WorldWideScience

Sample records for biomass energy feedstocks

  1. Effect of biomass feedstock chemical and physical properties on energy conversion processes: Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butner, R.S.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J., Jr.; Pyne, J.W.

    1988-12-01

    This report presents an exploration of the relationships between biomass feedstocks and the conversion processes that utilize them. Specifically, it discusses the effect of the physical and chemical structure of biomass on conversion yields, rates, and efficiencies in a wide variety of available or experimental conversion processes. A greater understanding of the complex relationships between these conversion systems and the production of biomass for energy uses is required to help optimize the complex network of biomass production, collection, transportation, and conversion to useful energy products. The review of the literature confirmed the scarcity of research aimed specifically at identifying the effect of feedstock properties on conversion. In most cases, any mention of feedstock-related effects was limited to a few brief remarks (usually in qualitative terms) in the conclusions, or as a topic for further research. Attempts to determine the importance of feedstock parameters from published data were further hampered by the lack of consistent feedstock characterization and the difficulty of comparing results between different experimental systems. Further research will be required to establish quantitative relationships between feedstocks and performance criteria in conversion. 127 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Biomass Feedstock National User Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Bioenergy research at the Biomass Feedstock National User Facility (BFNUF) is focused on creating commodity-scale feed-stocks from native biomass that meet the needs...

  3. Development of High Yield Feedstocks and Biomass Conversion Technology for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Andrew G. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Crow, Susan [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); DeBeryshe, Barbara [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ha, Richard [Hamakua Springs County Farms, Hilo, HI (United States); Jakeway, Lee [Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company, Puunene, HI (United States); Khanal, Samir [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Nakahata, Mae [Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company, Puunene, HI (United States); Ogoshi, Richard [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Shimizu, Erik [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Stern, Ivette [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Turano, Brian [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Turn, Scott [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Yanagida, John [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2015-04-09

    This project had two main goals. The first goal was to evaluate several high yielding tropical perennial grasses as feedstock for biofuel production, and to characterize the feedstock for compatible biofuel production systems. The second goal was to assess the integration of renewable energy systems for Hawaii. The project focused on high-yield grasses (napiergrass, energycane, sweet sorghum, and sugarcane). Field plots were established to evaluate the effects of elevation (30, 300 and 900 meters above sea level) and irrigation (50%, 75% and 100% of sugarcane plantation practice) on energy crop yields and input. The test plots were extensive monitored including: hydrologic studies to measure crop water use and losses through seepage and evapotranspiration; changes in soil carbon stock; greenhouse gas flux (CO2, CH4, and N2O) from the soil surface; and root morphology, biomass, and turnover. Results showed significant effects of environment on crop yields. In general, crop yields decrease as the elevation increased, being more pronounced for sweet sorghum and energycane than napiergrass. Also energy crop yields were higher with increased irrigation levels, being most pronounced with energycane and less so with sweet sorghum. Daylight length greatly affected sweet sorghum growth and yields. One of the energy crops (napiergrass) was harvested at different ages (2, 4, 6, and 8 months) to assess the changes in feedstock characteristics with age and potential to generate co-products. Although there was greater potential for co-products from younger feedstock, the increased production was not sufficient to offset the additional cost of harvesting multiple times per year. The feedstocks were also characterized to assess their compatibility with biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes. The project objectives are being continued through additional support from the Office of Naval Research, and the Biomass Research and Development

  4. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, Laura [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Feedstock Platform Review meeting.

  5. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.; Broderick, Thomas F.

    2011-10-11

    A novel class of flowable biomass feedstock particles with unusually large surface areas that can be manufactured in remarkably uniform sizes using low-energy comminution techniques. The feedstock particles are roughly parallelepiped in shape and characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially with the grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. The particles exhibit a disrupted grain structure with prominent end and surface checks that greatly enhances their skeletal surface area as compared to their envelope surface area. The L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers. The W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers. The L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top surfaces characterized by some surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The feedstock particles are manufactured from a variety of plant biomass materials including wood, crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  6. Biomass feedstock analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Moilanen, A.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The overall objectives of the project `Feasibility of electricity production from biomass by pressurized gasification systems` within the EC Research Programme JOULE II were to evaluate the potential of advanced power production systems based on biomass gasification and to study the technical and economic feasibility of these new processes with different type of biomass feed stocks. This report was prepared as part of this R and D project. The objectives of this task were to perform fuel analyses of potential woody and herbaceous biomasses with specific regard to the gasification properties of the selected feed stocks. The analyses of 15 Scandinavian and European biomass feed stock included density, proximate and ultimate analyses, trace compounds, ash composition and fusion behaviour in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. The wood-derived fuels, such as whole-tree chips, forest residues, bark and to some extent willow, can be expected to have good gasification properties. Difficulties caused by ash fusion and sintering in straw combustion and gasification are generally known. The ash and alkali metal contents of the European biomasses harvested in Italy resembled those of the Nordic straws, and it is expected that they behave to a great extent as straw in gasification. Any direct relation between the ash fusion behavior (determined according to the standard method) and, for instance, the alkali metal content was not found in the laboratory determinations. A more profound characterisation of the fuels would require gasification experiments in a thermobalance and a PDU (Process development Unit) rig. (orig.) (10 refs.)

  7. Process energy comparison for the production and harvesting of algal biomass as a biofuel feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weschler, Matthew K; Barr, William J; Harper, Willie F; Landis, Amy E

    2014-02-01

    Harvesting and drying are often described as the most energy intensive stages of microalgal biofuel production. This study analyzes two cultivation and eleven harvest technologies for the production of microalgae biomass with and without the use of drying. These technologies were combined to form 122 different production scenarios. The results of this study present a calculation methodology and optimization of total energy demand for the production of algal biomass for biofuel production. The energetic interaction between unit processes and total process energy demand are compared for each scenario. Energy requirements are shown to be highly dependent on final mass concentration, with thermal drying being the largest energy consumer. Scenarios that omit thermal drying in favor of lipid extraction from wet biomass show the most promise for energy efficient biofuel production. Scenarios which used open ponds for cultivation, followed by settling and membrane filtration were the most energy efficient.

  8. Preparation of gasification feedstock from leafy biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shone, C M; Jothi, T J S

    2016-05-01

    Dried leaves are a potential source of energy although these are not commonly used beside to satisfy daily energy demands in rural areas. This paper aims at preparing a leafy biomass feedstock in the form of briquettes which can be directly used for combustion or to extract the combustible gas using a gasifier. Teak (Tectona grandis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) leaves are considered for the present study. A binder-assisted briquetting technique with tapioca starch as binder is adopted. Properties of these leafy biomass briquettes such as moisture content, calorific value, compressive strength, and shatter index are determined. From the study, briquettes with biomass-to-binder ratio of 3:5 are found to be stable. Higher mass percentage of binder is considered for preparation of briquettes due to the fact that leafy biomasses do not adhere well on densification with lower binder content. Ultimate analysis test is conducted to analyze the gasification potential of the briquettes. Results show that the leafy biomass prepared from teak and rubber leaves has calorific values of 17.5 and 17.8 MJ/kg, respectively, which are comparable with those of existing biomass feedstock made of sawdust, rice husk, and rice straw.

  9. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H [Federal Way, WA; Lanning, David N [Federal Way, WA; Broderick, Thomas F [Lake Forest Park, WA

    2012-04-17

    A new class of plant biomass feedstock particles characterized by consistent piece size and shape uniformity, high skeletal surface area, and good flow properties. The particles of plant biomass material having fibers aligned in a grain are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. In particular, the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces. The L.times.W surfaces of particles with L/H dimension ratios of 4:1 or less are further elaborated by surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The length dimension L is preferably aligned within 30.degree. parallel to the grain, and more preferably within 10.degree. parallel to the grain. The plant biomass material is preferably selected from among wood, agricultural crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  10. Macroalgae as a Biomass Feedstock: A Preliminary Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesijadi, Guritno; Jones, Susanne B.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2010-09-26

    A thorough of macroalgae analysis as a biofuels feedstock is warranted due to the size of this biomass resource and the need to consider all potential sources of feedstock to meet current biomass production goals. Understanding how to harness this untapped biomass resource will require additional research and development. A detailed assessment of environmental resources, cultivation and harvesting technology, conversion to fuels, connectivity with existing energy supply chains, and the associated economic and life cycle analyses will facilitate evaluation of this potentially important biomass resource.

  11. Preprocessing Moist Lignocellulosic Biomass for Biorefinery Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal Yancey; Christopher T. Wright; Craig Conner; J. Richard Hess

    2009-06-01

    Biomass preprocessing is one of the primary operations in the feedstock assembly system of a lignocellulosic biorefinery. Preprocessing is generally accomplished using industrial grinders to format biomass materials into a suitable biorefinery feedstock for conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Many factors affect machine efficiency and the physical characteristics of preprocessed biomass. For example, moisture content of the biomass as received from the point of production has a significant impact on overall system efficiency and can significantly affect the characteristics (particle size distribution, flowability, storability, etc.) of the size-reduced biomass. Many different grinder configurations are available on the market, each with advantages under specific conditions. Ultimately, the capacity and/or efficiency of the grinding process can be enhanced by selecting the grinder configuration that optimizes grinder performance based on moisture content and screen size. This paper discusses the relationships of biomass moisture with respect to preprocessing system performance and product physical characteristics and compares data obtained on corn stover, switchgrass, and wheat straw as model feedstocks during Vermeer HG 200 grinder testing. During the tests, grinder screen configuration and biomass moisture content were varied and tested to provide a better understanding of their relative impact on machine performance and the resulting feedstock physical characteristics and uniformity relative to each crop tested.

  12. Bibliography on Biomass Feedstock Research: 1978-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, J.H.

    2003-05-01

    This report provides bibliographic citations for more than 1400 reports on biomass feedstock development published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and its collaborators from 1978 through 2002. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is engaged in analysis of biomass resource supplies, research on the sustainability of feedstock resources, and research on feedstock engineering and infrastructure. From 1978 until 2002, Oak Ridge National Laboratory also provided technical leadership for the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program (BFDP), which supported research to identify and develop promising energy crops. This bibliography lists reports published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and by its collaborators in the BFDP, including graduate student theses and dissertations.

  13. Environmental emissions and socioeconomic considerations in the production, storage, and transportation of biomass energy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D.; Ranney, J.W.; Wright, L.L.

    1992-07-01

    An analysis was conducted to identify major sources and approximate levels of emissions to land, air, and water, that may result, in the year 2010, from supplying biofuel conversion facilities with energy crops. Land, fuel, and chemicals are all used in the establishment, maintenance, harvest, handling and transport of energy crops. The operations involved create soil erosion and compaction, particulate releases, air emissions from fuel use and chemical applications, and runoff or leachate. The analysis considered five different energy facility locations (each in a different major crop growing region) and three classes of energy crops -- woody crops, perennial herbaceous grasses, and an annual herbaceous crop (sorghum). All projections had to be based on reasonable assumptions regarding probable species used, type of land used, equipment requirements, chemical input requirements, and transportation fuel types. Emissions were summarized by location and class of energy crop.

  14. Energy, economic and environmental implications of production of grasses as biomass feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, M.; McLaughlin, S.; Walsh, M.

    1995-08-01

    Perennial prairie grasses offer many advantages to the developing biofuels industry. High yielding varieties of native prairie grasses such as switchgrass, which combine lower levels of nutrient demand, diverse geographical growing range, high net energy yields and high soil and water conservation potential indicate that these grasses could and should supplement annual row crops such as corn in developing alternative fuels markets. Favorable net energy returns, increased soil erosion prevention, and a geographically diverse land base that can incorporate energy grasses into conventional farm practices will provide direct benefits to local and regional farm economies and lead to accelerated commercialization of conversion technologies. Displacement of row crops with perennial grasses will have major agricultural, economic, sociologic and cross-market implications. Thus, perennial grass production for biofuels offers significant economic advantages to a national energy strategy which considers both agricultural and environmental issues.

  15. Energy, economic, and environmental implications of production of grasses as biomass feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, M.; McLaughlin, S.; Walsh, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Perennial prairie grasses offer many advantages to the developing biofuels industry. High yielding varieties of native prairie grasses such as switchgrass, which combine lower levels of nutrient demand, diverse geographical growing range, high net energy yields and high soil and water conservation potential indicate that these grasses could and should supplement annual row crops such as corn in developing alternative fuels markets. Favorable net energy returns, increased soil erosion prevention, and a geographically diverse land base that can incorporate energy grasses into conventional farm practices will provide direct benefits to local and regional farm economies and lead to accelerated commercialization of conversion technologies. Displacement of row crops with perennial grasses will have major agricultural, economic, sociologic and cross-market implications. Thus, perennial grass production for biofuels offers significant economic advantages to a national energy strategy which considers both agricultural and environmental issues.

  16. Roadmap for Agriculture Biomass Feedstock Supply in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Richard Hess; Thomas D. Foust; Reed Hoskinson; David Thompson

    2003-11-01

    accomplished in a sustainable manner • Feedstock Infrastructure – An integrated feedstock supply system must be developed and implemented that can serve the feedstock needs of the biorefinery at the cost, quality, and consistency of the set targets • System Profitability – Economic profitability and sustainability need to be ensured for all required participants in the feedstock supply system. For each step in the biomass supply process—production, harvesting and collection, storage, preprocessing, system integration, and transportation—this roadmap addresses the current technical situations, performance targets, technical barriers, R&D needs, and R&D priorities to overcome technical barriers and achieve performance targets. Crop residue biomass is an attractive starting feedstock, which shows the best near-term promise as a biorefinery feedstock. Because crop residue is a by-product of grain production, it is an abundant, underutilized, and low cost biomass resource. Corn stover and cereal straw are the two most abundant crop residues available in the United States. Therefore, this roadmap focuses primarily on the R&D needed for using these biomass sources as viable biorefinery feedstocks. However, achieving the goal of 1 billion dry tons of lignocellulosic feedstock will require the use of other biomass sources such as dedicated energy crops. In the long term, the R&D needs identified in this roadmap will need to accommodate these other sources of biomass as well.

  17. Evaluation of the potential for using old-field vegetation as an energy feedstock: Biomass yield, chemical composition, environmental concerns, and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, J.W. Jr.

    1990-07-01

    The major focus of current research on production of biomass for use as energy feedstock involves selection of species and genotypes best suited for specific regions of the United States and development of crop management techniques that maximize biomass productivity while minimizing environmental impacts and economic costs. The two experimental sites, and abandoned soybean field (AS) and an abandoned pasture (AP) were studied. At the AS site, the effects of two harvest frequencies (1 or 2 harvests annually), two nitrogen fertilizer treatments (1 or 2 harvests annually), two nitrogen fertilizer treatments (0 or 87 kg{center dot}ha{sup {minus}1}{center dot}yr{sup {minus}1}), and two phosphorous fertilizer treatments (0 or 111 kg{center dot}ha{sup {minus}1}{center dot}yr{sup {minus}1}) were determined. At the AP site, the effects of two harvest treatments (1 or 2 harvests annually), two fertilizer treatments (56:56:135 kg of N:P:K{center dot}ha{sup {minus}1}{center dot}yr{sup {minus}1}), and two lime treatments (0 or 4600 kg{center dot}ha{sup {minus}1}{center dot}yr{sup {minus}1}) were determined. At both sites, treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block 2 {times} 2 {times} 2 factorial experiment. The results of this research indicated that old-field vegetation is: (1) sufficiently productive to provide significant quantities of energy feedstock; (2) chemically suitable as an energy feedstock; (3) environmentally benign with respect to impacts related to soil erosion and nutrient depletion; (4) relatively unresponsive to fertilizer and lime inputs; and (5) economically competitive with other biomass energy feedstock candidates. 38 refs., 8 figs., 68 tabs.

  18. Biomass Program 2007 Program Peer Review - Feedstock Platform Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Feedstock Platform Portfolio Peer Review held on August 21st through 23rd in Washington D.C.

  19. LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS: A POTENTIAL FEEDSTOCK TO REPLACE PETROLEUM

    OpenAIRE

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2008-01-01

    Sustainability considerations for product and energy production in a future US economy can be met with lignocellulosic biomass. The age of petroleum as the key resource to meet the US economy requirements is rapidly dwindling, given the limited resources of petroleum, the growing global population, and concurrent detrimental effects on environmental safety. The use of natural and renewable feedstocks such as trees and switchgrass is becoming more attractive; indeed, lignocellulosic biomass i...

  20. C4 Plants as Biofuel Feedstocks: Optimising Biomass Production and Feedstock Quality from a Lignocellulosic Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caitlin S.Byrt; Christopher P.L.Grof; Robert T.Furbank

    2011-01-01

    The main feedstocks for bioethanol are sugarcane (Saccharum offic-inarum) and maize (Zea mays), both of which are C4 grasses, highly efficient at converting solar energy into chemical energy, and both are food crops. As the systems for lignocellulosic bioethanol production become more efficient and cost effective, plant biomass from any source may be used as a feedstock for bioethanol production. Thus, a move away from using food plants to make fuel is possible, and sources of biomass such as wood from forestry and plant waste from cropping may be used. However, the bioethanol industry will need a continuous and reliable supply of biomass that can be produced at a low cost and with minimal use of water, fertilizer and arable land. As many C4 plants have high light, water and nitrogen use efficiency, as compared with C3 species, they are ideal as feedstock crops. We consider the productivity and resource use of a number of candidate plant species, and discuss biomass 'quality', that is, the composition of the plant cell wall.

  1. Processing Cost Analysis for Biomass Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, P.C.

    2002-11-20

    The receiving, handling, storing, and processing of woody biomass feedstocks is an overlooked component of biopower systems. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to identify and characterize all the receiving, handling, storing, and processing steps required to make woody biomass feedstocks suitable for use in direct combustion and gasification applications, including small modular biopower (SMB) systems, and (2) to estimate the capital and operating costs at each step. Since biopower applications can be varied, a number of conversion systems and feedstocks required evaluation. In addition to limiting this study to woody biomass feedstocks, the boundaries of this study were from the power plant gate to the feedstock entry point into the conversion device. Although some power plants are sited at a source of wood waste fuel, it was assumed for this study that all wood waste would be brought to the power plant site. This study was also confined to the following three feedstocks (1) forest residues, (2) industrial mill residues, and (3) urban wood residues. Additionally, the study was confined to grate, suspension, and fluidized bed direct combustion systems; gasification systems; and SMB conversion systems. Since scale can play an important role in types of equipment, operational requirements, and capital and operational costs, this study examined these factors for the following direct combustion and gasification system size ranges: 50, 20, 5, and 1 MWe. The scope of the study also included: Specific operational issues associated with specific feedstocks (e.g., bark and problems with bridging); Opportunities for reducing handling, storage, and processing costs; How environmental restrictions can affect handling and processing costs (e.g., noise, commingling of treated wood or non-wood materials, emissions, and runoff); and Feedstock quality issues and/or requirements (e.g., moisture, particle size, presence of non-wood materials). The study found that over the

  2. a Novel Framework for Incorporating Sustainability Into Biomass Feedstock Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, C.

    2012-12-01

    There is a strong society need to evaluate and understand the sustainability of biofuels, especially due to the significant increases in production mandated by many countries, including the United States. Biomass feedstock production is an important contributor to environmental, social and economic impacts from biofuels. We present a systems approach where the agricultural, urban, energy and environmental sectors are considered as components of a single system and environmental liabilities are used as recoverable resources for biomass feedstock production. A geospatial analysis evaluating marginal land and degraded water resources to improve feedstock productivity with concomitant environmental restoration was conducted for the major corn producing states in the US. The extent and availability of these resources was assessed and geospatial techniques used to identify promising opportunities to implement this approach. Utilizing different sources of marginal land (roadway buffers, contaminated land) could result in a 7-fold increase in land availability for feedstock production and provide ecosystem services such as water quality improvement and carbon sequestration. Spatial overlap between degraded water and marginal land resources was found to be as high as 98% and could maintain sustainable feedstock production on marginal lands through the supply of water and nutrients. Multi-objective optimization was used to quantify the tradeoffs between net revenue, improvements in water quality and carbon sequestration at the farm scale using this design. Results indicated that there is an initial opportunity where land that is marginally productive for row crops and of marginal value for conservation purposes could be used to grow bioenergy crops such that that water quality and carbon sequestration benefits are obtained.

  3. Switchgrass for biomass energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a native warm-season grass and is the model herbaceous perennial biomass energy feedstock for the USA. More than 75-years of experience confirm that switchgrass will be productive and sustainable on rain-fed marginally-productive cropland east of the 100th meridian....

  4. Climate change and the economics of biomass energy feedstocks in semi-arid agricultural landscapes: A spatially explicit real options analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Courtney M; Connor, Jeffery D; Raja Segaran, Ramesh; Meyer, Wayne S; Bryan, Brett A; Ostendorf, Bertram

    2017-05-01

    The economics of establishing perennial species as renewable energy feedstocks has been widely investigated as a climate change adapted diversification option for landholders, primarily using net present value (NPV) analysis. NPV does not account for key uncertainties likely to influence relevant landholder decision making. While real options analysis (ROA) is an alternative method that accounts for the uncertainty over future conditions and the large upfront irreversible investment involved in establishing perennials, there have been limited applications of ROA to evaluating land use change decision economics and even fewer applications considering climate change risks. Further, while the influence of spatially varying climate risk on biomass conversion economic has been widely evaluated using NPV methods, effects of spatial variability and climate on land use change have been scarcely assessed with ROA. In this study we applied a simulation-based ROA model to evaluate a landholder's decision to convert land from agriculture to biomass. This spatially explicit model considers price and yield risks under baseline climate and two climate change scenarios over a geographically diverse farming region. We found that underlying variability in primary productivity across the study area had a substantial effect on conversion thresholds required to trigger land use change when compared to results from NPV analysis. Areas traditionally thought of as being quite similar in average productive capacity can display large differences in response to the inclusion of production and price risks. The effects of climate change, broadly reduced returns required for land use change to biomass in low and medium rainfall zones and increased them in higher rainfall areas. Additionally, the risks posed by climate change can further exacerbate the tendency for NPV methods to underestimate true conversion thresholds. Our results show that even under severe drying and warming where crop yield

  5. Feedstock Supply and Logistics: Biomass as a Commodity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-05-06

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office and its partners are developing the technologies and systems needed to sustainably and economically deliver a broad range of biomass in formats that enable their efficient use as feedstocks for biorefineries.

  6. Sophorolipid production from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Abdul

    , the yield of SLs was 0.55 g/g carbon (sugars plus oil) for cultures with bagasse hydrolysates. Further, SL production was investigated using sweet sorghum bagasse and corn stover hydrolysates derived from different pretreatment conditions. For the former and latter sugar sources, yellow grease or soybean oil was supplemented at different doses to enhance sophorolipid yield. 14-day batch fermentation on bagasse hydrolysates with 10, 40 and 60 g/L of yellow grease had cell densities of 5.7 g/L, 6.4 g/L and 7.8 g/L, respectively. The study also revealed that the yield of SLs on bagasse hydrolysate decreased from 0.67 to 0.61 and to 0.44 g/g carbon when yellow grease was dosed at 10, 40 and 60 g/L. With aforementioned increasing yellow grease concentration, the residual oil left after 14 days was recorded as 3.2 g/L, 8.5 g/L and 19.9 g/L. For similar experimental conditions, the cell densities observed for corn stover hydrolysate combined with soybean oil at 10, 20 and 40 g/L concentration were 6.1 g/L, 5.9 g/L, and 5.4 g/L respectively. Also, in the same order of oil dose supplemented, the residual oil recovered after 14-day was 8.5 g/L, 8.9 g/L, and 26.9 g/L. Corn stover hydrolysate mixed with the 10, 20 and 40 g/L soybean oil, the SL yield was 0.19, 0.11 and 0.09 g/g carbon. Overall, both hydrolysates supported cell growth and sophorolipid production. The results from this research show that hydrolysates derived from the different lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks can be utilized by C. bombicola to achieve substantial yields of SLs. Based upon the results revealed by several batch-stage experiments, it can be stated that there is great potential for scaling up and industrial scale production of these high value products in future.

  7. Forest feedstocks : systems for recovery of residual biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, J. [FP Innovations, Vancouver, BC (Canada). FERIC Div.

    2007-07-01

    Interest in forest feedstock is growing due to high energy costs, the need for energy self-sufficiency and climate change issues. The Mountain Pine Beetle (MPB) epidemic in British Columbia has also contributed to the growing interest in forest feedstock. This presentation discussed the potential for wood to be used for liquid fuels conversion, pellets and biorefineries. The extraction of energy from residue biomass was reviewed with reference to traditional sources such as hog fuel and black liquor, as well as new sources that consider the changing landscape. These include harvest residues, MPB-killed stands, burned stands, non-merchantable stands, and stumps. Early thinning and FireSmart treatments were outlined along with the value of purpose-grown energy plantations. The variety of available recovery methods and equipment was demonstrated, including whole-tree chippers; disc and drum chippers; grinders and shredders; overhead conveyor systems; blower attachments; and, wheel-mounted equipment. The performance of each method and equipment was reviewed along with challenges regarding the transportation of a low-value, low bulk-density material over long distances. Although residue bundlers have been developed, it was suggested that it may be more cost effective to convert the feedstock in the field using a mobile biorefinery, and then transport the denser fuel. It was shown that although a range of equipment is available, nothing has been designed specifically for full-tree residue. It was noted that coordination with conventional harvesting is desirable, but may not be possible in all cases. Lessons from studies have indicated that the distance from the mill is a major cost factor and that the debris should be prepared in advance to shipping. tabs., figs.

  8. Biomass Feedstock and Conversion Supply System Design and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Jacob J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Roni, Mohammad S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lamers, Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cafferty, Kara G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy’s bioenergy research program. As part of the research program INL investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. A series of reports were published between 2000 and 2013 to demonstrate the feedstock logistics cost. Those reports were tailored to specific feedstock and conversion process. Although those reports are different in terms of conversion, some of the process in the feedstock logistic are same for each conversion process. As a result, each report has similar information. A single report can be designed that could bring all commonality occurred in the feedstock logistics process while discussing the feedstock logistics cost for different conversion process. Therefore, this report is designed in such a way that it can capture different feedstock logistics cost while eliminating the need of writing a conversion specific design report. Previous work established the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $55/dry ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, low-cost feedstock. The 2017 programmatic target is to supply feedstock to the conversion facility that meets the in-feed conversion process quality specifications at a total logistics cost of $80/dry T. The $80/dry T. target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all conversion in-feed quality targets

  9. A Review on Biomass Densification Systems to Develop Uniform Feedstock Commodities for Bioenergy Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Christopher T. Wright; J. Richard Hess; Kevin L. Kenney

    2011-11-01

    Developing uniformly formatted, densified feedstock from lignocellulosic biomass is of interest to achieve consistent physical properties like size and shape, bulk and unit density, and durability, which significantly influence storage, transportation and handling characteristics, and, by extension, feedstock cost and quality. A variety of densification systems are considered for producing a uniform format feedstock commodity for bioenergy applications, including (a) baler, (b) pellet mill, (c) cuber, (d) screw extruder, (e) briquette press, (f) roller press, (g) tablet press, and (g) agglomerator. Each of these systems has varying impacts on feedstock chemical and physical properties, and energy consumption. This review discusses the suitability of these densification systems for biomass feedstocks and the impact these systems have on specific energy consumption and end product quality. For example, a briquette press is more flexible in terms of feedstock variables where higher moisture content and larger particles are acceptable for making good quality briquettes; or among different densification systems, a screw press consumes the most energy because it not only compresses but also shears and mixes the material. Pretreatment options like preheating, grinding, steam explosion, torrefaction, and ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) can also help to reduce specific energy consumption during densification and improve binding characteristics. Binding behavior can also be improved by adding natural binders, such as proteins, or commercial binders, such as lignosulphonates. The quality of the densified biomass for both domestic and international markets is evaluated using PFI (United States Standard) or CEN (European Standard).

  10. Efficient process for producing saccharides and ethanol from a biomass feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okeke, Benedict C.; Nanjundaswamy, Ananda K.

    2017-04-11

    Described herein is a process for producing saccharides and ethanol from biomass feedstock that includes (a) producing an enzyme composition by culturing a fungal strain(s) in the presence of a lignocellulosic medium, (b) using the enzyme composition to saccharify the biomass feedstock, and (c) fermenting the saccharified biomass feedstock to produce ethanol. The process is scalable and, in certain aspects, is capable of being deployed on farms, thereby allowing local production of saccharides and ethanol and resulting in a reduction of energy and other costs for farm operators. Optional steps to improve the biomass-to-fuel conversion efficiency are also contemplated, as are uses for byproducts of the process described herein.

  11. Pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, Serdar E-mail: yamans@itu.edu.tr

    2004-03-01

    This review presents the summary of new studies on pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks. A number of biomass species, varying from woody and herbaceous biomass to municipal solid waste, food processing residues and industrial wastes, were subjected to different pyrolysis conditions to obtain liquid, gas and solid products. The results of various biomass pyrolysis investigations connected with the chemical composition and some properties of the pyrolysis products as a result of the applied pyrolysis conditions were combined. The characteristics of the liquid products from pyrolysis were examined, and some methods, such as catalytic upgrading or steam reforming, were considered to improve the physical and chemical properties of the liquids to convert them to economic and environmentally acceptable liquid fuels or chemical feedstocks. Outcomes from the kinetic studies performed by applying thermogravimetric analysis were also presented.

  12. Pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serdar Yaman [Istanbul Technical University (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    2004-03-01

    This review presents the summary of new studies on pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks. A number of biomass species, varying from woody and herbaceous biomass to municipal solid waste, food processing residues and industrial wastes, were subjected to different pyrolysis conditions to obtain liquid, gas and solid products. The results of various biomass pyrolysis investigations connected with the chemical composition and some properties of the pyrolysis products as a result of the applied pyrolysis conditions were combined. The characteristics of the liquid products from pyrolysis were examined, and some methods, such as catalytic upgrading or steam reforming, were considered to improve the physical and chemical properties of the liquids to convert them to economic and environmentally acceptable liquid fuels or chemical feedstocks. Outcomes from the kinetic studies performed by applying thermogravimetric analysis were also presented. (author)

  13. Practical Considerations of Moisture in Baled Biomass Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William A. Smith; Ian J. Bonner; Kevin L. Kenney; Lynn M. Wendt

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural residues make up a large portion of the immediately available biomass feedstock for renewable energy markets. Current collection and storage methods rely on existing feed and forage practices designed to preserve nutrients and properties of digestibility. Low-cost collection and storage practices that preserve carbohydrates across a range of inbound moisture contents are needed to assure the economic and technical success of the emerging biomass industry. This study examines the movement of moisture in storage and identifies patterns of migration resulting from several on-farm storage systems and their impacts on moisture measurement and dry matter recovery. Baled corn stover and energy sorghum were stored outdoors in uncovered, tarp-covered, or wrapped stacks and sampled periodically to measure moisture and dry matter losses. Interpolation between discrete sampling locations in the stack improved bulk moisture content estimates and showed clear patterns of accumulation and re-deposition. Atmospheric exposure, orientation, and contact with barriers (i.e., soil, tarp, and wrap surfaces) were found to cause the greatest amount of moisture heterogeneity within stacks. Although the bulk moisture content of many stacks remained in the range suitable for aerobic stability, regions of high moisture were sufficient to support microbial activity, thus support dry matter loss. Stack configuration, orientation, and coverage methods are discussed relative to impact on moisture management and dry matter preservation. Additionally, sample collection and data analysis are discussed relative to assessment at the biorefinery as it pertains to stability in storage, queuing, and moisture carried into processing.

  14. Catalytic Hydrothermal Conversion of Wet Biomass Feedstocks and Upgrading – Process Design and Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse

    Liquid biofuels will play a major role for a more sustainable energy system of the future. The CatLiq® process is a 2nd generation biomass conversion process that is based on hydrothermal liquefaction. Hydrothermal liquefaction offers a very efficient and feedstock flexible way of converting...... biomass to bio-oil. Bio-oils from hydrothermal liquefaction are characterised by their high feedstock flexibility. Upgrading of complete bio-oils derived from hydrothermal conversion has not yet been extensively studied. Purpose of this work is to reduce the oxygen content of the bio-oil to improve...

  15. Synthesis gas production from various biomass feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Conesa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition of five different biomass samples was studied in a horizontal laboratory reactor. The samples consisted of esparto grass, straw, Posidonea Oceanic seaweed, waste from urban and agricultural pruning and waste from forest pruning. Both pyrolysis in inert atmosphere and combustion in the presence of oxygen were studied. Different heating rates were used by varying the input speed. Major gas compounds were analyzed. The experimental results show that the amount of CO formed is lower in less dense species. It is also found that there is an increase of hydrocarbons formed at increasing feeding rates, in particular methane, while there is a decrease in the production of hydrogen.

  16. Assessing Extension's Ability to Promote Family Forests as a Woody Biomass Feedstock in the Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Rene' H.; Ghosh, Chandrani

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here surveyed Extension educators' awareness and knowledge of woody biomass energy and assessed their desire and ability to reach out to family forest owners-a critical feedstock source. The results indicate Extension educators are aware of the potential of woody biomass to serve as a renewable source of energy. Respondents…

  17. MODEL BASED BIOMASS SYSTEM DESIGN OF FEEDSTOCK SUPPLY SYSTEMS FOR BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Muth, Jr.; Jacob J. Jacobson; Kenneth M. Bryden

    2013-08-01

    Engineering feedstock supply systems that deliver affordable, high-quality biomass remains a challenge for the emerging bioenergy industry. Cellulosic biomass is geographically distributed and has diverse physical and chemical properties. Because of this feedstock supply systems that deliver cellulosic biomass resources to biorefineries require integration of a broad set of engineered unit operations. These unit operations include harvest and collection, storage, preprocessing, and transportation processes. Design decisions for each feedstock supply system unit operation impact the engineering design and performance of the other system elements. These interdependencies are further complicated by spatial and temporal variances such as climate conditions and biomass characteristics. This paper develops an integrated model that couples a SQL-based data management engine and systems dynamics models to design and evaluate biomass feedstock supply systems. The integrated model, called the Biomass Logistics Model (BLM), includes a suite of databases that provide 1) engineering performance data for hundreds of equipment systems, 2) spatially explicit labor cost datasets, and 3) local tax and regulation data. The BLM analytic engine is built in the systems dynamics software package PowersimTM. The BLM is designed to work with thermochemical and biochemical based biofuel conversion platforms and accommodates a range of cellulosic biomass types (i.e., herbaceous residues, short- rotation woody and herbaceous energy crops, woody residues, algae, etc.). The BLM simulates the flow of biomass through the entire supply chain, tracking changes in feedstock characteristics (i.e., moisture content, dry matter, ash content, and dry bulk density) as influenced by the various operations in the supply chain. By accounting for all of the equipment that comes into contact with biomass from the point of harvest to the throat of the conversion facility and the change in characteristics, the

  18. Uncertainties in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Advanced Biomass Feedstock Logistics Supply Chains in Kansas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Nguyen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To meet Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA cellulosic biofuel mandates, the United States will require an annual domestic supply of about 242 million Mg of biomass by 2022. To improve the feedstock logistics of lignocellulosic biofuels in order to access available biomass resources from areas with varying yields, commodity systems have been proposed and designed to deliver quality-controlled biomass feedstocks at preprocessing “depots”. Preprocessing depots densify and stabilize the biomass prior to long-distance transport and delivery to centralized biorefineries. The logistics of biomass commodity supply chains could introduce spatially variable environmental impacts into the biofuel life cycle due to needing to harvest, move, and preprocess biomass from multiple distances that have variable spatial density. This study examines the uncertainty in greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of corn stover logistics within a bio-ethanol supply chain in the state of Kansas, where sustainable biomass supply varies spatially. Two scenarios were evaluated each having a different number of depots of varying capacity and location within Kansas relative to a central commodity-receiving biorefinery to test GHG emissions uncertainty. The first scenario sited four preprocessing depots evenly across the state of Kansas but within the vicinity of counties having high biomass supply density. The second scenario located five depots based on the shortest depot-to-biorefinery rail distance and biomass availability. The logistics supply chain consists of corn stover harvest, collection and storage, feedstock transport from field to biomass preprocessing depot, preprocessing depot operations, and commodity transport from the biomass preprocessing depot to the biorefinery. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the spatial uncertainty in the feedstock logistics gate-to-gate sequence. Within the logistics supply chain GHG emissions are most sensitive to the

  19. Thermo-chemical and biological conversion potential of various biomass feedstocks to ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the potential and the economy of producing ethanol from gasification-fermentation of various biomass feedstocks. The biomass feedstocks include winter cover crops (wheat, rye, clover, hairy betch), summer cover crop (sunhemp), chicken litter, and woody biomass. ...

  20. Manipulating microRNAs for improved biomass and biofuels from plant feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Jennifer Lynn; Zhang, Baohong; Stewart, Charles Neal

    2015-04-01

    Petroleum-based fuels are nonrenewable and unsustainable. Renewable sources of energy, such as lignocellulosic biofuels and plant metabolite-based drop-in fuels, can offset fossil fuel use and reverse environmental degradation through carbon sequestration. Despite these benefits, the lignocellulosic biofuels industry still faces many challenges, including the availability of economically viable crop plants. Cell wall recalcitrance is a major economic barrier for lignocellulosic biofuels production from biomass crops. Sustainability and biomass yield are two additional, yet interrelated, foci for biomass crop improvement. Many scientists are searching for solutions to these problems within biomass crop genomes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in almost all biological and metabolic process in plants including plant development, cell wall biosynthesis and plant stress responses. Because of the broad functions of their targets (e.g. auxin response factors), the alteration of plant miRNA expression often results in pleiotropic effects. A specific miRNA usually regulates a biologically relevant bioenergy trait. For example, relatively low miR156 overexpression leads to a transgenic feedstock with enhanced biomass and decreased recalcitrance. miRNAs have been overexpressed in dedicated bioenergy feedstocks such as poplar and switchgrass yielding promising results for lignin reduction, increased plant biomass, the timing of flowering and response to harsh environments. In this review, we present the status of miRNA-related research in several major biofuel crops and relevant model plants. We critically assess published research and suggest next steps for miRNA manipulation in feedstocks for increased biomass and sustainability for biofuels and bioproducts.

  1. Halophytes Energy Feedstocks: Back to Our Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2008-01-01

    Of the Earth s landmass, approx.43% is arid or semi-arid, and 97% of the Earth s water is seawater. Halophytes are salt-tolerant plants (micro and macro) that can prosper in seawater or brackish waters and are common feedstocks for fuel and food (fuel-food feedstocks) in depressed countries. Two types, broadly classed as coastal and desert, can be found in marshes, coastal planes, inland lakes, and deserts. Major arid or semi-arid halophyte agriculture problems include pumping and draining the required high volumes of irrigation water from sea or ocean sources. Also, not all arid or semi-arid lands are suitable for crops. Benefits of halophyte agriculture include freeing up arable land and freshwater resources, cleansing the environment, decontaminating soils, desalinating brackish waters, and carbon sequestration. Sea and ocean halophyte agriculture problems include storms, transport, and diffuse harvesting. Benefits include available nutrients, ample water, and Sun. Careful attention to details and use of saline agriculture fuel feedstocks are required to prevent anthropogenic disasters. It is shown that the potential for fuel-food feedstock halophyte production is high; based on test plot data, it could supply 421.4 Quad, or 94% of the 2004 world energy consumption and sequester carbon, with major impact on the Triangle of Conflicts.

  2. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Lynn L [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Badger, Philip C [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the second edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also four appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, assumptions for selected tables and figures, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  3. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Wright, Lynn L [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2011-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the fourth edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also two appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  4. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2010-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the third edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also four appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  5. The use of conservation biomass feedstocks as potential bioenergy resources in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D; Mitchell, E J S; Lea-Langton, A R; Parmar, K R; Jones, J M; Williams, A

    2016-07-01

    A number of countries have introduced energy policies to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide which, in the case of bio-heat, has resulted in increased use of small wood burning stoves and boilers, particularly in Europe. There are issues surrounding the supply of sustainable wood feedstock, prompting a desire to utilise local biomass resources. This includes biomass generated through the management of natural woodlands in nature reserves and conservation areas. These management practices can also extend to other areas, such as raised bog wildernesses and estuary Reed beds. We term the biomass from this resource as conservation biomass. This study is concerned with the viability of this resource as a fuel within the United Kingdom, and combustion tests were carried out using a small domestic stove. It was concluded that there is as much as 500kty(-1) that could be used in this way.

  6. Pectin-rich biomass as feedstock for fuel ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Meredith C.; Doran-Peterson, Joy [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Microbiology

    2012-08-15

    The USA has proposed that 30 % of liquid transportation fuel be produced from renewable resources by 2030 (Perlack and Stokes 2011). It will be impossible to reach this goal using corn kernel-based ethanol alone. Pectin-rich biomass, an under-utilized waste product of the sugar and juice industry, can augment US ethanol supplies by capitalizing on this already established feedstock. Currently, pectin-rich biomass is sold (at low value) as animal feed. This review focuses on the three most studied types of pectin-rich biomass: sugar beet pulp, citrus waste and apple pomace. Fermentations of these materials have been conducted with a variety of ethanologens, including yeasts and bacteria. Escherichia coli can ferment a wide range of sugars including galacturonic acid, the primary component of pectin. However, the mixed acid metabolism of E. coli can produce unwanted side products. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally ferment galacturonic acid nor pentose sugars but has a homoethanol pathway. Erwinia chrysanthemi is capable of degrading many of the cell wall components of pectin-rich materials, including pectin. Klebsiella oxytoca can metabolize a diverse array of sugars including cellobiose, one degradation product of cellulose. However, both E. chrysanthemi and K. oxytoca produce side products during fermentation, similar to E. coli. Using pectin-rich residues from industrial processes is beneficial because the material is already collected and partially pretreated to facilitate enzymatic deconstruction of the plant cell walls. Using biomass already produced for other purposes is an attractive practice because fewer greenhouse gases (GHG) will be anticipated from land-use changes. (orig.)

  7. Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertjens, Steve; Wright, Angie; Lieurance, Mike; berguson, bill; Buchman, Dan

    2012-12-31

    The Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project evaluated the potential for biomass energy production and utilization throughout the Driftless Region of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin. The research and demonstration aspect of the project specifically focused on biomass energy feedstock availability and production potential in the region, as well as utilization potential of biomass feedstocks for heat, electrical energy production, or combined heat and power operations. The Driftless Region was evaluated because the topography of the area offers more acres of marginal soils on steep slopes, wooded areas, and riparian corridors than the surrounding “Corn Belt”. These regional land characteristics were identified as potentially providing opportunity for biomass feedstock production that could compete with traditional agriculture commodity crops economically. The project researched establishment methods and costs for growing switchgrass on marginal agricultural lands to determine the economic and quantitative feasibility of switchgrass production for biomass energy purposes. The project was successful in identifying the best management and establishment practices for switchgrass in the Driftless Area, but also demonstrated that simple economic payback versus commodity crops could not be achieved at the time of the research. The project also analyzed the availability of woody biomass and production potential for growing woody biomass for large scale biomass energy production in the Driftless Area. Analysis determined that significant resources exist, but costs to harvest and deliver to the site were roughly 60% than that of natural gas at the time of the study. The project contributed significantly to identifying both production potential of biomass energy crops and existing feedstock availability in the Driftless Area. The project also analyzed the economic feasibility of dedicated energy crops in the Driftless Area. High commodity crop prices and

  8. Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Angie [Northeast Iowa Resource Conservation & Development, Inc., Postville, IA (United States); Bertjens, Steve [Natural Resources Conservation Service, Madison, WI (United States); Lieurance, Mike [Northeast Iowa Resource Conservation & Development, Inc., Postville, IA (United States); Berguson, Bill [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Natural Resources Research Inst.; Buchman, Dan [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Natural Resources Research Inst.

    2012-12-31

    The Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project evaluated the potential for biomass energy production and utilization throughout the Driftless Region of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin. The research and demonstration aspect of the project specifically focused on biomass energy feedstock availability and production potential in the region, as well as utilization potential of biomass feedstocks for heat, electrical energy production, or combined heat and power operations. The Driftless Region was evaluated because the topography of the area offers more acres of marginal soils on steep slopes, wooded areas, and riparian corridors than the surrounding “Corn Belt”. These regional land characteristics were identified as potentially providing opportunity for biomass feedstock production that could compete with traditional agriculture commodity crops economically. The project researched establishment methods and costs for growing switchgrass on marginal agricultural lands to determine the economic and quantitative feasibility of switchgrass production for biomass energy purposes. The project was successful in identifying the best management and establishment practices for switchgrass in the Driftless Area, but also demonstrated that simple economic payback versus commodity crops could not be achieved at the time of the research. The project also analyzed the availability of woody biomass and production potential for growing woody biomass for large scale biomass energy production in the Driftless Area. Analysis determined that significant resources exist, but costs to harvest and deliver to the site were roughly 60% greater than that of natural gas at the time of the study. The project contributed significantly to identifying both production potential of biomass energy crops and existing feedstock availability in the Driftless Area. The project also analyzed the economic feasibility of dedicated energy crops in the Driftless Area. High commodity crop prices

  9. Fiscalini Farms Biomass Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Stringfellow; Mary Kay Camarillo; Jeremy Hanlon; Michael Jue; Chelsea Spier

    2011-09-30

    In this final report describes and documents research that was conducted by the Ecological Engineering Research Program (EERP) at the University of the Pacific (Stockton, CA) under subcontract to Fiscalini Farms LP for work under the Assistance Agreement DE-EE0001895 'Measurement and Evaluation of a Dairy Anaerobic Digestion/Power Generation System' from the United States Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory. Fiscalini Farms is operating a 710 kW biomass-energy power plant that uses bio-methane, generated from plant biomass, cheese whey, and cattle manure via mesophilic anaerobic digestion, to produce electricity using an internal combustion engine. The primary objectives of the project were to document baseline conditions for the anaerobic digester and the combined heat and power (CHP) system used for the dairy-based biomass-energy production. The baseline condition of the plant was evaluated in the context of regulatory and economic constraints. In this final report, the operation of the plant between start-up in 2009 and operation in 2010 are documented and an interpretation of the technical data is provided. An economic analysis of the biomass energy system was previously completed (Appendix A) and the results from that study are discussed briefly in this report. Results from the start-up and first year of operation indicate that mesophilic anaerobic digestion of agricultural biomass, combined with an internal combustion engine, is a reliable source of alternative electrical production. A major advantage of biomass energy facilities located on dairy farms appears to be their inherent stability and ability to produce a consistent, 24 hour supply of electricity. However, technical analysis indicated that the Fiscalini Farms system was operating below capacity and that economic sustainability would be improved by increasing loading of feedstocks to the digester. Additional operational modifications, such as increased utilization of

  10. Gasification reactivity and ash sintering behaviour of biomass feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moilanen, A.; Nasrullah, M.

    2011-12-15

    Char gasification reactivity and ash sintering properties of forestry biomass feedstocks selected for large-scale gasification process was characterised. The study was divided into two parts: (1) Internal variation of the reactivity and the ash sintering of feedstocks. (2) Measurement of kinetic parameters of char gasification reactions to be used in the modelling of a gasifier. The tests were carried out in gases relevant to pressurized oxygen gasification, i.e. steam and carbon dioxide, as well as their mixtures with the product gases H{sub 2} and CO. The work was based on experimental measurements using pressurized thermobalance. In the tests, the temperatures were below 1000 deg C, and the pressure range was between 1 and 20 bar. In the first part, it was tested the effect of growing location, storage, plant parts and debarking method. The following biomass types were tested: spruce bark, pine bark, aspen bark, birch bark, forestry residue, bark feedstock mixture, stump chips and hemp. Thick pine bark had the lowest reactivity (instantaneous reaction rate 14%/min) and hemp the highest (250%/min); all other biomasses laid between these values. There was practically no difference in the reactivities among the spruce barks collected from the different locations. For pine bark, the differences were greater, but they were probably due to the thickness of the bark rather than to the growth location. For the spruce barks, the instantaneous reaction rate measured at 90% fuel conversion was 100%/min, for pine barks it varied between 14 and 75%/min. During storage, quite large local differences in reactivity seem to develop. Stump had significantly lower reactivity compared with the others. No clear difference in the reactivity was observed between barks obtained with the wet and dry debarking, but, the sintering of the ash was more enhanced for the bark from dry debarking. Char gasification rate could not be modelled in the gas mixture of H{sub 2}O + CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2

  11. Biomass supply chain management in North Carolina (part 2: biomass feedstock logistical optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Caffrey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomass logistics operations account for a major portion of the feedstock cost of running a biorefinery, and make up a significant portion of total system operational costs. Biomass is a bulky perishable commodity that is required in large quantities year round for optimal biorefinery operations. As a proof of concept for a decision making tool for biomass production and delivery, a heuristic was developed to determine biorefinery location, considering city size, agricultural density, and regional demographics. Switchgrass and sorghum (with winter canola were selected to examine as viable biomass feedstocks based on positive economic results determined using a predictive model for cropland conversion potential. Biomass harvest systems were evaluated to examine interrelationships of biomass logistical networks and the least cost production system, with results demonstrating a need to shift to maximize supply-driven production harvest operations and limit storage requirements. For this supply-driven production harvest operations approach a harvest window from September until March was selected for producing big square bales of switchgrass for storage until use, forage chopped sorghum from September to December, and forage chopped switchgrass from December to March. A case study of the three major regions of North Carolina (Mountains, Piedmont, and Coastal Plain was used to assess logistical optimization of the proposed supply-driven production harvest system. Potential biomass production fields were determined within a hundred mile radius of the proposed biorefinery location, with individual fields designated for crop and harvest system by lowest transportation cost. From these selected fields, crops and harvest system regional storage locations were determined using an alternate location-allocation heuristic with set storage capacity per site. Model results showed that the supply-driven production harvest system greatly reduced system complexity

  12. Performance Analysis of an Integrated Fixed Bed Gasifier Model for Different Biomass Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmina Begum

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy recovery from biomass by gasification technology has attracted significant interest because it satisfies a key requirement of environmental sustainability by producing near zero emissions. Though it is not a new technology, studies on its integrated process simulation and analysis are limited, in particular for municipal solid waste (MSW gasification. This paper develops an integrated fixed bed gasifier model of biomass gasification using the Advanced System for Process ENngineering (Aspen Plus software for its performance analysis. A computational model was developed on the basis of Gibbs free energy minimization. The model is validated with experimental data of MSW and food waste gasification available in the literature. A reasonable agreement between measured and predicted syngas composition was found. Using the validated model, the effects of operating conditions, namely air-fuel ratio and gasifier temperature, on syngas production are studied. Performance analyses have been done for four different feedstocks, namely wood, coffee bean husks, green wastes and MSWs. The ultimate and proximate analysis data for each feedstock was used for model development. It was found that operating parameters have a significant influence on syngas composition. An air-fuel ratio of 0.3 and gasifier temperature of 700 °C provides optimum performance for a fixed bed gasifier for MSWs, wood wastes, green wastes and coffee bean husks. The developed model can be useful for gasification of other biomasses (e.g., food wastes, rice husks, poultry wastes and sugarcane bagasse to predict the syngas composition. Therefore, the study provides an integrated gasification model which can be used for different biomass feedstocks.

  13. Agricultural Residues and Biomass Energy Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    There are many opportunities to leverage agricultural resources on existing lands without interfering with production of food, feed, fiber, or forest products. In the recently developed advanced biomass feedstock commercialization vision, estimates of potentially available biomass supply from agriculture are built upon the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) Long-Term Forecast, ensuring that existing product demands are met before biomass crops are planted. Dedicated biomass energy crops and agricultural crop residues are abundant, diverse, and widely distributed across the United States. These potential biomass supplies can play an important role in a national biofuels commercialization strategy.

  14. The relative cost of biomass energy transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searcy, Erin; Flynn, Peter; Ghafoori, Emad; Kumar, Amit

    2007-04-01

    Logistics cost, the cost of moving feedstock or products, is a key component of the overall cost of recovering energy from biomass. In this study, we calculate for small- and large-project sizes, the relative cost of transportation by truck, rail, ship, and pipeline for three biomass feedstocks, by truck and pipeline for ethanol, and by transmission line for electrical power. Distance fixed costs (loading and unloading) and distance variable costs (transport, including power losses during transmission), are calculated for each biomass type and mode of transportation. Costs are normalized to a common basis of a giga Joules of biomass. The relative cost of moving products vs feedstock is an approximate measure of the incentive for location of biomass processing at the source of biomass, rather than at the point of ultimate consumption of produced energy. In general, the cost of transporting biomass is more than the cost of transporting its energy products. The gap in cost for transporting biomass vs power is significantly higher than the incremental cost of building and operating a power plant remote from a transmission grid. The cost of power transmission and ethanol transport by pipeline is highly dependent on scale of project. Transport of ethanol by truck has a lower cost than by pipeline up to capacities of 1800 t/d. The high cost of transshipment to a ship precludes shipping from being an economical mode of transport for distances less than 800 km (woodchips) and 1500 km (baled agricultural residues).

  15. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Lynn L [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Saulsbury, Bo [ORNL

    2006-09-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of the Biomass Program and the Office of Planning, Budget and Analysis in the Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use. This is the first edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book and is currently only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and BioOil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is about the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include measures of conversions, biomass characteristics and assumptions for selected tables and figures. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  16. Biomass Feedstock Availability in the United States: 1999 State Level Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Marie E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perlack, Robert L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Turhollow, Anthony [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); de la Torre Ugarte, Daniel [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Becker, Denny A. [Science Applications International Corporation, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Graham, Robin L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Slinsky, Stephen E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Ray, Daryll E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Interest in using biomass feedstocks to produce power, liquid fuels, and chemicals in the U.S. is increasing. Central to determining the potential for these industries to develop is an understanding of the location, quantities, and prices of biomass resources. This paper describes the methodology used to estimate biomass quantities and prices for each state in the continental United States.

  17. Energy from Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carioca, J. O. B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses how biomass in the form of fuelwood, crop residues, and animal dung can be converted into fuels such as biogas and ethanol to replace or supplement fossil fuels. Argues for future decentralized, integrated biomass energy development. (TW)

  18. Wallowa County Integrated Biomass Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoffersen, Nils [Wallowa Resources Community Solutions Inc., Wallowa, OR (United States)

    2014-05-02

    The Integrated Biomass Energy Center (IBEC) is an approximately 0.1 MW CHP integrated biorefinery in Northeastern Oregon which will demonstrate and validate small-scale combined heat and power from lignin intermediates/residues. IBEC will be co-located with feedstock suppliers and thermal and power customers for distributed generation. The project was developed by Wallowa Resources Community Solutions Inc.

  19. Environmental and energy system analysis of bio-methane production pathways : A comparison between feedstocks and process optimizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierie, F.; van Someren, C. E. J.; Benders, R. M. J.; Bekkering, J.; van Gemert, W. J. Th; Moll, H. C.

    2015-01-01

    The energy efficiency and sustainability of an anaerobic green gas production pathway was evaluated, taking into account five biomass feedstocks, optimization of the green gas production pathway, replacement of current waste management pathways by mitigation, and transport of the feedstocks. Sustain

  20. Fiscalini Farms Biomass Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Stringfellow; Mary Kay Camarillo; Jeremy Hanlon; Michael Jue; Chelsea Spier

    2011-09-30

    In this final report describes and documents research that was conducted by the Ecological Engineering Research Program (EERP) at the University of the Pacific (Stockton, CA) under subcontract to Fiscalini Farms LP for work under the Assistance Agreement DE-EE0001895 'Measurement and Evaluation of a Dairy Anaerobic Digestion/Power Generation System' from the United States Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory. Fiscalini Farms is operating a 710 kW biomass-energy power plant that uses bio-methane, generated from plant biomass, cheese whey, and cattle manure via mesophilic anaerobic digestion, to produce electricity using an internal combustion engine. The primary objectives of the project were to document baseline conditions for the anaerobic digester and the combined heat and power (CHP) system used for the dairy-based biomass-energy production. The baseline condition of the plant was evaluated in the context of regulatory and economic constraints. In this final report, the operation of the plant between start-up in 2009 and operation in 2010 are documented and an interpretation of the technical data is provided. An economic analysis of the biomass energy system was previously completed (Appendix A) and the results from that study are discussed briefly in this report. Results from the start-up and first year of operation indicate that mesophilic anaerobic digestion of agricultural biomass, combined with an internal combustion engine, is a reliable source of alternative electrical production. A major advantage of biomass energy facilities located on dairy farms appears to be their inherent stability and ability to produce a consistent, 24 hour supply of electricity. However, technical analysis indicated that the Fiscalini Farms system was operating below capacity and that economic sustainability would be improved by increasing loading of feedstocks to the digester. Additional operational modifications, such as increased utilization of

  1. Self-deconstructing algae biomass as feedstock for transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan Wesley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Biomass Science and Conversion Technologies

    2014-09-01

    The potential for producing biofuels from algae has generated much excitement based on projections of large oil yields with relatively little land use. However, numerous technical challenges remain for achieving market parity with conventional non-renewable liquid fuel sources. Among these challenges, the energy intensive requirements of traditional cell rupture, lipid extraction, and residuals fractioning of microalgae biomass have posed significant challenges to the nascent field of algal biotechnology. Our novel approach to address these problems was to employ low cost solution-state methods and biochemical engineering to eliminate the need for extensive hardware and energy intensive methods for cell rupture, carbohydrate and protein solubilization and hydrolysis, and fuel product recovery using consolidated bioprocessing strategies. The outcome of the biochemical deconstruction and conversion process consists of an emulsion of algal lipids and mixed alcohol products from carbohydrate and protein fermentation for co-extraction or in situ transesterification.

  2. The potential impacts of biomass feedstock production on water resource availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, K C; Hunt, P G; Cantrell, K B; Ro, K S

    2010-03-01

    Biofuels are a major topic of global interest and technology development. Whereas bioenergy crop production is highly dependent on water, bioenergy development requires effective allocation and management of water. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the bioenergy production relative to the impacts on water resource related factors: (1) climate and weather impact on water supplies for biomass production; (2) water use for major bioenergy crop production; and (3) potential alternatives to improve water supplies for bioenergy. Shifts to alternative bioenergy crops with greater water demand may produce unintended consequences for both water resources and energy feedstocks. Sugarcane and corn require 458 and 2036 m(3) water/m(3) ethanol produced, respectively. The water requirements for corn grain production to meet the US-DOE Billion-Ton Vision may increase approximately 6-fold from 8.6 to 50.1 km(3). Furthermore, climate change is impacting water resources throughout the world. In the western US, runoff from snowmelt is occurring earlier altering the timing of water availability. Weather extremes, both drought and flooding, have occurred more frequently over the last 30 years than the previous 100 years. All of these weather events impact bioenergy crop production. These events may be partially mitigated by alternative water management systems that offer potential for more effective water use and conservation. A few potential alternatives include controlled drainage and new next-generation livestock waste treatment systems. Controlled drainage can increase water available to plants and simultaneously improve water quality. New livestock waste treatments systems offer the potential to utilize treated wastewater to produce bioenergy crops. New technologies for cellulosic biomass conversion via thermochemical conversion offer the potential for using more diverse feedstocks with dramatically reduced water requirements. The development of bioenergy

  3. Apparatus and method for converting biomass to feedstock for biofuel and biochemical manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, John; Qiao, Ming; Woods, Elizabeth M.; Cortright, Randy D.; Myren, Paul

    2015-12-15

    The present invention includes improved systems and methods for producing biomass-derived feedstocks for biofuel and biochemical manufacturing processes. The systems and methods use components that are capable of transferring relatively high concentrations of solid biomass utilizing pressure variations between vessels, and allows for the recovery and recycling of heterogeneous catalyst materials.

  4. Exometabolomics Approaches in Studying the Application of Lignocellulosic Biomass as Fermentation Feedstock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zha, Y.; Punt, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the future feedstock for the production of biofuel and bio-based chemicals. The pretreatment-hydrolysis product of biomass, so-called hydrolysate, contains not only fermentable sugars, but also compounds that inhibit its fermentability by microbes. To reduce the toxicity o

  5. Cost Methodology for Biomass Feedstocks: Herbaceous Crops and Agricultural Residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    This report describes a set of procedures and assumptions used to estimate production and logistics costs of bioenergy feedstocks from herbaceous crops and agricultural residues. The engineering-economic analysis discussed here is based on methodologies developed by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) and the American Agricultural Economics Association (AAEA). An engineering-economic analysis approach was chosen due to lack of historical cost data for bioenergy feedstocks. Instead, costs are calculated using assumptions for equipment performance, input prices, and yield data derived from equipment manufacturers, research literature, and/or standards. Cost estimates account for fixed and variable costs. Several examples of this costing methodology used to estimate feedstock logistics costs are included at the end of this report.

  6. Surface properties correlate to the digestibility of hydrothermally pretreated lignocellulosic Poaceae biomass feedstocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tristan Djajadi, Demi; Hansen, Aleksander R.; Jensen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    in response to hydrothermal pretreatment at different severities are still not sufficiently understood. Results: Potentially important lignocellulosic feedstocks for biorefining, corn stover (Zea mays subsp. mays L.), stalks of Miscanthus × giganteus, and wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) were systematically...... hydrothermally pretreated; each at three different severities of 3.65, 3.83, and 3.97, respectively, and the enzymatic digestibility was assessed.Pretreated samples of Miscanthus × giganteus stalks were the least digestible among the biomass feedstocks producing~24 to 66.6% lower glucose yields than the other...... feedstocks depending on pretreatment severity and enzymedosage. Bulk biomass composition analyses, 2D nuclear magnetic resonance, and comprehensive microarray polymer profiling were not able to explain the observed differences in recalcitrance among the pretreated feedstocks. However, methods characterizing...

  7. Energy from Biomass for Conversion of Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolins, J.; Gravitis, J.

    2009-01-01

    Along with estimates of minimum energy required by steam explosion pre-treatment of biomass some general problems concerning biomass conversion into chemicals, materials, and fuels are discussed. The energy necessary for processing biomass by steam explosion auto-hydrolysis is compared with the heat content of wood and calculated in terms of the amount of saturated steam consumed per unit mass of the dry content of wood biomass. The fraction of processed biomass available for conversion after steam explosion pre-treatment is presented as function of the amount of steam consumed per unit mass of the dry content of wood. The estimates based on a simple model of energy flows show the energy required by steam explosion pre-treatment of biomass being within 10% of the heat content of biomass - a realistic amount demonstrating that energy for the process can be supplied from a reasonable proportion of biomass used as the source of energy for steam explosion pre-treatment.

  8. Genetic Modification of Short Rotation Poplar Biomass Feedstock for Efficient Conversion to Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinus, R.J.

    2000-08-30

    The Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing poplars (Populus species and hybrids) as sources of renewable energy, i.e., ethanol. Notable increases in adaptability, volume productivity, and pest/stress resistance have been achieved via classical selection and breeding and intensified cultural practices. Significant advances have also been made in the efficiencies of harvesting and handling systems. Given these and anticipated accomplishments, program leaders are considering shifting some attention to genetically modifying feedstock physical and chemical properties, so as to improve the efficiency with which feedstocks can be converted to ethanol. This report provides an in-depth review and synthesis of opportunities for and feasibilities of genetically modifying feedstock qualities via classical selection and breeding, marker-aided selection and breeding, and genetic transformation. Information was collected by analysis of the literature, with emphasis on that published since 1995, and interviews with prominent scientists, breeders, and growers. Poplar research is well advanced, and literature is abundant. The report therefore primarily reflects advances in poplars, but data from other species, particularly other shortrotation hardwoods, are incorporated to fill gaps. An executive summary and recommendations for research, development, and technology transfer are provided immediately after the table of contents. The first major section of the report describes processes most likely to be used for conversion of poplar biomass to ethanol, the various physical and chemical properties of poplar feedstocks, and how such properties are expected to affect process efficiency. The need is stressed for improved understanding of the impact of change on both overall process and individual process step efficiencies. The second part documents advances in trait measurement instrumentation and methodology

  9. Thermal conversion of biomass to valuable fuels, chemical feedstocks and chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, William A.; Howard, Jack B.; Modestino, Anthony J.; Vogel, Fredreric; Steffin, Carsten R.

    2009-02-24

    A continuous process for the conversion of biomass to form a chemical feedstock is described. The biomass and an exogenous metal oxide, preferably calcium oxide, or metal oxide precursor are continuously fed into a reaction chamber that is operated at a temperature of at least 1400.degree. C. to form reaction products including metal carbide. The metal oxide or metal oxide precursor is capable of forming a hydrolizable metal carbide. The reaction products are quenched to a temperature of 800.degree. C. or less. The resulting metal carbide is separated from the reaction products or, alternatively, when quenched with water, hydolyzed to provide a recoverable hydrocarbon gas feedstock.

  10. Spatial Analysis of Biomass Resources within a Socio-Ecologically Heterogeneous Region: Identifying Opportunities for a Mixed Feedstock Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirby Calvert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Local bioenergy will play a crucial role in national and regional sustainable energy strategies. Effective siting and feedstock procurement strategies are critical to the development and implementation of bioenergy systems. This paper aims to improve spatial decision-support in this domain by shifting focus from homogenous (forestry or agricultural regions toward heterogeneous regions—i.e., areas with a presence of both forestry and agricultural activities; in this case, eastern Ontario, Canada. Multiple land-cover and resource map series are integrated in order to produce a spatially distributed GIS-based model of resource availability. These data are soft-linked with spreadsheet-based linear models in order to estimate and compare the quantity and supply-cost of the full range of non-food bioenergy feedstock available to a prospective developer, and to assess the merits of a mixed feedstock stream relative to a homogenous feedstock stream. The method is applied to estimate bioenergy production potentials and biomass supply-cost curves for a number of cities in the study region. Comparisons of biomass catchment areas; supply-cost curves; resource density maps; and resource flow charts demonstrate considerable strategic and operational advantages to locating a facility within the region’s “transition zone” between forestry and agricultural activities. Existing and emerging bioenergy technologies that are feedstock agnostic and therefore capable of accepting a mixed-feedstock stream are reviewed with emphasis on “intermediates” such as wood pellets; biogas; and bio-oils, as well as bio-industrial clusters.

  11. Processes for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to chemicals and liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Andrew; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy; Gray, Matthew

    2016-07-05

    The present invention provides processes, methods, and systems for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to liquid fuels and chemicals. The method generally includes the reaction of a hydrolysate from a biomass deconstruction process with hydrogen and a catalyst to produce a reaction product comprising one of more oxygenated compounds. The process also includes reacting the reaction product with a condensation catalyst to produce C.sub.4+ compounds useful as fuels and chemicals.

  12. Synthesis of ketones from biomass-derived feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qinglei; Hou, Minqiang; Liu, Huizhen; Song, Jinliang; Han, Buxing

    2017-01-01

    Cyclohexanone and its derivatives are very important chemicals, which are currently produced mainly by oxidation of cyclohexane or alkylcyclohexane, hydrogenation of phenols, and alkylation of cyclohexanone. Here we report that bromide salt-modified Pd/C in H2O/CH2Cl2 can efficiently catalyse the transformation of aromatic ethers, which can be derived from biomass, to cyclohexanone and its derivatives via hydrogenation and hydrolysis processes. The yield of cyclohexanone from anisole can reach 96%, and the yields of cyclohexanone derivatives produced from the aromatic ethers, which can be extracted from plants or derived from lignin, are also satisfactory. Detailed study shows that the Pd, bromide salt and H2O/CH2Cl2 work cooperatively to promote the desired reaction and inhibit the side reaction. Thus high yields of desired products can be obtained. This work opens the way for production of ketones from aromatic ethers that can be derived from biomass.

  13. Unconventional biomasses as feedstocks for production of biofuels and succinic acid in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi

    Biorefinery has the potential of displacing fossil fuels and oil-refinery based products. Within the biorefinery a palette of marketable commodities can be produced from biomass, including food, feed, biochemicals and biofuels. Which bioproducts are produced is largely dependent on the chemical....... The chemical composition of biomasses was determined in order to demonstrate their biorefinery potential. Bioethanol and biogas along with succinic acid production were the explored bioconversion routes, while potential production of other compounds was also investigated. Differences and changes in biomass...... biogas upgrading technologies deliver. Results obtained in this study constitute the first report for utilization of macroalgae, hemp and Jerusalem artichoke tuber biomass for fermentative succinic acid production. It was demonstrated that all biomasses are attractive biomass feedstocks for succinic acid...

  14. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasability of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D.

    2005-12-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) are both strongly committed to expanding the role of biomass as an energy source. In particular, they support biomass fuels and products as a way to reduce the need for oil and gas imports; to support the growth of agriculture, forestry, and rural economies; and to foster major new domestic industries--biorefineries--making a variety of fuels, chemicals, and other products. As part of this effort, the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee, a panel established by the Congress to guide the future direction of federally funded biomass R&D, envisioned a 30 percent replacement of the current U.S. petroleum consumption with biofuels by 2030. Biomass--all plant and plant-derived materials including animal manure, not just starch, sugar, oil crops already used for food and energy--has great potential to provide renewable energy for America's future. Biomass recently surpassed hydropower as the largest domestic source of renewable energy and currently provides over 3 percent of the total energy consumption in the United States. In addition to the many benefits common to renewable energy, biomass is particularly attractive because it is the only current renewable source of liquid transportation fuel. This, of course, makes it invaluable in reducing oil imports--one of our most pressing energy needs. A key question, however, is how large a role could biomass play in responding to the nation's energy demands. Assuming that economic and financial policies and advances in conversion technologies make biomass fuels and products more economically viable, could the biorefinery industry be large enough to have a significant impact on energy supply and oil imports? Any and all contributions are certainly needed, but would the biomass potential be sufficiently large to justify the necessary capital replacements in the fuels and automobile sectors? The purpose of this report is to determine

  15. Value of Distributed Preprocessing of Biomass Feedstocks to a Bioenergy Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher T Wright

    2006-07-01

    Biomass preprocessing is one of the primary operations in the feedstock assembly system and the front-end of a biorefinery. Its purpose is to chop, grind, or otherwise format the biomass into a suitable feedstock for conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Many variables such as equipment cost and efficiency, and feedstock moisture content, particle size, bulk density, compressibility, and flowability affect the location and implementation of this unit operation. Previous conceptual designs show this operation to be located at the front-end of the biorefinery. However, data are presented that show distributed preprocessing at the field-side or in a fixed preprocessing facility can provide significant cost benefits by producing a higher value feedstock with improved handling, transporting, and merchandising potential. In addition, data supporting the preferential deconstruction of feedstock materials due to their bio-composite structure identifies the potential for significant improvements in equipment efficiencies and compositional quality upgrades. Theses data are collected from full-scale low and high capacity hammermill grinders with various screen sizes. Multiple feedstock varieties with a range of moisture values were used in the preprocessing tests. The comparative values of the different grinding configurations, feedstock varieties, and moisture levels are assessed through post-grinding analysis of the different particle fractions separated with a medium-scale forage particle separator and a Rototap separator. The results show that distributed preprocessing produces a material that has bulk flowable properties and fractionation benefits that can improve the ease of transporting, handling and conveying the material to the biorefinery and improve the biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes.

  16. Low temperature microwave-assisted vs conventional pyrolysis of various biomass feedstocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Shuttleworth; Vitaliy Budarin; Mark Gronnow; James H. Clark; Rafael Luque

    2012-01-01

    A comparison between conventional pyrolysis and a novel developed low-temperature microwave-assisted pyrolysis methodology has been performed for the valorisation of a range of biomass feedstocks including waste residues.Microwave pyrolysis was found to efficiently deliver comparable evolution of bio-gases in the system as compared with conventional pyrolysis at significantly reduced temperatures (120-180 ℃ vs 250-400 ℃).The gas obtained from microwave-assistet pyrolysis was found to contain CO2,CH4 and CO as major components as well as other related chemicals (e.g.acids,aldehydes,alkanes) which were obtained in different proportions depending on the selected feedstock.

  17. Biomass supply chain management in North Carolina (part 1: predictive model for cropland conversion to biomass feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Caffrey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in biomass cultivation requires detailed analysis of spatial production potential of possible biorefinery locations, with emphasis on feedstock production cost minimization. Integrated assessment of publicly available spatial data on current crop production, soil type, and yield potential, coupled with techno-economic production cost estimates, can support a functional method for rapid analysis of potential biorefinery sites. A novel predictive model was developed to determine cropland conversion using a probabilistic profit based equation for multiple biomass crops: giant reed, miscanthus, switchgrass, and sorghum (with either canola or barley as a winter crop. The three primary regions of North Carolina (Mountains, Piedmont, and Coastal Plain were used as a case study and with a single parameter uncertainty analysis was completed. According to the model, the county chosen to represent the Coastal Plain (Duplin County had the largest potential acreage that would be converted (15,071 ha, 7.1% total land, 9.3% of cropland primarily to sorghum with canola as a winter crop. Large portions were also predicted to convert to giant reed and switchgrass, depending on the price and yield parameters used. The Piedmont (Granville County, 7697 ha, 5.5% total land, 6.9% cropland and Mountain (Henderson County, 2117 ha, 2.2% total land, 2.3% cropland regions were predicted to convert primarily to switchgrass acreage for biomass production, with much less available biomass overall compared to the Coastal Plain. This model provided meaningful insight into regional cropping systems and feedstock availability, allowing for improved business planning in designated regions. Determination of cropland conversion is imperative to develop realistic biomass logistical operations, which in conjunction can assist with rapid determination of profitable biomass availability. After this rapid analysis method is conducted in-depth on-ground biorefinery

  18. BIOMASS ENERGY AND ENERGY FORESTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrettin Tilki

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomass fuels account for nearly 14% of the world’s energy. Energy forestry has been investigated since the mid-1960s to produce fiber for the paper and pulp industry. In the 1970s, following the oil crises, the emphasis switched to producing woody biomass for energy using fast-growing trees. Fastgrowing broadleaved trees, such as poplars and willows are grown at close spacing and under intensive management systems more akin to agriculture practice than forestry. In Turkey, rehabilitation studies in especially oak coppice stands are thought to be a part of the energy forestry, but the areas coppice stands grow on and species common in those areas are not suitable for modern energy forestry used in developed countries.

  19. A Saponification Method for Chlorophyll Removal from Microalgae Biomass as Oil Feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Xu, Jin; Wu, Hualian; Wang, Guanghua; Dai, Shikun; Fan, Jiewei; He, Hui; Xiang, Wenzhou

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae oil is an optimal feedstock for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and biodiesel production, but its high levels of chlorophyll limit its large-scale application. To date, few effective approaches have been developed to remove chlorophyll from microalgae oil. The main purpose of this study was to present a preprocessing method of algae oil feedstock (Scenedesmus) to remove chlorophyll by saponification. The results showed that 96% of chlorophyll in biomass was removed. High quality orange transparent oil could be extracted from the chlorophyll reduced biomass. Specifically, the proportion of neutral lipids and saturation levels of fatty acids increased, and the pigments composition became carotenoids-based. The critical parameters of chlorophyll reduced biodiesel conformed to the standards of the USA, China and EU. Sodium copper chlorophyllin could be prepared from the bleaching effluent. The results presented herein offer a useful pathway to improve the quality of microalgae oil and reduce the cost of microalgae biodiesel. PMID:27618070

  20. A Saponification Method for Chlorophyll Removal from Microalgae Biomass as Oil Feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae oil is an optimal feedstock for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and biodiesel production, but its high levels of chlorophyll limit its large-scale application. To date, few effective approaches have been developed to remove chlorophyll from microalgae oil. The main purpose of this study was to present a preprocessing method of algae oil feedstock (Scenedesmus to remove chlorophyll by saponification. The results showed that 96% of chlorophyll in biomass was removed. High quality orange transparent oil could be extracted from the chlorophyll reduced biomass. Specifically, the proportion of neutral lipids and saturation levels of fatty acids increased, and the pigments composition became carotenoids-based. The critical parameters of chlorophyll reduced biodiesel conformed to the standards of the USA, China and EU. Sodium copper chlorophyllin could be prepared from the bleaching effluent. The results presented herein offer a useful pathway to improve the quality of microalgae oil and reduce the cost of microalgae biodiesel.

  1. A Saponification Method for Chlorophyll Removal from Microalgae Biomass as Oil Feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Xu, Jin; Wu, Hualian; Wang, Guanghua; Dai, Shikun; Fan, Jiewei; He, Hui; Xiang, Wenzhou

    2016-09-07

    Microalgae oil is an optimal feedstock for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and biodiesel production, but its high levels of chlorophyll limit its large-scale application. To date, few effective approaches have been developed to remove chlorophyll from microalgae oil. The main purpose of this study was to present a preprocessing method of algae oil feedstock (Scenedesmus) to remove chlorophyll by saponification. The results showed that 96% of chlorophyll in biomass was removed. High quality orange transparent oil could be extracted from the chlorophyll reduced biomass. Specifically, the proportion of neutral lipids and saturation levels of fatty acids increased, and the pigments composition became carotenoids-based. The critical parameters of chlorophyll reduced biodiesel conformed to the standards of the USA, China and EU. Sodium copper chlorophyllin could be prepared from the bleaching effluent. The results presented herein offer a useful pathway to improve the quality of microalgae oil and reduce the cost of microalgae biodiesel.

  2. Genetic Improvement of Switchgrass and Other Herbaceous Plants for Use as Biomass Fuel Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, K.P.

    2001-01-11

    It should be highly feasible to genetically modify the feedstock quality of switchgrass and other herbaceous plants using both conventional and molecular breeding techniques. Effectiveness of breeding to modify herbages of switchgrass and other perennial and annual herbaceous species has already been demonstrated. The use of molecular markers and transformation technology will greatly enhance the capability of breeders to modify the plant structure and cell walls of herbaceous plants. It will be necessary to monitor gene flow to remnant wild populations of plants and have strategies available to curtail gene flow if it becomes a potential problem. It also will be necessary to monitor plant survival and long-term productivity as affected by genetic changes that improve forage quality. Information on the conversion processes that will be used and the biomass characteristics that affect conversion efficiency and rate is absolutely essential as well as information on the relative economic value of specific traits. Because most forage or biomass quality characteristics are highly affected by plant maturity, it is suggested that plant material of specific maturity stages be used in research to determining desirable feedstock quality characteristics. Plant material could be collected at various stages of development from an array of environments and storage conditions that could be used in conversion research. The same plant material could be used to develop NIRS calibrations that could be used by breeders in their selection programs and also to develop criteria for a feedstock quality assessment program. Breeding for improved feedstock quality will likely affect the rate of improvement of biomass production per acre. If the same level of resources are used, multi-trait breeding simply reduces the selection pressure and hence the breeding progress that can be made for a single trait unless all the traits are highly correlated. Since desirable feedstock traits are likely

  3. Design of a biomass-to-biorefinery logistics system through bio-inspired metaheuristic optimization considering multiple types of feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueba, Isidoro

    Bioenergy has become an important alternative source of energy to alleviate the reliance on petroleum energy. Bioenergy offers significant potential to mitigate climate change by reducing life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions relative to fossil fuels. The Energy Independence and Security Act mandate the use of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels including 16 billion gallons of cellulosic biofuels by the year 2022. It is clear that Biomass can make a substantial contribution to supplying future energy demand in a sustainable way. However, the supply of sustainable energy is one of the main challenges that mankind will face over the coming decades. For instance, many logistical challenges will be faced in order to provide an efficient and reliable supply of quality feedstock to biorefineries. 700 million tons of biomass will be required to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually to meet the projected use of biofuels by the year of 2022. This thesis is motivated by the urgent need of advancing knowledge and understanding of the highly complex biofuel supply chain. While corn ethanol production has increased fast enough to keep up with the energy mandates, production of biofuels from different types of feedstocks has also been incremented. A number of pilot and demonstration scale advanced biofuel facilities have been set up, but commercial scale facilities are yet to become operational. Scaling up this new biofuel sector poses significant economic and logistical challenges for regional planners and biofuel entrepreneurs in terms of feedstock supply assurance, supply chain development, biorefinery establishment, and setting up transport, storage and distribution infrastructure. The literature also shows that the larger cost in the production of biomass to ethanol originates from the logistics operation therefore it is essential that an optimal logistics system is designed in order to keep low the costs of producing ethanol and make possible the shift from

  4. From a single pellet press to a bench scale pellet mill - Pelletizing six different biomass feedstocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Shang, Lei; Sárossy, Zsuzsa;

    2016-01-01

    (SPP) can be extrapolated to larger scale pellet mills. The single pellet press was used to find the optimum moisture content and die operating temperature for pellet production. Then, these results were compared with those obtained from a bench-scale pellet mill. A moisture content of around 10 wt.......% was found to be optimal for the six biomass feedstocks. A friction increase was seen when the die temperature increased from room temperature to 60-90 degrees C for most biomass types, and then a friction decrease when the die temperature increased further. The results obtained in the bench-scale pellet...... mill support the proposed theory that good quality pellets and satisfactory pelletizing should occur in the region where the friction decreases with die temperature. Therefore, the friction vs. die temperature curve measured for each biomass in the SPP can be used as an indication of the right die...

  5. Energy supply chain optimization of hybrid feedstock processes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Josephine A; Floudas, Christodoulos A

    2014-01-01

    The economic, environmental, and social performances of energy systems depend on their geographical locations and the surrounding market infrastructure for feedstocks and energy products. Strategic decisions to locate energy conversion facilities must take all upstream and downstream operations into account, prompting the development of supply chain modeling and optimization methods. This article reviews the contributions of energy supply chain studies that include heat, power, and liquid fuels production. Studies are categorized based on specific features of the mathematical model, highlighting those that address energy supply chain models with and without considerations of multiperiod decisions. Studies that incorporate uncertainties are discussed, and opportunities for future research developments are outlined.

  6. Biomass plantations - energy farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, S.

    1981-02-01

    Mounting oil import bills in India are restricting her development programmes by forcing the cutting down of the import of other essential items. But the countries of the tropics have abundant sunlight and vast tracts of arable wastelands. Energy farming is proposed in the shape of energy plantations through forestry or energy cropping through agricultural media, to provide power fuels for transport and the industries and also to provide fuelwoods for the domestic sector. Short rotation cultivation is discussed and results are given of two main species that are being tried, ipil-ipil and Casuarina. Evaluations are made on the use of various crops such as sugar cane, cassava and kenaf as fuel crops together with hydrocarbon plants and aquatic biomass. (Refs. 20)

  7. The potential of freshwater macroalgae as a biofuels feedstock and the influence of nutrient availability on freshwater macroalgal biomass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jin-Ho

    Extensive efforts have been made to evaluate the potential of microalgae as a biofuel feedstock during the past 4-5 decades. However, filamentous freshwater macroalgae have numerous characteristics that favor their potential use as an alternative algal feedstock for biofuels production. Freshwater macroalgae exhibit high rates of areal productivity, and their tendency to form dense floating mats on the water surface imply significant reductions in harvesting and dewater costs compared to microalgae. In Chapter 1, I reviewed the published literature on the elemental composition and energy content of five genera of freshwater macroalgae. This review suggested that freshwater macroalgae compare favorably with traditional bio-based energy sources, including terrestrial residues, wood, and coal. In addition, I performed a semi-continuous culture experiment using the common Chlorophyte genus Oedogonium to investigate whether nutrient availability can influence its higher heating value (HHV), productivity, and proximate analysis. The experimental study suggested that the most nutrient-limited growth conditions resulted in a significant increase in the HHV of the Oedogonium biomass (14.4 MJ/kg to 16.1 MJ/kg). Although there was no significant difference in productivity between the treatments, the average dry weight productivity of Oedogonium (3.37 g/m2/day) was found to be much higher than is achievable with common terrestrial plant crops. Although filamentous freshwater macroalgae, therefore, have significant potential as a renewable source of bioenergy, the ultimate success of freshwater macroalgae as a biofuel feedstock will depend upon the ability to produce biomass at the commercial-scale in a cost-effective and sustainable manner. Aquatic ecology can play an important role to achieve the scale-up of algal crop production by informing the supply rates of nutrients to the cultivation systems, and by helping to create adaptive production systems that are resilient to

  8. Advanced Systems for Preprocessing and Characterizing Coal-Biomass Mixtures as Next-Generation Fuels and Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmis, Michael [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Luttrell, Gerald [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Ripepi, Nino [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Bratton, Robert [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Dohm, Erich [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The research activities presented in this report are intended to address the most critical technical challenges pertaining to coal-biomass briquette feedstocks. Several detailed investigations were conducted using a variety of coal and biomass feedstocks on the topics of (1) coal-biomass briquette production and characterization, (2) gasification of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, (3) combustion of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, and (4) conceptual engineering design and economic feasibility of briquette production. The briquette production studies indicate that strong and durable co-firing feedstocks can be produced by co-briquetting coal and biomass resources commonly available in the United States. It is demonstrated that binderless coal-biomass briquettes produced at optimized conditions exhibit very high strength and durability, which indicates that such briquettes would remain competent in the presence of forces encountered in handling, storage and transportation. The gasification studies conducted demonstrate that coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes are exceptional gasification feedstocks, particularly with regard to the synergistic effects realized during devolatilization of the blended materials. The mixture combustion studies indicate that coal-biomass mixtures are exceptional combustion feedstocks, while the briquette combustion study indicates that the use of blended briquettes reduces NOx, CO2, and CO emissions, and requires the least amount of changes in the operating conditions of an existing coal-fired power plant. Similar results were obtained for the physical durability of the pilot-scale briquettes compared to the bench-scale tests. Finally, the conceptual engineering and feasibility analysis study for a commercial-scale briquetting production facility provides preliminary flowsheet and cost simulations to evaluate the various feedstocks, equipment selection and operating parameters.

  9. Advanced Systems for Preprocessing and Characterizing Coal-Biomass Mixtures as Next-Generation Fuels and Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmis, Michael; Luttrell, Gerald; Ripepi, Nino; Bratton, Robert; Dohm, Erich

    2014-06-30

    The research activities presented in this report are intended to address the most critical technical challenges pertaining to coal-biomass briquette feedstocks. Several detailed investigations were conducted using a variety of coal and biomass feedstocks on the topics of (1) coal-biomass briquette production and characterization, (2) gasification of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, (3) combustion of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, and (4) conceptual engineering design and economic feasibility of briquette production. The briquette production studies indicate that strong and durable co-firing feedstocks can be produced by co-briquetting coal and biomass resources commonly available in the United States. It is demonstrated that binderless coal-biomass briquettes produced at optimized conditions exhibit very high strength and durability, which indicates that such briquettes would remain competent in the presence of forces encountered in handling, storage and transportation. The gasification studies conducted demonstrate that coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes are exceptional gasification feedstocks, particularly with regard to the synergistic effects realized during devolatilization of the blended materials. The mixture combustion studies indicate that coal-biomass mixtures are exceptional combustion feedstocks, while the briquette combustion study indicates that the use of blended briquettes reduces NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}, and CO emissions, and requires the least amount of changes in the operating conditions of an existing coal-fired power plant. Similar results were obtained for the physical durability of the pilot-scale briquettes compared to the bench-scale tests. Finally, the conceptual engineering and feasibility analysis study for a commercial-scale briquetting production facility provides preliminary flowsheet and cost simulations to evaluate the various feedstocks, equipment selection and operating parameters.

  10. Biomass Compositional Analysis for Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Bonnie R.

    In its broadest definition, biomass can be described as all material that was or is a part of a living organism. For renewable energy applications, however, the definition of biomass is usually limited to include only materials that are plant-derived such as agricultural residues (e.g., wheat straw, corn stover) by-products of industrial processes (e.g., sawdust, sugar cane bagasse, pulp residues, distillers grains), or dedicated energy crops (e.g., switchgrass, sorghum, Miscanthus, short-rotation woody crops). This chapter describes analytical methods developed to measure plant components with an emphasis on the measurement of components that are important for biomass conversion. The methods described here can be viewed as a portfolio of analytical methods, with consistent assumptions and compatible sample preparation steps, selected for simplicity, robust application, and the ability to obtain a summative mass closure on most samples that accurately identifies greater than 95% of the mass of a plant biomass sample. The portfolio of methods has been successfully applied to a wide variety of biomass feedstock as well as liquid and solid fractions of both thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification (1).

  11. Biomass compositional analysis for energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Bonnie R

    2009-01-01

    In its broadest definition, biomass can be described as all material that was or is a part of a living organism. For renewable energy applications, however, the definition of biomass is usually limited to include only materials that are plant-derived such as agricultural residues (e.g., wheat straw, corn stover) by-products of industrial processes (e.g., sawdust, sugar cane bagasse, pulp residues, distillers grains), or dedicated energy crops (e.g., switchgrass, sorghum, Miscanthus, short-rotation woody crops). This chapter describes analytical methods developed to measure plant components with an emphasis on the measurement of components that are important for biomass conversion. The methods described here can be viewed as a portfolio of analytical methods, with consistent assumptions and compatible sample preparation steps, selected for simplicity, robust application, and the ability to obtain a summative mass closure on most samples that accurately identifies greater than 95% of the mass of a plant biomass sample. The portfolio of methods has been successfully applied to a wide variety of biomass feedstock as well as liquid and solid fractions of both thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification (1).

  12. Test Plan for Evaluating Hammer and Fixed Cutter Grinders Using Multiple Varieties and Moistures of Biomass Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Not listed

    2007-07-01

    Biomass preprocessing is a critical operation in the preparation of feedstock for the front-end of a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery. Its purpose is to chop, grind, or otherwise format the biomass material into a suitable feedstock for optimum conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Without this operation, the natural size, bulk density, and flowability characteristics of harvested biomass would decrease the capacities and efficiencies of feedstock assembly unit operations and biorefinery conversion processes to the degree that programmatic cost targets could not be met. The preprocessing unit operation produces a bulk flowable material that 1) improves handling and conveying efficiencies throughout the feedstock assembly system and biorefinery 2) increases biomass surface areas for improved pretreatment efficiencies, 3) reduces particle sizes for improved feedstock uniformity and density, and 4) fractionates structural components for improved compositional quality. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is tasked with defining the overall efficiency/effectiveness of current commercial hammer and fixed cutter grinding systems and other connecting systems such as harvest and collection, storage, transportation, and handling for a wide variety of feedstock types used in bioethanol or syngas production. This test plan details tasks and activities for two separate full-scale grinding tests: Material Characterization Test and Machine Characterization Test. For the Material Characterization Test, a small amount (~5-7 tons each) of several feedstock varieties will be ground. This test will define the fractionation characteristics of the grinder that affect the bulk density, particle size distribution, and quality of the size reduced biomass resulting from different separation screen sizes. A specific screen size will be selected based on the characteristics of the ground material. The Machine Characterization Test will then use this selected screen to grind several 30

  13. Experimental investigation on an entrained flow type biomass gasification system using coconut coir dust as powdery biomass feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, P K; Behera, S

    2012-08-01

    Based on an entrained flow concept, a prototype atmospheric gasification system has been designed and developed in the laboratory for gasification of powdery biomass feedstock such as rice husks, coconut coir dust, saw dust etc. The reactor was developed by adopting L/D (height to diameter) ratio of 10, residence time of about 2s and a turn down ratio (TDR) of 1.5. The experimental investigation was carried out using coconut coir dust as biomass feedstock with a mean operating feed rate of 40 kg/h The effects of equivalence ratio in the range of 0.21-0.3, steam feed at a fixed flow rate of 12 kg/h, preheat on reactor temperature, product gas yield and tar content were investigated. The gasifier could able to attain high temperatures in the range of 976-1100 °C with gas lower heating value (LHV) and peak cold gas efficiency (CGE) of 7.86 MJ/Nm3 and 87.6% respectively.

  14. Effects of Biomass Feedstocks and Gasification Conditions on the Physiochemical Properties of Char

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond L. Huhnke

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Char is a low-value byproduct of biomass gasification and pyrolysis with many potential applications, such as soil amendment and the synthesis of activated carbon and carbon-based catalysts. Considering these high-value applications, char could provide economic benefits to a biorefinery utilizing gasification or pyrolysis technologies. However, the properties of char depend heavily on biomass feedstock, gasifier design and operating conditions. This paper reports the effects of biomass type (switchgrass, sorghum straw and red cedar and equivalence ratio (0.20, 0.25 and 0.28, i.e., the ratio of air supply relative to the air that is required for stoichiometric combustion of biomass, on the physiochemical properties of char derived from gasification. Results show that the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface areas of most of the char were 1–10 m2/g and increased as the equivalence ratio increased. Char moisture and fixed carbon contents decreased while ash content increased as equivalence ratio increased. The corresponding Fourier Transform Infrared spectra showed that the surface functional groups of char differed between biomass types but remained similar with change in equivalence ratio.

  15. Development of a system for characterizing biomass quality of lignocellulosic feedstocks for biochemical conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick Thomas

    The purpose of this research was twofold: (i) to develop a system for screening lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks for biochemical conversion to biofuels and (ii) to evaluate brown midrib corn stover as feedstock for ethanol production. In the first study (Chapter 2), we investigated the potential of corn stover from bm1-4 hybrids for increased ethanol production and reduced pretreatment intensity compared to corn stover from the isogenic normal hybrid. Corn stover from hybrid W64A X A619 and respective isogenic bm hybrids was pretreated by aqueous ammonia steeping using ammonium hydroxide concentrations from 0 to 30%, by weight, and the resulting residues underwent simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) to ethanol. Dry matter (DM) digested by SSCF increased with increasing ammonium hydroxide concentration across all genotypes (P>0.0001) from 277 g kg-1 DM in the control to 439 g kg-1 DM in the 30% ammonium hydroxide pretreatment. The bm corn stover materials averaged 373 g kg-1 DM of DM digested by SSCF compared with 335 g kg-1 DM for the normal corn stover (Pcell-wall carbohydrate hydrolysis of corn stover, (ii) the lowest initial cell-wall carbohydrate concentration, (iii) the lowest dry matter remaining after pretreatment, and (iv) the highest amount of monosaccharides released during enzymatic hydrolysis. However, bm corn stover did not reduce the severity of aqueous ammonia steeping pretreatment needed to maximize DM hydrolysis during SSCF compared with normal corn stover. In the remaining studies (Chapters 3 thru 5), a system for analyzing the quality of lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks for biochemical conversion to biofuels (i.e., pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation) was developed. To accomplish this, a carbohydrate availability model was developed to characterize feedstock quality. The model partitions carbohydrates within a feedstock material into fractions based on their availability to be converted to fermentable

  16. Leaching Pretreatments for Improving Biomass Quality: Feedstocks, Solvents, and Extraction Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chao Wei

    In this research, a systematic study was conducted to quantify the inorganic and organic compounds leached from rice straw, wheat straw, corn stover, switchgrass, Jose Tall Wheatgrass, Douglas fir, and Miscanthus with water, and to evaluate the feedstock quality and characteristics of leached solids for thermal process applications. Leaching feedstocks with water at ambient temperature with a 20 L/kg (dry matter) ratio for 2 hours greatly increased the ash fusion temperature of rice straw (from 1050°C to above 1550°C) and wheat straw (from 900°C to 1250°C), but the treatment only increased the ash fusion temperature of corn stover from 900°C to 950°C. Miscanthus had relatively good initial feedstock quality and leaching may not prove necessary for this feedstock in thermal systems. Leaching also changed the combustion kinetics of biomass by increasing the initial degradation temperature of most feedstocks from originally between 165°C and 186°C to between 180°C and 250°C depending on feedstock. Moreover, leaching increased the maximum rate of weight loss of feedstock by 11% to 54% and increased the corresponding temperatures for peak loss up to 34°C. Leaching removed a sizeable fraction of organic compounds (between 2% and 12% of dry matter). These organic extracts were identified as mostly sugars and acids which might be valuable co-products. Moisture contents of feedstocks after leaching were typically high, ranging between 68 and 81% wet basis. A dewatering step is generally required prior to using the leached biomass for thermochemical conversion. Solvents with ability to dissolve ion-exchangeable, organically associated, and acid soluble metals can further remove non-water soluble metals from biomass and may also improve feedstock quality. In a solvent evaluation, corn stover and wheat straw were leached with water, 1M ammonium acetate, 1M HCl, 100% methanol, 50% methanol, 100% ethanol, and 50% ethanol, and leached solids and leachate were

  17. An assessment of biomass feedstock availability for the supply of bioenergy to University College Dublin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, Peter G.; McDonnell, Kevin P. [Bioresource Research Centre, Biosystems Engineering, School of Agriculture, Food Science and Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2010-12-15

    As the cost of energy rises due to an increase in fossil fuels prices, the need to develop a sustainable alternative that will reduce green house gas emissions has increased in importance. One such alternative to reduce dependency on fossil fuels is the use of biomass for bioenergy generation. This study aims to quantify how much biomass can be produced in a specific area with a maximum haulage distance of 75 km to its end location, in this case, a large residential campus, to supply fuel to a biomass boiler. The study is carried out by identifying potential sources of biomass within the catchment zone and then quantifying it under different scenarios. The first scenario focuses on minimum land use impact, which quantifies how much biomass could be achieved taking just 10% of biomass from the sources identified. The second scenario is the maximum energy scenario and is set out to establish the maximum amount of energy that could be generated within the catchment zone using 50-100% of available biomass. The final scenario is the environmental scenario which looks to quantify biomass while not infringing on existing land uses such as agriculture and forestry. Results show that scenario one could produce almost 6 PJ of energy which is, scenario two could produce over 31 PJ of energy and scenario three could produce almost 14 PJ of energy. (author)

  18. Biohydrogen production from lignocellulosic feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chieh-Lun; Lo, Yung-Chung; Lee, Kuo-Shing; Lee, Duu-Jong; Lin, Chiu-Yue; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2011-09-01

    Due to the recent energy crisis and rising concern over climate change, the development of clean alternative energy sources is of significant interest. Biohydrogen produced from cellulosic feedstock, such as second generation feedstock (lignocellulosic biomass) and third generation feedstock (carbohydrate-rich microalgae), is a promising candidate as a clean, CO2-neutral, non-polluting and high efficiency energy carrier to meet the future needs. This article reviews state-of-the-art technology on lignocellulosic biohydrogen production in terms of feedstock pretreatment, saccharification strategy, and fermentation technology. Future developments of integrated biohydrogen processes leading to efficient waste reduction, low CO2 emission and high overall hydrogen yield is discussed.

  19. Chemicals from biomass: an assessment of the potential for production of chemical feedstocks from renewable resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Culberson, O.L.

    1983-06-01

    This assessment of the potential for production of commodity chemicals from renewable biomass resources is based on (1) a Delphi study with 50 recognized authorities to identify key technical issues relevant to production of chemicals from biomass, and (2) a systems model based on linear programming for a commodity chemicals industry using renewable resources and coal as well as gas and petroleum-derived resources. Results from both parts of the assessment indicate that, in the absence of gas and petroleum, coal undoubtedly would be a major source of chemicals first, followed by biomass. The most attractive biomass resources are wood, agricultural residues, and sugar and starch crops. A reasonable approximation to the current product slate for the petrochemical industry could be manufactured using only renewable resources for feedstocks. Approximately 2.5 quads (10/sup 15/ Btu (1.055 x 10/sup 18/ joules)) per year of oil and gas would be released. Further use of biomass fuels in the industry could release up to an additional 1.5 quads. however, such an industry would be unprofitable under current economic conditions with existing or near-commercial technology. As fossil resources become more expensive and biotechnology becomes more efficient, the economics will be more favorable. Use of the chemicals industry model to evaluate process technologies is demonstrated. Processes are identified which have potential for significant added value to the system if process improvements can be made to improve the economics. Guidelines and recommendations for research and development programs to improve the attractiveness of chemicals from biomass are discussed.

  20. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Conversion Pathway: Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons The 2017 Design Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL conducted a campaign to quantify the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from standing in the field or stand to the throat of the biomass conversion process. The goal of this program was to establish the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes, design improvements to the current system, and to mark annual improvements based on higher efficiencies or better designs. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $35/dry ton. This goal was successfully achieved in 2012 by implementing field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. Looking forward to 2017, the programmatic target is to supply biomass to the conversion facilities at a total cost of $80/dry ton and on specification with in-feed requirements. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, abundant, low-cost feedstock. If this goal is not achieved, biofuel plants are destined to be small and/or clustered in select regions of the country that have a lock on low-cost feedstock. To put the 2017 cost target into perspective of past accomplishments of the cellulosic ethanol pathway, the $80 target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all

  1. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels Conversion Pathway: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil Pathway "The 2017 Design Case"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin L. Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J. Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; J. Richard Hess; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass sustainable supply, logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL quantified and the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from the field or stand to the throat of the conversion process using conventional equipment and processes. All previous work to 2012 was designed to improve the efficiency and decrease costs under conventional supply systems. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a biomass logistics cost of $55/dry Ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model.

  2. Biomass energy: Sustainable solution for greenhouse gas emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrul Islam, A. K. M.; Ahiduzzaman, M.

    2012-06-01

    Biomass is part of the carbon cycle. Carbon dioxide is produced after combustion of biomass. Over a relatively short timescale, carbon dioxide is renewed from atmosphere during next generation of new growth of green vegetation. Contribution of renewable energy including hydropower, solar, biomass and biofuel in total primary energy consumption in world is about 19%. Traditional biomass alone contributes about 13% of total primary energy consumption in the world. The number of traditional biomass energy users expected to rise from 2.5 billion in 2004 to 2.6 billion in 2015 and to 2.7 billion in 2030 for cooking in developing countries. Residential biomass demand in developing countries is projected to rise from 771 Mtoe in 2004 to 818 Mtoe in 2030. The main sources of biomass are wood residues, bagasse, rice husk, agro-residues, animal manure, municipal and industrial waste etc. Dedicated energy crops such as short-rotation coppice, grasses, sugar crops, starch crops and oil crops are gaining importance and market share as source of biomass energy. Global trade in biomass feedstocks and processed bioenergy carriers are growing rapidly. There are some drawbacks of biomass energy utilization compared to fossil fuels viz: heterogeneous and uneven composition, lower calorific value and quality deterioration due to uncontrolled biodegradation. Loose biomass also is not viable for transportation. Pelletization, briquetting, liquefaction and gasification of biomass energy are some options to solve these problems. Wood fuel production is very much steady and little bit increase in trend, however, the forest land is decreasing, means the deforestation is progressive. There is a big challenge for sustainability of biomass resource and environment. Biomass energy can be used to reduce greenhouse emissions. Woody biomass such as briquette and pellet from un-organized biomass waste and residues could be used for alternative to wood fuel, as a result, forest will be saved and

  3. EVALUATION OF BIOMASS AND COAL CO-GASIFICATION OF BRAZILIAN FEEDSTOCK USING A CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Abstract Coal and biomass are energy sources with great potential for use in Brazil. Coal-biomass co-gasification enables the combination of the positive characteristics of each fuel, besides leading to a cleaner use of coal. The present study evaluates the potential of co-gasification of binary coal-biomass blends using sources widely available in Brazil. This analysis employs computational simulations using a reliable thermodynamic equilibrium model. Favorable operational conditions at high temperatures are determined in order to obtain gaseous products suitable for energy cogeneration and chemical synthesis. This study shows that blends with biomass ratios of 5% and equivalence ratios ≤ 0.3 lead to high cold gas efficiencies. Suitable gaseous products for chemical synthesis were identified at biomass ratios ≤ 35% and moisture contents ≥ 40%. Formation of undesirable nitrogen and sulfur compounds was also analyzed.

  4. Energy crops for biofuel feedstocks: facts and recent patents on genetic manipulation to improve biofuel crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh

    2013-12-01

    Burning fossil-fuels to meet the global energy requirements by human being has intensified the concerns of increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. Therefore, serious efforts are required to develop nonfossil-based renewable energy sources. Plants are more efficient in utilizing solar energy to convert it into biomass which can be used as feedstocks for biofuel production. Hence with the increasing demands of energy and the needs of cost-effective, sustainable production of fuels, it has become necessary to switch over to plant biomass as a renewable source of energy. Biofuels derived from more sustainable biological materials such as lignocellulosic plant residues, considered as second generation biofuels, are more dependable. However, there are technical challenges such as pretreatment and hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass to convert it into fermentable sugars. Plant genetic engineering has already proven its potential in modifying cell wall composition of plants for enhancing the efficiency of biofuel production. Interest and potential in the area are very much evident from the growing number of patents in the recent years on the subject. In this review, recent trends in genetic engineering of energy crops for biofuel production have been introduced, and strategies for the future developments have been discussed.

  5. Enhancement of Chlorella vulgaris Biomass Cultivated in POME Medium as Biofuel Feedstock under Mixotrophic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Azimatun Nur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae cultivated in mixotrophic conditions have received significant attention as a suitable source of biofuel feedstock, based on their high biomass and lipid productivity. POME is one of the wastewaters generated from palm oil mills, containing important nutrients that could be suitable for mixotrophic microalgae growth. The aim of this research was to identify the growth of Chlorella vulgaris cultured in POME medium under mixotrophic conditions in relation to a variety of organic carbon sources added to the POME mixture. The research was conducted with 3 different carbon sources (D-glucose, crude glycerol and NaHCO3 in 40% POME, monitored over 6 days, under an illumination of 3000 lux, and with pH = 7. The biomass was harvested using an autoflocculation method and dry biomass was extracted using an ultrasound method in order to obtain the lipid content. The results show that C. vulgaris using D-glucose as carbon source gained a lipid productivity of 195 mg/l/d.

  6. Continuous pyrolysis of biomass feedstocks in rotary kiln convertors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Jr, H. H.; Kimzey, J. R.; Turpin, J. L.; MacCallum, R. N.

    1979-08-30

    The biomass research program at the University of Arkansas has developed three experimental projects or tasks for the attainment of its objectives. They are: (1) utilization of the existing full scale convertor for testing and data acquisition at Jonesboro, Arkansas; (2) development of a scale model rotary pyrolytic convertor (bench scale research kiln); and (3) development of analytical laboratory services for the analysis of feedstocks and products, and for basic pyrolytic process studies. The project at Jonesboro, Arkansas, which aimed at testing the Angelo convertor concept through heat and material balances over the available range of operations, could not completely achieve this objective because of the severe mechanical and structural deficiencies in the full scale convertor. A limited number of data have been taken in spite of the deficiencies of the machine. The scale model rotary kiln has been the most successful of the three projects. The kiln has been completed as planned and successfully operated with a number of feedstock materials. Good qualitative data have been obtained on conversion rate capacities, charcoal yields, and off gas combustion product temperatures. In all, about one hundred test runs were made in the scale model kiln. About 90% of the results expected were attained. The laboratory services project was designed to provide analytical testing for the other two projects and to do basic studies in biomass material conversion processes. The project delivered the testing services, but was severely restricted in the area of basic studies because of the failure of the main instrument, the gas chromatograph, to operate successfully. In all it is estimated that this project attained about 80% of its expected goals.

  7. Biomass living energy; Biomasse l'energie vivante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Any energy source originating from organic matter is biomass, which even today is the basic source of energy for more than a quarter of humanity. Best known for its combustible properties, biomass is also used to produce biofuels. This information sheet provides also information on the electricity storage from micro-condensers to hydroelectric dams, how to save energy facing the increasing of oil prices and supply uncertainties, the renewable energies initiatives of Cork (Ireland) and the Switzerland european energy hub. (A.L.B.)

  8. Wind, biomass, hydrogen: renewable energies; Vent, biomasse, hydrogene: energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakotosson, V.; Brousse, Th.; Guillemet, Ph.; Scudeller, Y.; Crosnier, O.; Dugas, R.; Favier, F.; Zhou, Y.; Taberna, P.M.; Simon, P.; Toupin, M.; Belanger, D.; Ngo, Ch.; Djamie, B.; Guyard, Ch.; Tamain, B.; Ruer, J.; Ungerer, Ph.; Bonal, J.; Flamant, G

    2007-06-15

    This press kit gathers a series of articles about renewable energies: the compared availabilities of renewable energy sources (comparison at a given time); offshore wind turbines (projects under development, cost optimisation); hydrogen for transports: present day situation (production, transport and storage, hydrogen conversion into mechanical energy, indirect use in biomass conversion); biomass: future carbon source (resource potential in France, pyrolysis and fermentation, development of biofuels and synthetic fuels, stakes for agriculture); beneficial standards for the heat pumps market (market organization and quality approach); collecting solar energy (solar furnaces and future solar power plants, hydrogen generation). (J.S.)

  9. Biomass energy and marginal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassany, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the conditions and effects of a possible development of the biomass energy upgrading in uneconomical or not rentable areas. The physical, social and economical characteristics of these regions (in France) are described; then the different types of biomass are presented (agricultural wastes, energetic cultures, forest and land products and residues, food processing effluents, municipal wastes) as well as the various energy process (production of alcohol, methane, thermochemical processes, vegetable oils). The development and the feasability of these processes in marginal areas are finally analyzed taking into account the accessibility of the biomass and the technical and commercial impacts.

  10. An In-Depth Understanding of Biomass Recalcitrance Using Natural Poplar Variants as the Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xianzhi [Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, University of Tennessee Knoxville, Knoxville TN 37996 USA; Pu, Yunqiao [BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Yoo, Chang Geun [BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Li, Mi [BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Bali, Garima [Renewable Bioproducts Institute, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta GA 30332 USA; Park, Doh-Yeon [Renewable Bioproducts Institute, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta GA 30332 USA; Gjersing, Erica [BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Davis, Mark F. [BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Muchero, Wellington [BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Tuskan, Gerald A. [BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Tschaplinski, Timothy J. [BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, University of Tennessee Knoxville, Knoxville TN 37996 USA; BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Center for Renewable Carbon, Department of Forestry, Wildlife, and Fisheries, University Tennessee Institute of Agriculture, Knoxville TN 37996 USA

    2016-12-12

    In an effort to better understand the biomass recalcitrance, six natural poplar variants were selected as feedstocks based on previous sugar release analysis. Compositional analysis and physicochemical characterizations of these poplars were performed and the correlations between these physicochemical properties and enzymatic hydrolysis yield were investigated. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and 13C solid state NMR were used to determine the degree of polymerization (DP) and crystallinity index (CrI) of cellulose, and the results along with the sugar release study indicated that cellulose DP likely played a more important role in enzymatic hydrolysis. Simons' stain revealed that the accessible surface area of substrate significantly varied among these variants from 17.3 to 33.2 mg g-1/biomass as reflected by dye adsorption, and cellulose accessibility was shown as one of the major factors governing substrates digestibility. HSQC and 31P NMR analysis detailed the structural features of poplar lignin variants. Overall, cellulose relevant factors appeared to have a stronger correlation with glucose release, if any, than lignin structural features. Lignin structural features, such as a phenolic hydroxyl group and the ratio of syringyl and guaiacyl (S/G), were found to have a more convincing impact on xylose release. Low lignin content, low cellulose DP, and high cellulose accessibility generally favor enzymatic hydrolysis; however, recalcitrance cannot be simply judged on any single substrate factor.

  11. Analyzing and Comparing Biomass Feedstock Supply Systems in China: Corn Stover and Sweet Sorghum Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lantian Ren

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the rural Chinese biomass supply system and models supply chain operations according to U.S. concepts of logistical unit operations: harvest and collection, storage, transportation, preprocessing, and handling and queuing. In this paper, we quantify the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum in China under different scenarios. We analyze three scenarios of corn stover logistics from northeast China and three scenarios of sweet sorghum stalks logistics from Inner Mongolia in China. The case study estimates that the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk to be $52.95/dry metric ton and $52.64/dry metric ton, respectively, for the current labor-based biomass logistics system. However, if the feedstock logistics operation is mechanized, the cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk decreases to $36.01/dry metric ton and $35.76/dry metric ton, respectively. The study also includes a sensitivity analysis to identify the cost factors that cause logistics cost variation. Results of the sensitivity analysis show that labor price has the most influence on the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk, with a variation of $6 to $12/dry metric ton.

  12. [Biomass energy utilization in microbial fuel cells: potentials and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liping; Cheng, Shaoan

    2010-07-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) that can harvest biomass energy from organic wastes through microbial catalysis have garnered more and more attention within the past decade due to its potential benefits to ecological environment. In this article, the updated progress in MFCs is reviewed, with a focus on frontier technologies such as chamber configurations, feedstock varieties and the integration of MFCs with microbial electrolysis cells for hydrogen production. And on the other hand, the challenges like development of cost-effective electrode materials, improvement of biomass energy recovery and power output, design and optimization of commercial MFC devices are presented.

  13. Energy from biomass and waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2001-01-01

    Biomass, a broad term for all organic matter of plants, trees and crops, is currently regarded as a renewable energy source which can contribute substantially to the world's energy supply in the future. Various scenarios for the development of energy supply and demand, such as compiled by the World

  14. Development of a multicriteria assessment model for ranking biomass feedstock collection and transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Flynn, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    This study details multicriteria assessment methodology that integrates economic, social, environmental, and technical factors in order to rank alternatives for biomass collection and transportation systems. Ranking of biomass collection systems is based on cost of delivered biomass, quality of biomass supplied, emissions during collection, energy input to the chain operations, and maturity of supply system technologies. The assessment methodology is used to evaluate alternatives for collecting 1.8 x 10(6) dry t/yr based on assumptions made on performance of various assemblies of biomass collection systems. A proposed collection option using loafer/ stacker was shown to be the best option followed by ensiling and baling. Ranking of biomass transport systems is based on cost of biomass transport, emissions during transport, traffic congestion, and maturity of different technologies. At a capacity of 4 x 10(6) dry t/yr, rail transport was shown to be the best option, followed by truck transport and pipeline transport, respectively. These rankings depend highly on assumed maturity of technologies and scale of utilization. These may change if technologies such as loafing or ensiling (wet storage) methods are proved to be infeasible for large-scale collection systems.

  15. Using biomass of starch-rich transgenic Arabidopsis vacuolar as feedstock for fermentative hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Yung-Chung; Cheng, Chieh-Lun; Chen, Chun-Yen [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Huang, Li-Fen; Chang, Jo-Shu [Yuan Ze Univ., Tao-yuan, Taiwan (China). Graduate School of Biotechnology and Bioengineering

    2010-07-01

    Cellulose is the major constitute of plant biomass and highly available in agricultural wastes and industrial effluents, thereby being a cost-effective feedstock for bioenergy production. However, most hydrogen producing bacteria (HPB) could not directly convert cellulosic materials (such as rice husk and rice straw) into hydrogen whereas most HPB could utilize sugar and starch for hydrogen production. In this work, we used an indigenous bacterial isolate Clostridium butyricum CGS2 as HPB, which could directly convert soluble starch into H2 with a maximum H2 production rate and a H2 yield of 205.07 ml H2/h/l and 6.46 mmol H2/g starch, respectively. However, C. butyricum CGS2 could not ferment pure cellulosic materials such as carboxymethyl cellulose and xylan. Moreover, we found that C. butyricum CGS2 could utilize rich husk to produce H2 at a rate of 13.19 ml H2/h/l due to the starch content in rice husk (H2 yield = 1.49 mmol H2/g rice husk). In contrast, since lacking starch content, rice straw cannot be converted to H2 by C. butyricum CGS2. The foregoing results suggest that increasing the starch content in the natural agricultural wastes may make them better feedstock for fermentative H2 production. Hence, a genetically modified plant (Arabidopsis vacuolar) was constructed to enhance its starch concentration. The starch concentration of mutant plant S1 increased to 10.67 mg/fresh weight, which is four times higher than that of wild type plant. Using mutant plant S1 as carbon source, C. butyricum CGS2 was able to give a high cumulative H2 production and H2 production rate of 285.4 ml H2/l and 43.6 ml/h/l, respectively. The cumulative H2 production and H2 production rate both increased when the concentration of the transgenic plant was increased. Therefore, this study successful demonstrated the feasibility of expressing starch on genetically-modified plants to create a more effective feedstock for dark H2 fermentation. (orig.)

  16. Implications of Perennial Biomass Energy Cropping Systems for Pasture and Forage Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lignocellulose in forage crops represents large source of biomass feedstock for conversion into energy-related end products. With new technologies and processes for biomass production and conversion approaching commercial reality forages could once again fuel agriculture. Some of the most extens...

  17. Energy from biomass. Teaching material; Energie aus Biomasse. Ein Lehrmaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    The textbook discusses the available options for power and heat generation from biomass as well as the limits of biomass-based power supply. The main obstacle apart from the high cost is a lack of knowledge, which the book intends to remedy. It addresses students of agriculture, forestry, environmental engineering, heating systems engineering and apprentice chimney sweepers, but it will also be useful to all other interested readers. [German] Biomasse kann aufgrund seiner vielfaeltigen Erscheinungs- und Umwandlungsformen sowohl als Brennstoff zur Waerme- und Stromgewinnung oder als Treibstoff eingesetzt werden. Die energetische Nutzung von Biomasse birgt zudem nicht zu verachtende Vorteile. Zum einen wegen des Beitrags zum Klimaschutz aufgrund der CO{sub 2}-Neutralitaet oder einfach, weil Biomasse immer wieder nachwaechst und von fossilen Ressourcen unabhaengig macht. All den bisher erschlossenen Moeglichkeiten der energetischen Nutzung von Biomasse moechte dieses Lehrbuch Rechnung tragen. Es zeigt aber auch die Grenzen auf, die mit der Energieversorgung durch Bioenergie einhergehen. Hohe Kosten und ein erhebliches Informationsdefizit behinderten bisher eine verstaerkte Nutzung dieses Energietraeges. Letzterem soll dieses Lehrbuch entgegenwirken. Das vorliegende Lehrbuch wurde fuer die Aus- und Weiterbildung erstellt. Es richtet sich vor allem an angehende Land- und Forstwirte, Umwelttechniker, Heizungsbauer und Schornsteinfeger, ist aber auch fuer all diejenigen interessant, die das Thema ''Energie aus Biomasse'' verstehen und ueberblicken moechten. (orig.)

  18. BIOMASS TO ENERGY IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES: SUPPLY CHAIN AND DELIVERED COST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronalds W. Gonzalez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain and delivered cost models for seven feedstocks (loblolly pine, Eucalyptus, natural hardwood, switchgrass, Miscanthus, sweet sorghum, and corn stover were built, simulating a supply of 453,597 dry tons per year to a biorefinery. Delivered cost of forest-based feedstocks ranged from $69 to $71 per dry ton. On the other hand, delivered cost of agricultural biomass ranged from $77.60 to $102.50 per dry ton. The total production area required for fast growing feedstocks was estimated as between 22,500 to 27,000 hectares, while the total production area for feedstocks with lower biomass productivity ranged from 101,200 to 202,300 hectares (corn stover and natural hardwood, respectively. Lower delivered cost per ton of carbohydrate and million BTU were found for loblolly pine, Eucalyptus, and natural hardwood. In addition, agricultural biomass had higher delivered costs for carbohydrate and energy value.

  19. Catalytic hydroprocessing of fast pyrolysis oils: Impact of biomass feedstock on process efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, Daniel; Westover, Tyler; Howe, Daniel; Deutch, Steve; Starace, Anne; Emerson, Rachel; Hernandez, Sergio; Santosa, Daniel; Lukins, Craig; Kutnyakov, Igor

    2017-01-01

    We report here on an experimental study to produce refinery-ready fuel blendstocks via catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (upgrading) of pyrolysis oil using several biomass feedstocks and various blends. Blends were tested along with the pure materials to determine the effect of blending on product yields and qualities. Within experimental error, oil yields from fast pyrolysis and upgrading are shown to be linear functions of the blend components. Switchgrass exhibited lower fast pyrolysis and upgrading yields than the woody samples, which included clean pine, oriented strand board (OSB), and a mix of pinon and juniper (PJ). The notable exception was PJ, for which the poor upgrading yield of 18% was likely associated with the very high viscosity of the PJ fast pyrolysis oil (947 cp). The highest fast pyrolysis yield (54% dry basis) was obtained from clean pine, while the highest upgrading yield (50%) was obtained from a blend of 80% clean pine and 20% OSB (CP8OSB2). For switchgrass, reducing the fast pyrolysis temperature to 450 degrees C resulted in a significant increase to the pyrolysis oil yield and reduced hydrogen consumption during hydrotreating, but did not directly affect the hydrotreating oil yield. The water content of fast pyrolysis oils was also observed to increase linearly with the summed content of potassium and sodium, ranging from 21% for clean pine to 37% for switchgrass. Multiple linear regression models demonstrate that fast pyrolysis is strongly dependent upon the contents lignin and volatile matter as well as the sum of potassium and sodium.

  20. Catalytic conversion of biomass-derived feedstocks into olefins and aromatics with ZSM-5: the hydrogen to carbon effective ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Huiyan; Cheng, Yu-Ting; Vispute, Tushar; Xiao, R; Huber, George W.

    2011-01-01

    Catalytic conversion of ten biomass-derived feedstocks, i.e.glucose, sorbitol, glycerol, tetrahydrofuran, methanol and different hydrogenated bio-oil fractions, with different hydrogen to carbon effective (H/C{sub eff}) ratios was conducted in a gas-phase flow fixed-bed reactor with a ZSM-5 catalyst. The aromatic + olefin yield increases and the coke yield decreases with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio of the feed. There is an inflection point at a H/C{sub eff} ratio = 1.2, where the aromatic + olefin yield does not increase as rapidly as it does prior to this point. The ratio of olefins to aromatics also increases with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio. CO and CO₂ yields go through a maximum with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio. The deactivation rate of the catalyst decreases significantly with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio. Coke was formed from both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for the ten feedstocks showed that the formation of coke from homogeneous reactions decreases with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio. Feedstocks with a H/C{sub eff} ratio less than 0.15 produce large amounts of undesired coke (more than 12 wt%) from homogeneous decomposition reactions. This paper shows that the conversion of biomass-derived feedstocks into aromatics and olefins using zeolite catalysts can be explained by the H/C{sub eff} ratio of the feed.

  1. Forestry and biomass energy projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swisher, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive and consistent methodology to account for the costs and net carbon flows of different categories of forestry and biomass energy projects and describes the application of the methodology to several sets of projects in Latin America. The results suggest that both...... is sufficient as either a national or global strategy for sustainable land use or carbon emission reduction. The methodology allows consistent comparisons of the costs and quantities of carbon stored in different types of projects and/or national programs, facilitating the inclusion of forestry and biomass...... biomass energy development and forestry measures including reforestation and forest protection can contribute significantly to the reduction of global CO2 emissions, and that local land-use capacity must determine the type of project that is appropriate in specific cases. No single approach alone...

  2. Microalgae as Sustainable Renewable Energy Feedstock for Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth Reddy Medipally

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The world energy crisis and increased greenhouse gas emissions have driven the search for alternative and environmentally friendly renewable energy sources. According to life cycle analysis, microalgae biofuel is identified as one of the major renewable energy sources for sustainable development, with potential to replace the fossil-based fuels. Microalgae biofuel was devoid of the major drawbacks associated with oil crops and lignocelluloses-based biofuels. Algae-based biofuels are technically and economically viable and cost competitive, require no additional lands, require minimal water use, and mitigate atmospheric CO2. However, commercial production of microalgae biodiesel is still not feasible due to the low biomass concentration and costly downstream processes. The viability of microalgae biodiesel production can be achieved by designing advanced photobioreactors, developing low cost technologies for biomass harvesting, drying, and oil extraction. Commercial production can also be accomplished by improving the genetic engineering strategies to control environmental stress conditions and by engineering metabolic pathways for high lipid production. In addition, new emerging technologies such as algal-bacterial interactions for enhancement of microalgae growth and lipid production are also explored. This review focuses mainly on the problems encountered in the commercial production of microalgae biofuels and the possible techniques to overcome these difficulties.

  3. Microalgae as sustainable renewable energy feedstock for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medipally, Srikanth Reddy; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Shariff, M

    2015-01-01

    The world energy crisis and increased greenhouse gas emissions have driven the search for alternative and environmentally friendly renewable energy sources. According to life cycle analysis, microalgae biofuel is identified as one of the major renewable energy sources for sustainable development, with potential to replace the fossil-based fuels. Microalgae biofuel was devoid of the major drawbacks associated with oil crops and lignocelluloses-based biofuels. Algae-based biofuels are technically and economically viable and cost competitive, require no additional lands, require minimal water use, and mitigate atmospheric CO2. However, commercial production of microalgae biodiesel is still not feasible due to the low biomass concentration and costly downstream processes. The viability of microalgae biodiesel production can be achieved by designing advanced photobioreactors, developing low cost technologies for biomass harvesting, drying, and oil extraction. Commercial production can also be accomplished by improving the genetic engineering strategies to control environmental stress conditions and by engineering metabolic pathways for high lipid production. In addition, new emerging technologies such as algal-bacterial interactions for enhancement of microalgae growth and lipid production are also explored. This review focuses mainly on the problems encountered in the commercial production of microalgae biofuels and the possible techniques to overcome these difficulties.

  4. Development of a lactic acid production process using lignocellulosic biomass as feedstock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der E.C.

    2016-01-01

    The availability of crude oil is finite. Therefore, an alternative feedstock has to be found for the production of fuels and plastics. Lignocellulose is such an alternative feedstock. It is present in large quantities in agricultural waste material such as sugarcane bagasse. In this PhD thesis, lign

  5. Assessment of potential biomass energy production in China towards 2030 and 2050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Guangling

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a more detailed picture of potential biomass energy production in the Chinese energy system towards 2030 and 2050. Biomass for bioenergy feedstocks comes from five sources, which are agricultural crop residues, forest residues and industrial wood waste......, energy crops and woody crops, animal manure, and municipal solid waste. The potential biomass production is predicted based on the resource availability. In the process of identifying biomass resources production, assumptions are made regarding arable land, marginal land, crops yields, forest growth rate......, and meat consumption and waste production. Four scenarios were designed to describe the potential biomass energy production to elaborate the role of biomass energy in the Chinese energy system in 2030. The assessment shows that under certain restrictions on land availability, the maximum potential biomass...

  6. Marginal land-based biomass energy production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ya; Xie, Jia-Sui; Geng, Shu

    2010-01-01

    Fast economic development in China has resulted in a significant increase in energy demand. Coal accounts for 70% of China's primary energy consumption and its combustion has caused many environmental and health problems. Energy security and environmental protection requirements are the main drivers for renewable energy development in China. Small farmland and food security make bioenergy derived from corn or sugarcane unacceptable to China: the focus should be on generating bioenergy from ligno-cellulosic feedstock sources. As China cannot afford biomass energy production from its croplands, marginal lands may play an important role in biomass energy production. Although on a small scale, marginal land has already been used for various purposes. It is estimated that some 45 million hm(2) of marginal land could be brought into high potential biomass energy production. For the success of such an initiative, it will likely be necessary to develop multipurpose plants. A case study, carried out on marginal land in Ningnan County, Sichuan Province with per capita cropland of 0.07 ha, indicated that some 380,000 tons of dry biomass could be produced each year from annual pruning of mulberry trees. This study supports the feasibility of producing large quantities of biomass from marginal land sources.

  7. Characterization of Scots pine stump-root biomass as feed-stock for gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Daniel; Weiland, Fredrik; Hedman, Henry; Stenberg, Martin; Öhrman, Olov; Lestander, Torbjörn A; Bergsten, Urban; Öhman, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The main objective was to explore the potential for gasifying Scots pine stump-root biomass (SRB). Washed thin roots, coarse roots, stump heartwood and stump sapwood were characterized (solid wood, milling and powder characteristics) before and during industrial processing. Non-slagging gasification of the SRB fuels and a reference stem wood was successful, and the gasification parameters (synthesis gas and bottom ash characteristics) were similar. However, the heartwood fuel had high levels of extractives (≈19%) compared to the other fuels (2-8%) and thereby ≈16% higher energy contents but caused disturbances during milling, storage, feeding and gasification. SRB fuels could be sorted automatically according to their extractives and moisture contents using near-infrared spectroscopy, and their amounts and quality in forests can be predicted using routinely collected stand data, biomass functions and drill core analyses. Thus, SRB gasification has great potential and the proposed characterizations exploit it.

  8. Biomass to energy; La valorisation energetique de la biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the biomass to energy. It explains the biomass principle, the possibility of biomass to energy conversion, the first generation of biofuels (bio ethanol, ETBE, bio diesel, flex fuel) and their advantages and limitations, the european regulatory framework and policy with the evolutions and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  9. DEVELOPING HERBACEOUS ENERGY CROPS AS FEEDSTOCKS FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perennial herbaceous crops with high biomass yields are promising substrates for producing bioethnaol. A variety of biomasses including cool and warm season grasses and a legume are being evaluated for this purpose. As a first approach, biomass materials were pretreated with dilute-sulfuric acid a...

  10. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply, April 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30 percent or more of the country’s present petroleum consumption – the goal set by the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee in their vision for biomass technologies. Accomplishing this goal would require approximately 1 billion dry tons of biomass feedstock per year.

  11. Carbon and Water Vapor Fluxes of Dedicated Bioenergy Feedstocks: Switchgrass and High Biomass Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagle, P.; Kakani, V. G.; Huhnke, R.

    2015-12-01

    We compared eddy covariance measurements of carbon and water vapor fluxes from co-located two major dedicated lignocellulosic feedstocks, Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and high biomass sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), in Oklahoma during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons. Monthly ensemble averaged net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) reached seasonal peak values of 36-37 μmol m-2 s-1 in both ecosystems. Similar magnitudes (weekly average of daily integrated values) of NEE (10-11 g C m-2 d-1), gross primary production (GPP, 19-20 g C m-2 d-1), ecosystem respiration (ER, 10-12 g C m-2 d-1), and evapotranspiration (ET, 6.2-6.7 mm d-1) were observed in both ecosystems. Carbon and water vapor fluxes of both ecosystems had similar response to air temperature (Ta) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). An optimum Ta was slightly over 30 °C for NEE and approximately 35 °C for ET, and an optimum VPD was approximately 3 kPa for NEE and ET in both ecosystems. The switchgrass field was a larger carbon sink, with a cumulative seasonal carbon uptake of 406-490 g C m-2 compared to 261-330 g C m-2 by the sorghum field. Despite similar water use patterns during the active growing period, seasonal cumulative ET was higher in switchgrass than in sorghum. The ratio of seasonal sums of GPP to ET yielded ecosystem water use efficiency (EWUE) of 9.41-11.32 and 8.98-9.17 g CO2 mm-1 ET in switchgrass and sorghum, respectively. The ratio of seasonal sums of net ecosystem production (NEP) to ET was 2.75-2.81 and 2.06-2.18 g CO2 mm-1 ET in switchgrass and sorghum, respectively. The switchgrass stand was a net carbon sink for four to five months (April/May-August), while sorghum was a net carbon sink only for three months (June-August). Our results imply that the difference in carbon sink strength and water use between two ecosystems was driven mainly by the length of the growing season.

  12. Evolution and Development of Effective Feedstock Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garold Gresham; Rachel Emerson; Amber Hoover; Amber Miller; William Bauer; Kevin Kenney

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blend stocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. The 2012 feedstock logistics milestone demonstrated that for high-yield areas that minimize the transportation distances of a low-density, unstable biomass, we could achieve a delivered cost of $35/ton. Based on current conventional equipment and processes, the 2012 logistics design is able to deliver the volume of biomass needed to fulfill the 2012 Renewable Fuel Standard’s targets for ethanol. However, the Renewable Fuel Standard’s volume targets are continuing to increase and are expected to peak in 2022 at 36 billion gallons. Meeting these volume targets and achieving a national-scale biofuels industry will require expansion of production capacity beyond the 2012 Conventional Feedstock Supply Design Case to access diverse available feedstocks, regardless of their inherent ability to meet preliminary biorefinery quality feedstock specifications. Implementation of quality specifications (specs), as outlined in the 2017 Design Case – “Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels” (in progress), requires insertion of deliberate, active quality controls into the feedstock supply chain, whereas the 2012 Conventional Design only utilizes passive quality controls.

  13. Characterization of Various Biomass Feedstocks for Energy Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process. The methods used to analyze involved performing proximate, ultimate and thermogravimetry analysis. On the basis of proximate, ultimate, and thermogravimetry analysis, the dried distiller grains with solubles (DDGS), corn silage, chlorella vulgaris, spirulina platensis...

  14. Regional allocation of biomass to U.S. energy demands under a portfolio of policy scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Kimberley A; Venkatesh, Aranya; Nagengast, Amy L; Kocoloski, Matt

    2014-01-01

    The potential for widespread use of domestically available energy resources, in conjunction with climate change concerns, suggest that biomass may be an essential component of U.S. energy systems in the near future. Cellulosic biomass in particular is anticipated to be used in increasing quantities because of policy efforts, such as federal renewable fuel standards and state renewable portfolio standards. Unfortunately, these independently designed biomass policies do not account for the fact that cellulosic biomass can equally be used for different, competing energy demands. An integrated assessment of multiple feedstocks, energy demands, and system costs is critical for making optimal decisions about a unified biomass energy strategy. This study develops a spatially explicit, best-use framework to optimally allocate cellulosic biomass feedstocks to energy demands in transportation, electricity, and residential heating sectors, while minimizing total system costs and tracking greenhouse gas emissions. Comparing biomass usage across three climate policy scenarios suggests that biomass used for space heating is a low cost emissions reduction option, while biomass for liquid fuel or for electricity becomes attractive only as emissions reduction targets or carbon prices increase. Regardless of the policy approach, study results make a strong case for national and regional coordination in policy design and compliance pathways.

  15. Identifying the point of departures for the detailed sustainability assessment of biomass feedstocks for biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Dalgaard, Tommy

    In the light of sustainable development in the energy sector, biomasses have gained increasing attention, which have exacerbated competition among them. Biorefineries are increasing its hold in developed economies, since it facilitates the delivery of multiple products including food, feed...... for biorefineries and potential impacts to the existing market. This study aims to assist in the sustainability assessment of straw conversion in the biochemical conversion routes to deliver bioethanol and other biobased products. For the comparison, conversion of straw to produce heat and electricity in a Combined...... Eutrophication Potential (EP) 0.16 g NO3-eq and 0.008 m2 UES respectively, and Non-Renewable Energy Use (NRE use) as −0.14 MJ-primary per 1 MJ heat production. In order to reduce the environmental and economic loadings, it might be relevant: (i) to reduce the consequences related to the straw removal from field...

  16. Biomass gasification for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, H.; Morris, M.; Rensfelt, E. [TPS Termiska Prosesser Ab, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Biomass and waste are becoming increasingly interesting as fuels for efficient and environmentally sound power generation. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification for biomass and waste has been developed and applied to kilns both in the pulp and paper industry and the cement industry. A demonstration plant in Greve-in- Chianti, Italy includes two 15 MW{sub t}h RDF-fuelled CFB gasifiers of TPS design, the product gas from which is used in a cement kiln or in steam boiler for power generation. For CFB gasification of biomass and waste to reach a wider market, the product gas has to be cleaned effectively so that higher fuel to power efficiencies can be achieved by utilizing power cycles based on engines or gas turbines. TPS has developed both CFB gasification technology and effective secondary stage tar cracking technology. The integrated gasification - gas-cleaning technology is demonstrated today at pilot plant scale. To commercialise the technology, the TPS`s strategy is to first demonstrate the process for relatively clean fuels such as woody biomass and then extend the application to residues from waste recycling. Several demonstration projects are underway to commercialise TPS`s gasification and gas cleaning technology. In UK the ARBRE project developed by ARBRE Energy will construct a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10 MW and exporting 8 Mw of electricity. It has been included in the 1993 tranche of the UK`s Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and has gained financial support from EC`s THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. (author)

  17. Carbohydrate-enriched cyanobacterial biomass as feedstock for bio-methane production through anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markou, Giorgos; Angelidaki, Irini; Georgakakis, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion performance using carbohydrate-enriched biomass of Arthrospira platensis was studied. The carbohydrate enrichment was achieved after the cultivation of A. platensis under phosphorus limitation conditions. Three biomass compositions (60%, 40% and 20% carbohydrates content) ...

  18. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks. Progress report, March 1-August 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D. I.C.

    1980-09-01

    Progress is reported in this coordinated research program to effect the microbiological degradation of cellulosic biomass by anaerobic microorganisms possessing cellulolytic enzymes. Three main areas of research are discussed: increasing enzyme levels through genetics, mutations, and genetic manipulation; the direct conversion of cellulosic biomass to liquid fuel (ethanol); and the production of chemical feedstocks from biomass (acrylic acid, acetone/butanol, and acetic acid). (DMC)

  19. Switchgrass for Biomass Energy: Status and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass has been identified as a perennial biomass energy crop because it can produce high biomass yields on marginal land that is not suitable for grain crop production and provides many conservation benefits. The cellulose and hemi-cellulose of the biomass from switchgrass cell walls can be b...

  20. Launching Plan B:Biomass Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China’s first biomass electricity company focuses on helping farmers as it strives to expand In April 2011,the world’s largest biomass power company,China National Bio Energy Co.Ltd.(NBE),began building a biomass power plant in Shangcai County of central China’s Henan Province.The new plant,due to reach

  1. Estimates of US biomass energy consumption 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-06

    This report is the seventh in a series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to quantify the biomass-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It presents estimates of 1991 and 1992 consumption. The objective of this report is to provide updated estimates of biomass energy consumption for use by Congress, Federal and State agencies, biomass producers and end-use sectors, and the public at large.

  2. 2009 Feedstocks Platform Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program‘s Feedstock platform review meeting, held on April 8–10, 2009, at the Grand Hyatt Washington, Washington, D.C.

  3. Marker-Trait Association for Biomass Yield of Potential Bio-fuel Feedstock Miscanthus sinensis from Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang eNie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As a great potential bio-fuel feedstock, the genus Miscanthus has been widely studied around the world, especially Miscanthus × giganteus owing to its high biomass yield in Europe and North America. However, the narrow genetic basis and sterile characteristics of M. × giganteus have become a limitation for utilization and adaptation to extreme climate conditions. In this study, we focused on one of the progenitors of M. × giganteus, Miscanthus sinensis, which was originally distributed in East Asia with abundant genetic resources and comparable biomass yield potential to M. × giganteus in some areas. A collection of 138 individuals was selected for conducting a three-year trial of biomass production and analyzed by using 104 pairs of SRAP, ISAP, and SSR primers for genetic diversity as well as marker-trait association. Significant differences in biomass yield and related traits were observed among individuals. Tiller number, fresh biomass yield per plant and dry biomass yield per plant had a high level of phenotypic variation among individuals and the coefficient of variation were all above 40% in 2011, 2012, and 2013. The majority of the traits had a significant correlation with the biomass yield except for the length and width of flag leaves. Plant height was a highly stable trait correlated with biomass yield. A total of 1059 discernible loci were detected by markers across individuals. The population structure (Q and cluster analyses identified three subpopulations in the collection and family relative kinship (K represented a very complex relationship among M. sinensis populations from Southwest China. Model testing identified that Q+K was the best model for describing the associations between the markers and traits, compared to the simple linear, Q or K model. Using the Q+K model, 12 significant associations (P < 0.001 were identified including four markers with plant height and one with biomass yield. Such associations would serve an

  4. My Biomass, Your Biomass, Our Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US is pursuing an array of renewable energy sources to reduce reliance on imported fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass energy and biomass ethanol are key components in the pursuit. The need for biomass feedstock to produce sufficient ethanol to meet any of the numerous stat...

  5. Oil palm biomass as a sustainable energy source: A Malaysian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuit, S.H.; Tan, K.T.; Lee, K.T.; Kamaruddin, A.H. [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2009-09-15

    It has been widely accepted worldwide that global warming is by far the greatest threat and challenge in the new millennium. In order to stop global warming and to promote sustainable development, renewable energy is a perfect solution to achieve both targets. Presently million hectares of land in Malaysia is occupied with oil palm plantation generating huge quantities of biomass. In this context, biomass from oil palm industries appears to be a very promising alternative as a source of raw materials including renewable energy in Malaysia. Thus, this paper aims to present current scenario of biomass in Malaysia covering issues on availability and sustainability of feedstock as well as current and possible utilization of oil palm biomass. This paper will also discuss feasibility of some biomass conversion technologies and some ongoing projects in Malaysia related to utilization of oil palm biomass as a source of renewable energy. Based on the findings presented, it is definitely clear that Malaysia has position herself in the right path to utilize biomass as a source of renewable energy and this can act as an example to other countries in the world that has huge biomass feedstock. (author)

  6. Greenhouse gas mitigation for U.S. plastics production: energy first, feedstocks later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posen, I. Daniel; Jaramillo, Paulina; Landis, Amy E.; Griffin, W. Michael

    2017-03-01

    Plastics production is responsible for 1% and 3% of U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and primary energy use, respectively. Replacing conventional plastics with bio-based plastics (made from renewable feedstocks) is frequently proposed as a way to mitigate these impacts. Comparatively little research has considered the potential for green energy to reduce emissions in this industry. This paper compares two strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. plastics production: using renewable energy or switching to renewable feedstocks. Renewable energy pathways assume all process energy comes from wind power and renewable natural gas derived from landfill gas. Renewable feedstock pathways assume that all commodity thermoplastics will be replaced with polylactic acid (PLA) and bioethylene-based plastics, made using either corn or switchgrass, and powered using either conventional or renewable energy. Corn-based biopolymers produced with conventional energy are the dominant near-term biopolymer option, and can reduce industry-wide GHG emissions by 25%, or 16 million tonnes CO2e/year (mean value). In contrast, switching to renewable energy cuts GHG emissions by 50%–75% (a mean industry-wide reduction of 38 million tonnes CO2e/year). Both strategies increase industry costs—by up to 85/tonne plastic (mean result) for renewable energy, and up to 3000 tonne‑1 plastic for renewable feedstocks. Overall, switching to renewable energy achieves greater emission reductions, with less uncertainty and lower costs than switching to corn-based biopolymers. In the long run, producing bio-based plastics from advanced feedstocks (e.g. switchgrass) and/or with renewable energy can further reduce emissions, to approximately 0 CO2e/year (mean value).

  7. 3rd annual biomass energy systems conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The main objectives of the 3rd Annual Biomass Energy Systems Conference were (1) to review the latest research findings in the clean fuels from biomass field, (2) to summarize the present engineering and economic status of Biomass Energy Systems, (3) to encourage interaction and information exchange among people working or interested in the field, and (4) to identify and discuss existing problems relating to ongoing research and explore opportunities for future research. Abstracts for each paper presented were edited separately. (DC)

  8. New Frontiers in the Catalytic Synthesis of Levulinic Acid: From Sugars to Raw and Waste Biomass as Starting Feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Antonetti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Levulinic acid (LA is one of the top bio-based platform molecules that can be converted into many valuable chemicals. It can be produced by acid catalysis from renewable resources, such as sugars, lignocellulosic biomass and waste materials, attractive candidates due to their abundance and environmentally benign nature. The LA transition from niche product to mass-produced chemical, however, requires its production from sustainable biomass feedstocks at low costs, adopting environment-friendly techniques. This review is an up-to-date discussion of the literature on the several catalytic systems that have been developed to produce LA from the different substrates. Special attention has been paid to the recent advancements on starting materials, moving from simple sugars to raw and waste biomasses. This aspect is of paramount importance from a sustainability point of view, transforming wastes needing to be disposed into starting materials for value-added products. This review also discusses the strategies to exploit the solid residues always obtained in the LA production processes, in order to attain a circular economy approach.

  9. Cyanobacterial biomass as carbohydrate and nutrient feedstock for bioethanol production by yeast fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllers, K Benedikt; Canella, D.; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Background: Microbial bioconversion of photosynthetic biomass is a promising approach to the generation of biofuels and other bioproducts. However, rapid, high-yield, and simple processes are essential for successful applications. Here, biomass from the rapidly growing photosynthetic marine......H was adjusted to the optimal value. The highest ethanol yield and concentration obtained was 0.27 g ethanol per g cell dry weight and 30 g ethanol L-1, respectively. About 90% of the glucose in the biomass was converted to ethanol. The cyanobacterial hydrolysate was rapidly fermented (up to 20 g ethanol L-1 day......-1) even in the absence of any other nutrient additions to the fermentation medium. Conclusions: Cyanobacterial biomass was hydrolyzed using a simple enzymatic treatment and fermented into ethanol more rapidly and to higher concentrations than previously reported for similar approaches using...

  10. Energy Recovery from Contaminated Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Moskalík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on thermal gasification methods of contaminated biomass in an atmospheric fluidized bed, especially biomass contaminated by undesirable substances in its primary use. For the experiments, chipboard waste was chosen as a representative sample of contaminated biomass. In the experiments, samples of gas and tar were taken for a better description of the process of gasifying chipboard waste. Gas and tar samples also provide information about the properties of the gas that is produced.

  11. Co-digestion of tobacco waste with different agricultural biomass feedstocks and the inhibition of tobacco viruses by anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Dong, Jianxin; Liu, Gangjin; Yang, Hongnan; Liu, Wei; Wang, Lan; Kong, Chuixue; Zheng, Dan; Yang, Jinguang; Deng, Liangwei; Wang, Shusheng

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco is widely planted across the world especially in China, which means that a large amount of tobacco waste needs to be treated. This study investigated the biogas fermentation of tobacco stalks co-digested with different biomass feedstocks and the inactivation of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) by anaerobic digestion. Results showed that the maximum methane yield of tobacco stalks at 35 °C was 0.163 m(3) CH4 ⋅ kg VS(-1), which was from the co-digestion of tobacco stalks, wheat stalks and pig manure. The largest VS removal rate of tobacco stalks was 59.10%. Proven by indicator paper stripe, half-leaf lesion and RT-PCR, CMV could be inactivated by mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion, whereas TMV could be only inactivated by thermophilic anaerobic digestion over 20 days. These results suggested that using tobacco stalks as feedstock for anaerobic digestion and applying the digested residue and slurry to Solanaceae crop land are feasible.

  12. The Impact of Biomass Feedstock Supply Variability on the Delivered Price to a Biorefinery in the Peace River Region of Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen, Jamie [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Kloeck, T. [Alberta Agriculture; Townley-Smith, Lawrence [AAFC; Stumborg, Mark [AAFC

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural residue feedstock availability in a given region can vary significantly over the 20 25 year lifetime of a biorefinery. Since delivered price of biomass feedstock to a biorefinery is related to the distance travelled and equipment optimization, and transportation distance increases as productivity decreases, productivity is a primary determinant of feedstock price. Using the Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis and Logistics (IBSAL) modeling environment and a standard round bale harvest and delivery scenario, harvest and delivery price were modelled for minimum, average, and maximum yields at four potential biorefinery sites in the Peace River region of Alberta, Canada. Biorefinery capacities ranged from 50,000 to 500,000 tonnes per year. Delivery cost is a linear function of transportation distance and can be combined with a polynomial harvest function to create a generalized delivered cost function for agricultural residues. The range in delivered cost is substantial and is an important consideration for the operating costs of a biorefinery.

  13. Growth kinetics of Chlorococcum humicola - A potential feedstock for biomass with biofuel properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jibu; Jayachithra, E V

    2015-11-01

    Economically viable production facilities for microalgae depend on the optimization of growth parameters with regard to nutrient requirements. Using microalgae to treat industrial effluents containing heavy metals presents an alternative to the current practice of using physical and chemical methods. Present work focuses on the statistical optimization of growth of Chlorococcum humicola to ascertain the maximum production of biomass. Plackett Burman design was carried out to screen the significant variables influencing biomass production. Further, Response Surface Methodology was employed to optimize the effect of inoculum, light intensity and pH on net biomass yield. Optimum conditions for maximum biomass yield were identified to be inoculum at 15%, light intensity to be 1500lx and pH 8.5. Theoretical and predicted values were in agreement and thus the model was found to be significant. Gas chromatography analyses of the FAME derivatives showed a high percentage of saturated fatty acids thereby confirming the biofuel properties of the oil derived from algal biomass.

  14. Biomass in a sustainable energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    1998-04-01

    In this thesis, aspects of an increase in the utilization of biomass in the Swedish energy system are treated. Modern bioenergy systems should be based on high energy and land use efficiency since biomass resources and productive land are limited. The energy input, including transportation, per unit biomass produced is about 4-5% for logging residues, straw and short rotation forest (Salix). Salix has the highest net energy yield per hectare among the various energy crops cultivated in Sweden. The CO{sub 2} emissions from the production and transportation of logging residues, straw and Salix, are equivalent to 2-3% of those from a complete fuel-cycle for coal. Substituting biomass for fossil fuels in electricity and heat production is, in general, less costly and leads to a greater CO{sub 2} reduction per unit biomass than substituting biomass derived transportation fuels for petrol or diesel. Transportation fuels produced from cellulosic biomass provide larger and less expensive CO{sub 2} emission reductions than transportation fuels from annual crops. Swedish CO{sub 2} emissions could be reduced by about 50% from the present level if fossil fuels are replaced and the energy demand is unchanged. There is a good balance between potential regional production and utilization of biomass in Sweden. Future biomass transportation distances need not be longer than, on average, about 40 km. About 22 TWh electricity could be produced annually from biomass in large district heating systems by cogeneration. Cultivation of Salix and energy grass could be utilized to reduce the negative environmental impact of current agricultural practices, such as the emission of greenhouse gases, nutrient leaching, decreased soil fertility and erosion, and for the treatment of municipal waste and sludge, leading to increased recirculation of nutrients. About 20 TWh biomass could theoretically be produced per year at an average cost of less than 50% of current production cost, if the economic

  15. Field-to-Fuel Performance Testing of Various Biomass Feedstocks: Production and Catalytic Upgrading of Bio-Oil to Refinery Blendstocks (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.; Westover, T.; Howe, D.; Evans, R.; French, R.; Kutnyakov, I.

    2014-09-01

    Large-scale, cost-competitive deployment of thermochemical technologies to replace petroleum oil with domestic biofuels will require inclusion of high volumes of low-cost, diverse biomass types into the supply chain. However, a comprehensive understanding of the impacts of feedstock thermo-physical and chemical variability, particularly inorganic matter (ash), on the yield and product distribution

  16. Co-production of bioethanol and probiotic yeast biomass from agricultural feedstock: application of the rural biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Claire M; Loveridge, E Joel; Donnison, Iain S; Kelly, Diane E; Kelly, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    Microbial biotechnology and biotransformations promise to diversify the scope of the biorefinery approach for the production of high-value products and biofuels from industrial, rural and municipal waste feedstocks. In addition to bio-based chemicals and metabolites, microbial biomass itself constitutes an obvious but overlooked by-product of existing biofermentation systems which warrants fuller attention. The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii is used to treat gastrointestinal disorders and marketed as a human health supplement. Despite its relatedness to S. cerevisiae that is employed widely in biotechnology, food and biofuel industries, the alternative applications of S. boulardii are not well studied. Using a biorefinery approach, we compared the bioethanol and biomass yields attainable from agriculturally-sourced grass juice using probiotic S. boulardii (strain MYA-769) and a commercial S. cerevisiae brewing strain (Turbo yeast). Maximum product yields for MYA-769 (39.18 [±2.42] mg ethanol mL(-1) and 4.96 [±0.15] g dry weight L(-1)) compared closely to those of Turbo (37.43 [±1.99] mg mL(-1) and 4.78 [±0.10] g L(-1), respectively). Co-production, marketing and/or on-site utilisation of probiotic yeast biomass as a direct-fed microbial to improve livestock health represents a novel and viable prospect for rural biorefineries. Given emergent evidence to suggest that dietary yeast supplementations might also mitigate ruminant enteric methane emissions, the administration of probiotic yeast biomass could also offer an economically feasible way of reducing atmospheric CH4.

  17. Next Generation Protein Interactomes for Plant Systems Biology and Biomass Feedstock Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecker, Joseph Robert [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Trigg, Shelly [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Biological Sciences Dept.; Garza, Renee [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Song, Haili [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; MacWilliams, Andrew [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Nery, Joseph [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Reina, Joaquin [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Bartlett, Anna [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Castanon, Rosa [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Goubil, Adeline [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Feeney, Joseph [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; O' Malley, Ronan [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Huang, Shao-shan Carol [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Zhang, Zhuzhu [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Galli, Mary [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.

    2016-11-30

    Biofuel crop cultivation is a necessary step in heading towards a sustainable future, making their genomic studies a priority. While technology platforms that currently exist for studying non-model crop species, like switch-grass or sorghum, have yielded large quantities of genomic and expression data, still a large gap exists between molecular mechanism and phenotype. The aspect of molecular activity at the level of protein-protein interactions has recently begun to bridge this gap, providing a more global perspective. Interactome analysis has defined more specific functional roles of proteins based on their interaction partners, neighborhoods, and other network features, making it possible to distinguish unique modules of immune response to different plant pathogens(Jiang, Dong, and Zhang 2016). As we work towards cultivating heartier biofuel crops, interactome data will lead to uncovering crop-specific defense and development networks. However, the collection of protein interaction data has been limited to expensive, time-consuming, hard-to-scale assays that mostly require cloned ORF collections. For these reasons, we have successfully developed a highly scalable, economical, and sensitive yeast two-hybrid assay, ProCREate, that can be universally applied to generate proteome-wide primary interactome data. ProCREate enables en masse pooling and massively paralleled sequencing for the identification of interacting proteins by exploiting Cre-lox recombination. ProCREate can be used to screen ORF/cDNA libraries from feedstock plant tissues. The interactome data generated will yield deeper insight into many molecular processes and pathways that can be used to guide improvement of feedstock productivity and sustainability.

  18. Biomass energy production. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, P. W.

    1980-01-01

    These 210 citations from the international literature describe the production and/or utilization of most forms of biomass as a source of energy, fuel, food, and chemical intermediates or feedstocks. Biomass conversion by incineration, gasification, pyrolysis, hydrolysis, anaerobic digestion, or fermentation, as well as by catalytic, photosynthetic, chemosynthetic, and bio-electrochemical means are among the conversion processes considered. Discussions include biomass plantation and material productivity, transportation and equipment requirements, effects, comparisons of means and efficiencies of utilization and conversion, assessments of limitations, and evaluations of economic potential.

  19. Microalgae as Sustainable Renewable Energy Feedstock for Biofuel Production

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The world energy crisis and increased greenhouse gas emissions have driven the search for alternative and environmentally friendly renewable energy sources. According to life cycle analysis, microalgae biofuel is identified as one of the major renewable energy sources for sustainable development, with potential to replace the fossil-based fuels. Microalgae biofuel was devoid of the major drawbacks associated with oil crops and lignocelluloses-based biofuels. Algae-based biofuels are technical...

  20. Formation, Molecular Structure, and Morphology of Humins in Biomass Conversion : Influence of Feedstock and Processing Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zandvoort, Ilona; Wang, Yuehu; Rasrendra, Carolus B.; van Eck, Ernst R. H.; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.; Heeres, Hero J.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2013-01-01

    Neither the routes through which humin byproducts are formed, nor their molecular structure have yet been unequivocally established. A better understanding of the formation and physicochemical properties of humins, however, would aid in making biomass conversion processes more efficient. Here, an ex

  1. Geospatial Assessment of Long-Term Sustainability of Biomass Feedstock Supplies: Erosion, Soil Biomass Accumulation, Greenhouse Gasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosentrater, K. A.; Kaleita, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    In the past decade, the corn grain-based fuel ethanol industry has grown exponentially. Now, stakeholders within the corn grain producing regions of the midwestern United States are seeking to develop advanced biofuels from abundant post-harvest lignocellulosic corn stover resides. How sustainable are these biofuels? Scientific guidelines regarding the sustainable use of corn grain and stover to maintain soil quality have not been clearly defined, due in part to the complexity of agricultural soil systems and the dearth of robust and consistent data. The objective of this study was to examine the long-term sustainability of corn stover harvest for economically relevant agricultural production scenarios focused on the state of Iowa. We used the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model to simulate soil erosion and biomass returned to the soil under two crop rotation scenarios (continuous corn vs. corn-soybean rotation), three corn stover removal rates (0, 50, 100% removed), and three tillage intensities (no till (NT), intermediate till (IT), conventional till (CT)). Calculations were aggregated to the township-scale using multiple sampling points from the USDA Natural Resources Inventory per township within each county, for a total of 17,848 sampling points throughout the state. This accounted for the topographical and soils variation within the state; use of county weather stations incorporated climate variations. Statistical characterization and GIS visualization were used to illustrate and interpret the results. Wide variations in biomass accumulation/erosion/GHG impacts were observed across agronomic scenarios and landform regions throughout Iowa, and biomass management and tillage intensity impacted on-site soil quality and the off-site environment. Soil biomass was primarily affected by stover removal rate, with soybean rotation also reducing soil biomass. Soil erosion was primarily affected by slope and tillage, with stover removal rate playing a lesser

  2. Clean energy and agriculture. 5. ; Utilization of biomass for energy. Clean energy to nogyo. 5. ; Biomass energy no riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haga, K. (National Institute of Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1992-10-01

    This paper reviews characteristics of biomass energy, which is regarded as renewable and clean, and present features of its utilization as well as their problems. Biomass energy resources are substantially such cultivated plants as saccharine crops, fatty and oily crops, petroleum plants, and aquatic plants. In addition, organic waste including agricultural and livestock waste is also the other important resource. Utilization of biomass for energy can be realized through applying such conversion technologies as methane fermentation, alcoholic fermentation, and thermal decomposition to the biomass resources. For the utilization, it is most important to make much of the viewpoints such as durable utilization corresponding to reproduction, competitive relation with food crops, and environmental protection. Biomass energy should be thought to be strictly limited to small-sized and regionally distributed energy. Therefore, it will be said that agriculture is appropriate to utilize biomass energy because it can practice both production and utilization of the biomass. 22 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Cyanobacterial biomass as carbohydrate and nutrient feedstock for bioethanol production by yeast fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllers, K Benedikt; Canella, D.; Jørgensen, Henning;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Microbial bioconversion of photosynthetic biomass is a promising approach to the generation of biofuels and other bioproducts. However, rapid, high-yield, and simple processes are essential for successful applications. Here, biomass from the rapidly growing photosynthetic marine...... cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was fermented using yeast into bioethanol. Results: The cyanobacterium accumulated a total carbohydrate content of about 60% of cell dry weight when cultivated under nitrate limitation. The cyanobacterial cells were harvested by centrifugation and subjected to enzymatic...... cyanobacteria or microalgae. Importantly, as well as fermentable carbohydrates, the cyanobacterial hydrolysate contained additional nutrients that promoted fermentation. This hydrolysate is therefore a promising substitute for the relatively expensive nutrient additives (such as yeast extract) commonly used...

  4. Analyzing and Comparing Biomass Feedstock Supply Systems in China: Corn Stover and Sweet Sorghum Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Lantian Ren; Kara Cafferty; Mohammad Roni; Jacob Jacobson; Guanghui Xie; Leslie Ovard; Christopher Wright

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the rural Chinese biomass supply system and models supply chain operations according to U.S. concepts of logistical unit operations: harvest and collection, storage, transportation, preprocessing, and handling and queuing. In this paper, we quantify the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum in China under different scenarios. We analyze three scenarios of corn stover logistics from northeast China and three scenarios of sweet sorghum stalks logistics from Inner M...

  5. Carbon dioxide, the feedstock for using renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, K.; Kumagai, N.; Izumiya, K.; Kato, Z.

    2011-03-01

    Extrapolation of world energy consumption between 1990 and 2007 to the future reveals the complete exhaustion of petroleum, natural gas, uranium and coal reserves on Earth in 2040, 2044, 2049 and 2054, respectively. We are proposing global carbon dioxide recycling to use renewable energy so that all people in the whole world can survive. The electricity will be generated by solar cell in deserts and used to produce hydrogen by seawater electrolysis at t nearby desert coasts. Hydrogen, for which no infrastructures of transportation and combustion exist, will be converted to methane at desert coasts by the reaction with carbon dioxide captured by energy consumers. Among systems in global carbon dioxide recycling, seawater electrolysis and carbon dioxide methanation have not been performed industrially. We created energy-saving cathodes for hydrogen production and anodes for oxygen evolution without chlorine formation in seawater electrolysis, and ideal catalysts for methane formation by the reaction of carbon dioxide with hydrogen. Prototype plant and industrial scale pilot plant have been built.

  6. Carbon dioxide, the feedstock for using renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, K; Kato, Z [Tohoku Institute of Technology, Sendai, 982-8577 (Japan); Kumagai, N; Izumiya, K, E-mail: koji@imr.tohku.ac.jp [Daiki Ataka Engineering Co. Ltd. Kashiwa, 277-8515 (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Extrapolation of world energy consumption between 1990 and 2007 to the future reveals the complete exhaustion of petroleum, natural gas, uranium and coal reserves on Earth in 2040, 2044, 2049 and 2054, respectively. We are proposing global carbon dioxide recycling to use renewable energy so that all people in the whole world can survive. The electricity will be generated by solar cell in deserts and used to produce hydrogen by seawater electrolysis at t nearby desert coasts. Hydrogen, for which no infrastructures of transportation and combustion exist, will be converted to methane at desert coasts by the reaction with carbon dioxide captured by energy consumers. Among systems in global carbon dioxide recycling, seawater electrolysis and carbon dioxide methanation have not been performed industrially. We created energy-saving cathodes for hydrogen production and anodes for oxygen evolution without chlorine formation in seawater electrolysis, and ideal catalysts for methane formation by the reaction of carbon dioxide with hydrogen. Prototype plant and industrial scale pilot plant have been built.

  7. Development and Testing of Cool-Season Grass Species, Varieties and Hybrids for Biomass Feedstock Production in Western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Larson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breeding of native cool-season grasses has the potential to improve forage production and expand the range of bioenergy feedstocks throughout western North America. Basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus and creeping wildrye (Leymus triticoides rank among the tallest and most rhizomatous grasses of this region, respectively. The objectives of this study were to develop interspecific creeping wildrye (CWR × basin wildrye (BWR hybrids and evaluate their biomass yield relative to tetraploid ‘Trailhead’, octoploid ‘Magnar’ and interploidy-hybrid ‘Continental’ BWR cultivars in comparison with other perennial grasses across diverse single-harvest dryland range sites and a two-harvest irrigated production system. Two half-sib hybrid populations were produced by harvesting seed from the tetraploid self-incompatible Acc:641.T CWR genet, which was clonally propagated by rhizomes into isolated hybridization blocks with two tetraploid BWR pollen parents: Acc:636 and ‘Trailhead’. Full-sib hybrid seed was also produced from a controlled cross of tetraploid ‘Rio’ CWR and ‘Trailhead’ BWR plants. In space-planted range plots, the ‘Rio’ CWR × ‘Trailhead’ BWR and Acc:641.T CWR × Acc:636 BWR hybrids displayed high-parent heterosis with 75% and 36% yield advantages, respectively, but the Acc:641.T CWR × ‘Trailhead’ BWR hybrid yielded significantly less than its BWR high-parent in this evaluation. Half-sib CWR × BWR hybrids of Acc:636 and ‘Trailhead’ both yielded as good as or better than available BWR cultivars, with yields similar to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, in the irrigated sward plots. These results elucidate opportunity to harness genetic variation among native grass species for the development of forage and bioenergy feedstocks in western North America.

  8. Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. (Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States))

    1992-03-01

    This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

  9. Uniform-Format Solid Feedstock Supply System: A Commodity-Scale Design to Produce an Infrastructure-Compatible Bulk Solid from Lignocellulosic Biomass -- Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Richard Hess; Christopher T. Wright; Kevin L. Kenney; Erin M. Searcy

    2009-04-01

    This report, Uniform-Format Solid Feedstock Supply System: A Commodity-Scale Design to Produce an Infrastructure-Compatible Bulk Solid from Lignocellulosic Biomass, prepared by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), acknowledges the need and provides supportive designs for an evolutionary progression from present day conventional bale-based supply systems to a uniform-format, bulk solid supply system that transitions incrementally as the industry launches and matures. These designs couple to and build from current state of technology and address science and engineering constraints that have been identified by rigorous sensitivity analyses as having the greatest impact on feedstock supply system efficiencies and costs.

  10. Biomass energy systems program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    Research programs in biomass which were funded by the US DOE during fiscal year 1978 are listed in this program summary. The conversion technologies and their applications have been grouped into program elements according to the time frame in which they are expected to enter the commercial market. (DMC)

  11. Bio-energy feedstock yields and their water quality benefits in Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parajuli, Prem B.

    2011-08-10

    Cellulosic and agricultural bio-energy crops can, under careful management, be harvested as feedstock for bio-fuels production and provide environmental benefits. However, it is required to quantify their relative advantages in feedstock production and water quality. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate potential feedstock yield and water quality benefit scenarios of bioenergy crops: Miscanthus (Miscanthus-giganteus), Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), Soybean {Glycine max (L.) Merr.}, and Corn (Lea mays) in the Upper Pearl River watershed (UPRW), Mississippi using a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The SWAT model was calibrated (January 1981 to December 1994) and validated (January 1995 to September 2008) using monthly measured stream flow data. The calibrated and validated model determined good to very good performance for stream flow prediction (R2 and E from 0.60 to 0.86). The RMSE values (from 14 m3 s-1 to 37 m3 s-1) were estimated at similar levels of errors during model calibration and validation. The long-term average annual potential feedstock yield as an alternative energy source was determined the greatest when growing Miscanthus grass (373,849 Mg) as followed by Alfalfa (206,077 Mg), Switchgrass (132,077 Mg), Johnsongrass (47,576 Mg), Soybean (37,814 Mg), and Corn (22,069 Mg) in the pastureland and cropland of the watershed. Model results determined that average annual sediment yield from the Miscanthus grass scenario determined the least (1.16 Mg/ha) and corn scenario the greatest (12.04 Mg/ha). The SWAT model simulated results suggested that growing Miscanthus grass in the UPRW would have the greatest potential feedstock yield and water quality benefits.

  12. New market potential: Torrefaction of Woody Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; J. Richard Hess

    2015-07-01

    According to researchers in Idaho National Laboratory’s Bioenergy Program, torrefaction of woody biomass could reduce variability in biomass feedstock and enable development of a commodity-type product for green energy generation and usage.

  13. Impacts of variability in cellulosic biomass yields on energy security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Kimberley A; Matthews, H Scott; Griffin, W Michael; Anex, Robert

    2014-07-01

    The practice of modeling biomass yields on the basis of deterministic point values aggregated over space and time obscures important risks associated with large-scale biofuel use, particularly risks related to drought-induced yield reductions that may become increasingly frequent under a changing climate. Using switchgrass as a case study, this work quantifies the variability in expected yields over time and space through switchgrass growth modeling under historical and simulated future weather. The predicted switchgrass yields across the United States range from about 12 to 19 Mg/ha, and the 80% confidence intervals range from 20 to 60% of the mean. Average yields are predicted to decrease with increased temperatures and weather variability induced by climate change. Feedstock yield variability needs to be a central part of modeling to ensure that policy makers acknowledge risks to energy supplies and develop strategies or contingency plans that mitigate those risks.

  14. Switchgrass a valuable biomass crop for energy

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The demand of renewable energies is growing steadily both from policy and from industry which seeks environmentally friendly feed stocks. The recent policies enacted by the EU, USA and other industrialized countries foresee an increased interest in the cultivation of energy crops; there is clear evidence that switchgrass is one of the most promising biomass crop for energy production and bio-based economy and compounds. Switchgrass: A Valuable Biomass Crop for Energy provides a comprehensive guide to  switchgrass in terms of agricultural practices, potential use and markets, and environmental and social benefits. Considering this potential energy source from its biology, breed and crop physiology to its growth and management to the economical, social and environmental impacts, Switchgrass: A Valuable Biomass Crop for Energy brings together chapters from a range of experts in the field, including a foreword from Kenneth P. Vogel, to collect and present the environmental benefits and characteristics of this a ...

  15. Biomassa e energia Biomass and energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Goldemberg

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass was the dominating source of energy for human activities until the middle 19th century, when coal, oil, gas and other energy sources became increasingly important but it still represents ca. 10% of the worldwide energy supply. The major part of biomass for energy is still "traditional biomass" used as wood and coal extracted from native forests and thus non-sustainable, used with low efficiency for cooking and home heating, causing pollution problems. This use is largely done in rural areas and it is usually not supported by trading activities. There is now a strong trend to the modernization of biomass use, especially making alcohol from sugar cane thus replacing gasoline, or biodiesel to replace Diesel oil, beyond the production of electricity and vegetable coal using wood from planted forests. As recently as in 2004, sustainable "modern biomass" represented 2% of worldwide energy consumption. This article discusses the perspectives of the "first" and "second" technology generations for liquid fuel production, as well as biomass gaseification to make electricity or syngas that is in turn used in the Fischer-Tropsch process.

  16. Thermodynamic modelling of supercritical water gasification: investigating the effect of biomass composition to aid in the selection of appropriate feedstock material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, Jeanne; Schwarz, Cara E; Knoetze, Johannes H; Burger, Andries J

    2014-12-01

    A process model developed in Aspen Plus®, was used for the thermodynamic modelling of supercritical water gasification (SCWG) using a wide variety of biomass materials as feedstock. The influence of the composition of the biomass material (in terms of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen content) on various performance indicators (such as gas yields, cold gas efficiency, calorific value of product gas and heat of reaction), were determined at various temperatures (600, 700 and 800°C) and biomass feed concentrations (5, 15 and 25wt.%). Generalised contour plots, based on the biomass composition, were developed for these performance indicators to provide the thermodynamic limits at various operating conditions. These plots can aid in the selection or screening of potential biomass materials and appropriate operating conditions for SCWG prior to conducting experimental work.

  17. Biomass gasification and energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahinpey, N.; Nikoo, M.B. [Regina Univ., SK (Canada). Faculty of Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The ASPEN PLUS simulation program was used to model an atmospheric fluidized bed biomass gasifier. The aim of the study was develop a simulation capable of accurately predicting steady state performance of the gasifier in relation to hydrodynamics and reaction kinetics. The influences of feed decomposition, volatile reactions, gas gasification and gas-solid separation were considered through modularized ASPEN PLUS models. The ASPEN PLUS yield reactor was used to simulate biomass feed decomposition. A separation column model was used to separate volatile materials and solids. Experimental data from a pine biomass gasification experiment conducted in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed gasifier was used to validate the simulation results. Good agreement was shown for gas composition, although carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) rates were slightly underestimated. The study also demonstrated that higher temperatures improved the gasification process and carbon conversion. The optimized gasification process produced more carbon monoxide (CO) and less CO{sub 2}. The introduction of lower temperature steam to the gasification process increased tar output. It was concluded that the conversion efficiency increased when the equivalence ratio was increased. 7 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  18. 非粮生物质原料体系研发进展及方向%Progress and direction of non-food biomass feedstock supply research and development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢光辉

    2012-01-01

    非粮生物质原料供应是生物质能产业发展的最主要限制因素。本文系统分析了适合中国国情的非粮生物质和宜能非粮地概念,阐述粮食安全和生物质能源发展的关系,认为发展可持续非粮生物质能源是实现粮食、能源、生态、农村经济多赢的战略举措。进而,重点综述了当前中国非粮生物质原料及其供应体系研究进展,分析了当前迫切需要研发的重点任务,内容包括废弃物生物质资源及其可获得性,非粮能源植物种类筛选、育种和生产技术,原料生产、收获、收集和物流及其机械化,宜能非粮地的面积、分布和生产潜力,原料生产与供应的可持续性和标准化,供应产业模式及能源农业发展,发展规划和政策。%Non-food biomass feedstock supply is one of the most important limiting factors in fluencing biofuel development.In this article,the definitions of non-food biomass feedstock and non-food land for bioenergy crops are clarified according to the situation present in China.After identifying the relationship between food security and biomass energy development,it is shown that sustainable non-food biofuel will be a multi-win-win industry to improve food and energy production,eco-environment,and the rural economy and would not have negative effects on food security of the country.This article also reviews the progress of non-food biomass feedstock research,its supply system and further studies currently need in China.It includes the following areas:1)availability of residue biomass,2)nonfood bioenergy plant screening,breeding,and production technology,3)feedstock production,collection,and logistics and mechanization,4)distribution and potential of the non-food land for biomass production,5)sustainability and standardization of nonfood biomass feedstock production and supply,6)development of demonstration and bioenergy agriculture,and 7)planning and policy on the non-food biomass feedstock

  19. Development of Bio-Oil Commodity Fuel as a Refinery Feedstock from High Impact Algae Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastner, James [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemical Engineering; Mani, Sudhagar [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemical Engineering; Das, K. C. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemical Engineering; Hilten, Roger [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemical Engineering; Jena, Umakanta [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-11-30

    A two-stage hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process was developed to 1) reduce nitrogen levels in algal oil, 2) generate a nitrogen rich stream with limited inhibitors for recycle and algae cultivation, and 3) improve downstream catalytic hydrodenitrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation of the algal oil to refinery intermediates. In the first stage, low temperature HTL was conducted at 125, 175, and 225°C at holding times ranging from 1 to 30 min (time at reaction temperature). A consortium of three algal strains, namely Chlorella sorokiniana, Chlorella minutissima, and Scenedesmus bijuga were used to grow and harvest biomass in a raceway system – this consortium is called the UGA Raceway strain throughout the report. Subsequent analysis of the final harvested product indicated that only two strains predominated in the final harvest - Chlorella sorokiniana and Scenedesmus bijuga. Two additional strains representing a high protein (Spirulina platensis) and high lipid algae (Nannochloropsis) strains were also used in this study. These strains were purchased from suppliers. S. platensis biomass was provided by Earthrise Nutritionals LLC (Calipatria, CA) in dry powder form with defined properties, and was stored in airtight packages at 4°C prior to use. A Nannochloropsis paste from Reed Mariculture was purchased and used in the two-stage HTL/HDO experiments. The solids and liquids from this low temperature HTL pretreatment step were separated and analyzed, leading to the following conclusions. Overall, these results indicate that low temperature HTL (200-250°C) at short residence times (5-15 min) can be used to lyse algae cells and remove/separate protein and nitrogen before subsequent higher temperature HTL (for lipid and other polymer hydrolysis) and HDO. The significant reduction in nitrogen when coupled with low protein/high lipid algae cultivation methods at scale could significantly improve downstream catalytic HDO results. However, significant barriers and

  20. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.I.C.; Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Gomez, R.F.; Sinskey, A.J.

    1977-11-01

    Progress in studies on the production of reducing sugars and other products by Clostridium thermocellum on cellulosic biomass is reported. The rate of reducing sugar production using corn residue was found to be equal if not greater than on solka floc. Current work is being devoted towards elucidating discrepancies between reducing sugar analysis and high pressure liquid chromatography sugar analysis in order to permit accurate material balances to be completed. Studies are reported in further characterizing the plasmics of C. thermocellum and in the development of protoplasts of the same microorganism. A process and economic analysis for the production of 200 x 10/sup 6/ pounds (90 x 10/sup 6/ kilograms) per year of soluble reducing sugars from corn stover cellulose, using enzymes derived from Clostridium thermocellum was designed. Acrylic acid was produced in resting cell preparation of Clostridium propionicum from both ..beta..-alanine and from propionic acid. Results from the conversion of corn stover hydrolyzates to lactic acid, a precursor to acrylic acid, show that up to 70% of the sugars produced are converted to lactic acid. Efforts are proceeding to improve the conversion yield and carry out the overall conversion of corn stover to acrylic acid in the same fermentor. Results on the production of acetone and butanol by Clostridium acetobutylicum demonstrated the capability of the strain to produce mixed solvents in concentration and conversion similar to that achieved in industrial processes. Various studies on the production of acetic acid by Clostridium thermoaceticum are also reported.

  1. Pretreating lignocellulosic biomass by the concentrated phosphoric acid plus hydrogen peroxide (PHP) for enzymatic hydrolysis: evaluating the pretreatment flexibility on feedstocks and particle sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Zhanghong; Shen, Fei; Hu, Jinguang; Sun, Fubao; Lin, Lili; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Deng, Shihuai

    2014-08-01

    In order to seek a high-efficient pretreatment path for converting lignocellulosic feedstocks to fermentable sugars by enzymatic hydrolysis, the concentrated H₃PO₄ plus H₂O₂ (PHP) was attempted to pretreat different lignocellulosic biomass for evaluating the pretreatment flexibility on feedstocks. Meanwhile, the responses of pretreatment to particle sizes were also evaluated. When the PHP-pretreatment was employed (final H₂O₂ and H₃PO₄ concentration of 1.77% and 80.0%), 71-96% lignin and more than 95% hemicellulose in various feedstocks (agricultural residues, hardwood, softwood, bamboo, and their mixture, and garden wastes mixture) can be removed. Consequently, more than 90% glucose conversion was uniformly achieved indicating PHP greatly improved the pretreatment flexibility to different feedstocks. Moreover, when wheat straw and oak chips were PHP-pretreated with different sizes, the average glucose conversion reached 94.9% and 100% with lower coefficient of variation (7.9% and 0.0%), which implied PHP-pretreatment can significantly weaken the negative effects of feedstock sizes on subsequent conversion.

  2. Energy from biomass and wastes: 1979 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klass, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    The R and D activities in progress in the United States on the development of biomass and wastes as renewable energy sources have reached the point where all phases of the technology are under active investigation. Highlights of this effort are briefly reviewed from the standpoint of energy impact, funding, carbon dioxide build-up in the atmosphere, and biomass production and its conversion to energy and synthetic fuels. Special attention is given to alcohols because of the current interest in gasohol. Significant accomplishments were reported in 1979, and it is expected that commercial utilization of this information will begin to gather more momentum.

  3. Evaluation of Brazilian biomasses as potential feedstocks for fuel production via fast pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The utilization of lignocellulosic materials to generate energy is constantly expanding around the world. In addition to the well-known biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, advanced biofuels obtained by thermochemical conversion routes have been explored, including pyrolysis oil, biochar and syng...

  4. LCA of biomass-based energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2012-01-01

    supplied could be significantly reduced (from 68 to 17 Gg CO2-eq/PJ) by increased use of wind and residual biomass resources as well as by electrifying the transport sector. Energy crops for production of biofuels and the use of these biofuels for heavy terrestrial transportation were responsible for most......Decrease of fossil fuel consumption in the energy sector is an important step towards more sustainable energy production. Environmental impacts related to potential future energy systems in Denmark with high shares of wind and biomass energy were evaluated using life-cycle assessment (LCA). Based...... on the reference year 2008, energy scenarios for 2030 and 2050 were assessed. For 2050 three alternatives for supply of transport fuels were considered: (1) fossil fuels, (2) rapeseed based biodiesel, and (3) Fischer–Tropsch based biodiesel. Overall, the results showed that greenhouse gas emissions per PJ energy...

  5. Biomass as feedstock for the industry: road to perdition or the promised land?

    OpenAIRE

    Kok, Ad de

    2013-01-01

    Are we at the eve of a transformation in our economic system? “Yes”, according to several visionary scientists and policymakers. They predict the rise of an economy that is based on biological materials, the so-called bio-based economy. The key challenge is that due to several socio-economic developments, the world is expected to consume vastly more resources than today. The total demand for energy is projected to almost double in the next century. Increased scarcity will be accompanied by a ...

  6. Anaerobic conversion of microalgal biomass to sustainable energy carriers--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija; Tuovinen, Olli H; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2013-05-01

    This review discusses anaerobic production of methane, hydrogen, ethanol, butanol and electricity from microalgal biomass. The amenability of microalgal biomass to these bioenergy conversion processes is compared with other aquatic and terrestrial biomass sources. The highest energy yields (kJ g(-1) dry wt. microalgal biomass) reported in the literature have been 14.8 as ethanol, 14.4 as methane, 6.6 as butanol and 1.2 as hydrogen. The highest power density reported from microalgal biomass in microbial fuel cells has been 980 mW m(-2). Sequential production of different energy carriers increases attainable energy yields, but also increases investment and maintenance costs. Microalgal biomass is a promising feedstock for anaerobic energy conversion processes, especially for methanogenic digestion and ethanol fermentation. The reviewed studies have mainly been based on laboratory scale experiments and thus scale-up of anaerobic utilization of microalgal biomass for production of energy carriers is now timely and required for cost-effectiveness comparisons.

  7. Effect of Agricultural Feedstock to Energy Conversion Rate on Bioenergy and GHG Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chun Kung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan is eager to develop renewable energy because it is vulnerable to energy price distortion and ocean level rise. Previous studies show bioenergy technologies can be applied mutually, but pay little attention on feedstocks to energy conversion rate, which has potential influences on policy making in renewable energy and environment. This study employs a price endogenous mathematical programming model to simultaneously simulate the market operations under various feedstocks to energy conversion rates, energy prices, and greenhouse gas (GHG prices. The result shows pyrolysis-based electricity can reach up to 2.75 billion kWh annually, but it will be driven out at low conversion rate and high GHG price. Pyrolysis plus biochar application will be the optimal option in terms of carbon sequestration. Market valuation on potential threats of extreme weather could have substantial influences on ethanol and renewable electricity generation. To achieve aimed GHG emission reduction and/or bioenergy production, government intervention may be involved to align the market operation with Taiwan’s environmental policy.

  8. The release of organic compounds during biomass drying depends upon the feedstock and/or altering drying heating medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupar, K.; Sanati, M. [Vaxjo University (Sweden). School of Biosciences and Process Technology

    2003-12-01

    The release of organic compounds during the drying of biomass is a potential environmental problem, it may contribute to air pollution or eutrophication. In many countries there are legal restrictions on the amounts of terpenes that may be released into the atmosphere. When considering bioenergy in future energy systems, it is important that information on the environmental effects is available. The emissions of organic compounds from different green and dried biofuels that have been dried in hot air and steam medium, were analyzed by using different techniques. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography mass spectrometry have been used to identify the organic matter. The terpene content was significantly affected by the following factors: changing of the drying medium and the way the same biomass was handled from different localities in Sweden. Comparison between spectra from dried and green fuels reveal that the main compounds emitted during drying are monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, while the emissions of diterpene hydrocarbons seem to be negligible. The relative proportionality between emitted monoterpene, diterpene and sesquiterpene change when the drying medium shifts from steam to hot air. The obtained result of this work implies a parameter optimization study of the dryer with regard to environmental impact. With assistance of this result it might be foreseen that choice of special drying medium, diversity of biomass and low temperature reduce the emissions. A thermo-gravimetric analyzer was used for investigating the biomass drying rate. (author)

  9. IMPROVING SPECIFIC POWER CONSUMPTION FOR MECHANICAL MIXING OF THE FEEDSTOCK IN A BIOGAS FERMENTER BY MECHANICAL DISINTEGRATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSE BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Kratky

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass particles in biogas fermenter batch either sediment towards vessel bottom or rise towards batch surface, where they float and form a compact thick scum. These processes have primarily the negative influence on batch homogeneity, on evenness of batch temperature field, on removal of produced biogas bubbles out of liquid batch and also on mass transfer among microorganisms. These facts result in non-effective usage of biomass energy-potential that entails in low biogas yields. Therefore, good mixing of bioreactor batch is very important in order to stabilize anaerobic digestion process. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the impact of wheat straw disintegration and its hydration on hydrodynamic behaviour and on specific power consumption for mechanical mixing of wheat straw-water suspension. Based on experimental results, it was concluded that both hydration and mechanical disintegration of lignocellulosic biomass significantly improve homogeneity and pump-ability of biomass-water batches. Wheat straw hydration itself decreases specific power consumption for batch mixing by 60 % towards untreated straw. Moreover, mechanical disintegration itself decreases specific power consumption by 50 % at least towards untreated hydrated straw.

  10. Biomass energy: Another driver of land acquisitions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo; Finnegan, Lynn; MacQueen, Duncan

    2011-08-15

    As governments in the global North look to diversify their economies away from fossil fuel and mitigate climate change, plans for biomass energy are growing fast. These are fuelling a sharp rise in the demand for wood, which, for some countries, could outstrip domestic supply capacity by as much as 600 per cent. It is becoming clear that although these countries will initially look to tap the temperate woodlands of developed countries, there are significant growth rate advantages that may lead them to turn to the tropics and sub-tropics to fill their biomass gap in the near future. Already there is evidence of foreign investors acquiring land in Africa, South America and Southeast Asia to establish tree plantations for biomass energy. If left unchecked, these trends could increase pressures on land access and food security in some of the world's poorest countries and communities.

  11. Banana biomass as potential renewable energy resource: A Malaysian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tock, Jing Yan; Lai, Chin Lin; Lee, Keat Teong; Tan, Kok Tat; Bhatia, Subhash [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2010-02-15

    The world has been relying on fossil fuels as its primary source of energy. This unsustainable energy source is not going to last long and thus, gradual shift towards green renewable energy should be practiced. In Malaysia, even though fossil fuel dominates the energy production, renewable energies such as hydropower and biomass are gaining popularity due to the implementation of energy policies and greater understanding on the importance of green energy. Malaysia has been well endowed with natural resources in areas such as agriculture and forestry. Thus, with the availability of feedstock, biomass energy is practical to be conducted and oil palm topped the ranking as biomass source here because of its high production. However, new sources should be sought after as to avoid the over dependency on a single source. Hence, other agriculture biomass should be considered such as banana plant biomass. This paper will discuss on its potential as a new biomass source in Malaysia. Banana plant is chosen as the subject due to its availability, high growth rates, carbon neutrality and the fact that it bears fruit only once a lifetime. Conversion of the biomass to energy can be done via combustion, supercritical water gasification and digestion to produce thermal energy and biogas. The theoretical potential power generation calculated reached maximum of 950 MW meeting more than half of the renewable energy requirement in the Fifth Fuel Policy (Eighth Malaysia Plan 2001-2005). Thus, banana biomass is feasible as a source of renewable energy in Malaysia and also other similar tropical countries in the world. (author)

  12. Quantifying the Carbon Intensity of Biomass Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, E. L.; Wise, M.; Clarke, L.; McJeon, H.; Mignone, B.

    2012-12-01

    Regulatory agencies at the national and regional level have recognized the importance of quantitative information about greenhouse gas emissions from biomass used in transportation fuels or in electricity generation. For example, in the recently enacted California Low-Carbon Fuel Standard, the California Air Resources Board conducted a comprehensive study to determine an appropriate methodology for setting carbon intensities for biomass-derived transportation fuels. Furthermore, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is currently conducting a multi-year review to develop a methodology for estimating biogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from stationary sources. Our study develops and explores a methodology to compute carbon emission intensities (CIs) per unit of biomass energy, which is a metric that could be used to inform future policy development exercises. To compute CIs for biomass, we use the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), which is an integrated assessment model that represents global energy, agriculture, land and physical climate systems with regional, sectoral, and technological detail. The GCAM land use and land cover component includes both managed and unmanaged land cover categories such as food crop production, forest products, and various non-commercial land uses, and it is subdivided into 151 global land regions (wiki.umd.edu/gcam), ten of which are located in the U.S. To illustrate a range of values for different biomass resources, we use GCAM to compute CIs for a variety of biomass crops grown in different land regions of the U.S. We investigate differences in emissions for biomass crops such as switchgrass, miscanthus and willow. Specifically, we use GCAM to compute global carbon emissions from the land use change caused by a marginal increase in the amount of biomass crop grown in a specific model region. Thus, we are able to explore how land use change emissions vary by the type and location of biomass crop grown in the U.S. Direct

  13. Sustainable Production of Switchgrass for Biomass Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a C4 grass native to the North American tallgrass prairies, which historically extended from Mexico to Canada. It is the model perennial warm-season grass for biomass energy. USDA-ARS in Lincoln, NE has studied switchgrass continuously since 1936. Plot-scale rese...

  14. Energy Production from Marine Biomass (Ulva lactuca)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolaisen, Lars; Daugbjerg Jensen, Peter; Svane Bech, Karin;

    The background for this research activity is that the 2020 goals for reduction of the CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are so challenging that exorbitant amounts of biomass and other renewable sources of energy must be mobilised in order to – maybe – fulfil the ambitious 2020 goals. The macroalgae...

  15. Waste and biomass as energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klass, Donald L.

    1978-11-01

    Organic fuels can be manufactured by converting major sources of continuously renewable nonfossil carbon to synfuels that are interchangeable with, or can be substituted for, natural gas and petroleum-derived fuels. Promising sources of this carbon are waste materials, such as urban refuse, and biomass produced from solar energy by photosynthesis. The development of this concept is presented in this paper. The broad scope of the technology and its potential impact on energy supplies are reviewed. The renewable feature of both wastes and biomass makes them valuable natural resources that inevitably will be fully developed and commercialized as sources of energy-intensive products and synfuels. The perpetual availability of organic fuels will permit the conservation of valuable fossil fuel reserves, and, as time passes, offer a long-term solution to independence from foreign energy supplies and fossil fuel depletion.

  16. Feedstock Quality Factor Calibration and Data Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard D. Boardman; Tyler L. Westover; Garold L. Gresham

    2010-05-01

    The goal of the feedstock assembly operation is to deliver uniform, quality-assured feedstock materials that will enhance downstream system performance by avoiding problems in the conversion equipment. In order to achieve this goal, there is a need for rapid screening tools and methodologies for assessing the thermochemical quality characteristics of biomass feedstock through the assembly process. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been identified as potential technique that could allow rapid elemental analyses of the inorganic content of biomass feedstocks; and consequently, would complement the carbohydrate data provided by near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS). These constituents, including Si, K, Ca, Na, S, P, Cl, Mg, Fe and Al, create a number of downstream problems in thermochemical processes. In particular, they reduce the energy content of the feedstock, influence reaction pathways, contribute to fouling and corrosion within systems, poison catalysts, and impact waste streams.

  17. Energy from biomass. Ethics and practice; Energie aus Biomasse. Ethik und Praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, Silke (ed.)

    2013-06-01

    The implementation of the energy policy turnaround inevitably results in modifications of the land use and landscape. Besides the discussion about the environmental consequences, a debate about ethical issues increasingly arose. Under this aspect, the booklet under consideration contains the following contributions: (1) Renewable energy sources - the role of bioenergy (Bernard Widmann); (2) Energy from biomass - An ethic analysis (Stephan Schleissing); (3) Culture for our landscapes - combination of biomass and water protection (Frank Wagener); (4) Cultivation of energy crops - short rotation coppices (Frank Burger); (5) Bioenergy region Straubing-Bogen: Excellent in the matter of renewable energy sources (Josefine Eichwald); (6) Rural development - motor for the energy policy turnaround (Roland Spiller).

  18. The role of microalgae as biodiesel feedstock in a tropical setting: Economics, agro-energy competitiveness, and potential impacts on regional agricultural feedstock production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Matias G.

    The objective of this study is to obtain a realistic evaluation of the potential role of microalgae as a biodiesel feedstock in a tropical setting. First, microalgae economics are estimated, including the detailed design of a 400 ha microalgae open pond production farm together with the microalgae biomass and crude oil production costs calculations. Sensitivity analysis and a stochastic evaluation of the microalgae venture chances for profit are also included. Next, microalgae potential for biodiesel production is compared to traditional oil crops such as soybeans and African palm. This comparison is performed using the Northeast Region (NER) of Brazil as background. Six potential biodiesel feedstock sources produced in the NER and microalgae are compared considering selected environmental, economic and social sustainability indicators. Finally, in the third chapter, the study proposes a cropland allocation model for the NER. The model aims to offer insights to the decision maker concerning biofuel development strategies and their impact on regional agricultural feedstock production. In the model, cropland allocation among three agriculture feedstock sectors, namely staple food, commodity export and biofuel is optimized through the use of the multiple objective technique referred to as compromise programming (CP). Our results indicate a projected microalgae total production cost of R 78,359 ha-1 (US43,533), which has a breakdown as follows: R 34,133 ha-1 (US18,963) for operating costs and R 44,226 ha-1 (US24,570) for overhead (ownership) costs. Our stochastic analysis indicates that microalgae production under the conditions assumed in the baseline scenario of this study has a 0% chance to present a positive NPV for a microalgae crude oil price of R 1.86. This price corresponds to an international oil price around US 77 bbl-1. To obtain a reasonable investment return (IRR = 12%) from the microalgae farm, an international oil price as high as US 461 bbl-1 is

  19. Beech wood Fagus sylvatica dilute-acid hydrolysate as a feedstock to support Chlorella sorokiniana biomass, fatty acid and pigment production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miazek, Krystian; Remacle, Claire; Richel, Aurore; Goffin, Dorothee

    2017-04-01

    This work evaluates the possibility of using beech wood (Fagus sylvatica) dilute-acid (H2SO4) hydrolysate as a feedstock for Chlorella sorokiniana growth, fatty acid and pigment production. Neutralized wood acid hydrolysate, containing organic and mineral compounds, was tested on Chlorella growth at different concentrations and compared to growth under phototrophic conditions. Chlorella growth was improved at lower loadings and inhibited at higher loadings. Based on these results, a 12% neutralized wood acid hydrolysate (Hyd12%) loading was selected to investigate its impact on Chlorella growth, fatty acid and pigment production. Hyd12% improved microalgal biomass, fatty acid and pigment productivities both in light and in dark, when compared to photoautotrophic control. Light intensity had substantial influence on fatty acid and pigment composition in Chlorella culture during Hyd12%-based growth. Moreover, heterotrophic Chlorella cultivation with Hyd12% also showed that wood hydrolysate can constitute an attractive feedstock for microalgae cultivation in case of lack of light.

  20. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks. Progress report, December 1, 1978-February 28, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.I.C.; Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Gomez, R.F.; Sinskey, A.J.

    1979-02-01

    The ongoing progress of a coordinated research program aimed at optimizing the biodegradation of cellulosic biomass to ethanol and chemical feedstocks is summarized. Growth requirements and genetic manipulations of clostridium thermocellum for selection of high cellulose producers are reported. The enzymatic activity of the cellulase produced by these organisms was studied. The soluble sugars produced from hydrolysis were analyzed. Increasing the tolerance of C. thermocellum to ethanol during liquid fuel production, increasing the rate of product formation, and directing the catabolism to selectively achieve high ethanol concentrations with respect to other products were studied. Alternative substrates for C. thermocellum were evaluated. Studies on the utilization of xylose were performed. Single stage fermentation of cellulose using mixed cultures of C. thermocellum and C. thermosaccharolyticum were studied. The study of the production of chemical feedstocks focused on acrylic acid, acetone/butanol, acetic acid, and lactic acid.

  1. CBTL Design Case Summary Conventional Feedstock Supply System - Herbaceous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher T. Wright; Erin M. Searcy

    2012-02-01

    A conventional bale feedstock design has been established that represents supply system technologies, costs, and logistics that are achievable today for supplying herbaceous feedstocks as a blendstock with coal for energy production. Efforts are made to identify bottlenecks and optimize the efficiency and capacities of this supply system, within the constraints of existing local feedstock supplies, equipment, and permitting requirements. The feedstock supply system logistics operations encompass all of the activities necessary to move herbaceous biomass feedstock from the production location to the conversion reactor ready for blending and insertion. This supply system includes operations that are currently available such that costs and logistics are reasonable and reliable. The system modeled for this research project includes the uses of field-dried corn stover or switchgrass as a feedstock to annually supply an 800,000 DM ton conversion facility.

  2. Biomass energy systems information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-02-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on biomass energy systems are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. This report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. Results from 12 biomass groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: Federally Funded Researchers (2 groups), Nonfederally Funded Researchers (2 groups), Representatives of Manufacturers (2 groups), Representatives of State Forestry Offices, Private Foresters, Forest Products Engineers, Educators, Cooperative Extension Service County Agents, and System Managers. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  3. Soil C storage and greenhouse gas emission perennial grasses managed for bio energy feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perennial grasses like switchgrass or big bluestem when managed as bioenergy feedstock require nitrogenous inputs. Nitrogen fertilizer frequently cause nitrous oxide emission. Therefore, managing grasses as feedstock may reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential expected from perennial. ...

  4. Comparison of the energy and environmental performances of nine biomass/coal co-firing pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Md Ruhul; Kumar, Amit

    2012-11-01

    Life cycle energy and environmental performances of nine different biomass/coal co-firing pathways to power generation were compared. Agricultural residue (AR), forest residue (FR), and whole trees (WT) as feedstock were analyzed for direct (DC) and parallel co-firing (PC) in various forms (e.g., chip, bale and pellet). Biomass co-firing rate lies in the range of 7.53-20.45% (energy basis; rest of the energy comes from coal) for the co-firing pathways, depending on type of feedstock and densification. Net energy ratios (NER) for FR-, WT-, and AR-based co-firing pathways were 0.39-0.42, 0.39-0.41, and 0.37-0.38, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were 957-1004, 967-1014, and 1065-1083 kg CO(2eq)/MWh, acid rain precursor (ARP) emissions were 5.16-5.39, 5.18-5.41, and 5.77-5.93 kgSO(2eq)/MWh, and ground level ozone precursor (GOP) emissions were 1.79-1.89, 1.82-1.93, and 1.88-1.91 kg (NO(x)+VOC)/MWh, respectively. Biomass/coal co-firing life cycle results evaluated in this study are relevant for any jurisdiction around the world.

  5. Cellulose solvent- and organic solvent-based lignocellulose fractionation enabled efficient sugar release from a variety of lignocellulosic feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Zhu, Zhiguang; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2012-08-01

    Developing feedstock-independent biomass pretreatment would be vital to second generation biorefineries that would fully utilize diverse non-food lignocellulosic biomass resources, decrease transportation costs of low energy density feedstock, and conserve natural biodiversity. Cellulose solvent- and organic solvent-based lignocellulose fractionation (COSLIF) was applied to a variety of feedstocks, including Miscanthus, poplar, their mixture, bagasse, wheat straw, and rice straw. Although non-pretreated biomass samples exhibited a large variation in enzymatic digestibility, the COSLIF-pretreated biomass samples exhibited similar high enzymatic glucan digestibilities and fast hydrolysis rates. Glucan digestibilities of most pretreated feedstocks were ∼93% at five filter paper units per gram of glucan. The overall glucose and xylose yields for the Miscanthus:poplar mixture at a weight ratio of 1:2 were 93% and 85%, respectively. These results suggested that COSLIF could be regarded as a feedstock-independent pretreatment suitable for processing diverse feedstocks by adjusting pretreatment residence time only.

  6. BIOMASS-TO-ENERGY FEASIBILITY STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecil T. Massie

    2002-09-03

    The purpose of this study was to assess the economic and technical feasibility of producing electricity and thermal energy from biomass by gasification. For an economic model we chose a large barley malting facility operated by Rahr Malting Co. in Shakopee, Minnesota. This plant provides an excellent backdrop for this study because it has both large electrical loads and thermal loads that allowed us to consider a wide range of sizes and technical options. In the end, eleven scenarios were considered ranging from 3.1 megawatts (MWe) to 19.8 MWe. By locating the gasification and generation at an agricultural product processing plant with large electrical and thermal loads, the expectation was that some of the limitations of stand-alone biomass power plants would be overcome. In addition, since the process itself created significant volumes of low value biomass, the hope was that most of the biomass gathering and transport issues would be handled as well. The development of low-BTU gas turbines is expected to fill a niche between the upper limit of multiple spark ignited engine set systems around 5 MWe and the minimum reasonable scale for steam turbine systems around 10 MWe.

  7. Low Cost and Energy Efficient Methods for the Manufacture of Semi-Solid (SSM) Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diran Apelian; Qingyue Pan; Makhlouf Makhlouf

    2005-11-07

    The SSM Consortium (now ACRC) at WPI has been carrying out fundamental, pre-competitive research in SSM for several years. Current and past research (at WPI) has generated many results of fundamental and applied nature, which are available to the SSM community. These include materials characterization, yield stress effects, alloy development, rheological properties, process modeling/simulation, semi-solid slurry formation, etc. Alternative method to produce SSM slurries at lower processing costs and with reduced energy consumption is a critical need. The production of low cost SSM feedstock will certainly lead to a dramatic increase in the tonnage of castings produced by SSM, and will provide end users such as the transportation industry, with lighter, cheaper and high performance materials. In this program, the research team has addressed three critical issues in semi-solid processing. They are: (1) Development of low cost, reliable slurry-on-demand approaches for semi-solid processing; (2) Application of the novel permanent grain refining technology-SiBloy for the manufacture of high-quality SSM feedstock, and (3) Development of computational and modeling tools for semi-solid processing to enhance SSM process control. Salient results from these studies are summarized and detailed in our final technical report.

  8. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  9. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aden, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Uriarte, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Inman, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simpkins, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Argo, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  10. Glucanocellulosic ethanol: the undiscovered biofuel potential in energy crops and marine biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falter, Christian; Zwikowics, Claudia; Eggert, Dennis; Blümke, Antje; Naumann, Marcel; Wolff, Kerstin; Ellinger, Dorothea; Reimer, Rudolph; Voigt, Christian A

    2015-09-01

    Converting biomass to biofuels is a key strategy in substituting fossil fuels to mitigate climate change. Conventional strategies to convert lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol address the fermentation of cellulose-derived glucose. Here we used super-resolution fluorescence microscopy to uncover the nanoscale structure of cell walls in the energy crops maize and Miscanthus where the typical polymer cellulose forms an unconventional layered architecture with the atypical (1, 3)-β-glucan polymer callose. This raised the question about an unused potential of (1, 3)-β-glucan in the fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass. Engineering biomass conversion for optimized (1, 3)-β-glucan utilization, we increased the ethanol yield from both energy crops. The generation of transgenic Miscanthus lines with an elevated (1, 3)-β-glucan content further increased ethanol yield providing a new strategy in energy crop breeding. Applying the (1, 3)-β-glucan-optimized conversion method on marine biomass from brown macroalgae with a naturally high (1, 3)-β-glucan content, we not only substantially increased ethanol yield but also demonstrated an effective co-fermentation of plant and marine biomass. This opens new perspectives in combining different kinds of feedstock for sustainable and efficient biofuel production, especially in coastal regions.

  11. Limits to solar and biomass energy growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, Y.M.; D' Alessio, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    Drawing on some 45 assessments made by the Technology Assessments of Solar Energy (TASE), the authors examine the potential for commercialization of solar and biomass technologies. The book is divided into four major parts: Part I describes and compares technologies; Part II describes the natural and capital resources necessary for commercialization; Part III examines social, economic, and environmental impacts and institutional and regulatory factors; and Part IV analyzes the consequences of several deployment scenarios. The authors conclude that the disproportionate resource requirements for a modest energy contribution will be liminting factor. 103 references, 80 figures, 32 tables. (DCK)

  12. Sustainable bioenergy feedstock production systems: Integrating carbon dynamics, erosion, water quality, and greenhouse gas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emission is one of several rationales for developing renewable biomass energy. Unfortunately, there are few studies reporting direct impacts of harvesting biomass feedstocks on GHG, especially effects on nitrous oxide (N2O) flux. Overzealous biomass harvest may accelera...

  13. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks. Final report, February 1, 1978-January 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    This is a coordinated program to effect the microbiological degradation of cellulosic biomasses and will focus on the use of anaerobic microorganisms which possess cellulolytic enzyme. The studies will attempt to increase the enzyme levels through genetics, mutation and strain selection. In addition, the direct conversion from cellulosic biomasses to liquid fuel (ethanol) and/or soluble sugars by the cellulolytic, anaerobic organism is also within the scope of this program. Process and engineering scale-up, along with economic analyses, will be performed throughout the course of the program. The second area of our major effort is devoted to the production of chemical feedstocks. In particular, three fermentations have been identified for exploration. These are: acrylic acid, acetone/butanol and acetic acid. The main efforts in these fermentations will address means for the reduction of the cost of manufacturing for these large volume chemicals.

  14. Potential evaluation of biomass-based energy sources for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Ozcan; Semra Öztürk; Yuksel Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Turkey has great potential with respect to renewable energy sources (RES) and, among such sources, “biomass energy” is of particular importance. The purpose of this study is to determine the primary electrical energy potential obtainable from the biomass potential, according to different biomass source types. In this study, the biomass sources of municipal solid wastes, energy crops, animal manure and urban wastewater treatment sludge are evaluated. For each source, individual biogas and biom...

  15. Energy and exergy analyses of a biomass-based hydrogen production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohce, M K; Dincer, I; Rosen, M A

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, a novel biomass-based hydrogen production plant is investigated. The system uses oil palm shell as a feedstock. The main plant processes are biomass gasification, steam methane reforming and shift reaction. The modeling of the gasifier uses the Gibbs free energy minimization approach and chemical equilibrium considerations. The plant, with modifications, is simulated and analyzed thermodynamically using the Aspen Plus process simulation code (version 11.1). Exergy analysis, a useful tool for understanding and improving efficiency, is used throughout the investigation, in addition to energy analysis. The overall performance of the system is evaluated, and its efficiencies become 19% for exergy efficiency and 22% energy efficiency while the gasifier cold gas efficiency is 18%.

  16. PERFORMANCE STUDIES ON DOWNDRAFT GASIFIER WITH BIOMASS ENERGY SOURCES AVAILABLE IN REMOTE VILLAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. ChristusJeya Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing global concern over the environmental issues and depletion of fossil fuels, significant interest has been shown by the researchers to develop alternate energy technologies like biomass, biogas, solar to meet the future energy demand. The prediction of the performance of different biomass energy sources in gasifiers is needed for the implementation of this technology to fulfil the need of decentralized heat and power applications, relevant to remote villages. This study presents the theoretical and experimental studies conducted on a 50 kW downdraft biomass gasifier with various biomass materials such as wood, coconut shell, rubber seed kernel and coir pith which are generally available in villages. Two-zone kinetic equilibrium model approach is used to predict the composition and temperature of the producer gas. The influence of equivalence ratio on the reaction temperature, quality of producer gas and gasifier conversion efficiency are discussed. The experimental and theoretical studies show that the rubber seed kernel can be effectively used as a feedstock of the biomass gasifier to meet the rural energy demand.

  17. Biomass district energy in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maker, T. [Energy Efficiency Associates, Calais, VT (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The advantages of district heating plants, fueled by sustainably produced biomass are reviewed, and numerous successful examples in Canada and the United States are described. Canadian systems include the Trigen PEI system in Charlottetown, systems in the First Nations communities of Ouje-Bougoumou and Grassy Narrows, and systems serving public facilities in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. In the United States, District Energy St. Paul has recently announced a 25 MW CHP plant fired with municipal tree thinnings and other wood wastes. There are two large state office complexes in Vermont that have been fired with sawmill residues and whole-tree chips for the last 15 years. There are also mini-district heating systems serving small communities, or just a few buildings, that have been pioneered in Vermont, Prince Edward Island and elsewhere. Other systems described include biomass thermal energy plants developed in Vermont (`the Vermont Model`) to serve public schools, a 300 KW waste wood boiler developed by a PEI manufacturer and installed in several multi-building settings on farms and greenhouses, and the hand-fired high efficiency cordwood boiler produced by a Minnesota firm that have been used in a number of multi-building applications in native American villages in Alaska. It has been estimated that compared to building energy retrofits and efficiency improvements which might reduce fossil fuel consumption by 10 to 30 per cent, connecting buildings to a biomass-fired district energy system can reduce fossil fuel use and net CO{sub 2} emissions by as much as 80 to 90 per cent. 12 refs.

  18. Assessment of the influence of energy density and feedstock transport distance on the environmental performance of methane from maize silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Lovarelli, Daniela; Ingrao, Carlo; Tricase, Caterina; Negri, Marco; Fiala, Marco

    2015-10-01

    In Europe, thanks to public subsidy, the production of electricity from anaerobic digestion (AD) of agricultural feedstock has considerably grown and several AD plants were built. When AD plants are concentrated in specific areas (e.g., Northern Italy), increases of feedstock' prices and transport distances can be observed. In this context, as regards low-energy density feedstock, the present research was designed to estimate the influence of the related long-distance transport on the environmental performances of the biogas-to-electricity process. For this purpose the following transport systems were considered: farm trailers and trucks. For small distances (silage shows the lowest impact; however, when distances increase, silages with higher energy density (even though characterised by lower methane production per hectare) become more environmentally sustainable. The transport by trucks achieves better environmental performances especially for distances greater than 25 km.

  19. Biomass energy conversion workshop for industrial executives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The rising costs of energy and the risks of uncertain energy supplies are increasingly familiar problems in industry. Bottom line profits and even the simple ability to operate can be affected by spiralling energy costs. An often overlooked alternative is the potential to turn industrial waste or residue into an energy source. On April 9 and 10, 1979, in Claremont, California, the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), the California Energy Commission (CEC), and the Western Solar Utilization Network (WSUN) held a workshop which provided industrial managers with current information on using residues and wastes as industrial energy sources. Successful industrial experiences were described by managers from the food processing and forest product industries, and direct combustion and low-Btu gasification equipment was described in detail. These speakers' presentations are contained in this document. Some major conclusions of the conference were: numerous current industrial applications of wastes and residues as fuels are economic and reliable; off-the-shelf technologies exist for converting biomass wastes and residues to energy; a variety of financial (tax credits) and institutional (PUC rate structures) incentives can help make these waste-to-energy projects more attractive to industry. However, many of these incentives are still being developed and their precise impact must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  20. Densified biomass can cost-effectively mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and address energy security in thermal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas O; McNeal, Frederick M; Spatari, Sabrina; G Abler, David; Adler, Paul R

    2012-01-17

    Regional supplies of biomass are currently being evaluated as feedstocks in energy applications to meet renewable portfolio (RPS) and low carbon fuel standards. We investigate the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and associated abatement costs resulting from using densified switchgrass for thermal and electrical energy. In contrast to the large and positive abatement costs for using biomass in electricity generation ($149/Mg CO(2)e) due to the low cost of coal and high feedstock and power plant operation costs, abatement costs for replacing fuel oil with biomass in thermal applications are large and negative (-$52 to -$92/Mg CO(2)e), resulting in cost savings. Replacing fuel oil with biomass in thermal applications results in least cost reductions compared to replacing coal in electricity generation, an alternative that has gained attention due to RPS legislation and the centralized production model most often considered in U.S. policy. Our estimates indicate a more than doubling of liquid fuel displacement when switchgrass is substituted for fuel oil as opposed to gasoline, suggesting that, in certain U.S. locations, such as the northeast, densified biomass would help to significantly decarbonize energy supply with regionally sourced feedstock, while also reducing imported oil. On the basis of supply projections from the recently released Billion Ton Report, there will be enough sustainably harvested biomass available in the northeast by 2022 to offset the entirety of heating oil demand in the same region. This will save NE consumers between $2.3 and $3.9 billion annually. Diverting the same resource to electricity generation would cost the region $7.7 billion per year. While there is great need for finding low carbon substitutes for coal power and liquid transportation fuels in the U.S., we argue that in certain regions it makes cost- (and GHG mitigation-) effective sense to phase out liquid heating fuels with locally produced biomass first.

  1. Energy Ontologies: Wind, Biomass, and Fossil Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Scott

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article uses literary sources to draw ontological distinctions among three distinct energy sources: wind power, biomass, and fossil fuels. The primary aim is to demonstrate how radically our fossil fuel regime has changed human ontology in the last two centuries during which we have entered the Anthropocene. Because this radical transformation contains myriad elements, this article will focus on transportation: the speed, quality, and quantity of travel permitted by successive energy sources. To consider the comparative literatures of energy as they relate to transportation, we will begin with wind, then consider muscle-driven biomass giving way to coal locomotion, and conclude with the highest octane fuel, petroleum. The central interest is in how the fuel depicted in literature illuminates historical moments in which the interfaces between self, society, and nature are configured by specific energy regimes. By using literature as a source text, we may arrive at an emotionally and philosophically more robust synthesis of energy history than the social and natural sciences, relying upon objective accounts and statistics, are able to provide. By re-reading literature through the lens of the Anthropocene, we gain perspective on how earlier insights into the relationship between energy and experience can inform our explorations of today’s ontological reality. Energy literature instructs us out of the fossil fuel mindset of world domination and back to a physical realm in which we are small actors in a world guided by capricious forces. Such a reality requires hard muscular work and emotional immersion to restore an ethic of care and sustainability.

  2. Biomass energy in the making; La biomasse: une energie en devenir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2008-07-01

    Wood, straw, agricultural residues, organic wastes, biomass is everywhere you look. But the efficient use of this source of green electricity - the world's second largest renewable energy source - requires optimization of biomass collection and combustion processes. Biomass is back on the political agenda. In mid-June of this year, the French government gave this renewable energy a boost by selecting twenty-two projects to generate power and heat with biomass. The plants, to be commissioned by 2010, will be located in eleven different regions and will consume energy from organic plant matter. The power generated will be bought at a firm price of 128 euros per megawatt-hour. Most of the fuel will come from forest and paper industry waste, but straw and even grape pomace will be used in some cases. The plants will have a combined generating capacity of 300 MWh, raising France's installed biomass capacity to a total of 700 MWe. A drop of water in the ocean in the overall scheme of France's electricity. It is true that France has long neglected biomass. In 2004, electricity generated from biological resources represented a mere 1.74 TWhe in France, just 0.3% of its power consumption. This will rise to 0.6% once the new plants have come on line. The trend is the same in all of the EU's 27 member states, according to Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Communities: the amount of electricity generated from biomass (including biogas, municipal waste and wood) has practically doubled in six years, rising from 40 to 80 TWhe between 2000 and 2005. This is an improvement, but it still only represents 2.5% of the electricity supplied to Europeans. On a global scale, biomass contributes just 1% of total electric power generation. Yet biomass is an energy resource found all over the world, whether as agricultural waste, wood chips, or dried treatment plant sludge, to name but a few. Biomass power plants have managed to gain a foothold mainly in

  3. Biotrade1: international trade in renewable energy from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agterberg, A.E.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses international trade in renewable energy from biomass. Main objective is to compare options for international trade in energy from biomass and to compare these options with non-trade options like domestic use of biomass and afforestation. Aspects that are taken into account are c

  4. WOOD BIOMASS FOR ENERGY IN MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradimir Danon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood biomass has got its place in the energy balance of Montenegro. A little more than 6% of the total energy consumption is obtained by burning wood. Along with the appropriate state measures, it is economically and environmentally justified to expect Montenegro to more than double the utilization of the existing renewable energy sources including wood biomass, in the near future. For the purpose of achieving this goal, ‘Commercial Utilisation of the Wood Residue as a Resource for Economic Development in the North of Montenegro' project was carried out in 2007. The results of this project were included in the plan of the necessary interventions of the Government and its Agencies, associations or clusters, non-government organisations and interested enterprises. The plan was made on the basis of the wood residue at disposal and the attitude of individual subjects to produce and/or use solid bio-fuels and consists of a proposal of collection and utilisation of the wood residue for each individual district in the north of Montenegro. The basic factors of sustainability of future commercialisation of the wood residue were: availability of the wood raw material, and thereby the wood residue; the development of wood-based fuel markets, and the size of the profit.

  5. Preparation of liquid chemical feedstocks by co-pyrolysis of electronic waste and biomass without formation of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Xue-Song; Yang, Guang-Xi

    2013-01-01

    The co-pyrolysis of waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEEs) and waste biomass to obtain pyrolysis-oil, a liquid fuel or chemical feedstock, was carried out in the present work. The pyrolysis-oil yield of co-pyrolysis reached 62.3% which was significantly higher than those of pyrolysis of WEEEs and biomass alone (i.e., 53.1% for WEEEs and 46.3% for biomass), suggesting that synergistic effects of the WEEEs and biomass happened during the co-pyrolysis process. The pyrolysis-oil mainly contained aromatic compounds, including many aromatic hydrocarbons. More than 90 wt.% of bromides were enriched in pyrolysis-oil and char, which is easily to be recovered by further treatments, and no polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) were detected in all products which may be attributed to the blocking of PBDD/Fs generation under special reductive environment of pyrolysis. This work provided a green and environmentally friendly approach for the disposal of the WEEEs as well as resource recovery.

  6. Modelling of biomass utilization for energy purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzybek, Anna (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    the overall farms structure, farms land distribution on several separate subfields for one farm, villages' overpopulation and very high employment in agriculture (about 27% of all employees in national economy works in agriculture). Farmers have low education level. In towns 34% of population has secondary education and in rural areas - only 15-16%. Less than 2% inhabitants of rural areas have higher education. The structure of land use is as follows: arable land 11.5%, meadows and pastures 25.4%, forests 30.1%. Poland requires implementation of technical and technological progress for intensification of agricultural production. The reason of competition for agricultural land is maintenance of the current consumption level and allocation of part of agricultural production for energy purposes. Agricultural land is going to be key factor for biofuels production. In this publication research results for the Project PL0073 'Modelling of energetical biomass utilization for energy purposes' have been presented. The Project was financed from the Norwegian Financial Mechanism and European Economic Area Financial Mechanism. The publication is aimed at moving closer and explaining to the reader problems connected with cultivations of energy plants and dispelling myths concerning these problems. Exchange of fossil fuels by biomass for heat and electric energy production could be significant input in carbon dioxide emission reduction. Moreover, biomass crop and biomass utilization for energetical purposes play important role in agricultural production diversification in rural areas transformation. Agricultural production widening enables new jobs creation. Sustainable development is going to be fundamental rule for Polish agriculture evolution in long term perspective. Energetical biomass utilization perfectly integrates in the evolution frameworks, especially on local level. There are two facts. The fist one is that increase of interest in energy crops in Poland

  7. Modelling of biomass utilization for energy purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzybek, Anna (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    the overall farms structure, farms land distribution on several separate subfields for one farm, villages' overpopulation and very high employment in agriculture (about 27% of all employees in national economy works in agriculture). Farmers have low education level. In towns 34% of population has secondary education and in rural areas - only 15-16%. Less than 2% inhabitants of rural areas have higher education. The structure of land use is as follows: arable land 11.5%, meadows and pastures 25.4%, forests 30.1%. Poland requires implementation of technical and technological progress for intensification of agricultural production. The reason of competition for agricultural land is maintenance of the current consumption level and allocation of part of agricultural production for energy purposes. Agricultural land is going to be key factor for biofuels production. In this publication research results for the Project PL0073 'Modelling of energetical biomass utilization for energy purposes' have been presented. The Project was financed from the Norwegian Financial Mechanism and European Economic Area Financial Mechanism. The publication is aimed at moving closer and explaining to the reader problems connected with cultivations of energy plants and dispelling myths concerning these problems. Exchange of fossil fuels by biomass for heat and electric energy production could be significant input in carbon dioxide emission reduction. Moreover, biomass crop and biomass utilization for energetical purposes play important role in agricultural production diversification in rural areas transformation. Agricultural production widening enables new jobs creation. Sustainable development is going to be fundamental rule for Polish agriculture evolution in long term perspective. Energetical biomass utilization perfectly integrates in the evolution frameworks, especially on local level. There are two facts. The fist one is that increase of interest in energy crops in Poland

  8. [Applications of GIS in biomass energy source research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xian-Ming; Wang, Wu-Kui; Li, Yi-Wei; Sun, Wen-Xiang; Shi, Hai; Zhang, Da-Hong

    2010-03-01

    Biomass resources have the characteristics of widespread and dispersed distribution, which have close relations to the environment, climate, soil, and land use, etc. Geographic information system (GIS) has the functions of spatial analysis and the flexibility of integrating with other application models and algorithms, being of predominance to the biomass energy source research. This paper summarized the researches on the GIS applications in biomass energy source research, with the focus in the feasibility study of bioenergy development, assessment of biomass resources amount and distribution, layout of biomass exploitation and utilization, evaluation of gaseous emission from biomass burning, and biomass energy information system. Three perspectives of GIS applications in biomass energy source research were proposed, i. e., to enrich the data source, to improve the capacity on data processing and decision-support, and to generate the online proposal.

  9. Prospective framework for collection and exploitation of waste cooking oil as feedstock for energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhabhandhu, Ampaitepin; Tezuka, Tetsuo [Energy Economics Laboratory, Department of Socio-Environmental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    From the viewpoint of waste-to-energy, waste cooking oil is one of the attractive and available recycled feedstocks, apart from agricultural residues. The generation of energy from waste cooking oil is considered as an effective technique for waste management, as well as a beneficial form of energy recovery. Two alternative systems and a conventional system of waste cooking oil collection and conversion are evaluated by the cost benefit analysis in order to find a suitable method for waste-to-energy conversion. The results show that the collection of waste cooking oil with waste lubricating oil (System II) a useful alternative to the management of waste cooking oil (B/C > 1). The total heat produced by the combustion of pyrolytic oil at maximum and minimum conversion rates is also determined. The separate collection of waste cooking oil, subjected to chemical pre-treatment prior to introduction in a pyrolysis reactor (System III), is considered an undesirable option (B/C < 1) due to the cost of the chemicals involved. Although the exclusion of chemical pre-treatment makes System III a desirable option, the total amount of heat of combustion generated is less. The increased electricity cost required for the process has no effect on the benefit-cost ratio of System II. However, System III, excluding chemical pre-treatment, becomes an unprofitable alternative when the electricity cost reaches 100% of the fixed capital cost at the minimum conversion rate. (author)

  10. Design of Sustainable Biomass Value Chains – Optimising the supply logistics and use of biomass over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, B.

    2013-01-01

    Modern bioenergy systems have significant potential to cost-effectively substitute fossil energy carriers with substantial GHG emissions reduction benefits. To mobilise large-scale biomass supplies, large volumes of biomass feedstock need to be secured, and competitive feedstock value chains need to

  11. Biomass as an energy source: thermodynamic constraints on the performance of the conversion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratieri, M; Baggio, P; Fiori, L; Grigiante, M

    2008-10-01

    In the present work an equilibrium model (gas-solid), based on the minimization of the Gibbs energy, has been used in order to estimate the theoretical yield and the equilibrium composition of the reaction products (syngas and char) of biomass thermochemical conversion processes (pyrolysis and gasification). The data obtained from this model have also been used to calculate the heating value of the fuel gas, in order to evaluate the overall energy efficiency of the thermal conversion stage. The proposed model has been applied both to partial oxidation and steam gasification processes with varying air to biomass (ER) and steam to carbon (SC) ratio values and using different feedstocks; the obtained results have been compared with experimental data and with other model predictions obtaining a satisfactory agreement.

  12. Potential evaluation of biomass-based energy sources for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ozcan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has great potential with respect to renewable energy sources (RES and, among such sources, “biomass energy” is of particular importance. The purpose of this study is to determine the primary electrical energy potential obtainable from the biomass potential, according to different biomass source types. In this study, the biomass sources of municipal solid wastes, energy crops, animal manure and urban wastewater treatment sludge are evaluated. For each source, individual biogas and biomass energy potential calculations are made. Methods for energy conversion from wastes applicable to the conditions of Turkey, and technical and economic parameters are used. As a result of the calculations made, the total primary energy value of biogas obtainable from the examined sources is 188.21 TWh/year. The total primary energy value related to the potential of the evaluated biomass sources is 278.40 TWh/year.

  13. Subtask 3.11 - Production of CBTL-Based Jet Fuels from Biomass-Based Feedstocks and Montana Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ramesh

    2014-06-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Accelergy Corporation, an advanced fuels developer with technologies exclusively licensed from Exxon Mobil, undertook Subtask 3.11 to use a recently installed bench-scale direct coal liquefaction (DCL) system capable of converting 45 pounds/hour of pulverized, dried coal to a liquid suitable for upgrading to fuels and/or chemicals. The process involves liquefaction of Rosebud mine coal (Montana coal) coupled with an upgrading scheme to produce a naphthenic fuel. The upgrading comprises catalytic hydrotreating and saturation to produce naphthenic fuel. A synthetic jet fuel was prepared by blending equal volumes of naphthenic fuel with similar aliphatic fuel derived from biomass and 11 volume % of aromatic hydrocarbons. The synthetic fuel was tested using standard ASTM International techniques to determine compliance with JP-8 fuel. The composite fuel thus produced not only meets but exceeds the military aviation fuel-screening criteria. A 500-milliliter synthetic jet fuel sample which met internal screening criteria was submitted to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright–Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, for evaluation. The sample was confirmed by AFRL to be in compliance with U.S. Air Force-prescribed alternative aviation fuel initial screening criteria. The results show that this fuel meets or exceeds the key specification parameters for JP-8, a petroleum-based jet fuel widely used by the U.S. military. JP-8 specifications include parameters such as freeze point, density, flash point, and others; all of which were met by the EERC fuel sample. The fuel also exceeds the thermal stability specification of JP-8 fuel as determined by the quartz crystalline microbalance (QCM) test also performed at an independent laboratory as well as AFRL. This means that the EERC fuel looks and acts identically to petroleum-derived jet fuel and can be used

  14. A Review on Biomass Torrefaction Process and Product Properties for Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; J. Richard Hess; Christopher T. Wright; Richard D. Boardman

    2011-10-01

    Torrefaction of biomass can be described as a mild form of pyrolysis at temperatures typically ranging between 200 and 300 C in an inert and reduced environment. Common biomass reactions during torrefaction include devolatilization, depolymerization, and carbonization of hemicellulose, lignin and cellulose. Torrefaction process produces a brown to black solid uniform product and also condensable (water, organics, and lipids) and non condensable gases (CO2, CO, and CH4). Typically during torrefaction, 70% of the mass is retained as a solid product, containing 90% of the initial energy content, and 30% of the lost mass is converted into condensable and non-condensable products. The system's energy efficiency can be improved by reintroducing the material lost during torrefaction as a source of heat. Torrefaction of biomass improves its physical properties like grindability; particle shape, size, and distribution; pelletability; and proximate and ultimate composition like moisture, carbon and hydrogen content, and calorific value. Carbon and calorific value of torrefied biomass increases by 15-25%, and moisture content reduces to <3% (w.b.). Torrefaction reduces grinding energy by about 70%, and the ground torrefied biomass has improved sphericity, particle surface area, and particle size distribution. Pelletization of torrefied biomass at temperatures of 225 C reduces specific energy consumption by two times and increases the capacity of the mill by two times. The loss of the OH group during torrefaction makes the material hydrophobic (loses the ability to attract water molecules) and more stable against chemical oxidation and microbial degradation. These improved properties make torrefied biomass particularly suitable for cofiring in power plants and as an upgraded feedstock for gasification.

  15. Uncertainty of biomass contributions from agriculture and forestry to renewable energy resources under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gutsch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the future, Germany's land-use policies and the impacts of climate change on yields will affect the amount of biomass available for energy production. We used recent published data on biomass potentials in the federal states of Germany to assess the uncertainty caused by climate change effects in the potential supply of biomass available for energy production. In this study we selected three climate scenarios representing the maximum, mean and minimum temperature increase for Germany out of 21 CMIP5-projections driven by the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP 8.5 scenario. Each of the three selected projections was downscaled using the regional statistical climate model STARS. We analysed the yield changes of four biomass feedstock crops (forest, short-rotation coppices (SRC, cereal straw (winter wheat and energy maize for the period 2031–2060 in comparison to 1981–2010. The mean annual yield changes of energy wood from forest and short-rotation coppices were modelled using the process-based forest growth model 4C. The yield changes of winter wheat and energy maize from agricultural production were simulated with the statistical yield model IRMA. Germany's annual biomass potential of 1500 PJ varies between minus 5 % and plus 8 % depending on the climate scenario realisation. Assuming that 1500 PJ of biomass utilisation can be achieved, climate change effects of minus 75 (5 % PJ or plus 120 (8 % PJ do not impede overall bioenergy targets of 1287 PJ in 2020 and 1534 PJ in 2050. In five federal states the climate scenarios lead to decreasing yields of energy maize and winter wheat. Impacts of climate scenarios on forest yields are mainly positive and show both positive and negative effects on yields of SRC.

  16. Biomass as feedstock for a bioenergy and bioproducts industry: The technical feasibility of a billion-ton annual supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, Robert D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wright, Lynn L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Turhollow, Anthony F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Graham, Robin L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stokes, Bryce J. [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. (United States); Erbach, Donald C. [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30% or more of the country's present petroleum consumption.

  17. Effect of varying feedstock-pretreatment chemistry combinations on the formation and accumulation of potentially inhibitory degradation products in biomass hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bowen; Sharma, Lekh N; Becker, Christopher; Chen, Shou-Feng; Mowery, Richard A; van Walsum, G Peter; Chambliss, C Kevin

    2010-10-15

    A variety of potentially inhibitory degradation products are produced during pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Qualitative and quantitative interrogation of pretreatment hydrolysates is paramount to identifying potential correlations between pretreatment chemistries and microbial inhibition in downstream bioconversion processes. In the present study, corn stover, poplar, and pine feedstocks were pretreated under eight different chemical conditions, which are representative of leading pretreatment processes. Pretreatment processes included: 0.7% H(2)SO(4), 0.07% H(2)SO(4), liquid hot water, neutral buffer solution, aqueous ammonia, lime, lime with oxygen pressurization, and wet oxidation. Forty lignocellulosic degradation products resulting from pretreatment were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography in combination with UV spectroscopy or tandem mass spectrometry detection (HPLC-PDA-MS/MS) and ion chromatography (IC). Of these compounds, several have been reported to be inhibitory, including furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural, ferulic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, syringic acid among others. Formation and accumulation of monitored compounds in hydrolysates is demonstrated to be a function of both the feedstock and pretreatment conditions utilized.

  18. Biomass use in chemical and mechanical pulping with biomass-based energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Jonas M.; Gustavsson, Leif [Department of Engineering Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2007-12-15

    The pulp and paper industry is energy intensive and consumes large amounts of wood. Biomass is a limited resource and its efficient use is therefore important. In this study, the total amount of biomass used for pulp and for energy is estimated for the production of several woodfree (containing only chemical pulp) and mechanical (containing mechanical pulp) printing paper products, under Swedish conditions. Chemical pulp mills today are largely self-sufficient in energy while mechanical pulp mills depend on large amounts of external electricity. Technically, all energy used in pulp- and papermaking can be biomass based. Here, we assume that all energy used, including external electricity and motor fuels, is based on forest biomass. The whole cradle-to-gate chain is included in the analyses. The results indicate that the total amount of biomass required per tonne paper is slightly lower for woodfree than for mechanical paper. For the biomass use per paper area, the paper grammage is decisive. If the grammage can be lowered by increasing the proportion of mechanical pulp, this may lower the biomass use per paper area, despite the higher biomass use per unit mass in mechanical paper. In the production of woodfree paper, energy recovery from residues in the mill accounts for most of the biomass use, while external electricity production accounts for the largest part for mechanical paper. Motor fuel production accounts for 5-7% of the biomass use. The biomass contained in the final paper product is 21-42% of the total biomass use, indicating that waste paper recovery is important. The biomass use was found to be about 15-17% lower for modelled, modern mills compared with mills representative of today's average technology. (author)

  19. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks. Progress report, September 1-November 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.I.; Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Gomez, R.F.; Sinskey, A.J.

    1978-11-01

    Studies on the accumulation of glucose during the fermentation of cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum are discussed. Production of ethanol and its relationship to growth rate in C. thermocellum is reported. Different biomasses were tested for ethanol yields. These included exploded poplar, sugar cane, bagasse, corn cobs, sweet gum, rice straw, and wheat straw. Thermophilic bacteria were tested to determine relationship of temperature to yield of ethanol. A preliminary report on isolating plaque forming emits derived from C. thermocellum is presented as well as the utilization of carbohydrates in nutrition. A cellulose enzyme is being purified from C. thermocellum. The production of chemical feedstocks by fermentation is reported. Acrylic acid, acetone/butanol, and acetic acid, produced by C. propionicum, C. acetobutylicum, and C. thermoaceticum, are discussed. (DC)

  20. Process Design Report for Stover Feedstock: Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ruth, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibsen, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jechura, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Neeves, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheehan, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wallace, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Montague, L. [Harris Group, Seattle, WA (United States); Slayton, A. [Harris Group, Seattle, WA (United States); Lukas, J. [Harris Group, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2002-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the development of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks as an alternative to conventional petroleum-based transportation fuels. DOE funds both fundamental and applied research in this area and needs a method for predicting cost benefits of many research proposals. To that end, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has modeled many potential process designs and estimated the economics of each process during the last 20 years. This report is an update of the ongoing process design and economic analyses at NREL.

  1. Current Status and Prospects of Biomass Energy Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    At present biomass energy industry is in its infancy in China and it has a bright future. Biomass energy production used grain as raw materials has entered industrialization phase.Some key technologies of biomass energy industry are coming to mature.China has issued relevant industrial standards laws and regulations,and has provided support in finance,loan,tax,etc.But China's biomass energy industry is faced with many problems which need to be solved.For example,taking grain as raw materials is unsustain...

  2. Biogas energy production from tropical biomass wastes by anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xumeng; Matsumoto, Tracie; Keith, Lisa; Li, Yebo

    2014-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive technology in tropical regions for converting locally abundant biomass wastes into biogas which can be used to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels. However, investigations on AD of tropical forestry wastes, such as albizia biomass and food wastes, such as taro, papaya, and sweet potato, are limited. In this study, these tropical biomass wastes were evaluated for biogas production by liquid AD (L-AD) and/or solid-state AD (SS-AD), depending on feedstock characteristics. When albizia leaves and chips were used as feedstocks, L-AD had greater methane yields (161 and 113 L kg(-1)VS, respectively) than SS-AD (156.8 and 59.6 L kg(-1)VS, respectively), while SS-AD achieved 5-fold higher volumetric methane productivity than L-AD. Mono-digestion and co-digestion of taro skin, taro flesh, papaya, and sweet potato achieved methane yields from 345 to 411 L kg(-1)VS, indicating the robustness of AD technology.

  3. Do biomass harvesting guidelines influence herpetofauna following harvests of logging residues for renewable energy?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritts, Sarah; Moorman, Christopher; Grodsky, Steven; Hazel, Dennis; Homyack, Jessica; Farrell, Chris; Castleberry, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Forests are a major supplier of renewable energy; however, gleaning logging residues for use as woody biomass feedstock could negatively alter habitat for species dependent on downed wood. Biomass Harvesting Guidelines (BHGs) recommend retaining a portion of woody biomass on the forest floor following harvest. Despite BHGs being developed to help ensure ecological sustainability, their contribution to biodiversity has not been evaluated experimentally at operational scales. We compared herpetofauanal evenness, diversity, and richness and abundance of Anaxyrus terrestris and Gastrophryne carolinensis among six treatments that varied in volume and spatial arrangement of woody biomass retained after clearcutting loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantations in North Carolina, USA (n = 4), 2011-2014 and Georgia (n = 4), USA 2011-2013. Treatments were: (1) biomass harvest with no BHGs, (2) 15% retention with biomass clustered, (3) 15% retention with biomass dispersed, (4) 30% retention with biomass clustered, (5) 30% retention with biomass dispersed, and (6) no biomass harvest. We captured individuals with drift fence arrays and compared evenness, diversity, and richness metrics among treatments with repeated-measure, linear mixed-effects models. We determined predictors of A. terrestris and G. carolinensis abundances using a priori candidate N-mixture models with woody biomass volume, vegetation structure, and groundcover composition as covariates. We had 206 captures of 25 reptile species and 8710 captures of 17 amphibian species during 53690 trap nights. Herpetofauna diversity, evenness, and richness were similar among treatments. A. terrestris abundance was negatively related to volume of retained woody biomass in treatment units in North Carolina in 2013. G. carolinensis abundance was positively related with volume of retained woody debris in treatment units in Georgia in 2012. Other relationships between A. terrestris and G. carolinensis abundances and habitat metrics

  4. Renewable energy potential from biomass residues in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said, N.; Zamorano, M. [Civil Engineering Dept., Univ. of Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, Granada (Spain); El-Shatoury, S.A. [Botany Dept., Faculty of Sciences, Suez Canal Univ., Ismailia (Egypt)

    2012-11-01

    Egypt has been one of the developing countries following successful programs for the development of renewable energy resources, with special emphasis on solar, wind and biomass. Utilization of biomass as a source of energy is important from energetic as well as environmental viewpoint. Furthermore, Egypt produces millions of biomass waste every year causing pollution and health problems. So, the incorporation of biomass with other renewable energy will increase the impact of solving energy and environmental problem. There is a good potential for the utilization of biomass energy resources in Egypt. Four main types of biomass energy sources are included in this study: agricultural residues, municipal solid wastes, animal wastes and sewage sludge. Analysis of the potential biomass resource quantity and its theoretical energy content has been computed according to literature review. The agriculture crop residue represents the main source of biomass waste with a high considerable amount of the theoretical potential energy in Egypt. Rice straw is considered one of the most important of such residue due to its high amount and its produced energy through different conversion techniques represent a suitable candidate for crop energy production in Egypt.

  5. Limiting biomass consumption for heating in 100% renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Connolly, David

    2012-01-01

    The utilisation of biomass poses large challenges in renewable energy systems while buildings account for a substantial part of the energy supply even in 100% renewable energy systems. In this paper the focus is on how the heating sector can reduce its consumption of biomass, thus leaving biomass...... for other sectors, but while still enabling a 100% renewable energy system. The analyses of heating technologies shows that district heating (DH) systems are important in limiting the dependence on biomass and create cost effective solutions. DH systems are especially important in renewable energy systems...... with large amounts of fluctuating sources as it enables fuel efficient and low cost energy systems with thermal heat storages. DH increases the efficiency with the use of combined heat and power production (CHP), while reducing the biomass demand by enabling the use of other renewable resources such as large...

  6. Biomass I. Science Activities in Energy [and] Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Designed for science students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, the activities in this unit illustrate principles and problems related to biomass as a form of energy. (The word biomass is used to describe all solid material of animal or vegetable origin from which energy may be extracted.) Twelve student activities using art, economics,…

  7. Process for improving the energy density of feedstocks using formate salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Marshall Clayton; van Heiningen, Adriaan R.P.; Case, Paige A.

    2015-09-01

    Methods of forming liquid hydrocarbons through thermal deoxygenation of cellulosic compounds are disclosed. Aspects cover methods including the steps of mixing a levulinic acid salt-containing feedstock with a formic acid salt, exposing the mixture to a high temperature condition to form hydrocarbon vapor, and condensing the hydrocarbon vapor to form liquid hydrocarbons, where both the formic acid salt and the levulinic acid salt-containing feedstock decompose at the high temperature condition and wherein one or more of the mixing, exposing, and condensing steps is carried out a pressure between about vacuum and about 10 bar.

  8. EERC Center for Biomass Utilization 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygarlicke, Christopher J. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Hurley, John P. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Aulich, Ted R. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Folkedahl, Bruce C. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Strege, Joshua R. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Patel, Nikhil [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Shockey, Richard E. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center

    2009-05-27

    The Center for Biomass Utilization® 2006 project at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) consisted of three tasks related to applied fundamental research focused on converting biomass feedstocks to energy, liquid transportation fuels, and chemicals. Task 1, entitled Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Syngas and Chemical Feedstocks, involved three activities. Task 2, entitled Crop Oil Biorefinery Process Development, involved four activities. Task 3, entitled Management, Education, and Outreach, focused on overall project management and providing educational outreach related to biomass technologies through workshops and conferences.

  9. Energy balances in the production and end use of alcohols derived from biomass. A fuels-specific comparative analysis of alternate ethanol production cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    Considerable public interest and debate have been focused on the so-called energy balance issue involved in the conversion of biomass materials into ethanol for fuel use. This report addresses questions of net gains in premium fuels that can be derived from the production and use of ethanol from biomass, and shows that for the US alcohol fuel program, energy balance need not be a concern. Three categories of fuel gain are discussed in the report: (1) Net petroleum gain; (2) Net premium fuel gain (petroleum and natural gas); and (3) Net energy gain (for all fuels). In this study the investment of energy (in the form of premium fuels) in alcohol production includes all investment from cultivating, harvesting, or gathering the feedstock and raw materials, through conversion of the feedstock to alcohol, to the delivery to the end-user. To determine the fuel gains in ethanol production, six cases, encompassing three feedstocks, five process fuels, and three process variations, have been examined. For each case, two end-uses (automotive fuel use and replacement of petrochemical feedstocks) were scrutinized. The end-uses were further divided into three variations in fuel economy and two different routes for production of ethanol from petrochemicals. Energy requirements calculated for the six process cycles accounted for fuels used directly and indirectly in all stages of alcohol production, from agriculture through distribution of product to the end-user. Energy credits were computed for byproducts according to the most appropriate current use.

  10. A survey of state clean energy fund support for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, Garrett; Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2004-08-20

    This survey reviews efforts by CESA member clean energy funds to promote the use of biomass as a renewable energy source. For each fund, details are provided regarding biomass eligibility for support, specific programs offering support to biomass projects, and examples of supported biomass projects (if available). For the purposes of this survey, biomass is defined to include bio-product gasification, combustion, co-firing, biofuel production, and the combustion of landfill gas, though not all of the programs reviewed here take so wide a definition. Programs offered by non-CESA member funds fall outside the scope of this survey. To date, three funds--the California Energy Commission, Wisconsin Focus on Energy, and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority--have offered programs targeted specifically at the use of biomass as a renewable energy source. We begin by reviewing efforts in these three funds, and then proceed to cover programs in other funds that have provided support to biomass projects when the opportunity has arisen, but otherwise do not differentially target biomass relative to other renewable technologies.

  11. Energy production from marine biomass (Ulva lactuca)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaisen, L.; Daugbjerg Jensen, P.; Svane Bech, K. [Danish Technological Institute (DTI), Taastrup (Denmark)] [and others

    2011-11-15

    In this project, methods for producing liquid, gaseous and solid biofuel from the marine macroalgae Ulva lactuca has been studied. To get an understanding of the growth conditions of Ulva lactuca, laboratory scale growth experiments describing N, P, and CO{sub 2} uptake and possible N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} production are carried out. The macroalgae have been converted to bioethanol and methane (biogas) in laboratory processes. Further the potential of using the algae as a solid combustible biofuel is studied. Harvest and conditioning procedures are described together with the potential of integrating macroalgae production at a power plant. The overall conclusions are: 1. Annual yield of Ulva lactuca is 4-5 times land-based energy crops. 2. Potential for increased growth rate when bubbling with flue gas is up to 20%. 3. Ethanol/butanol can be produced from pretreated Ulva of C6 and - for butanol - also C5 sugars. Fermentation inhibitors can possibly be removed by mechanical pressing. The ethanol production is 0,14 gram pr gram dry Ulva lactuca. The butanol production is lower. 4. Methane yields of Ulva are at a level between cow manure and energy crops. 5. Fast pyrolysis produces algae oil which contains 78 % of the energy content of the biomass. 6. Catalytic supercritical water gasification of Ulva lactuca is feasible and a methane rich gas can be obtained. 7. Thermal conversion of Ulva is possible with special equipment as low temperature gasification and grate firing. 8. Co-firing of Ulva with coal in power plants is limited due to high ash content. 9. Production of Ulva only for energy purposes at power plants is too costly. 10. N{sub 2}O emission has been observed in lab scale, but not in pilot scale production. 11. Analyses of ash from Ulva lactuca indicates it as a source for high value fertilizers. 12. Co-digestion of Ulva lactuca together with cattle manure did not alter the overall fertilization value of the digested cattle manure alone. (LN)

  12. Biomass measurement from LANDSAT: Drought and energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, E. L.

    1981-01-01

    The theory supporting the use of vegetation indices derived from LANDSAT data for the direct measurement of biomass is reviewed. The use of multispectral data to measure biomass is a natural and viable application since the photosynthetic production of biomass gives vegetation its unique spectral properties. Vegetation indices also perform a normalization function which tends to make them insensitive to atmospheric and soil color variations. Optical and digital LANDSAT products are discussed relative to the use of vegetation indices to monitor drought impact. Based on results obtained in Colorado, operational use of LANDSAT to monitor drought is cost effective, practical and ready for implementation today. The direct measurement of biomass energy resources may also benefit from LANDSAT technology. Measurement of total biomass and annual primary production may be feasible. Identification of that component of biomass resources available for energy use will require other sources of information, however.

  13. Biomass energy: the scale of the potential resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christopher B; Campbell, J Elliott; Lobell, David B

    2008-02-01

    Increased production of biomass for energy has the potential to offset substantial use of fossil fuels, but it also has the potential to threaten conservation areas, pollute water resources and decrease food security. The net effect of biomass energy agriculture on climate could be either cooling or warming, depending on the crop, the technology for converting biomass into useable energy, and the difference in carbon stocks and reflectance of solar radiation between the biomass crop and the pre-existing vegetation. The area with the greatest potential for yielding biomass energy that reduces net warming and avoids competition with food production is land that was previously used for agriculture or pasture but that has been abandoned and not converted to forest or urban areas. At the global scale, potential above-ground plant growth on these abandoned lands has an energy content representing approximately 5% of world primary energy consumption in 2006. The global potential for biomass energy production is large in absolute terms, but it is not enough to replace more than a few percent of current fossil fuel usage. Increasing biomass energy production beyond this level would probably reduce food security and exacerbate forcing of climate change.

  14. A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2014-02-21

    The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H{sub 2}Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H{sub 2}) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H{sub 2} is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H{sub 2}Bioil process for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on model compounds as well as real biomass

  15. Biomass Program 2007 Accomplishments - Full Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's (EERE’s) Biomass Program works with industry, academia and its national laboratory partners on a balanced portfolio of research in biomass feedstocks and conversion technologies. This document provides Program accomplishments for 2007.

  16. Assessment of the externalities of biomass energy for electricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, P.; Leal, J.; Saez, R.M.

    1996-10-01

    This study presents a methodology for the quantification of the socioeconomic and environmental externalities of the biomass fuel cycle. It is based on the one developed by the ExternE Project of the European Commission, based in turn in the damage function approach, and which has been extended and modified for a better adaptation to biomass energy systems. The methodology has been applied to a 20 MW biomass power plant, fueled by Cynara cardunculus, in southern Spain. The externalities addressed have been macroeconomic effects, employment, CO{sub 2}, fixation, erosion, and non-point source pollution. The results obtained should be considered only as subtotals, since there are still other externalities to be quantified. anyway, and in spite of the uncertainty existing, these results suggest that total cost (those including internal and external costs) of biomass energy are lower than those of conventional energy sources, what, if taken into account, would make biomass more competitive than it is now. (Author)

  17. Assessment of the externalise of biomass energy for electricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, P.; Leal, J.; Saez, R.M.

    1996-07-01

    This study presents a methodology for the quantification of the socioeconomic and environmental externalities of the biomass fuel cycle. It is based on the one developed by the ExternE Project of the European Commission, based in turm in the damage function approach, and which has been extended and modified for a better adaptation to biomass energy systems. The methodology has been applied to a 20 MW biomass power plant, fueled by Cynara cardunculus, in southern Spain. The externalities addressed have been macroeconomic effects, employment, CO2, fixation, erosion, and non-point source pollution. The results obtained should be considered only as subtotals, since there are still other externalities to be quantified. Anyway, and in spite of the uncertainty existing, these results suggest that the total cost (those including internal and external costs) of biomass energy are lower than those of conventional energy sources, what, if taken into account, would make biomass more competitive than it is now. (Author) 44 refs.

  18. Valorization of jatropha fruit biomass for energy applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasabessy, A.

    2015-01-01

    Valorization of Jatropha fruit biomass for energy applications Ahmad Marasabessy

    Thesis Abstract

    Our research objectives were to develop sustainable technologies of Jatropha oil extraction and Jatropha biomass fractionatio

  19. Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.

    2001-02-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a mission-oriented program of research and analysis whose goal is to develop and demonstrate cropping systems for producing large quantities of low-cost, high-quality biomass feedstocks for use as liquid biofuels, biomass electric power, and/or bioproducts. The program specifically supports the missions and goals of DOE's Office of Fuels Development and DOE's Office of Power Technologies. ORNL has provided technical leadership and field management for the BFDP since DOE began energy crop research in 1978. The major components of the BFDP include energy crop selection and breeding; crop management research; environmental assessment and monitoring; crop production and supply logistics operational research; integrated resource analysis and assessment; and communications and outreach. Research into feedstock supply logistics has recently been added and will become an integral component of the program.

  20. CBTL Design Case Summary Conventional Feedstock Supply System - Woody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher T. Wright; Erin M. Searcy

    2012-02-01

    A conventional woody feedstock design has been developed that represents supply system technologies, costs, and logistics that are achievable today for supplying woody biomass as a blendstock with coal for energy production. Efforts are made to identify bottlenecks and optimize the efficiency and capacities of this supply system, within the constraints and consideration of existing local feedstock supplies, equipment, and permitting requirements. The feedstock supply system logistics operations encompass all of the activities necessary to move woody biomass from the production location to the conversion reactor ready for blending and insertion. This supply system includes operations that are currently available such that costs and logistics are reasonable and reliable. The system modeled for this research project includes the use of the slash stream since it is a more conservative analysis and represents the material actually used in the experimental part of the project.

  1. Biomass Conversion Factsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-05

    To efficiently convert algae, diverse types of cellulosic biomass, and emerging feedstocks into renewable fuels, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports research, development, and demonstration of technologies. This research will help ensure that these renewable fuels are compatible with today’s vehicles and infrastructure.

  2. Process Design Report for Wood Feedstock: Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Desing and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Current and Futuristic Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooley, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheehan, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibsen, Kelly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Majdeski, Henry [Delta-T Corporation, Lexington, KY (United States); Galves, Adrian [Delta-T Corporation, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has undertaken a complete review and update of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process based on co-current dilute acid prehydrolysis, along with simultaneous saccharification (enzymatic) and co-fermentation. The process design includes the core technologies being researched by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE): prehydrolysis, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, and cellulase enzyme production.

  3. Biomass Residues to Renewable Energy: A Life Cycle Perspective Applied at a Local Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Neri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Italy, like every country member of the European Union (EU, will have to achieve the objectives required by the Energy Roadmap 2050. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the environmental impacts of residue recovery arising from the management of public and private green feedstocks, activity of the cooperative “Green City” in the Bologna district, and usage in a centralized heating system to produce thermal energy for public buildings. Results, obtained using the ReCipe impact assessment method, are compared with scores achieved by a traditional methane boiler. The study shows some advantages of the biomass-based system in terms of greenhouse gases (GHGs emissions and consumption of non-renewable fuels, which affect climate change (−41% and fossil resources depletion (−40%, compared to the use of natural gas (NG. Moreover, scores from network analysis denote the great contribution of feedstock transportation (98% of the cumulative impact. The main reason is attributable to all requirements to cover distances, in particular due to stages involved in the fuel supply chains. Therefore, it is clear that greater environmental benefits could be achieved by reducing supply transport distances or using more sustainable engines.

  4. Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. [Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States)

    1992-03-01

    This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

  5. Biomass energy research program 2008 - 2011; Energieforschungsprogramm Biomasse fuer die Jahre 2008-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermle, S.; Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2008-07-01

    This report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the Swiss research program on energy from biomass for the years 2008 to 2011. The Swiss government's energy research programs are defined every four years in co-operation with the Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission. This paper describes the concept for the biomass area. Research into modern technological concepts and ways of transforming biomass into energy are discussed and main areas of research to be addressed are discussed. Three main technological areas are defined: combustion, gasification and anaerobic fermentation. Important themes to be examined include system optimisation and integration, quality assurance and the promotion of new technologies. National and international networking between research and practice is commented on, as are the possibilities for the funding of the work.

  6. Coupled production in biorefineries--combined use of biomass as a source of energy, fuels and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyko, Hildegard; Deerberg, Görge; Weidner, Eckhard

    2009-06-01

    In spite of high prices for fossil raw materials the production of biomass-based products is rarely economically successful today. Depending on the location feedstock prices are currently so high that products from renewable resources are not marketable when produced in existing process chains. Apart from the higher feedstock costs one reason is that at present no optimized production systems exist in contrast to the chemical and petrochemical industry where these systems have been established over the last decades. If we succeed in developing production systems modelled on those of petroleum refineries where we can provide a flexible coupled production of energy, fuels, materials and chemicals chances are good to enable a lastingly successful production on the basis of renewable resources. Based on examples of fat-based and sugar-based concepts ideas for platform oriented biorefineries are outlined.

  7. Characterization of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) produced from Ralstonia eutropha using an alkali-pretreated biomass feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saratale, Ganesh D; Oh, Min-Kyu

    2015-09-01

    Alkaline pretreatment using NaOH, KOH, or NaOCl has been applied to various types of waste biomass to enhance enzymatic digestibility. Pretreatment (2% NaOH, 121 °C, 30 min) of rice paddy straw (PS) resulted in a maximum yield of 703 mg of reducing sugar per gram of PS with 84.19% hydrolysis yield after a two-step enzymatic hydrolysis process. Ralstonia eutropha ATCC 17699 was tested for its ability to synthesize poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) using PS hydrolysates as its sole carbon source. It is noteworthy that dry cell weight, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) accumulation and PHB yield with the use of laboratory-grade sugars were similar to those achieved with PS-derived sugars. Under optimized conditions, we observed maximal PHA accumulation (75.45%) and PHB production (11.42 g/L) within 48 h of fermentation. After PHB recovery, the physicochemical properties of PHB were determined by various analytical techniques, showed the results were consistent with the characteristics of a standard polymer of PHB. Thus, the PS hydrolysate proved to be an excellent cheap carbon substrate for PHB production.

  8. Energy conversion of biomass in coping with global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Shin-ya; Ogi, Tomoko; Minowa, Tomoaki [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The main purpose of the present paper is to propose energy conversion technologies of biomass in coping with global warming. Among thermochemical conversion, liquid fuel production by high pressure process is mainly introduced. Biomass is a term used to describe materials of biological origin, either purpose-grown or arising as by-products, residues or wastes from forestry, agriculture and food processing. Such biomass is a renewable energy sources dependent on solar energy. Through photosynthesis, plants converts carbon dioxide into organic materials used in their growth. Energy can be recovered from the plant materials by several processes, the simplest way is burning in air. As far as biomass is used in this way, there is no atmospheric accumulation of carbon dioxide making no effect on the Greenhouse Effect, provided that the cycle of regrowth and burning is sustained.

  9. Effects of feedstocks on the process integration of biohydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foglia, Domenico; Wukovits, Walter; Friedl, Anton [Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Ljunggren, Mattias; Zacchi, Guido [Lund University, P. O. Box 124, Lund (Sweden); Urbaniec, Krzysztof; Markowski, Mariusz [Warsaw University of Technology, Plock (Poland)

    2011-08-15

    Future production of hydrogen must be sustainable. To obtain it, renewable resources have to be employed for its production. Fermentation of biomasses could be a viable way. The process evaluated is a two-step fermentation to produce hydrogen from biomass. Process options with barley straws, PSP, and thick juice as feedstocks have been compared on the basis of process balances. Aspen Plus has been used to calculate mass and energy balances taking into account the integration of the process. Results show that the production of hydrogen as energy carrier is technically feasible with all the considered feedstocks and thanks to heat integration, second generation biomass (PSP and barley straws) are competitive with food crops (thick juice). (orig.)

  10. Integration of Lignocellulosic Biomass into Renewable Energy Generation Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUSCH Sigrid

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In all European countries various lignocellulosic biomasses such as agricultural residues (straw, strawcontaining dung or fractions from municipal solid waste are available in large amounts, but currently hardly any of thispotential is being used for energy generation. This paper reviews the different options for including lignocellulosicbiomass into renewable energy generation schemes. Not all wastes are suitable to be treated by principally availabletechniques such as anaerobic digestion, ethanol production or thermal valorisation. The present paper gives an overviewof utilisation options for lignocellulosic biomass to either produce biofuels or to integrate such biomass into anaerobicdigestion. Biorefinery concepts are discussed as well.

  11. Economic feasibility of a wood biomass energy system under evolving demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Guariso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In some European regions, particularly in mountainous areas, the demand for energy is evolving due to the decrease of resident population and the adoption of energy efficiency measures. Such changes are rapid enough to significantly impact on the planning process of wood-to-energy chains that are supposed to work for the following 20–25 years. The paper summarizes a study in an Italian pre-alpine district where some municipality shows a declining resident population together with increasing summer tourism. The planning of conversion plants to exploit the local availability of wood is formulated as a mathematical programming problem that maximizes the economic return of the investment, under time-varying parameters that account for the demand evolution. Such a demand is estimated from current trends, while biomass availability and transport is computed from the local cartography, through standard GIS operations. Altogether, the mixed integer optimization problem has 11 possible plant locations of different sizes and technologies taking their feedstock from about 200 parcels. The problem is solved with a commercial software package and shows that the optimal plan changes if one considers the foreseen evolution of the energy demand. As it always happen in this type of biomass-based plants, while the problem formulation is general and may be applied to other cases, the solution obtained is strongly dependent on local values and thus cannot be extrapolated to different contexts.

  12. Experiments on torrefied wood pellet: study by gasification and characterization for waste biomass to energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Andrew N; Williams, Orla

    2016-05-01

    Samples of torrefied wood pellet produced by low-temperature microwave pyrolysis were tested through a series of experiments relevant to present and near future waste to energy conversion technologies. Operational performance was assessed using a modern small-scale downdraft gasifier. Owing to the pellet's shape and surface hardness, excellent flow characteristics were observed. The torrefied pellet had a high energy density, and although a beneficial property, this highlighted the present inflexibility of downdraft gasifiers in respect of feedstock tolerance due to the inability to contain very high temperatures inside the reactor during operation. Analyses indicated that the torrefaction process had not significantly altered inherent kinetic properties to a great extent; however, both activation energy and pre-exponential factor were slightly higher than virgin biomass from which the pellet was derived. Thermogravimetric analysis-derived reaction kinetics (CO2 gasification), bomb calorimetry, proximate and ultimate analyses, and the Bond Work Index grindability test provided a more comprehensive characterization of the torrefied pellet's suitability as a fuel for gasification and also other combustion applications. It exhibited significant improvements in grindability energy demand and particle size control compared to other non-treated and thermally treated biomass pellets, along with a high calorific value, and excellent resistance to water.

  13. Experiments on torrefied wood pellet: study by gasification and characterization for waste biomass to energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Andrew N.; Williams, Orla

    2016-05-01

    Samples of torrefied wood pellet produced by low-temperature microwave pyrolysis were tested through a series of experiments relevant to present and near future waste to energy conversion technologies. Operational performance was assessed using a modern small-scale downdraft gasifier. Owing to the pellet's shape and surface hardness, excellent flow characteristics were observed. The torrefied pellet had a high energy density, and although a beneficial property, this highlighted the present inflexibility of downdraft gasifiers in respect of feedstock tolerance due to the inability to contain very high temperatures inside the reactor during operation. Analyses indicated that the torrefaction process had not significantly altered inherent kinetic properties to a great extent; however, both activation energy and pre-exponential factor were slightly higher than virgin biomass from which the pellet was derived. Thermogravimetric analysis-derived reaction kinetics (CO2 gasification), bomb calorimetry, proximate and ultimate analyses, and the Bond Work Index grindability test provided a more comprehensive characterization of the torrefied pellet's suitability as a fuel for gasification and also other combustion applications. It exhibited significant improvements in grindability energy demand and particle size control compared to other non-treated and thermally treated biomass pellets, along with a high calorific value, and excellent resistance to water.

  14. BIOMASS AND NATURAL GAS AS CO-FEEDSTOCKS FOR PRODUCTION OF FUEL FOR FUEL-CELL VEHICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The article gives results of an examination of prospects for utilizing renewable energy crops as a source of liquid fuel to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from mobile sources and reduce dependence on imported petroleum. Fuel cells would provide an optimum vehicle technology fo...

  15. Alfalfa -- a sustainable crop for biomass energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has the potential to be a significant contributor to America's renewable energy future. In an alfalfa biomass energy production system, alfalfa forage would be separated into stem and leave fractions. The stems would be processed to produce energy, and the leaves would be s...

  16. Characterization of Spanish biomass wastes for energy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Roberto; Pizarro, Consuelo; Lavín, Antonio G; Bueno, Julio L

    2012-01-01

    Energy plays an important role in the world's present and future. The best way to absorb the huge increase in energy demands is through diversification. In this context biomass appears as an attractive source for a number of environmental, economical, political and social reasons. There are several techniques used to obtain energy from biomass. Among these techniques, the most commonly used throughout the world is a thermo-chemical process to obtain heat. To optimize the combustion process in adequate reactors, a comprehensive study of the characterization of biomass fuel properties is needed, which includes proximate analysis (determination of moisture, ash, volatile and fixed carbon content), ultimate analysis (C, H, N, S and O composition) and calorimetry, focusing on biomass fuels obtained in Spain.

  17. Energy Efficiency of Biogas Produced from Different Biomass Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Shahida; Nazri, A. H.

    2013-06-01

    Malaysia has different sources of biomass like palm oil waste, agricultural waste, cow dung, sewage waste and landfill sites, which can be used to produce biogas and as a source of energy. Depending on the type of biomass, the biogas produced can have different calorific value. At the same time the energy, being used to produce biogas is dependent on transportation distance, means of transportation, conversion techniques and for handling of raw materials and digested residues. An energy systems analysis approach based on literature is applied to calculate the energy efficiency of biogas produced from biomass. Basically, the methodology is comprised of collecting data, proposing locations and estimating the energy input needed to produce biogas and output obtained from the generated biogas. The study showed that palm oil and municipal solid waste is two potential sources of biomass. The energy efficiency of biogas produced from palm oil residues and municipal solid wastes is 1.70 and 3.33 respectively. Municipal solid wastes have the higher energy efficiency due to less transportation distance and electricity consumption. Despite the inherent uncertainties in the calculations, it can be concluded that the energy potential to use biomass for biogas production is a promising alternative.

  18. THE POTENTIAL FOR BIOMASS ENERGY IN THREE ALBANIAN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jupe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomass combustion is amongst the oldest and the most mature technique for conversion of biomass to energy; but still a great challenge lies ahead in developing new; more efficient and environmentally sustainable -systems. In light of the European Action and the National Strategy in the energy sector; Albania has enacted a friendly policy regarding renewable energy sources; including biomass. Execution of such projects is delegated to both regional and local authorities for various technical; economic and socio-environmental considerations as well as for an integrated approach to the land use planning. This paper identifies the main sources of biomass energy in three different regions of Albania i.e. Korça; Tirana and Vlora. It shows the weight of each possibility on the total potential for energy production by biomass as well as the type and distribution of each biomass. The manner how the potential offered by forestry; agriculture and agro-industry would be utilized will; apart from availability of appropriate technology; also depend on the ability of economic operators to organize themselves efficiently while respecting environmental sustainability.

  19. 1994 Washington State directory of Biomass Energy Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    This is the fourth edition of the Washington Directory of Biomass Energy Facilities, the first edition was published in 1987. The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of and basic information about known biomass producers and users within the state to help demonstrate the importance of biomass energy in fueling our state`s energy needs. In 1992 (latest statistical year), estimates show that the industrial sector in Washington consumed nearly 128 trillion Btu of electricity, nearly 49.5 trillion Btu of petroleum, over 82.2 trillion Btu of natural gas, and over 4.2 trillion Btu of coal. Facilities listed in this directory generated approximately 114 trillion Btu of biomass energy - 93 trillion were consumed from waste wood and spent chemicals. In the total industrial energy picture, wood residues and chemical cooking liquors placed second only to electricity. This directory is divided into four main sections biogas production, biomass combustion, ethanol production, and solid fuel processing facilities. Each section contains maps and tables summarizing the information for each type of biomass. Provided in the back of the directory for reference are a conversion table, a table of abbreviations, a glossary, and an index. Chapter 1 deals with biogas production from both landfills and sewage treatment plants in the state. Biogas produced from garbage and sewage can be scrubbed and used to generate electricity. At the present time, biogas collected at landfills is being flared on-site, however four landfills are investigating the feasibility of gas recovery for energy. Landfill biogas accounted for approximately 6 percent of the total biomass reported. Sewage treatment biogas accounted for 0.6 percent. Biogas generated from sewage treatment plants is primarily used for space and process heat, only one facility presently scrubs and sells methane. Together, landfill and sewage treatment plant biogas represented over 6.6 percent of the total biomass reported.

  20. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Woody Biomass

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  1. Economic and energy efficiency of salvaging biomass from wildfire burnt areas for bioenergy production in northwestern Ontario: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Shuva; Pulkki, Reino; Shahi, Chander; Leitch, Mathew [Faculty of Natural Resources Management, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    Wildfire burnt forest biomass can be salvaged as feedstock for bioenergy power generating stations. Despite availability of such forest biomass in northwestern Ontario, its procurement has generally been considered uneconomic and no studies have looked into the cost of harvesting, processing, and transporting the burnt material for bioenergy production. In order to meet the demand of biomass for proposed and existing power generating stations using renewable fuels, a standard costing model is used to determine the feasibility of procuring biomass from burnt areas using a full-tree to roadside, roadside grinder to mill system. The case-study was conducted at the Hogarth Plantations near Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. The total cost incurred for processing and delivery of biomass from wildfire burnt area with a hauling distance of 7 km and total trip cycle time of 2.55 h was found to be $29.65 gt{sup -1}, with net energy content of 11.4 GJ gt{sup -1}. The total procurement cost depends on the hauling distance and a linear relationship between the two was established. The energy analysis found a net energy output to input ratio of 35:1 for the operation. (author)

  2. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks. Progress report, March 1, 1977--May 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.I.C.; Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Gomez, R.F.; Sinskey, A.J.

    1977-06-01

    The degradation of cellulosic biomass continues to focus on the anaerobic thermophile Clostridium thermocellum. When grown on crystalline cellulose (MN300) in batch culture, there is an initial rapid accumulation of reducing sugars but the sugars are rapidly metabolized in later times during the fermentation. When grown on Solka floc with periodic addition of the substrate, there is a continual accumulation of reducing sugars (xylose, glucose, and cellobiose) as well as ethanol and acetic acid during the entire course of the fermentation. In the presence of surfactant in the growth medium, there is an increased appearance of extracellular cellulases. A chemically defined medium is being developed for growth Cl. thermocellum in order to study the enzyme regulations. Lastly, a trinitrophenyl-carboxylmethyl cellulose substrate for determining cellulose activity appears to be a promising and rapid assay. Progress in the genetic manipulations has been cautious but promising. Preliminary evidence leads to optimistic projection on the presence of plasmids and bacteriophage in Cl. thermocellum. The production of chemical feedstocks continues to focus on acrylic acid, acetone/butanol and acetic acid. Studies with cell free extracts of Clostridium propionicum have shown the production and accumulation of acrylic acid from lactic acid. The use of electron acceptor in cell-free systems has shown effective prevention on the reduction of acrylic acid to propionic acid. Medium development and strain selection using available acetone/butanol producing Cl. acetobutylicum have been initiated. There is every indication that these strains are capable to produce mixed solvents close to the theoretical maximum yield. An accurate and rapid method for quantifying acetic acid was developed. This technique is being used to examine the pertinent parameters on the production of acetic acid by Clostridium thermoaceticum.

  3. Energy conservation options for cooking with biomass in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Næraa, Rikke; Karlsson, Kenneth

    1996-01-01

    . An energy chain for the cooking process is established and the possible conservation options are surveyed in kitchen performance tests in Abodom in the tropical zone of Ghana. The energy consumption for the food preparation has been measured and energy saving options have been determined for some parts...... of the energy chain. The results show that the possible options for energy conservation through the entire energy chain of the present technology are at least of the same magnitude as that involved in just switching to a more efficient biomass stove. The heat loss is largest while simmering when the boiling......Cooking is the main energy consuming activity in Ghana. This is mainly due to a generally low material standard of living, but also because the cooking process itself is energy inefficient. The fuel for cooking in Ghana is mainly biomass either in the form of wood, agricultural residues or charcoal...

  4. Biomasse til energi og økologisk jordbrug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent T; Meyer, Niels I; Nielsen, Vilhjalmur

    Biomass is foreseen to play an important role in the Danish energy supply in the future. In recent years however, concerned ecological farmers have claimed that crop residues and animal manure should be returned to the fields with as small loss in carbon and nutrients content as possible. This has...... of ecological farmers on the use of biomass for energy are described, and empirical studies and models of the impact of soil carbon and nutrients on soil productivity are presented. The impact on the soil carbon balance of incorporating straw and manure to the field and the effects of land use changes...... created uncertainty concerning the realistic potential of biomass for energy. In order to analyse this question the Danish Energy Agency has funded a preliminary, interdiciplinary study concerning the relevance of the claims of the ecological farmers. The principles of ecological farming and the claims...

  5. Low-Energy Electron Scattering by Sugarcane Lignocellulosic Biomass Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Eliane; Sanchez, Sergio; Bettega, Marcio; Lima, Marco; Varella, Marcio

    2012-06-01

    The use of second generation (SG) bioethanol instead of fossil fuels could be a good strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, the efficient production of SG bioethanol has being a challenge to researchers around the world. The main barrier one must overcome is the pretreatment, a very important step in SG bioethanol aimed at breaking down the biomass and facilitates the extraction of sugars from the biomass. Plasma-based treatment, which can generate reactive species, could be an interesting possibility since involves low-cost atmospheric-pressure plasma. In order to offer theoretical support to this technique, the interaction of low-energy electrons from the plasma with biomass is investigated. This study was motived by several works developed by Sanche et al., in which they understood that DNA damage arises from dissociative electron attachment, a mechanism in which electrons are resonantly trapped by DNA subunits. We will present elastic cross sections for low-energy electron scattering by sugarcane biomass molecules, obtained with the Schwinger multichannel method. Our calculations indicate the formation of π* shape resonances in the lignin subunits, while a series of broad and overlapping σ* resonances are found in cellulose and hemicellulose subunits. The presence of π* and σ* resonances could give rise to direct and indirect dissociation pathways in biomass. Then, theoretical resonance energies can be useful to guide the plasma-based pretreatment to break down specific linkages of interest in biomass.

  6. Biomass for energy - small scale technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvesen, F.; Joergensen, P.F. [KanEnergi, Rud (Norway)

    1997-12-31

    The bioenergy markets and potential in EU region, the different types of biofuels, the energy technology, and the relevant applications of these for small-scale energy production are reviewed in this presentation

  7. Energy potential of fruit tree pruned biomass in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilandzija, N.; Voca, N.; Kricka, T.; Martin, A.; Jurisic, V.

    2012-11-01

    The world's most developed countries and the European Union (EU) deem that the renewable energy sources should partly substitute fossil fuels and become a bridge to the utilization of other energy sources of the future. This paper will present the possibility of using pruned biomass from fruit cultivars. It will also present the calculation of potential energy from the mentioned raw materials in order to determine the extent of replacement of non-renewable sources with these types of renewable energy. One of the results of the intensive fruit-growing process, in post pruning stage, is large amount of pruned biomass waste. Based on the calculated biomass (kg ha{sup 1}) from intensively grown woody fruit crops that are most grown in Croatia (apple, pear, apricots, peach and nectarine, sweet cherry, sour cherry, prune, walnut, hazelnut, almond, fig, grapevine, and olive) and the analysis of combustible (carbon 45.55-49.28%, hydrogen 5.91-6.83%, and sulphur 0.18-0.21%) and non-combustible matters (oxygen 43.34-46.6%, nitrogen 0.54-1.05%, moisture 3.65-8.83%, ashes 1.52-5.39%) with impact of lowering the biomass heating value (15.602-17.727 MJ kg{sup 1}), the energy potential of the pruned fruit biomass is calculated at 4.21 PJ. (Author) 31 refs.

  8. Biomass as a raw material for energy: a future potential energy source; Biomasse als Energierohstoff: Ein zukunftstraechtiger Energietraeger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bestebroer, S.I. [KEMA Nederland B.V., Arnheim (Netherlands); Smakman, G.J.J. [Novem, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kwant, K.W. [Novem, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1996-07-01

    Growing interest in the utilization of biomass in energy production in the Netherlands had led to the foundation of a commission, in which all partners participating in electricity supply in the Netherlands work collectively on evaluating the further development of converting biomass to energy and also on formulating the arrangement solutions. The commission has come to the conclusion that the combined combustion of organic residues and the operation of smaller independent plants for biomass processing are, at the present time, realistic options. After the year 2000, the introduction of wood as a raw material for energy on a larger scale will be taken into consideration. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das wachsende Interesse an der Nutzung von Biomasse in der Energieerzeugung fuehrte in den Niederlanden zur Gruendung einer Kommission, in der alle an der niederlaendischen Energieversorgung beteiligten Partner gemeinsam an der Bewertung der weiteren Entwicklung der Umwandlung von Biomasse in Energie sowie an der Formulierung von Loesungsansaetzen arbeiteten. Die Kommission kam zu dem Schluss, dass die Mitverbrennung organischer Rueckstaende und der Betrieb kleinerer eigenstaendiger Anlagen zur Biomasse-Verstromung zum heutigen Zeitpunkt realistische Optionen sind. Nach dem Jahre 2000 wird die Einfuhr von Holz als Energierohstoff im groesseren Massstab in Erwaegung gezogen. (orig.)

  9. Biomass for Energy and the Impacts on Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonhebel, Sanderine; Barbir, F; Ulgiati, S

    2010-01-01

    In climate policies in the developed world the use of biomass as an energy source plays an important role Indications exist that these policies are affecting global food security In this chapter we compare the global demands for food, feed and energy in the near future We distinguish between develop

  10. Department of Energy Recovery Act Investment in Biomass Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-11-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) provided more than $36 billion to the Department of Energy (DOE) to accelerate work on existing projects, undertake new and transformative research, and deploy clean energy technologies across the nation. Of this funding, $1029 million is supporting innovative work to advance biomass research, development, demonstration, and deployment.

  11. Biomass energy from crop and forest residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, D; Moran, M A; Fast, S; Weber, G; Bukantis, R; Balliett, L; Boveng, P; Cleveland, C; Hindman, S; Young, M

    1981-06-05

    Residues remaining after the harvest of crop and forestry products are being proposed as a substantial energy source for the nation. An estimated 22 percent of the residues might be utilized, providing a renewable source of high-grade energy with the potential of supplying 1 percent of the current U.S. gasoline consumption as ethanol or 4 percent of the total electrical energy used. These net energy benefits are limited by high energy costs to collect, transport, and process the residues. Environmental threats include soil erosion, water runoff, and nutrient loss.

  12. Sustainable Biomass Supply Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erin Searcy; Dave Muth; Erin Wilkerson; Shahab Sokansanj; Bryan Jenkins; Peter Titman; Nathan Parker; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson

    2009-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) aims to displace 30% of the 2004 gasoline use (60 billion gal/yr) with biofuels by 2030 as outlined in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which will require 700 million tons of biomass to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually. Lignocellulosic biomass will make an important contribution towards meeting DOE’s ethanol production goals. For the biofuels industry to be an economically viable enterprise, the feedstock supply system (i.e., moving the biomass from the field to the refinery) cannot contribute more that 30% of the total cost of the biofuel production. The Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of California, Davis and Kansas State University are developing a set of tools for identifying economical, sustainable feedstocks on a regional basis based on biorefinery siting.

  13. Comparative study of different waste biomass for energy application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motghare, Kalyani A; Rathod, Ajit P; Wasewar, Kailas L; Labhsetwar, Nitin K

    2016-01-01

    Biomass is available in many varieties, consisting of crops as well as its residues from agriculture, forestry, and the agro-industry. These different biomass find their way as freely available fuel in rural areas but are also responsible for air pollution. Emissions from such solid fuel combustion to indoor, regional and global air pollution largely depend on fuel types, combustion device, fuel properties, fuel moisture, amount of air supply for combustion and also on climatic conditions. In both economic and environment point of view, gasification constitutes an attractive alternative for the use of biomass as a fuel, than the combustion process. A large number of studies have been reported on a variety of biomass and agriculture residues for their possible use as renewable fuels. Considering the area specific agriculture residues and biomass availability and related transportation cost, it is important to explore various local biomass for their suitability as a fuel. Maharashtra (India) is the mainstay for the agriculture and therefore, produces a significant amount of waste biomass. The aim of the present research work is to analyze different local biomass wastes for their proximate analysis and calorific value to assess their potential as fuel. The biomass explored include cotton waste, leaf, soybean waste, wheat straw, rice straw, coconut coir, forest residues, etc. mainly due to their abundance. The calorific value and the proximate analysis of the different components of the biomass helped in assessing its potential for utilization in different industries. It is observed that ash content of these biomass species is quite low, while the volatile matter content is high as compared to Indian Coal. This may be appropriate for briquetting and thus can be used as a domestic fuel in biomass based gasifier cook stoves. Utilizing these biomass species as fuel in improved cook-stove and domestic gasifier cook-stoves would be a perspective step in the rural energy and

  14. Regional Feedstock Partnership Summary Report: Enabling the Billion-Ton Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, Vance N. [South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States). North Central Sun Grant Center; Karlen, Douglas L. [Dept. of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, Ames, IA (United States). National Lab. for Agriculture and the Environment; Lacey, Jeffrey A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Process Science and Technology Division

    2016-07-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Sun Grant Initiative established the Regional Feedstock Partnership (referred to as the Partnership) to address information gaps associated with enabling the vision of a sustainable, reliable, billion-ton U.S. bioenergy industry by the year 2030 (i.e., the Billion-Ton Vision). Over the past 7 years (2008–2014), the Partnership has been successful at advancing the biomass feedstock production industry in the United States, with notable accomplishments. The Billion-Ton Study identifies the technical potential to expand domestic biomass production to offset up to 30% of U.S. petroleum consumption, while continuing to meet demands for food, feed, fiber, and export. This study verifies for the biofuels and chemical industries that a real and substantial resource base could justify the significant investment needed to develop robust conversion technologies and commercial-scale facilities. DOE and the Sun Grant Initiative established the Partnership to demonstrate and validate the underlying assumptions underpinning the Billion-Ton Vision to supply a sustainable and reliable source of lignocellulosic feedstock to a large-scale bioenergy industry. This report discusses the accomplishments of the Partnership, with references to accompanying scientific publications. These accomplishments include advances in sustainable feedstock production, feedstock yield, yield stability and stand persistence, energy crop commercialization readiness, information transfer, assessment of the economic impacts of achieving the Billion-Ton Vision, and the impact of feedstock species and environment conditions on feedstock quality characteristics.

  15. Energy Efficiency and Air Quality Repairs at Lyonsdale Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, Michael R; Morrison, James A; Spomer, Eric; Thimot, Carol A

    2012-07-31

    This project enabled Lyonsdale Biomass, LLC to effect analyses, repairs and upgrades for its biomass cogeneration facility located in Lewis County, New York and close by the Adirondack Park to reduce air emissions by improving combustion technique and through the overall reduction of biomass throughput by increasing the system's thermodynamic efficiency for its steam-electrical generating cycle. Project outcomes result in significant local, New York State, Northeast U.S. and national benefits including improved renewable energy operational surety, enhanced renewable energy efficiency and more freedom from foreign fossil fuel source dependence. Specifically, the reliability of the Lyonsdale Biomass 20MWe woody biomass combined-heat and power (CHP) was and is now directly enhanced. The New York State and Lewis County benefits are equally substantial since the facility sustains 26 full-time equivalency (FTE) jobs at the facility and as many as 125 FTE jobs in the biomass logistics supply chain. Additionally, the project sustains essential local and state payment in lieu of taxes revenues. This project helps meet several USDOE milestones and contributes directly to the following sustainability goals:  Climate: Reduces greenhouse gas emissions associated with bio-power production, conversion and use, in comparison to fossil fuels. Efficiency and Productivity: Enhances efficient use of renewable resources and maximizes conversion efficiency and productivity. Profitability: Lowers production costs. Rural Development: Enhances economic welfare and rural development through job creation and income generation. Standards: Develop standards and corresponding metrics for ensuring sustainable biopower production. Energy Diversification and Security: Reduces dependence on foreign oil and increases energy supply diversity. Net Energy Balance: Ensures positive net energy balance for all alternatives to fossil fuels.

  16. BIOMASS AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF ENERGY IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEEPAK PALIWAL,

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The fossil fuel is a main source of energy for generation of electricity in India. Overall, about 80% of greenhouse gas (GHS emissions are related to the production and use of energy, and particularly, burning of fossils fuels. The environmental problems are associated with the generation of conventional sources of energy.The Kyoto protocol has established flexible mechanisms for developing countries to meet there GHG reduction commitment. Therefore, renewable source of energy is an alternative to conserve the natural resources and reduce the pollution burden. At present renewable sources of energy such as solar, wind, geothermal and hydropower provide small fraction of energy need. The most prevalent source is biomass, which accounts around 12% of total energy requirement. This source of energy includes wood, logging waste, sawdust, animal dung and vegetables consisting of grass, leaves, grass residues and agricultural waste. The biomass is abundant in nature which can be trapped as source of energy for generation of electricity for the rural as well as urban population. The technology needs to be developed for use of biomass as a source of energy. This paperdiscusses about its prospects in Asia and particularly in India. The recent developments and projects in India are discussed. A note on pollution control strategies has also been added.

  17. A REVIEW ON BIOMASS DENSIFICATION TECHNOLOGIE FOR ENERGY APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JAYA SHANKAR TUMULURU; CHRISTOPHER T. WRIGHT

    2010-08-01

    The world is currently facing challenges to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and to achieve a sustainable renewable supply. Renewable energies represent a diversity of energy sources that can help to maintain the equilibrium of different ecosystems. Among the various sources of renewable energy, biomass is finding more uses as it is considered carbon neutral since the carbondioxide released during its use is already part of the carbon cycle (Arias et al., 2008). Increasing the utilization of biomass for energy can help to reduce the negative CO2 impact on the environment and help to meet the targets established in the Kyoto Protocol (UN, 1998). Energy from biomass can be produced from different processes like thermochemical (combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis), biological (anaerobic digestion, fermentation) or chemical (esterification) where direct combustion can provide a direct near-term energy solution (Arias et al., 2008). Some of the inherent problems with raw biomass materials, like low bulk density, high moisture content, hydrophilic nature and low calorific value, limit the ease of use of biomass for energy purposes (Arias et al., 2008). In fact, due to its low energy density compared to fossil fuels, high volumes of biomass will be needed; adding to problems associated with storage, transportation and feed handling at a cogeneration plant. Furthermore, grinding biomass pulverizes, can be very costly and in some cases impractical. All of these drawbacks have given rise to the development of new technologies in order to increase the quality of biomass fuels. The purpose of the work is mainly in four areas 1) Overview of the torrefaction process and to do a literature review on i) Physical properties of torrefied raw material and torrefaction gas composition. 2) Basic principles in design of packed bed i) Equations governing the flow of material in packed bed ii) Equations governing the flow of the gases in packed bed iii) Effect of physical

  18. Life-Cycle Energy and GHG Emissions of Forest Biomass Harvest and Transport for Biofuel Production in Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengli Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available High dependence on imported oil has increased U.S. strategic vulnerability and prompted more research in the area of renewable energy production. Ethanol production from renewable woody biomass, which could be a substitute for gasoline, has seen increased interest. This study analysed energy use and greenhouse gas emission impacts on the forest biomass supply chain activities within the State of Michigan. A life-cycle assessment of harvesting and transportation stages was completed utilizing peer-reviewed literature. Results for forest-delivered ethanol were compared with those for petroleum gasoline using data specific to the U.S. The analysis from a woody biomass feedstock supply perspective uncovered that ethanol production is more environmentally friendly (about 62% less greenhouse gas emissions compared with petroleum based fossil fuel production. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with key inputs associated with harvesting and transportation operations. The results showed that research focused on improving biomass recovery efficiency and truck fuel economy further reduced GHG emissions and energy consumption.

  19. ANALYSIS OF THERMAL-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOMASS ENERGY PELLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Gluvakov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern life conditions, when emphasis is on environmental protection and sustainable development, fuels produced from biomass are increasingly gaining in importance, and it is necessary to consider the quality of end products obtained from biomass. Based on the existing European standards, collected literature and existing laboratory methods, this paper presents results of testing individual thermal - chemical properties of biomass energy pellets after extrusion and cooling the compressed material. Analysing samples based on standard methods, data were obtained on the basis of which individual thermal-chemical properties of pellets were estimated. Comparing the obtained results with the standards and literature sources, it can be said that moisture content, ash content and calorific values are the most important parameters for quality analysis which decide on applicability and use-value of biomass energy pellets, as biofuel. This paper also shows the impact of biofuels on the quality of environmental protection. The conclusion provides a clear statement of quality of biomass energy pellets.

  20. Biomass energy: Employment generation and its contribution to poverty alleviation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Openshaw, Keith [2430 Shenandoah St., Vienna, VA 22180 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Studies were undertaken in Malawi from 1995 to 1997 and 2007 to 2008 to estimate the supply and demand of household energy. Because little is known about the supply chain for biomass, surveys were carried out for urban areas on its production, transport and trade as well as sustainable supply. Also, because biomass is used by all people for a multitude of purposes, a complete picture was made of regional and urban biomass supply and demand. The results indicated that biomass is not only the principal energy, accounting for 89 percent of demand, but also the main traded energy in the two time periods accounting for 56-59 percent of commercial demand. Petroleum products supplied 26-27 percent, electricity 8-12 percent and coal 6-10 percent. The market value of traded woodfuel was US$ 48.8 million and US$ 81.0 million in 1996 and 2008 respectively, about 3.5 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). The study found that in 1996 and 2008 respectively, the equivalent of 93,500 and 133,000 full-time people was employed in the biomass supply chain, approximately 2 percent of the potential workforce. In contrast, about 3400 and 4600 people were employed in the supply chain of other fuels in these years. If the Malawi findings are applied to the current estimated wood energy consumption in sub-Saharan Africa, then approximately 13 million people could be employed in commercial biomass energy; this highlights its importance as a means to assist with sustainable development and poverty alleviation. (author)

  1. Biomass based energy. A review on raw materials and processing methods; Energie aus Biomasse. Eine Uebersicht ueber Rohstoffe und Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woellauer, P.

    2007-07-01

    The book reviews the variety of biogenic raw materials and the technologically important biomass conversion techniques. The chapter on the different kinds of biomass includes a) wood from forestry, landscape culturing and saw mills, bark and old wood; b) plants (corn, miscanthus, cannabis, wheat, rye, sugar beets, grass, rape, etc.), residuals and wastes (straw, liquid manure, slaughthouse wastes, kitchen wastes, sewage sludge, others). The chapter on biomass conversion processing discusses combustion, oxidation in spercritical water, gasification and reforming, fermentation, extrusion or extraction, and downstream processes. The chapter on biomass based electricity and mechanical energy includes refrigeration engineering, direct utilization: Otto engines, Diesel engines, microgas turbine fuel cells, and heat processing: Striling engine, vapour turbine, ORC turbine, externally fired gas turbine, and the Kalina process.

  2. Solar biomass energy: an overview of u.s. Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwell, C C

    1978-03-10

    The U.S. annual biomass production for food, lumber, paper, and fiber, if used exclusively for energy, would provide 25 percent of current energy requirements. The collection of unharvested wood residues and cull trees for direct use as fuel for small nearby space-heating applications-especially for peak winter conditions-is an important near-term solar energy opportunity. Improved management of hundreds of millions of acres of productive forest land is an important opportunity for the long term. Harvest of cropland residues for energy values, new biomass production using intensive short-rotation silviculture, resubstitution of natural products for petroleum-based synthetics, and forest management for large-scale production of electricity and synthetic fuels are judged to be less appropriate directions for the U.S. energy system to take.

  3. Impact of novel energy sources: OTEC, wind, goethermal, biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A. S., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Alternate energy conversion methods such as ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), wind power, geothermal wells and biomass conversion are being explored, and re-examined in some cases, for commercial viability. At a time when United States fossil fuel and uranium resources are found to be insufficient to supply national needs into the twenty-first century, it is essential to broaden the base of feasible energy conversion technologies. The motivations for development of these four alternative energy forms are established. Primary technical aspects of OTEC, wind, geothermal and biomass energy conversion systems are described along with a discussion of relative advantages and disadvantages of the concepts. Finally, the sentiment is voiced that each of the four systems should be developed to the prototype stage and employed in the region of the country and in the sector of economy which is complimentary to the form of system output.

  4. Sustainable utilisation of forest biomass for energy - Possibilities and problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stupak, I.; Asikainen, A.; Jonsell, M.;

    2007-01-01

    The substitution of biomass for fossil fuels in energy consumption is a measure to mitigate global warming, as well as having other advantages. Political action plans for increased use exist at both European and national levels. This paper briefly reviews the contents of recommendations. guidelines....... and other synthesis publications on Sustainable use of forest biomass for energy. Topics are listed and an overview of advantages. disadvantages, and trade-offs between them is given, from the viewpoint of society in general and the forestry or the Nordic and Baltic countries, the paper also identifies...... the extent to which wood for energy is and energy sectors in particular. F included in forest legislation and forest certification standards under the "Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification" (PEFC) and the "Forest Stewardship Council" (FSC) schemes. Energy and forest policies at EU...

  5. Energy-efficient photobioreactor configuration for algal biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegallapati, Ambica Koushik; Arudchelvam, Yalini; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany

    2012-12-01

    An internally illuminated photobioreactor (IIPBR) design is proposed for energy-efficient biomass production. Theoretical rationale of the IIPBR design and its advantages over the traditional bubble column photobioreactors (PBRs) are presented, followed by experimental results from prototype scale cultivation of freshwater and marine algal strains in an 18L IIPBR. Based on theoretical considerations, the proposed IIPBR design has the potential to support 160% higher biomass density and higher biomass productivity per unit energy input, B/E, than a bubble column PBR of equal incident area per unit culture volume. Experimental B/E values recorded in this study with fresh water algae and marine algae (1.42 and 0.37 gW(-1)d(-1), respectively) are at least twice as those reported in the literature for comparable species cultivated in bubble column and airlift PBRs.

  6. Biomass torrefaction mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  7. Techno-economic assessment of micro-algae as feedstock for renewable bio-energy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, J.G.G.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper determines the energy consumption ratio and overall bio-energy production costs of microalgae cultivation, harvesting and conversion to secondary energy carriers, thus helping to clarify future perspectives of micro-algae production for energy purposes. A limitation growth model is develo

  8. Development of Switchgrass Into a Biomass Energy Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a North American prairie grass that is being developed into a biomass energy crop in the USA and other countries. Research on switchgrass as a pasture and forage crop was initiated in the mid-1930's in an U.S. Department of Agriculture and University of Nebraska ...

  9. Fuels and chemicals from biomass using solar thermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giori, G.; Leitheiser, R.; Wayman, M.

    1981-01-01

    The significant nearer term opportunities for the application of solar thermal energy to the manufacture of fuels and chemicals from biomass are summarized, with some comments on resource availability, market potential and economics. Consideration is given to the production of furfural from agricultural residues, and the role of furfural and its derivatives as a replacement for petrochemicals in the plastics industry.

  10. Agronomic Considerations for Simulating Switchgrass for Biomass Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a perennial warm-season grass native to North America, is a prime candidate for dedicated biomass energy for many regions of the USA. USDA-ARS in Lincoln, NE has conducted switchgrass research since the 1930’s. Plot-scale research has been conducted on switchgrass ...

  11. Conflicts on Use of Agricultural Biomass for Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I; Nielsen, Vilhjalmur; Christensen, Bent T.

    1997-01-01

    The use of biomass for energy puposes may conflict with the need to maintain soil quality of arable fields. Concerned ecological farmers claim that crop residues and animal manure should all be returned to the fields with as small a loss in carbon and nutrients content as possible. If a large part...

  12. Energy analysis of biochemical conversion processes of biomass to bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakari, M.; Ngadi, M.; Bergthorson, T. [McGill Univ., Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Bioresource Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Bioethanol is among the most promising of biofuels that can be produced from different biomass such as agricultural products, waste and byproducts. This paper reported on a study that examined the energy conversion of different groups of biomass to bioethanol, including lignocelluloses, starches and sugar. Biochemical conversion generally involves the breakdown of biomass to simple sugars using different pretreatment methods. The energy needed for the conversion steps was calculated in order to obtain mass and energy efficiencies for the conversions. Mass conversion ratios of corn, molasses and rice straw were calculated as 0.3396, 0.2300 and 0.2296 kg of bioethanol per kg of biomass, respectively. The energy efficiency of biochemical conversion of corn, molasses and rice straw was calculated as 28.57, 28.21 and 31.33 per cent, respectively. The results demonstrated that lignocelluloses can be efficiently converted with specific microorganisms such as Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae using the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) methods.

  13. Photosynthetic pathway and biomass energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzola, D L; Bartholomew, D P

    1979-08-10

    The current interest in locating new or alternative sources of energy has focused attention on solar energy capture by crops that can be subsequently utilized as a substitute for fossil fuels. The very high productivity of sugarepane and the fact that it accumulates sugars that are directly fermentable to alcohol may have caused seemingly less productive crops to be overlooked. We show here that recoverable alcohol from achievable commercial yields of pineapple can actually equal that of sugarcane, with the pineapple crop requiring only a fraction of the water used by sugarcane. Pineapple is well adapted to the subhumid or semiarid tropics and thus is particularly well suited for exploiting large areas not now under cultivation with any crop of commercial value.

  14. Socio-economic impact of wood biomass utilization for energy production and its impact on small communities in Northwestern Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanzida Baten, C.; Pulkki, R. (Lakehead Univ., Thunder Bay, ON (Canada), Faculty of Natural Resources Management), e-mail: csanzida@lakeheadu.ca, e-mail: rpulkki@lakehaedu.ca

    2010-07-01

    Bioenergy refers to all forms of renewable energy that are derived from plant materials produced by photosynthesis. Biomass fuels can be derived from wood, agricultural crops and other organic residues. These fuels can be obtained from many sources in Canada, including sawmills, woodworking shops, forest operations and farms. This study deals with the socio-economic aspects of bioenergy development. Normally, the socio-economic impact of bioenergy can be measured in terms of economic indices, such as employment, monetary gains, etc. Recently some pulp and paper mills in northwestern Ontario have initiated bioenergy plants to generate heat and electricity for their use. The Ontario Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure is investigating the possibility of replacing coal with renewable forest biomass as feedstock for the Atikokan Power Generating Station (APGS) located in northwestern Ontario. The APGS has already successfully tested 100 % wood biomass feedstock instead of coal. This study evaluates the socio-economic impacts of wood biomass utilization for energy production in small communities in northwestern Ontario Canada. (orig.)

  15. Biomass for energy production. Economic evaluation, efficiency comparison and optimal utilization of biomass; Biomasse zur Energiegewinnung. Oekonomische Bewertung, Effizienzvergleich und optimale Biomassenutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeddies, Juergen [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Landwirtschaftliche Betriebslehre; Schoenleber, Nicole

    2015-07-01

    An optimized and/or goal-oriented use of available biomass feedstock for energetic conversion requires a detailed analysis of bioenergy production lines according to technical and economic efficiency indicators. Accordingly, relevant parameters of selected production lines supplying heat, electricity and fuel have been studied and used as data base for an optimization model. Most favorable combination of bioenergy lines considering political and economic objectives are analyzed by applying a specifically designed linear optimization model. Modeling results shall allow evaluation of political courses of action.

  16. Challenges in meeting biomass energy needs in West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianka, M. [GAA/RPTES, Dakar (Senegal)

    2001-07-01

    Biomass energy represents conciderable potential for West Africa. However, the traditional methods of tapping into this biomass have not only had grave consequences for the environment, but have only been able to partially resolve the crucial issue of how to sustainably supply households with domestic fuels. Nevertheless, recent progress made in the improvement of technologies enhancing biomass energy provides a glimpse at interesting perspectives fostering the modernisating and better assesment of the biocombustible and biofuel industries. Reflection conducted over these past years by a group of African experts, brought together around the ASG at the instigation of the RPTES Programme and founded on a new approach to forest resource management, illustrates the attention public powers are granting increasingly to biomass energy, which had been relegated to the back burner for so long, to the benefit of more 'conventional' energy sources. Considering the complexity of biomass energy issues, and their direct links to poverty, it is evident that isolated actions will never succeed in solving the problems currently faced. Thus it is essential to promote regional collaboration and partnerships for more effective actions and to capitalise on experiences, with the aim of ensuring sustainable development for the continent of Africa. Today, given the economic potential of more than US$6 billion generated by African forests, this implies the introduction of sustainable strategies which will result in increasing incomes and improving welfare in general. West Africa, masthead of the continent, will certainly not be an isolated case. Consequently, vigorous action supporting the sustainable management of natural resources as part of poverty alleviation programmes should be undertaken post-haste, in compliance with the Abuja Treaty establishing the African Economic Community. (au)

  17. A Spatial Model of the Biomass to Energy Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2003-01-01

    by location. This paper aims to contribute to the development of a biomass to energy evaluation and mapping system, using geographical information systems (GIS). A GIS-based in-forest residue model considers forest growth and choice of harvest method. Data from a sawmill survey is used to assess sawmill resi...... and the costs of accumulated amounts of wood residues can now be calculated almost instantly for each location in the country. It is assumed that this approach will facilitate the assessment of future biomass markets....

  18. BioMeeT. Planning of biomass based methanol energy combine - Trollhaettan region. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandberg, Aake; Hjortsberg, Hans; Saevbark, Bengt [Ecotraffic R and D AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Ekbom, Tomas; Hjerpe, Carl-Johan; Landaelv, Ingvar [Nykomb Synergetics AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    The conversion of biomass in an energy combine based on primary gasification yields a gas that can be used as fuels gas, for synthesis of motor fuels (methanol or other) or for electric power production. The study gives examples of alternative product mixes. The conclusions of the study are: (1) Potential of new, not yet utilised biomass is available, and new areas of applications, where oil is presently used, are needed to develop the potential. Motor fuel production (methanol, DME) is a presumption in the BioMeeT-study. (2) Yield figures in the energy combine are comparable to those of now used bio-systems for power and co-generation. (3) Which one of the cases in the BioMeeT-project is the most favourable cannot be decided on a plant-to-plant basis alone but the entire system for supply energy carriers in the region has to be considered, as the all plants within the system may change. This would require further investigations. Moreover, the results will be different in various regions in Sweden and Europe due to the markets for all energy carriers. (4) At today's conditions in the Trollhaettan region it must be stated that there is only room for dedicated bio-methanol/DME production (provided such a market will come) with moderate addition to the district heating system as in the BAL-project. (5) In the longer term the future supply of all energy carriers, including new electric power and new bio-fuels, has to be considered for new plants and at renewals. In such a case an energy combine as in the BioMeeT-project may be a central conversion plant with gas deliveries to satellites such as local co-generation, district heat and industries in a regional system within a 50 - 100 km radius. This should be included in regional planning for the future. (6) Estimated investment costs per kW feedstock input is higher for the energy combine compared to present technologies (mature technologies for power and heat) but have to be judged for all plants taken together in

  19. Biomass Rapid Analysis Network (BRAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-10-01

    Helping the emerging biotechnology industry develop new tools and methods for real-time analysis of biomass feedstocks, process intermediates and The Biomass Rapid Analysis Network is designed to fast track the development of modern tools and methods for biomass analysis to accelerate the development of the emerging industry. The network will be led by industry and organized and coordinated through the National Renewable Energy Lab. The network will provide training and other activities of interest to BRAN members. BRAN members will share the cost and work of rapid analysis method development, validate the new methods, and work together to develop the training for the future biomass conversion workforce.

  20. Energy from Biomass: technology assessment of small-medium scale biomass conversion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cutz Ijchajchal, Luis Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Mención Internacional en el título de doctor Bioenergy is a key resource to addressing challenges such as climate change (anthropogenic CO₂ emissions), pollution (suspended particles), energy security and human well-being. Currently, most of the biomass produced worldwide is consumed for cooking and space heating which has raised concerns among governments and policy-makers, especially due to threats to human health. The present thesis focuses on studying the technical and economic feasibi...

  1. Energy balance for steam generation system with biomass dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Pedro A.R. [Instituto Superior Politecnico Jose Antonio Echeverria (CUJAE), Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba). Facultad Ingenieria Mecanica]. E-mail: pedro@economia.cujae.edu.cu; Lombardi, Geraldo; Santos, Antonio Moreira dos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia]. E-mails: lombardi@sc.usp.br; asantos@sc.usp.br

    2008-07-01

    Water content is a major drainer of the energy available in the biomass, which justifies the proposal of a drying system with the potential to increase 80% of the biomass low heating value, also increasing the production of steam in the boiler and cogeneration of electricity. An example of biomass is the sugar cane bagasse of an alcohol mill producing 120,000 liters of alcohol per day, whose humidity from the extraction section is usually 50%. The present paper determines the increases in the mass flow rates of steam in the boiler, in the cogeneration of electricity and in the pay back time of the drying system and of the alcohol mill, as a consequence of the bagasse drying from 50 to 35%, considering 30% of air excess over the stoichiometric value admitted in the boiler for the bagasse burning. It also provides subsidies for the development and deployment of a drying system for the current boilers. (author)

  2. Strategies on biomass energies in EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xenakis, E. [European Commission, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1997-08-01

    The main EU programmes, supporting the renewable deployment, are the research and development programmes JOULE, THERMIE and FAIR, included in the 4th framework programme, the ALTENER programme and the `Community Support Framework` programme. Research and development (R and E) activity within the JOULE and THERMIE programmes are divided into five areas, of which the third concerns the renewable energies. The support could range from 40 to 100 % of the cost. JOULE programme is research oriented, while the THERMIE programme is demonstration oriented. The FAIR programme is also a specific research and development programme for agriculture and agrifood industry. It could cover, among others, projects in connection with the biogas exploitation. The ALTENER programme provides support for the so called `software` actions, promoting renewables, mainly training and information actions, including events like the present one. Furthermode, it provides support for technical specifications, creation of infrastructure for the promotion of renewables and so on. ALTENER does not support investments. Finally the `Community Support Framework` programme promoting the regional development, could, in some cases, support traditional technology investments in relation to renewables. (au)

  3. Energy and conservation benefits from managed prairie biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungers, Jacob M.; Trost, Jared J.; Lehman, Clarence L.; Tilman, David; Booth, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Marginally productive land, such as that enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), may provide acreage and economic incentives for cellulosic energy production. Improving the yields from these lands will help establish a biomass producer?s position in the marketplace. The effects of water and nitrogen on biomass yields were investigated in both a plot-scale experiment and a broad-scale survey of CRP lands. The plot-scale experiment demonstrated that irrigation improved mixed-species prairie biomass yields more than nitrogen fertilizer on coarse-textured, marginally productive soils. Experimental plots amended with both irrigation and moderate (but not high) nitrogen produced more biomass than other treatment combinations, but this trend was not statistically significant. The survey of biomass yields on CRP lands across four Midwestern States indicates that yields are better correlated with June rainfall than any other individual month. Applying nutrient-enriched water such as agricultural runoff could benefit prairie yields if applied at appropriate times.

  4. Biomass Energy Self-Sufficiency Resource Alternatives for a Forested Air Force Installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    to support basewide biomass energy systems. The study confirmed the feasibility of a biomass energy plantation supplying the required fuel wood to...support the basewide biomass energy systems while, at the same time not conflicting with any of the operational missions of Eglin AFB. This conclusion is...have an installation that provides all of its electrical and thermal energy requirements through the utilization of the Biomass Energy Island concept. (Author)

  5. Influence of feedstock particle size on lignocellulose conversion--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Bernardo C; Dien, Bruce S; Ting, K C; Singh, Vijay

    2011-08-01

    Feedstock particle sizing can impact the economics of cellulosic ethanol commercialization through its effects on conversion yield and energy cost. Past studies demonstrated that particle size influences biomass enzyme digestibility to a limited extent. Physical size reduction was able to increase conversion rates to maximum of ≈ 50%, whereas chemical modification achieved conversions of >70% regardless of biomass particle size. This suggests that (1) mechanical pretreatment by itself is insufficient to attain economically feasible biomass conversion, and, therefore, (2) necessary particle sizing needs to be determined in the context of thermochemical pretreatment employed for lignocellulose conversion. Studies of thermochemical pretreatments that have taken into account particle size as a factor have exhibited a wide range of maximal sizes (i.e., particle sizes below which no increase in pretreatment effectiveness, measured in terms of the enzymatic conversion resulting from the pretreatment, were observed) from pretreatment employed, with maximal size range decreasing as follows: steam explosion > liquid hot water > dilute acid and base pretreatments. Maximal sizes also appeared dependent on feedstock, with herbaceous or grassy biomass exhibiting lower maximal size range (biomass (>3 mm). Such trends, considered alongside the intensive energy requirement of size reduction processes, warrant a more systematic study of particle size effects across different pretreatment technologies and feedstock, as a requisite for optimizing the feedstock supply system.

  6. Technical and economic analysis of using biomass energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piaskowska-Silarska Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the article were presented the technical possibilities of obtaining solid biomass, biogas, landfill gas, a biogas from wastewater treatment plants, bioethanol and biodiesel. Then processes was described, allowing use of energy from biomass. As first was discussed the incineration which includes drying and degassing of the wood materials, wood gas burning at 1200°C, post-combustion gas and heat transfer in the heat exchanger. Then had been described gasification, or thermochemical conversion process, occurring at high temperature. It is two-stage process. In the first chamber at deficiency of air and at relatively low temperatures (450–800°C, the fuel is being degasified, resulting in creating combustible gas and a mineral residue (charcoal. In the second stage, secondary combustion chamber and at a temperature of about 1000–1200°C and in the presence of excess of oxygen resultant gas is burned. A further process is pyrolysis. It consists of the steps of drying fuel to a moisture level below 10%, milling the biomass into very small particles, the pyrolysis reaction, separation of solid products, cooling and collecting bio-oil. Then discusses co-generation, which is combined production of heat and electricity. In this situation where the biomass contains too much water it can be used for energy purposes through biochemical processes. The alcoholic fermentation results in decomposition of carbohydrates taking place under anaerobic conditions, and the product is bioethanol. Another biochemical process used for the production of liquid biofuels is esterification of vegetable oils. Methane fermentation in turn causes a decomposition of macromolecular organic substances with limited oxygen available. As a result, we obtain alcohols, lower organic acids, methane, carbon dioxide and water. There was analysis of economic increasing of solid biomass energy, biogas and liquid biofuels in the following article.

  7. Conversion of Grazed Pastures to Energy Cane as a Biofuel Feedstock Alters Soil GHG Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Casanovas, N.; DeLucia, N.; Bernacchi, C.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in land use profoundly affect climate through variations in soil Greenhouse Gas (GHG) exchange. The need for alternative energies is accelerating land use change as marginal land or managed ecosystems are being converted to highly productive second-generation bioenergy crops such as energy cane (Saccharum spp. L). Although the deployment of energy cane is a promising strategy to meet global bioenergy industry demands, few studies have investigated soil GHG fluxes in these crops and sub-tropical low-intensity grazing pasture (bahiagrass, Paspalum notatum L., as forage for cattle, Bos taurus L.) with which they are competing for land. Here, we showed that soil N2O fluxes in bioenergy crops were higher (>250%) than those observed in pastures following fertilization when soil moisture and temperature were high. In the absence of recent fertilization, the N2O source strength in energy cane and pasture sites was similar. Under drier and cooler soil conditions, both pastures and bioenergy crops were weak sources of N2O even when energy cane plots were recently fertilized. Soils on grazed pastures were sources of CH4 during the wet season but became sinks under drier, colder conditions. Energy cane plantations were weak sources of CH4 over a complete wet-dry seasonal cycle. The heterotrophic component of soil respiration was larger (139-155%) in pastures than in energy cane crops, suggesting lower decomposition of SOC in bioenergy crops. In terms of global warming potential, grazed pastures were stronger (120-150%) soil GHG emitters than energy cane crops over a complete wet-dry seasonal cycle. Moreover, pastures became a substantial source of GHG emitters when including estimates of CH4 flux from cattle. Our results suggest that the conversion of pasture to energy cane will be beneficial in relation to GHGs emitted from soils and cattle. Improved understanding of land use impact on soil GHG dynamics will provide valuable information for decision makers debating

  8. Forest Biomass Energy Resources in China: Quantity and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important renewable and sustainable energy sources, the forest biomass energy resource has always been the focus of attention of scholars and policy makers. However, its potential is still uncertain in China, especially with respect to its spatial distribution. In this paper, the quantity and distribution of Chinese forest biomass energy resources are explored based mainly on forestry statistics data rather than forest resource inventory data used by most previous studies. The results show that the forest biomass energy resource in China was 169 million tons in 2010, of which wood felling and bucking residue (WFBR,wood processing residue (WPR, bamboo processing residue, fuel wood and firewood used by farmers accounted for 38%, 37%, 6%, 4% and 15%, respectively. The highest resource was located in East China, accounting for nearly 39.0% of the national amount, followed by the Southwest and South China regions, which accounted for 17.4% and 16.3%, respectively. At the provincial scale, Shandong has the highest distribution, accounting for 11.9% of total resources, followed by Guangxi and Fujian accounting for 10.3% and 10.2%, respectively. The actual wood-processing residue (AWPR estimated from the actual production of different wood products (considering the wood transferred between regions showed apparent differences from the local wood processing residue (LWPR, which assumes that no wood has been transferredbetween regions. Due to the large contribution of WPR to total forestry bioenergy resources, the estimation of AWPR will provide a more accurate evaluation of the total amount and the spatial distribution of forest biomass energy resources in China.

  9. Ligncellulosic feedstock supply systems with intermodal and overseas transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ric Hoefnagels; Kara Cafferty; Erin Searcy; Jacob J. Jacobson; Martin Junginger; Thijs Cornelissen; Andre Faaij

    2014-12-01

    With growing demand for biomass from industrial uses and international trade, the logistic operations required to economically move the biomass from the field or forest to the end users have become increasingly complex. In addition to economics, understanding energy and GHG emissions is required to design cost effective, sustainable logistic process operations; in order to improve international supply chains it is also important to understate their interdependencies and related uncertainties. This article presents an approach to assess lignocellulosic feedstock supply systems at the operational level. For this purpose, the Biomass Logistic Model (BLM) has been linked with the Geographic Information Systems based Biomass Intermodal Transportation model (BIT-UU) and extended with inter-continental transport routes. Case studies of herbaceous and woody biomass, produced in the U.S. Midwest and U.S. Southeast, respectively, and shipped to Europe for conversion to Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel are included to demonstrate how intermodal transportation and, in particular, overseas shipping integrates with the bioenergy supply chains. For the cases demonstrated, biomass can be supplied at 99 € Mg-1 to 117 € Mg-1 (dry) and converted to FT-diesel at 19 € GJ-1 to 24 € GJ-1 depending on the feedstock type and location, intermediate (chips or pellets) and size of the FT-diesel production plant. With the flexibility to change the design of supply chains as well as input variables, many alternative supply chain cases can be assessed.

  10. Easetech Energy: Advanced Life Cycle Assessment of Energy from Biomass and Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard; Turconi, Roberto; Tonini, Davide

    SUMMARY: Biomass and waste are expected to play a key role in future energy systems based on large shares of renewable energy resources. The LCA model EASETECH Energy was developed specifically for modelling large and complex energy systems including various technologies and several processing st...

  11. Production and trading of biomass for energy: an overview of the global status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinimö, J.; Junginger, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The markets for industrially used biomass for energy purposes are developing rapidly toward being international commodity markets. Determining international traded biomass volumes for energy purposes is difficult, for several reasons, such as challenges regarding the compilation of statistics on the

  12. Biomass as energy resource of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gvero, P. (University of Banja Luka, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Banja Luka (Bosnia and Herzegowina)); Petrovic, S. (IGT R and D Centre for Gas Technology, Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina)); Ballard Tremeer, G. (ECO Ltd., London (United Kingdom)); Maslac, S. (UNDP, Banja Luka Office (Bosnia and Herzegowina))

    2007-07-01

    The production, harvesting and processing of timber is one of the country's oldest economic activities, and has a major strategic importance for the country's economic development, especially in post war period. Some statistical estimations shows that the wood export value within the total Bosnia and Herzegovina export value is probably in order of 15%. It is further estimated that 15% of the total population receives its livelihood through the activities in forestry and forest industry. Sustainable development of the present and future energy systems has to be based on two strategies: energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. Bosnia and Herzegovina thanking to great hydro potential, biomass, geothermal energy etc. belongs to the list of the countries which will development of energy sector mainly based on renewable energy sources. In a present period biomass plays significant role in households and wood processing industry sectors. Bosnia and Herzegovina has large biomass resources: the growing stock is equivalent to 7.44 x 106 m3 of wood giving an annual sustainable production volume of about 4.43 x 106 m3. Because of large potential of biomass, this energy source will play more important role in whole energy sector of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This paper gives some data regarding to biomass energy potential collected from different sources in Republic of Srpska and Federation of B and H as consisting parts of the Bosnia and Herzegovina and recouped on one place. This paper also gives short analysis of potential biomass resource use. There are a lot of large industrial energy systems in the Country, mainly in wood processing industry, which was passed through privatization process in last couple years. Now, new owners of this mainly to large capacities for them, looking for the chances in ESCO business, electricity production, district heating systems. This paper gives short analysis of potential cogeneration systems based on biomass. Some analysis

  13. Nanotechnology makes biomass electrolysis more energy efficient than water electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. X.; Lavacchi, A.; Miller, H. A.; Bevilacqua, M.; Filippi, J.; Innocenti, M.; Marchionni, A.; Oberhauser, W.; Wang, L.; Vizza, F.

    2014-06-01

    The energetic convenience of electrolytic water splitting is limited by thermodynamics. Consequently, significant levels of hydrogen production can only be obtained with an electrical energy consumption exceeding 45 kWh kg-1H2. Electrochemical reforming allows the overcoming of such thermodynamic limitations by replacing oxygen evolution with the oxidation of biomass-derived alcohols. Here we show that the use of an original anode material consisting of palladium nanoparticles deposited on to a three-dimensional architecture of titania nanotubes allows electrical energy savings up to 26.5 kWh kg-1H2 as compared with proton electrolyte membrane water electrolysis. A net energy analysis shows that for bio-ethanol with energy return of the invested energy larger than 5.1 (for example, cellulose), the electrochemical reforming energy balance is advantageous over proton electrolyte membrane water electrolysis.

  14. Microbial renewable feedstock utilization: A substrate-oriented approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rumbold, K.; Buijsen, H.J.J. van; Gray, V.M.; Groenestijn, J.W. van; Overkamp, K.M.; Slomp, R.S.; Werf, M.J. van der; Punt, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates are used as the feedstock for industrial fermentations. These biomass hydrolysates consist of complex mixtures of different fermentable sugars, but also contain inhibitors and salts that affect the performance of the productgenerating microbes. The p

  15. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid-and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass production, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the conceptual production economics of these fuels. This includes fuel pathways from lignocellulosic (terrestrial) biomass, as well as from algal (aquatic) biomass systems.

  16. Energy Opportunities from Lignocellulosic Biomass for a Biorefinery Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Cotana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents some energy considerations concerning a biorefinery case study that has been carried out by the CRB/CIRIAF of the University of Perugia. The biorefinery is the case study of the BIT3G project, a national funded research project, and it uses the lignocellulosic biomass that is available in the territory as input materials for biochemical purposes, such as cardoon and carthamus. The whole plant is composed of several sections: the cardoon and carthamus seed milling, the oil refinement facilities, and the production section of some high quality biochemicals, i.e., bio-oils and fatty acids. The main goal of the research is to demonstrate energy autonomy of the latter section of the biorefinery, while only recovering energy from the residues resulting from the collection of the biomass. To this aim, this work presents the quantification of the energy requirements to be supplied to the considered biorefinery section, the mass flow, and the energy and chemical characterization of the biomass. Afterwards, some sustainability strategies have been qualitatively investigated in order to identify the best one to be used in this case study; the combined heat and power (CHP technology. Two scenarios have been defined and presented: the first with 6 MWt thermal input and 1.2 MWe electrical power as an output and the second with 9 MWt thermal input and 1.8 MWe electrical power as an output. The first scenario showed that 11,000 tons of residual biomass could ensure the annual production of about 34,000 MWht, equal to about the 72% of the requirements, and about 9600 MWhe, equal to approximately 60% of the electricity demand. The second scenario showed that 18,000 tons of the residual biomass could ensure the total annual production of about 56,000 MWht, corresponding to more than 100% of the requirements, and about 14,400 MWhe, equal to approximately 90% of the electricity demand. In addition, the CO2 emissions from the energy valorization

  17. Targets and tools for optimizing lignocellulosic biomass quality of miscanthus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijde, van der R.T.

    2016-01-01

    Miscanthus is a perennial energy grass characterized by a high productivity and resource-use efficiency, making it an ideal biomass feedstock for the production of cellulosic biofuels and a wide range of other biobased value-chains. However, the large-scale commercialization of converting biomass in

  18. Energy analysis of using macroalgae from eutrophic waters as a bioethanol feedstock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghetta, Michele; Østergård, Hanne; Bastianoni, Simone

    2014-01-01

    is required directly or indirectly to produce 0.09J of bioethanol for OL or 0.44J of bioethanol for KB, i.e. the energy return on (energy) invested (EROI) is less than 1. An alternative scenario was developed in order to investigate improvements of system efficiency. This was analysed with the full-requirement...... approach as well as with a marginal-requirement approach accounting only what the bioethanol production requires of additional processes, i.e. mainly transportation and conversion of the macroalgae in a biorefinery facility which is assumed to be situated close to an existing industry producing waste heat...... instead of considered as an environmental problem. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  19. Advanced Breeding, Development, and Release of High Biomass Energy Cane Cultivars in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research into alternative energy sources has been on the rise since the 1970s. Novel sources of carbon-neutral energy are currently in high demand, but can pose different challenges in their development. Energy cane is a relatively new generation crop being bred as a source for biofuel feedstock and...

  20. Local biomass as a decentral source of energy; Kommunale Biomasse als dezentraler Energietraeger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlederer, Swantje Mignon; Guenthert, F. Wolfgang [Univ. der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Neubiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasserwesen, Siedlungswasserwirtschaft und Abfalltechnik

    2013-03-15

    The production of wood based fuels such as wooden logs, wood chip, wooden briquettes or pellets has become standard practice. The easy handling of wood as an energy source has contributed to its popularity. A growing demand for wood based fuels has resulted in higher prices and the increasing demand is being met more and more by imports. The florafuel-Procedure provides an alternative to this trend by processing stalks and biomass waste, which in turn means a considerably broader raw material base. The procedure, which produces fuel in the form of pellets or briquettes to generate electricity or heat, is currently being optimised at the University of the German Federal Armed Forces in Munich (Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen) and is about to complete a demonstration plant which should prove its economic viability. Substances such as chlorine and potassium which normally cause concern during the combustion of stalks and stems can be significantly reduced through this production process. Moreover, the materials used as an energy source do not compete with food production. The fuel produced can be easily transported and stored. It can be used to meet both base load and peak load demands and has therefore proven to be highly flexible. Easy handling, little storage space and low capital expenditure are important characteristics of the florafuel-Procedure. Compared to other production processes, the florafuel-Procedure shows a very favourable energy balance for biomass based on stalks and stems. (orig.)

  1. Coal conversion and biomass conversion: Volume 1: Final report on USAID (Agency for International Development)/GOI (Government of India) Alternate Energy Resources and Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, A.; Saluja, J.

    1987-06-30

    The United States Agency for International Development (AID), in joint collaboration with the Government of India (GOI), supported a research and development program in Alternate Energy Resources during the period March 1983 to June 1987. The primary emphasis of this program was to develop new and advanced coal and biomass conversion technologies for the efficient utilization of coal and biomass feedstocks in India. This final ''summary'' report is divided into two volumes. This Report, Volume I, covers the program overview and coal projects and Volume II summarizes the accomplishments of the biomass projects. The six projects selected in the area of coal were: Evaluation of the Freeboard Performance in a Fluidized-Bed Combustor; Scale-up of AFBC boilers; Rheology, Stability and Combustion of Coal-Water Slurries; Beneficiation of Fine Coal in Dense Medium Cyclones; Hot Gas Cleanup and Separation; and Cold Gas Cleanup and Separation.

  2. Biomass - alternative renewable energy source to the fossil fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koruba Dorota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the fossil fuels combustion effects in terms of the dangers of increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Based on the bibliography review the negative impact of increased carbon dioxide concentration on the human population is shown in the area of the external environment, particularly in terms of the air pollution and especially the impact on human health. The paper presents biomass as the renewable energy alternative source to fossil fuels which combustion gives a neutral CO2 emissions and therefore should be the main carrier of primary energy in Poland. The paper presents the combustion heat results and humidity of selected dry wood pellets (pellets straw, energy-crop willow pellets, sawdust pellets, dried sewage sludge from two sewage treatment plants of the Holly Cross province pointing their energy potential. In connection with the results analysis of these studies the standard requirements were discussed (EN 14918:2010 “Solid bio-fuels-determination of calorific value” regarding the basic parameters determining the biomass energy value (combustion heat, humidity.

  3. Energy-Based Evaluations on Eucalyptus Biomass Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago L. Romanelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dependence on finite resources brings economic, social, and environmental concerns. Planted forests are a biomass alternative to the exploitation of natural forests. In the exploitation of the planted forests, planning and management are key to achieve success, so in forestry operations, both economic and noneconomic factors must be considered. This study aimed to compare eucalyptus biomass production through energy embodiment of anthropogenic inputs and resource embodiment including environmental contribution (emergy for the commercial forest in the Sao Paulo, Brazil. Energy analyses and emergy synthesis were accomplished for the eucalyptus production cycles. It was determined that emergy synthesis of eucalyptus production and sensibility analysis for three scenarios to adjust soil acidity (lime, ash, and sludge. For both, energy analysis and emergy synthesis, harvesting presented the highest input demand. Results show the differences between energy analysis and emergy synthesis are in the conceptual underpinnings and accounting procedures. Both evaluations present similar trends and differ in the magnitude of the participation of an input due to its origin. For instance, inputs extracted from ores, which represent environmental contribution, are more relevant for emergy synthesis. On the other hand, inputs from industrial processes are more important for energy analysis.

  4. Evaluation of biomass combustion based energy systems by cumulative energy demand and energy yield coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.; Oser, M.

    2004-07-01

    This final report prepared for the International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy Task 32 presents a method for a comparison of different energy systems with respect to the overall energy yield during their life cycles. For this purpose, the Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) based on primary energy and the Energy Yield Factor (EYC) are introduced and determined for the following scenarios: Log wood, wood chips, and wood pellets for residential heating and - except for log wood - also for district heating. As an alternative to heat production, power production via combustion and use of the electricity for decentralised heat pumps is also looked at. The evaluation and comparison of both the EYC for all fuels and the EYC{sub N}R for the non-renewable part enables a ranking of energy systems without a subjective weighing of non-renewable and renewable fuels to be made. For a sustainable energy supply, it is proposed to implement renewable energy systems in future which achieve an energy yield EYC{sub N}R of at least greater than 2 but favourably greater than 5. The evaluation of the different scenarios presented is proposed as the future basis for the choice of the most efficient energy systems based on biomass combustion.

  5. Waste from rearing and slaughter of poultry – treat to the environment or feedstock for energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Myszograj

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of poultry has systematically grown for over 10 years. In 2007, Poland, with the participation of 11% dealt third place in Europe in the production of poultry meat with the input of 11% has taken the third place in Europe after France and the UK (about 14%. Intensification of poultry production on one hand provides to higher profitability, on the other hand generates more and more waste products, such as manure, slaughter wastes, dead birds, and the emission of gases (e.g. ammonia into the environment. Management of waste in breeding and slaughter plants of poultry rarely complies with current regulations. This is connected with high costs of waste disposal hazardous to the environment, harmful and dangerous to human health. because of chemical composition and potential health risks. The article, based on literature data and our own research, characterizes the waste from rearing and slaughter of poultry and define the possible ways to negative impact on human health: directly by microbial infections or indirectly by emissions of ammonia to the atmosphere, the migration of pollutants into groundwater and surface water. Options of waste utilization in methane fermentation process have been presented. This technology reduces the risk of environmental hazard , while allowing for recovery renewable energy of biogas from biowaste. Waste from the turkey farm and slaughterhouse (the size of slaughterhouse about 26,000 units per week were of mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Nine types of waste: turkey manure on straw, fresh straw used for bedding, heads, guts, feet and feathers were chosen. Flotation sediment, sewage from the slaughtering and chemical sludge was also fermented. High potential for methane from slaughterhouse waste (ca. 73% and manure (63%, indicate for simultaneous disposal and energy recovery from methane fermentation process.

  6. An overview of biomass energy utilization in Vojvodina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodic, Sinisa N. [Department of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, Bul. cara Lazara 1, 21000 Novi Sad, Vojvodina (RS); Faculty of Entrepreneurial Management, Modene 2, 21000 Novi Sad, Vojvodina (RS); Popov, Stevan D.; Dodic, Jelena M.; Rankovic, Jovana A.; Zavargo, Zoltan Z. [Department of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, Bul. cara Lazara 1, 21000 Novi Sad, Vojvodina (RS); Golusin, Mirjana T. [Faculty of Entrepreneurial Management, Modene 2, 21000 Novi Sad, Vojvodina (RS)

    2010-01-15

    The Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is an autonomous province in Serbia. It is located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonia plain. Vojvodina is an energy-deficient province. Energy plays a pivotal role in socio-economic development by raising the standard of living. Biomass has been used by mankind as an energy source for thousands of years. Traditional fuels like firewood, dung and crop residues currently contribute a major share in meeting the everyday energy requirements of rural and low-income urban households in Vojvodina. Contribution of the renewable energy sources in the total consumption of energy in Vojvidina is less than 1%, i.e. it amounts to 280 KWh/year. Production of biodiesel in the year 2008 was 0.07 million tons, what is for 133% higher with respect to the production in the year 2007 (0.03 million tons). In Vojvodina, as the raw materials for bioethanol production are seen primarily sugar beet, corn, wheat surpluses, potato surpluses and waste potato, as well as the raw materials intended for these purposes grown on the uncultivated soils, such as hybrid broomcorn, Jerusalem artichoke and triticale. With introduction of new technologies for cultivation and collecting of biomass production of the electrical energy could be raised to 6.4 GWh/m{sup 2} year, what, with retention of the contemporary consumption, would represent the significant 9% of the total consumption in the province. According to programme of realisation of energy strategy of Vojvodina/Serbia in the field of the renewable energy sources for to period till the year 2010 and its completion, till the year 2015, in Vojvodina could be created conditions for the employment of about 24,000 workers, i.e. 4000 employed for maintenance of the newly constructed plants, 17,000 employed on designing and manufacturing of plants and 3000 employed in auxiliary activities. (author)

  7. Energy analysis of Organic Rankine Cycles for biomass applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algieri Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at analysing the performances of Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs adopted for the exploitation of the biomass resulting from the pruning residues in a 3000 hectares district in Southern Italy. A parametric energy analysis has been carried out to define the influence of the main plant operating conditions. To this purpose, both subcritical and transcritical power plants have been examined and saturated and superheated conditions at the turbine inlet have been imposed. Moreover, the effect of the working fluid, condensation temperature, and internal regeneration on system performances has been investigated. The results show that ORC plants represent an interesting and sustainable solution for decentralised and small-scale power production. Furthermore, the analysis highlights the significant impact of the maximum temperature and the noticeable effect of internal regeneration on the performances of the biomass power plants.

  8. Energy potential of sugar cane biomass in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rípoli Tomaz Caetano Cannavam

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is a developing tropical country with abundant biomass resources. Sugar cane (Saccahrum spp. is primarily produced to obtain sugar and alcohol. Presently sugar cane is burned before harvest. If the cane were not burned before harvest, the trash (tops and leaves could be collected and burned to produce steam to generate electricity, or be converted into alcohol fuel and decrease the severe air pollution problems caused by sugar cane burning. Based upon logical assumptions and appropriate data, we estimate the number of people that could be served each year by this biomass if its energy was converted into electricity. From trash and bagasse, 7.0x10(6 and 5.5x10(6 people y-1 could be served, respectively.

  9. Microwave Enhanced Direct Cracking of Hydrocarbon Feedstock for Energy Efficient Production of Ethylene and Propylene.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shulman, Holly; Fall, Morgana; Wagner, Eric; Bowlin, Ricardo

    2012-02-13

    This project demonstrated microwave cracking of ethane with good product conversion and ethylene selectivity, with a short residence time ({approx}0.001 sec). The laboratory scale equipment was designed and built, along with concept designs for larger scale implementation. The system was operated below atmospheric pressures, in the range of 15-55 torr, with argon as a carrier gas. The measured products included hydrogen, methane, acetylene, and ethylene. The results followed similar trends to those predicted by the modeling software SPYRO{reg_sign}, with the exception that the microwave appeared to produce slightly lower amounts of ethylene and methane, although enhanced analytical analysis should reduce the difference. Continued testing will be required to verify these results and quantify the energy consumption of microwave vs. conventional. The microwave cracking process is an attractive option due to the possibility of selectively heating the reaction volume rather than the reactor walls, which may allow novel reactor designs that result in more efficient production of ethylene. Supplemental studies are needed to continue the laboratory testing and refine processing parameters.

  10. Economic viability of present-day biomass energy installations; Wirtschaftlichkeit von heutigen Biomasse-Energieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markus Sommerhalder, M.; Schelske, O. [Ernst Basler und Partner AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Nussbaumer, T. [Verenum, Zuerich (Switzerland); Engeli, H. [Engeli Engineering, Neerach (Switzerland); Membrez, Y.; Ndoh, M.; Tacchini, C. [EREP SA, Aclens (Switzerland)

    2007-03-15

    This illustrated, comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the economic viability of biomass energy installations. The installations examined included wood-fired installations, biogas installations and those using bio-diesel and bio-ethanol. The system boundaries involved are defined and various factors that influence cost calculations are examined. The resulting heat and electricity prices for various energy sources and systems are presented and discussed. Examples of small and large-scale installations are presented. For wood-energy, combined heat and power system producing electricity at powers of 1 to 5 MWe are looked at and the various factors influencing their viability are discussed. Biogas installations of various sizes are discussed and the differing investment costs involved are commented on. Here, large industrial installations using communal green wastes are also examined and the influence of communal waste-collection charges on the price for the electricity generated is discussed, as is the influence of the market for the residual compost produced. The production and use of biogas in public wastewater treatment plants is also looked at, including the use of co-substrates. As far as biogenic liquid fuels such as bio-diesel and bio-ethanol are concerned, the report takes a brief look at the situation concerning installations in Switzerland and reviews the production costs involved. Various conclusions are drawn for the various energy sources reviewed as well as for the prices for heat and electrical energy obtained.

  11. Hydrothermal pretreatment of biomass for pellet production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tooyserkani, Z. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Clean Energy Research Centre, Biomass and Bioenergy Research Group

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discussed innovative technologies for the production of wood pellets using the hydrothermal pre-treatment of biomass. Conventional techniques use low-cost mill residues, such as saw dust and shavings, as feedstock to produce durable, low-ash pellets. However, mill residues are becoming less available as a result of fewer saw mills, increased pellet production, and increased competition for saw dust. Advanced techniques use mixed biomass such as logging residue as feedstock, creating pellets that are durable for handling and long-term storage, of a higher energy density for transport and mixing with coal for co-firing, and a choice feedstock for biofuels. Advanced pellet production uses steam explosion/pre-treatment in which biomass receives a short-term high-pressure steam treatment followed by sudden decompression. Mild torrefaction seems to have positive feedback, and steam-treated pellets are durable with superior hydrophobicity. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. First biomass conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings, Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this third volume deal with Environmental Issues, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. Concerning Environmental Issues, the following topics are emphasized: Global Climate Change, Biomass Utilization, Biofuel Test Procedures, and Commercialization of Biomass Products. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  13. A techno-economic evaluation of a biomass energy conversion park

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dael, Van M.; Passel, van S.; Pelkmans, L.; Guisson, R.; Reumermann, P.; Luzardo, N.M.; Witters, N.; Broeze, J.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass as a renewable energy source has many advantages and is therefore recognized as one of the main renewable energy sources to be deployed in order to attain the target of 20% renewable energy use of final energy consumption by 2020 in Europe. In this paper the concept of a biomass Energy Conve

  14. Biomass: An Alternative Source of Energy for Eighth or Ninth Grade Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyward, Lillie; Murff, Marye

    This teaching unit develops the possibility of using biomass as an alternative source of energy. The concept of biomass is explained and the processes associated with its conversion to energy are stated. Suggestions for development of biomass technology in different geographic areas are indicated. Lessons for 6 days are presented for use with…

  15. Energy from biomass — Some basic physical and related considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloyne, R. W.

    1983-09-01

    The production of vegetable matter (biomass) by photosynthesis is determined by species and by meteorological factors (especially, but not exclusively, solar radiation). Annual net primary production of land-based biomass corresponds to only about 1/1000 of the intercepted irradiation at ground level, but even so, is 10 times the world's estimated energy needs. The exploitation of this energy potential at any one place is critically influenced by the economic, political and social factors, amongst which are the competition from agriculture (especially food crops), forestry, industrial and urban (including leisure) needs for land and resources. Social factors (e.g. population and population density) also constitute prime influences. Strategies for utilisation range from the cultivation of special energy crops (readily conceivable on the American/ Australasian continents); to the more efficient manipulation of current land-use patterns (including “opportunity” cropping); to the more effective exploitation of biologi cal wastes (e.g. methane from sewage), probably the only immediately practical possibility in any densely populated and highly industrialised country. The spatial pattern of solar irradiation at ground level is complex. In the summer, total daily irradiation in continental high latitudes can exceed that in maritime temperate regions; and this combined with species differences and the almost infinite variety of shape and orientation of plant parts, result in a photosynthetic production of biomass which does not conform completely to a zonal pattern, but in broad terms annual dry matter production varies from a few kg/ha in Arctic Tundra to tens of tonnes in temperate latitudes rising to nearly 100 t/ha for perennial tropical crops. If a species could be developed to grow throughout the year at the current seasonal rate, a yield of 150 t/yr, ha) seems possible.

  16. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks. Progress report, June 1-August 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.I.C.; Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Gomez, R.F.; Sinskey, A.J.

    1978-08-01

    Studies concerning the cellobiose properties of Clostridium thermocellum were started to determine if the cellulose degradation end products can be enhanced for glucose (with a subsequent decrease in cellobiose). Implications of preliminary studies indicate that the cells or the enzyme(s) responsible for converting cellobiose to glucose can be manipulated environmentally and genetically to increase the final yield of glucose. The second area of effort is to the production of chemical feedstocks. Three fermentations have been identified for exploration. Preliminary reports on acrylic acid acetone/butanol, and acetic acid production by C. propionicum, C. acetobutylicum, and C. thermoaceticum, respectively, are included. (DMC)

  17. Priority order in using biomass resources - Energy systems analyses of future scenarios for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Pil Seok; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2013-01-01

    for the decrease of biomass are made by use of an hourly energy system analysis model, EnergyPLAN. The results are shown in terms of system configuration, biomass fuel efficiency, system cost, and impacts on the export of electricity. It is concluded that the reduction of biomass in the heat sector is better than......According to some future Danish energy scenarios, biomass will become one of the two main pillars of the future energy system accompanied by wind power. The biomass can be used for generating heat and electricity, and as a transportation fuel in a future energy system according to the scenarios....... This article compares the value of using biomass as a heat source and for electricity generation in a 100% renewable energy system context. The comparison is done by assuming an incremental decrease in the biomass available for the electricity and heat sector, respectively. The assumed scenarios...

  18. Efficient conversion of solar energy to biomass and electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlevliet, David; Moheimani, Navid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The Earth receives around 1000 W.m(-2) of power from the Sun and only a fraction of this light energy is able to be converted to biomass (chemical energy) via the process of photosynthesis. Out of all photosynthetic organisms, microalgae, due to their fast growth rates and their ability to grow on non-arable land using saline water, have been identified as potential source of raw material for chemical energy production. Electrical energy can also be produced from this same solar resource via the use of photovoltaic modules. In this work we propose a novel method of combining both of these energy production processes to make full utilisation of the solar spectrum and increase the productivity of light-limited microalgae systems. These two methods of energy production would appear to compete for use of the same energy resource (sunlight) to produce either chemical or electrical energy. However, some groups of microalgae (i.e. Chlorophyta) only require the blue and red portions of the spectrum whereas photovoltaic devices can absorb strongly over the full range of visible light. This suggests that a combination of the two energy production systems would allow for a full utilization of the solar spectrum allowing both the production of chemical and electrical energy from the one facility making efficient use of available land and solar energy. In this work we propose to introduce a filter above the algae culture to modify the spectrum of light received by the algae and redirect parts of the spectrum to generate electricity. The electrical energy generated by this approach can then be directed to running ancillary systems or producing extra illumination for the growth of microalgae. We have modelled an approach whereby the productivity of light-limited microalgae systems can be improved by at least 4% through using an LED array to increase the total amount of illumination on the microalgae culture.

  19. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-05-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of ethanol and other liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in the program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the production economics of these fuels.

  20. Potential and possibilities of supplying energy from biomass and biogas; Potentiale und Moeglichkeiten der Energiebereitstellung durch Biomasse und Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnenberg, H. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Betriebstechnik; Weiland, P.; Ahlgrimm, H.J. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (FAL), Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Technologie

    1998-06-01

    Agriculture`s potential contribution to the energy supply of the ``town of the future`` through the conversion of biomass to energy, including biogas production, is a rather modest one. Supposing that the share of total renewable energy in Germany`s primary energy demand rises to approximately 4%, then the proportion of biomass from biotic raw materials especially produced for the purpose will at the most make up an eighth of this amount. Beyond this, biomass is burdened with other drawbacks such as low supply efficiency, limited availability, and weather-dependent reliability. On the other hand, biomass is well suited for conversion to solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels, including inexpensive ones with low energy density (solid fuels), mostly used for stationary heating applications, as well as more expensive ones such as liquid fuels with a high energy density for mobile applications in the automotive sector. Thanks to its capacity to regenerate, biomass is an inexhaustible resource. Moreover, its natural life cycle has a small impact on the environment. [Deutsch] Der Beitrag, den die Landwirtschaft durch energetische Nutzung von Biomasse, z.B. auch mit der Erzeugung von Biogas, zur Energieversorgung der `Stadt der Zukunft` leisten kann, nimmt sich bescheiden aus. Wird erwartet, dass innerhalb des naechsten Jahrzehnts der Anteil regenerativer Energien insgesamt auf etwa 4% des Primaerenergie-Verbrauchs Deutschlands ansteigen koennte, so duerfte Biomasse als speziell zur Energiegewinnung angebaute nachwachsende Rohstoffe mit bestensfalls 0,5 Prozentpunkten daran beteiligt sein. Es beduerfen darueber hinaus auch Nachteile, wie geringe Bereitstellungseffizienz, beschraenkte Verfuegbarkeit und witterungsabhaengige Zuverlaessigkeit, der Beachtung. Die Biomasse kann jedoch mit Erfolg in feste, fluessige und gasfoermige Energietraeger konvertiert werden, sowohl in preiswerte mit geringer Energiedichte (Festbrennstoffe) fuer bevorzugt stationaeren Heizungs-Einsatz als auch

  1. A review on biomass classification and composition, cofiring issues and pretreatment methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; Richard D. Boardman

    2011-08-01

    Presently around the globe there is a significant interest in using biomass for power generation as power generation from coal continues to raise environmental concerns. Biomass alone can be used for generation of power which can bring lot of environmental benefits. However the constraints of using biomass alone can include high investments costs for biomass feed systems and also uncertainty in the security of the feedstock supply due to seasonal variations and in most of the countries biomass is dispersed and the infrastructure for biomass supply is not well established. Alternatively cofiring biomass along with coal offer advantages like (a) reducing the issues related to biomass quality and buffers the system when there is insufficient feedstock quantity and (b) costs of adapting the existing coal power plants will be lower than building new systems dedicated only to biomass. However with the above said advantages there exists some technical constrains including low heating and energy density values, low bulk density, lower grindability index, higher moisture and ash content to successfully cofire biomass with coal. In order to successfully cofire biomass with coal, biomass feedstock specifications need to be established to direct pretreatment options that may include increasing the energy density, bulk density, stability during storage and grindability. Impacts on particle transport systems, flame stability, pollutant formation and boiler tube fouling/corrosion must also be minimized by setting feedstock specifications including composition and blend ratios if necessary. Some of these limitations can be overcome by using pretreatment methods. This paper discusses the impact of feedstock pretreatment methods like sizing, baling, pelletizing, briquetting, washing/leaching, torrefaction, torrefaction and pelletization and steam explosion in attainment of optimum feedstock characteristics to successfully cofire biomass with coal.

  2. Proceedings of the Chornobyl phytoremediation and biomass energy conversion workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Tokarevsky, V. [State Co. for Treatment and Disposal of Mixed Hazardous Waste (Ukraine)

    1998-06-01

    Many concepts, systems, technical approaches, technologies, ideas, agreements, and disagreements were vigorously discussed during the course of the 2-day workshop. The workshop was successful in generating intensive discussions on the merits of the proposed concept that includes removal of radionuclides by plants and trees (phytoremediation) to clean up soil in the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ), use of the resultant biomass (plants and trees) to generate electrical power, and incorporation of ash in concrete casks to be used as storage containers in a licensed repository for low-level waste. Twelve years after the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, the primary 4radioactive contamination of concern is from radioactive cesium ({sup 137}Cs) and strontium ({sup 90}Sr). The {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr were widely distributed throughout the CEZ. The attendees from Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Denmark and the US provided information, discussed and debated the following issues considerably: distribution and characteristics of radionuclides in CEZ; efficacy of using trees and plants to extract radioactive cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from contaminated soil; selection of energy conversion systems and technologies; necessary infrastructure for biomass harvesting, handling, transportation, and energy conversion; radioactive ash and emission management; occupational health and safety concerns for the personnel involved in this work; and economics. The attendees concluded that the overall concept has technical and possibly economic merits. However, many issues (technical, economic, risk) remain to be resolved before a viable commercial-scale implementation could take place.

  3. Potential For Agricultural Biomass Production for Energy Purposes in Poland: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Baum

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the production capacity of Polish agriculture with respect to biomass used for energy production. The forecast production potential of agricultural biomass in Poland in 2020 includes three key areas: the expected consumption of renewable energy according to energy type, the energy potential of agriculture and barriers to the use of biomass. Studies have shown that in Poland, total energy consumption will significantly increase (over 10% by 2020. Growth of demand for renewable energy will primarily result from strong growth of demand for transport biofuels and electricity. In 2020, approximately 80% of final energy from renewable sources will come from biomass. More than three-quarters of the biomass will be generated from agriculture. In Poland, crops from 1.0 to 4.3 million ha can be used for energy production. The study shows changes in the structure of biomass use, and the analysis confirms the declining share of biomass for heat production and the increasing share of biomass for electricity and biofuels. The main obstacles to the continued use of agricultural biomass are a lack of local markets for biomass energy and poor financial support for energy crop production.

  4. Low Cost Chemical Feedstocks Using an Improved and Energy Efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) Removal Process, Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Howard, S.; Lu, Yingzhong

    2012-08-10

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a new low-cost and energy efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) recovery process - through a combination of theoretical, bench-scale and pilot-scale testing - so that it could be offered to the natural gas industry for commercialization. The new process, known as the IROA process, is based on U.S. patent No. 6,553,784, which if commercialized, has the potential of achieving substantial energy savings compared to currently used cryogenic technology. When successfully developed, this technology will benefit the petrochemical industry, which uses NGL as feedstocks, and will also benefit other chemical industries that utilize gas-liquid separation and distillation under similar operating conditions. Specific goals and objectives of the overall program include: (i) collecting relevant physical property and Vapor Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) data for the design and evaluation of the new technology, (ii) solving critical R&D issues including the identification of suitable dehydration and NGL absorbing solvents, inhibiting corrosion, and specifying proper packing structure and materials, (iii) designing, construction and operation of bench and pilot-scale units to verify design performance, (iv) computer simulation of the process using commercial software simulation platforms such as Aspen-Plus and HYSYS, and (v) preparation of a commercialization plan and identification of industrial partners that are interested in utilizing the new technology. NGL is a collective term for C2+ hydrocarbons present in the natural gas. Historically, the commercial value of the separated NGL components has been greater than the thermal value of these liquids in the gas. The revenue derived from extracting NGLs is crucial to ensuring the overall profitability of the domestic natural gas production industry and therefore of ensuring a secure and reliable supply in the 48 contiguous states. However, rising natural gas prices have dramatically reduced

  5. Potential for the energy-oriented use of biomass in Switzerland; Potentiale zur energetischen Nutzung von Biomasse in der Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oettli, B.; Blum, M.; Peter, M.; Schwank, O. [Infras, Zuerich (Switzerland); Bedniaguine, D.; Dauriat, A.; Gnansounou, G. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Laboratory of Energy Systems (LASEN), Lausanne (Switzerland); Chetelat, J.; Golay, G. [Swiss Federal Office of Technology (EPFL), Laboratoire de systemes d' information geographique (LASIG), Lausanne (Switzerland); Hersener, J.-L. [Ingenieurbuero Hersener, Wiesendangen (Switzerland); Meier, U. [Meritec GmbH, Guntershausen (Switzerland); Schleiss, K. [Umwelt- und Kompostberatung, Grenchen (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the potential offered by the use of biomass in the energy area. In the first and main part of the report, the base data and the methodology used are discussed and the theoretical and realisable potentials are examined. Scenarios on reference-energy prices are discussed, whereby the price of oil is taken as primary reference. General estimates of the potential of biomass are presented for 2025 and 2040 and compared with figures for 2003. Conversion paths and various types of installations are discussed. Economic potential and future market-shares of biomass energy-use are discussed. Finally, the external costs of energy supply systems are examined and their influence on the economic potential of biomass technologies is discussed. The second part of the report takes a look at the use of geographic information systems (GIS) for data acquisition and the visualisation of energy-potentials. In the third part of the report, the optimal use of the potential offered by biomass is looked at and the most important results and recommendations of the study group are presented. The report is completed with a list of relevant literature and a comprehensive appendix.

  6. Harvesting forest biomass for energy in Minnesota: An assessment of guidelines, costs and logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Dalia El Sayed Abbas Mohamed

    The emerging market for renewable energy in Minnesota has generated a growing interest in utilizing more forest biomass for energy. However, this growing interest is paralleled with limited knowledge of the environmental impacts and cost effectiveness of utilizing this resource. To address environmental and economic viability concerns, this dissertation has addressed three areas related to biomass harvest: First, existing biomass harvesting guidelines and sustainability considerations are examined. Second, the potential contribution of biomass energy production to reduce the costs of hazardous fuel reduction treatments in these trials is assessed. Third, the logistics of biomass production trials are analyzed. Findings show that: (1) Existing forest related guidelines are not sufficient to allow large-scale production of biomass energy from forest residue sustainably. Biomass energy guidelines need to be based on scientific assessments of how repeated and large scale biomass production is going to affect soil, water and habitat values, in an integrated and individual manner over time. Furthermore, such guidelines would need to recommend production logistics (planning, implementation, and coordination of operations) necessary for a potential supply with the least site and environmental impacts. (2) The costs of biomass production trials were assessed and compared with conventional treatment costs. In these trials, conventional mechanical treatment costs were lower than biomass energy production costs less income from biomass sale. However, a sensitivity analysis indicated that costs reductions are possible under certain site, prescriptions and distance conditions. (3) Semi-structured interviews with forest machine operators indicate that existing fuel reduction prescriptions need to be more realistic in making recommendations that can overcome operational barriers (technical and physical) and planning and coordination concerns (guidelines and communications

  7. Self-heating co-pyrolysis of excessive activated sludge with waste biomass: energy balance and sludge reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hong-Sheng; Jiang, Hong

    2013-04-01

    In this work, co-pyrolysis of sludge with sawdust or rice husk was investigated. The results showed that the co-pyrolysis technology could be used to dispose of the excessive activated sludge without external energy input. The results also demonstrated that no obvious synergistic effect occurred except for heat transfer in the co-pyrolysis if the co-feeding biomass and sludge had similar thermogravimetric characteristics. The experimental results combined with calculation showed that adding sawdust accounting for 49.6% of the total feedstock or rice husk accounting for 74.7% could produce bio-oil to keep the energy balance of the co-pyrolysis system and self-heat it. The sludge from solar drying bed can be further reduced by 38.6% and 35.1% by weight when co-pyrolyzed with rice husk and sawdust, respectively. This study indicates that sludge reduction without external heat supply through co-pyrolysis of sludge with waste biomass is practically feasible.

  8. Challenges of Biomass in a Development Model Based on Renewable Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadros, F.; González-González, A.; Ruiz-Celma, A.; López-Rodríguez, F.; García-Sanz-Calcedo, J.; García, J. A.; Mena, A.

    Although fire has been known to mankind for about 500,000 years, the implementation of biomass energy in the world has barely changed since then, having been used mainly for heat production. To this end, an estimated global consumption of biomass accounts for 10.6% of total world consumption of primary energy. However, the use of biomass as transportation fuel or for generation of electricity is not displayed in the annual world, European, or national statistics, as if its contribution to primary energy consumption was insignificant. What is the reason behind this? Why is the development of biomass only limited to its thermal use? Why is the production of biomass for electricity and transportation purposes not increasing? And what is then happening to biomass? The present article addresses issues that, in our view, limit the incursion of biomass in current energy systems and provides some answers to solve them.

  9. Cascading use: a systematic approach to biomass beyond the energy sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keegan, D.; Kretschmer, M.; Elbersen, B.S.; Panoutsou, C.

    2013-01-01

    Growing demand for biomass for energy in Europe and beyond, alongside growing interest in the use of biomass to replace petroleum and other conventional materials in the production of industrial products and chemicals, necessitates consideration of how the limited supplies of biomass can be used mos

  10. Preserving elephantgrass and energycane biomass as silage for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodard, K.R.; Prine, G.M.; Bates, D.B.; Chynoweth, D.P. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences)

    1991-01-01

    Elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) and energycane (Saccharum sp.) are being evaluated in the colder subtropics of Florida, USA, as biomass energy crops. At one location near Gainesville, annual dry biomass yields of elephantgrass (full-season growth) in excess of 45 Mg ha{sup -1} have been reported. Our objective was to determine if these prolific bunchgrasses could be stored as silage. Three elephantgrasses (two 'tall' and one 'dwarf') and a tall energycane were harvested one, two, and three times per year and ensiled (directcut) during 1986 and 1987. Mean pH values ranged from 3.8 to 4.0 for tall elephantgrass silages made from plants harvested at the different frequencies. Highest pH values were obtained from silages made from immature dwarf elephantgrass plants harvested three times per year (2-year mean was 4.3). Lactic acid was the major end-product of fermentation in most silages with the exception of those made from immature dwarf elephantgrass and energycane plants, where lactic and acetic acids were both major fermentation components. Dry matter (DM) recoveries for all silages ranged from 843 to 984 g kg{sup -1} of DM ensiled. The ease with which elephantgrass and energycane were preserved as silage was attributed to adequate levels of water-soluble carbohydrates and the inherently low buffering capacities in standing forages. (author).

  11. Method of producing hydrogen, and rendering a contaminated biomass inert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Dennis N [Idaho Falls, ID; Klingler, Kerry M [Idaho Falls, ID; Wilding, Bruce M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-02-23

    A method for rendering a contaminated biomass inert includes providing a first composition, providing a second composition, reacting the first and second compositions together to form an alkaline hydroxide, providing a contaminated biomass feedstock and reacting the alkaline hydroxide with the contaminated biomass feedstock to render the contaminated biomass feedstock inert and further producing hydrogen gas, and a byproduct that includes the first composition.

  12. Implementation of a Biomass Energy Island for a Forested Air Force Installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    pine (CSP) plantations on Eglin AFB to establish Eglin as a Biomass Energy Island (BEI). Previous studies have demonstrated: (1) the feasibility of...AFB as a Biomass Energy Island (BEI). As such, Eglin would satisfy all energy needs of the facility by using 540,000 green tons of wood chips harvested

  13. Strip intercropping strategy for biomass to energy production while on the same time maintaining soil fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jensen, Erik Steen; Carter, Mette Sustmann

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to energy technologies like solar and wind, energy in the form of biomass can be stored and bioenergy produced when needed using a wide range of technologies. However, a substantial rise in the use of biomass for energy is expected, which means additional pressure on farmland...

  14. Nontraditional Use of Biomass at Certified Forest Management Units: Forest Biomass for Energy Production and Carbon Emissions Reduction in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep S. Suntana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass conversion technologies that produce energy and reduce carbon emissions have become more feasible to develop. This paper analyzes the potential of converting biomass into biomethanol at forest management units experiencing three forest management practices (community-based forest management (CBFM, plantation forest (PF, and natural production forest (NPF. Dry aboveground biomass collected varied considerably: 0.26–2.16 Mg/ha/year (CBFM, 8.08–8.35 Mg/ha/year (NPF, and 36.48–63.55 Mg/ha/year (PF. If 5% of the biomass was shifted to produce biomethanol for electricity production, the NPF and PF could provide continuous power to 138 and 2,762 households, respectively. Dedicating 5% of the biomass was not a viable option from one CBFM unit. However, if all biomasses were converted, the CBFM could provide electricity to 19–27 households. If 100% biomass from two selected PF was dedicated to biomethanol production: (1 52,200–72,600 households could be provided electricity for one year; (2 142–285% of the electricity demand in Jambi province could be satisfied; (3 all gasoline consumed in Jambi, in 2009, would be replaced. The net carbon emissions avoided could vary from 323 to 8,503 Mg when biomethanol was substituted for the natural gas methanol in fuel cells and from 294 to 7,730 Mg when it was used as a gasoline substitute.

  15. Grass invasion into switchgrass managed for biomass energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a warm-season perennial grass and is the model herbaceous perennial bioenergy feedstock. Although it is indigenous to North American grasslands east of the Rocky Mountains and has been planted for forage and conservation purposes for more than 75 years, there is con...

  16. Lignocellulosic feedstock resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooney, T.

    1998-09-01

    This report provides overall state and national information on the quantity, availability, and costs of current and potential feedstocks for ethanol production in the United States. It characterizes end uses and physical characteristics of feedstocks, and presents relevant information that affects the economic and technical feasibility of ethanol production from these feedstocks. The data can help researchers focus ethanol conversion research efforts on feedstocks that are compatible with the resource base.

  17. Biomass Assessment. Assessment of global biomass potentials and their links to food, water, biodiversity, energy demand and economy. Inventory and analysis of existing studies. Supporting document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.; Verweij, P. [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Banse, M.; Van Diepen, K.; Van Keulen, H.; Langeveld, H.; Meeusen, M.; Van de Ven, G.; Wester, F. [Wageningen UR, Wageningen (Netherlands); Alkemade, R.; Ten Brink, B.; Van den Born, G.J.; Van Oorschot, M.; Ros, J.; Smout, F.; Van Vuuren, D.; Van den Wijngaart, R. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency NMP, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Aiking, H. [Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Londo, M.; Mozaffarian, H.; Smekens, K. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Lysen, E. (ed.); Van Egmond, S. (ed.) [Utrecht Centre for Energy research UCE, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2008-01-15

    This supporting document contains the result from the inventory phase of the biomass assessment of global biomass potentials and their links to food, water, biodiversity, energy demand and economy. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of global biomass potential estimates, focusing on the various factors affecting these potentials, such as food supplies, water use, biodiversity, energy demands and agro-economics.

  18. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the reproduction of chemical feedstocks. Progress report, December 1, 1977--February 28, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.I.C.; Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Gomez, R.F.; Sinskey, A.J.

    1978-02-01

    Studies were performed to examine the utilization and hydrolysis of xylan, a major component of natural biomass materials. Experiments designed to examine the differential adsorption onto cellulose and xylan were inconclusive in proving that the xylan hydrolysis activity is distinct from cellulose hydrolysis activity. It is clear, however, that enzymes from C. thermocellum are able to effect xylan hydrolysis. A new biomass, thermally exploded lignocellulose Poplar, has undergone degradation studies by C. thermocellum. A concentrated effort has begun to examine the production of a liquid fuel (ethanol) directly from cellulosic biomass by Clostridium thermocellum. It was found that the pH has a significant influence on the extent of cellulose degradation as well as on the amount of products formed. To further our understandings on the production of ethanol by Clostridium thermocellum, a program was initiated to find anaerobes which could utilize the hemicelluloses from biomasses, as well as its ability to produce ethanol. The conditions of protoplasting C. thermocellum were examined and the optimum conditions established. A cellulase-hyperproducing mutant, AS-39, has been isolated. As-39 produces twice the cellulase activity of the parent as determined from measurements of both TNP-CMCase and Avicel-hydrolyzing activities. However, degradation studies using cellulosic substrates do not show enhanced rates. Studies on acrylic acid production have continued to proceed along several lines. Kinetic analysis has hypothesized that non-growing cells of Clostridium acetobutylicum should have the highest specific formation rates for acetone and n-butanol. Experimental studies indicated nongrowing cells can convert glucose to acetone and n-butanol with no other nutrient. The production of acetic acid by Clostridium thermoaceticum has focused on a mutant (S-2) which was isolated and found to tolerate higher concentrations of acetate.

  19. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1992-12-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

  20. Quinault Indian Nation Comprehensive Biomass Strategic Planning Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, Jesus [American Community Enrichment, Elma, WA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The overall purposes of the Quinault Indian Nation’s Comprehensive Biomass Strategic Planning Project were to: (1) Identify and confirm community and tribal energy needs; (2) Conducting an inventory of sustainable biomass feedstock availability; (3) Development of a biomass energy vision statement with goals and objectives; (4) Identification and assessment of biomass options for both demand-side and supply side that are viable to the Quinault Indian Nation (QIN); and (5) Developing a long-term biomass strategy consistent with the long-term overall energy goals of the QIN. This Comprehensive Biomass Strategic Planning Project is consistent with the QIN’s prior two-year DOE Renewable Energy Study from 2004 through 2006. That study revealed that the most viable options to the QIN’s renewable energy options were biomass and energy efficiency best practices. QIN's Biomass Strategic Planning Project is focused on using forest slash in chipped form as feedstock for fuel pellet manufacturing in support of a tribal biomass heating facility. This biomass heating facility has been engineered and designed to heat existing tribal facilities as well as tribal facilities currently being planned including a new K-12 School.

  1. Improvement of the energy conversion efficiency of Chlorella pyrenoidosa biomass by a three-stage process comprising dark fermentation, photofermentation, and methanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ao; Cheng, Jun; Ding, Lingkan; Lin, Richen; Huang, Rui; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2013-10-01

    The effects of pre-treatment methods on saccharification and hydrogen fermentation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa biomass were investigated. When raw biomass and biomass pre-treated by steam heating, by microwave heating, and by ultrasonication were used as feedstock, the hydrogen yields were only 8.8-12.7 ml/g total volatile solids (TVS) during dark fermentation. When biomass was pre-treated by steam heating with diluted acid and by microwave heating with diluted acid, the dark hydrogen yields significantly increased to 75.6 ml/g TVS and 83.3 ml/g TVS, respectively. Steam heating with diluted acid is the preferred pre-treatment method of C. pyrenoidosa biomass to improve hydrogen yield during dark fermentation and photofermentation, which is followed by methanogenesis to increase energy conversion efficiency (ECE). A total hydrogen yield of 198.3 ml/g TVS and a methane yield of 186.2 ml/g TVS corresponding to an overall ECE of 34.0% were obtained through the three-stage process (dark fermentation, photofermentation, and methanogenesis).

  2. Pressurized Oxidative Recovery of Energy from Biomass Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Misra

    2007-06-10

    This study was conducted to evaluate the technical feasibility of using pressurized oxyfuel, the ThermoEnergy Integrated Power System (TIPS), to recover energy from biomass. The study was focused on two fronts—computer simulation of the TIPS plant and corrosion testing to determine the best materials of construction for the critical heat exchanger components of the process. The goals were to demonstrate that a successful strategy of applying the TIPS process to wood waste could be achieved. To fully investigate the technical and economic benefits of using TIPS, it was necessary to model a conventional air-fired biomass power plant for comparison purposes. The TIPS process recovers and utilizes the latent heat of vaporization of water entrained in the fuel or produced during combustion. This latent heat energy is unavailable in the ambient processes. An average composition of wood waste based on data from the Pacific Northwest, Pacific Southwest, and the South was used for the study. The high moisture content of wood waste is a major advantage of the TIPS process. The process can utilize the higher heating value of the fuel by condensing most of the water vapor in the flue gas and making the flue gas a useful source of heat. This is a considerable thermal efficiency gain over conventional power plants which use the lower heating value of the fuel. The elevated pressure also allows TIPS the option of recovering CO2 at near ambient temperatures with high purity oxygen used in combustion. Unlike ambient pressure processes which need high energy multi-stage CO2 compression to supply pipeline quality product, TIPS is able to simply pump the CO2 liquid using very little auxiliary power. In this study, a 15.0 MWe net biomass power plant was modeled, and when a CO2 pump was included it only used 0.1 MWe auxiliary power. The need for refrigeration is eliminated at such pressures resulting in significant energy, capital, and operating and maintenance savings. Since wood

  3. Biomass. Energy carrier and biobased products; Biomasse. Energietraeger und biobasierte Produkte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muecke, W. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Toxikologie und Umwelthygiene; Groeger, G. (eds.) [BioRegionUlm Foerderverein Biotechnologie e.V., Ulm (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Within the scope of the 3rd Reivensburg Environmental Biotechnology Meeting at 29th June, 2007, at Castle Reivensburg near Guenzburg (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (a) Challenges according to materials management, land use and power generation in the background of precarious economical situation in the Federal Republic of Germany (H.-G. Petersen); (b) Regenerative raw materials in Germany: Plant sources and potentials (W. Luehs, W. Friedt); (c) Biobased industrial products and bioraffinery systems (B. Kamm, M. Kamm); (d) Potential of biomass materials conversion in chemical industries (R. Busch); (e) Environmental compatible processes and low-priced ecological materials from the processing of biotechnological poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (H. Seliger, H. Haeberlein, R. Kohler, P. Sulzberger); (f) New starch from potatoes - a regenerative raw material (T. Servay); (g) Fuels from renewable energy sources: potential, production, perspectives (M. Specht, U. Zuberbuehler, A. Bandi); (h) Application of biogas as a fuel from the view of a car manufacturer (S. Schrahe); (i) Large-scale production of bioethanol (P. Johne, C. Sauter); (j) Environmental political evaluation of the use of biofuels and politics of biofuels of selected countries (J.M. Henke).

  4. Experimental and Modelling Studies of Biomass Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ka Leung Lam; Adetoyese Olajire Oyedu~; Chi Wai Hui

    2012-01-01

    The analysis on the feedstock pyrolysis characteristic and the impacts of process parameters on pyrolysis outcomes can assist in the designing, operating and optimizing pyrolysis processes. This work aims to utilize both experimental and modelling approaches to perform the analysis on three biomass feedstocks--wood sawdust, bamboo shred and Jatropha Curcas seed cake residue, and to provide insights for the design_and operation of pyro-lysis processes. For the experimental part, the study investigated the effect of heating rate, final pyrolysis tempera- ture and sample size on pyrolysis using common thermal analysis techniques. For the modelling part, a transient mathematical model that integrates the feedstock characteristic from the experimental study was used to simulate the pyrolysis progress of selected biomass feedstock particles for reactor scenarios. The model composes of several sub-models that describe pyrolysis kinetic and heat flow, particle heat transfer, particle shrinking and reactor opera-tion. With better understanding of the effects of process conditions and feedstock characteristics on pyrolysis through both experimental and modelling studies, this work discusses on the considerations of and interrelation between feedstock size, pyrolysis energy usage, processing time and product quality for the design and operation of pyrolysis processes.

  5. Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatdeenarunat, Chayanon; Surendra, K C; Takara, Devin; Oechsner, Hans; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of lignocellulosic biomass provides an excellent opportunity to convert abundant bioresources into renewable energy. Rumen microorganisms, in contrast to conventional microorganisms, are an effective inoculum for digesting lignocellulosic biomass due to their intrinsic ability to degrade substrate rich in cellulosic fiber. However, there are still several challenges that must be overcome for the efficient digestion of lignocellulosic biomass. Anaerobic biorefinery is an emerging concept that not only generates bioenergy, but also high-value biochemical/products from the same feedstock. This review paper highlights the current status of lignocellulosic biomass digestion and discusses its challenges. The paper also discusses the future research needs of lignocellulosic biomass digestion.

  6. Bioenergy grass feedstock: current options and prospects for trait improvement using emerging genetic, genomic, and systems biology toolkits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltus, Frank Alex; Vandenbrink, Joshua P

    2012-11-02

    For lignocellulosic bioenergy to become a viable alternative to traditional energy production methods, rapid increases in conversion efficiency and biomass yield must be achieved. Increased productivity in bioenergy production can be achieved through concomitant gains in processing efficiency as well as genetic improvement of feedstock that have the potential for bioenergy production at an industrial scale. The purpose of this review is to explore the genetic and genomic resource landscape for the improvement of a specific bioenergy feedstock group, the C4 bioenergy grasses. First, bioenergy grass feedstock traits relevant to biochemical conversion are examined. Then we outline genetic resources available bioenergy grasses for mapping bioenergy traits to DNA markers and genes. This is followed by a discussion of genomic tools and how they can be applied to understanding bioenergy grass feedstock trait genetic mechanisms leading to further improvement opportunities.

  7. Bioenergy grass feedstock: current options and prospects for trait improvement using emerging genetic, genomic, and systems biology toolkits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feltus Frank

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For lignocellulosic bioenergy to become a viable alternative to traditional energy production methods, rapid increases in conversion efficiency and biomass yield must be achieved. Increased productivity in bioenergy production can be achieved through concomitant gains in processing efficiency as well as genetic improvement of feedstock that have the potential for bioenergy production at an industrial scale. The purpose of this review is to explore the genetic and genomic resource landscape for the improvement of a specific bioenergy feedstock group, the C4 bioenergy grasses. First, bioenergy grass feedstock traits relevant to biochemical conversion are examined. Then we outline genetic resources available bioenergy grasses for mapping bioenergy traits to DNA markers and genes. This is followed by a discussion of genomic tools and how they can be applied to understanding bioenergy grass feedstock trait genetic mechanisms leading to further improvement opportunities.

  8. Energy potential of biomass from conservation grasslands in Minnesota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungers, Jacob M; Fargione, Joseph E; Sheaffer, Craig C; Wyse, Donald L; Lehman, Clarence

    2013-01-01

    Perennial biomass from grasslands managed for conservation of soil and biodiversity can be harvested for bioenergy. Until now, the quantity and quality of harvestable biomass from conservation grasslands in Minnesota, USA, was not known, and the factors that affect bioenergy potential from these systems have not been identified. We measured biomass yield, theoretical ethanol conversion efficiency, and plant tissue nitrogen (N) as metrics of bioenergy potential from mixed-species conservation grasslands harvested with commercial-scale equipment. With three years of data, we used mixed-effects models to determine factors that influence bioenergy potential. Sixty conservation grassland plots, each about 8 ha in size, were distributed among three locations in Minnesota. Harvest treatments were applied annually in autumn as a completely randomized block design. Biomass yield ranged from 0.5 to 5.7 Mg ha(-1). May precipitation increased biomass yield while precipitation in all other growing season months showed no affect. Averaged across all locations and years, theoretical ethanol conversion efficiency was 450 l Mg(-1) and the concentration of plant N was 7.1 g kg(-1), both similar to dedicated herbaceous bioenergy crops such as switchgrass. Biomass yield did not decline in the second or third year of harvest. Across years, biomass yields fluctuated 23% around the average. Surprisingly, forb cover was a better predictor of biomass yield than warm-season grass with a positive correlation with biomass yield in the south and a negative correlation at other locations. Variation in land ethanol yield was almost exclusively due to variation in biomass yield rather than biomass quality; therefore, efforts to increase biomass yield might be more economical than altering biomass composition when managing conservation grasslands for ethanol production. Our measurements of bioenergy potential, and the factors that control it, can serve as parameters for assessing the economic

  9. Energy potential of biomass from conservation grasslands in Minnesota, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob M Jungers

    Full Text Available Perennial biomass from grasslands managed for conservation of soil and biodiversity can be harvested for bioenergy. Until now, the quantity and quality of harvestable biomass from conservation grasslands in Minnesota, USA, was not known, and the factors that affect bioenergy potential from these systems have not been identified. We measured biomass yield, theoretical ethanol conversion efficiency, and plant tissue nitrogen (N as metrics of bioenergy potential from mixed-species conservation grasslands harvested with commercial-scale equipment. With three years of data, we used mixed-effects models to determine factors that influence bioenergy potential. Sixty conservation grassland plots, each about 8 ha in size, were distributed among three locations in Minnesota. Harvest treatments were applied annually in autumn as a completely randomized block design. Biomass yield ranged from 0.5 to 5.7 Mg ha(-1. May precipitation increased biomass yield while precipitation in all other growing season months showed no affect. Averaged across all locations and years, theoretical ethanol conversion efficiency was 450 l Mg(-1 and the concentration of plant N was 7.1 g kg(-1, both similar to dedicated herbaceous bioenergy crops such as switchgrass. Biomass yield did not decline in the second or third year of harvest. Across years, biomass yields fluctuated 23% around the average. Surprisingly, forb cover was a better predictor of biomass yield than warm-season grass with a positive correlation with biomass yield in the south and a negative correlation at other locations. Variation in land ethanol yield was almost exclusively due to variation in biomass yield rather than biomass quality; therefore, efforts to increase biomass yield might be more economical than altering biomass composition when managing conservation grasslands for ethanol production. Our measurements of bioenergy potential, and the factors that control it, can serve as parameters for assessing

  10. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Indirect Liquefaction of Blended Biomass to Produce High Octane Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Canter, Christina E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartley, Damon S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) aims at developing and deploying technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2015). BETO also performs a supply chain sustainability analysis (SCSA). This report describes the SCSA of the production of renewable high octane gasoline (HOG) via indirect liquefaction (IDL) of lignocellulosic biomass. This SCSA was developed for the 2017 design case for feedstock logistics (INL, 2014) and for the 2022 target case for HOG production via IDL (Tan et al., 2015). The design includes advancements that are likely and targeted to be achieved by 2017 for the feedstock logistics and 2022 for the IDL conversion process. The 2017 design case for feedstock logistics demonstrated a delivered feedstock cost of $80 per dry U.S. short ton by the year 2017 (INL, 2014). The 2022 design case for the conversion process, as modeled in Tan et al. (2015), uses the feedstock 2017 design case blend of biomass feedstocks consisting of pulpwood, wood residue, switchgrass, and construction and demolition waste (C&D) with performance properties consistent with a sole woody feedstock type (e.g., pine or poplar). The HOG SCSA case considers the 2017 feedstock design case (the blend) as well as individual feedstock cases separately as alternative scenarios when the feedstock blend ratio varies as a result of a change in feedstock availability. These scenarios could be viewed as bounding SCSA results because of distinctive requirements for energy and chemical inputs for the production and logistics of different components of the blend feedstocks.

  11. Assessing the effect of stricter sustainability criteria on EU biomass crop potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, B.S.; Fritsche, U.; Petersen, J.E.; Lesschen, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how different sustainability criteria restrict the supply of cropped biomass sources within the EU. There are already mandatory sustainability criteria formulated in the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) at EU level for biomass feedstocks to be used for conversion into biofuel

  12. Asparagus stem as a new lignocellulosic biomass feedstock for anaerobic digestion: increasing hydrolysis rate, methane production and biodegradability by alkaline pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaohua; Gu, Yu; Zhou, Xuefei; Zhang, Yalei

    2014-07-01

    Recently, anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass for methane production has attracted considerable attention. However, there is little information regarding methane production from asparagus stem, a typical lignocellulosic biomass, by anaerobic digestion. In this study, alkaline pretreatment of asparagus stem was investigated for its ability to increase hydrolysis rate and methane production and to improve biodegradability (BD). The hydrolysis rate increased with increasing NaOH dose, due to higher removal rates of lignin and hemicelluloses. However, the optimal NaOH dose was 6% (w/w) according to the specific methane production (SMP). Under this condition, the SMP and the technical digestion time of the NaOH-treated asparagus stem were 242.3 mL/g VS and 18 days, which were 38.4% higher and 51.4% shorter than those of the untreated sample, respectively. The BD was improved from 40.1% to 55.4%. These results indicate that alkaline pretreatment could be an efficient method for increasing methane production from asparagus stem.

  13. Design, modeling, and analysis of a feedstock logistics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Jason D; Sarin, Subhash C; Cundiff, John S

    2012-01-01

    Given the location of a bio-energy plant for the conversion of biomass to bio-energy, a feedstock logistics system that relies on the use of satellite storage locations (SSLs) for temporary storage and loading of round bales is proposed. Three equipment systems are considered for handling biomass at the SSLs, and they are either placed permanently or are mobile and thereby travel from one SSL to another. A mathematical programming-based approach is utilized to determine SSLs and equipment routes in order to minimize the total cost. The use of a Side-loading Rack System results in average savings of 21.3% over a Densification System while a Rear-loading Rack System is more expensive to operate than either of the other equipment systems. The utilization of mobile equipment results in average savings of 14.8% over the equipment placed permanently. Furthermore, the Densification System is not justifiable for transportation distances less than 81 km.

  14. Progress and Development Strategy of Biomass Energy Utilization Technologies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Chuangzhi; Chen Yong

    2001-01-01

    @@ I. Preface Biomass includes the residues of agriculture, forest and stock breeding, as well as straw, algae and energy crops. In its broad meaning, biomass is a kind of organic matter produced by the photosynthesis of plants, which is not only renewable, but also contains plentiful energy.

  15. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  16. Alternative Feedstocks Program Technical and Economic Assessment: Thermal/Chemical and Bioprocessing Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozell, J. J.; Landucci, R.

    1993-07-01

    This resource document on biomass to chemicals opportunities describes the development of a technical and market rationale for incorporating renewable feedstocks into the chemical industry in both a qualitative and quantitative sense. The term "renewable feedstock?s" can be defined to include a huge number of materials such as agricultural crops rich in starch, lignocellulosic materials (biomass), or biomass material recovered from a variety of processing wastes.

  17. The effect of lipid content on the elemental composition and energy capacity of yeast biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkevich, Igor G; Dedyukhina, Emiliya G; Chistyakova, Tat'yana I

    2010-10-01

    Oleaginous yeasts (18 strains) were grown in ethanol media under various cultivation conditions (33 biomass samples). It was found that lipid and lipid-free fractions of dry biomass have elemental composition and biomass reductivity very close to values which can be considered as biological constants. The energy content of dry biomass strongly depended on the total lipid content. When the lipid content was 64%, the energy value of dry biomass reached 73% of diesel oil; therefore, oleaginous microorganisms can be a promising source of biodiesel fuel. The approach used in this work makes it possible to determine the energy value of biomass by its elemental composition without application of laborious and expensive calorimetric measurements of combustion heats.

  18. Biomass for energy in the European Union - a review of bioenergy resource assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentsen Niclas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reviews recent literature on bioenergy potentials in conjunction with available biomass conversion technologies. The geographical scope is the European Union, which has set a course for long term development of its energy supply from the current dependence on fossil resources to a dominance of renewable resources. A cornerstone in European energy policies and strategies is biomass and bioenergy. The annual demand for biomass for energy is estimated to increase from the current level of 5.7 EJ to 10.0 EJ in 2020. Assessments of bioenergy potentials vary substantially due to methodological inconsistency and assumptions applied by individual authors. Forest biomass, agricultural residues and energy crops constitute the three major sources of biomass for energy, with the latter probably developing into the most important source over the 21st century. Land use and the changes thereof is a key issue in sustainable bioenergy production as land availability is an ultimately limiting factor.

  19. Sustainable global energy supply based on lignocellulosic biomass from afforestation of degraded areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Jürgen O; Hüttermann, Aloys

    2009-02-01

    An important aspect of present global energy scenarios is the assumption that the amount of biomass that can be grown on the available area is so limited that a scenario based on biomass as the major source of energy should be unrealistic. We have been investigating the question whether a Biomass Scenario may be realistic. We found that the global energy demand projected by the International Energy Agency in the Reference Scenario for the year 2030 could be provided sustainably and economically primarily from lignocellulosic biomass grown on areas which have been degraded by human activities in historical times. Moreover, other renewable energies will contribute to the energy mix. There would be no competition with increasing food demand for existing arable land. Afforestation of degraded areas and investment for energy and fuel usage of the biomass are not more expensive than investment in energy infrastructure necessary up to 2030 assumed in the fossil energy based Reference Scenario, probably much cheaper considering the additional advantages such as stopping the increase of and even slowly reducing the CO(2) content of the atmosphere, soil, and water conservation and desertification control. Most importantly, investment for a Biomass Scenario would be actually sustainable, in contrast to investment in energy-supply infrastructure of the Reference Scenario. Methods of afforestation of degraded areas, cultivation, and energetic usage of lignocellulosic biomass are available but have to be further improved. Afforestation can be started immediately, has an impact in some few years, and may be realized in some decades.

  20. Sustainable global energy supply based on lignocellulosic biomass from afforestation of degraded areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Jürgen O.; Hüttermann, Aloys

    2009-02-01

    An important aspect of present global energy scenarios is the assumption that the amount of biomass that can be grown on the available area is so limited that a scenario based on biomass as the major source of energy should be unrealistic. We have been investigating the question whether a Biomass Scenario may be realistic. We found that the global energy demand projected by the International Energy Agency in the Reference Scenario for the year 2030 could be provided sustainably and economically primarily from lignocellulosic biomass grown on areas which have been degraded by human activities in historical times. Moreover, other renewable energies will contribute to the energy mix. There would be no competition with increasing food demand for existing arable land. Afforestation of degraded areas and investment for energy and fuel usage of the biomass are not more expensive than investment in energy infrastructure necessary up to 2030 assumed in the fossil energy based Reference Scenario, probably much cheaper considering the additional advantages such as stopping the increase of and even slowly reducing the CO2 content of the atmosphere, soil, and water conservation and desertification control. Most importantly, investment for a Biomass Scenario would be actually sustainable, in contrast to investment in energy-supply infrastructure of the Reference Scenario. Methods of afforestation of degraded areas, cultivation, and energetic usage of lignocellulosic biomass are available but have to be further improved. Afforestation can be started immediately, has an impact in some few years, and may be realized in some decades.

  1. Potential land competition between open-pond microalgae production and terrestrial dedicated feedstock supply systems in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langholtz, Matthew H.; Coleman, Andre M.; Eaton, Laurence M.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Hellwinckel, Chad M.; Brandt, Craig C.

    2016-08-01

    Biofuels produced from both terrestrial and algal biomass feedstocks can contribute to energy security while providing economic, environmental, and social benefits. To assess the potential for land competition between these two feedstock types in the United States, we evaluate a scenario in which 41.5 x 109 L yr-1 of second-generation biofuels are produced on pastureland, the most likely land base where both feedstock types may be deployed. This total includes 12.0 x 109 L yr-1 of biofuels from open-pond microalgae production and 29.5 x 109 L yr-1 of biofuels from terrestrial dedicated feedstock supply systems. Under these scenarios, open-pond microalgae production is projected to use 1.2 million ha of private pastureland, while terrestrial dedicated feedstock supply systems would use 14.0 million ha of private pastureland. A spatial meta-analysis indicates that potential competition for land under these scenarios would be concentrated in 110 counties, containing 1.0 and 1.7 million hectares of algal and terrestrial dedicated feedstock production, respectively. A land competition index applied to these 110 counties suggests that 38 to 59 counties could experience competition for upwards of 40% of a county’s pastureland. However, this combined 2.7 million ha represents only 2%-5% of total pastureland in the U.S., with the remaining 12.5 million ha of algal or terrestrial dedicated feedstock production on pastureland in non-competing areas.

  2. SERI Biomass Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, P. W.; Corder, R. E.; Hill, A. M.; Lindsey, H.; Lowenstein, M. Z.

    1983-02-01

    The biomass with which this report is concerned includes aquatic plants, which can be converted into liquid fuels and chemicals; organic wastes (crop residues as well as animal and municipal wastes), from which biogas can be produced via anerobic digestion; and organic or inorganic waste streams, from which hydrogen can be produced by photobiological processes. The Biomass Program Office supports research in three areas which, although distinct, all use living organisms to create the desired products. The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) supports research on organisms that are themselves processed into the final products, while the Anaerobic Digestion (ADP) and Photo/Biological Hydrogen Program (P/BHP) deals with organisms that transform waste streams into energy products. The P/BHP is also investigating systems using water as a feedstock and cell-free systems which do not utilize living organisms. This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the SERI Biomass Program during FY 1982.

  3. Biogas energy production from tropical biomass wastes by anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive technology in tropical regions for converting locally abundant biomass wastes into biogas which can be used to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels. However, investigations on AD of tropical forestry wastes, such as albizia biomass, and food w...

  4. Sustainable biomass-derived hydrothermal carbons for energy applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Falco

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal carbonisation of carbohydrate and protein-rich biomass was systematically investigated, in order to obtain more insights on the potentials of this thermochemical processing technique in relation to the production of functional carbon materials from crude biomass.

  5. Feedstock storage, handling and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egg, R.P.; Coble, C.G.; Engler, C.R. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering); Lewis, D.H. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology)

    1993-01-01

    This paper is a review of the technology and research covering components of a methane from biomass system between the field and the digester. It deals primarily with sorghum as a feedstock and focuses on research conducted by the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station. Subjects included in this paper are harvesting, hay storage, ansiling, materials handling, pumping and hydraulic characteristics, hydraulic conductivity, pressure/density relationship, and biological pretreatment. This paper is not a comprehensive design manual; however, design equations and coefficients for sorghum are presented, where available, along with references describing the development and application of design models. (author)

  6. Estimation on the Total Quantity of Biomass Energy and Its Environmental Benefit Analysis in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to estimate the total quantity of biomass energy and analyze its environmental benefit in Shandong Province.[Method] Based on the data from the statistics yearbook of Shandong Province in 2010,the total quantity of biomass resources and biomass energy in Shandong Province in 2009 was estimated,and its environmental benefit was analyzed.[Result] Biomass resources in Shandong Province mainly refer to crop residues,forest residues,grassland changed from degraded land.If degraded land be...

  7. Using Populus as a lignocellulosic feedstock for bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porth, Ilga; El-Kassaby, Yousry A

    2015-04-01

    Populus species along with species from the sister genus Salix will provide valuable feedstock resources for advanced second-generation biofuels. Their inherent fast growth characteristics can particularly be exploited for short rotation management, a time and energy saving cultivation alternative for lignocellulosic feedstock supply. Salicaceae possess inherent cell wall characteristics with favorable cellulose to lignin ratios for utilization as bioethanol crop. We review economically important traits relevant for intensively managed biofuel crop plantations, genomic and phenotypic resources available for Populus, breeding strategies for forest trees dedicated to bioenergy provision, and bioprocesses and downstream applications related to opportunities using Salicaceae as a renewable resource. Challenges need to be resolved for every single step of the conversion process chain, i.e., starting from tree domestication for improved performance as a bioenergy crop, bioconversion process, policy development for land use changes associated with advanced biofuels, and harvest and supply logistics associated with industrial-scale biorefinery plants using Populus as feedstock. Significant hurdles towards cost and energy efficiency, environmental friendliness, and yield maximization with regards to biomass pretreatment, saccharification, and fermentation of celluloses and the sustainability of biorefineries as a whole still need to be overcome.

  8. Interactive association between biopolymers and biofunctions in carinata seeds as energy feedstock and their coproducts (carinata meal) from biofuel and bio-oil processing before and after biodegradation: current advanced molecular spectroscopic investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang; Xin, Hangshu; Ban, Yajing; Zhang, Xuewei

    2014-05-07

    Recent advances in biofuel and bio-oil processing technology require huge supplies of energy feedstocks for processing. Very recently, new carinata seeds have been developed as energy feedstocks for biofuel and bio-oil production. The processing results in a large amount of coproducts, which are carinata meal. To date, there is no systematic study on interactive association between biopolymers and biofunctions in carinata seed as energy feedstocks for biofuel and bioethanol processing and their processing coproducts (carinata meal). Molecular spectroscopy with synchrotron and globar sources is a rapid and noninvasive analytical technique and is able to investigate molecular structure conformation in relation to biopolymer functions and bioavailability. However, to date, these techniques are seldom used in biofuel and bioethanol processing in other research laboratories. This paper aims to provide research progress and updates with molecular spectroscopy on the energy feedstock (carinata seed) and coproducts (carinata meal) from biofuel and bioethanol processing and show how to use these molecular techniques to study the interactive association between biopolymers and biofunctions in the energy feedstocks and their coproducts (carinata meal) from biofuel and bio-oil processing before and after biodegradation.

  9. Coupling of energy and agricultural policies on promoting the production of biomass energy from energy crops and grasses in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien [Graduate Institute of Bioresources, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 912 (China)

    2009-08-15

    This paper examined promotion programs and implementing regulations that provide a framework for the application of energy and agricultural policies for the local energy crops cultivation by the reactivation of fallow land (about 100,000 ha) and their utilizations in the bioenergy production in Taiwan. The contents were thus addressed on current energy supply and biomass energy production, estimation of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions from energy use (consumption) using the Reference Approach of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) method, national energy goal in biomass energy supply in the near future, and government policies and measures for encouraging bioenergy production and consumption. For the promotion of biofuels, the incentive programs were initiated in the period of 2006-2011. The potential benefits of the program include the upgrade of industrial investment in the bioenergy plants, the reactivation of fallow land (about 100,000 ha), the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, and so on. Concerning the utilization of napier grass (a potential energy grass) as biomass energy (electricity generation) for co-firing, its impacts on ambient air quality and non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases (i.e., CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O) emissions were also discussed in the paper. (author)

  10. The environmental costs and benefits of biomass energy use in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, G. [Future Resources Associates, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The California renewable energy industries have worked diligently during the past couple of years to develop public policies conducive to the future of renewable energy production within the context of electric market restructuring and the evolving competitive electric services industry. The state`s biomass power industry has organized itself as the California Biomass Energy Alliance (CBEA), and has participated vigorously in the regulatory and legislative processes. In order to reward biomass power generators for the special services they provide, CBEA has promoted the concept of providing incentives specifically targeted to biomass within the context of any renewables program enacted in the state. This concept has been embraced by the other renewables industry organizations, but resisted by the utilities. This study represents an effort to identify, characterize, ad quantify the environmental costs and benefits of biomass energy use in California, and to elucidate the future role of biomass power production within the context of the evolving deregulation of the California electricity industry. The report begins with a review of the development and growth of the California biomass power industry during the past 15 years. This is followed by an analysis of the biomass fuels market development during the same period. It examines trends in the types and costs of biomass fuels. The environmental performance of the mature California biomass energy industry is analyzed, and takes into account the environmental impacts of the industry, and the impacts that would be associated with disposing of the materials used as fuels if the biomass power industry were not in operation. The analysis is then extended to consider the environmental and economic consequences of the loss of biomass generating capacity since 1993. The report ends with a consideration of the future prospects for the industry in the context of restructuring.

  11. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass for liquid biofuels production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2012-01-01

    Production of 2nd-generation biofuels from biomass residues and waste feedstock is gaining great concerns worldwide. Pyrolysis, a thermochemical conversion process involving rapid heating of feedstock under oxygen-absent condition to moderate temperature and rapid quenching of intermediate products......, is an attractive way for bio-oil production. Various efforts have been made to improve pyrolysis process towards higher yield and quality of liquid biofuels and better energy efficiency. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis is one of the promising attempts, mainly due to efficient heating of feedstock by ‘‘microwave...... dielectric heating’’ effects. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass. First, conventional fast pyrolysis and microwave dielectric heating is briefly introduced. Then microwave-assisted pyrolysis process is thoroughly discussed stepwise from biomass...

  12. Heating technologies for limiting biomass consumption in 100% renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    district heating enables the use of combined heat and power production (CPH) and other renewable resources than biomass such as large-scale solar thermal, large-heat pumps, geothermal heat, industrial surplus heat etc. which is important for reducing the biomass consumption. Where the energy density......The utilisation of biomass poses large challenges in renewable energy systems and buildings account for a substantial part of the energy supply also in 100% renewable energy systems. The analyses of heating technologies show that district heating systems are especially important in limiting...... the dependence on biomass resources and to create cost effective systems. District heating systems are especially important in renewable energy systems with large amounts of fluctuating renewable energy sources as it enables fuel efficient and lower cost energy systems with thermal heat storages. And also...

  13. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass to liquid energy sources; Hydrothermale Konversion von Biomasse zu fluessigen Energietraegern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeger, Michael; Peters, Mario; Klemm, Marco; Nelles, Michael [Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum (DBFZ) gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Beside thermo-chemical processes like pyrolysis, torrefaction and gasification another process group called hydrothermal conversion of biomass comes into the focus of research and development. Especially for wet biomass this process has several advantages: as the reaction medium is water wet biomass not needs to be dried. Beside the reaction pathways, which are still not completely understood, it is important to investigate reactor concepts. That gives the possibility to continuously process the given biomass to deduce specific process conditions for the production of chemicals and fuels. Experiments were conducted in a newly developed tubular reactor at temperatures from 150 to 270 C and reaction times from 1 to 6 min. By studying the HPLC analysis of the liquid products the formation and degradation of several products which may be utilized as base materials for chemicals and fuels (furfural, 5-HMF etc.) was conducted. The experiments illustrate the possibility to influence product composition to a certain extend only by varying temperature and time of the hydrothermal process. That could result in an economic and feasible way to produce intermediate chemicals from biomass. In a second step these product analysis will be used to develop catalysts and investigate the possibilities of in-situ-hydrogenation and synthesis of further valuable chemicals and fuels. (orig.)

  14. Cellulosic Biomass Sugars to Advantage Jet Fuel: Catalytic Conversion of Corn Stover to Energy Dense, Low Freeze Point Paraffins and Naphthenes: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-462

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elander, Rick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-04

    NREL will provide scientific and engineering support to Virent Energy Systems in three technical areas: Process Development/Biomass Deconstruction; Catalyst Fundamentals; and Technoeconomic Analysis. The overarching objective of this project is to develop the first fully integrated process that can convert a lignocellulosic feedstock (e.g., corn stover) efficiently and cost effectively to a mix of hydrocarbons ideally suited for blending into jet fuel. The proposed project will investigate the integration of Virent Energy System’s novel aqueous phase reforming (APR) catalytic conversion technology (BioForming®) with deconstruction technologies being investigated by NREL at the 1-500L scale. Corn stover was chosen as a representative large volume, sustainable feedstock.

  15. Biomass stakeholder views and concerns: Environmental groups and some trade association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peelle, E.

    2000-01-01

    This exploratory study of the views and concerns of 25 environmental organizations found high interest and concern about which biomass feedstocks would be used and how these biomass materials would be converted to energy. While all favored renewable energy over fossil or nuclear energy, opinion diverged over whether energy crops, residues, or both should be the primary source of a biomass/bioenergy fuel cycle. About half of the discussants favored biomass ``in general'' as a renewable energy source, while the others were distributed about equally over five categories, from favor-with-conditions, uncertain, skeptical, opposed, to ``no organizational policy.''

  16. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks. Progress report, December 1, 1976--February 28, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.I.C.; Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Gomez, R.F.; Sinskey, A.J.

    1977-05-01

    The microbial degradation of cellulosic biomass has focused on the use of a thermophilic (55 to 60/sup 0/C), anaerobic microorganism, Clostridium thermocellum. When this organism is grown with a crystalline cellulose, the cellulases produced are mainly extracellular. This same organism when grown on solka floc, high specific growth rates are exhibited as well as the ability to produce high concentrations of soluble reducing sugars. The rate of soluble sugar production appears to be growth associated. Studies on acrylic acid production are focused on two organisms: Peptostreptococcus elsdenii and Clostridium propionicum. An economic analysis on the acetone/butanol fermentation has been completed. The results show that continuous operation can reduce significantly the production cost compared to batch operation with the cost of raw material being major fractions for both processes. An increase in solvent concentration will effect substantial cost reduction. The production of acetic acid by Clostridium thermoaceticum has been shown to occur rapidly by this organism. Acetic acid concentration between 15 to 20 gm/liter have been achieved, corresponding to 86 percent of the theoretical maximum yield.

  17. Biomass energy utilisation in Malaysia - prospects and problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Hoi Why [Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1999-04-01

    An assessment of the contribution of biomass fuels in the rubber, palm oil, cocoa, brick and charcoal industries is given with biomass accounting for about 16% of the total power demand; equivalent to about 2.48 MTOE. The use of biomass in Malaysia is by the direct combustion of wood for heat and power and by gasification with power production via a diesel engine. Challenges facing Malaysia include a rapid increase in demand for power, the need for development funding, environmental issues, and increases in the price of rubber wood, the main fuel source. (uk)

  18. Biomass energy utilisation in Malaysia - prospects and problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Hoi Why [Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1999-01-01

    An assessment of the contribution of biomass fuels in the rubber, palm oil, cocoa, brick and charcoal industries is given with biomass accounting for about 16% of the total power demand; equivalent to about 2.48 MTOE. The use of biomass in Malaysia is by the direct combustion of wood for heat and power and by gasification with power production via a diesel engine. Challenges facing Malaysia include a rapid increase in demand for power, the need for development funding, environmental issues, and increases in the price of rubber wood, the main fuel source. (uk)

  19. Waste biomass and energy transition. Proven practices, new developments and visions; Abfall-Biomasse und Energiewende. Bewaehrtes, Neues und Visionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Klaus [Arbeitskreis fuer die Nutzbarmachung von Siedlungsabfaellen (ANS) e.V., Braunschweig (Germany); Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Lehrstuhl Abfall- und Ressourcenwirtschaft; Kammann, Claudia [Arbeitskreis fuer die Nutzbarmachung von Siedlungsabfaellen (ANS) e.V., Braunschweig (Germany). Fachausschuss Biokohle; Hochschule Geisenheim Univ. (Germany). Klimafolgenforschung-Klimawandel in Spezialkulturen; Wallmann, Rainer (ed.) [Arbeitskreis fuer die Nutzbarmachung von Siedlungsabfaellen (ANS) e.V., Braunschweig (Germany); Werra-Meissner Kreis, Eschwege (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    This book contains 17 papers that were presented at the 75th meeting of the ANS. The following main topics are covered: waste management in the context of climate protection and the energy turnaround; optimised materials management; carbon: climate killer or indispensable raw material?; climate protection in Germany - why and how?; treatment techniques for waste biomass; the amended Renewable Energy Law - sensible adaptation or impediment to the energy turnaround?; putting ideas into practice: examples and opportunities. Four of the contributions have been abstracted individually for this database. [German] Dieses Buch enthaelt 17 Beitraege, die auf dem 75. Symposium des ANS vorgetragen wurden. Die Themenschwerpunkte waren: Abfallwirtschaft im Kontext des Klimaschutzes und der Energiewende; Optimiertes Stoffmanagement; Kohlenstoff: Klimakiller oder unverzichtbare Rohstoff?; Klimaschutz in Deutschland - Warum und wie?; Behandlungstechniken von Abfall-Biomasse; Novellierung des EEG - Sinnvolle Anpassung oder Breme der Energiewende; Der Weg in die Praxis: Beispiele und Chancen. Vier der Beitraege wurden separarat fuer diese Datenbank aufgenommen.

  20. Lignin biomass conversion into chemicals and fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melián Rodríguez, Mayra

    Second-generation biomass or lignocellulosic biomass, which is mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, is a very important and promising feedstock for the renewable production of fuels and chemicals of the future. Lignin is the second most abundant natural polymer, representing 30......% of the weight and 40% of the energy content of lignocellulosic biomass. While designated applications for cellulose already exist in form of the current pulp and paper production as well as its prospective hydrolysis and fermentation into biofuels (mainly bioethanol), sustainable ways to valorize the lignin...

  1. Pretreatment of woody biomass for biofuel production: energy efficiency, technologies, and recalcitrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J Y; Pan, Xuejun; Zalesny, Ronald S

    2010-07-01

    This mini review discusses several key technical issues associated with cellulosic ethanol production from woody biomass: energy consumption for woody biomass pretreatment, pretreatment energy efficiency, woody biomass pretreatment technologies, and quantification of woody biomass recalcitrance. Both total sugar yield and pretreatment energy efficiency, defined as the total sugar recovery divided by total energy consumption for pretreatment, should be used to evaluate the performance of a pretreatment process. A post-chemical pretreatment wood size-reduction approach was proposed to significantly reduce energy consumption. The review also emphasizes using a low liquid-to-wood ratio (L/W) to reduce thermal energy consumption for any thermochemical/physical pretreatment in addition to reducing pretreatment temperature.

  2. Conflicts between Ecological Farming and Energy Use of Biomass from Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I; Nielsen, Vilhjalmur; Christensen, B.T.

    1996-01-01

    claim that crop residues and animal manure should all be returned to the fields with as small a loss in carbon and nutrients content as possible. More empirical data are needed in order to evaluate the Danish potential for energy from biomass in view of the need for preserving soil quality. If a large......Due to the fluctuating nature of several renewable energy sources such as solar, wind and waves, new methodologies are needed for planning of sustainable energy supply systems. As Denmark has no hydro power, biomass plays an important role in this connection. Especially surplus straw and animal...... manure (for biogas) from agriculture. In the official Danish energy plans biomass is supposed to cover more than 20% of the Danish energy demand by year 2030. However, the use of biomass for energy purposes may conflict with the need to maintain soil quality of arable fields. Concerned ecological farmers...

  3. Geoffroea decorticans for Biofuels: A Promising Feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Santibáñez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, chañar (Geoffroea decorticans fruit is evaluated as a potential feedstock for biodiesel and biomass pellets production with reference to some relevant properties. The fatty acid profile of this oil (83% unsaturated acids is found to be comparable to similar seed oils which have been attempted for biodiesel production. As a result, the methyl esters (biodiesel obtained from this oil exhibits high quality properties. Chañar biodiesel quality meets all other biodiesel international standards (ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. Moreover, the husk that surrounds the kernel showed a high potential for usage as densified solid fuels. The results demonstrate that chañar husks pellets have a higher calorific value when compared with other biomass pellets, typically, approximately 21 MJ kg−1 with 1.8% of ashes (which is equivalent to that obtained from the combustion of pellets produced from forest wastes. This study indicates that chañar can be used as a multipurpose energy crop in semiarid regions for biodiesel and densified solid fuels (pellets production.

  4. Biomass Supply Chain and Conversion Economics of Cellulosic Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ronalds W.

    2011-12-01

    Cellulosic biomass is a potential and competitive source for bioenergy production, reasons for such acclamation include: biomass is one the few energy sources that can actually be utilized to produce several types of energy (motor fuel, electricity, heat) and cellulosic biomass is renewable and relatively found everywhere. Despite these positive advantages, issues regarding cellulosic biomass availability, supply chain, conversion process and economics need a more comprehensive understanding in order to identify the near short term routes in biomass to bioenergy production. Cellulosic biomass accounts for around 35% to 45% of cost share in cellulosic ethanol production, in addition, different feedstock have very different production rate, (dry ton/acre/year), availability across the year, and chemical composition that affect process yield and conversion costs as well. In the other hand, existing and brand new conversion technologies for cellulosic ethanol production offer different advantages, risks and financial returns. Ethanol yield, financial returns, delivered cost and supply chain logistic for combinations of feedstock and conversion technology are investigated in six studies. In the first study, biomass productivity, supply chain and delivered cost of fast growing Eucalyptus is simulated in economic and supply chain models to supply a hypothetic ethanol biorefinery. Finding suggests that Eucalyptus can be a potential hardwood grown specifically for energy. Delivered cost is highly sensitive to biomass productivity, percentage of covered area. Evaluated at different financial expectations, delivered cost can be competitive compared to current forest feedstock supply. In the second study, Eucalyptus biomass conversion into cellulosic ethanol is simulated in the dilute acid pretreatment, analysis of conversion costs, cost share, CAPEX and ethanol yield are examined. In the third study, biomass supply and delivered cost of loblolly pine is simulated in economic

  5. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks. Progress report, June 1, 1977--August 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.I.C.; Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Gomez, R.F.; Sinskey, A.J.

    1977-09-01

    Studies on the microbial degradation of cellulose biomass continues to be centered around Clostridium thermocellum. The effect of surfactants on growth and cellulase production by C. thermocellum was investigated. The effect of pH on growth and reducing sugar accumulation rate of Clostridium thermocellum on solka floc was evaluated. Activity of extracellular cellulase of Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 was examined using TNP--CMC and Avicel as substrates. The pH optima are 5 and 4.5, respectively. Hydrolysis of either substrate is not inhibited by cellobiose, xylose, or glucose. The enzyme appears to be quite stable under reaction conditions at 60/sup 0/C. Thus far, regulation studies indicate that CMCase formation is not repressed by cellobiose. The search for plasmids in C. thermocellum was continued. The presence of plasmids was confirmed by cesium chloride ethidium bromide gradient centrifugation and electron microscopy. Two plasmids were detected, one with an approximate molecular weight of 1 x 10/sup 6/ daltons. Studies on the fermentation of lactic acid to propionic acid showed the pathway in C. propionicum to be simpler than in M. elsdenii and hence more amenable to manipulation for acrylate production. Using Lactobacillius delbrueckii, it was possible to convert glucose, cellobiose, and cellulose hydrolysates to lactic acid rapidly and quantitatively. Fermentations of C. acetobutylicum growing in soluble media were performed. Detailed studies of Clostridium thermoaceticum have shown that pH is the primary limiting factor in the production of acetic acid. pH-controlled fermentations indicated accumulations of over 30 gm/l of acetic acid.

  6. Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

    Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and

  7. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2: Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates -- Wood Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    As part of Task 2, Gas Cleanup and Cost Estimates, Nexant investigated the appropriate process scheme for treatment of wood-derived syngas for use in the synthesis of liquid fuels. Two different 2,000 metric tonne per day gasification schemes, a low-pressure, indirect system using the gasifier, and a high-pressure, direct system using gasification technology were evaluated. Initial syngas conditions from each of the gasifiers was provided to the team by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Nexant was the prime contractor and principal investigator during this task; technical assistance was provided by both GTI and Emery Energy.

  8. Modeling Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstock Production in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraxner, Florian; Leduc, Sylvain; Kindermann, Georg; Fuss, Sabine; Pietsch, Stephan; Lakyda, Ivan; Serrano Leon, Hernan; Shchepashchenko, Dmitry; Shvidenko, Anatoly

    2016-04-01

    Sustainability of bioenergy is often indicated by the neutrality of emissions at the conversion site while the feedstock production site is assumed to be carbon neutral. Recent research shows that sustainability of bioenergy systems starts with feedstock management. Even if sustainable forest management is applied, different management types can impact ecosystem services substantially. This study examines different sustainable forest management systems together with an optimal planning of green-field bioenergy plants in the Alps. Two models - the biophysical global forest model (G4M) and a techno-economic engineering model for optimizing renewable energy systems (BeWhere) are implemented. G4M is applied in a forward looking manner in order to provide information on the forest under different management scenarios: (1) managing the forest for maximizing the carbon sequestration; or (2) managing the forest for maximizing the harvestable wood amount for bioenergy production. The results from the forest modelling are then picked up by the engineering model BeWhere, which optimizes the bioenergy production in terms of energy demand (power and heat demand by population) and supply (wood harvesting potentials), feedstock harvesting and transport costs, the location and capacity of the bioenergy plant as well as the energy distribution logistics with respect to heat and electricity (e.g. considering existing grids for electricity or district heating etc.). First results highlight the importance of considering ecosystem services under different scenarios and in a geographically explicit manner. While aiming at producing the same amount of bioenergy under both forest management scenarios, it turns out that in scenario (1) a substantially larger area (distributed across the Alps) will need to be used for producing (and harvesting) the necessary amount of feedstock than under scenario (2). This result clearly shows that scenario (2) has to be seen as an "intensification

  9. Elemental and thermo-chemical analysis of oil palm fronds for biomass energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangul, Fiseha Mekonnen; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Raghavan, Vijay R.

    2012-06-01

    Oil palm frond is the most abundant yet untapped biomass waste in Malaysia. This paper investigates the characteristics of raw oil palm fronds and its ash to evaluate its potential utilization as a biomass fuel for gasification process using single throat downdraft gasifier. The morphological nature, elemental content, proximate and ultimate analysis and calorific value were studied. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and x-ray fluorescence were used to investigate the surface morphology, elemental and mineralogical nature of oil palm frond and its ash. The results were compared with other agricultural and forestry biomass wastes. From proximate analysis volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash were found to be 83.5%, 15.2% and 1.3%, respectively on dry basis. From ultimate analysis result values of 44.58%, 4.53%, 0.71% and 0.07% for carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur were found respectively on dry basis. Oxygen was determined by difference and found to be 48.81%. The proximate and ultimate analysis results indicate that oil palm frond is better than agricultural wastes and less than most forestry wastes to use as a feedstock in the gasification process in order to get a better quality of syngas. The amount of ash content in OPF was found to be much less than in agricultural wastes and higher than most forestry wastes. From x-ray fluorescence analysis CaO and K2O were found as the major oxides in oil palm fronds and rice husk ash with the amount of 28.46% and 15.71% respectively. The overall results of oil palm fronds were found to be satisfactory to use as a feedstock for the process of gasification.

  10. Biomass logistics analysis for large scale biofuel production: case study of loblolly pine and switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoming; Withers, Mitch R; Seifkar, Navid; Field, Randall P; Barrett, Steven R H; Herzog, Howard J

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the costs, energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the biomass supply chain for large scale biofuel production. Two types of energy crop were considered, switchgrass and loblolly pine, as representative of herbaceous and woody biomass. A biomass logistics model has been developed to estimate the feedstock supply system from biomass production through transportation. Biomass in the form of woodchip, bale and pellet was investigated with road, railway and waterway transportation options. Our analysis indicated that the farm or forest gate cost is lowest for loblolly pine whole tree woodchip at $39.7/dry tonne and highest for switchgrass round bale at $72.3/dry tonne. Switchgrass farm gate GHG emissions is approximately 146kgCO2e/dry tonne, about 4 times higher than loblolly pine. The optimum biomass transportation mode and delivered form are determined by the tradeoff between fixed and variable costs for feedstock shipment.

  11. U.S. Biomass Opportunities for Value-added Biomass Exports based on the European Union Renewable Energy Share Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulises Lacoa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available World energy demand is expected to continue increasing in the coming years. This situation has created a worldwide pressure for the development of alternative fuel and energy sources, pursuing a more environmentally friendly usage of biofuels. The EU has the target of generating 20% of its energy consumption from renewable sources by 2020. Member States have different individual targets to meet this overall target. Meanwhile in the United States, there are about 750 million acres [300 million hectares] of forestland, with slightly more than two-thirds classified as timberland or land capable of producing 20 cubic feet per acre [1.4 m3 per hectare] annually of roundwood. Given these circumstances, this research aimed to understand the U.S. opportunities to export woody biomass based on the targets that the European Union has imposed to its Member States. The data collected allowed several scenario developments by identifying the possible EU’s biomass deficits and U.S.’s capacity to supply the gaps. Considering the physical availability, the U.S. would be able to satisfy between 42 and 48% depending on the energy efficiency scenario. Nevertheless, when considering reasonable biomass prices, only a small portion of the EU demand could be covered by the U.S.

  12. Robust and sustainable bioenergy: Biomass in the future Danish energy system; Robust og baeredygtig bioenergi: Biomasse i fremtidens danske energisystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoett, T.

    2012-09-15

    The publication is a collection of articles about new, exciting technologies for the production of bioenergy, which received support from Danish research programmes. The green technologies must be sustainable so that future generations' opportunities for bioenergy use is not restricted, and the solutions must be robust in relation to security of supply, costs and energy economy. In this context, research plays a crucial role. Research is especially carried out within the use of residues as bio-waste, straw, wood and manure for energy purposes, but there are also projects on energy crops, as well as research into how algae from the sea can increase the production of biomass. (LN)

  13. Biomass production as renewable energy resource at reclaimed Serbian lignite open-cast mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is the overview of the scope and dynamics of biomass production as a renewable energy source for substitution of coal in the production of electrical energy in the Kolubara coal basin. In order to successfully realize this goal, it was necessary to develop a dynamic model of the process of coal production, overburden dumping and re-cultivation of dumping sites by biomass planting. The results obtained by simulation of the dynamic model of biomass production in Kolubara mine basin until year 2045 show that 6870 hectares of overburden waste dumps will be re-cultivated by biomass plantations. Biomass production modeling point out the significant benefits of biomass production by planting the willow Salix viminalis cultivated for energy purposes. Under these conditions, a 0.6 % participation of biomass at the end of the period of intensive coal production, year 2037, is achieved. With the decrease of coal production to 15 million tons per year, this percentage steeply rises to 1.4 % in 2045. This amount of equivalent tons of coal from biomass can be used for coal substitution in the production of electrical energy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33039

  14. Economic approach to assess the forest carbon implications of biomass energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigneault, Adam; Sohngen, Brent; Sedjo, Roger

    2012-06-05

    There is widespread concern that biomass energy policy that promotes forests as a supply source will cause net carbon emissions. Most of the analyses that have been done to date, however, are biological, ignoring the effects of market adaptations through substitution, net imports, and timber investments. This paper uses a dynamic model of forest and land use management to estimate the impact of United States energy policies that emphasize the utilization of forest biomass on global timber production and carbon stocks over the next 50 years. We show that when market factors are included in the analysis, expanded demand for biomass energy increases timber prices and harvests, but reduces net global carbon emissions because higher wood prices lead to new investments in forest stocks. Estimates are sensitive to assumptions about whether harvest residues and new forestland can be used for biomass energy and the demand for biomass. Restricting biomass energy to being sourced only from roundwood on existing forestland can transform the policy from a net sink to a net source of emissions. These results illustrate the importance of capturing market adjustments and a large geographic scope when measuring the carbon implications of biomass energy policies.

  15. Biomass Gasifier Energy Cyber-Physical System Design with Coupling of the Wind and Solar Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihuan Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The air pollution in China has been quite serious, and biomass is extremely rich in large agricultural country. In the view of current situation, highly efficient solar collectors, wind energy and solar energy coupled heating straw gasification system is studied. The stability of continuous gas production is analyzed in various weather conditions including windy, calm, sunny and cloudy. Highly efficient solar panels, wind energy and solar energy coupled heating straw gasification control system is raised. This system overcomes the time variability of the weather conditions to ensure the stability of the continuous gas production under a variety of weather conditions. It has high quality of gas production, strong anti-interference ability and robustness.

  16. Expected international demand for woody and herbaceous feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamers, Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jacobson, Jacob [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mohammad, Roni [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wright, Christopher [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The development of a U.S. bioenergy market and ultimately ‘bioeconomy’ has primarily been investigated with a national focus. Limited attention has been given to the potential impacts of international market developments. The goal of this project is to advance the current State of Technology of a single biorefinery to the global level providing quantitative estimates on how international markets may influence the domestic feedstock supply costs. The scope of the project is limited to feedstock that is currently available and new crops being developed to be used in a future U.S. bioeconomy including herbaceous residues (e.g., corn stover), woody biomass (e.g., pulpwood), and energy crops (e.g., switchgrass). The timeframe is set to the periods of 2022, 2030, and 2040 to align with current policy targets (e.g., the RFS2) and future updates of the Billion Ton data. This particular milestone delivers demand volumes for generic woody and herbaceous feedstocks for the main (net) importing regions along the above timeframes. The regional focus of the study is the European Union (EU), currently the largest demand region for U.S. pellets made from pulpwood and forest residues. The pellets are predominantly used in large-scale power plants (>5MWel) in the United Kingdom (UK), the Netherlands (NL), Belgium (BE), and Denmark (DK).

  17. Fast pyrolysis of biomass thermally pretreated by torrefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrefied biomass samples were produced from hardwood and switchgrass pellets using the biochar experimenter’s kit (BEK) reactor and analyzed for their utility as pretreated feedstock for biofuels production via fast pyrolysis. The energy efficiency for the BEK torrefaction process with propane gas ...

  18. Mapping woody-biomass supply costs using forest inventory and competing industry data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stasko, Timon H.; Conrado, Robert J.; Labatut, Rodrigo; Tasseff, Ryan; Mannion, John T.; Gao, H. Oliver [College of Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Wankerl, Andreas [Innovation Interface, 126 Reach Run, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States); Sanborn, Stephen D.; Knott, Gregory [General Electric Global Research, 1 Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY 12309 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    The goals of energy independence and sustainability have motivated many countries to consider biomass-based energy sources. The United States has substantial and increasing forest resources that could be used to produce both electricity and liquid fuel. However, these forest resources are highly heterogeneous in terms of the wood's properties, the logging cost, the spatial distribution, and the value to other industries. These factors make predicting costs and selecting plant locations particularly challenging. When dealing with forest biomass, feedstock cost and location have frequently been highly simplified in previous studies. This paper presents a methodology for combining highly resolved forest inventory and price data with records of competing industries to develop detailed maps of feedstock availability. The feedstock sourcing strategy of the proposed bioenergy plants is modeled by a cost-minimizing linear program, as is the feedstock selection of the competing mills. A case study is performed on the southeast United States. (author)

  19. Enhancing biomass energy yield from pilot-scale high rate algal ponds with recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J; Shilton, A N

    2013-09-01

    This paper investigates the effect of recycling on biomass energy yield in High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAPs). Two 8 m(3) pilot-scale HRAPs treating primary settled sewage were operated in parallel and monitored over a 2-year period. Volatile suspended solids were measured from both HRAPs and their gravity settlers to determine biomass productivity and harvest efficiency. The energy content of the biomass was also measured. Multiplying biomass productivity and harvest efficiency gives the 'harvestable biomass productivity' and multiplying this by the energy content defines the actual 'biomass energy yield'. In Year 1, algal recycling was implemented in one of the ponds (HRAPr) and improved harvestable biomass productivity by 58% compared with the control (HRAPc) without recycling (HRAPr: 9.2 g/m(2)/d; HRAPc: 5.8 g/m(2)/d). The energy content of the biomass grown in HRAPr, which was dominated by Pediastrun boryanum, was 25% higher than the control HRAPc which contained a mixed culture of 4-5 different algae (HRAPr: 21.5 kJ/g; HRAPc: 18.6 kJ/g). In Year 2, HRAPc was then seeded with the biomass harvested from the P. boryanum dominated HRAPr. This had the effect of shifting algal dominance from 89% Dictyosphaerium sp. (which is poorly-settleable) to over 90% P. boryanum in 5 months. Operation of this pond was then switched to recycling its own harvested biomass, which maintained P. boryanum dominance for the rest of Year 2. This result confirms, for the first time in the literature, that species control is possible for similarly sized co-occurring algal colonies in outdoor HRAP by algal recycling. With regard to the overall improvement in biomass energy yield, which is a critical parameter in the context of algal cultivation for biofuels, the combined improvements that recycling triggered in biomass productivity, harvest efficiency and energy content enhanced the harvested biomass energy yield by 66% (HRAPr: 195 kJ/m(2)/day; HRAPc: 118 kJ/m(2)/day).

  20. Two-stage Hydrolysis of Invasive Algal Feedstock for Ethanol Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Wang; Xianhua Liu; Guangyi Wang

    2011-01-01

    The overall goal of this work was to develop a saccharification method for the production of third generation biofuel(i.e.bioethanol) using feedstock of the invasive marine macroalga Gracilaria salicornia.Under optimum conditions(120℃ and 2% sulfuric acid for 30 min), dilute acid hydrolysis of the homogenized invasive plants yielded a low concentration of glucose(4.1mM or 4.3g glucose/kg fresh algal biomass). However, two-stage hydrolysis of the homogenates (combination of dilute acid hydrolysis with enzymatic hydrolysis) produced 13.8g of glucose from one kilogram of fresh algal feedstock. Batch fermentation analysis produced 79.1g EtOH from one kilogram of dried invasive algal feedstock using the ethanologenic strain Escherichia coli K011. Furthermore, ethanol production kinetics indicated that the invasive algal feedstock contained different types of sugar, including C5-sugar. This study represents the first report on third generation biofuel production from invasive macroalgae, suggesting that there is great potential for the production of renewable energy using marine invasive biomass.

  1. BIOMASS UTILIZATION AS A RENEVABLE ENERGY SOURCE IN POLISH POWER INDUSTRY – CURRENT STATUS AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Gołuchowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The depletion of the conventional energy sources, as well as the degradation and pollution of the environment by the exploitation of fossil fuels caused the development of renewable energy sources (RES, including biomass. In Poland, biomass is the most popular renewable energy source, which is closely related to the obligations associated with the membership in the EU. Biomass is the oldest renewable energy source, and its potential, diversity and polymorphism place it over other sources. Besides, the improvement in its parameters, including an increase in its calorific value, resulted in increasing use of biomass as energy source. In the electric power industry biomass is applied in the process of co-combustion with coal. This process may contribute, inter alia, to the reduction in the emissions of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur oxides. The article presents the characteristics of the biomass burned in power boilers of one of the largest Polish power plants, located in Opole Province (Southern Poland. Besides, the impact of biomass on the installation of co-combustion, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the co-combustion process not only in technological, but also environmental, economic and social aspects were described.

  2. Microbial production host selection for converting second-generation feedstocks into bioproducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rumbold, K.; Buijsen, H.J.J. van; Overkamp, K.M.; Groenestijn, J.W. van; Punt, P.J.; Werf, M.J.V.D.

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates are used as the feedstock for industrial fermentations. These biomass hydrolysates are complex mixtures of different fermentable sugars, but also inhibitors and salts that affect the performance of the microbial production host. The performance of si

  3. Intermediate pyrolysis of biomass energy pellets for producing sustainable liquid, gaseous and solid fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Brammer, J G; Mahmood, A S N; Hornung, A

    2014-10-01

    This work describes the use of intermediate pyrolysis system to produce liquid, gaseous and solid fuels from pelletised wood and barley straw feedstock. Experiments were conducted in a pilot-scale system and all products were collected and analysed. The liquid products were separated into an aqueous phase and an organic phase (pyrolysis oil) under gravity. The oil yields were 34.1 wt.% and 12.0 wt.% for wood and barley straw, respectively. Analysis found that both oils were rich in heterocyclic and phenolic compounds and have heating values over 24 MJ/kg. The yields of char for both feedstocks were found to be about 30 wt.%, with heating values similar to that of typical sub-bituminous class coal. Gas yields were calculated to be approximately 20 wt.%. Studies showed that both gases had heating values similar to that of downdraft gasification producer gas. Analysis on product energy yields indicated the process efficiency was about 75%.

  4. The use of biomass for energy in Sweden. Critical factors and lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Bengt; Boerjesson, Paal; Ericsson, Karin; Nilsson, Lars J.; Svenningsson, Per

    2002-08-01

    In this report the development of Swedish biomass use during recent decades is discussed. The relations between biomass supply, biomass demand and various policy initiatives are explored. The objectives are to discuss the most important factors affecting the biomass development and to establish which factors are specific for Swedish conditions and also to identify general factors that are relevant in assessing the possibility of expanding biomass use in different contexts. The focus is on the use of biomass for heat and electricity production. Biomass contributed 14% to the Swedish energy supply in 1999. The major fraction of Swedish biomass is used within the forest industry (63%) and in district heating systems (23%). The remaining fraction is used in small-scale boilers in one- and two family dwellings. Between 1990 and 1999 Swedish bioenergy use (including waste and peat) increased by 44%. During the same period there has been a fourfold increase in the district heating systems. By-products from forestry and the Swedish forest industry dominate the supply of biomass in Sweden, but the importation of biomass increased significantly during the 1990s. A number of factors of various kinds have interacted to bring about the increased use of biomass in Sweden during the past twenty years. These factors can be divided into three categories: structure, policies and actors. The existence of a major forest industry and well-developed district heating systems has enabled a rapid response to strong and standing policy commitments to biomass. The reformation of the taxation system, with the introduction of a high carbon tax on fossil fuels, has led to significantly improved competitiveness for biomass when used for heating purposes.

  5. Discovering the desirable alleles contributing to the lignocellulosic biomass traits in Saccharum germplasm collections for energy cane improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianping [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sandhu, Hardev [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2017-03-23

    1) The success in crop improvement programs depends largely on the extent of genetic variability available. Germplasm collections assembles all the available genetic resources and are critical for long-term crop improvement. This world sugarcane germplasm collection contains enormous genetic variability for various morphological traits, biomass yield components, adaptation and many quality traits, prospectively imbeds a large number of valuable alleles for biofuel traits such as high biomass yield, quantity and quality of lignocelluloses, stress tolerance, and nutrient use efficiency. The germplasm collection is of little value unless it is characterized and utilized for crop improvement. In this project, we phenotypically and genotypically characterized the sugarcane world germplasm collection (The results were published in two papers already and another two papers are to be published). This data will be made available for public to refer to for germplasm unitization specifically in the sugarcane and energy cane breeding programs. In addition, we are identifying the alleles contributing to the biomass traits in sugarcane germplasm. This part of project is very challenging due to the large genome and highly polyploid level of this crop. We firstly established a high throughput sugarcane genotyping pipeline in the genome and bioinformatics era (a paper is published in 2016). We identified and modified a software for genome-wide association analysis of polyploid species. The results of the alleles associated to the biomass traits will be published soon, which will help the scientific community understand the genetic makeup of the biomass components of sugarcane. Molecular breeders can develop markers for marker assisted selection of biomass traits improvement. Further, the development and release of new energy cane cultivars through this project not only improved genetic diversity but also improved dry biomass yields and resistance to diseases. These new cultivars

  6. Variability of biomass chemical composition and rapid analysis using FT-NIR techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lu [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ye, Philip [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

    2010-04-01

    A quick method for analyzing the chemical composition of renewable energy biomass feedstock was developed by using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis. The study presents the broad-based model hypothesis that a single FT-NIR predictive model can be developed to analyze multiple types of biomass feedstock. The two most important biomass feedstocks corn stover and switchgrass were evaluated for the variability in their concentrations of the following components: glucan, xylan, galactan, arabinan, mannan, lignin, and ash. A hypothesis test was developed based upon these two species. Both cross-validation and independent validation results showed that the broad-based model developed is promising for future chemical prediction of both biomass species; in addition, the results also showed the method's prediction potential for wheat straw.

  7. The Potential for Biomass District Energy Production in Port Graham, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Sink, Chugachmiut; Keeryanne Leroux, EERC

    2008-05-08

    This project was a collaboration between The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Chugachmiut – A Tribal organization Serving the Chugach Native People of Alaska and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Tribal Energy Program. It was conducted to determine the economic and technical feasibility for implementing a biomass energy system to service the Chugachmiut community of Port Graham, Alaska. The Port Graham tribe has been investigating opportunities to reduce energy costs and reliance on energy imports and support subsistence. The dramatic rise in the prices of petroleum fuels have been a hardship to the village of Port Graham, located on the Kenai Peninsula of Alaska. The Port Graham Village Council views the forest timber surrounding the village and the established salmon industry as potential resources for providing biomass energy power to the facilities in their community. Benefits of implementing a biomass fuel include reduced energy costs, energy independence, economic development, and environmental improvement. Fish oil–diesel blended fuel and indoor wood boilers are the most economical and technically viable options for biomass energy in the village of Port Graham. Sufficient regional biomass resources allow up to 50% in annual heating savings to the user, displacing up to 70% current diesel imports, with a simple payback of less than 3 years for an estimated capital investment under $300,000. Distributive energy options are also economically viable and would displace all imported diesel, albeit offering less savings potential and requiring greater capital. These include a large-scale wood combustion system to provide heat to the entire village, a wood gasification system for cogeneration of heat and power, and moderate outdoor wood furnaces providing heat to 3–4 homes or community buildings per furnace. Coordination of biomass procurement and delivery, ensuring resource reliability and technology acceptance, and arbitrating

  8. Siting Evaluation for Biomass-Ethanol Production in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Zhou, J.

    2000-10-15

    This report examines four Hawaiian islands, Oahu, Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai, to identify three best combinations of potential sites and crops for producing dedicated supplies of biomass for conversion to ethanol. Key technical and economic factors considered in the siting evaluation include land availability (zoning and use), land suitability (agronomic conditions), potential quantities and costs of producing biomass feedstocks, infrastructure (including water and power supplies), transportation, and potential bioresidues to supplement dedicated energy crops.

  9. Energy Analysis of a Biomass Co-firing Based Pulverized Coal Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The results are reported of an energy analysis of a biomass/coal co-firing based power generation system, carried out to investigate the impacts of biomass co-firing on system performance. The power generation system is a typical pulverized coal-fired steam cycle unit, in which four biomass fuels (rice husk, pine sawdust, chicken litter, and refuse derived fuel and two coals (bituminous coal and lignite are considered. Key system performance parameters are evaluated for various fuel combinations and co-firing ratios, using a system model and numerical simulation. The results indicate that plant energy efficiency decreases with increase of biomass proportion in the fuel mixture, and that the extent of the decrease depends on specific properties of the coal and biomass types.

  10. First Biomass Conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this second volume cover Transportation Fuels, and Chemicals and Products. Transportation Fuels topics include: Biodiesel, Pyrolytic Liquids, Ethanol, Methanol and Ethers, and Commercialization. The Chemicals and Products section includes specific topics in: Research, Technology Transfer, and Commercial Systems. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. Survey of Alternative Feedstocks for Commodity Chemical Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Robinson, Sharon M [ORNL

    2008-02-01

    The current high prices for petroleum and natural gas have spurred the chemical industry to examine alternative feedstocks for the production of commodity chemicals. High feedstock prices have driven methanol and ammonia production offshore. The U.S. Chemical Industry is the largest user of natural gas in the country. Over the last 30 years, alternatives to conventional petroleum and natural gas feedstocks have been developed, but have limited, if any, commercial implementation in the United States. Alternative feedstocks under consideration include coal from unconventional processing technologies, such as gasification and liquefaction, novel resources such as biomass, stranded natural gas from unconventional reserves, and heavy oil from tar sands or oil shale. These feedstock sources have been evaluated with respect to the feasibility and readiness for production of the highest volume commodity chemicals in the United States. Sources of organic compounds, such as ethanol from sugar fermentation and bitumen-derived heavy crude are now being primarily exploited for fuels, rather than for chemical feedstocks. Overall, government-sponsored research into the use of alternatives to petroleum feedstocks focuses on use for power and transportation fuels rather than for chemical feedstocks. Research is needed to reduce cost and technical risk. Use of alternative feedstocks is more common outside the United States R&D efforts are needed to make these processes more efficient and less risky before becoming more common domestically. The status of alternative feedstock technology is summarized.

  12. [Biomass- and energy allocation in Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus tereticornis plantations at different stand ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qun-Ying; Chen, Shao-Xiong; Han, Fei-Yang; Chen, Wen-Ping; Wu, Zhi-Hua

    2010-01-01

    An investigation was made on the biomass- and energy allocation in 1-4-year-old Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus tereticornis plantations at Beipo Forest Farm of Suixi County in Guangdong Province. Stand age had significant effects on the retained biomass of the plantations (P biomass was in the range of 10.61-147.28 t x hm(-2). Both the total biomass and the biomass of above- and belowground components increased with increasing stand age. The proportions of leaf-, branch- and bark biomass to total biomass decreased with year, while that of stem biomass was in reverse. The biomass allocation of the components in 1- and 2-year-old plantations decreased in order of stem > branch > bark > root > leaf, and that in 3- and 4 -year-old plantations was in order of stem > root > branch > bark > leaf. The mean ash content (AC) of the five components at different stand ages ranged from 0.47% to 5.91%, being the highest in bark and the lowest in stem. The mean gross caloric value (GCV) and ash free caloric value (AFCV) of different components ranged from 17.33 to 20. 60 kJ x g(-1) and from 18.42 to 21.59 kJ x g(-1) respectively. Of all the components, leaf had the highest GVC and AFCV, while bark had the lowest ones. Stand age had significant effects on the GVC of branch, stem, and bark, and on the AFCV of leaf, stem, and bark (P 0.05). The retained energy of 1-4-year-old plantations ranged from 199.98 to 2837.20 GJ x hm(-2), with significant differences among the stand ages (P energy of various components and plantations increased with stand age, and the energy allocation of various components had the same trend as biomass allocation.

  13. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B.

    1980-09-01

    All the products now obtained from oil can be provided by thermal conversion of the solid fuels biomass and coal. As a feedstock, biomass has many advantages over coal and has the potential to supply up to 20% of US energy by the year 2000 and significant amounts of energy for other countries. However, it is imperative that in producing biomass for energy we practice careful land use. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed-bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized-bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products - gas, wood tars, and charcoal - can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best-developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel today, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  14. Biofuels for fuel cells: renewable energy from biomass fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, P.N.L.; Westermann, P.; Haberbauer, M.; Moreno, A.

    2005-01-01

    This book has been produced under the auspices of the Network ‘Biomass Fermentation Towards Usage in Fuel Cells’. The Network comprises nine partners from eight European countries and is funded by the European Science Foundation. This volume includes a chapter, from each of the member institutions,

  15. Energy, Environmental, and Economic Analyses of Design Concepts for the Co-Production of Fuels and Chemicals with Electricity via Co-Gasification of Coal and Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Larson; Robert Williams; Thomas Kreutz; Ilkka Hannula; Andrea Lanzini; Guangjian Liu

    2012-03-11

    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the energy, environmental, and economic performance of industrial facilities that would coproduce electricity and transportation fuels or chemicals from a mixture of coal and biomass via co-gasification in a single pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier, with capture and storage of CO{sub 2} (CCS). The work sought to identify plant designs with promising (Nth plant) economics, superior environmental footprints, and the potential to be deployed at scale as a means for simultaneously achieving enhanced energy security and deep reductions in U.S. GHG emissions in the coming decades. Designs included systems using primarily already-commercialized component technologies, which may have the potential for near-term deployment at scale, as well as systems incorporating some advanced technologies at various stages of R&D. All of the coproduction designs have the common attribute of producing some electricity and also of capturing CO{sub 2} for storage. For each of the co-product pairs detailed process mass and energy simulations (using Aspen Plus software) were developed for a set of alternative process configurations, on the basis of which lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, Nth plant economic performance, and other characteristics were evaluated for each configuration. In developing each set of process configurations, focused attention was given to understanding the influence of biomass input fraction and electricity output fraction. Self-consistent evaluations were also carried out for gasification-based reference systems producing only electricity from coal, including integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification solid-oxide fuel cell (IGFC) systems. The reason biomass is considered as a co-feed with coal in cases when gasoline or olefins are co-produced with electricity is to help reduce lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for these systems. Storing biomass-derived CO

  16. Spatial and temporal effects in drying biomass for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, T.; Khan, M.A.; Meng, Q. [Hawaii Univ., Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This study evaluates the impact of the moisture content of biomass on thermal efficiency and relative boiler size which directly represent the economic merits of biomass drying. A model for predicting the moisture content of bundled Leucaena (Leucocephala) trees under open environment was validated for tropical Hawaii. Cumulative precipitation and evapotranspiration (ET) are the major factors affecting the biomass moisture content change. ET was computed using Hargreave`s model, which requires only temperature and solar radiation data. Integration of these models made it possible to calculate the thermal efficiency and relative boiler size when using bundled trees as a fuel under a given drying regime and for a specific geographical location. A geographic information system provided the temperature and precipitation data required for evaluating the spatial variation in boiler efficiency and size for the 1440 km{sup 2} island of Kauai. Depending on the time of harvest, the Leucaena moisture content varied from 35 to 69% (on wet basis) following a period of 6 months of in-field drying. Boiler efficiency using fuelwood with this range of moisture content varied from 49 to 73%. Boiler relative size varied from 1.2 to 2.2 times the size required when Leucaena with 0% moisture content is used as a fuel. The spatial and temporal effects on the value of biomass were thus found to be important factors for various sites in the study area. The methods for quantifying the merit of biomass moisture management proposed in this paper demonstrate how GIS modeling can lead to appropriate decision-making capability in bioenergy. (Author)

  17. Sustainable biomass-derived hydrothermal carbons for energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falco, Camillo

    2012-01-15

    The need to reduce humankind reliance on fossil fuels by exploiting sustainably the planet renewable resources is a major driving force determining the focus of modern material research. For this reason great interest is nowadays focused on finding alternatives to fossil fuels derived products/materials. For the short term the most promising substitute is undoubtedly biomass, since it is the only renewable and sustainable alternative to fossil fuels as carbon source. As a consequence efforts, aimed at finding new synthetic approaches to convert biomass and its derivatives into carbon-based materials, are constantly increasing. In this regard, hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) has shown to be an effective means of conversion of biomass-derived precursors into functional carbon materials. However the attempts to convert raw biomass, in particular lignocellulosic one, directly into such products have certainly been rarer. Unlocking the direct use of these raw materials as carbon precursors would definitely be beneficial in terms of HTC sustainability. For this reason, in this thesis the HTC of carbohydrate and protein-rich biomass was systematically investigated, in order to obtain more insights on the potentials of this thermochemical processing technique in relation to the production of functional carbon materials from crude biomass. First a detailed investigation on the HTC conversion mechanism of lignocellulosic biomass and its single components (i.e. cellulose, lignin) was developed based on a comparison with glucose HTC, which was adopted as a reference model. In the glucose case it was demonstrated that varying the HTC temperature allowed tuning the chemical structure of the synthesised carbon materials from a highly cross-linked furan-based structure (T = 180 C) to a carbon framework composed of polyaromatic arene-like domains. When cellulose or lignocellulosic biomass was used as carbon precursor, the furan rich structure could not be isolated at any of the

  18. Algal biomass conversion to bioethanol - a step-by-step assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, Razif; Yip, Jason W S; Thiruvenkadam, Selvakumar; Ghani, Wan A W A K; Cherrington, Tamara; Danquah, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    The continuous growth in global population and the ongoing development of countries such as China and India have contributed to a rapid increase in worldwide energy demand. Fossil fuels such as oil and gas are finite resources, and their current rate of consumption cannot be sustained. This, coupled with fossil fuels' role as pollutants and their contribution to global warming, has led to increased interest in alternative sources of energy production. Bioethanol, presently produced from energy crops, is one such promising alternative future energy source and much research is underway in optimizing its production. The economic and temporal constraints that crop feedstocks pose are the main downfalls in terms of the commercial viability of bioethanol production. As an alternative to crop feedstocks, significant research efforts have been put into utilizing algal biomass as a feedstock for bioethanol production. Whilst the overall process can vary, the conversion of biomass to bioethanol usually contains the following steps: (i) pretreatment of feedstock; (ii) hydrolysis; and (iii) fermentation of bioethanol. This paper reviews different technologies utilized in the pretreatment and fermentation steps, and critically assesses their applicability to bioethanol production from algal biomass. Two different established fermentation routes, single-stage fermentation and two-stage gasification/fermentation processes, are discussed. The viability of algal biomass as an alternative feedstock has been assessed adequately, and further research optimisation must be guided toward the development of cost-effective scalable methods to produce high bioethanol yield under optimum economy.

  19. Interfacing feedstock logistics with bioenergy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokhansanj, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Oak Ridge National Lab

    2010-07-01

    The interface between biomass production and biomass conversion platforms was investigated. Functional relationships were assembled in a modeling platform to simulate the flow of biomass feedstock from farm and forest to a densification plant. The model considers key properties of biomass for downstream pre-processing and conversion. These properties include moisture content, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, ash, particle size, specific density and bulk density. The model simulates logistical operations such as grinding to convert biomass to pellets that are supplied to a biorefinery for conversion to heat, power, or biofuels. Equations were developed to describe the physical aspects of each unit operation. The effect that each of the process variables has on the efficiency of the conversion processes was described.

  20. A study of energy balances in biomass drying and pelleting processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, S.; Sokhansanj, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Making pellets from biomass is considered to be the best way to use biomass as a replacement for fossil fuels. This study developed a simulation tool and a rotary biomass drying model to optimize unit operations for pellet production. A pelletizing plant layout was presented along with a table indicating the typical energy and power consumptions per ton of pellets produced. The importance of the drying process was discussed with reference to drying results for timothy grass, alfalfa stems and leaves. It was shown that a dryer control system can reduce energy consumption from 12 GJ/ton to 6.5 GJ/ton. This drop in energy consumption by nearly 50 per cent is due to a reduction in moisture from 70 per cent to 10 per cent. Future research will focus on reducing the environmental emissions from the biomass dryer. tabs., figs.

  1. Quantification of fuel moisture effects on biomass consumed derived from fire radiative energy retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alistair M. S.; Tinkham, Wade T.; Roy, David P.; Boschetti, Luigi; Kremens, Robert L.; Kumar, Sanath S.; Sparks, Aaron M.; Falkowski, Michael J.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite based fire radiant energy retrievals are widely applied to assess biomass consumed and emissions at regional to global scales. A known potential source of uncertainty in biomass burning estimates arises from fuel moisture but this impact has not been quantified in previous studies. Controlled fire laboratory experiments are used in this study to examine the biomass consumed and the radiant energy release (Fire Radiative Energy, FRE, (MJ)) for western white pine needle fuels burned with water content (WC, unitless) from 0.01 to 0.14. Results indicate a significant relationship: FRE per kilogram of fuel consumed = -5.32 WC + 3.025 (r2 = 0.83, n = 24, P FRE and fuel consumed can lead to systematic biases. A methodological framework to derive a revised formula that enables the estimation of biomass consumed from FRE, which explicitly takes into account fuel water content, is presented.

  2. Sustainable biomass-derived hydrothermal carbons for energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falco, Camillo

    2012-01-15

    The need to reduce humankind reliance on fossil fuels by exploiting sustainably the planet renewable resources is a major driving force determining the focus of modern material research. For this reason great interest is nowadays focused on finding alternatives to fossil fuels derived products/materials. For the short term the most promising substitute is undoubtedly biomass, since it is the only renewable and sustainable alternative to fossil fuels as carbon source. As a consequence efforts, aimed at finding new synthetic approaches to convert biomass and its derivatives into carbon-based materials, are constantly increasing. In this regard, hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) has shown to be an effective means of conversion of biomass-derived precursors into functional carbon materials. However the attempts to convert raw biomass, in particular lignocellulosic one, directly into such products have certainly been rarer. Unlocking the direct use of these raw materials as carbon precursors would definitely be beneficial in terms of HTC sustainability. For this reason, in this thesis the HTC of carbohydrate and protein-rich biomass was systematically investigated, in order to obtain more insights on the potentials of this thermochemical processing technique in relation to the production of functional carbon materials from crude biomass. First a detailed investigation on the HTC conversion mechanism of lignocellulosic biomass and its single components (i.e. cellulose, lignin) was developed based on a comparison with glucose HTC, which was adopted as a reference model. In the glucose case it was demonstrated that varying the HTC temperature allowed tuning the chemical structure of the synthesised carbon materials from a highly cross-linked furan-based structure (T = 180 C) to a carbon framework composed of polyaromatic arene-like domains. When cellulose or lignocellulosic biomass was used as carbon precursor, the furan rich structure could not be isolated at any of the

  3. Biomass thermochemical conversion program. 1985 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research on this conversion technology for renewable energy through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. The Program is part of DOE's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, Office of Renewable Technologies. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1985. 32 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. The use of renewable energy in the form of methane via electrolytic hydrogen generation using carbon dioxide as the feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Koji; Kumagai, Naokazu; Izumiya, Koichi; Takano, Hiroyuki; Shinomiya, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Yusuke; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Kato, Zenta

    2016-12-01

    The history reveals the continuous increase in world energy consumption and carbon emissions. For prevention of intolerable global warming and complete exhaustion of fossil fuels we need complete conversion from fossil fuel consumption to renewable energy. We have been performing the research and development of global carbon dioxide recycling for more than 25 years to supply renewable energy to the world in the form of methane produced by the reaction of carbon dioxide captured from chimney with hydrogen generated electrolytically using electricity generated by renewable energy. We created the cathode and anode for electrolytic hydrogen generation and the catalyst for carbon dioxide methanation by the reaction with hydrogen. The methane formation from renewable energy will be the most convenient and efficient key technology for the use of renewable energy by storage of intermittent and fluctuating electricity generated from renewable energy and by regeneration of stable electricity. Domestic and international cooperation of companies for industrialization is in progress.

  5. Stakeholder perspectives on converting forest biomass to energy in Oregon, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stidham, Melanie; Simon-Brown, Viviane [Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, 321 Richardson Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Within the state of Oregon, USA, there is considerable interest in the possibility of converting forest biomass to energy. A number of studies have assessed the technical feasibility of forest biomass energy, but few have focused on social aspects, an important consideration in projects involving public forests. This study explores the social context of converting forest biomass to energy, using qualitative research methods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with forty individuals representing nine different stakeholder groups. Information gained through interviews was used to understand stakeholder views on forest biomass energy, including their perspectives on potential barriers and opportunities in Oregon. Findings indicate the most challenging barrier will be access to long-term, consistent supply. A related challenge is the long history of contention between parties over forest products coming from public lands. However, findings also show that there are many areas of common ground between these groups that have historically been at odds, such as agreement on the necessity of restoration treatments in certain forest types, the by-product of which could be used for biomass generation. Potential conflicts still exist, for instance over projects in mixed conifer forests. Development of policies and projects through inclusive, collaborative approaches could alleviate controversies, potentially allowing more activities to move forward. Information provided by this research creates a foundation for discussions as forest biomass energy becomes an increasingly prominent issue in Oregon, the western USA, and other regions of the world. (author)

  6. Development and use of bioenergy feedstocks for semi-arid and arid lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, John C; Davis, Sarah C; Yang, Xiaohan; Borland, Anne M

    2015-07-01

    Global climate change is predicted to increase heat, drought, and soil-drying conditions, and thereby increase crop sensitivity to water vapour pressure deficit, resulting in productivity losses. Increasing competition between agricultural freshwater use and municipal or industrial uses suggest that crops with greater heat and drought durability and greater water-use efficiency will be crucial for sustainable biomass production systems in the future. Agave (Agavaceae) and Opuntia (Cactaceae) represent highly water-use efficient bioenergy crops that could diversify bioenergy feedstock supply yet preserve or expand feedstock production into semi-arid, abandoned, or degraded agricultural lands, and reclaim drylands. Agave and Opuntia are crassulacean acid metabolism species that can achieve high water-use efficiencies and grow in water-limited areas with insufficient precipitation to support traditional C3 or C4 bioenergy crops. Both Agave and Opuntia have the potential to produce above-ground biomass rivalling that of C3 and C4 crops under optimal growing conditions. The low lignin and high amorphous cellulose contents of Agave and Opuntia lignocellulosic biomass will be less recalcitrant to deconstruction than traditional feedstocks, as confirmed by pretreatments that improve saccharification of Agave. Refined environmental productivity indices and geographical information systems modelling have provided estimates of Agave and Opuntia biomass productivity and terrestrial sequestration of atmospheric CO2; however, the accuracy of such modelling efforts can be improved through the expansion of field trials in diverse geographical settings. Lastly, life cycle analysis indicates that Agave would have productivity, life cycle energy, and greenhouse gas balances comparable or superior to those of traditional bioenergy feedstocks, but would be far more water-use efficient.

  7. Lignocellulosic feedstock supply systems with intermodal and overseas transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, Ric; Searcy, E.; Kafferty, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Junginger, Martin; Jacobson, J.; Faaij, André

    2014-01-01

    With growing demand for internationally traded biomass, the logistic operations required to economically move biomass from the field or forest to end- users have become increasingly complex. To design cost effective and sustainable feedstock supply chains, it is important to understand the economics

  8. Sustainable Biomass Resources for Biogas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup

    The aim of this thesis was to identify and map sustainable biomass resources, which can be utilised for biogas production with minimal negative impacts on the environment, nature and climate. Furthermore, the aim of this thesis was to assess the resource potential and feasibility of utilising...... such biomasses in the biogas sector. Sustainability in the use of biomass feedstock for energy production is of key importance for a stable future food and energy supply, and for the functionality of the Earths ecosystems. A range of biomass resources were assessed in respect to sustainability, availability...... from 39.3-66.9 Mtoe, depending on the availability of the residues. Grass from roadside verges and meadow habitats in Denmark represent two currently unutilised sources. If utilised in the Danish biogas sector, the results showed that the resources represent a net energy potential of 60,000 -122,000 GJ...

  9. Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of ethanol from corn, sugarcane and cellulosic biomass for US use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael; Han, Jeongwoo; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Cai, Hao; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2012-12-01

    Globally, bioethanol is the largest volume biofuel used in the transportation sector, with corn-based ethanol production occurring mostly in the US and sugarcane-based ethanol production occurring mostly in Brazil. Advances in technology and the resulting improved productivity in corn and sugarcane farming and ethanol conversion, together with biofuel policies, have contributed to the significant expansion of ethanol production in the past 20 years. These improvements have increased the energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits of using bioethanol as opposed to using petroleum gasoline. This article presents results from our most recently updated simulations of energy use and GHG emissions that result from using bioethanol made from several feedstocks. The results were generated with the GREET (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation) model. In particular, based on a consistent and systematic model platform, we estimate life-cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions from using ethanol produced from five feedstocks: corn, sugarcane, corn stover, switchgrass and miscanthus. We quantitatively address the impacts of a few critical factors that affect life-cycle GHG emissions from bioethanol. Even when the highly debated land use change GHG emissions are included, changing from corn to sugarcane and then to cellulosic biomass helps to significantly increase the reductions in energy use and GHG emissions from using bioethanol. Relative to petroleum gasoline, ethanol from corn, sugarcane, corn stover, switchgrass and miscanthus can reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 19-48%, 40-62%, 90-103%, 77-97% and 101-115%, respectively. Similar trends have been found with regard to fossil energy benefits for the five bioethanol pathways.

  10. Waste biomass-to-energy supply chain management: a critical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovou, E; Karagiannidis, A; Vlachos, D; Toka, A; Malamakis, A

    2010-10-01

    The development of renewable energy sources has clearly emerged as a promising policy towards enhancing the fragile global energy system with its limited fossil fuel resources, as well as for reducing the related environmental problems. In this context, waste biomass utilization has emerged as a viable alternative for energy production, encompassing a wide range of potential thermochemical, physicochemical and bio-chemical processes. Two significant bottlenecks that hinder the increased biomass utilization for energy production are the cost and complexity of its logistics operations. In this manuscript, we present a critical synthesis of the relative state-of-the-art literature as this applies to all stakeholders involved in the design and management of waste biomass supply chains (WBSCs). We begin by presenting the generic system components and then the unique characteristics of WBSCs that differentiate them from traditional supply chains. We proceed by discussing state-of-the-art energy conversion technologies along with the resulting classification of all relevant literature. We then recognize the natural hierarchy of the decision-making process for the design and planning of WBSCs and provide a taxonomy of all research efforts as these are mapped on the relevant strategic, tactical and operational levels of the hierarchy. Our critical synthesis demonstrates that biomass-to-energy production is a rapidly evolving research field focusing mainly on biomass-to-energy production technologies. However, very few studies address the critical supply chain management issues, and the ones that do that, focus mainly on (i) the assessment of the potential biomass and (ii) the allocation of biomass collection sites and energy production facilities. Our analysis further allows for the identification of gaps and overlaps in the existing literature, as well as of critical future research areas.

  11. Economic Potential of Biomass from Unused Agriculture Land for Energy Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeifer, A.; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Ćosić, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the energy potential of biomass from growing short rotation coppice (SRC) on unused agricultural land in the Republic of Croatia was examined. At present, SRC is not completely recognized in Croatian legislative and considerations in energy strategy and action plans. The paper aspires...... to contribute to better understanding of the role SRC can take in national and local energy planning. The methodology is provided for regional analysis of biomass energy potential on unused agricultural land and for assessing the cost of the biomass at the power plant (PP) location considering transport...... plants and appropriate size of seasonal heat storage is discussed for each case study. Case studies have shown the potential for use of previously unused agricultural land to help achieve national targets for renewable energy sources as well as reducing carbon dioxide emissions, help diversify...

  12. Nitrogen and harvest impact on biomass yield of established switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has been identified as the model herbaceous biomass energy crop by the United States Department of Energy as it is capable of being a viable bioenergy feedstock while providing multiple environmental benefits when grown on marginal soil landscapes. Nitrogen (N) fert...

  13. Assessment of industrial activity in the utilization of biomass for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    The objective of this report is to help focus the federal programs in biomass energy, by identifying the status and objectives of private sector activity in the biomass field as of mid-1979. In addition, the industry's perceptions of government activities are characterized. Findings and conclusions are based principally on confidential interviews with executives in 95 companies. These included forest products companies, agricultural products companies, equipment manufacturers, electric and gas utilities petroleum refiners and distributors, research and engineering firms, and trade organizations, as listed in Exhibit 1. Interview findings have been supplemented by research of recent literature. The study focused on four key questions: (1) what is the composition of the biomass industry; (2) what are the companies doing; (3) what are their objectives and strategies; and (4) what are the implications for government policy. This executive summary provides highlights of the key findings and conclusions. The summary discussion is presented in seven parts: (1) overview of the biomass field; (2) structure of the biomass industry today; (3) corporate activities in biomass-related areas; (4) motivations for these activities; (5) industry's outlook on the future for energy-from-biomass; (6) industry's view of government activities; and (7) implications for Federal policy.

  14. Energy-efficient biomass processing with pulsed electric fields for bioeconomy and sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golberg, Alexander; Sack, Martin; Teissie, Justin; Pataro, Gianpiero; Pliquett, Uwe; Saulis, Gintautas; Stefan, Töpfl; Miklavcic, Damijan; Vorobiev, Eugene; Frey, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Fossil resources-free sustainable development can be achieved through a transition to bioeconomy, an economy based on sustainable biomass-derived food, feed, chemicals, materials, and fuels. However, the transition to bioeconomy requires development of new energy-efficient technologies and processes to manipulate biomass feed stocks and their conversion into useful products, a collective term for which is biorefinery. One of the technological platforms that will enable various pathways of biomass conversion is based on pulsed electric fields applications (PEF). Energy efficiency of PEF treatment is achieved by specific increase of cell membrane permeability, a phenomenon known as membrane electroporation. Here, we review the opportunities that PEF and electroporation provide for the development of sustainable biorefineries. We describe the use of PEF treatment in biomass engineering, drying, deconstruction, extraction of phytochemicals, improvement of fermentations, and biogas production. These applications show the potential of PEF and consequent membrane electroporation to enable the bioeconomy and sustainable development.

  15. Switchgrass biomass energy storage project. Final report, September 23, 1996--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.A.; Teel, A.; Brown, S.S. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The Chariton Valley Biomass Power Project, sponsored by the Chariton Valley RC&D Inc., a USDA-sponsored rural development organization, the Iowa Department of Natural Resources Energy Bureau (IDNR-EB), and IES Utilities, a major Iowa energy company, is directed at the development of markets for energy crops in southern Iowa. This effort is part of a statewide coalition of public and private interests cooperating to merge Iowa`s agricultural potential and its long-term energy requirements to develop locally sustainable sources of biomass fuel. The four-county Chariton Valley RC&D area (Lucas, Wayne, Appanoose and Monroe counties) is the site of one of eleven NREL/EPRI feasibility studies directed at the potential of biomass power. The focus of renewable energy development in the region has centered around the use of swithgrass (Panicum virgatum, L.). This native Iowa grass is one of the most promising sustainable biomass fuel crops. According to investigations by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), switchgrass has the most potential of all the perennial grasses and legumes evaluated for biomass production.

  16. Biomass storage for further energy use through biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atem, A.D. [Instituto CEDIAC, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Instituto de Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Instituto de Energia, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas - CONICET, Mendoza (Argentina); Indiveri, M.E. [Instituto de Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Instituto de Energia, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Llamas, S. [Instituto de Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    The present work approaches the residual biomass conservation for later digestion in an anaerobic batch reactor. Twenty 4 L capacity PET reactors were used. A measuring device was constructed to quantify the biogas production. As substrate were used tomato wastes from local industry and rumen fluid as inoculum. Digestion start up was able to be controlled by varying the temperature, during a period of 118 days was not verified biogas production. After re-inoculated with rumen fluid stabilized for 34 days, biogas production was verified. They were obtained 0.10 m{sup 3} of biogas per kilogram of volatile solids, with 50% of methane content. (author)

  17. Energy from biomass. Summaries of the Biomass Projects carried out as part of the Department of Trade and Industry's New and Renewable Energy Programme. Vol. 5: straw, poultry litter and energy crops as energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    These volumes of summaries provide easy access to the many projects carried out in the Energy from Biomass programme area as part of the Department of Trade and Industry's New and Renewable Energy Programme. The summaries in this volume cover contractor reports on the subject published up to December 1997. (author)

  18. Analysis of Carbon Emissions of Woody Biomass Feedstock Supply Chain in Fujian Province%福建省木质生物质原料供应链碳排放研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑卫卫; 张兰怡; 邱荣祖

    2015-01-01

    This paper used the relatively common research methods to establish a quantitative calculation model to analyze the carbon emissions of different stages of feedstock supply chain in Fujian province.The results showed that embodied carbon emissions shared the lowest proportion,only 0.06%,while the direct and indirect carbon emissions reached 66.57%,33.37%,respectively.In the process of direct carbon emissions,carbon emissions of harvesting,skidding,hauling stage accounted 2.36%,4.99%,92.65%,respectively.The order of importance which affects the total carbon emissions of the feedstock supply chain was harvesting index (37.96%) > timber transport distance (23.42%),unit turnover fuel consumption (transport timber stage,23.42%) > daily energy consuming by workers (12.67%) > skidding distance (1.26%),unit turnover fuel consumption (skidding stage,1.26%).%使用目前比较通用的碳排放研究方法,建立1个定量计算模型,分析福建省木质生物质原料供应链不同阶段的碳排放量。结果表明:直接和间接碳排放所占比例分别达66.57%和33.37%,隐含碳排放量所占比例最低,仅占0.06%;在直接碳排放过程中,采伐、集材、运材阶段碳排放量分别占2.36%、4.99%、92.65%;影响原料供应链总的碳排放量的主要指标重要程度排序依次为,采伐指标(37.96%)>运材距离(23.42%)、单位周转量油耗(运材阶段,23.42%)>工人每天消耗的能量(12.67%)>集材距离(1.26%)、单位周转量油耗(集材阶段,1.26%)。

  19. Green Gasification Technology for Wet Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Chong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The world now is facing two energy related threats which are lack of sustainable, secure and affordable energy supplies and the environmental damage acquired in producing and consuming ever-increasing amount of energy. In the first decade of the twenty-first century, increasing energy prices reminds us that an affordable energy plays an important role in economic growth and human development. To overcome the abovementioned problem, we cannot continue much longer to consume finite reserves of fossil fuels, the use of which contributes to global warming. Preferably, the world should move towards more sustainable energy sources such as wind energy, solar energy and biomass. However, the abovementioned challenges may not be met solely by introduction of sustainable energy forms. We also need to use energy more efficiently. Developing and introducing more efficient energy conversion technologies is therefore important, for fossil fuels as well as renewable fuels. This assignment addresses the question how biomass may be used more efficiently and economically than it is being used today. Wider use of biomass, a clean and renewable feedstock may extend the lifetime of our fossil fuels resources and alleviate global warming problems. Another advantage of using of biomass as a source of energy is to make developed countries less interdependent on oil-exporting countries, and thereby reduce political tension. Furthermore, the economies of agricultural regions growing energy crops benefit as new jobs are created. Keywords: energy, gasification, sustainable, wet biomass

  20. Impact of Technology and Feedstock Choice on the Environmental Footprint of Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, P. B.; Dodder, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The implementation of the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard program (RFS2) has led to a dramatic shift in the use of biofuel in the U.S. transportation system over the last decade. To satisfy this demand, the production of U.S. corn-based ethanol has grown rapidly, with an average increase of over 25% annually from 2002 to 2010. RFS2 requires a similarly steep increase in the production of advanced biofuels, such as cellulosic ethanol. Unlike corn-based ethanol, which is derived from the biochemical fermentation of sugars in wet and dry mills, it is likely that a more diverse suite of technologies will need to be developed to be able to meet the advanced biofuel RFS2 targets, including biochemical as well as thermochemical (e.g., gasification and pyrolysis) approaches. Rather than relying on energy crops, a potential advantage of thermochemical approaches is the ability to use a wider variety of feedstocks, including municipal solid waste and wood waste. In this work, we conduct a system-level analysis to understand how technology and feedstock choice can impact the environmental footprint of biofuels in the U.S. We use a least-cost optimization model of the U.S. energy system to account for interactions between various components of the energy system: industrial, transportation, electric, and residential/commercial sectors. The model was used to understand the scale of feedstock demand required from dedicated energy crops, as well as other biomass feedstocks, in order to meet the RFS2 mandate. On a regional basis, we compare the overall water-consumption and land requirements for biofuels production given a suite of liquid-fuel production technologies. By considering a range of scenarios, we examine how the use of various feedstocks (e.g., agricultural residues, wood wastes, mill residues and municipal wastes) can be used to off-set environmental impacts as compared to relying solely on energy crops.

  1. Biomass and Energy of Casuarina equisetiofolia Plantations in Southeast Coast of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YEGongfu; ZHANGQinghai; LINYiming

    2005-01-01

    The biomass and energy production of Casuarina equisetifolia plantations aged 14 were studied in Huian County, Fujian Province, Southeast of China. The standing crop biomass was 152.60 t/ha, in which the biomass of bole was 67.02 t/ha, accounting for 43.94 % of the total, while that of root was 36.83 t/ha and 24.14 %, respectively. Net primary productivity was 10.17t/(ha.a).The range of gross caloric of components was 19.29~20.23 kJ/g, with the average 19.70 kJ/g. The standing crop energy was 2 987×106 kJ/ha. Net energy production was 196.8×106 kJ/ha, while solar energy conversion efficiency was 0.90%.

  2. Opportunities for utilization of non-conventional energy sources for biomass pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rawel; Krishna, Bhavya B; Kumar, Jitendra; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2016-01-01

    The increasing concerns over the depletion of fossil resources and its associated geo-political issues have driven the entire world to move toward sustainable forms of energy. Pretreatment is the first step in any biochemical conversion process for the production of valuable fuels/chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass to eliminate the lignin and produce fermentable sugars by hydrolysis. Conventional techniques have several limitations which can be addressed by using them in tandem with non-conventional methods for biomass pretreatment. Electron beam and γ (gamma)-irradiation, microwave and ultrasound energies have certain advantages over conventional source of energy and there is an opportunity that these energies can be exploited for biomass pretreatment.

  3. Priority of domestic biomass resources for energy: Importance of national environmental targets in a climate perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Vadenbo, Carl; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2017-01-01

    that utilizing the energy potential of manure and straw represents the primary opportunity for further global warming mitigation. For this purpose, co-digestion (for manure) and combustion with heat-and-power production (for straw) appear as the most promising technologies. The utilization of biomass (or biogas......) for electricity/heat is generally preferred, as long as coal/oil is still used within the energy system. Yet, to fulfill environmental targets for renewable energy in the transport sector, the diversion of a significant share of biogas (and/or other biofuels) from these more beneficial uses is necessary....... To completely phase out coal/oil, additional biomass (to current domestic resources) must be included, either through domestic energy crops cultivation or biomass/biofuel import; alternatively, natural gas could be used....

  4. Research advances in the study of Pistacia chinensis Bunge, a superior tree species for biomass energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hong-lin; Zhang Zhi-xiang; Lin Shan-zhi; Li Xiao-xu

    2007-01-01

    As a renewable energy, biomass energy has aroused wide attention and studies of this issue have become a hot topic throughout the world. Pistacia chinensis Bunge (Anacardiaceae) is a superior species for biomass energy with high oil content in seeds and wide geographic distribution. It is a dioeciously, deciduous arbor, flowering from March to April and bearing fruits from September to November. The classification, regional distribution and biological characteristics of P. chinensis are stated in this paper,then, research advances in the growth, breeding and physiology of this species are summarized. The problems in present studies are broached. Finally, a future direction for research is proposed.

  5. BIOMASS AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF ENERGY IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The fossil fuel is a main source of energy for generation of electricity in India. Overall, about 80% of greenhouse gas (GHS) emissions are related to the production and use of energy, and particularly, burning of fossils fuels. The environmental problems are associated with the generation of conventional sources of energy.The Kyoto protocol has established flexible mechanisms for developing countries to meet there GHG reduction commitment. Therefore, renewable source of energy is an alternat...