooling the compressed material. Analysing samples based on standard methods, data were obtained on the basis of which individual thermal-chemical properties of pellets were estimated. Comparing the obtained results with the standards and literature sources, it can be said that moisture content, ash content and calorific values are the most important parameters for quality analysis which decide on applicability and use-value of biomass energy pellets, as biofuel. This paper also shows the impact of biofuels on the quality of environmental protection. The conclusion provides a clear statement of quality of biomass energy pellets.

  8. Ash chemistry and fuel design focusing on combustion of phosphorus-rich biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Skoglund, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Biomass is increasingly used as a feedstock in global energy production. This may present operational challenges in energy conversion processes which are related to the inorganic content of these biomasses. As a larger variety of biomass is used the need for a basic understanding of ash transformation reactions becomes increasingly important. This is not only to reduce operational problems but also to facilitate the use of ash as a nutrient source for new biomass production. Ash transformatio...

  9. Biomass energy: Employment generation and its contribution to poverty alleviation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Openshaw, Keith [2430 Shenandoah St., Vienna, VA 22180 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Studies were undertaken in Malawi from 1995 to 1997 and 2007 to 2008 to estimate the supply and demand of household energy. Because little is known about the supply chain for biomass, surveys were carried out for urban areas on its production, transport and trade as well as sustainable supply. Also, because biomass is used by all people for a multitude of purposes, a complete picture was made of regional and urban biomass supply and demand. The results indicated that biomass is not only the principal energy, accounting for 89 percent of demand, but also the main traded energy in the two time periods accounting for 56-59 percent of commercial demand. Petroleum products supplied 26-27 percent, electricity 8-12 percent and coal 6-10 percent. The market value of traded woodfuel was US$ 48.8 million and US$ 81.0 million in 1996 and 2008 respectively, about 3.5 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). The study found that in 1996 and 2008 respectively, the equivalent of 93,500 and 133,000 full-time people was employed in the biomass supply chain, approximately 2 percent of the potential workforce. In contrast, about 3400 and 4600 people were employed in the supply chain of other fuels in these years. If the Malawi findings are applied to the current estimated wood energy consumption in sub-Saharan Africa, then approximately 13 million people could be employed in commercial biomass energy; this highlights its importance as a means to assist with sustainable development and poverty alleviation. (author)

  10. Biomass energy: Employment generation and its contribution to poverty alleviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were undertaken in Malawi from 1995 to 1997 and 2007 to 2008 to estimate the supply and demand of household energy. Because little is known about the supply chain for biomass, surveys were carried out for urban areas on its production, transport and trade as well as sustainable supply. Also, because biomass is used by all people for a multitude of purposes, a complete picture was made of regional and urban biomass supply and demand. The results indicated that biomass is not only the principal energy, accounting for 89 percent of demand, but also the main traded energy in the two time periods accounting for 56-59 percent of commercial demand. Petroleum products supplied 26-27 percent, electricity 8-12 percent and coal 6-10 percent. The market value of traded woodfuel was US$ 48.8 million and US$ 81.0 million in 1996 and 2008 respectively, about 3.5 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). The study found that in 1996 and 2008 respectively, the equivalent of 93,500 and 133,000 full-time people was employed in the biomass supply chain, approximately 2 percent of the potential workforce. In contrast, about 3400 and 4600 people were employed in the supply chain of other fuels in these years. If the Malawi findings are applied to the current estimated wood energy consumption in sub-Saharan Africa, then approximately 13 million people could be employed in commercial biomass energy; this highlights its importance as a means to assist with sustainable development and poverty alleviation. (author)

  11. Hydrothermal pretreatment of biomass for pellet production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tooyserkani, Z. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Clean Energy Research Centre, Biomass and Bioenergy Research Group

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discussed innovative technologies for the production of wood pellets using the hydrothermal pre-treatment of biomass. Conventional techniques use low-cost mill residues, such as saw dust and shavings, as feedstock to produce durable, low-ash pellets. However, mill residues are becoming less available as a result of fewer saw mills, increased pellet production, and increased competition for saw dust. Advanced techniques use mixed biomass such as logging residue as feedstock, creating pellets that are durable for handling and long-term storage, of a higher energy density for transport and mixing with coal for co-firing, and a choice feedstock for biofuels. Advanced pellet production uses steam explosion/pre-treatment in which biomass receives a short-term high-pressure steam treatment followed by sudden decompression. Mild torrefaction seems to have positive feedback, and steam-treated pellets are durable with superior hydrophobicity. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Biomass based energy. A review on raw materials and processing methods; Energie aus Biomasse. Eine Uebersicht ueber Rohstoffe und Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woellauer, P.

    2007-07-01

    The book reviews the variety of biogenic raw materials and the technologically important biomass conversion techniques. The chapter on the different kinds of biomass includes a) wood from forestry, landscape culturing and saw mills, bark and old wood; b) plants (corn, miscanthus, cannabis, wheat, rye, sugar beets, grass, rape, etc.), residuals and wastes (straw, liquid manure, slaughthouse wastes, kitchen wastes, sewage sludge, others). The chapter on biomass conversion processing discusses combustion, oxidation in spercritical water, gasification and reforming, fermentation, extrusion or extraction, and downstream processes. The chapter on biomass based electricity and mechanical energy includes refrigeration engineering, direct utilization: Otto engines, Diesel engines, microgas turbine fuel cells, and heat processing: Striling engine, vapour turbine, ORC turbine, externally fired gas turbine, and the Kalina process.

  13. Modeling of a biomass high temperature steam gasifier integrated with assisted solar energy and a micro gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A parametric study determines optimal system requirements for different feedstock. • The effect that biomass and moisture levels have on syngas composition is analyzed. • The novel system proposed optimizes heat recovery and water consumption. • Competitive solar efficiency is obtained at low steam to biomass ratios. • Overall CHP utilization factors range between 30% and 43%. - Abstract: A mathematical model that describes a trailer scale biomass steam gasification system coupled with a solar collector heat source and a micro gas turbine is reported in this paper. This combined heat and power system is set to a prescribed output of 20 kWe and several system conditions have been optimized in a parametric study to minimize resource consumption rates. Biomass feeding rates under optimal conditions were found to range between 23 and 63 kg/h depending on the types of feedstock and other parameters. Water consumption is reduced through a condensation and recirculation process that is part of a heat recovery unit. Also, solar energy requirements have been reduced by means of a recuperator that extracts heat out of the combustion products. The overall system performance has been evaluated by a utilization factor which was found to range between 30% and 43%. The system has been compared to a baseline case of an air breathing gasification system of a similar scale. It was found that steam gasification produces the syngas with heating values over twice as high as those obtained by air gasification. Steam gasification also led to a 25% and 50% reduction in emission rates of contaminants like CO2 and nitrogen oxides respectively relative to the baseline case

  14. Techno-economic assessment of micro-algae as feedstock for renewable bio-energy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, J.G.G.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper determines the energy consumption ratio and overall bio-energy production costs of microalgae cultivation, harvesting and conversion to secondary energy carriers, thus helping to clarify future perspectives of micro-algae production for energy purposes. A limitation growth model is develo

  15. Biomass-based energy carriers in the transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to study the technical and economic prerequisites to attain reduced carbon dioxide emissions through the use of biomass-based energy carriers in the transportation sector, and to study other environmental impacts resulting from an increased use of biomass-based energy carriers. CO2 emission reduction per unit arable and forest land used for biomass production (kg CO2/ha,year) and costs for CO2 emission reduction (SEK/kg CO2) are estimated for the substitution of gasoline and diesel with rape methyl ester, biogas from lucerne, ethanol from wheat and ethanol, methanol, hydrogen and electricity from Salix and logging residues. Of the studied energy carriers, those based on Salix provide the largest CO2 emission reduction. In a medium long perspective, the costs for CO2 emission reduction seem to be lowest for methanol from Salix and logging residues. The use of fuel cell vehicles, using methanol or hydrogen as energy carriers, can in a longer perspective provide more energy efficient utilization of biomass for transportation than the use of internal combustion engine vehicles. 136 refs, 12 figs, 25 tabs

  16. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks. Progress report, June 1-August 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.I.C.; Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Gomez, R.F.; Sinskey, A.J.

    1978-08-01

    Studies concerning the cellobiose properties of Clostridium thermocellum were started to determine if the cellulose degradation end products can be enhanced for glucose (with a subsequent decrease in cellobiose). Implications of preliminary studies indicate that the cells or the enzyme(s) responsible for converting cellobiose to glucose can be manipulated environmentally and genetically to increase the final yield of glucose. The second area of effort is to the production of chemical feedstocks. Three fermentations have been identified for exploration. Preliminary reports on acrylic acid acetone/butanol, and acetic acid production by C. propionicum, C. acetobutylicum, and C. thermoaceticum, respectively, are included. (DMC)

  17. Sustainable utilisation of forest biomass for energy - Possibilities and problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stupak, I.; Asikainen, A.; Jonsell, M.;

    2007-01-01

    The substitution of biomass for fossil fuels in energy consumption is a measure to mitigate global warming, as well as having other advantages. Political action plans for increased use exist at both European and national levels. This paper briefly reviews the contents of recommendations. guidelines....... and other synthesis publications on Sustainable use of forest biomass for energy. Topics are listed and an overview of advantages. disadvantages, and trade-offs between them is given, from the viewpoint of society in general and the forestry or the Nordic and Baltic countries, the paper also identifies...... the extent to which wood for energy is and energy sectors in particular. F included in forest legislation and forest certification standards under the "Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification" (PEFC) and the "Forest Stewardship Council" (FSC) schemes. Energy and forest policies at EU...

  18. Impact of novel energy sources: OTEC, wind, goethermal, biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A. S., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Alternate energy conversion methods such as ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), wind power, geothermal wells and biomass conversion are being explored, and re-examined in some cases, for commercial viability. At a time when United States fossil fuel and uranium resources are found to be insufficient to supply national needs into the twenty-first century, it is essential to broaden the base of feasible energy conversion technologies. The motivations for development of these four alternative energy forms are established. Primary technical aspects of OTEC, wind, geothermal and biomass energy conversion systems are described along with a discussion of relative advantages and disadvantages of the concepts. Finally, the sentiment is voiced that each of the four systems should be developed to the prototype stage and employed in the region of the country and in the sector of economy which is complimentary to the form of system output.

  19. Energy analysis of biochemical conversion processes of biomass to bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakari, M.; Ngadi, M.; Bergthorson, T. [McGill Univ., Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Bioresource Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Bioethanol is among the most promising of biofuels that can be produced from different biomass such as agricultural products, waste and byproducts. This paper reported on a study that examined the energy conversion of different groups of biomass to bioethanol, including lignocelluloses, starches and sugar. Biochemical conversion generally involves the breakdown of biomass to simple sugars using different pretreatment methods. The energy needed for the conversion steps was calculated in order to obtain mass and energy efficiencies for the conversions. Mass conversion ratios of corn, molasses and rice straw were calculated as 0.3396, 0.2300 and 0.2296 kg of bioethanol per kg of biomass, respectively. The energy efficiency of biochemical conversion of corn, molasses and rice straw was calculated as 28.57, 28.21 and 31.33 per cent, respectively. The results demonstrated that lignocelluloses can be efficiently converted with specific microorganisms such as Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae using the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) methods.

  20. Sustainable Production of Crop Residue as a Cellulosic Ethanol Feedstock: REAP – Renewable Energy Assessment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domestic ethanol production is a strategy for reducing dependence on imported energy and release of greenhouse gases from use of fossil-energy-derived motor vehicle fuel. Federal and state governments are encouraging the use of ethanol. Initially energy crops, such as switchgrass, willow, and poplar...

  1. BioMeeT. Planning of biomass based methanol energy combine - Trollhaettan region. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandberg, Aake; Hjortsberg, Hans; Saevbark, Bengt [Ecotraffic R and D AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Ekbom, Tomas; Hjerpe, Carl-Johan; Landaelv, Ingvar [Nykomb Synergetics AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    The conversion of biomass in an energy combine based on primary gasification yields a gas that can be used as fuels gas, for synthesis of motor fuels (methanol or other) or for electric power production. The study gives examples of alternative product mixes. The conclusions of the study are: (1) Potential of new, not yet utilised biomass is available, and new areas of applications, where oil is presently used, are needed to develop the potential. Motor fuel production (methanol, DME) is a presumption in the BioMeeT-study. (2) Yield figures in the energy combine are comparable to those of now used bio-systems for power and co-generation. (3) Which one of the cases in the BioMeeT-project is the most favourable cannot be decided on a plant-to-plant basis alone but the entire system for supply energy carriers in the region has to be considered, as the all plants within the system may change. This would require further investigations. Moreover, the results will be different in various regions in Sweden and Europe due to the markets for all energy carriers. (4) At today's conditions in the Trollhaettan region it must be stated that there is only room for dedicated bio-methanol/DME production (provided such a market will come) with moderate addition to the district heating system as in the BAL-project. (5) In the longer term the future supply of all energy carriers, including new electric power and new bio-fuels, has to be considered for new plants and at renewals. In such a case an energy combine as in the BioMeeT-project may be a central conversion plant with gas deliveries to satellites such as local co-generation, district heat and industries in a regional system within a 50 - 100 km radius. This should be included in regional planning for the future. (6) Estimated investment costs per kW feedstock input is higher for the energy combine compared to present technologies (mature technologies for power and heat) but have to be judged for all plants taken together in

  2. A review on biomass classification and composition, cofiring issues and pretreatment methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; Richard D. Boardman

    2011-08-01

    Presently around the globe there is a significant interest in using biomass for power generation as power generation from coal continues to raise environmental concerns. Biomass alone can be used for generation of power which can bring lot of environmental benefits. However the constraints of using biomass alone can include high investments costs for biomass feed systems and also uncertainty in the security of the feedstock supply due to seasonal variations and in most of the countries biomass is dispersed and the infrastructure for biomass supply is not well established. Alternatively cofiring biomass along with coal offer advantages like (a) reducing the issues related to biomass quality and buffers the system when there is insufficient feedstock quantity and (b) costs of adapting the existing coal power plants will be lower than building new systems dedicated only to biomass. However with the above said advantages there exists some technical constrains including low heating and energy density values, low bulk density, lower grindability index, higher moisture and ash content to successfully cofire biomass with coal. In order to successfully cofire biomass with coal, biomass feedstock specifications need to be established to direct pretreatment options that may include increasing the energy density, bulk density, stability during storage and grindability. Impacts on particle transport systems, flame stability, pollutant formation and boiler tube fouling/corrosion must also be minimized by setting feedstock specifications including composition and blend ratios if necessary. Some of these limitations can be overcome by using pretreatment methods. This paper discusses the impact of feedstock pretreatment methods like sizing, baling, pelletizing, briquetting, washing/leaching, torrefaction, torrefaction and pelletization and steam explosion in attainment of optimum feedstock characteristics to successfully cofire biomass with coal.

  3. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-05-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of ethanol and other liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in the program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the production economics of these fuels.

  4. Challenges in meeting biomass energy needs in West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianka, M. [GAA/RPTES, Dakar (Senegal)

    2001-07-01

    Biomass energy represents conciderable potential for West Africa. However, the traditional methods of tapping into this biomass have not only had grave consequences for the environment, but have only been able to partially resolve the crucial issue of how to sustainably supply households with domestic fuels. Nevertheless, recent progress made in the improvement of technologies enhancing biomass energy provides a glimpse at interesting perspectives fostering the modernisating and better assesment of the biocombustible and biofuel industries. Reflection conducted over these past years by a group of African experts, brought together around the ASG at the instigation of the RPTES Programme and founded on a new approach to forest resource management, illustrates the attention public powers are granting increasingly to biomass energy, which had been relegated to the back burner for so long, to the benefit of more 'conventional' energy sources. Considering the complexity of biomass energy issues, and their direct links to poverty, it is evident that isolated actions will never succeed in solving the problems currently faced. Thus it is essential to promote regional collaboration and partnerships for more effective actions and to capitalise on experiences, with the aim of ensuring sustainable development for the continent of Africa. Today, given the economic potential of more than US$6 billion generated by African forests, this implies the introduction of sustainable strategies which will result in increasing incomes and improving welfare in general. West Africa, masthead of the continent, will certainly not be an isolated case. Consequently, vigorous action supporting the sustainable management of natural resources as part of poverty alleviation programmes should be undertaken post-haste, in compliance with the Abuja Treaty establishing the African Economic Community. (au)

  5. Characterization and comparison of biomass produced from various sources: Suggestions for selection of pretreatment technologies in biomass-to-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Biomass with higher volatile matter content has a higher carbon conversion rate. ► Applying the suitable pretreatment techniques that will enhance the bioenergy yield. ► The ratio of H2O/fixed carbon is a critical factor for enhancing the energy conversion. -- Abstract: This study investigated the characteristics of 26 varieties of biomass produced from forestry, agriculture, municipality, and industry in Taiwan to test their applicability in thermal conversion technologies and evaluation of enhanced energy efficiency. Understanding the reactivity of the tested biomass, the cluster analysis was also used in this research to classify into characteristics groups of biomass. This research also evaluated the feasibility of energy application of tested biomass by comparing it to the physicochemical properties of various coals used in Taiwan’s power plants. The experimental results indicated that the volatile matter content of the all tested biomass was 60% and above. It can be concluded that the higher carbon conversion rate will occur in the thermal conversion process of all tested biomass. Based on the results of lower heating value (LHV) of MSW and non-hazardous industrial sludge, the LHV was lower than other tested biomass that was between 1000 and 1800 kcal/kg. This is due to the higher moisture content of MSW and sludge that resulted in the lower LHV. Besides, the LHV of other tested biomass and their derived fuels was similar to the tested coal. However, the energy densities of woody and agricultural waste were smaller than that of the coal because the bulky densities of woody and agricultural wastes were low. That is, the energy utilization efficiency of woody and agricultural waste was relatively low. To improve the energy density of tested biomass, appropriate pre-treatment technologies, such as shredding, pelletizing or torrefied technologies can be applied, that will enhance the energy utilization efficiency of all tested biomass.

  6. Beach algaes as energy feedstock. A feasibility of application; Strandalgen als Energierohstoff. Eine Verwertungsmoeglichkeit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vodegel, Stefan; Grove, Anne Kristin [CUTEC-Institut GmbH, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Thomsen, Claudia [Phytolutions GmbH, Bremen (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    Beach algaes are a difficult material for disposal on many coasts in Europe. In a research project drying and mechanical conditioning produced a pourable material. With a fluidised bed reactor the conversion to synthesis gas was possible. The efficiency of the thermo-chemical reactions was low due to the high content of silicium in the algaes. But several advantages were to notice. For example it was possible to collect the nutrients in the filter ash, which was separated in a hot gas filter. Some constituent parts of the algaes induced catalytic reactions with a high hydrogen quotient in the product gas. This is interesting for syntheses f.e. to synthetic diesel (''BtL''). In commercial applications mixing with biomasses containing few ash like wood is necessary. Then the SiO{sub 2}-content can even be used as bed material for the reactor. Attractive for operators is the material due to its difficult disposal situation with a beneficial price. (orig.)

  7. Energy and conservation benefits from managed prairie biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungers, Jacob M.; Trost, Jared J.; Lehman, Clarence L.; Tilman, David

    2011-01-01

    Marginally productive land, such as that enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), may provide acreage and economic incentives for cellulosic energy production. Improving the yields from these lands will help establish a biomass producer?s position in the marketplace. The effects of water and nitrogen on biomass yields were investigated in both a plot-scale experiment and a broad-scale survey of CRP lands. The plot-scale experiment demonstrated that irrigation improved mixed-species prairie biomass yields more than nitrogen fertilizer on coarse-textured, marginally productive soils. Experimental plots amended with both irrigation and moderate (but not high) nitrogen produced more biomass than other treatment combinations, but this trend was not statistically significant. The survey of biomass yields on CRP lands across four Midwestern States indicates that yields are better correlated with June rainfall than any other individual month. Applying nutrient-enriched water such as agricultural runoff could benefit prairie yields if applied at appropriate times.

  8. Biofuels feedstock development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) leads the nation in the research, development, and demonstration of environmentally acceptable and commercially viable dedicated feedstock supply systems (DFSS). The purpose of this report is to highlight the status and accomplishments of the research that is currently being funded by the BFDP. Highlights summarized here and additional accomplishments are described in more detail in the sections associated with each major program task. A few key accomplishments include (1) development of a methodology for doing a cost-supply analysis for energy crops and the application of that methodology to looking at possible land use changes around a specific energy facility in East Tennessee; (2) preliminary documentation of the relationship between woody crop plantation locations and bird diversity at sites in the Midwest, Canada, and the pacific Northwest supplied indications that woody crop plantations could be beneficial to biodiversity; (3) the initiation of integrated switchgrass variety trials, breeding research, and biotechnology research for the south/southeast region; (4) development of a data base management system for documenting the results of herbaceous energy crop field trials; (5) publication of three issues of Energy Crops Forum and development of a readership of over 2,300 individuals or organizations as determined by positive responses on questionnaires

  9. Energy conservation options for cooking with biomass in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Næraa, Rikke; Karlsson, Kenneth

    1996-01-01

    of the energy chain. The results show that the possible options for energy conservation through the entire energy chain of the present technology are at least of the same magnitude as that involved in just switching to a more efficient biomass stove. The heat loss is largest while simmering when the boiling...... point has been reached. Most cooks tend to continue using a high heat supply even though it is not necessary. This process is often carried out without lid on the pot even though the use of lid will reduce the energy loss considerably. It is also concluded that the average fuelwood consumption in Abodom...

  10. Conversion of Grazed Pastures to Energy Cane as a Biofuel Feedstock Alters Soil GHG Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Casanovas, N.; DeLucia, N.; Bernacchi, C.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in land use profoundly affect climate through variations in soil Greenhouse Gas (GHG) exchange. The need for alternative energies is accelerating land use change as marginal land or managed ecosystems are being converted to highly productive second-generation bioenergy crops such as energy cane (Saccharum spp. L). Although the deployment of energy cane is a promising strategy to meet global bioenergy industry demands, few studies have investigated soil GHG fluxes in these crops and sub-tropical low-intensity grazing pasture (bahiagrass, Paspalum notatum L., as forage for cattle, Bos taurus L.) with which they are competing for land. Here, we showed that soil N2O fluxes in bioenergy crops were higher (>250%) than those observed in pastures following fertilization when soil moisture and temperature were high. In the absence of recent fertilization, the N2O source strength in energy cane and pasture sites was similar. Under drier and cooler soil conditions, both pastures and bioenergy crops were weak sources of N2O even when energy cane plots were recently fertilized. Soils on grazed pastures were sources of CH4 during the wet season but became sinks under drier, colder conditions. Energy cane plantations were weak sources of CH4 over a complete wet-dry seasonal cycle. The heterotrophic component of soil respiration was larger (139-155%) in pastures than in energy cane crops, suggesting lower decomposition of SOC in bioenergy crops. In terms of global warming potential, grazed pastures were stronger (120-150%) soil GHG emitters than energy cane crops over a complete wet-dry seasonal cycle. Moreover, pastures became a substantial source of GHG emitters when including estimates of CH4 flux from cattle. Our results suggest that the conversion of pasture to energy cane will be beneficial in relation to GHGs emitted from soils and cattle. Improved understanding of land use impact on soil GHG dynamics will provide valuable information for decision makers debating

  11. Renewable energies. Vol. 2. Surrogate fuels, biomass and biogas, solar and wind energy; Erneuerbare Energien. Bd. 2. Ersatzbrennstoffe, Biomasse und Biogas, Solar- und Windenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thome-Kozmiensky, Karl J.; Beckmann, Michael

    2009-07-01

    The book on renewable energies, vol.2, surrogate fuels, biomass and biogas, solar and wind energy, covers the following chapters: analytics and sampling concerning the biogenic carbon content of surrogate fuels; processing of surrogate fuels for the energetic utilization; energetic utilization of surrogate fuels; energetic utilization of biomass; fermentation and biogas; solar energy (solar thermal power plant, photovoltaics); wind energy.

  12. Coal conversion and biomass conversion: Volume 1: Final report on USAID (Agency for International Development)/GOI (Government of India) Alternate Energy Resources and Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, A.; Saluja, J.

    1987-06-30

    The United States Agency for International Development (AID), in joint collaboration with the Government of India (GOI), supported a research and development program in Alternate Energy Resources during the period March 1983 to June 1987. The primary emphasis of this program was to develop new and advanced coal and biomass conversion technologies for the efficient utilization of coal and biomass feedstocks in India. This final ''summary'' report is divided into two volumes. This Report, Volume I, covers the program overview and coal projects and Volume II summarizes the accomplishments of the biomass projects. The six projects selected in the area of coal were: Evaluation of the Freeboard Performance in a Fluidized-Bed Combustor; Scale-up of AFBC boilers; Rheology, Stability and Combustion of Coal-Water Slurries; Beneficiation of Fine Coal in Dense Medium Cyclones; Hot Gas Cleanup and Separation; and Cold Gas Cleanup and Separation.

  13. Production and trading of biomass for energy: an overview of the global status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinimö, J.; Junginger, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The markets for industrially used biomass for energy purposes are developing rapidly toward being international commodity markets. Determining international traded biomass volumes for energy purposes is difficult, for several reasons, such as challenges regarding the compilation of statistics on the

  14. Method of producing hydrogen, and rendering a contaminated biomass inert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Dennis N [Idaho Falls, ID; Klingler, Kerry M [Idaho Falls, ID; Wilding, Bruce M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-02-23

    A method for rendering a contaminated biomass inert includes providing a first composition, providing a second composition, reacting the first and second compositions together to form an alkaline hydroxide, providing a contaminated biomass feedstock and reacting the alkaline hydroxide with the contaminated biomass feedstock to render the contaminated biomass feedstock inert and further producing hydrogen gas, and a byproduct that includes the first composition.

  15. CFD modeling for direct liquefaction of biomass in hydrothermal media

    OpenAIRE

    Syed, Alizeb Hussain

    2013-01-01

    The first generation biofuels which is coming from food crops for instance grain and sugar beet are inadequate to achieve desirable oil products because of the scarcity to food supply, therefore the importance of second generation biofuels has increased. Another advantage of second generation biofuel is that the feedstock (non-food-biomass) could be farmed for energy purposes, which enables better production per unit area of the land; and we could utilize the land efficiency. The feedstock of...

  16. Private capital requirements for international biomass energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In developing countries, the use of biomass for energy production faces two contradictory pressures. On the one hand, biomass costs very little and it is used inefficiently for fuel or charcoal production, leading to widespread destruction of forested areas and environmental degradation; this problem is being attenuated by the promotion, through aid programmes, of more efficient cook stoves for poor people. On the other hand, the conversion of biomass into high-grade fuel such as ethanol from sugar cane or burning urban refuse or gasifying it to produce electricity is not economically competitive at this time and requires subsidies of approximately 30% to make it as attractive as conventional fuels. Only electricity production using residues from sawmills, crops and other biomass by-products is competitive, and a number of plants are in operation in some countries, particularly the United States. For such plants, the usual rates of return and long-term contract purchases that characterize investments of this kind are applied. Although technologies are available for the widespread efficient use of biomass, the financial hurdle of high initial costs has impeded their market penetration, which in turn precludes any decline in costs that might otherwise have come from production increases. Intervention by governments or by GEF, justified on grounds of environmental protection, is needed to accelerate the introduction of the new technologies. The only private flows that are taking place at the moment are those from enlightened investors wishing to guarantee themselves a strong position in the area for the future or to preempt command and control regulations, such as carbon taxes, imposed by governments. The joint implementation of biomass technologies between industrialized and developing countries might be one method of accelerating this flow. (author)

  17. Perennial grass (Arundo donax L.) as a feedstock for thermo-chemical conversion to energy and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Ruprekha; Chutia, Rahul Singh; Kataki, Rupam; Pant, Kamal K

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, perennial grass species Arundo donax L. was pyrolysed in a fixed-bed reactor and characterization was performed for the liquid and the solid products. The effect of process parameters such as temperature (350-650 °C), heating rate (10 °C and 40 °C min(-1)) and sweeping gas flow rate (50-250 ml min(-1)) was also investigated. Maximum bio-oil yield of ∼ 26% was observed at 500 °C for the heating rate of 40 °C min(-1). Chemical composition of the bio-oil was analysed through NMR, FTIR and GC-MS. The biochar was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy along with elemental analysis (CHN). The biochar produced as a co-product of A. donax pyrolysis can be a potential soil amendment with multiple benefits including increased soil fertility and C-sequestration. Current investigation suggests suitability of A. donax as a potential feedstock for exploitation of energy and biomaterials through pyrolytic route. PMID:25677534

  18. Economic evaluation of United States ethanol production from ligno-cellulosic feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youn-Sang

    This paper evaluates the economic feasibility and economy-wide impacts of the U. S. ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstocks (LCF) using Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA's) dilute acid hydrolysis process. A nonlinear mathematical programming model of a single ethanol producer, whose objective is profit maximization, is developed. Because of differences in their chemical composition and production process, lignocellulosic feedstocks are divided into two groups: Biomass feedstocks, which refer to crop residues, energy crops and woody biomass, and municipal solid waste (MSW). Biomass feedstocks are more productive and less costly in producing ethanol and co-products, while MSW generates an additional income to the producer from a tipping fee and recycling. The analysis suggests that, regardless of types of feedstocks used, TVA's conversion process can enhance the economic viability of ethanol production as long as furfural is produced from the hemicellulose fraction of feedstocks as a co-product. The high price of furfural makes it a major factor in determining the economic feasibility of ethanol production. Along with evaluating economic feasibility of LCF-to-ethanol production, the optimal size of a plant producing ethanol using TVA's conversion process is estimated. The larger plant would have the advantage of economies of scale, but also have a disadvantage of increased collection and transportation costs for bulky biomass from more distant locations. We assume that the plant is located in the state of Missouri and utilizes only feedstocks produced in the state. The results indicate that the size of a plant using Biomass feedstocks is much bigger than one using MSW. The difference of plant sizes results from plant location and feedstock availability. One interesting finding is that energy crops are not feasible feedstocks for LCF-to-ethanol production due to their high price. Next, a static CGE model is developed to estimate the U.S. economy

  19. Strategies on biomass energies in EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xenakis, E. [European Commission, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1997-08-01

    The main EU programmes, supporting the renewable deployment, are the research and development programmes JOULE, THERMIE and FAIR, included in the 4th framework programme, the ALTENER programme and the `Community Support Framework` programme. Research and development (R and E) activity within the JOULE and THERMIE programmes are divided into five areas, of which the third concerns the renewable energies. The support could range from 40 to 100 % of the cost. JOULE programme is research oriented, while the THERMIE programme is demonstration oriented. The FAIR programme is also a specific research and development programme for agriculture and agrifood industry. It could cover, among others, projects in connection with the biogas exploitation. The ALTENER programme provides support for the so called `software` actions, promoting renewables, mainly training and information actions, including events like the present one. Furthermode, it provides support for technical specifications, creation of infrastructure for the promotion of renewables and so on. ALTENER does not support investments. Finally the `Community Support Framework` programme promoting the regional development, could, in some cases, support traditional technology investments in relation to renewables. (au)

  20. Forest Biomass Energy Resources in China: Quantity and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important renewable and sustainable energy sources, the forest biomass energy resource has always been the focus of attention of scholars and policy makers. However, its potential is still uncertain in China, especially with respect to its spatial distribution. In this paper, the quantity and distribution of Chinese forest biomass energy resources are explored based mainly on forestry statistics data rather than forest resource inventory data used by most previous studies. The results show that the forest biomass energy resource in China was 169 million tons in 2010, of which wood felling and bucking residue (WFBR,wood processing residue (WPR, bamboo processing residue, fuel wood and firewood used by farmers accounted for 38%, 37%, 6%, 4% and 15%, respectively. The highest resource was located in East China, accounting for nearly 39.0% of the national amount, followed by the Southwest and South China regions, which accounted for 17.4% and 16.3%, respectively. At the provincial scale, Shandong has the highest distribution, accounting for 11.9% of total resources, followed by Guangxi and Fujian accounting for 10.3% and 10.2%, respectively. The actual wood-processing residue (AWPR estimated from the actual production of different wood products (considering the wood transferred between regions showed apparent differences from the local wood processing residue (LWPR, which assumes that no wood has been transferredbetween regions. Due to the large contribution of WPR to total forestry bioenergy resources, the estimation of AWPR will provide a more accurate evaluation of the total amount and the spatial distribution of forest biomass energy resources in China.

  1. Environmental issues related to biomass: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With public attention increasingly focused on environmentalism and climate change, there is enormous potential for the commercial use of biomass to accelerate. Renewable feedstocks such as biomass can provide more environmentally balanced sources of energy and other non-food products than fossil fuels. Biomass utilization is in a precarious position, however, with public attention increasingly focused on both its potential and the strength of the challenges it faces. The paper is divided into five sections. Section 2 briefly addresses economic environmental issues. The extent to which externalities are accounted for in the market price of fuels plays a significant role in determining both the ultimate size of biofuel markets and the extent of the environmental benefits of feedstock cultivation and conversion processes. Sections 3 through 4 catalogue the main hazards and benefits that are likely to arise in the large scale commercialization of biomass fuel and note where the major uncertainties lay. Environmental issues arise with the cultivation of each feedstock and with each step in the process of its conversion to fuel. Feedstocks are discussed in Section 3 in terms of three main groups; wastes, energy crops, and traditional agricultural crops. In Section 4, conversion processes are also divided into three groups, on the basis of the end energy carrier; gas, liquid, and solid and electricity. Section 5 is devoted to a conclusion and summary

  2. Issues surrounding biomass energy use in non-OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of energy-supply of Senegal is described by the Minister of Energy of Senegal. The destruction and degradation of forests in Senegal is a major risk because of the high demographic growth, the extensive agriculture and poverty. New policies are required that guarantee a sustainable energy supply to populations, and conserve the fragile environment. The biomass issue is to be incorporated into an overall development policy that effectively combines strategies relating to forestry, agriculture, rearing and resource management but also to population, poverty elimination, urban development and decentralization. (K.A.)

  3. Local biomass as a decentral source of energy; Kommunale Biomasse als dezentraler Energietraeger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlederer, Swantje Mignon; Guenthert, F. Wolfgang [Univ. der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Neubiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasserwesen, Siedlungswasserwirtschaft und Abfalltechnik

    2013-03-15

    The production of wood based fuels such as wooden logs, wood chip, wooden briquettes or pellets has become standard practice. The easy handling of wood as an energy source has contributed to its popularity. A growing demand for wood based fuels has resulted in higher prices and the increasing demand is being met more and more by imports. The florafuel-Procedure provides an alternative to this trend by processing stalks and biomass waste, which in turn means a considerably broader raw material base. The procedure, which produces fuel in the form of pellets or briquettes to generate electricity or heat, is currently being optimised at the University of the German Federal Armed Forces in Munich (Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen) and is about to complete a demonstration plant which should prove its economic viability. Substances such as chlorine and potassium which normally cause concern during the combustion of stalks and stems can be significantly reduced through this production process. Moreover, the materials used as an energy source do not compete with food production. The fuel produced can be easily transported and stored. It can be used to meet both base load and peak load demands and has therefore proven to be highly flexible. Easy handling, little storage space and low capital expenditure are important characteristics of the florafuel-Procedure. Compared to other production processes, the florafuel-Procedure shows a very favourable energy balance for biomass based on stalks and stems. (orig.)

  4. Harvesting of forest biomass for energy - terminology study. Recolte de la biomasse forestiere - etude terminologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sicard-Lussier, T.

    1984-01-01

    This study is divided into two major parts. The first describes the forest energy biomass harvesting and transportation methods and machines, for natural stands of mature trees or stagnated brushwood, for the recovery of residual trees and residues, and for stumps. The second part describes the machines and prototypes used, or that could be used, for the comminution of wood biomass to be converted into energy or conventional products. The names of the machines are suggested within a classification scheme. This approach is more elaborate than simple nomenclature since it includes within it a definition, a context, and an illustration of representative machines or prototypes for each category. Corresponding to each category is a group of machines, each having a specific processing device and a range of product characteristics for both conventional products, such as pulp, and energy wood suitable for conversion. The main objective of this study is to recommend names which describe, as clearly and precisely as possible, the actual functions of the machines and may give an idea of the characteristics of the processed or harvested material. Preference was given to the names complying to the general rules: machines with either one or two functions; multifunctinal machines were named according to their first and last functions, adding the name of the final product when necessary to avoid confusion. Includes indexes (English and French). 68 refs., 31 figs.

  5. Using wood residues as biomass for cooking energy in Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sophanarith; Koike, Masao (Faculty of Agriculture, Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan)); Nophea Sasaki (Graduate School of Applied Informatics, University of Hyogo, Kobe (Japan))

    2007-07-01

    Due to rapid deforestation and fast growing population over the last three decades, a future shortfall of wood supply (wood and firewood) is expected in Cambodia. Therefore, alternative source of wood supply for cooking energy are needed. This alternative could potentially come from wood residues such as onsite and offsite residues. The aim of this report is to develop a modeling tool that can be used to estimate wood residues from logging (onsite) and wood processing (offsite), and to explore an appropriate system for distributing the wood residues in Cambodia. We analyze potential wood residues in evergreen, mixed and deciduous forests in Cambodia. For comparison, total wood residues are analyzed under three forest management scenarios: Business as usual (BAUSU), long-term economic gains (LEGA) and climate beneficial option (CLIBO). Under the BAUSU, LEGA and CLIBO the potential onsite biomass is totally estimated at 1.67, 1.00, and 0.35 million Mg year' (1 Mg = 106 g = 1 ton), respectively. Total offsite (SW and VW) biomass per year is estimated at 1.00, 0.60, and 0.20 million Mg under the BAUSU, LEGA and CLIBO, respectively. Total potential forest biomasses (onsite and offsite) are estimated at 2.68, 1.61 and 0.53 million Mg year' under BAUSU, LEGA and CLIBO, respectively. Our results suggested that, regardless of management scenarios forest biomasses are potentially available. Due to the fact that approximately 95% of Cambodian population depend mainly on fuel wood for daily cooking energy, effective system for distributing forest biomasses to the needed local population could greatly reduce the pressure on natural forest, which has been deforested and overexploited since the last few decades. (orig.)

  6. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the reproduction of chemical feedstocks. Progress report, December 1, 1977--February 28, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.I.C.; Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Gomez, R.F.; Sinskey, A.J.

    1978-02-01

    Studies were performed to examine the utilization and hydrolysis of xylan, a major component of natural biomass materials. Experiments designed to examine the differential adsorption onto cellulose and xylan were inconclusive in proving that the xylan hydrolysis activity is distinct from cellulose hydrolysis activity. It is clear, however, that enzymes from C. thermocellum are able to effect xylan hydrolysis. A new biomass, thermally exploded lignocellulose Poplar, has undergone degradation studies by C. thermocellum. A concentrated effort has begun to examine the production of a liquid fuel (ethanol) directly from cellulosic biomass by Clostridium thermocellum. It was found that the pH has a significant influence on the extent of cellulose degradation as well as on the amount of products formed. To further our understandings on the production of ethanol by Clostridium thermocellum, a program was initiated to find anaerobes which could utilize the hemicelluloses from biomasses, as well as its ability to produce ethanol. The conditions of protoplasting C. thermocellum were examined and the optimum conditions established. A cellulase-hyperproducing mutant, AS-39, has been isolated. As-39 produces twice the cellulase activity of the parent as determined from measurements of both TNP-CMCase and Avicel-hydrolyzing activities. However, degradation studies using cellulosic substrates do not show enhanced rates. Studies on acrylic acid production have continued to proceed along several lines. Kinetic analysis has hypothesized that non-growing cells of Clostridium acetobutylicum should have the highest specific formation rates for acetone and n-butanol. Experimental studies indicated nongrowing cells can convert glucose to acetone and n-butanol with no other nutrient. The production of acetic acid by Clostridium thermoaceticum has focused on a mutant (S-2) which was isolated and found to tolerate higher concentrations of acetate.

  7. Conflicts on Use of Agricultural Biomass for Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I; Nielsen, Vilhjalmur; Christensen, Bent T.;

    1997-01-01

    The use of biomass for energy puposes may conflict with the need to maintain soil quality of arable fields. Concerned ecological farmers claim that crop residues and animal manure should all be returned to the fields with as small a loss in carbon and nutrients content as possible. If a large part...... of Danish agriculture is tranformed into ecological farming, some complicated ecological, technical and systems problems will have to be solved....

  8. Lignocellulosic feedstock resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooney, T.

    1998-09-01

    This report provides overall state and national information on the quantity, availability, and costs of current and potential feedstocks for ethanol production in the United States. It characterizes end uses and physical characteristics of feedstocks, and presents relevant information that affects the economic and technical feasibility of ethanol production from these feedstocks. The data can help researchers focus ethanol conversion research efforts on feedstocks that are compatible with the resource base.

  9. Sustainable Biomass Resources for Biogas Production:Mapping and Analysis of the Potential for Sustainable Biomass Utilization in Denmark and Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to identify and map sustainable biomass resources, which can be utilised for biogas production with minimal negative impacts on the environment, nature and climate. Furthermore, the aim of this thesis was to assess the resource potential and feasibility of utilising such biomasses in the biogas sector. Sustainability in the use of biomass feedstock for energy production is of key importance for a stable future food and energy supply, and for the functionality of the...

  10. Energy Opportunities from Lignocellulosic Biomass for a Biorefinery Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Cotana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents some energy considerations concerning a biorefinery case study that has been carried out by the CRB/CIRIAF of the University of Perugia. The biorefinery is the case study of the BIT3G project, a national funded research project, and it uses the lignocellulosic biomass that is available in the territory as input materials for biochemical purposes, such as cardoon and carthamus. The whole plant is composed of several sections: the cardoon and carthamus seed milling, the oil refinement facilities, and the production section of some high quality biochemicals, i.e., bio-oils and fatty acids. The main goal of the research is to demonstrate energy autonomy of the latter section of the biorefinery, while only recovering energy from the residues resulting from the collection of the biomass. To this aim, this work presents the quantification of the energy requirements to be supplied to the considered biorefinery section, the mass flow, and the energy and chemical characterization of the biomass. Afterwards, some sustainability strategies have been qualitatively investigated in order to identify the best one to be used in this case study; the combined heat and power (CHP technology. Two scenarios have been defined and presented: the first with 6 MWt thermal input and 1.2 MWe electrical power as an output and the second with 9 MWt thermal input and 1.8 MWe electrical power as an output. The first scenario showed that 11,000 tons of residual biomass could ensure the annual production of about 34,000 MWht, equal to about the 72% of the requirements, and about 9600 MWhe, equal to approximately 60% of the electricity demand. The second scenario showed that 18,000 tons of the residual biomass could ensure the total annual production of about 56,000 MWht, corresponding to more than 100% of the requirements, and about 14,400 MWhe, equal to approximately 90% of the electricity demand. In addition, the CO2 emissions from the energy valorization

  11. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R.C.; Bushnell, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide, aviation alone uses 85 to 95 billion gallons of nonrenewable fossil fuel per year (2008). General transportation fueling can accommodate several different fuels; however, aviation fuels have very specific requirements. Biofuels have been flight demonstrated, are considered renewable, have the capacity to become "drop-in" replacements for Jet-A fuel, and solve the CO2 climate change problem. The major issue is cost; current biomass biofuels are not economically competitive. Biofuel feedstock sources being researched are halophytes, algae, cyanobacteria, weeds-to-crops, wastes with contingent restraints on use of crop land, freshwater, and climate change. There are five major renewable energy sources: solar thermal, solar photovoltaic, wind, drilled geothermal and biomass, each of which have an order of magnitude greater capacity to meet all energy needs. All five address aspects of climate change; biomass has massive potential as an energy fuel feedstock.

  12. Waste from rearing and slaughter of poultry – treat to the environment or feedstock for energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Myszograj

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of poultry has systematically grown for over 10 years. In 2007, Poland, with the participation of 11% dealt third place in Europe in the production of poultry meat with the input of 11% has taken the third place in Europe after France and the UK (about 14%. Intensification of poultry production on one hand provides to higher profitability, on the other hand generates more and more waste products, such as manure, slaughter wastes, dead birds, and the emission of gases (e.g. ammonia into the environment. Management of waste in breeding and slaughter plants of poultry rarely complies with current regulations. This is connected with high costs of waste disposal hazardous to the environment, harmful and dangerous to human health. because of chemical composition and potential health risks. The article, based on literature data and our own research, characterizes the waste from rearing and slaughter of poultry and define the possible ways to negative impact on human health: directly by microbial infections or indirectly by emissions of ammonia to the atmosphere, the migration of pollutants into groundwater and surface water. Options of waste utilization in methane fermentation process have been presented. This technology reduces the risk of environmental hazard , while allowing for recovery renewable energy of biogas from biowaste. Waste from the turkey farm and slaughterhouse (the size of slaughterhouse about 26,000 units per week were of mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Nine types of waste: turkey manure on straw, fresh straw used for bedding, heads, guts, feet and feathers were chosen. Flotation sediment, sewage from the slaughtering and chemical sludge was also fermented. High potential for methane from slaughterhouse waste (ca. 73% and manure (63%, indicate for simultaneous disposal and energy recovery from methane fermentation process.

  13. Experimental and Modelling Studies of Biomass Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ka Leung Lam; Adetoyese Olajire Oyedu~; Chi Wai Hui

    2012-01-01

    The analysis on the feedstock pyrolysis characteristic and the impacts of process parameters on pyrolysis outcomes can assist in the designing, operating and optimizing pyrolysis processes. This work aims to utilize both experimental and modelling approaches to perform the analysis on three biomass feedstocks--wood sawdust, bamboo shred and Jatropha Curcas seed cake residue, and to provide insights for the design_and operation of pyro-lysis processes. For the experimental part, the study investigated the effect of heating rate, final pyrolysis tempera- ture and sample size on pyrolysis using common thermal analysis techniques. For the modelling part, a transient mathematical model that integrates the feedstock characteristic from the experimental study was used to simulate the pyrolysis progress of selected biomass feedstock particles for reactor scenarios. The model composes of several sub-models that describe pyrolysis kinetic and heat flow, particle heat transfer, particle shrinking and reactor opera-tion. With better understanding of the effects of process conditions and feedstock characteristics on pyrolysis through both experimental and modelling studies, this work discusses on the considerations of and interrelation between feedstock size, pyrolysis energy usage, processing time and product quality for the design and operation of pyrolysis processes.

  14. Toward a biomass-intensive sustainable energy strategy for Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following two devastating blows to Midwestern economies during 1998-depressed crop prices resulting from a global,constriction of grain demand and federally imposed reductions in NOx emissions from power plants across the Midwest-incentives for a sustainable energy policy based on biofuels gained credibility. Indiana, the state most dependent on coal for electricity, may be the most affected by the new EPA restrictions. Simultaneously, grain production reached near record outputs yet frustrated farmers because of globally weakened market conditions. This paper examines the effects of these events by addressing the question: to what extent could a sustainable energy scenario be developed for Indiana? The focus on biomass is guided by the local availability of agricultural resources and the economic constraints imposed at the national and global level. We analyzed the availability of agricultural land for dedicated energy crop production, strategies and incentives to develop markets and adoption of production techniques, and estimates of maximum potential production and fuel conversion of energy crops. These results provide an assessment of limitations for achieving a sustainable energy scenario for one Midwestern state, while simultaneously suggesting realistic levels of integration of biomass energy that may be anticipated in the near future. (author)

  15. Quinault Indian Nation Comprehensive Biomass Strategic Planning Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, Jesus [American Community Enrichment, Elma, WA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The overall purposes of the Quinault Indian Nation’s Comprehensive Biomass Strategic Planning Project were to: (1) Identify and confirm community and tribal energy needs; (2) Conducting an inventory of sustainable biomass feedstock availability; (3) Development of a biomass energy vision statement with goals and objectives; (4) Identification and assessment of biomass options for both demand-side and supply side that are viable to the Quinault Indian Nation (QIN); and (5) Developing a long-term biomass strategy consistent with the long-term overall energy goals of the QIN. This Comprehensive Biomass Strategic Planning Project is consistent with the QIN’s prior two-year DOE Renewable Energy Study from 2004 through 2006. That study revealed that the most viable options to the QIN’s renewable energy options were biomass and energy efficiency best practices. QIN's Biomass Strategic Planning Project is focused on using forest slash in chipped form as feedstock for fuel pellet manufacturing in support of a tribal biomass heating facility. This biomass heating facility has been engineered and designed to heat existing tribal facilities as well as tribal facilities currently being planned including a new K-12 School.

  16. Microwave Enhanced Direct Cracking of Hydrocarbon Feedstock for Energy Efficient Production of Ethylene and Propylene.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shulman, Holly; Fall, Morgana; Wagner, Eric; Bowlin, Ricardo

    2012-02-13

    This project demonstrated microwave cracking of ethane with good product conversion and ethylene selectivity, with a short residence time ({approx}0.001 sec). The laboratory scale equipment was designed and built, along with concept designs for larger scale implementation. The system was operated below atmospheric pressures, in the range of 15-55 torr, with argon as a carrier gas. The measured products included hydrogen, methane, acetylene, and ethylene. The results followed similar trends to those predicted by the modeling software SPYRO{reg_sign}, with the exception that the microwave appeared to produce slightly lower amounts of ethylene and methane, although enhanced analytical analysis should reduce the difference. Continued testing will be required to verify these results and quantify the energy consumption of microwave vs. conventional. The microwave cracking process is an attractive option due to the possibility of selectively heating the reaction volume rather than the reactor walls, which may allow novel reactor designs that result in more efficient production of ethylene. Supplemental studies are needed to continue the laboratory testing and refine processing parameters.

  17. Economic viability of present-day biomass energy installations; Wirtschaftlichkeit von heutigen Biomasse-Energieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markus Sommerhalder, M.; Schelske, O. [Ernst Basler und Partner AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Nussbaumer, T. [Verenum, Zuerich (Switzerland); Engeli, H. [Engeli Engineering, Neerach (Switzerland); Membrez, Y.; Ndoh, M.; Tacchini, C. [EREP SA, Aclens (Switzerland)

    2007-03-15

    This illustrated, comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the economic viability of biomass energy installations. The installations examined included wood-fired installations, biogas installations and those using bio-diesel and bio-ethanol. The system boundaries involved are defined and various factors that influence cost calculations are examined. The resulting heat and electricity prices for various energy sources and systems are presented and discussed. Examples of small and large-scale installations are presented. For wood-energy, combined heat and power system producing electricity at powers of 1 to 5 MWe are looked at and the various factors influencing their viability are discussed. Biogas installations of various sizes are discussed and the differing investment costs involved are commented on. Here, large industrial installations using communal green wastes are also examined and the influence of communal waste-collection charges on the price for the electricity generated is discussed, as is the influence of the market for the residual compost produced. The production and use of biogas in public wastewater treatment plants is also looked at, including the use of co-substrates. As far as biogenic liquid fuels such as bio-diesel and bio-ethanol are concerned, the report takes a brief look at the situation concerning installations in Switzerland and reviews the production costs involved. Various conclusions are drawn for the various energy sources reviewed as well as for the prices for heat and electrical energy obtained.

  18. First biomass conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings, Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this third volume deal with Environmental Issues, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. Concerning Environmental Issues, the following topics are emphasized: Global Climate Change, Biomass Utilization, Biofuel Test Procedures, and Commercialization of Biomass Products. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. First biomass conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this third volume deal with Environmental Issues, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. Concerning Environmental Issues, the following topics are emphasized: Global Climate Change, Biomass Utilization, Biofuel Test Procedures, and Commercialization of Biomass Products. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  20. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Indirect Liquefaction of Blended Biomass to Produce High Octane Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Canter, Christina E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartley, Damon S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) aims at developing and deploying technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2015). BETO also performs a supply chain sustainability analysis (SCSA). This report describes the SCSA of the production of renewable high octane gasoline (HOG) via indirect liquefaction (IDL) of lignocellulosic biomass. This SCSA was developed for the 2017 design case for feedstock logistics (INL, 2014) and for the 2022 target case for HOG production via IDL (Tan et al., 2015). The design includes advancements that are likely and targeted to be achieved by 2017 for the feedstock logistics and 2022 for the IDL conversion process. The 2017 design case for feedstock logistics demonstrated a delivered feedstock cost of $80 per dry U.S. short ton by the year 2017 (INL, 2014). The 2022 design case for the conversion process, as modeled in Tan et al. (2015), uses the feedstock 2017 design case blend of biomass feedstocks consisting of pulpwood, wood residue, switchgrass, and construction and demolition waste (C&D) with performance properties consistent with a sole woody feedstock type (e.g., pine or poplar). The HOG SCSA case considers the 2017 feedstock design case (the blend) as well as individual feedstock cases separately as alternative scenarios when the feedstock blend ratio varies as a result of a change in feedstock availability. These scenarios could be viewed as bounding SCSA results because of distinctive requirements for energy and chemical inputs for the production and logistics of different components of the blend feedstocks.

  1. Biomass gasification- a promising renewable energy technology for industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demand for energy in the industrial sector is increasing to meet the growing activities due to the encouragement of the government in our country. This energy requirement is mostly thermal or electrical. To sustain the healthy trend there is an urgent need to look for alternate (renewable) sources of energy in addition to the measures of energy conservation wherever possible. One such very promising, matured, and advanced renewable energy technology is biomass gasification, offering a host of benefits. The use of this technology especially in the industrial sector, by taking the first hand practical examples from our experience of working in this area where it has been put to use is discussed. To further give an idea of the vast nature of its applicability different class of industries have been chosen highlighting the advantages derived by adopting this technology. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs

  2. The transfer of technologies for biomass energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of the paper presents the common perception of technology transfer as a trade relationship rather than a systematic approach to establish a complex technological capacity in a given field. It aims to correct this misperception by introducing some other ideas: (a) the need to support the people, adjust the relevant organizations and establish the capacities to provide the products and services; (b) the typical life cycles of technologies from the initial concept to the final stages of transfer and sustainable dissemination; (c) the needs and expectations of the groups targeted by the technologies for biomass energy utilization. The second part of the paper discusses one example of successful technology transfer: the use of large biomass-burning stoves for food preparation in public institutions and private restaurants in East Africa. The third part of the paper highlights two non-technological barriers to the transfer of biomass energy technologies: (a) weak market forces and business interests and a large number of State activities and projects and (b) conflicting interests of end-users, craftsmen, private and public project partners, which can threaten the success of the attempted technology transfer, even after local adaptation. Finally, suggestions are made for overcoming some of these problems. (author)

  3. Asparagus stem as a new lignocellulosic biomass feedstock for anaerobic digestion: increasing hydrolysis rate, methane production and biodegradability by alkaline pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaohua; Gu, Yu; Zhou, Xuefei; Zhang, Yalei

    2014-07-01

    Recently, anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass for methane production has attracted considerable attention. However, there is little information regarding methane production from asparagus stem, a typical lignocellulosic biomass, by anaerobic digestion. In this study, alkaline pretreatment of asparagus stem was investigated for its ability to increase hydrolysis rate and methane production and to improve biodegradability (BD). The hydrolysis rate increased with increasing NaOH dose, due to higher removal rates of lignin and hemicelluloses. However, the optimal NaOH dose was 6% (w/w) according to the specific methane production (SMP). Under this condition, the SMP and the technical digestion time of the NaOH-treated asparagus stem were 242.3 mL/g VS and 18 days, which were 38.4% higher and 51.4% shorter than those of the untreated sample, respectively. The BD was improved from 40.1% to 55.4%. These results indicate that alkaline pretreatment could be an efficient method for increasing methane production from asparagus stem.

  4. Energy potential of sugar cane biomass in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rípoli Tomaz Caetano Cannavam

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is a developing tropical country with abundant biomass resources. Sugar cane (Saccahrum spp. is primarily produced to obtain sugar and alcohol. Presently sugar cane is burned before harvest. If the cane were not burned before harvest, the trash (tops and leaves could be collected and burned to produce steam to generate electricity, or be converted into alcohol fuel and decrease the severe air pollution problems caused by sugar cane burning. Based upon logical assumptions and appropriate data, we estimate the number of people that could be served each year by this biomass if its energy was converted into electricity. From trash and bagasse, 7.0x10(6 and 5.5x10(6 people y-1 could be served, respectively.

  5. Dynamics of Technological Innovation Systems. The Case of Biomass Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The starting point is that the current energy system largely depends on fossil fuels. This phenomenon, which is labelled as carbon lock-in, causes a long breakthrough period for renewable energy. The most suitable theoretical approach to analyse the development, diffusion and implementation of emergent technologies, such as renewable energy, is the Technological Innovation Systems' (TIS) perspective. This approach focuses on a particular technology and includes all those factors (institutions, actors, and networks) that influence its development. Recent research has identified several so-called System Functions that need to be fulfilled for a TIS to support successfully the evolution of a technology. In this paper we will use the following set of System Functions: F1: Entrepreneurial Activities, F2: Knowledge Development (learning), F3: Knowledge Diffusion through Networks, F4: Guidance of the Search, F5: Market Formation, F6: Resources Mobilisation, F7: Counteracting Resistance to Change (also Support from Advocacy Coalitions). By focusing on the System Functions the key processes that occur in a system which influence the development, diffusion and implementation of that technology will be identified and insight will be gained in the system dynamics. The System Functions are not independent but interact and influence each other. The nature of interactions whether they are positive or negative will influence the performance of the system respectively. Positive System Function fulfilment can lead to positive, i.e. virtuous cycles of processes that strengthen each other and lead to the building up of momentum that creates a process of creative destruction within the incumbent system. According to the same reasoning, a system in decline is characterised by one or more vicious cycles, where the System Functions interact and reinforce each other in a negative way. The results from the case studies showed that different functional patterns occurred for the Biomass

  6. Assessing the effect of stricter sustainability criteria on EU biomass crop potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, B.S.; Fritsche, U.; Petersen, J.E.; Lesschen, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how different sustainability criteria restrict the supply of cropped biomass sources within the EU. There are already mandatory sustainability criteria formulated in the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) at EU level for biomass feedstocks to be used for conversion into biofuel

  7. Energy-Based Evaluations on Eucalyptus Biomass Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago L. Romanelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dependence on finite resources brings economic, social, and environmental concerns. Planted forests are a biomass alternative to the exploitation of natural forests. In the exploitation of the planted forests, planning and management are key to achieve success, so in forestry operations, both economic and noneconomic factors must be considered. This study aimed to compare eucalyptus biomass production through energy embodiment of anthropogenic inputs and resource embodiment including environmental contribution (emergy for the commercial forest in the Sao Paulo, Brazil. Energy analyses and emergy synthesis were accomplished for the eucalyptus production cycles. It was determined that emergy synthesis of eucalyptus production and sensibility analysis for three scenarios to adjust soil acidity (lime, ash, and sludge. For both, energy analysis and emergy synthesis, harvesting presented the highest input demand. Results show the differences between energy analysis and emergy synthesis are in the conceptual underpinnings and accounting procedures. Both evaluations present similar trends and differ in the magnitude of the participation of an input due to its origin. For instance, inputs extracted from ores, which represent environmental contribution, are more relevant for emergy synthesis. On the other hand, inputs from industrial processes are more important for energy analysis.

  8. Biomass: An Alternative Source of Energy for Eighth or Ninth Grade Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyward, Lillie; Murff, Marye

    This teaching unit develops the possibility of using biomass as an alternative source of energy. The concept of biomass is explained and the processes associated with its conversion to energy are stated. Suggestions for development of biomass technology in different geographic areas are indicated. Lessons for 6 days are presented for use with…

  9. Alternative Feedstocks Program Technical and Economic Assessment: Thermal/Chemical and Bioprocessing Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozell, J. J.; Landucci, R.

    1993-07-01

    This resource document on biomass to chemicals opportunities describes the development of a technical and market rationale for incorporating renewable feedstocks into the chemical industry in both a qualitative and quantitative sense. The term "renewable feedstock?s" can be defined to include a huge number of materials such as agricultural crops rich in starch, lignocellulosic materials (biomass), or biomass material recovered from a variety of processing wastes.

  10. Availability of biomass for energy production. GRAIN: Global Restrictions on biomass Availability for Import to the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report includes reports of activities that were carried out within the GRAIN project. This evaluation shows that the (technical) potential contribution of bio-energy to the future world's energy supply could be very large. In theory, energy farming on current agricultural land could contribute over 800 EJ, without jeopardising the world's food supply. Use of degraded lands may add another 150 EJ, although this contribution will largely come from crops with a low productivity. The growing demand for bio-materials may require a biomass input equivalent to 20-50 EJ, which must be grown on plantations when existing forests are not able to supply this growing demand. Organic wastes and residues could possibly supply another 40-170 EJ, with uncertain contributions from forest residues and potentially a very significant role for organic waste, especially when bio-materials are used on a larger scale. In total, the upper limit of the bio-energy potential could be over 1000 EJ per year. This is considerably more than the current global energy use of 400 EJ. However, this contribution is by no means guaranteed: crucial factors determining biomass availability for energy are: (1) Population growth and economic development; (2) The efficiency and productivity of food production systems that must be adopted worldwide and the rate of their deployment in particular in developing countries; (3) Feasibility of the use of marginal/degraded lands; (4) Productivity of forests and sustainable harvest levels; (5) The (increased) utilisation of bio-materials. Major transitions are required to exploit this bio-energy potential. It is uncertain to what extent such transitions are feasible. Depending on the factors mentioned above, the bio-energy potential could be very low as well. At regional/local level the possibilities and potential consequences of biomass production and use can vary strongly, but the insights in possible consequences are fairly limited up to now. Bio-energy offers

  11. Potential and possibilities of supplying energy from biomass and biogas; Potentiale und Moeglichkeiten der Energiebereitstellung durch Biomasse und Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnenberg, H. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Betriebstechnik; Weiland, P.; Ahlgrimm, H.J. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (FAL), Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Technologie

    1998-06-01

    Agriculture`s potential contribution to the energy supply of the ``town of the future`` through the conversion of biomass to energy, including biogas production, is a rather modest one. Supposing that the share of total renewable energy in Germany`s primary energy demand rises to approximately 4%, then the proportion of biomass from biotic raw materials especially produced for the purpose will at the most make up an eighth of this amount. Beyond this, biomass is burdened with other drawbacks such as low supply efficiency, limited availability, and weather-dependent reliability. On the other hand, biomass is well suited for conversion to solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels, including inexpensive ones with low energy density (solid fuels), mostly used for stationary heating applications, as well as more expensive ones such as liquid fuels with a high energy density for mobile applications in the automotive sector. Thanks to its capacity to regenerate, biomass is an inexhaustible resource. Moreover, its natural life cycle has a small impact on the environment. [Deutsch] Der Beitrag, den die Landwirtschaft durch energetische Nutzung von Biomasse, z.B. auch mit der Erzeugung von Biogas, zur Energieversorgung der `Stadt der Zukunft` leisten kann, nimmt sich bescheiden aus. Wird erwartet, dass innerhalb des naechsten Jahrzehnts der Anteil regenerativer Energien insgesamt auf etwa 4% des Primaerenergie-Verbrauchs Deutschlands ansteigen koennte, so duerfte Biomasse als speziell zur Energiegewinnung angebaute nachwachsende Rohstoffe mit bestensfalls 0,5 Prozentpunkten daran beteiligt sein. Es beduerfen darueber hinaus auch Nachteile, wie geringe Bereitstellungseffizienz, beschraenkte Verfuegbarkeit und witterungsabhaengige Zuverlaessigkeit, der Beachtung. Die Biomasse kann jedoch mit Erfolg in feste, fluessige und gasfoermige Energietraeger konvertiert werden, sowohl in preiswerte mit geringer Energiedichte (Festbrennstoffe) fuer bevorzugt stationaeren Heizungs-Einsatz als auch

  12. A techno-economic evaluation of a biomass energy conversion park

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dael, Van M.; Passel, van S.; Pelkmans, L.; Guisson, R.; Reumermann, P.; Luzardo, N.M.; Witters, N.; Broeze, J.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass as a renewable energy source has many advantages and is therefore recognized as one of the main renewable energy sources to be deployed in order to attain the target of 20% renewable energy use of final energy consumption by 2020 in Europe. In this paper the concept of a biomass Energy Conve

  13. Renewable energy. Part 6. Biomass and biogas, substitute fuels, wind power; Erneuerbare Energien. Bd. 6. Biomasse und Biogas, Ersatzbrennstoffe, Windenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thome-Kozmiensky, Karl J.; Beckmann, Michael

    2011-07-01

    The authors of the book under consideration report on the technical implementation of projects to produce electricity and heat from renewable energies. In particular, the issues biomass, production and utilization of biogas, materials recycling and energy recovery of substitute fuels and wind energy are discussed.

  14. State of the art on reactor designs for solar gasification of carbonaceous feedstock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Tora, E.A.; Bruno, J.C.;

    2013-01-01

    The association of concentrated solar energy and biomass gasification has often been suggested as an interesting alternative to conventional autothermal processes where a significant portion of the biomass has to be used for heat generation to drive endothermic reactions. It is a clean process able...... to produce high quality synthesis gas with a higher output per unit of feedstock and that allows for the chemical storage of solar energy in the form of a readily transportable fuel, among other advantages. The present paper describes the latest advances in solar thermochemical reactors for gasification...

  15. Priority order in using biomass resources - Energy systems analyses of future scenarios for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Pil Seok; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2013-01-01

    . This article compares the value of using biomass as a heat source and for electricity generation in a 100% renewable energy system context. The comparison is done by assuming an incremental decrease in the biomass available for the electricity and heat sector, respectively. The assumed scenarios...... for the decrease of biomass are made by use of an hourly energy system analysis model, EnergyPLAN. The results are shown in terms of system configuration, biomass fuel efficiency, system cost, and impacts on the export of electricity. It is concluded that the reduction of biomass in the heat sector is better than......According to some future Danish energy scenarios, biomass will become one of the two main pillars of the future energy system accompanied by wind power. The biomass can be used for generating heat and electricity, and as a transportation fuel in a future energy system according to the scenarios...

  16. SERI Biomass Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, P. W.; Corder, R. E.; Hill, A. M.; Lindsey, H.; Lowenstein, M. Z.

    1983-02-01

    The biomass with which this report is concerned includes aquatic plants, which can be converted into liquid fuels and chemicals; organic wastes (crop residues as well as animal and municipal wastes), from which biogas can be produced via anerobic digestion; and organic or inorganic waste streams, from which hydrogen can be produced by photobiological processes. The Biomass Program Office supports research in three areas which, although distinct, all use living organisms to create the desired products. The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) supports research on organisms that are themselves processed into the final products, while the Anaerobic Digestion (ADP) and Photo/Biological Hydrogen Program (P/BHP) deals with organisms that transform waste streams into energy products. The P/BHP is also investigating systems using water as a feedstock and cell-free systems which do not utilize living organisms. This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the SERI Biomass Program during FY 1982.

  17. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  18. Hybrid biomass-wind power plant for reliable energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massive implementation of renewable energy resources is a key element to reduce CO2 emissions associated to electricity generation. Wind resources can provide an important alternative to conventional electricity generation mainly based on fossil fuels. However, wind generators are greatly affected by the restrictive operating rules of electricity markets because, as wind is naturally variable, wind generators may have serious difficulties on submitting accurate generation schedules on a day ahead basis, and on complying with scheduled obligations in real-time operation. In this paper, an innovative system combining a biomass gasification power plant, a gas storage system and stand-by generators to stabilize a generic 40 MW wind park is proposed and evaluated with real data. The wind park power production model is based on real data about power production of a Spanish wind park and a probabilistic approach to quantify fluctuations and so, power compensation needs. The hybrid wind-biomass system is analysed to obtain main hybrid system design parameters. This hybrid system can mitigate wind prediction errors and so provide a predictable source of electricity. An entire year cycle of hourly power compensations needs has been simulated deducing storage capacity, extra power needs of the biomass power plant and stand-by generation capacity to assure power compensation during critical peak hours with acceptable reliability. (author)

  19. Potential Land Competition Between Open-Pond Microalgae Production and Terrestrial Dedicated Feedstock Supply Systems in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langholtz, Matthew; Coleman, Andre M.; Eaton, Laurence; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Hellwinckel , Chad M.; Brandt, Craig C.

    2016-08-01

    Biofuels produced from both terrestrial and algal biomass feedstocks can contribute to energy security while providing economic, environmental, and social benefits. To assess the potential for land competition between these two feedstock types in the United States, we evaluate a scenario in which 41.5 x 109 L yr-1 of second-generation biofuels are produced on pastureland, the most likely land base where both feedstock types may be deployed. This total includes 12.0 x 109 L yr-1 of biofuels from open-pond microalgae production and 29.5 x 109 L yr-1 of biofuels from terrestrial dedicated feedstock supply systems. Under these scenarios, open-pond microalgae production is projected to use 1.2 million ha of private pastureland, while terrestrial dedicated feedstock supply systems would use 14.0 million ha of private pastureland. A spatial meta-analysis indicates that potential competition for land under these scenarios would be concentrated in 110 counties, containing 1.0 and 1.7 million hectares of algal and terrestrial dedicated feedstock production, respectively. A land competition index applied to these 110 counties suggests that 38 to 59 counties could experience competition for upwards of 40% of a county’s pastureland. However, this combined 2.7 million ha represents only 2%-5% of total pastureland in the U.S., with the remaining 12.5 million ha of algal or terrestrial dedicated feedstock production on pastureland in non-competing areas.

  20. Financial and energy analyses of woody biomass plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an economic analysis of a short rotation woody crop (SRWC) plantation system established the financial and energy costs of woody biomass and related net values for the total system. A production model for commercial-sized Populus plantations was developed from a series of research projects sponsored by the U.S,. Department of Energy's Short Rotation Woody Crops Program. The design was based on hybrid poplar planted on good quality agricultural sites at a density of 2100 cutting ha-1. Growth was forecast at 16 Mg(OD) ha-1 yr-1 on a six-year rotation cycle. All inputs associated with plantation establishment, annual operations, and land use were identified on a financial and energy cost basis (Strauss et al. 1989). Net values for the system projected a minimum financial profit and a major net energy gain. Financial profit was limited by the high market value of energy inputs as compared to the low market value of the energy output. The net energy gain was attributed to the solar energy captured through photosynthesis. Principal input costs to the overall system, on both a financial and energy basis, were land rent and the harvesting/transportation requirements

  1. Low Cost Chemical Feedstocks Using an Improved and Energy Efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) Removal Process, Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Howard, S.; Lu, Yingzhong

    2012-08-10

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a new low-cost and energy efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) recovery process - through a combination of theoretical, bench-scale and pilot-scale testing - so that it could be offered to the natural gas industry for commercialization. The new process, known as the IROA process, is based on U.S. patent No. 6,553,784, which if commercialized, has the potential of achieving substantial energy savings compared to currently used cryogenic technology. When successfully developed, this technology will benefit the petrochemical industry, which uses NGL as feedstocks, and will also benefit other chemical industries that utilize gas-liquid separation and distillation under similar operating conditions. Specific goals and objectives of the overall program include: (i) collecting relevant physical property and Vapor Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) data for the design and evaluation of the new technology, (ii) solving critical R&D issues including the identification of suitable dehydration and NGL absorbing solvents, inhibiting corrosion, and specifying proper packing structure and materials, (iii) designing, construction and operation of bench and pilot-scale units to verify design performance, (iv) computer simulation of the process using commercial software simulation platforms such as Aspen-Plus and HYSYS, and (v) preparation of a commercialization plan and identification of industrial partners that are interested in utilizing the new technology. NGL is a collective term for C2+ hydrocarbons present in the natural gas. Historically, the commercial value of the separated NGL components has been greater than the thermal value of these liquids in the gas. The revenue derived from extracting NGLs is crucial to ensuring the overall profitability of the domestic natural gas production industry and therefore of ensuring a secure and reliable supply in the 48 contiguous states. However, rising natural gas prices have dramatically reduced

  2. Energy from biomass — Some basic physical and related considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloyne, R. W.

    1983-09-01

    The production of vegetable matter (biomass) by photosynthesis is determined by species and by meteorological factors (especially, but not exclusively, solar radiation). Annual net primary production of land-based biomass corresponds to only about 1/1000 of the intercepted irradiation at ground level, but even so, is 10 times the world's estimated energy needs. The exploitation of this energy potential at any one place is critically influenced by the economic, political and social factors, amongst which are the competition from agriculture (especially food crops), forestry, industrial and urban (including leisure) needs for land and resources. Social factors (e.g. population and population density) also constitute prime influences. Strategies for utilisation range from the cultivation of special energy crops (readily conceivable on the American/ Australasian continents); to the more efficient manipulation of current land-use patterns (including “opportunity” cropping); to the more effective exploitation of biologi cal wastes (e.g. methane from sewage), probably the only immediately practical possibility in any densely populated and highly industrialised country. The spatial pattern of solar irradiation at ground level is complex. In the summer, total daily irradiation in continental high latitudes can exceed that in maritime temperate regions; and this combined with species differences and the almost infinite variety of shape and orientation of plant parts, result in a photosynthetic production of biomass which does not conform completely to a zonal pattern, but in broad terms annual dry matter production varies from a few kg/ha in Arctic Tundra to tens of tonnes in temperate latitudes rising to nearly 100 t/ha for perennial tropical crops. If a species could be developed to grow throughout the year at the current seasonal rate, a yield of 150 t/yr, ha) seems possible.

  3. Evaluation of Alnus species and hybrids. [For biomass energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R.B. (Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (US). Dept. of Forestry); Burgess, D. (Petawawa National Forestry Inst., Chalk River, Ontario (CA))

    1990-01-01

    Trials of a common set of seed lots representing 39 parents and five species of Alnus have been started in four countries: Belgium, Canada, the UK, and the US. Initial results indicate that cold hardiness is a problem in using A. acuminata but that sufficiently hardy A. rubra sources are available. A. glutinosa had the best growth in the nursery, and A. cordata had the best survival under severe moisture-stress conditions. A summary also is given of a workshop on alder improvement that further demonstrates the potential for developing the genus for biomass energy production. (author).

  4. Potential for the energy-oriented use of biomass in Switzerland; Potentiale zur energetischen Nutzung von Biomasse in der Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oettli, B.; Blum, M.; Peter, M.; Schwank, O. [Infras, Zuerich (Switzerland); Bedniaguine, D.; Dauriat, A.; Gnansounou, G. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Laboratory of Energy Systems (LASEN), Lausanne (Switzerland); Chetelat, J.; Golay, G. [Swiss Federal Office of Technology (EPFL), Laboratoire de systemes d' information geographique (LASIG), Lausanne (Switzerland); Hersener, J.-L. [Ingenieurbuero Hersener, Wiesendangen (Switzerland); Meier, U. [Meritec GmbH, Guntershausen (Switzerland); Schleiss, K. [Umwelt- und Kompostberatung, Grenchen (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the potential offered by the use of biomass in the energy area. In the first and main part of the report, the base data and the methodology used are discussed and the theoretical and realisable potentials are examined. Scenarios on reference-energy prices are discussed, whereby the price of oil is taken as primary reference. General estimates of the potential of biomass are presented for 2025 and 2040 and compared with figures for 2003. Conversion paths and various types of installations are discussed. Economic potential and future market-shares of biomass energy-use are discussed. Finally, the external costs of energy supply systems are examined and their influence on the economic potential of biomass technologies is discussed. The second part of the report takes a look at the use of geographic information systems (GIS) for data acquisition and the visualisation of energy-potentials. In the third part of the report, the optimal use of the potential offered by biomass is looked at and the most important results and recommendations of the study group are presented. The report is completed with a list of relevant literature and a comprehensive appendix.

  5. Environmental assessment of energy production from waste and biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide

    the results of energy system analysis into life cycle assessment scenarios. - Identification of the criticalities of bioenergy systems, particularly in relation to land use changes. - Identification of potentials and criticalities associated with innovative waste refinery technologies. This was done......Optimal utilization of biomass and waste for energy purposes offers great potentials for reducing fossil fuel dependency and resource consumption. The common understanding is that bioenergy decreases greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as the carbon released during energy conversion has previously been...... impacts. Waste, such as municipal solid waste, does not involve land use change impacts. However, existing and emerging waste treatment technologies offer different environmental benefits and drawbacks which should be evaluated in order to recommend appropriate technologies in selected scenarios...

  6. Using Populus as a lignocellulosic feedstock for bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porth, Ilga; El-Kassaby, Yousry A

    2015-04-01

    Populus species along with species from the sister genus Salix will provide valuable feedstock resources for advanced second-generation biofuels. Their inherent fast growth characteristics can particularly be exploited for short rotation management, a time and energy saving cultivation alternative for lignocellulosic feedstock supply. Salicaceae possess inherent cell wall characteristics with favorable cellulose to lignin ratios for utilization as bioethanol crop. We review economically important traits relevant for intensively managed biofuel crop plantations, genomic and phenotypic resources available for Populus, breeding strategies for forest trees dedicated to bioenergy provision, and bioprocesses and downstream applications related to opportunities using Salicaceae as a renewable resource. Challenges need to be resolved for every single step of the conversion process chain, i.e., starting from tree domestication for improved performance as a bioenergy crop, bioconversion process, policy development for land use changes associated with advanced biofuels, and harvest and supply logistics associated with industrial-scale biorefinery plants using Populus as feedstock. Significant hurdles towards cost and energy efficiency, environmental friendliness, and yield maximization with regards to biomass pretreatment, saccharification, and fermentation of celluloses and the sustainability of biorefineries as a whole still need to be overcome. PMID:25676392

  7. Rwanda after the war: supply and rational management of biomass energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hategeka, A. [Rwandan Government, Director of Energy and Hydrocarbons (Rwanda)

    1997-12-31

    This chapter discusses the effects of the war in Rwanda on biomass energy and biomass energy supply. Seven projects identified to be carried out immediately involve rationalisation of biomass energy use in urban and rural areas, supplying charcoal from forest thinnings, rehabilitation of damaged forests, examination of the feasibility of peat extraction, urban supply of peat, wood energy conservation, and pilot production of papyrus briquettes. (UK)

  8. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks. Progress report, June 1, 1977--August 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.I.C.; Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Gomez, R.F.; Sinskey, A.J.

    1977-09-01

    Studies on the microbial degradation of cellulose biomass continues to be centered around Clostridium thermocellum. The effect of surfactants on growth and cellulase production by C. thermocellum was investigated. The effect of pH on growth and reducing sugar accumulation rate of Clostridium thermocellum on solka floc was evaluated. Activity of extracellular cellulase of Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 was examined using TNP--CMC and Avicel as substrates. The pH optima are 5 and 4.5, respectively. Hydrolysis of either substrate is not inhibited by cellobiose, xylose, or glucose. The enzyme appears to be quite stable under reaction conditions at 60/sup 0/C. Thus far, regulation studies indicate that CMCase formation is not repressed by cellobiose. The search for plasmids in C. thermocellum was continued. The presence of plasmids was confirmed by cesium chloride ethidium bromide gradient centrifugation and electron microscopy. Two plasmids were detected, one with an approximate molecular weight of 1 x 10/sup 6/ daltons. Studies on the fermentation of lactic acid to propionic acid showed the pathway in C. propionicum to be simpler than in M. elsdenii and hence more amenable to manipulation for acrylate production. Using Lactobacillius delbrueckii, it was possible to convert glucose, cellobiose, and cellulose hydrolysates to lactic acid rapidly and quantitatively. Fermentations of C. acetobutylicum growing in soluble media were performed. Detailed studies of Clostridium thermoaceticum have shown that pH is the primary limiting factor in the production of acetic acid. pH-controlled fermentations indicated accumulations of over 30 gm/l of acetic acid.

  9. Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

    Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and

  10. Efficient conversion of solar energy to biomass and electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlevliet, David; Moheimani, Navid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The Earth receives around 1000 W.m(-2) of power from the Sun and only a fraction of this light energy is able to be converted to biomass (chemical energy) via the process of photosynthesis. Out of all photosynthetic organisms, microalgae, due to their fast growth rates and their ability to grow on non-arable land using saline water, have been identified as potential source of raw material for chemical energy production. Electrical energy can also be produced from this same solar resource via the use of photovoltaic modules. In this work we propose a novel method of combining both of these energy production processes to make full utilisation of the solar spectrum and increase the productivity of light-limited microalgae systems. These two methods of energy production would appear to compete for use of the same energy resource (sunlight) to produce either chemical or electrical energy. However, some groups of microalgae (i.e. Chlorophyta) only require the blue and red portions of the spectrum whereas photovoltaic devices can absorb strongly over the full range of visible light. This suggests that a combination of the two energy production systems would allow for a full utilization of the solar spectrum allowing both the production of chemical and electrical energy from the one facility making efficient use of available land and solar energy. In this work we propose to introduce a filter above the algae culture to modify the spectrum of light received by the algae and redirect parts of the spectrum to generate electricity. The electrical energy generated by this approach can then be directed to running ancillary systems or producing extra illumination for the growth of microalgae. We have modelled an approach whereby the productivity of light-limited microalgae systems can be improved by at least 4% through using an LED array to increase the total amount of illumination on the microalgae culture.

  11. Biomass Supply Chain and Conversion Economics of Cellulosic Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ronalds W.

    2011-12-01

    Cellulosic biomass is a potential and competitive source for bioenergy production, reasons for such acclamation include: biomass is one the few energy sources that can actually be utilized to produce several types of energy (motor fuel, electricity, heat) and cellulosic biomass is renewable and relatively found everywhere. Despite these positive advantages, issues regarding cellulosic biomass availability, supply chain, conversion process and economics need a more comprehensive understanding in order to identify the near short term routes in biomass to bioenergy production. Cellulosic biomass accounts for around 35% to 45% of cost share in cellulosic ethanol production, in addition, different feedstock have very different production rate, (dry ton/acre/year), availability across the year, and chemical composition that affect process yield and conversion costs as well. In the other hand, existing and brand new conversion technologies for cellulosic ethanol production offer different advantages, risks and financial returns. Ethanol yield, financial returns, delivered cost and supply chain logistic for combinations of feedstock and conversion technology are investigated in six studies. In the first study, biomass productivity, supply chain and delivered cost of fast growing Eucalyptus is simulated in economic and supply chain models to supply a hypothetic ethanol biorefinery. Finding suggests that Eucalyptus can be a potential hardwood grown specifically for energy. Delivered cost is highly sensitive to biomass productivity, percentage of covered area. Evaluated at different financial expectations, delivered cost can be competitive compared to current forest feedstock supply. In the second study, Eucalyptus biomass conversion into cellulosic ethanol is simulated in the dilute acid pretreatment, analysis of conversion costs, cost share, CAPEX and ethanol yield are examined. In the third study, biomass supply and delivered cost of loblolly pine is simulated in economic

  12. Harvesting forest biomass for energy in Minnesota: An assessment of guidelines, costs and logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Dalia El Sayed Abbas Mohamed

    The emerging market for renewable energy in Minnesota has generated a growing interest in utilizing more forest biomass for energy. However, this growing interest is paralleled with limited knowledge of the environmental impacts and cost effectiveness of utilizing this resource. To address environmental and economic viability concerns, this dissertation has addressed three areas related to biomass harvest: First, existing biomass harvesting guidelines and sustainability considerations are examined. Second, the potential contribution of biomass energy production to reduce the costs of hazardous fuel reduction treatments in these trials is assessed. Third, the logistics of biomass production trials are analyzed. Findings show that: (1) Existing forest related guidelines are not sufficient to allow large-scale production of biomass energy from forest residue sustainably. Biomass energy guidelines need to be based on scientific assessments of how repeated and large scale biomass production is going to affect soil, water and habitat values, in an integrated and individual manner over time. Furthermore, such guidelines would need to recommend production logistics (planning, implementation, and coordination of operations) necessary for a potential supply with the least site and environmental impacts. (2) The costs of biomass production trials were assessed and compared with conventional treatment costs. In these trials, conventional mechanical treatment costs were lower than biomass energy production costs less income from biomass sale. However, a sensitivity analysis indicated that costs reductions are possible under certain site, prescriptions and distance conditions. (3) Semi-structured interviews with forest machine operators indicate that existing fuel reduction prescriptions need to be more realistic in making recommendations that can overcome operational barriers (technical and physical) and planning and coordination concerns (guidelines and communications

  13. Biomass stakeholder views and concerns: Environmental groups and some trade association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peelle, E.

    2000-01-01

    This exploratory study of the views and concerns of 25 environmental organizations found high interest and concern about which biomass feedstocks would be used and how these biomass materials would be converted to energy. While all favored renewable energy over fossil or nuclear energy, opinion diverged over whether energy crops, residues, or both should be the primary source of a biomass/bioenergy fuel cycle. About half of the discussants favored biomass ``in general'' as a renewable energy source, while the others were distributed about equally over five categories, from favor-with-conditions, uncertain, skeptical, opposed, to ``no organizational policy.''

  14. Biomass stakeholder views and concerns: Environmental groups and some trade associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This exploratory study of the views and concerns of 25 environmental organizations found high interest and concern about which biomass feedstocks would be used and how these biomass materials would be converted to energy. While all favored renewable energy over fossil or nuclear energy, opinion diverged over whether energy crops, residues, or both should be the primary source of a biomass/bioenergy fuel cycle. About half of the discussants favored biomass ''in general'' as a renewable energy source, while the others were distributed about equally over five categories, from favor-with-conditions, uncertain, skeptical, opposed, to ''no organizational policy.''

  15. Biomass Assessment. Assessment of global biomass potentials and their links to food, water, biodiversity, energy demand and economy. Inventory and analysis of existing studies. Supporting document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This supporting document contains the result from the inventory phase of the biomass assessment of global biomass potentials and their links to food, water, biodiversity, energy demand and economy. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of global biomass potential estimates, focusing on the various factors affecting these potentials, such as food supplies, water use, biodiversity, energy demands and agro-economics

  16. Proceedings of the Chernobyl phytoremediation and biomass energy conversion workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many concepts, systems, technical approaches, technologies, ideas, agreements, and disagreements were vigorously discussed during the course of the 2-day workshop. The workshop was successful in generating intensive discussions on the merits of the proposed concept that includes removal of radionuclides by plants and trees (phytoremediation) to clean up soil in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ), use of the resultant biomass (plants and trees) to generate electrical power, and incorporation of ash in concrete casks to be used as storage containers in a licensed repository for low-level waste. Twelve years after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, the primary 4radioactive contamination of concern is from radioactive cesium (137Cs) and strontium (90Sr). The 137Cs and 90Sr were widely distributed throughout the CEZ. The attendees from Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Denmark and the US provided information, discussed and debated the following issues considerably: distribution and characteristics of radionuclides in CEZ; efficacy of using trees and plants to extract radioactive cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from contaminated soil; selection of energy conversion systems and technologies; necessary infrastructure for biomass harvesting, handling, transportation, and energy conversion; radioactive ash and emission management; occupational health and safety concerns for the personnel involved in this work; and economics. The attendees concluded that the overall concept has technical and possibly economic merits. However, many issues (technical, economic, risk) remain to be resolved before a viable commercial-scale implementation could take place

  17. Proceedings of the Chornobyl phytoremediation and biomass energy conversion workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Tokarevsky, V. [State Co. for Treatment and Disposal of Mixed Hazardous Waste (Ukraine)

    1998-06-01

    Many concepts, systems, technical approaches, technologies, ideas, agreements, and disagreements were vigorously discussed during the course of the 2-day workshop. The workshop was successful in generating intensive discussions on the merits of the proposed concept that includes removal of radionuclides by plants and trees (phytoremediation) to clean up soil in the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ), use of the resultant biomass (plants and trees) to generate electrical power, and incorporation of ash in concrete casks to be used as storage containers in a licensed repository for low-level waste. Twelve years after the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, the primary 4radioactive contamination of concern is from radioactive cesium ({sup 137}Cs) and strontium ({sup 90}Sr). The {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr were widely distributed throughout the CEZ. The attendees from Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Denmark and the US provided information, discussed and debated the following issues considerably: distribution and characteristics of radionuclides in CEZ; efficacy of using trees and plants to extract radioactive cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from contaminated soil; selection of energy conversion systems and technologies; necessary infrastructure for biomass harvesting, handling, transportation, and energy conversion; radioactive ash and emission management; occupational health and safety concerns for the personnel involved in this work; and economics. The attendees concluded that the overall concept has technical and possibly economic merits. However, many issues (technical, economic, risk) remain to be resolved before a viable commercial-scale implementation could take place.

  18. Nontraditional Use of Biomass at Certified Forest Management Units: Forest Biomass for Energy Production and Carbon Emissions Reduction in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep S. Suntana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass conversion technologies that produce energy and reduce carbon emissions have become more feasible to develop. This paper analyzes the potential of converting biomass into biomethanol at forest management units experiencing three forest management practices (community-based forest management (CBFM, plantation forest (PF, and natural production forest (NPF. Dry aboveground biomass collected varied considerably: 0.26–2.16 Mg/ha/year (CBFM, 8.08–8.35 Mg/ha/year (NPF, and 36.48–63.55 Mg/ha/year (PF. If 5% of the biomass was shifted to produce biomethanol for electricity production, the NPF and PF could provide continuous power to 138 and 2,762 households, respectively. Dedicating 5% of the biomass was not a viable option from one CBFM unit. However, if all biomasses were converted, the CBFM could provide electricity to 19–27 households. If 100% biomass from two selected PF was dedicated to biomethanol production: (1 52,200–72,600 households could be provided electricity for one year; (2 142–285% of the electricity demand in Jambi province could be satisfied; (3 all gasoline consumed in Jambi, in 2009, would be replaced. The net carbon emissions avoided could vary from 323 to 8,503 Mg when biomethanol was substituted for the natural gas methanol in fuel cells and from 294 to 7,730 Mg when it was used as a gasoline substitute.

  19. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2: Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates -- Wood Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    As part of Task 2, Gas Cleanup and Cost Estimates, Nexant investigated the appropriate process scheme for treatment of wood-derived syngas for use in the synthesis of liquid fuels. Two different 2,000 metric tonne per day gasification schemes, a low-pressure, indirect system using the gasifier, and a high-pressure, direct system using gasification technology were evaluated. Initial syngas conditions from each of the gasifiers was provided to the team by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Nexant was the prime contractor and principal investigator during this task; technical assistance was provided by both GTI and Emery Energy.

  20. Evaluation of biomass combustion based energy systems by cumulative energy demand and energy yield coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.; Oser, M.

    2004-07-01

    This final report prepared for the International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy Task 32 presents a method for a comparison of different energy systems with respect to the overall energy yield during their life cycles. For this purpose, the Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) based on primary energy and the Energy Yield Factor (EYC) are introduced and determined for the following scenarios: Log wood, wood chips, and wood pellets for residential heating and - except for log wood - also for district heating. As an alternative to heat production, power production via combustion and use of the electricity for decentralised heat pumps is also looked at. The evaluation and comparison of both the EYC for all fuels and the EYC{sub N}R for the non-renewable part enables a ranking of energy systems without a subjective weighing of non-renewable and renewable fuels to be made. For a sustainable energy supply, it is proposed to implement renewable energy systems in future which achieve an energy yield EYC{sub N}R of at least greater than 2 but favourably greater than 5. The evaluation of the different scenarios presented is proposed as the future basis for the choice of the most efficient energy systems based on biomass combustion.

  1. Renewable biomass energy: Understanding regional scale environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If biomass energy is to become a significant component of the US energy sector, millions of acres of farmland must be converted to energy crops. The environmental implications of this change in land use must be quantitatively evaluated. The land use changes will be largely driven by economic considerations. Farmers will grow energy crops when it is profitable to do so. Thus, models which purport to predict environmental changes induced by energy crop production must take into account those economic features which will influence land use change. In this paper, we present an approach for projecting the probable environmental impacts of growing energy crops at the regional scale. The approach takes into account both economic and environmental factors. We demonstrate the approach by analyzing, at a county-level, the probable impact of switchgrass production on erosion, evapotranspiration, nitrate in runoff, and phosphorous fertilizer use in two multi-county subregions within the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) region. Our results show that the adoption of switchgrass production will have different impacts in each subregion as a result of differences in the initial land use and soil conditions in the subregions. Erosion, evapotranspiration, and nitrate in runoff are projected to decrease in both subregions as switchgrass displaces the current crops. Phosphorous fertilizer applications are likely to increase in one subregion and decrease in the other due to initial differences in the types of conventional crops grown in each subregion. Overall these changes portend an improvement in water quality in the subregions with the increasing adoption of switchgrass

  2. Biomass logistics analysis for large scale biofuel production: case study of loblolly pine and switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoming; Withers, Mitch R; Seifkar, Navid; Field, Randall P; Barrett, Steven R H; Herzog, Howard J

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the costs, energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the biomass supply chain for large scale biofuel production. Two types of energy crop were considered, switchgrass and loblolly pine, as representative of herbaceous and woody biomass. A biomass logistics model has been developed to estimate the feedstock supply system from biomass production through transportation. Biomass in the form of woodchip, bale and pellet was investigated with road, railway and waterway transportation options. Our analysis indicated that the farm or forest gate cost is lowest for loblolly pine whole tree woodchip at $39.7/dry tonne and highest for switchgrass round bale at $72.3/dry tonne. Switchgrass farm gate GHG emissions is approximately 146kgCO2e/dry tonne, about 4 times higher than loblolly pine. The optimum biomass transportation mode and delivered form are determined by the tradeoff between fixed and variable costs for feedstock shipment.

  3. Biomass logistics analysis for large scale biofuel production: case study of loblolly pine and switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoming; Withers, Mitch R; Seifkar, Navid; Field, Randall P; Barrett, Steven R H; Herzog, Howard J

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the costs, energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the biomass supply chain for large scale biofuel production. Two types of energy crop were considered, switchgrass and loblolly pine, as representative of herbaceous and woody biomass. A biomass logistics model has been developed to estimate the feedstock supply system from biomass production through transportation. Biomass in the form of woodchip, bale and pellet was investigated with road, railway and waterway transportation options. Our analysis indicated that the farm or forest gate cost is lowest for loblolly pine whole tree woodchip at $39.7/dry tonne and highest for switchgrass round bale at $72.3/dry tonne. Switchgrass farm gate GHG emissions is approximately 146kgCO2e/dry tonne, about 4 times higher than loblolly pine. The optimum biomass transportation mode and delivered form are determined by the tradeoff between fixed and variable costs for feedstock shipment. PMID:25710677

  4. Biomass for energy in the European Union - a review of bioenergy resource assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Bentsen Niclas; Felby Claus

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This paper reviews recent literature on bioenergy potentials in conjunction with available biomass conversion technologies. The geographical scope is the European Union, which has set a course for long term development of its energy supply from the current dependence on fossil resources to a dominance of renewable resources. A cornerstone in European energy policies and strategies is biomass and bioenergy. The annual demand for biomass for energy is estimated to increase from the cur...

  5. Modeling Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstock Production in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraxner, Florian; Leduc, Sylvain; Kindermann, Georg; Fuss, Sabine; Pietsch, Stephan; Lakyda, Ivan; Serrano Leon, Hernan; Shchepashchenko, Dmitry; Shvidenko, Anatoly

    2016-04-01

    Sustainability of bioenergy is often indicated by the neutrality of emissions at the conversion site while the feedstock production site is assumed to be carbon neutral. Recent research shows that sustainability of bioenergy systems starts with feedstock management. Even if sustainable forest management is applied, different management types can impact ecosystem services substantially. This study examines different sustainable forest management systems together with an optimal planning of green-field bioenergy plants in the Alps. Two models - the biophysical global forest model (G4M) and a techno-economic engineering model for optimizing renewable energy systems (BeWhere) are implemented. G4M is applied in a forward looking manner in order to provide information on the forest under different management scenarios: (1) managing the forest for maximizing the carbon sequestration; or (2) managing the forest for maximizing the harvestable wood amount for bioenergy production. The results from the forest modelling are then picked up by the engineering model BeWhere, which optimizes the bioenergy production in terms of energy demand (power and heat demand by population) and supply (wood harvesting potentials), feedstock harvesting and transport costs, the location and capacity of the bioenergy plant as well as the energy distribution logistics with respect to heat and electricity (e.g. considering existing grids for electricity or district heating etc.). First results highlight the importance of considering ecosystem services under different scenarios and in a geographically explicit manner. While aiming at producing the same amount of bioenergy under both forest management scenarios, it turns out that in scenario (1) a substantially larger area (distributed across the Alps) will need to be used for producing (and harvesting) the necessary amount of feedstock than under scenario (2). This result clearly shows that scenario (2) has to be seen as an "intensification

  6. Expected international demand for woody and herbaceous feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamers, Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jacobson, Jacob [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mohammad, Roni [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wright, Christopher [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The development of a U.S. bioenergy market and ultimately ‘bioeconomy’ has primarily been investigated with a national focus. Limited attention has been given to the potential impacts of international market developments. The goal of this project is to advance the current State of Technology of a single biorefinery to the global level providing quantitative estimates on how international markets may influence the domestic feedstock supply costs. The scope of the project is limited to feedstock that is currently available and new crops being developed to be used in a future U.S. bioeconomy including herbaceous residues (e.g., corn stover), woody biomass (e.g., pulpwood), and energy crops (e.g., switchgrass). The timeframe is set to the periods of 2022, 2030, and 2040 to align with current policy targets (e.g., the RFS2) and future updates of the Billion Ton data. This particular milestone delivers demand volumes for generic woody and herbaceous feedstocks for the main (net) importing regions along the above timeframes. The regional focus of the study is the European Union (EU), currently the largest demand region for U.S. pellets made from pulpwood and forest residues. The pellets are predominantly used in large-scale power plants (>5MWel) in the United Kingdom (UK), the Netherlands (NL), Belgium (BE), and Denmark (DK).

  7. Microbial production host selection for converting second-generation feedstocks into bioproducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rumbold, K.; Buijsen, H.J.J. van; Overkamp, K.M.; Groenestijn, J.W. van; Punt, P.J.; Werf, M.J.V.D.

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates are used as the feedstock for industrial fermentations. These biomass hydrolysates are complex mixtures of different fermentable sugars, but also inhibitors and salts that affect the performance of the microbial production host. The performance of si

  8. Preserving elephantgrass and energycane biomass as silage for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodard, K.R.; Prine, G.M.; Bates, D.B.; Chynoweth, D.P. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences)

    1991-01-01

    Elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) and energycane (Saccharum sp.) are being evaluated in the colder subtropics of Florida, USA, as biomass energy crops. At one location near Gainesville, annual dry biomass yields of elephantgrass (full-season growth) in excess of 45 Mg ha{sup -1} have been reported. Our objective was to determine if these prolific bunchgrasses could be stored as silage. Three elephantgrasses (two 'tall' and one 'dwarf') and a tall energycane were harvested one, two, and three times per year and ensiled (directcut) during 1986 and 1987. Mean pH values ranged from 3.8 to 4.0 for tall elephantgrass silages made from plants harvested at the different frequencies. Highest pH values were obtained from silages made from immature dwarf elephantgrass plants harvested three times per year (2-year mean was 4.3). Lactic acid was the major end-product of fermentation in most silages with the exception of those made from immature dwarf elephantgrass and energycane plants, where lactic and acetic acids were both major fermentation components. Dry matter (DM) recoveries for all silages ranged from 843 to 984 g kg{sup -1} of DM ensiled. The ease with which elephantgrass and energycane were preserved as silage was attributed to adequate levels of water-soluble carbohydrates and the inherently low buffering capacities in standing forages. (author).

  9. Fast pyrolysis of biomass thermally pretreated by torrefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrefied biomass samples were produced from hardwood and switchgrass pellets using the biochar experimenter’s kit (BEK) reactor and analyzed for their utility as pretreated feedstock for biofuels production via fast pyrolysis. The energy efficiency for the BEK torrefaction process with propane gas ...

  10. Commercial Biomass Syngas Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Daniell

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of gas fermentation for the production of low carbon biofuels such as ethanol or butanol from lignocellulosic biomass is an area currently undergoing intensive research and development, with the first commercial units expected to commence operation in the near future. In this process, biomass is first converted into carbon monoxide (CO and hydrogen (H2-rich synthesis gas (syngas via gasification, and subsequently fermented to hydrocarbons by acetogenic bacteria. Several studies have been performed over the last few years to optimise both biomass gasification and syngas fermentation with significant progress being reported in both areas. While challenges associated with the scale-up and operation of this novel process remain, this strategy offers numerous advantages compared with established fermentation and purely thermochemical approaches to biofuel production in terms of feedstock flexibility and production cost. In recent times, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology techniques have been applied to gas fermenting organisms, paving the way for gases to be used as the feedstock for the commercial production of increasingly energy dense fuels and more valuable chemicals.

  11. Potential for Genetic Improvement of Sugarcane as a Source of Biomass for Biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, Nam V.; Furtado, Agnelo; Botha, Frederik C.; Simmons, Blake A.; Robert J. Henry

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) has great potential as a major feedstock for biofuel production worldwide. It is considered among the best options for producing biofuels today due to an exceptional biomass production capacity, high carbohydrate (sugar + fiber) content, and a favorable energy input/output ratio. To maximize the conversion of sugarcane biomass into biofuels, it is imperative to generate improved sugarcane varieties with better biomass degradability. However, unlike many dipl...

  12. Potential for genetic improvement of sugarcane as a source of biomass for biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, Nam V.; Agnelo eFurtado; Botha, Frederik C.; Simmons, Blake A.; Robert J. Henry

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) has great potential as a major feedstock for biofuel production worldwide. It is considered among the best options for producing biofuels today due to an exceptional biomass production capacity, high carbohydrate (sugar+fiber) content and a favorable energy input/output ratio. To maximize the conversion of sugarcane biomass into biofuels, it is imperative to generate improved sugarcane varieties with better biomass degradability. However, unlike many diploid...

  13. Two-stage Hydrolysis of Invasive Algal Feedstock for Ethanol Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Wang; Xianhua Liu; Guangyi Wang

    2011-01-01

    The overall goal of this work was to develop a saccharification method for the production of third generation biofuel(i.e.bioethanol) using feedstock of the invasive marine macroalga Gracilaria salicornia.Under optimum conditions(120℃ and 2% sulfuric acid for 30 min), dilute acid hydrolysis of the homogenized invasive plants yielded a low concentration of glucose(4.1mM or 4.3g glucose/kg fresh algal biomass). However, two-stage hydrolysis of the homogenates (combination of dilute acid hydrolysis with enzymatic hydrolysis) produced 13.8g of glucose from one kilogram of fresh algal feedstock. Batch fermentation analysis produced 79.1g EtOH from one kilogram of dried invasive algal feedstock using the ethanologenic strain Escherichia coli K011. Furthermore, ethanol production kinetics indicated that the invasive algal feedstock contained different types of sugar, including C5-sugar. This study represents the first report on third generation biofuel production from invasive macroalgae, suggesting that there is great potential for the production of renewable energy using marine invasive biomass.

  14. Biomass. Energy carrier and biobased products; Biomasse. Energietraeger und biobasierte Produkte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muecke, W. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Toxikologie und Umwelthygiene; Groeger, G. (eds.) [BioRegionUlm Foerderverein Biotechnologie e.V., Ulm (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Within the scope of the 3rd Reivensburg Environmental Biotechnology Meeting at 29th June, 2007, at Castle Reivensburg near Guenzburg (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (a) Challenges according to materials management, land use and power generation in the background of precarious economical situation in the Federal Republic of Germany (H.-G. Petersen); (b) Regenerative raw materials in Germany: Plant sources and potentials (W. Luehs, W. Friedt); (c) Biobased industrial products and bioraffinery systems (B. Kamm, M. Kamm); (d) Potential of biomass materials conversion in chemical industries (R. Busch); (e) Environmental compatible processes and low-priced ecological materials from the processing of biotechnological poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (H. Seliger, H. Haeberlein, R. Kohler, P. Sulzberger); (f) New starch from potatoes - a regenerative raw material (T. Servay); (g) Fuels from renewable energy sources: potential, production, perspectives (M. Specht, U. Zuberbuehler, A. Bandi); (h) Application of biogas as a fuel from the view of a car manufacturer (S. Schrahe); (i) Large-scale production of bioethanol (P. Johne, C. Sauter); (j) Environmental political evaluation of the use of biofuels and politics of biofuels of selected countries (J.M. Henke).

  15. Survey of Alternative Feedstocks for Commodity Chemical Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Robinson, Sharon M [ORNL

    2008-02-01

    The current high prices for petroleum and natural gas have spurred the chemical industry to examine alternative feedstocks for the production of commodity chemicals. High feedstock prices have driven methanol and ammonia production offshore. The U.S. Chemical Industry is the largest user of natural gas in the country. Over the last 30 years, alternatives to conventional petroleum and natural gas feedstocks have been developed, but have limited, if any, commercial implementation in the United States. Alternative feedstocks under consideration include coal from unconventional processing technologies, such as gasification and liquefaction, novel resources such as biomass, stranded natural gas from unconventional reserves, and heavy oil from tar sands or oil shale. These feedstock sources have been evaluated with respect to the feasibility and readiness for production of the highest volume commodity chemicals in the United States. Sources of organic compounds, such as ethanol from sugar fermentation and bitumen-derived heavy crude are now being primarily exploited for fuels, rather than for chemical feedstocks. Overall, government-sponsored research into the use of alternatives to petroleum feedstocks focuses on use for power and transportation fuels rather than for chemical feedstocks. Research is needed to reduce cost and technical risk. Use of alternative feedstocks is more common outside the United States R&D efforts are needed to make these processes more efficient and less risky before becoming more common domestically. The status of alternative feedstock technology is summarized.

  16. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B.

    1980-09-01

    All the products now obtained from oil can be provided by thermal conversion of the solid fuels biomass and coal. As a feedstock, biomass has many advantages over coal and has the potential to supply up to 20% of US energy by the year 2000 and significant amounts of energy for other countries. However, it is imperative that in producing biomass for energy we practice careful land use. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed-bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized-bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products - gas, wood tars, and charcoal - can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best-developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel today, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  17. Biomass energy resource enhancement: the move to modern secondary energy forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Income growth and industrialization in developing countries is driving their economies towards the use of secondary energy forms that deliver high efficiency energy and environmentally more benignant-uses for biomass. Typical of these secondary energy forms are electricity, distributed gas systems and liquid fuels. This trend suggests that the hitherto separate pathways taken by biomass energy technology development in developing and industrialized countries will eventually share common elements. While in the United States and the European Union the majority of the bioenergy applications are in medium- and large-scale industrial uses of self-generated biomass residues, the characteristic use in developing countries is in rural cook-stoves. Increasing urbanization and investment in transportation infrastructure may allow increasing the operational scale in developing countries. One factor driving this trend is diminishing individual and household biomass resource demands as rural incomes increase and households ascend the energy ladder towards clean and efficient fuels and appliances. Scale increases and end-user separation from the biomass resource require that the biomass be converted at high efficiency into secondary energy forms that serve as energy carriers. In middle-income developing country economies such as Brazil, secondary energy transmission is increasingly in the form of gas and electricity in addition to liquid transportation fuels. Unfortunately, the biomass resource is finite, and in the face of competing food and fibre uses and land constraints, it is difficult to substantially increase the amount of biomass available. As a result, development must emphasize conversion efficiency and the applications of bioenergy. Moreover, as a consequence of economic growth, biomass resources are increasingly to be found in the secondary and tertiary waste streams of cities and industrial operations. If not used for energy production, this potential resource needs

  18. Green energy from microalgae: Usage of algae biomass for anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microalgae biomass can be used for various types of biofuels, including biodiesel and biogas. The aim of this study is to investigate the possibilities of microalgae Scenedesmus sp. and Chlorella sp. (widespread in freshwater Lithuanian lakes) usage for biogas production. Microalgae were cultivated under mixotrophic conditions (growth medium BG11 containing technical glycerol). In order to determine biogas yield and quality dependence on feedstock preparation, the analyses of biogas production have been performed with algae biomass prepared i n different ways: wet centrifuged; wet centrifuged, frozen and defrost; dry not de-oiled and dry de-oiled. The highest biogas yield in both cases (Scenedesmus sp. – 646 ml/gDM and Chlorella sp. – 652 ml/gDM) was obtained from centrifuged, frozen and defrost biomass. Biogas yield was app. 1.46 times higher comparing to yield of biogas produced from wastewater sludge. Our results showed that different types of biomass preparation have no significant influence on quality of biogas. Key words: microalgae, biomass, biogas production, biogas quality

  19. Environmental and institutional considerations in the development and implementation of biomass energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, C.

    1979-09-01

    The photosynthetic energy stored in plant and organic waste materials in the United States amounts to approximately 40% of the nation's total energy consumption. Conversion of this energy to usable power sources is a complex process, involving many possible materials, conversion technologies, and energy products. Near-term biomass technologies are predominantly based on traditional fuel use and have the advantage over other solar technologies of fitting into existing tax and business practices. However, no other solar technology has the potential for such large environmental impacts. Unlike the conversion of sun, wind, and ocean thermal energy, the conversion of the biomass energy source, in the form of biomass residues and wastes, can create problems. Environmental impacts may be significant, and legal responses to these impacts are a key determinant to the widespread adoption of biomass technologies. This paper focuses on the major legal areas which will impact on biomass energy conversion. These include (1) the effect of existing state and federal legislation, (2) the role of regulatory agencies in the development of biomass energy, (3) governmental incentives to biomass development, and (4) legal issues surrounding the functioning of the technologies themselves. Emphasis is placed on the near-term technologies whose environmental impacts and institutional limitations are more readily identified. If biomass energy is to begin to achieve its apparently great potential, these questions must receive immediate attention.

  20. Cellulosic Biomass Sugars to Advantage Jet Fuel: Catalytic Conversion of Corn Stover to Energy Dense, Low Freeze Point Paraffins and Naphthenes: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-462

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elander, Rick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-04

    NREL will provide scientific and engineering support to Virent Energy Systems in three technical areas: Process Development/Biomass Deconstruction; Catalyst Fundamentals; and Technoeconomic Analysis. The overarching objective of this project is to develop the first fully integrated process that can convert a lignocellulosic feedstock (e.g., corn stover) efficiently and cost effectively to a mix of hydrocarbons ideally suited for blending into jet fuel. The proposed project will investigate the integration of Virent Energy System’s novel aqueous phase reforming (APR) catalytic conversion technology (BioForming®) with deconstruction technologies being investigated by NREL at the 1-500L scale. Corn stover was chosen as a representative large volume, sustainable feedstock.

  1. Heating technologies for limiting biomass consumption in 100% renewable energy systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    The utilisation of biomass poses large challenges in renewable energy systems and buildings account for a substantial part of the energy supply also in 100% renewable energy systems. The analyses of heating technologies show that district heating systems are especially important in limiting the dependence on biomass resources and to create cost effective systems. District heating systems are especially important in renewable energy systems with large amounts of fluctuating renewable energy so...

  2. Geothermal Energy and Biomass Integration in Urban Systems: a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Moret, Stefano; Gerber, Léda; Amblard, Frédéric; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Maréchal, François

    2015-01-01

    Heating, electricity and transportation are the three components of urban systems final energy consumption. Geothermal energy and biomass are two promising renewable energy resources that can be used for the production of heat, electricity and biofuels, thus allowing a reduction of fossil fuel consumption and of the associated greenhouse gas emissions. The goal of this paper is to assess the potential for the integration of geothermal energy combined with biomass in the energy system of a cit...

  3. Pressurized Oxidative Recovery of Energy from Biomass Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Misra

    2007-06-10

    This study was conducted to evaluate the technical feasibility of using pressurized oxyfuel, the ThermoEnergy Integrated Power System (TIPS), to recover energy from biomass. The study was focused on two fronts—computer simulation of the TIPS plant and corrosion testing to determine the best materials of construction for the critical heat exchanger components of the process. The goals were to demonstrate that a successful strategy of applying the TIPS process to wood waste could be achieved. To fully investigate the technical and economic benefits of using TIPS, it was necessary to model a conventional air-fired biomass power plant for comparison purposes. The TIPS process recovers and utilizes the latent heat of vaporization of water entrained in the fuel or produced during combustion. This latent heat energy is unavailable in the ambient processes. An average composition of wood waste based on data from the Pacific Northwest, Pacific Southwest, and the South was used for the study. The high moisture content of wood waste is a major advantage of the TIPS process. The process can utilize the higher heating value of the fuel by condensing most of the water vapor in the flue gas and making the flue gas a useful source of heat. This is a considerable thermal efficiency gain over conventional power plants which use the lower heating value of the fuel. The elevated pressure also allows TIPS the option of recovering CO2 at near ambient temperatures with high purity oxygen used in combustion. Unlike ambient pressure processes which need high energy multi-stage CO2 compression to supply pipeline quality product, TIPS is able to simply pump the CO2 liquid using very little auxiliary power. In this study, a 15.0 MWe net biomass power plant was modeled, and when a CO2 pump was included it only used 0.1 MWe auxiliary power. The need for refrigeration is eliminated at such pressures resulting in significant energy, capital, and operating and maintenance savings. Since wood

  4. Energy potential of biomass from conservation grasslands in Minnesota, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob M Jungers

    Full Text Available Perennial biomass from grasslands managed for conservation of soil and biodiversity can be harvested for bioenergy. Until now, the quantity and quality of harvestable biomass from conservation grasslands in Minnesota, USA, was not known, and the factors that affect bioenergy potential from these systems have not been identified. We measured biomass yield, theoretical ethanol conversion efficiency, and plant tissue nitrogen (N as metrics of bioenergy potential from mixed-species conservation grasslands harvested with commercial-scale equipment. With three years of data, we used mixed-effects models to determine factors that influence bioenergy potential. Sixty conservation grassland plots, each about 8 ha in size, were distributed among three locations in Minnesota. Harvest treatments were applied annually in autumn as a completely randomized block design. Biomass yield ranged from 0.5 to 5.7 Mg ha(-1. May precipitation increased biomass yield while precipitation in all other growing season months showed no affect. Averaged across all locations and years, theoretical ethanol conversion efficiency was 450 l Mg(-1 and the concentration of plant N was 7.1 g kg(-1, both similar to dedicated herbaceous bioenergy crops such as switchgrass. Biomass yield did not decline in the second or third year of harvest. Across years, biomass yields fluctuated 23% around the average. Surprisingly, forb cover was a better predictor of biomass yield than warm-season grass with a positive correlation with biomass yield in the south and a negative correlation at other locations. Variation in land ethanol yield was almost exclusively due to variation in biomass yield rather than biomass quality; therefore, efforts to increase biomass yield might be more economical than altering biomass composition when managing conservation grasslands for ethanol production. Our measurements of bioenergy potential, and the factors that control it, can serve as parameters for assessing

  5. Lignocellulosic feedstock supply systems with intermodal and overseas transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, Ric; Searcy, E.; Kafferty, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Junginger, Martin; Jacobson, J.; Faaij, André

    2014-01-01

    With growing demand for internationally traded biomass, the logistic operations required to economically move biomass from the field or forest to end- users have become increasingly complex. To design cost effective and sustainable feedstock supply chains, it is important to understand the economics

  6. Biomass thermochemical conversion program. 1985 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research on this conversion technology for renewable energy through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. The Program is part of DOE's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, Office of Renewable Technologies. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1985. 32 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Biomass for energy in the European Union - a review of bioenergy resource assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentsen Niclas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reviews recent literature on bioenergy potentials in conjunction with available biomass conversion technologies. The geographical scope is the European Union, which has set a course for long term development of its energy supply from the current dependence on fossil resources to a dominance of renewable resources. A cornerstone in European energy policies and strategies is biomass and bioenergy. The annual demand for biomass for energy is estimated to increase from the current level of 5.7 EJ to 10.0 EJ in 2020. Assessments of bioenergy potentials vary substantially due to methodological inconsistency and assumptions applied by individual authors. Forest biomass, agricultural residues and energy crops constitute the three major sources of biomass for energy, with the latter probably developing into the most important source over the 21st century. Land use and the changes thereof is a key issue in sustainable bioenergy production as land availability is an ultimately limiting factor.

  8. Biomass for energy in the European Union - a review of bioenergy resource assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott; Felby, Claus

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews recent literature on bioenergy potentials in conjunction with available biomass conversion technologies. The geographical scope is the European Union, which has set a course for long term development of its energy supply from the current dependence on fossil resources to a dominance of renewable resources. A cornerstone in European energy policies and strategies is biomass and bioenergy. The annual demand for biomass for energy is estimated to increase from the current level of 5.7 EJ to 10.0 EJ in 2020. Assessments of bioenergy potentials vary substantially due to methodological inconsistency and assumptions applied by individual authors. Forest biomass, agricultural residues and energy crops constitute the three major sources of biomass for energy, with the latter probably developing into the most important source over the 21st century. Land use and the changes thereof is a key issue in sustainable bioenergy production as land availability is an ultimately limiting factor. PMID:22546368

  9. Bio-H2. Application potential of biomass related hydrogen production technologies to the Dutch energy infrastructure of 2020-2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study supports the implementation of biomass related hydrogen production technologies, within the goals of the Dutch government. A market analyses has been made of the application potential of hydrogen within the Dutch energy infrastructure of the future. A technology analysis has been made by means of determination of the important technical, ecological and economic figures of biomass related hydrogen production technologies and a comparison with other alternative conventional and renewable hydrogen production technologies. The industrial interest for the final implementation of biomass related hydrogen production technologies has been analysed by means of a round-table discussion. From the study and round-table discussion the following conclusions can be drawn for the market analysis, technology analysis and technology/market combinations of hydrogen from biomass. Market analysis: In the long term centralised hydrogen production is the most attractive option, because of low costs of hydrogen production. For the short- and midterm decentralised hydrogen production is an option as an intermediate solution. Technology analysis: For the conversion of biomass to H2 there are four thermochemical processes and five biochemical processes. In general thermochemical processes are large-scale, high efficiency, lab/pilot status with expensive feedstock. Biochemical processes are small-scale, low efficiency, lab/pilot status with gate-fee priced feedstock. Market-Technology combinations: Small-scale markets such as micro-CHP and mixing of hydrogen and natural gas are only expected in the transition phase (2020-2050). Large-scale markets such as the hydrogen production for the national pipeline for refuelling stations will be developed after 2050. The pipeline on city scale is feasible for the short term as well for the long term. It is recommended to carry out additional studies for those cases, which seem to be most promising, viz.: (1) hydrogen production by

  10. Sustainable global energy supply based on lignocellulosic biomass from afforestation of degraded areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Jürgen O.; Hüttermann, Aloys

    2009-02-01

    An important aspect of present global energy scenarios is the assumption that the amount of biomass that can be grown on the available area is so limited that a scenario based on biomass as the major source of energy should be unrealistic. We have been investigating the question whether a Biomass Scenario may be realistic. We found that the global energy demand projected by the International Energy Agency in the Reference Scenario for the year 2030 could be provided sustainably and economically primarily from lignocellulosic biomass grown on areas which have been degraded by human activities in historical times. Moreover, other renewable energies will contribute to the energy mix. There would be no competition with increasing food demand for existing arable land. Afforestation of degraded areas and investment for energy and fuel usage of the biomass are not more expensive than investment in energy infrastructure necessary up to 2030 assumed in the fossil energy based Reference Scenario, probably much cheaper considering the additional advantages such as stopping the increase of and even slowly reducing the CO2 content of the atmosphere, soil, and water conservation and desertification control. Most importantly, investment for a Biomass Scenario would be actually sustainable, in contrast to investment in energy-supply infrastructure of the Reference Scenario. Methods of afforestation of degraded areas, cultivation, and energetic usage of lignocellulosic biomass are available but have to be further improved. Afforestation can be started immediately, has an impact in some few years, and may be realized in some decades.

  11. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass to liquid energy sources; Hydrothermale Konversion von Biomasse zu fluessigen Energietraegern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeger, Michael; Peters, Mario; Klemm, Marco; Nelles, Michael [Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum (DBFZ) gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Beside thermo-chemical processes like pyrolysis, torrefaction and gasification another process group called hydrothermal conversion of biomass comes into the focus of research and development. Especially for wet biomass this process has several advantages: as the reaction medium is water wet biomass not needs to be dried. Beside the reaction pathways, which are still not completely understood, it is important to investigate reactor concepts. That gives the possibility to continuously process the given biomass to deduce specific process conditions for the production of chemicals and fuels. Experiments were conducted in a newly developed tubular reactor at temperatures from 150 to 270 C and reaction times from 1 to 6 min. By studying the HPLC analysis of the liquid products the formation and degradation of several products which may be utilized as base materials for chemicals and fuels (furfural, 5-HMF etc.) was conducted. The experiments illustrate the possibility to influence product composition to a certain extend only by varying temperature and time of the hydrothermal process. That could result in an economic and feasible way to produce intermediate chemicals from biomass. In a second step these product analysis will be used to develop catalysts and investigate the possibilities of in-situ-hydrogenation and synthesis of further valuable chemicals and fuels. (orig.)

  12. Biomass integrated gasification combined cycle power generation with supplementary biomass firing: Energy and exergy based performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermodynamic analysis of a Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) plant has been performed based on energy and exergy balances in a proposed configuration. Combustion of supplementary biomass fuel is considered using the oxygen available in the gas turbine (GT) exhaust. The effects of pressure and temperature ratios of the GT system and the amount of fuel burned in the supplementary firing chamber on the thermal and exergetic efficiencies of the plant have been investigated. The plant efficiencies increase with the increase in both pressure and temperature ratios; however, the latter has a stronger influence than the former. Supplementary firing of biomass increases the plant efficiencies of a BIGCC plant till an optimum level of degree of firing. The other technical issues related to supplementary firing, like ash fusion in the furnace and exhaust heat loss maintaining a minimum pinch point temperature difference are accounted and finally a set of optimum plant operating parameters have been identified. The performance of a 50 MWe plant has been analyzed with the optimum operating parameters to find out equipment rating and biomass feed rates. Exergetic efficiencies of different plant equipments are evaluated to localize the major thermodynamic irreversibilities in the plant. -- Highlights: → A thermodynamic analysis of a Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) plant has been performed based on energy and exergy balances across various plant components in a proposed configuration in order to optimize the operating parameters. → The effect of supplementary biomass firing in the BIGCC plant has been analyzed in detail to find out the optimum degree of firing for the best plant performance. → The equipment ratings and fuel feed rates are evaluated and the technical feasibility of the plant configuration has been analyzed. → Exergetic efficiencies of different plant equipments are evaluated to localize the major thermodynamic

  13. Estimation on the Total Quantity of Biomass Energy and Its Environmental Benefit Analysis in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to estimate the total quantity of biomass energy and analyze its environmental benefit in Shandong Province.[Method] Based on the data from the statistics yearbook of Shandong Province in 2010,the total quantity of biomass resources and biomass energy in Shandong Province in 2009 was estimated,and its environmental benefit was analyzed.[Result] Biomass resources in Shandong Province mainly refer to crop residues,forest residues,grassland changed from degraded land.If degraded land be...

  14. The environmental costs and benefits of biomass energy use in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, G. [Future Resources Associates, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The California renewable energy industries have worked diligently during the past couple of years to develop public policies conducive to the future of renewable energy production within the context of electric market restructuring and the evolving competitive electric services industry. The state`s biomass power industry has organized itself as the California Biomass Energy Alliance (CBEA), and has participated vigorously in the regulatory and legislative processes. In order to reward biomass power generators for the special services they provide, CBEA has promoted the concept of providing incentives specifically targeted to biomass within the context of any renewables program enacted in the state. This concept has been embraced by the other renewables industry organizations, but resisted by the utilities. This study represents an effort to identify, characterize, ad quantify the environmental costs and benefits of biomass energy use in California, and to elucidate the future role of biomass power production within the context of the evolving deregulation of the California electricity industry. The report begins with a review of the development and growth of the California biomass power industry during the past 15 years. This is followed by an analysis of the biomass fuels market development during the same period. It examines trends in the types and costs of biomass fuels. The environmental performance of the mature California biomass energy industry is analyzed, and takes into account the environmental impacts of the industry, and the impacts that would be associated with disposing of the materials used as fuels if the biomass power industry were not in operation. The analysis is then extended to consider the environmental and economic consequences of the loss of biomass generating capacity since 1993. The report ends with a consideration of the future prospects for the industry in the context of restructuring.

  15. Waste biomass and energy transition. Proven practices, new developments and visions; Abfall-Biomasse und Energiewende. Bewaehrtes, Neues und Visionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Klaus [Arbeitskreis fuer die Nutzbarmachung von Siedlungsabfaellen (ANS) e.V., Braunschweig (Germany); Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Lehrstuhl Abfall- und Ressourcenwirtschaft; Kammann, Claudia [Arbeitskreis fuer die Nutzbarmachung von Siedlungsabfaellen (ANS) e.V., Braunschweig (Germany). Fachausschuss Biokohle; Hochschule Geisenheim Univ. (Germany). Klimafolgenforschung-Klimawandel in Spezialkulturen; Wallmann, Rainer (ed.) [Arbeitskreis fuer die Nutzbarmachung von Siedlungsabfaellen (ANS) e.V., Braunschweig (Germany); Werra-Meissner Kreis, Eschwege (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    This book contains 17 papers that were presented at the 75th meeting of the ANS. The following main topics are covered: waste management in the context of climate protection and the energy turnaround; optimised materials management; carbon: climate killer or indispensable raw material?; climate protection in Germany - why and how?; treatment techniques for waste biomass; the amended Renewable Energy Law - sensible adaptation or impediment to the energy turnaround?; putting ideas into practice: examples and opportunities. Four of the contributions have been abstracted individually for this database. [German] Dieses Buch enthaelt 17 Beitraege, die auf dem 75. Symposium des ANS vorgetragen wurden. Die Themenschwerpunkte waren: Abfallwirtschaft im Kontext des Klimaschutzes und der Energiewende; Optimiertes Stoffmanagement; Kohlenstoff: Klimakiller oder unverzichtbare Rohstoff?; Klimaschutz in Deutschland - Warum und wie?; Behandlungstechniken von Abfall-Biomasse; Novellierung des EEG - Sinnvolle Anpassung oder Breme der Energiewende; Der Weg in die Praxis: Beispiele und Chancen. Vier der Beitraege wurden separarat fuer diese Datenbank aufgenommen.

  16. Optimising the Environmental Sustainability of Short Rotation Coppice Biomass Production for Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis Dimitriou; Željka Fištrek

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Solid biomass from short rotation coppice (SRC) has the potential to significantly contribute to European renewable energy targets and the expected demand for wood for energy, driven mainly by market forces and supported by the targets of national and European energy policies. It is expected that in the near future the number of hectares under SRC will increase in Europe. Besides producing biomass for energy, SRC cultivation can result in various benefits for the envir...

  17. Income tax credits and incentives available for producing energy from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 1970's the US became interested in the development of energy from biomass and other alternative sources. While this interest was stimulated primarily by the oil embargoes of the 1970's, the need for environmentally friendly alternative fuels was also enhanced by the Clean Water Act and the Clean Air Act, two prominent pieces of environmental legislation. As a result, Congress created several tax benefits and subsidies for the production of energy for biomass. Congress enacted biomass energy incentives in 1978 with the creation of excise tax exemptions for alcohol fuels, in 1980 with the enactment of the IRC section 29 nonconventional fuel credit provisions and the IRC section 40 alcohol fuel credits, and recently with the addition of favorable biomass energy provisions as part of the Comprehensive National energy Policy Act of 1992. This article focuses on the following specific tax credits, tax benefits and subsidies for biomass energy: (1) IRC section 29 credit for producing gas from biomass, (2) IRC section 45 credit for producing electricity from biomass, (3) Incentive payments for electricity produced from biomass, (4) Excise tax exemptions for alcohol fuels, (5) IRC section 40 alcohol fuels credits, and (6) IRC section 179A special deduction for alcohol fuels property

  18. Analysis of Carbon Emissions of Woody Biomass Feedstock Supply Chain in Fujian Province%福建省木质生物质原料供应链碳排放研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑卫卫; 张兰怡; 邱荣祖

    2015-01-01

    This paper used the relatively common research methods to establish a quantitative calculation model to analyze the carbon emissions of different stages of feedstock supply chain in Fujian province.The results showed that embodied carbon emissions shared the lowest proportion,only 0.06%,while the direct and indirect carbon emissions reached 66.57%,33.37%,respectively.In the process of direct carbon emissions,carbon emissions of harvesting,skidding,hauling stage accounted 2.36%,4.99%,92.65%,respectively.The order of importance which affects the total carbon emissions of the feedstock supply chain was harvesting index (37.96%) > timber transport distance (23.42%),unit turnover fuel consumption (transport timber stage,23.42%) > daily energy consuming by workers (12.67%) > skidding distance (1.26%),unit turnover fuel consumption (skidding stage,1.26%).%使用目前比较通用的碳排放研究方法,建立1个定量计算模型,分析福建省木质生物质原料供应链不同阶段的碳排放量。结果表明:直接和间接碳排放所占比例分别达66.57%和33.37%,隐含碳排放量所占比例最低,仅占0.06%;在直接碳排放过程中,采伐、集材、运材阶段碳排放量分别占2.36%、4.99%、92.65%;影响原料供应链总的碳排放量的主要指标重要程度排序依次为,采伐指标(37.96%)>运材距离(23.42%)、单位周转量油耗(运材阶段,23.42%)>工人每天消耗的能量(12.67%)>集材距离(1.26%)、单位周转量油耗(集材阶段,1.26%)。

  19. Enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass from wood

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez, Consolación; Reyes‐Sosa, Francisco Manuel; Díez, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Summary Current research and development in cellulosic ethanol production has been focused mainly on agricultural residues and dedicated energy crops such as corn stover and switchgrass; however, woody biomass remains a very important feedstock for ethanol production. The precise composition of hemicellulose in the wood is strongly dependent on the plant species, therefore different types of enzymes are needed based on hemicellulose complexity and type of pretreatment. In general, hardwood sp...

  20. Biogas energy production from tropical biomass wastes by anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive technology in tropical regions for converting locally abundant biomass wastes into biogas which can be used to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels. However, investigations on AD of tropical forestry wastes, such as albizia biomass, and food w...

  1. Heating technologies for limiting biomass consumption in 100% renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Connolly, David

    The utilisation of biomass poses large challenges in renewable energy systems and buildings account for a substantial part of the energy supply also in 100% renewable energy systems. The analyses of heating technologies show that district heating systems are especially important in limiting the...... dependence on biomass resources and to create cost effective systems. District heating systems are especially important in renewable energy systems with large amounts of fluctuating renewable energy sources as it enables fuel efficient and lower cost energy systems with thermal heat storages. And also...... district heating enables the use of combined heat and power production (CPH) and other renewable resources than biomass such as large-scale solar thermal, large-heat pumps, geothermal heat, industrial surplus heat etc. which is important for reducing the biomass consumption. Where the energy density in the...

  2. Heating technologies for limiting biomass consumption in 100% renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    district heating enables the use of combined heat and power production (CPH) and other renewable resources than biomass such as large-scale solar thermal, large-heat pumps, geothermal heat, industrial surplus heat etc. which is important for reducing the biomass consumption. Where the energy density......The utilisation of biomass poses large challenges in renewable energy systems and buildings account for a substantial part of the energy supply also in 100% renewable energy systems. The analyses of heating technologies show that district heating systems are especially important in limiting...... the dependence on biomass resources and to create cost effective systems. District heating systems are especially important in renewable energy systems with large amounts of fluctuating renewable energy sources as it enables fuel efficient and lower cost energy systems with thermal heat storages. And also...

  3. Energy Analysis of a Biomass Co-firing Based Pulverized Coal Power Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    Marc A. Rosen; Shoaib Mehmood; Bale V. Reddy

    2012-01-01

    The results are reported of an energy analysis of a biomass/coal co-firing based power generation system, carried out to investigate the impacts of biomass co-firing on system performance. The power generation system is a typical pulverized coal-fired steam cycle unit, in which four biomass fuels (rice husk, pine sawdust, chicken litter, and refuse derived fuel) and two coals (bituminous coal and lignite) are considered. Key system performance parameters are evaluated for various fuel combina...

  4. Environmental assessment of energy production from waste and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonini, D.

    2013-02-15

    composition (e.g. amount of organic and paper) and properties (e.g. LHV, water content) play a crucial role in affecting the final ranking. When assessing the environmental performance of the waste refinery, a detailed knowledge of the waste composition is recommendable as this determines the energy outputs and thereby the assessment results. The benefits offered by the waste refinery compared with incinerators and MBT plants are primarily related to the optimized electricity and phosphorous recovery. However, recovery of nutrients and phosphorous might come at the expenses of increased N-eutrophication and emissions of hazardous substances to soil. The first could be significantly mitigated by post-treating the digestate left from bioliquid digestion (e.g. composting). Compared with waste refining treatment, efficient source-segregation of the organic waste with subsequent biological processing may decrease digestate/compost contamination and recover phosphorous similarly to the waste refinery process. However, recent studies highlighted how this strategy often fails leading to high mass/energy/nutrients losses as well as to contamination of the segregated organic waste with unwanted impurities. All in all, more insight should be gained into the magnitude of iLUC impacts associated with energy crops. Their quantification is the key factor determining a beneficial or detrimental GHG performance of bioenergy systems based on energy crops. If energy crops are introduced, combined heat and power production should be prioritized based on the results of this research. Production of liquid biofuels for transport should be limited as the overall energy conversion efficiency is significantly lower thereby leading to decreased GHG performances. On this basis, recovery of energy, materials and resources from waste such as residual agricultural/forestry biomass and municipal/commercial/industrial waste should be seen as the way ahead. Highly-efficient combustion and incineration offer

  5. Eleventh Annual Conference on Alcohol and Biomass Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    NEDO is undertaking a number of alcohol and biomass energy technology projects aiming at developing technology for bacterial production of fuel alcohol directly from currently unutilized resources such as agricultural and forestry wastes. This book reports the eleventh annual conference and consists of two parts. Part one describes outlines of these projects classified into three groups. In part two, achievements of these projects are reported in detail. For the development of fuel alcohol production technology using bacteria, searching for and breeding superior bacteria were achieved, and the optimum design of a total production system including a fermenter and peripheral processes was studied. Next, for the development of a high-efficiency membrane complex methane production unit from sewage and industrial waste water, membrane modules, a new type bioreactor, and an instrumentation and control system were investigated, leading to test production with pilot plants. Finally, for demonstration tests for converting oil-fired power stations to methanol, developmental studies on stationary diesel power generation and others were carried out.

  6. Feedstock and Conversion Supply System Design and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Jacobson; R. Mohammad; K. Cafferty; K. Kenney; E. Searcy; J. Hansen

    2014-09-01

    The success of the earlier logistic pathway designs (Biochemical and Thermochemical) from a feedstock perspective was that it demonstrated that through proper equipment selection and best management practices, conventional supply systems (referred to in this report as “conventional designs,” or specifically the 2012 Conventional Design) can be successfully implemented to address dry matter loss, quality issues, and enable feedstock cost reductions that help to reduce feedstock risk of variable supply and quality and enable industry to commercialize biomass feedstock supply chains. The caveat of this success is that conventional designs depend on high density, low-cost biomass with no disruption from incremental weather. In this respect, the success of conventional designs is tied to specific, highly productive regions such as the southeastern U.S. which has traditionally supported numerous pulp and paper industries or the Midwest U.S for corn stover.

  7. Easetech Energy: Advanced Life Cycle Assessment of Energy from Biomass and Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard; Turconi, Roberto; Tonini, Davide;

    SUMMARY: Biomass and waste are expected to play a key role in future energy systems based on large shares of renewable energy resources. The LCA model EASETECH Energy was developed specifically for modelling large and complex energy systems including various technologies and several processing...... steps. The model allows simultaneous balancing of mass and energy flows of the system under assessment, and is equipped with advanced tools for sensitivity/uncertainty analysis. EASETECH Energy was used to assess the environmental footprint of the Danish energy system in 2050 (based on 100% renewables......) and compare it to the current situation. The results show that the future Danish energy systems will have a rather different environmental footprint than the current one....

  8. Modeling of biomass-to-energy supply chain operations: Applications, challenges and research directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reducing dependency on fossil fuels and mitigating their environmental impacts are among the most promising aspects of utilizing renewable energy sources. The availability of various biomass resources has made it an appealing source of renewable energy. Given the variability of supply and sources of biomass, supply chains play an important role in the efficient provisioning of biomass resources for energy production. This paper provides a comprehensive review and classification of the excising literature in modeling of biomass supply chain operations while linking them to the wider strategic challenges and issues with the design, planning and management of biomass supply chains. On that basis, we will present an analysis of the existing gaps and the potential future directions for research in modeling of biomass supply chain operations. - Highlights: • An extensive review of biomass supply chain operations management models presented in the literature is provided. • The models are classified in line with biomass supply chain activities from harvesting to conversion. • The issues surrounding biomass supply chains are investigated manifesting the need to novel modeling approaches. • Our gap analysis has identified a number of existing shortcomings and opportunities for future research

  9. Symposium on development and utilization of biomass energy resources in developing countries. Proceedings. V. 2: Country case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present publication presents the results of three UNIDO-sponsored case studies, each with a separate abstract, concerned with perspectives of development and utilisation of biomass energy resources in Brazil, Philippines and Romania. Emphasis is put on identifying regional biomass energy resources. Policies and strategies governing as well as barriers limiting the development and utilization of biomass energy are discussed. Innovative technologies as well as technology transfer related to biomass energy utilisation are dealt with, together with economic and environmental issues

  10. Symposium on development and utilization of biomass energy resources in developing countries. Proceedings. V. 1: Thematic papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present publication consists of papers, each with a separate abstract, from fourteen countries giving broad perspectives on the development and utilisation of biomass energy resources. Emphasis is put on identifying regional biomass energy resources. Policies and strategies governing as well as barriers limiting the development and utilization of biomass energy are discussed. Innovative technologies as well as technology transfer related to biomass energy utilisation are dealt with, together with economic and environmental issues

  11. Robust and sustainable bioenergy: Biomass in the future Danish energy system; Robust og baeredygtig bioenergi: Biomasse i fremtidens danske energisystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoett, T.

    2012-09-15

    The publication is a collection of articles about new, exciting technologies for the production of bioenergy, which received support from Danish research programmes. The green technologies must be sustainable so that future generations' opportunities for bioenergy use is not restricted, and the solutions must be robust in relation to security of supply, costs and energy economy. In this context, research plays a crucial role. Research is especially carried out within the use of residues as bio-waste, straw, wood and manure for energy purposes, but there are also projects on energy crops, as well as research into how algae from the sea can increase the production of biomass. (LN)

  12. Impact of Technology and Feedstock Choice on the Environmental Footprint of Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, P. B.; Dodder, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The implementation of the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard program (RFS2) has led to a dramatic shift in the use of biofuel in the U.S. transportation system over the last decade. To satisfy this demand, the production of U.S. corn-based ethanol has grown rapidly, with an average increase of over 25% annually from 2002 to 2010. RFS2 requires a similarly steep increase in the production of advanced biofuels, such as cellulosic ethanol. Unlike corn-based ethanol, which is derived from the biochemical fermentation of sugars in wet and dry mills, it is likely that a more diverse suite of technologies will need to be developed to be able to meet the advanced biofuel RFS2 targets, including biochemical as well as thermochemical (e.g., gasification and pyrolysis) approaches. Rather than relying on energy crops, a potential advantage of thermochemical approaches is the ability to use a wider variety of feedstocks, including municipal solid waste and wood waste. In this work, we conduct a system-level analysis to understand how technology and feedstock choice can impact the environmental footprint of biofuels in the U.S. We use a least-cost optimization model of the U.S. energy system to account for interactions between various components of the energy system: industrial, transportation, electric, and residential/commercial sectors. The model was used to understand the scale of feedstock demand required from dedicated energy crops, as well as other biomass feedstocks, in order to meet the RFS2 mandate. On a regional basis, we compare the overall water-consumption and land requirements for biofuels production given a suite of liquid-fuel production technologies. By considering a range of scenarios, we examine how the use of various feedstocks (e.g., agricultural residues, wood wastes, mill residues and municipal wastes) can be used to off-set environmental impacts as compared to relying solely on energy crops.

  13. Green Gasification Technology for Wet Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Chong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The world now is facing two energy related threats which are lack of sustainable, secure and affordable energy supplies and the environmental damage acquired in producing and consuming ever-increasing amount of energy. In the first decade of the twenty-first century, increasing energy prices reminds us that an affordable energy plays an important role in economic growth and human development. To overcome the abovementioned problem, we cannot continue much longer to consume finite reserves of fossil fuels, the use of which contributes to global warming. Preferably, the world should move towards more sustainable energy sources such as wind energy, solar energy and biomass. However, the abovementioned challenges may not be met solely by introduction of sustainable energy forms. We also need to use energy more efficiently. Developing and introducing more efficient energy conversion technologies is therefore important, for fossil fuels as well as renewable fuels. This assignment addresses the question how biomass may be used more efficiently and economically than it is being used today. Wider use of biomass, a clean and renewable feedstock may extend the lifetime of our fossil fuels resources and alleviate global warming problems. Another advantage of using of biomass as a source of energy is to make developed countries less interdependent on oil-exporting countries, and thereby reduce political tension. Furthermore, the economies of agricultural regions growing energy crops benefit as new jobs are created. Keywords: energy, gasification, sustainable, wet biomass

  14. Energy and exergy analyses of an integrated CCHP system with biomass air gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Propose a biomass-gasification CCHP system. • A heat pipe heat exchanger is used to recover waste heat from product gas. • Present the energy and exergy analyses of the biomass CCHP system. • Analyze the annual off-design performances. - Abstract: Biomass-fueled combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) system is a sustainable distributed energy system to reduce fossil energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission. This study proposes a biomass CCHP system that contains a biomass gasifier, a heat pipe heat exchanger for recovering waste heat from product gas, an internal combustion engine to produce electricity, an absorption chiller/heater for cooling and heating, and a heat exchanger to produce domestic hot water. Operational flows are presented in three work conditions: summer, winter, and the transitional seasons. Energy and exergy analyses are conducted for different operational flows. The case demonstrated that the energy efficiencies in the three work conditions are 50.00%, 37.77%, and 36.95%, whereas the exergy efficiencies are 6.23%, 12.51%, and 13.79%, respectively. Destruction analyses of energy and exergy indicate that the largest destruction occurs in the gasification system, which accounts for more than 70% of the total energy and exergy losses. Annual performance shows that the proposed biomass-fueled CCHP system reduces biomass consumption by 4% compared with the non-use of a heat recovery system for high-temperature product gas

  15. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program: 1986 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. Thermochemical conversion processes can generate a variety of products such as gasoline hydrocarbon fuels, natural gas substitutes, or heat energy for electric power generation. The US Department of Energy is sponsoring research on biomass conversion technologies through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been designated the Technical Field Management Office for the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program with overall responsibility for the Program. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1986. 88 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Biomass energy utilisation in Malaysia - prospects and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of the contribution of biomass fuels in the rubber, palm oil, cocoa, brick and charcoal industries is given with biomass accounting for about 16% of the total power demand; equivalent to about 2.48 MTOE. The use of biomass in Malaysia is by the direct combustion of wood for heat and power and by gasification with power production via a diesel engine. Challenges facing Malaysia include a rapid increase in demand for power, the need for development funding, environmental issues, and increases in the price of rubber wood, the main fuel source. (uk)

  17. Biomass energy utilisation in Malaysia - prospects and problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Hoi Why [Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1999-04-01

    An assessment of the contribution of biomass fuels in the rubber, palm oil, cocoa, brick and charcoal industries is given with biomass accounting for about 16% of the total power demand; equivalent to about 2.48 MTOE. The use of biomass in Malaysia is by the direct combustion of wood for heat and power and by gasification with power production via a diesel engine. Challenges facing Malaysia include a rapid increase in demand for power, the need for development funding, environmental issues, and increases in the price of rubber wood, the main fuel source. (uk)

  18. Biomass energy utilisation in Malaysia - prospects and problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Hoi Why [Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1999-01-01

    An assessment of the contribution of biomass fuels in the rubber, palm oil, cocoa, brick and charcoal industries is given with biomass accounting for about 16% of the total power demand; equivalent to about 2.48 MTOE. The use of biomass in Malaysia is by the direct combustion of wood for heat and power and by gasification with power production via a diesel engine. Challenges facing Malaysia include a rapid increase in demand for power, the need for development funding, environmental issues, and increases in the price of rubber wood, the main fuel source. (uk)

  19. Biomass Futures: an integrated approach for estimating the future contribution of biomass value chains to the European energy system and inform future policy formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panoutsou, C.; Bauen, A.; Alexopoulou, E.; Elbersen, B.S.

    2013-01-01

    The Biomass Futures project assessed the role of bioenergy in meeting Europe's renewable energy targets established by the 2009 Renewable Energy Directive for 2020 and provided outlooks to 2030 and 2050. This perspective sets the scene for the approaches followed within Biomass Futures, and presents

  20. Biomass production as renewable energy resource at reclaimed Serbian lignite open-cast mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is the overview of the scope and dynamics of biomass production as a renewable energy source for substitution of coal in the production of electrical energy in the Kolubara coal basin. In order to successfully realize this goal, it was necessary to develop a dynamic model of the process of coal production, overburden dumping and re-cultivation of dumping sites by biomass planting. The results obtained by simulation of the dynamic model of biomass production in Kolubara mine basin until year 2045 show that 6870 hectares of overburden waste dumps will be re-cultivated by biomass plantations. Biomass production modeling point out the significant benefits of biomass production by planting the willow Salix viminalis cultivated for energy purposes. Under these conditions, a 0.6 % participation of biomass at the end of the period of intensive coal production, year 2037, is achieved. With the decrease of coal production to 15 million tons per year, this percentage steeply rises to 1.4 % in 2045. This amount of equivalent tons of coal from biomass can be used for coal substitution in the production of electrical energy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33039

  1. Anaerobic biotechnological approaches for production of liquid energy carriers from biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Angelidaki, Irini

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the use of renewable biomass for energy production. Anaerobic biotechnological approaches for production of liquid energy carriers (ethanol and a mixture of acetone, butanol and ethanol) from biomass can be employed to decrease environmental...... pollution and reduce dependency on fossil fuels. There are two major biological processes that can convert biomass to liquid energy carriers via anaerobic biological breakdown of organic matter: ethanol fermentation and mixed acetone, butanol, ethanol (ABE) fermentation. The specific product formation...

  2. Model for optimization of biomass utilization of energy production by energetic and economic requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Istvan Takacs; Erika Nagy-Kovacs; Ervin Hollo; Sandor Marselek

    2012-01-01

    Biomass-energy use is not a new idea. Earlier the by-products of the production processes or naturally grown materials were mainly used for energy production. One of the answers to the contemporary problems is the deliberate as well as mass production of the biomass, furthermore the planned and systematic collection of the by-products, which is the source of the energy being able to replace a part of the fossil fuels. At the same time during the production of biomass the conventional sources ...

  3. Sorghum as Dry Land Feedstock for Fuel Ethanol Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Donghai; WU Xiaorong

    2010-01-01

    Dry land crops such as sorghums(grain sorghum,sweet sorghum and forage sorghum)have been identified aspromising feedstocks for fuel ethanol production.The major issue for using the sweet sorghum as feedstock is its stability at room temperature.At room temperature,the sweet sorghum juice could lose from 40%to50%of its fermentable sugars from 7to14 days.No significant sugar content and profile changes were observed in juice stored at refrigerator temperature in two weeks.Ethanolfermentation efficiencies of fresh and frozen juice were high(-93%).Concentrated juice(≥25%sugar)had significantly lower efficiencies and large amounts of fructose left in finished beer; however,winery yeast strains and novel fermentation techniques maysolve these problems.The ethanol yield from sorghum grain increased as starch content increased.No linear relationship betweenstarch content and fermentation efficiency was found.Key factors affecting the ethanol fermentation efficiency of sorghum includestarches and protein digestibility,amylose-lipid complexes,tannin content,and mash viscosity.Life cycle analysis showed a positivenet energy value(NEV)=25 500 Btu/gal ethanol.Fourier transform infrared(FTIR)spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction(XRD)were used to determine changes in the structure and chemical composition of sorghum biomasses.Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment waseffective in removing the hemicellulose from biomasses and exposing the cellulose for enzymatic hydrolysis.Forage sorghum ligninhad a lower syringyl/guaiacyl ratio and its pretreated biomass was easier to hydrolyze.Up to 72% hexose yield and 94% pentoseyield were obtained by using a modified steam explosion with 2% sulfuric acid at 140"C for 30 min and enzymatic hydrolysis withcellulase.

  4. Biomass Energy for Transport and Electricity: Large scale utilization under low CO2 concentration scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckow, Patrick; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.

    2010-01-25

    This paper examines the potential role of large scale, dedicated commercial biomass energy systems under global climate policies designed to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO2 at 400ppm and 450ppm. We use an integrated assessment model of energy and agriculture systems to show that, given a climate policy in which terrestrial carbon is appropriately valued equally with carbon emitted from the energy system, biomass energy has the potential to be a major component of achieving these low concentration targets. The costs of processing and transporting biomass energy at much larger scales than current experience are also incorporated into the modeling. From the scenario results, 120-160 EJ/year of biomass energy is produced by midcentury and 200-250 EJ/year by the end of this century. In the first half of the century, much of this biomass is from agricultural and forest residues, but after 2050 dedicated cellulosic biomass crops become the dominant source. A key finding of this paper is the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies coupled with commercial biomass energy can play in meeting stringent emissions targets. Despite the higher technology costs of CCS, the resulting negative emissions used in combination with biomass are a very important tool in controlling the cost of meeting a target, offsetting the venting of CO2 from sectors of the energy system that may be more expensive to mitigate, such as oil use in transportation. The paper also discusses the role of cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch biomass derived transportation fuels and shows that both technologies are important contributors to liquid fuels production, with unique costs and emissions characteristics. Through application of the GCAM integrated assessment model, it becomes clear that, given CCS availability, bioenergy will be used both in electricity and transportation.

  5. Energy, Environmental, and Economic Analyses of Design Concepts for the Co-Production of Fuels and Chemicals with Electricity via Co-Gasification of Coal and Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Larson; Robert Williams; Thomas Kreutz; Ilkka Hannula; Andrea Lanzini; Guangjian Liu

    2012-03-11

    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the energy, environmental, and economic performance of industrial facilities that would coproduce electricity and transportation fuels or chemicals from a mixture of coal and biomass via co-gasification in a single pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier, with capture and storage of CO{sub 2} (CCS). The work sought to identify plant designs with promising (Nth plant) economics, superior environmental footprints, and the potential to be deployed at scale as a means for simultaneously achieving enhanced energy security and deep reductions in U.S. GHG emissions in the coming decades. Designs included systems using primarily already-commercialized component technologies, which may have the potential for near-term deployment at scale, as well as systems incorporating some advanced technologies at various stages of R&D. All of the coproduction designs have the common attribute of producing some electricity and also of capturing CO{sub 2} for storage. For each of the co-product pairs detailed process mass and energy simulations (using Aspen Plus software) were developed for a set of alternative process configurations, on the basis of which lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, Nth plant economic performance, and other characteristics were evaluated for each configuration. In developing each set of process configurations, focused attention was given to understanding the influence of biomass input fraction and electricity output fraction. Self-consistent evaluations were also carried out for gasification-based reference systems producing only electricity from coal, including integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification solid-oxide fuel cell (IGFC) systems. The reason biomass is considered as a co-feed with coal in cases when gasoline or olefins are co-produced with electricity is to help reduce lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for these systems. Storing biomass-derived CO

  6. Energy and greenhouse gas balance of decentralized energy supply systems based on organic agricultural biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Kimming, Marie

    2011-01-01

    More and more farms apply organic production methods to reduce their environmental impact, but currently even organic farms are mainly using fossil fuels. Technologies available today or in the near future make it possible to produce heat, electricity and fuels from agricultural residues or woody biomass. The agricultural sector can thereby contribute to the fulfillment of climate goals and energy security without reducing the output of food products. The thesis describes and assesses possibl...

  7. The use of biomass for energy in Sweden. Critical factors and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the development of Swedish biomass use during recent decades is discussed. The relations between biomass supply, biomass demand and various policy initiatives are explored. The objectives are to discuss the most important factors affecting the biomass development and to establish which factors are specific for Swedish conditions and also to identify general factors that are relevant in assessing the possibility of expanding biomass use in different contexts. The focus is on the use of biomass for heat and electricity production. Biomass contributed 14% to the Swedish energy supply in 1999. The major fraction of Swedish biomass is used within the forest industry (63%) and in district heating systems (23%). The remaining fraction is used in small-scale boilers in one- and two family dwellings. Between 1990 and 1999 Swedish bioenergy use (including waste and peat) increased by 44%. During the same period there has been a fourfold increase in the district heating systems. By-products from forestry and the Swedish forest industry dominate the supply of biomass in Sweden, but the importation of biomass increased significantly during the 1990s. A number of factors of various kinds have interacted to bring about the increased use of biomass in Sweden during the past twenty years. These factors can be divided into three categories: structure, policies and actors. The existence of a major forest industry and well-developed district heating systems has enabled a rapid response to strong and standing policy commitments to biomass. The reformation of the taxation system, with the introduction of a high carbon tax on fossil fuels, has led to significantly improved competitiveness for biomass when used for heating purposes.

  8. The use of biomass for energy in Sweden. Critical factors and lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Bengt; Boerjesson, Paal; Ericsson, Karin; Nilsson, Lars J.; Svenningsson, Per

    2002-08-01

    In this report the development of Swedish biomass use during recent decades is discussed. The relations between biomass supply, biomass demand and various policy initiatives are explored. The objectives are to discuss the most important factors affecting the biomass development and to establish which factors are specific for Swedish conditions and also to identify general factors that are relevant in assessing the possibility of expanding biomass use in different contexts. The focus is on the use of biomass for heat and electricity production. Biomass contributed 14% to the Swedish energy supply in 1999. The major fraction of Swedish biomass is used within the forest industry (63%) and in district heating systems (23%). The remaining fraction is used in small-scale boilers in one- and two family dwellings. Between 1990 and 1999 Swedish bioenergy use (including waste and peat) increased by 44%. During the same period there has been a fourfold increase in the district heating systems. By-products from forestry and the Swedish forest industry dominate the supply of biomass in Sweden, but the importation of biomass increased significantly during the 1990s. A number of factors of various kinds have interacted to bring about the increased use of biomass in Sweden during the past twenty years. These factors can be divided into three categories: structure, policies and actors. The existence of a major forest industry and well-developed district heating systems has enabled a rapid response to strong and standing policy commitments to biomass. The reformation of the taxation system, with the introduction of a high carbon tax on fossil fuels, has led to significantly improved competitiveness for biomass when used for heating purposes.

  9. Enhancing biomass energy yield from pilot-scale high rate algal ponds with recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J; Shilton, A N

    2013-09-01

    This paper investigates the effect of recycling on biomass energy yield in High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAPs). Two 8 m(3) pilot-scale HRAPs treating primary settled sewage were operated in parallel and monitored over a 2-year period. Volatile suspended solids were measured from both HRAPs and their gravity settlers to determine biomass productivity and harvest efficiency. The energy content of the biomass was also measured. Multiplying biomass productivity and harvest efficiency gives the 'harvestable biomass productivity' and multiplying this by the energy content defines the actual 'biomass energy yield'. In Year 1, algal recycling was implemented in one of the ponds (HRAPr) and improved harvestable biomass productivity by 58% compared with the control (HRAPc) without recycling (HRAPr: 9.2 g/m(2)/d; HRAPc: 5.8 g/m(2)/d). The energy content of the biomass grown in HRAPr, which was dominated by Pediastrun boryanum, was 25% higher than the control HRAPc which contained a mixed culture of 4-5 different algae (HRAPr: 21.5 kJ/g; HRAPc: 18.6 kJ/g). In Year 2, HRAPc was then seeded with the biomass harvested from the P. boryanum dominated HRAPr. This had the effect of shifting algal dominance from 89% Dictyosphaerium sp. (which is poorly-settleable) to over 90% P. boryanum in 5 months. Operation of this pond was then switched to recycling its own harvested biomass, which maintained P. boryanum dominance for the rest of Year 2. This result confirms, for the first time in the literature, that species control is possible for similarly sized co-occurring algal colonies in outdoor HRAP by algal recycling. With regard to the overall improvement in biomass energy yield, which is a critical parameter in the context of algal cultivation for biofuels, the combined improvements that recycling triggered in biomass productivity, harvest efficiency and energy content enhanced the harvested biomass energy yield by 66% (HRAPr: 195 kJ/m(2)/day; HRAPc: 118 kJ/m(2)/day).

  10. Enhancing biomass energy yield from pilot-scale high rate algal ponds with recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J; Shilton, A N

    2013-09-01

    This paper investigates the effect of recycling on biomass energy yield in High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAPs). Two 8 m(3) pilot-scale HRAPs treating primary settled sewage were operated in parallel and monitored over a 2-year period. Volatile suspended solids were measured from both HRAPs and their gravity settlers to determine biomass productivity and harvest efficiency. The energy content of the biomass was also measured. Multiplying biomass productivity and harvest efficiency gives the 'harvestable biomass productivity' and multiplying this by the energy content defines the actual 'biomass energy yield'. In Year 1, algal recycling was implemented in one of the ponds (HRAPr) and improved harvestable biomass productivity by 58% compared with the control (HRAPc) without recycling (HRAPr: 9.2 g/m(2)/d; HRAPc: 5.8 g/m(2)/d). The energy content of the biomass grown in HRAPr, which was dominated by Pediastrun boryanum, was 25% higher than the control HRAPc which contained a mixed culture of 4-5 different algae (HRAPr: 21.5 kJ/g; HRAPc: 18.6 kJ/g). In Year 2, HRAPc was then seeded with the biomass harvested from the P. boryanum dominated HRAPr. This had the effect of shifting algal dominance from 89% Dictyosphaerium sp. (which is poorly-settleable) to over 90% P. boryanum in 5 months. Operation of this pond was then switched to recycling its own harvested biomass, which maintained P. boryanum dominance for the rest of Year 2. This result confirms, for the first time in the literature, that species control is possible for similarly sized co-occurring algal colonies in outdoor HRAP by algal recycling. With regard to the overall improvement in biomass energy yield, which is a critical parameter in the context of algal cultivation for biofuels, the combined improvements that recycling triggered in biomass productivity, harvest efficiency and energy content enhanced the harvested biomass energy yield by 66% (HRAPr: 195 kJ/m(2)/day; HRAPc: 118 kJ/m(2)/day). PMID:23764593

  11. Biomass boilers

    OpenAIRE

    Nahodil, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Bachelor’s thesis deals with the use of biomass for heating houses and apartment houses. The first part is dedicated to biomass. Here are mentioned the possibility of energy recovery, treatment and transformation of biomass into a form suitable for burning, its properties and combustion process itself. The second part is devoted to biomass boilers, their separation and description. The last section compares the specific biomass boiler with a boiler to natural gas, particularly from an economi...

  12. BIOMASS UTILIZATION AS A RENEVABLE ENERGY SOURCE IN POLISH POWER INDUSTRY – CURRENT STATUS AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Gołuchowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The depletion of the conventional energy sources, as well as the degradation and pollution of the environment by the exploitation of fossil fuels caused the development of renewable energy sources (RES, including biomass. In Poland, biomass is the most popular renewable energy source, which is closely related to the obligations associated with the membership in the EU. Biomass is the oldest renewable energy source, and its potential, diversity and polymorphism place it over other sources. Besides, the improvement in its parameters, including an increase in its calorific value, resulted in increasing use of biomass as energy source. In the electric power industry biomass is applied in the process of co-combustion with coal. This process may contribute, inter alia, to the reduction in the emissions of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur oxides. The article presents the characteristics of the biomass burned in power boilers of one of the largest Polish power plants, located in Opole Province (Southern Poland. Besides, the impact of biomass on the installation of co-combustion, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the co-combustion process not only in technological, but also environmental, economic and social aspects were described.

  13. Energy Analysis of a Biomass Co-firing Based Pulverized Coal Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The results are reported of an energy analysis of a biomass/coal co-firing based power generation system, carried out to investigate the impacts of biomass co-firing on system performance. The power generation system is a typical pulverized coal-fired steam cycle unit, in which four biomass fuels (rice husk, pine sawdust, chicken litter, and refuse derived fuel and two coals (bituminous coal and lignite are considered. Key system performance parameters are evaluated for various fuel combinations and co-firing ratios, using a system model and numerical simulation. The results indicate that plant energy efficiency decreases with increase of biomass proportion in the fuel mixture, and that the extent of the decrease depends on specific properties of the coal and biomass types.

  14. First Biomass Conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this second volume cover Transportation Fuels, and Chemicals and Products. Transportation Fuels topics include: Biodiesel, Pyrolytic Liquids, Ethanol, Methanol and Ethers, and Commercialization. The Chemicals and Products section includes specific topics in: Research, Technology Transfer, and Commercial Systems. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. Electricity from biomass: An environmental review and strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-06-01

    This report presents an environmental assessment and strategy for the US Department of Energy Biomass Power Program. The regulatory context and the environmental impact of biomass power technologies are described, and an environmental plan for the program is suggested. The plan suggest a proactive, synergistic approach, involving multiple parties with a stake in the successful commercialization of a biomass power industry. These parties include feedstock growers, state regulators. Forest Service and agricultural agents, utilities and independent power producers, rural electric cooperatives, and environmental activists.

  16. The Potential for Biomass District Energy Production in Port Graham, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Sink, Chugachmiut; Keeryanne Leroux, EERC

    2008-05-08

    This project was a collaboration between The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Chugachmiut – A Tribal organization Serving the Chugach Native People of Alaska and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Tribal Energy Program. It was conducted to determine the economic and technical feasibility for implementing a biomass energy system to service the Chugachmiut community of Port Graham, Alaska. The Port Graham tribe has been investigating opportunities to reduce energy costs and reliance on energy imports and support subsistence. The dramatic rise in the prices of petroleum fuels have been a hardship to the village of Port Graham, located on the Kenai Peninsula of Alaska. The Port Graham Village Council views the forest timber surrounding the village and the established salmon industry as potential resources for providing biomass energy power to the facilities in their community. Benefits of implementing a biomass fuel include reduced energy costs, energy independence, economic development, and environmental improvement. Fish oil–diesel blended fuel and indoor wood boilers are the most economical and technically viable options for biomass energy in the village of Port Graham. Sufficient regional biomass resources allow up to 50% in annual heating savings to the user, displacing up to 70% current diesel imports, with a simple payback of less than 3 years for an estimated capital investment under $300,000. Distributive energy options are also economically viable and would displace all imported diesel, albeit offering less savings potential and requiring greater capital. These include a large-scale wood combustion system to provide heat to the entire village, a wood gasification system for cogeneration of heat and power, and m