WorldWideScience

Sample records for biomarker developmental laboratories

  1. [Key laboratory diagnostic biomarkers of coronary atherosclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragino, Iu I; Cherniavskiĭ, A M; Eremenko, N V; Shakhtshneĭder, E V; Polonskaia, Ia V; Tsymbal, S Iu; Ivanova, M V; Voevoda, M I

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory lipid and lipoprotein biomarkers (total cholesterol - CH, triglycerides - TG, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol- LDL-CH, HDL-CH, apolipoproteins B and A1 - apoB, apoA1), carbohydrate biomarkers (plasma glucose, basal insulin), high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and oxidative biomarkers (basal level of lipid peroxidation [LPO] products in LDL, LDL resistance to oxidation in vitro, oxidative modification of apoLDL and level of LDL lipophilic antioxidants) were studied in 388 men aged 42-70 years: 96 citizens of Western Siberia with angiographically documented coronary atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD); 292 men of population sample of citizens of Novosibirsk, including 44 men with CHD confirmed by standardized criteria and methods. Significant associations were found of coronary atherosclerosis and CHD with laboratory diagnostic biomarkers like blood levels of HDL-CH, TG, apoB, apoA1, basal insulin, hsCRP and basal level of LPO products in LDL and LDL resistance to oxidation. PMID:21627612

  2. Modeling Radial Holoblastic Cleavage: A Laboratory Activity for Developmental Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Linda K.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a laboratory activity designed for an undergraduate developmental biology course. Uses Play-Doh (plastic modeling clay) to build a multicellular embryo in order to provide a 3-D demonstration of cleavage. Includes notes for the instructor and student directions. (YDS)

  3. The effect of lead on the developmental stability of Drosophila subobscura through selection in laboratory conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Kurbalija Zorana; Kenig B.; Plavša Jovana; Stamenković-Radak Marina; Anđelković M.

    2010-01-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), the increased variation of bilateral symmetry in a sample of individuals, can indicate disturbance in developmental stability caused by environmental and/or genomic stress. This developmental instability was analyzed in Drosophila subobscura maintained for seven generations on two different concentrations of lead in laboratory conditions. The FA4 index showed that the genotypes reared on the higher lead concentration were in developmental homeostasis, except for ma...

  4. Identification of Novel Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Biomarkers by Cross-laboratory Microarray Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋学锋; 朱涛; 杨洁; 李双; 叶双梅; 廖书杰; 孟力; 卢运萍; 马丁

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to pool information in epithelial ovarian cancer by combining studies using Affymetrix expression microarray datasets made at different laboratories to identify novel biomarkers.Epithelial microarray expression information across laboratories was screened and combined after preprocessing raw microarray data,then ANOVA and unpaired T test statistical analysis was performed for identifying differentially expressed genes(DEGs),followed by clustering and pathway analysis for these ...

  5. The effect of lead on the developmental stability of Drosophila subobscura through selection in laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurbalija Zorana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry (FA, the increased variation of bilateral symmetry in a sample of individuals, can indicate disturbance in developmental stability caused by environmental and/or genomic stress. This developmental instability was analyzed in Drosophila subobscura maintained for seven generations on two different concentrations of lead in laboratory conditions. The FA4 index showed that the genotypes reared on the higher lead concentration were in developmental homeostasis, except for males in the F7 generation, for both wing size parameters. The results show that different degrees of lead pollution cause different responses to selection of the exposed population in laboratory conditions.

  6. Developmental effects of mercury on Etheostoma caeruleum and E. spectabile: Predictable biomarkers of stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, J.R. [Southeast Missouri State Univ., Cape Girardeau, MO (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1995-12-31

    Etheostoma caeruleum and E. spectabile are sympatric teleostean species of the Family Percidae. The ova diameters and incubation times are different: E. caeruleum (1.9mm and 12-d), E. spectabile (1.2mm and 8-d). For both species, cleavage stage (4--8 cell), mid-blastula, mid-neurula, and early-eye stage embryos were exposed to + {minus}1 a 24-h static-renewal test of 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 {micro}gHg {sup ++}L{sup {minus}1} to assess the effects of stage-specific initial mercury exposure on the embryo-larval responses. In addition, cleavage stage embryos were exposed to a 1-d, 2-d, and 4-d static-renewal toxicity test to determine the influence that exposure duration to mercury has on embryolarval responses. Five replicates of 10 embryos each were incubated at 18 C for each concentration and exposure variation. Embryos were allowed to develop until all had hatched or died. Four embryonic responses were assessed for each species and exposure protocol: 96-h LC50, AB50, SH50 and VH50. The typical nonstressor specific terata were noted for each species with an increase in percent of embryos expressing abnormal developmental patterns with increase mercury concentrations and severity of exposure. These included dwarfism, cephalic complications, ophthalmic abnormalities, cardiovascular abnormalities, various edema, and haemorrhagia. Hatching success and viability of hatch were likewise reduced with increasing severity of exposure and mercury concentration. Previously undetected terata that were observed in the first hatch included scoliosis, lordosis, kyphosis, synarthrodic jaws, and grossly enlarged yolk sacs.

  7. Developmental biology of Argas neghmei Kohls & Hoogstraal (Acari: Argasidae) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Acuña, Daniel; Vargas, Pamela; Ardiles, Karen; Parra, Luis; Guglielmone, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    In order to describe the developmental biology of the tick Argas neghmei Kohls & Hoogstraal under laboratory conditions, 40 females and 40 males were collected from chicken coops located in Calama (II Region, Chile). They were fed on chickens and maintained under two laboratory conditions: one group at 30 +/- 5 degrees C and 35 +/- 5 % RH and another at 27 +/- 5 degrees C and 80 +/- 5 % RH, both at 12: 12 h L:D photoperiod. The ticks were observed daily to determine larval feeding periods, preoviposition, oviposition, egg incubation as well as the frequency of egg laying, number of eggs laid, and percentage of larval hatching. Females did not lay eggs at 80 +/- 5% RH, and data on the biology of this tick was obtained only at 35 +/- 5% RH. The life cycle of A. neghmei lasted an average of 269 days. Feeding period of each nymphal stage as well as of adult females between oviposition events lasted less than a day. Females laid on average 1.8 egg batches and egg-laying period lasted on average 14 days, during which about 96 eggs were laid per female.

  8. The high current, fast, 100ns, Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) developmental project at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Kevin S.; Long, Finis W.; Sinebryukhov, Vadim A. (High Current Electronic Institute (HCEI), Tomsk, Russia); Kim, Alexandre A. (High Current Electronic Institute (HCEI), Tomsk, RUSSIA); Wakeland, Peter Eric (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); McKee, G. Randall; Woodworth, Joseph Ray; McDaniel, Dillon Heirman; Fowler, William E.; Mazarakis, Michael Gerrassimos; Porter, John Larry, Jr.; Struve, Kenneth William; Stygar, William A.; LeChien, Keith R.; Matzen, Maurice Keith

    2010-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., USA, in collaboration with the High Current Electronic Institute (HCEI), Tomsk, Russia, is developing a new paradigm in pulsed power technology: the Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) technology. This technological approach can provide very compact devices that can deliver very fast high current and high voltage pulses straight out of the cavity with out any complicated pulse forming and pulse compression network. Through multistage inductively insulated voltage adders, the output pulse, increased in voltage amplitude, can be applied directly to the load. The load may be a vacuum electron diode, a z-pinch wire array, a gas puff, a liner, an isentropic compression load (ICE) to study material behavior under very high magnetic fields, or a fusion energy (IFE) target. This is because the output pulse rise time and width can be easily tailored to the specific application needs. In this paper we briefly summarize the developmental work done in Sandia and HCEI during the last few years, and describe our new MYKONOS Sandia High Current LTD Laboratory.

  9. The high current, fast, 100ns, Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) developmental project at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., USA, in collaboration with the High Current Electronic Institute (HCEI), Tomsk, Russia, is developing a new paradigm in pulsed power technology: the Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) technology. This technological approach can provide very compact devices that can deliver very fast high current and high voltage pulses straight out of the cavity with out any complicated pulse forming and pulse compression network. Through multistage inductively insulated voltage adders, the output pulse, increased in voltage amplitude, can be applied directly to the load. The load may be a vacuum electron diode, a z-pinch wire array, a gas puff, a liner, an isentropic compression load (ICE) to study material behavior under very high magnetic fields, or a fusion energy (IFE) target. This is because the output pulse rise time and width can be easily tailored to the specific application needs. In this paper we briefly summarize the developmental work done in Sandia and HCEI during the last few years, and describe our new MYKONOS Sandia High Current LTD Laboratory.

  10. Multiple Biomarker Responses in Corbicula fluminea Exposed to Copper in Laboratory Toxicity Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnail, Estefanía; Buruaem, Lucas M; Araujo, Giuliana S; Abessa, Denis M S; DelValls, T Ángel

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the alteration of the enzymatic system of the freshwater Asian clam exposed to different copper concentrations. Individuals of Corbicula fluminea were exposed to different concentrations of dissolved Cu (0.5, 1, and 2 mg L(-1)) for 7 days, then, biomarkers of oxidative stress (GST, GPx, GR), exposure (MTs), effect (AChE), and damage (LPO, DNA strand breaks) were quantified. Results showed positive correlations between dissolved metal concentrations and GPx, MTs, and DNA damage, and negative correlation with GST and AChE. In contrast, no clear trend was found for GR and LPO. In general, the established mechanisms of protection might have a beneficial effect on the decreasing ROS attack on membrane and the activation of the metallothioneins. Integrated biomarker analysis revealed that the measured alterations are well correlated with the levels of increasing dissolved copper concentrations in water, demonstrating the effectiveness of this organism for biomonitoring approach purposes. PMID:27090524

  11. Developmental origins of metabolic disorders: The need for biomarker candidates and therapeutic targets from adequate preclinical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gonzalez-Bulnes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The investigation on obesity and associated disorders have changed from an scenario in which genome drove the phenotype to a dynamic setup in which prenatal and early-postnatal conditions are determinant. However, research in human beings is difficult due to confounding factors (lifestyle and socioeconomic heterogeneity plus ethical issues. Hence, there is currently an intensive effort for developing adequate preclinical models, aiming for an adequate combination of basic studies in rodent models and specific preclinical studies in large animals. The results of these research strategies may increase the identification and development of contrasted biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  12. Search for Chemical Biomarkers on Mars Using the Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Suite on the Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, D. P.; Conrad, P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Eigenbrode, J.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2011-01-01

    One key goal for the future exploration of Mars is the search for chemical biomarkers including complex organic compounds important in life on Earth. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will provide the most sensitive measurements of the organic composition of rocks and regolith samples ever carried out in situ on Mars. SAM consists of a gas chromatograph (GC), quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS), and tunable laser spectrometer to measure volatiles in the atmosphere and released from rock powders heated up to 1000 C. The measurement of organics in solid samples will be accomplished by three experiments: (1) pyrolysis QMS to identify alkane fragments and simple aromatic compounds; pyrolysis GCMS to separate and identify complex mixtures of larger hydrocarbons; and (3) chemical derivatization and GCMS extract less volatile compounds including amino and carboxylic acids that are not detectable by the other two experiments.

  13. Laboratory evaluation of the efficacy of fluorescent biomarkers for sugar-feeding sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascari, T M; Foil, L D

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of four fluorescent dyes (rhodamine B, uranine O, auramine O, and erythrosin B) and two nonfluorescent dyes (carmoisine and indigotine) incorporated into sugar baits as biomarkers for phlebotomine sand flies. Each dye could be detected in sand flies fed baits with dye for 24 h when examined using bright field microscopy, although there was considerable variability in the marking produced; all sand flies that had ingested rhodamine B-treated sucrose solution were marked clearly. Sand flies that had ingested sucrose solution containing rhodamine B or uranine O at concentrations as low as 10 mg/L were consistently detected under fluorescence microscopy. None of the treatments in this study reduced the longevity of sand flies. All sand flies fed sucrose solution containing rhodamine B or uranine O were marked for at least 14 d, whereas only 20% of sand flies were marked 3 d after feeding on a carmoisine-treated solution. When rhodamine B and uranine O were combined in a single sucrose solution or when the dyes were fed sequentially to sand flies, both dyes could be detected in sand flies using fluorescence microscopy. We propose that rhodamine B- or uranine O-treated sucrose baits could be used in ecological studies or to identify portions of the adult sand fly population that could be targeted with insecticide-treated sugar baits.

  14. Vitellogenin as a biomarker for estrogenic effects in brown trout, Salmo trutta: laboratory and field investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Poul; Hansen, Pernille R; Larsen, Katrine J; Erratico, Claudio; Korsgaard, Bodil; Holbech, Henrik

    2008-11-01

    The sensitivity of juvenile brown trout towards estrogenic chemicals (17beta-estradiol [E2], estrone [E1], 17alpha-ethinylestradiol [EE2], 4-tert-octylphenol [OP], and n-butylparaben [BP]) was tested in laboratory experiments with plasma and liver vitellogenin concentrations as endpoints. Vitellogenin concentrations were also assessed in juvenile brown trout collected in streams affected by agricultural runoff and discharges from scattered houses in the open land. In the laboratory, juvenile brown trout were exposed to the chemicals in flow-through tanks for 7 to 12 d and concentration-response relationships for the induction of vitellogenin synthesis were obtained. The actual exposure concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The median plasma vitellogenin concentration in first year control brown trout reared in recirculated groundwater was 165 ng/ml with 783 ng/ml as the highest value. The median effective concentration (EC50) values for vitellogenin induction (based on plasma concentrations) were 3.7 ng EE2/L, 15 ng E2/L, 88 ng E1/L, 68 microg BP/L, and 7 microg OP/L. Median effective concentrations derived from liver vitellogenin concentrations were similar. The 166 brown trout caught in the field were mainly first and second year fish and a few third year fish. Plasma vitellogenin concentrations were below 1000 ng/L in 146 of the fish, between 1000 ng/L and 4234 ng/L in 19 fish and 5.3 x 10(6) ng/L in one male fish. Vitellogenin concentrations did not differ between first and second year fish, but were elevated in third year fish. The data may indicate that juvenile (<2 years) trout with plasma vitellogenin concentrations above 1000 ng/ml have had their vitellogenin synthesis induced by exposure to estrogens in the environment. Plasma and liver vitellogenin concentrations were closely correlated in brown trout with elevated vitellogenin concentrations. It is noteworthy, however, that exposure to synthetic estrogens (EE2, BP

  15. Evaluation of different biomarkers to predict individual radiosensitivity in an inter-laboratory comparison--lessons for future studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Greve

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy is a powerful cure for several types of solid tumours, but its application is often limited because of severe side effects in individual patients. With the aim to find biomarkers capable of predicting normal tissue side reactions we analysed the radiation responses of cells from individual head and neck tumour and breast cancer patients of different clinical radiosensitivity in a multicentric study. Multiple parameters of cellular radiosensitivity were analysed in coded samples of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs and derived lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs from 15 clinical radio-hypersensitive tumour patients and compared to age- and sex-matched non-radiosensitive patient controls and 15 lymphoblastoid cell lines from age- and sex- matched healthy controls of the KORA study. Experimental parameters included ionizing radiation (IR-induced cell death (AnnexinV, induction and repair of DNA strand breaks (Comet assay, induction of yH2AX foci (as a result of DNA double strand breaks, and whole genome expression analyses. Considerable inter-individual differences in IR-induced DNA strand breaks and their repair and/or cell death could be detected in primary and immortalised cells with the applied assays. The group of clinically radiosensitive patients was not unequivocally distinguishable from normal responding patients nor were individual overreacting patients in the test system unambiguously identified by two different laboratories. Thus, the in vitro test systems investigated here seem not to be appropriate for a general prediction of clinical reactions during or after radiotherapy due to the experimental variability compared to the small effect of radiation sensitivity. Genome-wide expression analysis however revealed a set of 67 marker genes which were differentially induced 6 h after in vitro-irradiation in lymphocytes from radio-hypersensitive and non-radiosensitive patients. These results warrant future validation in larger

  16. New sepsis biomarkers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dolores Limongi; Cartesio DAgostini; Marco Ciotti

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis remains a leading cause of death in the intensive care units and in all age groups worldwide. Early recognition and diagnosis are key to achieving improved outcomes. Therefore, novel biomarkers that might better inform clinicians treating such patients are surely needed. The main attributes of successful biomarkers would be high sensitivity, specificity, possibility of bedside monitoring and financial accessibility. A panel of sepsis biomarkers along with currently used laboratory tests will facilitate earlier diagnosis, timely treatment and improved outcome may be more effective than single biomarkers. In this review, we summarize the most recent advances on sepsis biomarkers evaluated in clinical and experimental studies.

  17. The high current, fast, 100ns, Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) developmental project at Sandia Laboratories and HCEI.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Kevin S. (Ketech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Long, Finis W.; Sinebryukhov, Vadim A. (High Current Electronic Institute (HCEI), Tomsk, Russia); Kim, Alexandre A. (High Current Electronic Institute (HCEI), Tomsk, Russia); Wakeland, Peter Eric (Ketech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); McKee, G. Randall; Woodworth, Joseph Ray; McDaniel, Dillon Heirman; Fowler, William E.; Mazarakis, Michael Gerrassimos; Porter, John Larry, Jr.; Struve, Kenneth William; Savage, Mark Edward; Stygar, William A.; LeChien, Keith R.; Matzen, Maurice Keith

    2010-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., USA, in collaboration with the High Current Electronic Institute (HCEI), Tomsk, Russia, is developing a new paradigm in pulsed power technology: the Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) technology. This technological approach can provide very compact devices that can deliver very fast high current and high voltage pulses straight out of the cavity with out any complicated pulse forming and pulse compression network. Through multistage inductively insulated voltage adders, the output pulse, increased in voltage amplitude, can be applied directly to the load. The load may be a vacuum electron diode, a z-pinch wire array, a gas puff, a liner, an isentropic compression load (ICE) to study material behavior under very high magnetic fields, or a fusion energy (IFE) target. This is because the output pulse rise time and width can be easily tailored to the specific application needs. In this paper we briefly summarize the developmental work done in Sandia and HCEI during the last few years, and describe our new MYKONOS Sandia High Current LTD Laboratory. An extensive evaluation of the LTD technology is being performed at SNL and the High Current Electronic Institute (HCEI) in Tomsk Russia. Two types of High Current LTD cavities (LTD I-II, and 1-MA LTD) were constructed and tested individually and in a voltage adder configuration (1-MA cavity only). All cavities performed remarkably well and the experimental results are in full agreement with analytical and numerical calculation predictions. A two-cavity voltage adder is been assembled and currently undergoes evaluation. This is the first step towards the completion of the 10-cavity, 1-TW module. This MYKONOS voltage adder will be the first ever IVA built with a transmission line insulated with deionized water. The LTD II cavity renamed LTD III will serve as a test bed for evaluating a number of different types of switches, resistors, alternative capacitor configurations, cores

  18. The high current, fast, 100ns, Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) developmental project at Sandia Laboratories and HCEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., USA, in collaboration with the High Current Electronic Institute (HCEI), Tomsk, Russia, is developing a new paradigm in pulsed power technology: the Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) technology. This technological approach can provide very compact devices that can deliver very fast high current and high voltage pulses straight out of the cavity with out any complicated pulse forming and pulse compression network. Through multistage inductively insulated voltage adders, the output pulse, increased in voltage amplitude, can be applied directly to the load. The load may be a vacuum electron diode, a z-pinch wire array, a gas puff, a liner, an isentropic compression load (ICE) to study material behavior under very high magnetic fields, or a fusion energy (IFE) target. This is because the output pulse rise time and width can be easily tailored to the specific application needs. In this paper we briefly summarize the developmental work done in Sandia and HCEI during the last few years, and describe our new MYKONOS Sandia High Current LTD Laboratory. An extensive evaluation of the LTD technology is being performed at SNL and the High Current Electronic Institute (HCEI) in Tomsk Russia. Two types of High Current LTD cavities (LTD I-II, and 1-MA LTD) were constructed and tested individually and in a voltage adder configuration (1-MA cavity only). All cavities performed remarkably well and the experimental results are in full agreement with analytical and numerical calculation predictions. A two-cavity voltage adder is been assembled and currently undergoes evaluation. This is the first step towards the completion of the 10-cavity, 1-TW module. This MYKONOS voltage adder will be the first ever IVA built with a transmission line insulated with deionized water. The LTD II cavity renamed LTD III will serve as a test bed for evaluating a number of different types of switches, resistors, alternative capacitor configurations, cores

  19. Role of laboratory biomarkers in monitoring and prediction of the effectiveness of treatment of rheumatic diseases using genetically engineered drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Nikolayevna Aleksandrova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress in treating immunoinflammatory rheumatic diseases (RD is related to the design of a novel family of drugs, genetically engineered (GE drugs. Molecular and cellular biomarkers (antibodies, indicators of acute inflammation, cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, endothelial activation markers, immunoglobulins, cryoglobulins, T- and B-cell subpopulations, products of bone and cartilage metabolism, genetic and metabolic markers that allow one to conduct immunological monitoring and prediction of the effectiveness of RD therapy using tumor necrosis factor α inhibitors (infliximab, adalimumab, golimumab, etanercept, anti-B-cell drugs (rituximab, belimumab, interleukin-6 receptor antagonist (tocilizumab, and T-cell costimulation blocker (abatacept have been detected in blood, synovial fluid, urine, and bioptates of the affected tissues. In addition to the conventional uniplex immunodiagnostics techniques, multiplex analysis of marker, which is based on genetic, transcriptomic and proteomic technologies using DNA and protein microarrays, polymerase chain reaction, and flow cytometry, is becoming increasingly widespread. The search for and validation of immunological predictors of the effective response to GE drug therapy make it possible to optimize and reduce the cost of therapy using these drugs in future.

  20. Role of laboratory biomarkers in monitoring and prediction of the effectiveness of treatment of rheumatic diseases using genetically engineered drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Nikolayevna Aleksandrova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress in treating immunoinflammatory rheumatic diseases (RD is related to the design of a novel family of drugs, genetically engineered (GE drugs. Molecular and cellular biomarkers (antibodies, indicators of acute inflammation, cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, endothelial activation markers, immunoglobulins, cryoglobulins, T- and B-cell subpopulations, products of bone and cartilage metabolism, genetic and metabolic markers that allow one to conduct immunological monitoring and prediction of the effectiveness of RD therapy using tumor necrosis factor α inhibitors (infliximab, adalimumab, golimumab, etanercept, anti-B-cell drugs (rituximab, belimumab, interleukin-6 receptor antagonist (tocilizumab, and T-cell costimulation blocker (abatacept have been detected in blood, synovial fluid, urine, and bioptates of the affected tissues. In addition to the conventional uniplex immunodiagnostics techniques, multiplex analysis of marker, which is based on genetic, transcriptomic and proteomic technologies using DNA and protein microarrays, polymerase chain reaction, and flow cytometry, is becoming increasingly widespread. The search for and validation of immunological predictors of the effective response to GE drug therapy make it possible to optimize and reduce the cost of therapy using these drugs in future.

  1. Developmental Dyspraxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Developmental Dyspraxia Information Page Synonym(s): Dyspraxia Table of Contents (click ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Developmental Dyspraxia? Developmental dyspraxia is a disorder characterized by an ...

  2. Effect of host plants on developmental time and life table parameters of Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xihong; Li, Dingxu; Li, Zheng; Zalom, Frank G; Gao, Lingwang; Shen, Zuorui

    2012-04-01

    Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants (apricot, Prunus armeniaca L.; plum, Prunus salicina L.; peach, Prunus persica L.; jujube, Zizyphus jujuba Will.; apple, Malus domestica Mill.; and pear, Pyrus sorotina Will) on the development and life table parameters of the peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) under laboratory conditions. Peach fruit moth developed faster (12.48 d) and had the highest preimaginal survival rate (50.54%) on plum compared with the other host plants. Adult longevity was significantly longer on jujube for both female and male moths. Adult females from larvae reared on jujube and peach laid significantly greater numbers of eggs (214.50 and 197.94 eggs per female, respectively) compared with those reared on the other four host plants. Life-table parameters were calculated for each host plant and compared by jackknife procedures. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) was significantly greatest on plum (0.1294 eggs per female per d), followed by jujube and apricot (0.1201 and 0.1128 eggs per female per d), respectively. Implications of the various measures of population performance are discussed.

  3. Biomarkers in Barrett's esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Brian J; Blount, Patricia L; Rabinovitch, Peter S

    2003-04-01

    This article provides a framework for clinicians who are attempting the difficult task of interpreting the Barrett's biomarker literature with the goal of improving care for their patients. Although many articles. including more that 60 proposed biomarkers, have been published on this subject, only a few describe phase 3 and 4 studies that are of interest to the clinical gastroenterologist (Table 1). For year, dysplasia grade has been the sole means of risk stratification for patients with BE, and it likely will continue to be used in the foreseeable future. The current authors believe that dysplasia classification can be valuable using the team management approach and quality controls described previously. Significant problems, however, have emerged in phase 2 through 4 studies of dysplasia that make it imperative for the Barrett's field to incorporate additional biomarkers as they are validated. These problems include poor reproducibility of dysplasia interpretations, poor predictive value for negative, indefinite, and low-grade dysplasia, and inconsistent results for HGD in different centers, all of which makes it virtually impossible to develop national guidelines for surveillance. Some studies have even suggested that endoscopic biopsy surveillance using dysplasia may not be worthwhile. Currently, flow cytometric tetraploidy and aneuploidy have progressed furthest in biomarker validation (see Table 1). With proper handling, endoscopic biopsy specimens can be shipped to reference laboratories that have the instruments, computer analytic methods, and expertise to reproducibly detect tetraploidy and aneuploidy. The results of phase 4 studies indicate that flow cytometry appears to be useful in detecting a subset of patients who do not have HGD and yet have an increased risk of progression to cancer that cannot be identified by dysplasia grade. For many reasons, the authors anticipate that the number of validated biomarkers will increase substantially in the

  4. Reproductive biomarkers responses induced by xenoestrogens in the characid fish Astyanax fasciatus inhabiting a South American reservoir: An integrated field and laboratory approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Paula S.; Pinheiro, Ana Paula B. [Departamento de Morfologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG, Belo Horizonte, C.P. 486, 30161-970, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Bazzoli, Nilo [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zoologia de Vertebrados, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, PUC Minas, Belo Horizonte 30535-610, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Rizzo, Elizete, E-mail: ictio@icb.ufmg.br [Departamento de Morfologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG, Belo Horizonte, C.P. 486, 30161-970, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2014-05-01

    Field studies evaluating the effects of endocrine disruption chemicals (EDCs) on the fish reproduction are scarce worldwide. The goal of this study was to assess hepatic levels of vitellogenin (Vtg), zona radiata proteins (Zrp) and insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II), and relating them to reproductive endpoints in a wild fish population habiting a reservoir that receive domestic sewage, agricultural and industrial residues. Adult fish Astyanax fasciatus were sampled during the reproductive season in five sites from the Furnas Reservoir, Grande River, and Paraguay–Paraná basin. As a control to field data, fish were experimentally exposed via dietary intake, to oestradiol benzoate (OB) for 7 days. Fish from site with little anthropogenic interference showed hepatic levels of Vtg, Zrp and IGF-I and IGF-II similar to those from the non-treated experimental group. In sites located immediately downstream from the municipal wastewater discharges, the water total oestrogen was >120 ng/l, and male fish displayed increased Vtg and Zrp and decreased IGF-I levels similar to OB treated fish. In females, levels of Vtg, Zrp, IGF-I and IGF-II suggest an impairment of final oocyte maturation and spawning, as also detected by frequency of over-ripening, follicular atresia and fecundity. At the sites that receive agricultural and industrial residues, the water total oestrogen was <50 ng/l and females showed decreased Zrp and increased IGF-II levels associated to reduced diameter of vitellogenic follicles, indicating an inhibition of oocyte growth. Overall, the current study reports oestrogenic contamination impairing the reproduction of a wild fish from a hydroeletric reservoir and, the data contribute to improving the current knowledge on relationship between hepatic Vtg, Zrp and IGF-I and IGF-II, and reproductive endpoints in a teleost fish. In addition, our data point out novel reproductive biomarkers (IGF-I, IGF-II and over-ripening) to assessing xenoestrogenic

  5. Reproductive biomarkers responses induced by xenoestrogens in the characid fish Astyanax fasciatus inhabiting a South American reservoir: An integrated field and laboratory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field studies evaluating the effects of endocrine disruption chemicals (EDCs) on the fish reproduction are scarce worldwide. The goal of this study was to assess hepatic levels of vitellogenin (Vtg), zona radiata proteins (Zrp) and insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II), and relating them to reproductive endpoints in a wild fish population habiting a reservoir that receive domestic sewage, agricultural and industrial residues. Adult fish Astyanax fasciatus were sampled during the reproductive season in five sites from the Furnas Reservoir, Grande River, and Paraguay–Paraná basin. As a control to field data, fish were experimentally exposed via dietary intake, to oestradiol benzoate (OB) for 7 days. Fish from site with little anthropogenic interference showed hepatic levels of Vtg, Zrp and IGF-I and IGF-II similar to those from the non-treated experimental group. In sites located immediately downstream from the municipal wastewater discharges, the water total oestrogen was >120 ng/l, and male fish displayed increased Vtg and Zrp and decreased IGF-I levels similar to OB treated fish. In females, levels of Vtg, Zrp, IGF-I and IGF-II suggest an impairment of final oocyte maturation and spawning, as also detected by frequency of over-ripening, follicular atresia and fecundity. At the sites that receive agricultural and industrial residues, the water total oestrogen was <50 ng/l and females showed decreased Zrp and increased IGF-II levels associated to reduced diameter of vitellogenic follicles, indicating an inhibition of oocyte growth. Overall, the current study reports oestrogenic contamination impairing the reproduction of a wild fish from a hydroeletric reservoir and, the data contribute to improving the current knowledge on relationship between hepatic Vtg, Zrp and IGF-I and IGF-II, and reproductive endpoints in a teleost fish. In addition, our data point out novel reproductive biomarkers (IGF-I, IGF-II and over-ripening) to assessing xenoestrogenic

  6. Biomarkers of oxidative stress in antioxidant therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Mañon Rossi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers are used regularly in medical practice to provide objective markers of health status of a person, as well as the physiological response of the body to a pharmacological therapeutic intervention. In the specific case of the use of antioxidant products (antioxidant therapy, it is necessary to measure both biomarkers of oxidative stress level of the person as those that are specific to a physiological or pathological progression of a disease disorder. This paper describes the main biomarkers of oxidative general and specific stress as well as laboratory techniques, which should be taken into account when measuring the effectiveness of antioxidant therapies.

  7. Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge; Kristensen, Tage Søndergaard;

    2003-01-01

    Human Deveoplment and Working Life - Work for Welfare explores whether the development of human resources at company level can improve individuals' quality of life, companies' possibilities of development, and welfare and democracy in society. Chapter two discuss the concept "developmental work...

  8. Biomarkers in Computational Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomarkers are a means to evaluate chemical exposure and/or the subsequent impacts on toxicity pathways that lead to adverse health outcomes. Computational toxicology can integrate biomarker data with knowledge of exposure, chemistry, biology, pharmacokinetics, toxicology, and e...

  9. Combination of biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thurfjell, Lennart; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Lundqvist, Roger;

    2012-01-01

    The New National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease (AD) incorporate biomarkers in the diagnostic criteria and suggest division of biomarkers into two categories: Aβ accumulation and neuronal degeneration or injury.......The New National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease (AD) incorporate biomarkers in the diagnostic criteria and suggest division of biomarkers into two categories: Aβ accumulation and neuronal degeneration or injury....

  10. Cardiorenal biomarkers in acute heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajiv Choudhary; Dipika Gopal; Ben A. Kipper; Alejandro De La Parra Landa; Hermineh Aramin

    2012-01-01

    Managing patients with heart failure (HF) is a challenging task within itself, but the presence of associated worsening renal function can greatly increase mortality and morbidity. Early diagnosis and treatment is the key to prevent re-hospitalizations and reduce healthcare costs. Biomarkers have long been established as highly sensitive and specific tools in diagnosing and prognosticating patients with HF. Reflecting distinct pathophysiological events and ongoing cellular insult, biomarkers have been proven superior to conventional laboratory tests. Availability of better assays and rapid analysis has allowed the use of biomarkers as point-of-care tests in the emergency department and at the patient's bed-side. Acute HF patients often go on to develop worsening renal function, termed as acute cardiorenal syndrome. The growing breadth of studies has shown the implications of combining multiple biomarkers to better chart outcomes and produce desirable results in such patients.

  11. Developmental Scaffolding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgi, Franco; Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The concept of scaffolding has wide resonance in several scientific fields. Here we attempt to adopt it for the study of development. In this perspective, the embryo is conceived as an integral whole, comprised of several hierarchical modules as in a recurrent circularity of emerging patterns...... molecular signalling to the complexity of sign recognition proper of a cellular community. In this semiotic perspective, the apparent goal directness of any developmental strategy should no longer be accounted for by a predetermined genetic program, but by the gradual definition of the relationships...

  12. Renal Cancer Biomarkers | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute's Laboratory of Proteomics and Analytical Technologies is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic cancer biomarkers from clinical specimens.

  13. Developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin L; Pennington, Bruce F

    2015-01-01

    This review uses a levels-of-analysis framework to summarize the current understanding of developmental dyslexia's etiology, brain bases, neuropsychology, and social context. Dyslexia is caused by multiple genetic and environmental risk factors as well as their interplay. Several candidate genes have been identified in the past decade. At the brain level, dyslexia is associated with aberrant structure and function, particularly in left hemisphere reading/language networks. The neurocognitive influences on dyslexia are also multifactorial and involve phonological processing deficits as well as weaknesses in other oral language skills and processing speed. We address contextual issues such as how dyslexia manifests across languages and social classes as well as what treatments are best supported. Throughout the review, we highlight exciting new research that cuts across levels of analysis. Such work promises eventually to provide a comprehensive explanation of the disorder as well as its prevention and remediation.

  14. Developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin L; Pennington, Bruce F

    2015-01-01

    This review uses a levels-of-analysis framework to summarize the current understanding of developmental dyslexia's etiology, brain bases, neuropsychology, and social context. Dyslexia is caused by multiple genetic and environmental risk factors as well as their interplay. Several candidate genes have been identified in the past decade. At the brain level, dyslexia is associated with aberrant structure and function, particularly in left hemisphere reading/language networks. The neurocognitive influences on dyslexia are also multifactorial and involve phonological processing deficits as well as weaknesses in other oral language skills and processing speed. We address contextual issues such as how dyslexia manifests across languages and social classes as well as what treatments are best supported. Throughout the review, we highlight exciting new research that cuts across levels of analysis. Such work promises eventually to provide a comprehensive explanation of the disorder as well as its prevention and remediation. PMID:25594880

  15. Respiratory Toxicity Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The advancement in high throughput genomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques have accelerated pace of lung biomarker discovery. A recent growth in the discovery of new lung toxicity/disease biomarkers have led to significant advances in our understanding of pathological proce...

  16. Biomarkers in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eHendren

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are complex, heterogeneous disorders caused by an interaction between genetic vulnerability and environmental factors. In an effort to better target the underlying roots of ASD for diagnosis and treatment, efforts to identify reliable biomarkers in genetics, neuroimaging, gene expression and measures of the body’s metabolism are growing. For this article, we review the published studies of potential biomarkers in autism and conclude that while there is increasing promise of finding biomarkers that can help us target treatment, there are none with enough evidence to support routine clinical use unless medical illness is suspected. Promising biomarkers include those for mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and immune function. Genetic clusters are also suggesting the potential for useful biomarkers.

  17. Developmental dyspraxia and developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, M; Möbs, I

    1995-12-01

    This article discusses the role developmental dyspraxia plays in developmental coordination disorder (DCD), based upon a review of literature on apraxia, developmental dyspraxia, and DCD. Apraxia and dyspraxia have often been equated with DCD. However, it is argued that apraxia and dyspraxia primarily refer to the problems of motor sequencing and selection, which not all children with DCD exhibit. The author proposes to distinguish developmental dyspraxia from DCD. Other issues discussed include the assessment, etiology, and treatment of developmental dyspraxia and DCD, and the relationship between DCD and learning disabilities. A research agenda is offered regarding future directions to overcome current limitation. PMID:8866511

  18. The role of metabolic biomarkers in drug toxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnackenberg, Laura K; Beger, Richard D

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT Metabolic profiling is a technique that can potentially provide more sensitive and specific biomarkers of toxicity than the current clinical measures benefiting preclinical and clinical drug studies. Both nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) platforms have been used for metabolic profiling studies of drug toxicity. Not only can both techniques provide novel biomarker(s) of toxicity but the combination of both techniques gives a broader range of metabolites evaluated. Changes in metabolic patterns can provide insight into mechanism(s) of toxicity and help to eliminate a potentially toxic new chemical entity earlier in the developmental process. Metabolic profiling offers numerous advantages in toxicological research and screening as sample collection and preparation are relatively simple. Further, sample throughput, reproducibility, and accuracy are high. The area of drug toxicity of therapeutic compounds has already been impacted by metabolic profiling studies and will continue to be impacted as new, more specific biomarker(s) are found. In order for a biomarker or pattern of biomarkers to be accepted, it must be shown that they originate from the target tissue of interest. Metabolic profiling studies are amenable to any biofluid or tissue sample making it possible to link the changes noted in urine for instance as originating from renal injury. Additionally, the ease of sample collection makes it possible to follow a single animal or subject over time in order to determine whether and when the toxicity resolves itself. This review focuses on the advantages of metabolic profiling for drug toxicity studies.

  19. Nanomaterials based biosensors for cancer biomarker detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Bansi D.; Kumar, Saurabh; Mouli Pandey, Chandra

    2016-04-01

    Biosensors have enormous potential to contribute to the evolution of new molecular diagnostic techniques for patients suffering with cancerous diseases. A major obstacle preventing faster development of biosensors pertains to the fact that cancer is a highly complex set of diseases. The oncologists currently rely on a few biomarkers and histological characterization of tumors. Some of the signatures include epigenetic and genetic markers, protein profiles, changes in gene expression, and post-translational modifications of proteins. These molecular signatures offer new opportunities for development of biosensors for cancer detection. In this context, conducting paper has recently been found to play an important role towards the fabrication of a biosensor for cancer biomarker detection. In this paper we will focus on results of some of the recent studies obtained in our laboratories relating to fabrication and application of nanomaterial modified paper based biosensors for cancer biomarker detection.

  20. [Biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ribas, G; López-Sendón Moreno, J L; García-Caldentey, J

    2014-04-01

    The new diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD) include brain imaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, with the aim of increasing the certainty of whether a patient has an ongoing AD neuropathologic process or not. Three CSF biomarkers, Aß42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau, reflect the core pathological features of AD. It is already known that these pathological processes of AD starts decades before the first symptoms, so these biomarkers may provide means of early disease detection. At least three stages of AD could be identified: preclinical AD, mild cognitive impairment due to AD, and dementia due to AD. In this review, we aim to summarize the CSF biomarker data available for each of these stages. We also review the actual research on blood-based biomarkers. Recent studies on healthy elderly subjects and on carriers of dominantly inherited AD mutations have also found biomarker changes that allow separate groups in these preclinical stages. These studies may aid for segregate populations in clinical trials and objectively evaluate if there are changes over the pathological processes of AD. Limits to widespread use of CSF biomarkers, apart from the invasive nature of the process itself, is the higher coefficient of variation for the analyses between centres. It requires strict pre-analytical and analytical procedures that may make feasible multi-centre studies and global cut-off points for the different stages of AD.

  1. Metabolic products as biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melancon, M.J.; Alscher, R.; Benson, W.; Kruzynski, G.; Lee, R.F.; Sikka, H.C.; Spies, R.B.; Huggett, Robert J.; Kimerle, Richard A.; Mehrle, Paul M.=; Bergman, Harold L.

    1992-01-01

    Ideally, endogenous biomarkers would indicate both exposure and environmental effects of toxic chemicals; however, such comprehensive biochemical and physiological indices are currently being developed and, at the present time, are unavailable for use in environmental monitoring programs. Continued work is required to validate the use of biochemical and physiological stress indices as useful components of monitoring programs. Of the compounds discussed only phytochelatins and porphyrins are currently in biomarkers in a useful state; however, glutathione,metallothioneins, stress ethylene, and polyamines are promising as biomarkers in environmental monitoring.

  2. Biomarkers in Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiao Chloe; Woodruff, Prescott G

    2016-08-01

    Biomarkers have been critical for studies of disease pathogenesis and the development of new therapies in severe asthma. In particular, biomarkers of type 2 inflammation have proven valuable for endotyping and targeting new biological agents. Because of these successes in understanding and marking type 2 inflammation, lack of knowledge regarding non-type 2 inflammatory mechanisms in asthma will soon be the major obstacle to the development of new treatments and management strategies in severe asthma. Biomarkers can play a role in these investigations as well by providing insight into the underlying biology in human studies of patients with severe asthma. PMID:27401625

  3. Anesthetic-Induced Developmental Neurotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-RenLiu; Qian Liu; Jing Li; Sulpicio G. Soriano

    2011-01-01

    1 IntroductionMillions of newborn and infants receive anesthetic,sedative and analgesic drugs for surgery and painful procedures on a daily basis.Recent laboratory reports clearly demonstrate that anesthetic and sedative drugs induced both neuroapoptosis and neurocognitive deficits in laboratory models.This issue is of paramount interest to pediatric anesthesiologists and intensivists because it questions the safety of anesthetics used for fetal and neonatal anesthesia[1-2].In an attempt to summarize the rapidly expanding laboratorybased literature on anesthetic-induced developmental neurotoxicity (AIDN),this review will examine published reports on the characterization,mechanisms and alleviation of this phenomenon.

  4. Validation of New Cancer Biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, Michael J; Sturgeon, Catherine M; Söletormos, Georg;

    2015-01-01

    in advancing a newly discovered cancer candidate biomarker from pilot studies to clinical application. Four main steps are necessary for a biomarker to reach the clinic: analytical validation of the biomarker assay, clinical validation of the biomarker test, demonstration of clinical value from performance...... of the biomarker test, and regulatory approval. In addition to these 4 steps, all biomarker studies should be reported in a detailed and transparent manner, using previously published checklists and guidelines. Finally, all biomarker studies relating to demonstration of clinical value should be registered before...

  5. Biomarker time out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Axel; Bowser, Robert; Calabresi, Paolo; Zetterberg, Henrik; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J

    2014-10-01

    The advancement of knowledge relies on scientific investigations. The timing between asking a question and data collection defines if a study is prospective or retrospective. Prospective studies look forward from a point in time, are less prone to bias and are considered superior to retrospective studies. This conceptual framework conflicts with the nature of biomarker research. New candidate biomarkers are discovered in a retrospective manner. There are neither resources nor time for prospective testing in all cases. Relevant sources for bias are not covered. Ethical questions arise through the time penalty of an overly dogmatic concept. The timing of sample collection can be separated from testing biomarkers. Therefore the moment of formulating a hypothesis may be after sample collection was completed. A conceptual framework permissive to asking research questions without the obligation to bow to the human concept of calendar time would simplify biomarker research, but will require new safeguards against bias.

  6. Biomarkers in Airway Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice M Leung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The inherent limitations of spirometry and clinical history have prompted clinicians and scientists to search for surrogate markers of airway diseases. Although few biomarkers have been widely accepted into the clinical armamentarium, the authors explore three sources of biomarkers that have shown promise as indicators of disease severity and treatment response. In asthma, exhaled nitric oxide measurements can predict steroid responsiveness and sputum eosinophil counts have been used to titrate anti-inflammatory therapies. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory plasma biomarkers, such as fibrinogen, club cell secretory protein-16 and surfactant protein D, can denote greater severity and predict the risk of exacerbations. While the multitude of disease phenotypes in respiratory medicine make biomarker development especially challenging, these three may soon play key roles in the diagnosis and management of airway diseases.

  7. Biomarkers for immune thrombocytopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Lingjia; Zhang, Chunmei; Zhang, Liping; Shi, Yongyu; Ji, Xuebin

    2015-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia is an autoimmune disease with abnormal biomarkers. Immune thrombocytopenia pathogenesis is a complicated process in which the patient’s immune system is activated by platelet autoantigens resulting in immune mediated platelet destruction or suppression of platelet production. The autoantibodies produced by autoreactive B cells against self antigens are considered to play a crucial role. In addition, biomarkers such as transforming growth factor-beta1,Toll-like receptor...

  8. Biomarkers for neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuo-Hsuan; Ro, Long-Sun; Lyu, Rong-Kuo; Chen, Chiung-Mei

    2015-02-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an acquired, heterogeneous inflammatory disorder, which is characterized by recurrent optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions. The discovery of the serum autoantibody marker, anti-aquaporin 4 (anti-AQP4) antibody, revolutionizes our understanding of pathogenesis of NMO. In addition to anti-AQP4 antibody, other biomarkers for NMO are also reported. These candidate biomarkers are particularly involved in T helper (Th)17 and astrocytic damages, which play a critical role in the development of NMO lesions. Among them, IL-6 in the peripheral blood is associated with anti-AQP4 antibody production. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in CSF demonstrates good correlations with clinical severity of NMO relapses. Detecting these useful biomarkers may be useful in the diagnosis and evaluation of disease activity of NMO. Development of compounds targeting these biomarkers may provide novel therapeutic strategies for NMO. This article will review the related biomarker studies in NMO and discuss the potential therapeutics targeting these biomarkers.

  9. The role of biomarkers in reproductive and developmental toxicology.

    OpenAIRE

    Clarkson, T.W.

    1987-01-01

    A massive outbreak of methylmercury poisoning took place in the winter of 1971-1972 due to the consumption of homemade bread contaminated with a methylmercury fungicide. The longitudinal analysis of the mother's head hair, collected after delivery of the baby, provided a means of recapitulating exposure to methylmercury during pregnancy. Methylmercury is incorporated into newly formed hair at a concentration that is proportional to the simultaneous concentration in blood. Since hair grows at ...

  10. Developmental reading disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001406.htm Developmental reading disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Developmental reading disorder is a reading disability that occurs when ...

  11. Mass spectrometry for biomarker development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chaochao; Liu, Tao; Baker, Erin Shammel; Rodland, Karin D.; Smith, Richard D.

    2015-06-19

    Biomarkers potentially play a crucial role in early disease diagnosis, prognosis and targeted therapy. In the past decade, mass spectrometry based proteomics has become increasingly important in biomarker development due to large advances in technology and associated methods. This chapter mainly focuses on the application of broad (e.g. shotgun) proteomics in biomarker discovery and the utility of targeted proteomics in biomarker verification and validation. A range of mass spectrometry methodologies are discussed emphasizing their efficacy in the different stages in biomarker development, with a particular emphasis on blood biomarker development.

  12. Laboratorial diagnosis of fragile-X syndrome: experience in a sample of individuals with pervasive developmental disorders Diagnóstico laboratorial da síndrome do cromossomo X frágil: experiência em uma amostra de indivíduos com distúrbios invasivos do desenvolvimento

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo Steiner; Marilisa Mantovani Guerreiro; Antonia Paula Marques-de-Faria; Iscia Lopes-Cendes

    2005-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is a frequent genetic disease associated to developmental disorders, including learning disability, mental retardation, behavioral problems and pervasive developmental disorders (autism and related conditions). We studied a sample of 82 individuals (69 males and 13 females) presenting with pervasive developmental disorders using three techniques for the diagnosis of fragile X syndrome (FXS). Cytogenetic analysis detected the fragile site in four males, but only one showed a...

  13. The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

  14. Auditory Processing in Noise: A Preschool Biomarker for Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    White-Schwoch, Travis; Woodruff Carr, Kali; Thompson, Elaine C.; Anderson, Samira; Nicol, Trent; Bradlow, Ann R.; Zecker, Steven G.; Kraus, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Learning to read is a fundamental developmental milestone, and achieving reading competency has lifelong consequences. Although literacy development proceeds smoothly for many children, a subset struggle with this learning process, creating a need to identify reliable biomarkers of a child’s future literacy that could facilitate early diagnosis and access to crucial early interventions. Neural markers of reading skills have been identified in school-aged children and adults; many pertain to t...

  15. Biomarkers of the Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikio Shoji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in biomarker studies on dementia are summarized here. CSF Aβ40, Aβ42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau are the most sensitive biomarkers for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD and prediction of onset of AD from mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Based on this progress, new diagnostic criteria for AD, MCI, and preclinical AD were proposed by National Institute of Aging (NIA and Alzheimer's Association in August 2010. In these new criteria, progress in biomarker identification and amyloid imaging studies in the past 10 years have added critical information. Huge contributions of basic and clinical studies have established clinical evidence supporting these markers. Based on this progress, essential therapy for cure of AD is urgently expected.

  16. Carbohydrate biomarkers for future disease detection and treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REID; Suazette

    2010-01-01

    Carbohydrates are considered as one of the most important classes of biomarkers for cell types,disease states,protein functions,and developmental states.Carbohydrate"binders"that can specifically recognize a carbohydrate biomarker can be used for developing novel types of site specific delivery methods and imaging agents.In this review,we present selected examples of important carbohydrate biomarkers and how they can be targeted for the development of therapeutic and diagnostic agents.Examples are arranged based on disease categories including(1) infectious diseases,(2) cancer,(3) inflammation and immune responses,(4) signal transduction,(5) stem cell transformation,(6) embryo development,and(7) cardiovascular diseases,though some issues cross therapeutic boundaries.

  17. What is developmental dyspraxia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, D

    1995-12-01

    The idea of developmental dyspraxia has been discussed in the research literature for almost 100 years. However, there continues to be a lack of consensus regarding both the definition and description of this disorder. This paper presents a neuropsychologically based operational definition of developmental dyspraxia that emphasizes that developmental dyspraxia is a disorder of gesture. Research that has investigated the development of praxis is discussed. Further, different types of gestural disorders displayed by children and different mechanisms that underlie developmental dyspraxia are compared to and contrasted with adult acquired apraxia. The impact of perceptual-motor, language, and cognitive impairments on children's gestural development and the possible associations between these developmental disorders and developmental dyspraxia are also examined. Also, the relationship among limb, orofacial, and verbal dyspraxia is discussed. Finally, problems that exist in the neuropsychological assessment of developmental dyspraxia are discussed and recommendations concerning what should be included in such an assessment are presented. PMID:8838385

  18. Biomarkers for systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, Joseph M; Liu, Chau-Ching; Kao, Amy H; Manzi, Susan

    2012-04-01

    The urgent need for lupus biomarkers was demonstrated in September 2011 during a Workshop sponsored by the Food and Drug Administration: Potential Biomarkers Predictive of Disease Flare. After 2 days of discussion and more than 2 dozen presentations from thought leaders in both industry and academia, it became apparent that highly sought biomarkers to predict lupus flare have not yet been identified. Even short of the elusive biomarker of flare, few biomarkers for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) diagnosis, monitoring, and stratification have been validated and employed for making clinical decisions. This lack of reliable, specific biomarkers for SLE hampers proper clinical management of patients with SLE and impedes development of new lupus therapeutics. As such, the intensity of investigation to identify lupus biomarkers is climbing a steep trajectory, lending cautious optimism that a validated panel of biomarkers for lupus diagnosis, monitoring, stratification, and prediction of flare may soon be in hand.

  19. Proteomic Biomarkers of Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Diaz-Prieto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers provide a powerful approach to understanding the spectrum of cardiovascular diseases. They have application in screening, diagnostic, prognostication, prediction of recurrences and monitoring of therapy. The “omics” tool are becoming very useful in the development of new biomarkers in cardiovascular diseases. Among them, proteomics is especially fitted to look for new proteins in health and disease and is playing a significant role in the development of new diagnostic tools in cardiovascular diagnosis and prognosis. This review provides an overview of progress in applying proteomics to atherosclerosis. First, we describe novel proteins identified analysing atherosclerotic plaques directly. Careful analysis of proteins within the atherosclerotic vascular tissue can provide a repertoire of proteins involved in vascular remodelling and atherogenesis. Second, we discuss recent data concerning proteins secreted by atherosclerotic plaques. The definition of the atheroma plaque secretome resides in that proteins secreted by arteries can be very good candidates of novel biomarkers. Finally we describe proteins that have been differentially expressed (versus controls by individual cells which constitute atheroma plaques (endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, macrophages and foam cells as well as by circulating cells (monocytes, platelets or novel biomarkers present in plasma.

  20. Proteomic Biomarkers of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanco, F; Padial, L R; Darde, V M; de la Cuesta, F; Alvarez-Llamas, G; Diaz-Prieto, Natacha; Barderas, M G

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY: Biomarkers provide a powerful approach to understanding the spectrum of cardiovascular diseases. They have application in screening, diagnostic, prognostication, prediction of recurrences and monitoring of therapy. The "omics" tool are becoming very useful in the development of new biomarkers in cardiovascular diseases. Among them, proteomics is especially fitted to look for new proteins in health and disease and is playing a significant role in the development of new diagnostic tools in cardiovascular diagnosis and prognosis. This review provides an overview of progress in applying proteomics to atherosclerosis. First, we describe novel proteins identified analysing atherosclerotic plaques directly. Careful analysis of proteins within the atherosclerotic vascular tissue can provide a repertoire of proteins involved in vascular remodelling and atherogenesis. Second, we discuss recent data concerning proteins secreted by atherosclerotic plaques. The definition of the atheroma plaque secretome resides in that proteins secreted by arteries can be very good candidates of novel biomarkers. Finally we describe proteins that have been differentially expressed (versus controls) by individual cells which constitute atheroma plaques (endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, macrophages and foam cells) as well as by circulating cells (monocytes, platelets) or novel biomarkers present in plasma. PMID:19578499

  1. Emerging Biomarkers in Glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, Mairéad G.; Sahebjam, Solmaz; Mason, Warren P., E-mail: warren.mason@uhn.ca [Pencer Brain Tumor Centre, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)

    2013-08-22

    Glioblastoma, the most common primary brain tumor, has few available therapies providing significant improvement in survival. Molecular signatures associated with tumor aggressiveness as well as with disease progression and their relation to differences in signaling pathways implicated in gliomagenesis have recently been described. A number of biomarkers which have potential in diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of response to therapy have been identified and along with imaging modalities could contribute to the clinical management of GBM. Molecular biomarkers including O(6)-methlyguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosomes 1p and 19q, loss of heterozygosity 10q, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), epidermal growth factor, latrophilin, and 7 transmembrane domain-containing protein 1 on chromosome 1 (ELTD1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor suppressor protein p53, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), p16INK4a gene, cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), phospholipid metabolites, telomerase messenger expression (hTERT messenger ribonucleic acid [mRNA]), microRNAs (miRNAs), cancer stem cell markers and imaging modalities as potential biomarkers are discussed. Inclusion of emerging biomarkers in prospective clinical trials is warranted in an effort for more effective personalized therapy in the future.

  2. Neuroimaging Biomarkers for Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Brandon M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Biomarkers provide clinicians with a predictable model for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of medical ailments. Psychiatry has lagged behind other areas of medicine in the identification of biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and treatment. In this review, we investigated the current state of neuroimaging as it pertains to biomarkers for psychosis. Methods We reviewed systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the structural (sMRI), functional (fMRI), diffusion-tensor (DTI), Positron emission tomography (PET) and spectroscopy (MRS) studies of subjects at-risk or those with an established schizophrenic illness. Only articles reporting effect-sizes and confidence intervals were included in an assessment of robustness. Results Out of the identified meta-analyses and systematic reviews, 21 studies met the inclusion criteria for assessment. There were 13 sMRI, 4 PET, 3 MRS, and 1 DTI studies. The search terms included in the current review encompassed familial high risk (FHR), clinical high risk (CHR), First episode (FES), Chronic (CSZ), schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), and healthy controls (HC). Conclusions Currently, few neuroimaging biomarkers can be considered ready for diagnostic use in patients with psychosis. At least in part, this may be related to the challenges inherent in the current symptom-based approach to classifying these disorders. While available studies suggest a possible value of imaging biomarkers for monitoring disease progression, more systematic research is needed. To date, the best value of imaging data in psychoses has been to shed light on questions of disease pathophysiology, especially through the characterization of endophenotypes. PMID:25883891

  3. Doing Developmental Research: A Practical Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striano, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    Addressing practical issues rarely covered in methods texts, this user-friendly, jargon-free book helps students and beginning researchers plan infant and child development studies and get them done. The author provides step-by-step guidance for getting involved in a developmental laboratory and crafting effective research questions and proposals.…

  4. Developmental Light-Water Reactor Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the progress of the Developmental Light-Water Reactor (DLWR) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in FY 1989. It also includes (1) a brief description of the program, (2) definition of goals, (3) earlier achievements, and (4) proposed future activities

  5. In situ evaluation of cadmium biomarkers in green algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Dana F.; Davis, Thomas A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Montreal, P.O. Box 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Tercier-Waeber, Mary-Lou [Analytical and Biophysical Environmental Chemistry, University of Geneva, Sciences II, 30 Quai Ernest-Ansermet, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); England, Roxane [Department of Chemistry, University of Montreal, P.O. Box 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Wilkinson, Kevin J., E-mail: kj.wilkinson@umontreal.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Montreal, P.O. Box 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    In situ measurements provide data that are the highly representative of the natural environment. In this paper, laboratory-determined biomarkers of Cd stress that were previously identified for the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, were tested in two French rivers: a contaminated site on the Riou Mort River and an 'uncontaminated' reference site on the Lot River. Transcript abundance levels were determined by real time qPCR for biomarkers thought to be Cd sensitive. Transcript levels were significantly higher (>5 fold) for organisms exposed to the contaminated site as compared to those exposed at the uncontaminated site. Biomarker mRNA levels were best correlated to free Cd (Cd{sup 2+}) rather than intracellular Cd, suggesting that they may be useful indicators of in situ stress. The paper shows that biomarker expression levels increased with time, were sensitive to metal levels and metal speciation and were higher in the 'contaminated' as opposed to the 'reference' site. - Highlights: > Biomarkers of Cd stress were tested in a contaminated and a reference site. > The organism was viable under exposure conditions and metal accumulation occurred. > Biomarker levels were correlated to Cd{sup 2+} and were higher in the contaminated site. - Algal transcription levels of several biomarkers were studied in two natural waters in situ.

  6. Biomarkers for pancreatic carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hustinx, S.R.

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease. Most pancreatic cancers (approximately 85%) are diagnosed at a late, incurable stage. The poor prognosis and late presentation of pancreatic cancer patients underscore the importance of early detection, which is the sine qua non for the fight against pancreatic cancer. It is hoped for the future that the understanding of genetic alterations will lead to the rapid discovery of an effective biomarker of pancreatic carcinogenesis. In this thesis we vis...

  7. Biomarkers of Ovarian Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Roudebush

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary function of the female ovary is the production of a mature and viable oocyte capable of fertilization and subsequent embryo development and implantation. At birth, the ovary contains a finite number of oocytes available for folliculogenesis. This finite number of available oocytes is termed “the ovarian reserve”. The determination of ovarian reserve is important in the assessment and treatment of infertility. As the ovary ages, the ovarian reserve will decline. Infertility affects approximately 15-20% of reproductive aged couples. The most commonly used biomarker assay to assess ovarian reserve is the measurement of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH on day 3 of the menstrual cycle. However, antimüllerian hormone and inhibin-B are other biomarkers of ovarian reserve that are gaining in popularity since they provide direct determination of ovarian status, whereas day 3 FSH is an indirect measurement. This review examines the physical tools and the hormone biomarkers used to evaluate ovarian reserve.

  8. Genetics and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

  9. Examining Autism Spectrum Disorders by Biomarkers: Example from the Oxytocin and Serotonin Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammock, Elizabeth; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Yan, Zhongyu; Kerr, Travis M.; Morris, Marianna; Anderson, George M.; Carter, C. Sue; Cook, Edwin H.; Jacob, Suma

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heritable but highly heterogeneous neuropsychiatric syndrome, which poses challenges for research relying solely on behavioral symptoms or diagnosis. Examining biomarkers may give us ways to identify individuals who demonstrate specific developmental trajectories and etiological factors related to…

  10. The 2D:4D digit ratio as biomarker for substance abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernstrand, A.M.; Van Den Borne, L.; Lensvelt, L.M.H.; Ribbert, L.L.A.; De With, A.C.; Goede, L.X.Y.; Garssen, J.; Verster, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The second (2D, index finger) to fourth (4D, ring finger) digit ratio is a biomarker for prenatal testosterone and estrogen exposure. It has been hypothesized that the developmental origins of health and behavior are modulated by the presence or absence of prenatal sex hormones. Several stu

  11. Colon Cancer Biomarkers To Identify Patients Suitable For Therapeutic Intervention | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute's Laboratory of Human Carcinogenesis is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize cancer biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  12. Atherosclerosis, biomarkers of atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiolaki, Aidonio; Tsamis, Konstantinos I; Milionis, Haralampos J; Kyritsis, Athanassios P; Kosmidou, Maria; Giannopoulos, Sotirios

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent type of dementia, involving progressive deterioration of neuronal networks. Although the pathophysiological mechanism of AD is not fully elucidated, apart from β-amyloid and tau protein, a diverse number of factors such as cardiovascular risk factors, inflammation, and lipids metabolism may play a significant role. Numerous epidemiological and laboratory studies support vascular injury and inflammation, as key pathological processes. The present review is focused on cardiovascular risk factors, lipids, and circulating biomarkers of inflammation, discussing them as independent mechanisms converging to the same final pathogenetic cascade of AD.

  13. Biomarker Identification Using Text Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying molecular biomarkers has become one of the important tasks for scientists to assess the different phenotypic states of cells or organisms correlated to the genotypes of diseases from large-scale biological data. In this paper, we proposed a text-mining-based method to discover biomarkers from PubMed. First, we construct a database based on a dictionary, and then we used a finite state machine to identify the biomarkers. Our method of text mining provides a highly reliable approach to discover the biomarkers in the PubMed database.

  14. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudit Verma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In cancer epidemiology, epigenetic biomarkers offer advantages over other types of biomarkers because they are expressed against a person’s genetic background and environmental exposure, and because abnormal events occur early in cancer development, which includes several epigenetic alterations in cancer cells. This article describes different biomarkers that have potential use in studying the epidemiology of prostate cancer. We also discuss the characteristics of an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer, and technologies utilized for biomarker assays. Among epigenetic biomarkers, most reports indicate GSTP1 hypermethylation as the diagnostic marker for prostate cancer; however, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS, and NSE1 also have been reported to be regulated by methylation mechanisms in prostate cancer. Current challenges in utilization of biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis and epidemiologic studies and potential solutions also are discussed.

  15. Life Span Developmental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of individuals with respect to developmental stages. This developmental approach suggests that scientific disciplines should not explain developmental facts only with age changes. Along with aging, cognitive, biological, and socioemotional development throughout life should also be considered to provide a reasonable and acceptable context, guideposts, and reasonable expectations for the person. There are three important subjects whom life span developmental approach deals with. These are nature vs nurture, continuity vs discontinuity, and change vs stability. Researchers using life span developmental approach gather and produce knowledge on these three most important domains of individual development with their unique scientific methodology.

  16. Current techniques for assessing developmental neurotoxicity of pesticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu GAO; Ying TIAN; Xiaoming SHEN

    2008-01-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) and Pyrethroids (PRY) have been widely used in agriculture and in the home as broad spectrum insecticides, but may produce considerable risk to human health, especially to children. Children are more susceptible to environmental exposure, and concern about the neurotoxic effects of pesticide exposure on children is increasing. There is a need for better understanding of the potential developmental neu-rotoxicity of pesticides. Techniques for assessing devel-opmental neurotoxicity of pesticides will continue to be developed, rendering a need for flexibility of testing para-digms. Current techniques used in evaluating the devel-opmental neurotoxicity of OPs and PRY are presented in this review. These include: (1) In vitro techniques (PC12 cells, C6 cells and other cell models); (2) Non-mammalian models (sea urchins, zebrafish and other non-mammalian models); and (3) In vivo mammalian models (morpho-logical techniques, neurobehavioral assessments and biomarkers).

  17. Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ultimately cure this and similar disorders. NIH Patient Recruitment for Pervasive Developmental Disorders Clinical Trials At NIH ... 1055 (TTY) National Institute of Child Health and Human Information Resource Center P.O. Box 3006 Rockville, MD 20847 ...

  18. Facts about Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do if you’re concerned » Developmental Monitoring and Screening A child’s growth and development are followed through ... to prevent illness. Some health conditions, such as asthma, gastrointestinal symptoms, eczema and skin allergies, and migraine ...

  19. Towards Deep Developmental Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Sigaud, Olivier; Droniou, Alain

    2016-01-01

    International audience Deep learning techniques are having an undeniable impact on general pattern recognition issues. In this paper, from a developmental robotics perspective, we scrutinize deep learning techniques under the light of their capability to construct a hierarchy of meaningful multimodal representations from the raw sensors of robots. These investigations reveal the differences between the methodological constraints of pattern recognition and those of developmental robotics. I...

  20. Emerging biomarkers in psoriatic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, So Yeon; Han, Ling; Weiland, Matthew; Lu, Chuan-Jian; McKinnon, Kathleen; Zhou, Li; Lim, Henry W; Elder, James T; Mi, Qing-Sheng

    2015-12-01

    Psoriasis is an immune-mediated skin disease which affects 2-4% of the worldwide population. Approximately 20-30% of patients with psoriasis develop psoriatic arthritis (PsA), a frequently destructive and disabling condition. As skin manifestations precede joint symptoms in nearly all patients with PsA, identification of biomarkers for early prediction of joint damage is an important clinical need. Because not all patients with PsA respond to treatment in the same fashion, identification of biomarkers capable of predicting therapeutic response is also imperative. Here, we review existing literature and discuss current investigations to identify potential biomarkers for PsA disease activity, with particular emphasis on microRNAs as novel markers of interest. Serum (soluble) biomarkers, peripheral osteoclast precursor as cellular biomarkers, and genetic loci associated with skin and joint disease are also reviewed. PMID:26602058

  1. Epigenetic biomarkers in liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaudha, Krishna K; Verma, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma or HCC) is a major cancer worldwide. Research in this field is needed to identify biomarkers that can be used for early detection of the disease as well as new approaches to its treatment. Epigenetic biomarkers provide an opportunity to understand liver cancer etiology and evaluate novel epigenetic inhibitors for treatment. Traditionally, liver cirrhosis, proteomic biomarkers, and the presence of hepatitis viruses have been used for the detection and diagnosis of liver cancer. Promising results from microRNA (miRNA) profiling and hypermethylation of selected genes have raised hopes of identifying new biomarkers. Some of these epigenetic biomarkers may be useful in risk assessment and for screening populations to identify who is likely to develop cancer. Challenges and opportunities in the field are discussed in this chapter.

  2. Biomarkers for lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zangar, Richard C.; Varnum, Susan M.

    2014-09-02

    A biomarker, method, test kit, and diagnostic system for detecting the presence of lymphoma in a person are disclosed. The lymphoma may be Hodgkin's lymphoma or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The person may be a high-risk subject. In one embodiment, a plasma sample from a person is obtained. The level of at least one protein listed in Table S3 in the plasma sample is measured. The level of at least one protein in the plasma sample is compared with the level in a normal or healthy subject. The lymphoma is diagnosed based upon the level of the at least one protein in the plasma sample in comparison to the normal or healthy level.

  3. Biomarkers of manganese intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Fu, Sherleen X; Dydak, Ulrike; Cowan, Dallas M

    2011-01-01

    Manganese (Mn), upon absorption, is primarily sequestered in tissue and intracellular compartments. For this reason, blood Mn concentration does not always accurately reflect Mn concentration in the targeted tissue, particularly in the brain. The discrepancy between Mn concentrations in tissue or intracellular components means that blood Mn is a poor biomarker of Mn exposure or toxicity under many conditions and that other biomarkers must be established. For group comparisons of active workers, blood Mn has some utility for distinguishing exposed from unexposed subjects, although the large variability in mean values renders it insensitive for discriminating one individual from the rest of the study population. Mn exposure is known to alter iron (Fe) homeostasis. The Mn/Fe ratio (MIR) in plasma or erythrocytes reflects not only steady-state concentrations of Mn or Fe in tested individuals, but also a biological response (altered Fe homeostasis) to Mn exposure. Recent human studies support the potential value for using MIR to distinguish individuals with Mn exposure. Additionally, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in combination with noninvasive assessment of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), provides convincing evidence of Mn exposure, even without clinical symptoms of Mn intoxication. For subjects with long-term, low-dose Mn exposure or for those exposed in the past but not the present, neither blood Mn nor MRI provides a confident distinction for Mn exposure or intoxication. While plasma or erythrocyte MIR is more likely a sensitive measure, the cut-off values for MIR among the general population need to be further tested and established. Considering the large accumulation of Mn in bone, developing an X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy or neutron-based spectroscopy method may create yet another novel non-invasive tool for assessing Mn exposure and toxicity. PMID:20946915

  4. Update on Biomarkers for the Detection of Endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelie Fassbender

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is histologically characterized by the displacement of endometrial tissue to extrauterine locations including the pelvic peritoneum, ovaries, and bowel. An important cause of infertility and pelvic pain, the individual and global socioeconomic burden of endometriosis is significant. Laparoscopy remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of the condition. However, the invasive nature of surgery, coupled with the lack of a laboratory biomarker for the disease, results in a mean latency of 7–11 years from onset of symptoms to definitive diagnosis. Unfortunately, the delay in diagnosis may have significant consequences in terms of disease progression. The discovery of a sufficiently sensitive and specific biomarker for the nonsurgical detection of endometriosis promises earlier diagnosis and prevention of deleterious sequelae and represents a clear research priority. In this review, we describe and discuss the current status of biomarkers of endometriosis in plasma, urine, and endometrium.

  5. [Novel biomarkers for diabetic nephropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Shin-ichi

    2014-02-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. An early clinical sign of this complication is an increase of urinary albumin excretion, called microalbuminuria, which is not only a predictor of the progression of nephropathy, but also an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although microalbuminuria is clinically important to assess the prognosis of diabetic patients, it may be insufficient as an early and specific biomarker of diabetic nephropathy because of a large day-to-day variation and lack of a good correlation of microalbuminuria with renal dysfunction and pathohistological changes. Thus, more sensitive and specific biomarkers are needed to improve the diagnostic capability of identifying patients at high risk. The factors involved in renal tubulo-interstitial damage, the production and degradation of extracellular matrix, microinflammation, etc., are investigated as candidate molecules. Despite numerous efforts so far, the assessment of these biomarkers is still a subject of ongoing investigations. Recently, a variety of omics and quantitative techniques in systems biology are rapidly emerging in the field of biomarker discovery, including proteomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics, and they have been applied to search for novel putative biomarkers of diabetic nephropathy. Novel biomarkers or their combination with microalbuminuria provide a better diagnostic accuracy than microalbuminuria alone, and may be useful for establishing personal medicine. Furthermore, the identification of novel biomarkers may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying diabetic nephropathy.

  6. Biomarker evidence for Archean oxygen fluxes (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmann, C.; Waldbauer, J.; Sherman, L. S.; Summons, R. E.

    2010-12-01

    Knowledge of deep-time organismic diversity may be gained from the study of preserved sedimentary lipids with taxonomic specificity, i.e. biomarker hydrocarbons (e.g. Brocks and Summons, 2003; Waldbauer et al., 2009). As a consequence of long residence times and high thermal maturities however, biomarker concentrations are extremely low in most ancient (Precambrian) sediment samples, making them exceptionally prone to contamination during drilling, sampling and laboratory workup (e.g. Brocks et al., 2008). Outcrop samples most always carry a modern overprint and deep-time biogeochemistry thus relies on drilling operations to retrieve ‘clean’ sediment cores. One such effort was initiated by NASA’s Astrobiology Institute (NAI): the Archean biosphere drilling project (ABDP). We here report on the lipids retrieved from sediment samples in drill hole ABDP-9. Strong heterogeneities of extractable organic matter - both on a spatial scale and in free- vs. mineral-occluded bitumen - provide us with an opportunity to distinguish indigenous lipids from contaminants introduced during drilling. Stratigraphic trends in biomarker data for mineral-occluded bitumens are complementary to previously reported data (e.g. S- and N-isotopes, molybdenum enrichments) from ABDP-9 sediments (Anbar et al., 2007; Kaufman et al., 2007; Garvin et al., 2009) and suggest periodic fluxes of oxygen before the great oxidation event. Anbar et al. A whiff of oxygen before the great oxidation event. Science 317 (2007), 1903-1906. Brocks & Summons. Sedimentary hydrocarbons, biomarkers for early life. In: Schlesinger (Ed.) Treatise on Geochemistry, Vol. 8 (2003), 63-115. Brocks et al. Assessing biomarker syngeneity using branched alkanes with quaternary carbon (BAQCs) and other plastic contaminants. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 72 (2008), 871-888. Garvin et al. Isotopic evidence for a aerobic nitrogen cycle in the latest Archean. Science 323 (2009), 1045-1048. Kaufman et al. Late Archean

  7. Synergistic Effect of High Charge and Energy Particle Radiation and Chronological Age on Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Tissue Degeneration: A Ground-Based Study Using the Vertebrate Laboratory Model Organism Oryzias latipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High charge and energy (HZE) particles are a main hazard of the space radiation environment. Uncertainty regarding their health effects is a limiting factor in the design of human exploration-class space missions, that is, missions beyond low earth orbit. Previous work has shown that HZE exposure increases cancer risk and elicits other aging-like phenomena in animal models. Here, we investigate how a single exposure to HZE particle radiation, early in life, influences the subsequent age-dependent evolution of oxidative stress and appearance of degenerative tissue changes. Embryos of the laboratory model organism, Oryzias latipes (Japanese medaka fish), were exposed to HZE particle radiation at doses overlapping the range of anticipated human exposure. A separate cohort was exposed to reference γ-radiation. Survival was monitored for 750 days, well beyond the median lifespan. The population was also sampled at intervals and liver tissue was subjected to histological and molecular analysis. HZE particle radiation dose and aging contributed synergistically to accumulation of lipid peroxidation products, which are a marker of chronic oxidative stress. This was mirrored by a decline in PPARGC1A mRNA, which encodes a transcriptional co-activator required for expression of oxidative stress defense genes and for mitochondrial maintenance. Consistent with chronic oxidative stress, mitochondria had an elongated and enlarged ultrastructure. Livers also had distinctive, cystic lesions. Depending on the endpoint, effects of γ-rays in the same dose range were either lesser or not detected. Results provide a quantitative and qualitative framework for understanding relative contributions of HZE particle radiation exposure and aging to chronic oxidative stress and tissue degeneration

  8. Continuing harmonization of terminology and innovations for methodologies in developmental toxicology: Report of the 8th Berlin Workshop on Developmental Toxicity, 14-16 May 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solecki, Roland; Rauch, Martina; Gall, Andrea; Buschmann, Jochen; Clark, Ruth; Fuchs, Antje; Kan, Haidong; Heinrich, Verena; Kellner, Rupert; Knudsen, Thomas B; Li, Weihua; Makris, Susan L; Ooshima, Yojiro; Paumgartten, Francisco; Piersma, Aldert H; Schönfelder, Gilbert; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Schaefer, Christof; Shiota, Kohei; Ulbrich, Beate; Ding, Xuncheng; Chahoud, Ibrahim

    2015-11-01

    This article is a report of the 8th Berlin Workshop on Developmental Toxicity held in May 2014. The main aim of the workshop was the continuing harmonization of terminology and innovations for methodologies used in the assessment of embryo- and fetotoxic findings. The following main topics were discussed: harmonized categorization of external, skeletal, visceral and materno-fetal findings into malformations, variations and grey zone anomalies, aspects of developmental anomalies in humans and laboratory animals, and innovations for new methodologies in developmental toxicology. The application of Version 2 terminology in the DevTox database was considered as a useful improvement in the categorization of developmental anomalies. Participants concluded that initiation of a project for comparative assessments of developmental anomalies in humans and laboratory animals could support regulatory risk assessment and university-based training. Improvement of new methodological approaches for alternatives to animal testing should be triggered for a better understanding of developmental outcomes. PMID:26073002

  9. Characterization of a developmental toxicity dose-response model.

    OpenAIRE

    Faustman, E M; Wellington, D G; Smith, W P; Kimmel, C A

    1989-01-01

    The Rai and Van Ryzin dose-response model proposed for teratology experiments has been characterized for its appropriateness and applicability in modeling the dichotomous response data from developmental toxicity studies. Modifications were made in the initial probability statements to reflect more accurately biological events underlying developmental toxicity. Data sets used for the evaluation were obtained from the National Toxicology Program and U.S. EPA laboratories. The studies included ...

  10. HYDROMECHANICS LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory The Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory (NAHL) began operations in Rickover Hall in September 1976. The primary purpose...

  11. Biomarkers in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molteni S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Silvia Molteni, Eva RealiLaboratory of Translational Immunology, Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Development of psoriasis results from a complex interplay between genetically predisposing factors and environmental triggers that give rise to a self-sustaining pathogenic cycle involving T cells, dendritic cells, connective tissue, and skin epithelium. From 5% to 40% of patients with psoriasis also develop psoriatic arthritis, and increasing evidence indicates an association with other systemic manifestations, including cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome. In psoriatic disease, there is a need for development of biomarkers for assessment of disease severity, for prediction of the outcome of therapeutic interventions, and for distinction between the different clinical variants of the disease. A field of great importance is identification of biomarkers for prediction of development of comorbidities, such as arthritis, cardiovascular disease, and the metabolic syndrome. Genetic determinants of psoriasis and their products not only give an important insight into the pathogenesis of the disease, but may also function as markers of risk for developing cutaneous psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis. So far, there are limited validation data to support the use of candidate biomarkers in clinical practice. Here we review the data from several studies on some of the most promising candidate biomarkers for cutaneous psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, for the detection of systemic inflammation, and for use as endpoints for therapeutic interventions. Attention is focused on the molecules that take part in the interplay giving rise to psoriasis and on gene products that may represent a link between predisposing genetic factors and the immune and inflammatory processes involved in pathogenesis of the disease. Finally, we provide an overview on how biomarkers can offer insights into the pathogenesis and natural history of psoriasis

  12. Biomarkers in Multiple Sclerosis: An Up-to-Date Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafeim Katsavos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, the effort of establishing satisfactory biomarkers for multiple sclerosis has been proven to be very difficult, due to the clinical and pathophysiological complexities of the disease. Recent knowledge acquired in the domains of genomics-immunogenetics and neuroimmunology, as well as the evolution in neuroimaging, has provided a whole new list of biomarkers. This variety, though, leads inevitably to confusion in the effort of decision making concerning strategic and individualized therapeutics. In this paper, our primary goal is to provide the reader with a list of the most important characteristics that a biomarker must possess in order to be considered as reliable. Additionally, up-to-date biomarkers are further divided into three subgroups, genetic-immunogenetic, laboratorial, and imaging. The most important representatives of each category are presented in the text and for the first time in a summarizing workable table, in a critical way, estimating their diagnostic potential and their efficacy to correlate with phenotypical expression, neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, disability, and therapeutical response. Special attention is given to the “gold standards” of each category, like HLA-DRB1* polymorphisms, oligoclonal bands, vitamin D, and conventional and nonconventional imaging techniques. Moreover, not adequately established but quite promising, recently characterized biomarkers, like TOB-1 polymorphisms, are further discussed.

  13. Biomarker in archaeological soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedner, Katja; Glaser, Bruno; Schneeweiß, Jens

    2015-04-01

    The use of biomarkers in an archaeological context allow deeper insights into the understanding of anthropogenic (dark) earth formation and from an archaeological point of view, a completely new perspective on cultivation practices in the historic past. During an archaeological excavation of a Slavic settlement (10th/11th C. A.D.) in Brünkendorf (Wendland region in Northern Germany), a thick black soil (Nordic Dark Earth) was discovered that resembled the famous terra preta phenomenon. For the humid tropics, terra preta could act as model for sustainable agricultural practices and as example for long-term CO2-sequestration into terrestrial ecosystems. The question was whether this Nordic Dark Earth had similar properties and genesis as the famous Amazonian Dark Earth in order to find a model for sustainable agricultural practices and long term CO2-sequestration in temperate zones. For this purpose, a multi-analytical approach was used to characterize the sandy-textured Nordic Dark Earth in comparison to less anthropogenically influenced soils in the adjacent area in respect of ecological conditions (e.g. amino sugar), input materials (faeces) and the presence of stable soil organic matter (black carbon). Amino sugar analyses showed that Nordic Dark Earth contained higher amounts of microbial residues being dominated by soil fungi. Faecal biomarkers such as stanols and bile acids indicated animal manure from omnivores and herbivores but also human excrements. Black carbon content of about 30 Mg ha-1 in the Nordic Dark Earth was about four times higher compared to the adjacent soil and in the same order of magnitude compared to terra preta. Our data strongly suggest parallels to anthropogenic soil formation in Amazonia and in Europe by input of organic wastes, faecal material and charred organic matter. An obvious difference was that in terra preta input of human-derived faecal material dominated while in NDE human-derived faecal material played only a minor role

  14. Urinary Biomarkers of Brain Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manxia An

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers are the measurable changes associated with a physiological or pathophysiological process. Unlike blood, urine is not subject to homeostatic mechanisms. Therefore, greater fluctuations could occur in urine than in blood, better reflecting the changes in human body. The roadmap of urine biomarker era was proposed. Although urine analysis has been attempted for clinical diagnosis, and urine has been monitored during the progression of many diseases, particularly urinary system diseases, whether urine can reflect brain disease status remains uncertain. As some biomarkers of brain diseases can be detected in the body fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and blood, there is a possibility that urine also contain biomarkers of brain diseases. This review summarizes the clues of brain diseases reflected in the urine proteome and metabolome.

  15. Biomarkers of latent TB infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhwald, Morten; Ravn, Pernille

    2009-01-01

    For the last 100 years, the tuberculin skin test (TST) has been the only diagnostic tool available for latent TB infection (LTBI) and no biomarker per se is available to diagnose the presence of LTBI. With the introduction of M. tuberculosis-specific IFN-gamma release assays (IGRAs), a new area of...... in vitro immunodiagnostic tests for LTBI based on biomarker readout has become a reality. In this review, we discuss existing evidence on the clinical usefulness of IGRAs and the indefinite number of potential new biomarkers that can be used to improve diagnosis of latent TB infection. We also...... present early data suggesting that the monocyte-derived chemokine inducible protein-10 may be useful as a novel biomarker for the immunodiagnosis of latent TB infection....

  16. Cardiac Biomarkers and Cycling Race

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Le Goff, Jean-François Kaux, Sébastien Goffaux, Etienne Cavalier

    2015-01-01

    In cycling as in other types of strenuous exercise, there exists a risk of sudden death. It is important both to understand its causes and to see if the behavior of certain biomarkers might highlight athletes at risk. Many reports describe changes in biomarkers after strenuous exercise (Nie et al., 2011), but interpreting these changes, and notably distinguishing normal physiological responses from pathological changes, is not easy. Here we have focused on the kinetics of different cardiac bi...

  17. Biomarkers in Acute Lung Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Bhargava, Maneesh; Wendt, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and Acute Lung Injury (ALI) result in high permeability pulmonary edema causing hypoxic respiratory failure with high morbidity and mortality. As the population ages, the incidence of ALI is expected to rise. Over the last decade, several studies have identified biomarkers in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid providing important insights into the mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of ALI. Several biomarkers have been validated in subjec...

  18. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Mudit Verma; Mukesh Verma; Payal Patel

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high ris...

  19. Analysis of biomarker data a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Looney, Stephen W

    2015-01-01

    A "how to" guide for applying statistical methods to biomarker data analysis Presenting a solid foundation for the statistical methods that are used to analyze biomarker data, Analysis of Biomarker Data: A Practical Guide features preferred techniques for biomarker validation. The authors provide descriptions of select elementary statistical methods that are traditionally used to analyze biomarker data with a focus on the proper application of each method, including necessary assumptions, software recommendations, and proper interpretation of computer output. In addition, the book discusses

  20. Cognitive impairment and major depressive disorder in HIV infection and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Monteiro de Almeida

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment and major depressive disorder (MDD are common HIV-1 central nervous system (CNS complications. Their frequencies in AIDS patients are 36% and 45%, respectively. The diagnoses of HIV cognitive impairment are made by clinical criteria, no single laboratory test or biomarker establishes the diagnosis. Factors of indirect neuronal injury related with the pathophysiology of the HIV infection in the CNS, are the factors studied as biomarkers. In the present no biomarker is established to the diagnosis of HIV cognitive impairment, much still needs to be done. We review in this paper some biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid that could be valuable to the diagnosis of HIV cognitive impairment. Diagnosing depression in the context of HIV can be challenging, to identify a biomarker that could help in the diagnosis would be very important, although MDD risks and neurobiology are still poorly understood.

  1. Neuroimmune biomarkers in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, Jakub; Rahmoune, Hassan; Guest, Paul C; Bahn, Sabine

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder with a broad spectrum of clinical and biological manifestations. Due to the lack of objective tests, the accurate diagnosis and selection of effective treatments for schizophrenia remains challenging. Numerous technologies have been employed in search of schizophrenia biomarkers. These studies have suggested that neuroinflammatory processes may play a role in schizophrenia pathogenesis, at least in a subgroup of patients. The evidence indicates alterations in both pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules in the central nervous system, which have also been found in peripheral tissues and may correlate with schizophrenia symptoms. In line with these findings, certain immunomodulatory interventions have shown beneficial effects on psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia patients, in particular those with distinct immune signatures. In this review, we evaluate these findings and their potential for more targeted drug interventions and the development of companion diagnostics. Although currently no validated markers exist for schizophrenia patient stratification or the prediction of treatment efficacy, we propose that utilisation of inflammatory markers for diagnostic and theranostic purposes may lead to novel therapeutic approaches and deliver more effective care for schizophrenia patients. PMID:25124519

  2. The Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge

    2001-01-01

    AbstractIn the nineties, the concept of the developmental work (DW) has become a significant point of orientation for the actors on Danish labour market. The DW has moved the focus of the labour market from wages and working time towards work and production. For employees, the DW promises...

  3. Arguments from Developmental Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorizing about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind - getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories. Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasizing the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasizing the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive) development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged 'philosophy of development.' PMID:27242648

  4. Arguments from Developmental Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eStöckle-Schobel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorising about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind – getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories.Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasising the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasising the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged ‘philosophy of development’.

  5. Developmental paediatric anaesthetic pharmacology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    2015-01-01

    Safe and effective drug therapy in neonates, infants and children require detailed knowledge about the ontogeny of drug disposition and action as well how these interact with genetics and co-morbidity of children. Recent advances in developmental pharmacology in children follow the increased...

  6. Arguments from Developmental Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorizing about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind - getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories. Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasizing the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasizing the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive) development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged 'philosophy of development.'

  7. Qualitative methodology in developmental psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Mey, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing...

  8. TRWG developmental pathway for biospecimen-based assessment modalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Translational Research Working Group; Srivastava, Sudhir; Gray, Joe W.; Reid, Brian J.; Grad, Oren; Greenwood, Addison; Hawk, Ernest T.

    2008-09-03

    The Translational Research Working Group (TRWG) was created as a national initiative to evaluate the current status of NCI's investment in translational research and envision its future. The TRWG conceptualized translational research as a set of six developmental processes or pathways focused on various clinical goals. One of those pathways describes the development of biospecimen-based assays that utilize biomarkers for the detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and assessment of response to cancer treatment. The biospecimen-based assessment modality (BM) pathway was conceived not as comprehensive description of the corresponding real-world processes, but rather as a tool designed to facilitate movement of a candidate assay through the translational process to the point where it can be handed off for definitive clinical testing. This paper introduces the pathway in the context of prior work and discusses key challenges associated with the biomarker development process in light of the pathway.

  9. Optimizing a waveguide-based sandwich immunoassay for tumor biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukundan, Harshini [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swanson, Basil I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Xie, Hongzhi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Aaron S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Grace, W Kevin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shively, John E [NON LANL

    2008-01-01

    The sensor team at the Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a waveguide-based optical biosensor for the detection of biomarkers associated with the disease. We have previously demonstrated the application of this technology to the sensitive detection of carcinoembryonic antigen in serum and nipple aspirate fluid from breast cancer patients. In this publication, we report improvements to this technology that will facilitate transition to a point-of-care diagnostic system and/or robust research tool.

  10. Recommendations to standardize preanalytical confounding factors in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Campo, Marta; Mollenhauer, Brit; Bertolotto, Antonio;

    2012-01-01

    Early diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's (AD) or Parkinson's disease (PD) is needed to slow down or halt the disease at the earliest stage. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers can be a good tool for early diagnosis. However, their use in clinical practice is challenging...... due to the high variability found between centers in the concentrations of both AD CSF biomarkers (Aβ42, total tau and phosphorylated tau) and PD CSF biomarker (α-synuclein). Such a variability has been partially attributed to different preanalytical procedures between laboratories, thus highlighting...

  11. EEG complexity as a biomarker for autism spectrum disorder risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tierney Adrienne

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex neurodevelopmental disorders may be characterized by subtle brain function signatures early in life before behavioral symptoms are apparent. Such endophenotypes may be measurable biomarkers for later cognitive impairments. The nonlinear complexity of electroencephalography (EEG signals is believed to contain information about the architecture of the neural networks in the brain on many scales. Early detection of abnormalities in EEG signals may be an early biomarker for developmental cognitive disorders. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that the modified multiscale entropy (mMSE computed on the basis of resting state EEG data can be used as a biomarker of normal brain development and distinguish typically developing children from a group of infants at high risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD, defined on the basis of an older sibling with ASD. Methods Using mMSE as a feature vector, a multiclass support vector machine algorithm was used to classify typically developing and high-risk groups. Classification was computed separately within each age group from 6 to 24 months. Results Multiscale entropy appears to go through a different developmental trajectory in infants at high risk for autism (HRA than it does in typically developing controls. Differences appear to be greatest at ages 9 to 12 months. Using several machine learning algorithms with mMSE as a feature vector, infants were classified with over 80% accuracy into control and HRA groups at age 9 months. Classification accuracy for boys was close to 100% at age 9 months and remains high (70% to 90% at ages 12 and 18 months. For girls, classification accuracy was highest at age 6 months, but declines thereafter. Conclusions This proof-of-principle study suggests that mMSE computed from resting state EEG signals may be a useful biomarker for early detection of risk for ASD and abnormalities in cognitive development in infants. To our knowledge, this is

  12. Analytical Aspects of the Implementation of Biomarkers in Clinical Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipkova, Maria; López, Olga Millán; Picard, Nicolas; Noceti, Ofelia; Sommerer, Claudia; Christians, Uwe; Wieland, Eberhard

    2016-04-01

    In response to the urgent need for new reliable biomarkers to complement the guidance of the immunosuppressive therapy, a huge number of biomarker candidates to be implemented in clinical practice have been introduced to the transplant community. This includes a diverse range of molecules with very different molecular weights, chemical and physical properties, ex vivo stabilities, in vivo kinetic behaviors, and levels of similarity to other molecules, etc. In addition, a large body of different analytical techniques and assay protocols can be used to measure biomarkers. Sometimes, a complex software-based data evaluation is a prerequisite for appropriate interpretation of the results and for their reporting. Although some analytical procedures are of great value for research purposes, they may be too complex for implementation in a clinical setting. Whereas the proof of "fitness for purpose" is appropriate for validation of biomarker assays used in exploratory drug development studies, a higher level of analytical validation must be achieved and eventually advanced analytical performance might be necessary before diagnostic application in transplantation medicine. A high level of consistency of results between laboratories and between methods (if applicable) should be obtained and maintained to make biomarkers effective instruments in support of therapeutic decisions. This overview focuses on preanalytical and analytical aspects to be considered for the implementation of new biomarkers for adjusting immunosuppression in a clinical setting and highlights critical points to be addressed on the way to make them suitable as diagnostic tools. These include but are not limited to appropriate method validation, standardization, education, automation, and commercialization.

  13. Non-Small Cell Carcinoma Biomarker Testing: The Pathologist's Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eBrega

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomarker testing has become standard of care for patients diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer. Although it can be successfully performed in circulating tu-mor cells, at present, the vast majority of investigations are carried out using di-rect tumor sampling, either through aspiration methods, which render most often isolated cells, or tissue sampling, that could range from minute biopsies to large resections. Consequently, pathologists play a central role in this process. Recent evidence suggests that refining NSCLC diagnosis might be clinically signifi-cant, particularly in cases of lung adenocarcinomas (ADC, which in turn, has prompted a new proposal for the histologic classification of such pulmonary neo-plasms. These changes, in conjunction with the mandatory incorporation of biomarker testing in routine NSCLC tissue processing, have directly affected the pathologist’s role in lung cancer work-up. This new role pathologists must play is complex and demanding, and requires a close interaction with surgeons, oncologists, radiologists and molecular pathologists. Pathologists often find themselves as the central figure in the coordination of a process, that involves assuring that the tumor samples are properly fixed, but without disruption of the DNA structure, obtaining the proper diagnosis with a minimum of tissue waste, providing pre-analytical evaluation of tumor samples selected for biomarker testing, which includes assessment of the proportion of tumor to normal tissues, as well as cell viability, and assuring that this entire pro-cess happens in a timely fashion. Therefore, it is part of the pathologist’s respon-sibilities to assure that the samples received in their laboratories, be processed in a manner that allows for optimal biomarker testing. This article goal is to discuss the essential role pathologists must play NSCLC bi-omarker testing, as well as to provide a summarized review of the main NSCLC bi-omarkers of

  14. Variability of CSF Alzheimer's disease biomarkers: implications for clinical practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J B Vos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers are increasingly being used for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of CSF intralaboratory and interlaboratory variability on diagnostic CSF-based AD classification of subjects and identified causes of this variation. METHODS: We measured CSF amyloid-β (Aβ 1-42, total tau (t-tau, and phosphorylated tau (p-tau by INNOTEST enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays (ELISA in a memory clinic population (n = 126. Samples were measured twice in a single or two laboratories that served as reference labs for CSF analyses in the Netherlands. Predefined cut-offs were used to classify CSF biomarkers as normal or abnormal/AD pattern. RESULTS: CSF intralaboratory variability was higher for Aβ1-42 than for t-tau and p-tau. Reanalysis led to a change in biomarker classification (normal vs. abnormal of 26% of the subjects based on Aβ1-42, 10% based on t-tau, and 29% based on p-tau. The changes in absolute biomarker concentrations were paralleled by a similar change in levels of internal control samples between different assay lots. CSF interlaboratory variability was higher for p-tau than for Aβ1-42 and t-tau, and reanalysis led to a change in biomarker classification of 12% of the subjects based on Aβ1-42, 1% based on t-tau, and 22% based on p-tau. CONCLUSIONS: Intralaboratory and interlaboratory CSF variability frequently led to change in diagnostic CSF-based AD classification for Aβ1-42 and p-tau. Lot-to-lot variation was a major cause of intralaboratory variability. This will have implications for the use of these biomarkers in clinical practice.

  15. Exploring Biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neeti; Singh, Anshika Nikita

    2016-07-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is one of the most common form of dementia occurring in elderly population worldwide. Currently Aβ42, tau and p-tau in the cerebrospinal fluid is estimated for confirmation of AD. CSF which is being used as the potent source for biomarker screening is obtained by invasive lumbar punctures. Thus, there is an urgent need of minimal invasive methods for identification of diagnostic markers for early detection of AD. Blood serum and plasma serves as an appropriate source, due to minimal discomfort to the patients, promoting frequent testing, better follow-up and better consent to clinical trials. Hence, the need of the hour demands discovery of diagnostic and prognostic patient specific signature biomarkers by using emerging technologies of mass spectrometry, microarrays and peptidomics. In this review we summarize the present scenario of AD biomarkers such as circulatory biomarkers, blood based amyloid markers, inflammatory markers and oxidative stress markers being investigated and also some of the potent biomarkers which might be able to predict early onset of Alzheimer's and delay cognitive impairment. PMID:27630867

  16. Exosomes in developmental signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Ian John; Vincent, Jean-Paul

    2016-07-15

    In order to achieve coordinated growth and patterning during development, cells must communicate with one another, sending and receiving signals that regulate their activities. Such developmental signals can be soluble, bound to the extracellular matrix, or tethered to the surface of adjacent cells. Cells can also signal by releasing exosomes - extracellular vesicles containing bioactive molecules such as RNA, DNA and enzymes. Recent work has suggested that exosomes can also carry signalling proteins, including ligands of the Notch receptor and secreted proteins of the Hedgehog and WNT families. Here, we describe the various types of exosomes and their biogenesis. We then survey the experimental strategies used so far to interfere with exosome formation and critically assess the role of exosomes in developmental signalling. PMID:27436038

  17. Biomarkers of silicosis: Potential candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwari R

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica dust is widely prevalent in the atmosphere and more common than the other types of dust, thus making silicosis the most frequently occurring pneumoconiosis. In India also, studies carried out by National Institute of Occupational Health have shown high prevalence of silicosis in small factories and even in nonoccupational exposed subjects. The postero-anterior chest radiographs remain the key tool in diagnosing and assessing the extent and severity of interstitial lung disease. Although Computed Tomography detects finer anatomical structure than radiography it could not get popularity because of its cost. On the basis of histological features of silicosis many potential biomarkers such as Cytokines, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Interleukin 1, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme, Serum Copper, Fas ligand (FasL, etc. have been tried. However, further studies are needed to establish these potential biomarkers as true biomarker of silicosis.

  18. Biomarkers in fibromyalgia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomelli C

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Camillo Giacomelli,* Francesca Sernissi,* Alessandra Rossi, Stefano Bombardieri, Laura BazzichiRheumatology Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy *These authors contributed equally to the manuscript Abstract: Fibromyalgia is a common syndrome diagnosed by clinical criteria. The main symptom of fibromyalgia is pain, but patients frequently also complain about other nonspecific symptoms, such as headache, sleep disturbance, mood disorder, and cognitive impairment. In the light of the multifactorial origin of the disease and of the lack of objective diagnostic findings, several attempts have been made to find a reliable biomarker. For this reason, over the years, a number of patients and various biological samples have been studied, using many different approaches and techniques. Despite this, none of these studies has been able to find the proper biomarker. The aim of this review is to provide a critical overview of the current environment characterizing the search for fibromyalgia biomarkers. Keywords: genetics, proteomics, oxidative stress, fibromyalgia

  19. Bias in Peripheral Depression Biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, André F; Köhler, Cristiano A; Brunoni, André R;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To aid in the differentiation of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) from healthy controls, numerous peripheral biomarkers have been proposed. To date, no comprehensive evaluation of the existence of bias favoring the publication of significant results or inflating effect...... sizes has been conducted. METHODS: Here, we performed a comprehensive review of meta-analyses of peripheral nongenetic biomarkers that could discriminate individuals with MDD from nondepressed controls. PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases were searched through April 10, 2015. RESULTS: From 15......-analyses, while 11 meta-analyses had evidence of small-study effects. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that there is an excess of studies with statistically significant results in the literature of peripheral biomarkers for MDD. The selective publication of 'positive studies' and the selective reporting...

  20. Biomarkers in inflammatory bowel diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Tue; Birkelund, Svend; Stensballe, Allan;

    2014-01-01

    Unambiguous diagnosis of the two main forms of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD): Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), represents a challenge in the early stages of the diseases. The diagnosis may be established several years after the debut of symptoms. Hence, protein biomarkers...... for early and accurate diagnostic could help clinicians improve treatment of the individual patients. Moreover, the biomarkers could aid physicians to predict disease courses and in this way, identify patients in need of intensive treatment. Patients with low risk of disease flares may avoid treatment...... with medications with the concomitant risk of adverse events. In addition, identification of disease and course specific biomarker profiles can be used to identify biological pathways involved in the disease development and treatment. Knowledge of disease mechanisms in general can lead to improved future...

  1. Consumo alimentar de Chrysoperla externa sobre as diferentes fases de desenvolvimento de Dysmicoccus brevipes, em laboratório Food consumption of Chrysoperla externa in different developmental phases of Dysmicoccus brevipes, under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Rodrigues Gonçalves-Gervásio

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o consumo e preferência alimentar de larvas de Chrysoperla externa Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae em laboratório à temperatura de 25±2°C, 70±10% UR e 12 horas de fotofase, utilizando como presa a cochonilha-do-abacaxi (Dysmicoccus brevipes Cockerell, 1893, Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. Durante a fase larval do predador foram consumidas, em média, 70, 50 e 15,8 cochonilhas do primeiro, segundo e terceiro ínstar, respectivamente, e 10 fêmeas adultas, num total de 145,8 indivíduos. Do número total de cochonilhas, 51% foram consumidos durante o terceiro ínstar do predador. O alto número de cochonilhas consumido demonstra que a C. externa apresenta potencial para ser utilizada no controle biológico da cochonilha D. brevipes.The food consumption and preference of larvae of Chrysoperla externa Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae larval were studied in laboratory under 25±2°C, 70±10% RH and 12 hours photophase, utilizing the pineapple mealybug (Dysmicoccus brevipes Cockerell, 1893, Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae as a prey. The results showed that the predator's larval phases consumed on average of 70, 50 and 15,8 mealybugs of the first, second and third instar, respectively, and 10 adult females amounting to 145,8 individuals. It was noticed that 51% of the total number of mealybugs were consumed during the predator third instar. The high number of mealybugs consumed shows that C. externa presents a potential to be utilized in biological control of the mealybug D. brevipes.

  2. Potential blood biomarkers for stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborde, Carlos M; Mourino-Alvarez, Laura; Akerstrom, Finn; Padial, Luis R; Vivanco, Fernando; Gil-Dones, Felix; Barderas, Maria G

    2012-08-01

    Stroke is one of the most common causes of death worldwide and a major cause of acquired disability in adults. Despite advances in research during the last decade, prevention and treatment strategies still suffer from significant limitations, and therefore new theoretical and technical approaches are required. Technological advances in the proteomic and metabolomic areas, during recent years, have permitted a more effective search for novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets that may allow for effective risk stratification and early diagnosis with subsequent rapid treatment. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the latest candidate proteins and metabolites proposed as new potential biomarkers in stroke. PMID:22967080

  3. Biomarker Detection using PS2-Thioaptamers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AM Biotechnologies (AM) will develop a system to detect and quantify bone demineralization biomarkers as outlined in SBIR Topic "Technologies to Detect Biomarkers"....

  4. Proteomics in Discovery of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Biomarkers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To discover new proteomic biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: Surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry was used to discover biomarkers for differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma and chronic liver disease. A population of 50 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and 33 patients with chronic liver disease was studied. Results: Twelve proteomic biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma were detected in this study. Three proteomic biomarkers were highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma and nine proteomic biomarkers were highly expressed in chronic liver disease. The most valuable proteomic biomarker with m/z=11498 had no similar diagnostic value as α-fetoprotein. Conclusion:Some of the twelve proteomic biomarkers may become new biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  5. Biomarkers for the prediction of acute ongoing arterial plaque rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo YL

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Yuan-Lin Guo, Jian-Jun Li Division of Dyslipidemia, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fu Wai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Disease, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People's Republic of China Abstract: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS is the main cause of mortality for coronary artery disease (CAD. Accordingly, earlier detection and diagnosis might be a key point for reducing the mortality in patients with ACS. One promising strategy is biomarker measurement in patients with ACS. Biomarkers are generally considered to be plasma measurements of molecules, proteins, or enzymes that provide independent diagnostic and prognostic values that can reflect underlying disease state and condition, especially repeated measurements. Nowadays, the most widely used biomarkers to identify or predict ACS are high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and high sensitivity troponin T/I (hs-TnT/I. The aim of the present review was principally to summarize recent evidence regarding some new biomarkers by which we could directly predict acute ongoing arterial plaque rupture, which may help to identify at-risk patients earlier than hs-CRP or hs-TnT/I. Keywords: matrix metalloproteinase-9, lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2, myeloperoxidase, soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, placental growth factor, acute coronary syndrome

  6. Personalized medicine using DNA biomarkers: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegler, Andreas; Koch, Armin; Krockenberger, Katja; Großhennig, Anika

    2012-01-01

    Biomarkers are of increasing importance for personalized medicine, with applications including diagnosis, prognosis, and selection of targeted therapies. Their use is extremely diverse, ranging from pharmacodynamics to treatment monitoring. Following a concise review of terminology, we provide examples and current applications of three broad categories of biomarkers—DNA biomarkers, DNA tumor biomarkers, and other general biomarkers. We outline clinical trial phases for identifying and validat...

  7. Predicting Developmental Toxicity of ToxCast Phase I Chemicals Using Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Metabolomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s ToxRefDB contains prenatal guideline study data from rats and rabbits for over 240 chemicals that overlap with the ToxCast in vitro high throughput screening project. A subset of these compounds were tested in Stemina Biomarker Discovery's developmental toxicity platform, a...

  8. Mammalian developmental genetics in the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artzt, Karen

    2012-12-01

    This Perspectives is a review of the breathtaking history of mammalian genetics in the past century and, in particular, of the ways in which genetic thinking has illuminated aspects of mouse development. To illustrate the power of that thinking, selected hypothesis-driven experiments and technical advances are discussed. Also included in this account are the beginnings of mouse genetics at the Bussey Institute, Columbia University, and The Jackson Laboratory and a retrospective discussion of one of the classic problems in developmental genetics, the T/t complex and its genetic enigmas.

  9. Developmental Toxicity of Louisiana Crude Oil-Spiked Sediment to Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embryonic exposures to the components of petroleum, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), cause a characteristic suite of developmental defects and cardiotoxicity in a variety of fish species. We exposed zebrafish embryos to reference sediment mixed with laboratory w...

  10. Biomarkers in sarcoidosis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadzai H

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hasib Ahmadzai,1,2 Wei Sheng Joshua Loke,1 Shuying Huang,1 Cristan Herbert,1 Denis Wakefield,3 Paul S Thomas2 1Inflammation and Infection Research Centre (IIRC, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Immunology of the Eye Clinic, St Vincent's Clinic, Darlinghurst, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of undetermined etiology invariably affecting the lungs and thoracic lymph nodes. It has been termed an “immune paradox”, as there is peripheral anergy despite exaggerated inflammation at disease sites. The disease is usually self-limiting, although some individuals experience unremitting inflammation that may progress into pulmonary fibrosis and death. The inflammatory process is largely a T helper-1-driven immune response. Given its heterogeneous clinical manifestations, diagnosis is usually a clinical conundrum. Clinical and radiological findings alone are often inadequate to confirm the diagnosis. At present, sarcoidosis is usually a diagnosis of exclusion, confirmed by histological evidence of noncaseating granulomas in the absence of known granulomagenic agents. This has compelled researchers to look for disease-specific biomarkers that can help diagnose sarcoidosis and delineate its disease course, severity, and prognosis. In this review we highlight various investigations used to diagnose sarcoidosis, outline proposed biomarkers, and discuss novel methods of sampling biomarkers. Keywords: sarcoidosis, biomarkers, inflammatory markers, exhaled breath condensate, proteomics, granuloma

  11. Biomarkers of satiation and satiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, C. de; Blom, W.A.M.; Smeets, P.A.M.; Stafleu, A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2004-01-01

    This review's objective is to give a critical summary of studies that focused on physiologic measures relating to subjectively rated appetite, actual food intake, or both. Biomarkers of satiation and satiety may be used as a tool for assessing the satiating efficiency of foods and for understanding

  12. Biomarkers of replicative senescence revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehlin, Jan

    2016-01-01

    of telomere length and associated damage, and the accompanying changes that take place elicit signals that have an impact on a number of molecules and downstream events. Precise measurements of replicative senescence biomarkers in biological samples from individuals could be clinically associated...

  13. Predicting human developmental toxicity of pharmaceuticals using human embryonic stem cells and metabolomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teratogens, substances that may cause fetal abnormalities during development, are responsible for a significant number of birth defects. Animal models used to predict teratogenicity often do not faithfully correlate to human response. Here, we seek to develop a more predictive developmental toxicity model based on an in vitro method that utilizes both human embryonic stem (hES) cells and metabolomics to discover biomarkers of developmental toxicity. We developed a method where hES cells were dosed with several drugs of known teratogenicity then LC-MS analysis was performed to measure changes in abundance levels of small molecules in response to drug dosing. Statistical analysis was employed to select for specific mass features that can provide a prediction of the developmental toxicity of a substance. These molecules can serve as biomarkers of developmental toxicity, leading to better prediction of teratogenicity. In particular, our work shows a correlation between teratogenicity and changes of greater than 10% in the ratio of arginine to asymmetric dimethylarginine levels. In addition, this study resulted in the establishment of a predictive model based on the most informative mass features. This model was subsequently tested for its predictive accuracy in two blinded studies using eight drugs of known teratogenicity, where it correctly predicted the teratogenicity for seven of the eight drugs. Thus, our initial data shows that this platform is a robust alternative to animal and other in vitro models for the prediction of the developmental toxicity of chemicals that may also provide invaluable information about the underlying biochemical pathways.

  14. Schizotypy From a Developmental Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Debbané, Martin; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2014-01-01

    The schizotypy construct focuses attention on the liability to develop schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, yet traditionally, the schizotypy models have put more emphasis on stress-vulnerability interactions rather than developmental dynamics of emerging risk for psychopathology. Indeed, developmental accounts of this emerging personality trait have rarely been explicitly formulated. In this position article, we wish to convey some of the basic developmental tenets of schizotypy, and how they c...

  15. Zebra finch as a developmental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Siu-Shan; Wrabel, Anna; Nagai, Hiroki; Ladher, Raj K; Sheng, Guojun

    2015-11-01

    The domesticated zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) is a well-established animal model for studying vocal learning. It is also a tractable model for developmental analyses. The finch genome has been sequenced and methods for its transgenesis have been reported. Hatching and sexual maturation in this species takes only two weeks and three months, respectively. Finch colonies can be established relatively easily and its eggs are laid at a stage earlier than in other common avian experimental models, facilitating the analysis of very early avian development. Representing the Neoaves to which 95% of all bird species belong, the finch can potentially complement two existing, Galloanserae developmental models, the chick, and quail. Here, we provide a step-by-step guide for how to set up a finch colony in a conventional laboratory environment. Technical tips are offered to optimize hens' productivity and ensure a constant supply of fertilized finch eggs. Methods of handling finch eggs and embryos for subsequent embryological, cellular, or molecular analyses are also discussed. We conclude by emphasizing scientific values and cost effectiveness of maintaining a finch colony for avian developmental studies. genesis 53:669-677, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26385755

  16. Developmental immunotoxicology of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heavy metal, lead, is a known developmental immunotoxicant that has been shown to produce immune alterations in humans as well as other species. Unlike many compounds that exert adverse immune effects, lead exposure at low to moderate levels does not produce widespread loss of immune cells. In contrast, changes resulting from lead exposure are subtle at the immune cell population level but, nevertheless, can be functionally dramatic. A hallmark of lead-induced immunotoxicity is a pronounced shift in the balance in T helper cell function toward T helper 2 responses at the expense of T helper 1 functions. This bias alters the nature and range of immune responses that can be produced thereby influencing host susceptibility to various diseases. Immunotoxic responses to lead appear to differ across life stages not only quantitatively with regard to dose response, but also qualitatively in terms of the spectrum of immune alterations. Experimental studies in several lab animal species suggest the latter stages of gestation are a period of considerable sensitivity for lead-induced immunotoxicity. This review describes the basic characteristics of lead-induced immunotoxicity emphasizing experimental animal results. It also provides a framework for the consideration of toxicant exposure effects across life stages. The existence of and probable basis for developmental windows of immune hyper-susceptibility are presented. Finally, the potential for lead to serve as a perinatal risk factor for childhood asthma as well as other diseases is considered

  17. Deep biomarkers of human aging: Application of deep neural networks to biomarker development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putin, Evgeny; Mamoshina, Polina; Aliper, Alexander; Korzinkin, Mikhail; Moskalev, Alexey; Kolosov, Alexey; Ostrovskiy, Alexander; Cantor, Charles; Vijg, Jan; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2016-05-01

    One of the major impediments in human aging research is the absence of a comprehensive and actionable set of biomarkers that may be targeted and measured to track the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. In this study, we designed a modular ensemble of 21 deep neural networks (DNNs) of varying depth, structure and optimization to predict human chronological age using a basic blood test. To train the DNNs, we used over 60,000 samples from common blood biochemistry and cell count tests from routine health exams performed by a single laboratory and linked to chronological age and sex. The best performing DNN in the ensemble demonstrated 81.5 % epsilon-accuracy r = 0.90 with R(2) = 0.80 and MAE = 6.07 years in predicting chronological age within a 10 year frame, while the entire ensemble achieved 83.5% epsilon-accuracy r = 0.91 with R(2) = 0.82 and MAE = 5.55 years. The ensemble also identified the 5 most important markers for predicting human chronological age: albumin, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, urea and erythrocytes. To allow for public testing and evaluate real-life performance of the predictor, we developed an online system available at http://www.aging.ai. The ensemble approach may facilitate integration of multi-modal data linked to chronological age and sex that may lead to simple, minimally invasive, and affordable methods of tracking integrated biomarkers of aging in humans and performing cross-species feature importance analysis. PMID:27191382

  18. Deep biomarkers of human aging: Application of deep neural networks to biomarker development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putin, Evgeny; Mamoshina, Polina; Aliper, Alexander; Korzinkin, Mikhail; Moskalev, Alexey; Kolosov, Alexey; Ostrovskiy, Alexander; Cantor, Charles; Vijg, Jan; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2016-01-01

    One of the major impediments in human aging research is the absence of a comprehensive and actionable set of biomarkers that may be targeted and measured to track the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. In this study, we designed a modular ensemble of 21 deep neural networks (DNNs) of varying depth, structure and optimization to predict human chronological age using a basic blood test. To train the DNNs, we used over 60,000 samples from common blood biochemistry and cell count tests from routine health exams performed by a single laboratory and linked to chronological age and sex. The best performing DNN in the ensemble demonstrated 81.5 % epsilon-accuracy r = 0.90 with R2 = 0.80 and MAE = 6.07 years in predicting chronological age within a 10 year frame, while the entire ensemble achieved 83.5% epsilon-accuracy r = 0.91 with R2 = 0.82 and MAE = 5.55 years. The ensemble also identified the 5 most important markers for predicting human chronological age: albumin, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, urea and erythrocytes. To allow for public testing and evaluate real-life performance of the predictor, we developed an online system available at http://www.aging.ai. The ensemble approach may facilitate integration of multi-modal data linked to chronological age and sex that may lead to simple, minimally invasive, and affordable methods of tracking integrated biomarkers of aging in humans and performing cross-species feature importance analysis. PMID:27191382

  19. Meeting Report--NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straume, Tore; Amundson, Sally A,; Blakely, William F.; Burns, Frederic J.; Chen, Allen; Dainiak, Nicholas; Franklin, Stephen; Leary, Julie A.; Loftus, David J.; Morgan, William F.; Pellmar, Terry C.; Stolc, Viktor; Turteltaub, Kenneth W.; Vaughan, Andrew T.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2008-05-01

    A summary is provided of presentations and discussions from the NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop held September 27-28, 2007, at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California. Invited speakers were distinguished scientists representing key sectors of the radiation research community. Speakers addressed recent developments in the biomarker and biotechnology fields that may provide new opportunities for health-related assessment of radiation-exposed individuals, including for long-duration space travel. Topics discussed include the space radiation environment, biomarkers of radiation sensitivity and individual susceptibility, molecular signatures of low-dose responses, multivariate analysis of gene expression, biomarkers in biodefense, biomarkers in radiation oncology, biomarkers and triage following large-scale radiological incidents, integrated and multiple biomarker approaches, advances in whole-genome tiling arrays, advances in mass-spectrometry proteomics, radiation biodosimetry for estimation of cancer risk in a rat skin model, and confounding factors. Summary conclusions are provided at the end of the report.

  20. Oral Fluids that Detect Cardiovascular Disease Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Joseph D.; Sneed, J. Darrell; Steinhubl, Steven R; Kolasa, Justin; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Lin, Yushun; Kryscio, Richard J.; McDevitt, John T.; Campbell, Charles L.; Miller, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the utility of oral fluids for assessment of coronary and cardiovascular (CVD) health. Study Design Twenty-nine patients with pre-existing CVD disease underwent an invasive cardiac procedure (alcohol septal ablation or percutaneous coronary intervention) and provided unstimulated whole saliva (UWS), sublingual swabs (LS), gingival swabs (GS) and serum at 0, 8, 16, 24, 48 hr. Concentrations of 13 relevant biomarkers were determined and correlated with levels in serum and the oral fluids. Results Concentrations of the majority of biomarkers were higher in UWS than LS and GS. Coronary and CVD disease biomarkers in UWS correlated better with serum than LS and GS based on group status and measures of time effect. Seven biomarkers demonstrated time effect changes consistent with serum biomarkers, including C-reactive protein and troponin I. Conclusions Changes in serum biomarker profiles are reflected in oral fluids suggesting that oral fluid biomarkers could aid in the assessment of cardiac ischemia/necrosis. PMID:22769406

  1. Four decades of teaching developmental biology in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunz, Horst

    2003-01-01

    I have taught developmental biology in Essen for 30 years. Since my department is named Zoophysiologie (Zoophysiology), besides Developmental Biology, I also have to teach General Animal Physiology. This explains why the time for teaching developmental biology is restricted to a lecture course, a laboratory course and several seminar courses. However, I also try to demonstrate in the lecture courses on General Physiology the close relationship between developmental biology, physiology, morphology, anatomy, teratology, carcinogenesis, evolution and ecology (importance of environmental factors on embryogenesis). Students are informed that developmental biology is a core discipline of biology. In the last decade, knowledge about molecular mechanisms in different organisms has exponentially increased. The students are trained to understand the close relationship between conserved gene structure, gene function and signaling pathways, in addition to or as an extension of, classical concepts. Public reports about the human genome project and stem cell research (especially therapeutic and reproductive cloning) have shown that developmental biology, both in traditional view and at the molecular level, is essential for the understanding of these complex topics and for serious and non-emotional debate. PMID:12705670

  2. The Formation of Indicators on Engineering Laboratory Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Ruhizan M.; Mohamad, Zunuwanas; Rahman, Mohd Nizam Ab.; Hashim, Mohamad Hisyam Mohd

    2012-01-01

    This research is a developmental study of Engineering Laboratory Management indicators. It is formed to assess the level of quality management of the polytechnic level laboratory. The purpose of indicators is to help provide input into the management process of an engineering laboratory. Effectiveness of teaching and learning at technical…

  3. Incorporating biomarkers in ecological risk assessment of chemical contaminants of soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Reinecke

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil is an important but complex natural resource which is increasingly used as sink for chemicals. The monitoring of soil quality and the assessment of risks posed by contaminants have become crucial. This study deals with the potential use of biomarkers in the monitoring of soils and the assessment of risk resulting from contamination. Apart from an overview of the existing literature on biomarkers, the results of various of our field experiments in South African soils are discussed. Biomarkers may have potential in the assessment of risk because they can indicate at an early stage that exposure has taken place and that a toxic response has been initiated. It is therefore expected that early biomarkers will play an increasing role as diagnostic tools for determining exposure to chemicals and the resulting effects. They may have predictive value that can assist in the prevention or minimising of risks. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of using our results on biomarker responses of soil dwelling organisms to predict changes at higher organisational levels (which may have ecological implications. Our recent experimental results on the evaluation of various biomarkers in both the laboratory and the field are interpreted and placed in perspective within the broader framework of response biology. The aim was further to contribute to the development and application of biomarkers in regulatory risk assessment schemes of soils. This critical review of our own and recent literature on biomarkers in ecotoxicology leads to the conclusion that biomarkers can, under certain conditions, be useful tools in risk assessment. Clear relationships between contamination loads in soil organisms and certain biomarker responses were determined in woodlice, earthworms and terrestrial snails. Clear correlations were also established in field experiments between biomarker responses and changes at the population level. This indicated that, in

  4. Analytical Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s analytical laboratories in Pittsburgh, PA, and Albany, OR, give researchers access to the equipment they need to thoroughly study the properties of materials...

  5. Computational Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains a number of commercial off-the-shelf and in-house software packages allowing for both statistical analysis as well as mathematical modeling...

  6. National laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The foundation of a 'National Laboratory' which would support a Research center in synchrotron radiation applications is proposed. The essential features of such a laboratory differing of others centers in Brazil are presented. (L.C.)

  7. Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  8. [Developmental Placement.] Collected Research References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, Gail

    Drawing on information and references in the ERIC system, this literature review describes research related to a child's developmental placement. The issues examined include school entrance age; predictive validity, reliability, and features of Gesell School Readiness Assessment; retention; and the effectiveness of developmental placement. A…

  9. Developmental Math: What's the Answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafarella, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Developmental mathematics has been under the radar within higher education for some time. The reality is that there are many proven best practices in developmental math. Unfortunately, there are many obstacles that prevent student success. Moreover, the high rates of attrition and failure have led state legislators and college administrators to…

  10. 南瓜寄主上扶桑绵粉蚧不同温度下的发育历期和实验种群生命表%Developmental duration and life table of the laboratory population of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae ) fed on pumpkin at different temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹莹; 徐志宏; 张莉丽; 沈励泽; 傅思丽

    2012-01-01

    为了探明温度对扶桑绵粉蚧Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley发育的影响,本研究在光周期14L:10D,相对湿度75%±1%及不同温度(18,20,24,26,28和30℃)的实验室条件下,测定了以南瓜为寄主的扶桑绵粉蚧各虫态的发育历期和存活率,组建了扶桑绵粉蚧的实验种群生命表.结果表明:在18 ~ 30℃温度范围内,随着温度的升高扶桑绵粉蚧的发育速率加快,且其温度与发育速率的关系符合Logistic模型.在18~30℃恒温条件下,扶桑绵粉蚧的雌虫世代发育历期为40.24 ~ 80.64 d,雄虫世代发育历期为25.21~54.31 d;雌虫世代的发育起点温度为7.39℃,有效积温为889.89日·度;雄虫世代的发育起点温度为8.58℃,有效积温为523.47日·度.在26℃时,扶桑绵粉蚧的世代存活率最高(77.03%),种群趋势指数也最高(22.98),有利于种群增长;而在18℃和30℃,扶桑绵粉蚧的种群趋势指数分别为2.99和9.80.扶桑绵粉蚧有较强的种群发展能力,但高温和低温都不利于其种群增长.扶桑绵粉蚧发育历期和实验种群表的研究为其控制措施的制定提供了科学依据.%In order to explore the effects of temperature on the population growth of the Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley fed on pumpkin, the developmental duration and survivorship were investigated under the temperatures of 18, 20, 24, 26, 28 and 30℃ , and the life table of the laboratory population of Ph. Solenopsis was constructed. The results showed that the developmental rate of Ph. Solenopsis increased with the temperature increasing from 18℃ to 30℃ , and the relationship between the developmental rate and temperature could be fitted well with the Logistic model. Within the temperature range of 18 -30t, the generation time of females and males was 40. 24 - 80. 64 d and 25. 21 - 54. 31 d, respectively. Thedevelopmental threshold temperature and effective accumulated temperature of females were 7. 39℃ and 889.89 day

  11. Biomarkers in acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokra, Daniela; Kosutova, Petra

    2015-04-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and its milder form acute lung injury (ALI) may result from various diseases and situations including sepsis, pneumonia, trauma, acute pancreatitis, aspiration of gastric contents, near-drowning etc. ALI/ARDS is characterized by diffuse alveolar injury, lung edema formation, neutrophil-derived inflammation, and surfactant dysfunction. Clinically, ALI/ARDS is manifested by decreased lung compliance, severe hypoxemia, and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. Severity and further characteristics of ALI/ARDS may be detected by biomarkers in the plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (or tracheal aspirate) of patients. Changed concentrations of individual markers may suggest injury or activation of the specific types of lung cells-epithelial or endothelial cells, neutrophils, macrophages, etc.), and thereby help in diagnostics and in evaluation of the patient's clinical status and the treatment efficacy. This chapter reviews various biomarkers of acute lung injury and evaluates their usefulness in diagnostics and prognostication of ALI/ARDS.

  12. Genetic biomarkers in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Caroline J; Elliott, Perry M

    2013-08-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a common inherited heart muscle disorder associated with sudden cardiac death, arrhythmias and heart failure. Genetic mutations can be identified in approximately 60% of patients; these are commonest in genes that encode proteins of the cardiac sarcomere. Similar to other Mendelian diseases these mutations are characterized by incomplete penetrance and variable clinical expression. Our knowledge of this genetic diversity is rapidly evolving as high-throughput DNA sequencing technology is now used to characterize an individual patient's disease. In addition, the genomic basis of several multisystem diseases associated with a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy phenotype has been elucidated. Genetic biomarkers can be helpful in making an accurate diagnosis and in identifying relatives at risk of developing the condition. In the clinical setting, genetic testing and genetic screening should be used pragmatically with appropriate counseling. Here we review the current role of genetic biomarkers in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, highlight recent progress in the field and discuss future challenges.

  13. Glycoscience aids in biomarker discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serenus Hua1,2 & Hyun Joo An1,2,*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The glycome consists of all glycans (or carbohydrates within abiological system, and modulates a wide range of important biologicalactivities, from protein folding to cellular communications.The mining of the glycome for disease markers representsa new paradigm for biomarker discovery; however, this effortis severely complicated by the vast complexity and structuraldiversity of glycans. This review summarizes recent developmentsin analytical technology and methodology as applied tothe fields of glycomics and glycoproteomics. Mass spectrometricstrategies for glycan compositional profiling are described, as arepotential refinements which allow structure-specific profiling.Analytical methods that can discern protein glycosylation at aspecific site of modification are also discussed in detail.Biomarker discovery applications are shown at each level ofanalysis, highlighting the key role that glycoscience can play inhelping scientists understand disease biology.

  14. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsiana Beiko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant decreases in morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases (CVD and cancers, morbidity and cost associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD continue to be increasing. Failure to improve disease outcomes has been related to the paucity of interventions improving survival. Insidious onset and slow progression halter research successes in developing disease-modifying therapies. In part, the difficulty in finding new therapies is because of the extreme heterogeneity within recognized COPD phenotypes. Novel biomarkers are necessary to help understand the natural history and pathogenesis of the different COPD subtypes. A more accurate phenotyping and the ability to assess the therapeutic response to new interventions and pharmaceutical agents may improve the statistical power of longitudinal clinical studies. In this study, we will review known candidate biomarkers for COPD, proposed pathways of pathogenesis, and future directions in the field.

  15. Finding good biomarkers for sarcopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Scharf, Gesine; Heineke, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    The term sarcopenia describes the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. While this process, in principal, occurs in every adult person and already starts around the age of 40, it is associated with disability, morbidity, and increased mortality in some individuals. In the absence of clear clinical manifestation, we today lack the ability to differentiate between physiological and pathological sarcopenia. In this regard, we need good biomarkers that can be quantified in a reli...

  16. Cardiac Biomarkers in Hyperthyroid Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Sangster, Jodi Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hyperthyroidism has substantial effects on the circulatory system. The cardiac biomarkers NT-proBNP and troponin I (cTNI) have proven useful in identifying cats with myocardial disease but have not been as extensively investigated in hyperthyroidism.Hypothesis: Plasma NT-proBNP and cTNI concentrations are higher in cats with primary cardiac disease than in cats with hyperthyroidism and higher in cats with hyperthyroidism than in healthy control cats.Animals: Twenty-three hyperthyr...

  17. Cardiac Biomarkers in Hyperthyroid Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Sangster, J.K.; Panciera, D L; Abbott, J.A.; Zimmerman, K.C.; Lantis, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hyperthyroidism has substantial effects on the circulatory system. The cardiac biomarkers NT‐proBNP and troponin I (cTNI) have proven useful in identifying cats with myocardial disease but have not been extensively investigated in hyperthyroidism. Hypothesis Plasma NT‐proBNP and cTNI concentrations are higher in cats with primary myocardial disease than in cats with hyperthyroidism and higher in cats with hyperthyroidism than in healthy control cats. Animals Twenty‐three hyperthyro...

  18. Proteomics Discovery of Disease Biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Mamoun Ahram; Petricoin, Emanuel F.

    2008-01-01

    Recent technological developments in proteomics have shown promising initiatives in identifying novel biomarkers of various diseases. Such technologies are capable of investigating multiple samples and generating large amount of data end-points. Examples of two promising proteomics technologies are mass spectrometry, including an instrument based on surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization, and protein microarrays. Proteomics data must, however, undergo analytical processing using bioinfo...

  19. Salivary biomarkers in psychobiological medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Chiappelli, Francesco; Iribarren, Francisco Javier; Prolo, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The value of salivary biomarkers for diagnostic and prognostic assessments has become increasingly well established in medicine, pharmacology, and dentistry. Certain salivary components mirror the neuro-endocrine status of the organism. Other saliva products are protein in nature, and can serve to reflect immune surveillance processes. The autonomic nervous system regulates the process of salivation, and the concentration of yet other salivary components, such as α-amylase, which provide a re...

  20. Reproductive and developmental toxicity of phthalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyche, Jan L; Gutleb, Arno C; Bergman, Ake; Eriksen, Gunnar S; Murk, AlberTinka J; Ropstad, Erik; Saunders, Margaret; Skaare, Janneche U

    2009-04-01

    The purposes of this review are to (1) evaluate human and experimental evidence for adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans, produced by exposure to phthalates, and (2) identify knowledge gaps as for future studies. The widespread use of phthalates in consumer products leads to ubiquitous and constant exposure of humans to these chemicals. Phthalates were postulated to produce endocrine-disrupting effects in rodents, where fetal exposure to these compounds was found to induce developmental and reproductive toxicity. The adverse effects observed in rodent models raised concerns as to whether exposure to phthalates represents a potential health risk to humans. At present, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) have been demonstrated to produce reproductive and developmental toxicity; thus, this review focuses on these chemicals. For the general population, DEHP exposure is predominantly via food. The average concentrations of phthalates are highest in children and decrease with age. At present, DEHP exposures in the general population appear to be close to the tolerable daily intake (TDI), suggesting that at least some individuals exceed the TDI. In addition, specific high-risk groups exist with internal levels that are several orders of magnitude above average. Urinary metabolites used as biomarkers for the internal levels provide additional means to determine more specifically phthalate exposure levels in both general and high-risk populations. However, exposure data are not consistent and there are indications that secondary metabolites may be more accurate indicators of the internal exposure compared to primary metabolites. The present human toxicity data are not sufficient for evaluating the occurrence of reproductive effects following phthalate exposure in humans, based on existing relevant animal data. This is especially the case for data on female reproductive toxicity, which are

  1. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedrick Valisa E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a knowledge gap requiring future research. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature on currently available dietary biomarkers, including novel biomarkers of specific foods and dietary components, and assess the validity, reliability and sensitivity of the markers. This review revealed several biomarkers in need of additional validation research; research is also needed to produce sensitive, specific, cost-effective and noninvasive dietary biomarkers. The emerging field of metabolomics may help to advance the development of food/nutrient biomarkers, yet advances in food metabolome databases are needed. The availability of biomarkers that estimate intake of specific foods and dietary components could greatly enhance nutritional research targeting compliance to national recommendations as well as direct associations with disease outcomes. More research is necessary to refine existing biomarkers by accounting for confounding factors, to establish new indicators of specific food intake, and to develop techniques that are cost-effective, noninvasive, rapid and accurate measures of nutritional status.

  2. Attentional networks in developmental dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henik Avishai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very little is known about attention deficits in developmental dyscalculia, hence, this study was designed to provide the missing information. We examined attention abilities of participants suffering from developmental dyscalculia using the attention networks test - interactions. This test was designed to examine three different attention networks--executive function, orienting and alerting--and the interactions between them. Methods Fourteen university students that were diagnosed as suffering from developmental dyscalculia--intelligence and reading abilities in the normal range and no indication of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder--and 14 matched controls were tested using the attention networks test - interactions. All participants were given preliminary tests to measure mathematical abilities, reading, attention and intelligence. Results The results revealed deficits in the alerting network--a larger alerting effect--and in the executive function networks--a larger congruity effect in developmental dyscalculia participants. The interaction between the alerting and executive function networks was also modulated by group. In addition, developmental dyscalculia participants were slower to respond in the non-cued conditions. Conclusions These results imply specific attentional deficits in pure developmental dyscalculia. Namely, those with developmental dyscalculia seem to be deficient in the executive function and alertness networks. They suffer from difficulty in recruiting attention, in addition to the deficits in numerical processing.

  3. Developmental toxicity of cigarette butts - An underdeveloped issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wenjau; Lee, Chih Chun

    2015-03-01

    Cigarette butts (CBs) littering is not just an unsightly nuisance but also a public health problem, because chemicals contained in cigarettes can leach into aquatic environments and pose a risk to the health of humans and wildlife. However, this risk is largely unrecognized or ignored by the public, and toxicological evidence of CBs is scarce. Therefore, we used medaka embryos (Oryzias latipes) to explore developmental toxicity of CBs. The embryos were exposed to various concentrations of leachates from smoked and unsmoked cigarette tobacco (ST and UST) and filters (SF and USF), and observed from 1 to 3 days post-fertilization. The images were recorded and several developmental endpoints analyzed. The values from these endpoints were then used to calculate the Integrated Biomarker Response and evaluate overall effects of the leachates. Some of the embryos were allowed to hatch, and the hatchlings were tested for anxiety-like behavior. Our results showed that low concentrations of the leachates from ST, UST, and SF raised the heart rate, accelerated development, and changed behavior, while high concentrations lowered the heart rate, suppressed development, and increased mortality. The lowest observed effect concentration for the leachates was ≤0.2piece (pc)/L. The USF leachate had no effect at the concentration of 20pc/L. Developmental toxicity of the leachates was ranked as: ST>UST>SF>USF. This study has demonstrated for the first time that CB leachates affect fish development, and provided toxicological evidence to better assess ecological impacts of CBs.

  4. Molecular biomarkers for grass pollen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Florin-Dan

    2014-03-26

    Grass pollen allergy represents a significant cause of allergic morbidity worldwide. Component-resolved diagnosis biomarkers are increasingly used in allergy practice in order to evaluate the sensitization to grass pollen allergens, allowing the clinician to confirm genuine sensitization to the corresponding allergen plant sources and supporting an accurate prescription of allergy immunotherapy (AIT), an important approach in many regions of the world with great plant biodiversity and/or where pollen seasons may overlap. The search for candidate predictive biomarkers for grass pollen immunotherapy (tolerogenic dendritic cells and regulatory T cells biomarkers, serum blocking antibodies biomarkers, especially functional ones, immune activation and immune tolerance soluble biomarkers and apoptosis biomarkers) opens new opportunities for the early detection of clinical responders for AIT, for the follow-up of these patients and for the development of new allergy vaccines.

  5. Advances in Biomarker Research in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Shyamal H; Adler, Charles H

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, and the numbers are projected to double in the next two decades with the increase in the aging population. An important focus of current research is to develop interventions to slow the progression of the disease. However, prerequisites to it include the development of reliable biomarkers for early diagnosis which would identify at-risk groups and disease progression. In this review, we present updated evidence of already known clinical biomarkers (such as hyposmia and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD)) and neuroimaging biomarkers, as well as newer possible markers in the blood, CSF, and other tissues. While several promising candidates and methods to assess these biomarkers are on the horizon, it is becoming increasingly clear that no one candidate will clearly fulfill all the roles as a single biomarker. A multimodal and combinatorial approach to develop a battery of biomarkers will likely be necessary in the future. PMID:26711276

  6. Peripheral Blood Biomarkers in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Vij, Rekha; Noth, Imre

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we review the evidence for peripheral blood biomarkers in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a life-threatening fibrotic lung disease of unknown etiology. We focus on selected biomarkers present in peripheral blood, as they are easy to obtain, can be measured longitudinally, and have the greatest likelihood of achieving clinical utility. This article concentrates on biomarkers with mechanistic plausibility that may be directly involved in the development of IPF, including K...

  7. Biomarkers of HIV-associated Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Thabile Flepisi; Patrick Bouic; Gerhard Sissolak; Bernd Rosenkranz

    2014-01-01

    Cancer biomarkers have provided great opportunities for improving the management of cancer patients by enhancing the efficiency of early detection, diagnosis, and efficacy of treatment. Every cell type has a unique molecular signature, referred to as biomarkers, which are identifiable characteristics such as levels or activities of a myriad of genes, proteins, or other molecular features. Biomarkers can facilitate the molecular definition of cancer, provide information about the course of can...

  8. New serum biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Chadha, Kailash C.; Austin Miller; Nair, Bindukumar B.; Schwartz, Stanley A.; Trump, Donald L.; Willie Underwood

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a biomarker for diagnosis and management of prostate cancer (CaP). However, PSA typically lacks the sensitivity and specificity desired of a diagnostic marker. Objective: The goal of this study was to identify an additional biomarker or a panel of biomarkers that is more sensitive and specific than PSA in differentiating benign versus malignant prostate disease and/or localized CaP versus metastatic CaP. Methods: Concurrent meas...

  9. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Hedrick Valisa E; Dietrich Andrea M; Estabrooks Paul A; Savla Jyoti; Serrano Elena; Davy Brenda M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure) without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a ...

  10. Developmental psychopathology: concepts and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, M; Sroufe, L A

    2000-01-01

    The defining features of developmental psychopathology concepts include attention to the understanding of causal processes, appreciation of the role of developmental mechanisms, and consideration of continuities and discontinuities between normality and psychopathology. Accomplishments with respect to these issues are reviewed in relation to attachment disorders, antisocial behavior, autism, depressive disorder, schizophrenia, and intellectual development. Major research challenges remain in relation to measurement issues, comorbidity, gender differences, cognitive processing, nature-nurture interplay, heterotypic continuity, continuities between normal variations and disorders, developmental programming, and therapeutic mechanisms in effective treatments. PMID:11014739

  11. Developmental dyslexia and vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quercia P

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Quercia,1 Léonard Feiss,2 Carine Michel31Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital, Dijon, France; 2Office of Ophthalmology, Beaune, France; 3University of Burgundy, Dijon, INSERM U1093, Cognition, Action et Plasticité Sensorimotrice, Dijon, FranceAbstract: Developmental dyslexia affects almost 10% of school-aged children and represents a significant public health problem. Its etiology is unknown. The consistent presence of phonological difficulties combined with an inability to manipulate language sounds and the grapheme–phoneme conversion is widely acknowledged. Numerous scientific studies have also documented the presence of eye movement anomalies and deficits of perception of low contrast, low spatial frequency, and high frequency temporal visual information in dyslexics. Anomalies of visual attention with short visual attention spans have also been demonstrated in a large number of cases. Spatial orientation is also affected in dyslexics who manifest a preference for spatial attention to the right. This asymmetry may be so pronounced that it leads to a veritable neglect of space on the left side. The evaluation of treatments proposed to dyslexics whether speech or oriented towards the visual anomalies remains fragmentary. The advent of new explanatory theories, notably cerebellar, magnocellular, or proprioceptive, is an incentive for ophthalmologists to enter the world of multimodal cognition given the importance of the eye's visual input.Keywords: reading, ocular motility, dyslexia, neglect, spatial representation

  12. Biological Networks for Cancer Candidate Biomarkers Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wenying; Xue, Wenjin; Chen, Jiajia; Hu, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Due to its extraordinary heterogeneity and complexity, cancer is often proposed as a model case of a systems biology disease or network disease. There is a critical need of effective biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and/or outcome prediction from system level analyses. Methods based on integrating omics data into networks have the potential to revolutionize the identification of cancer biomarkers. Deciphering the biological networks underlying cancer is undoubtedly important for understanding the molecular mechanisms of the disease and identifying effective biomarkers. In this review, the networks constructed for cancer biomarker discovery based on different omics level data are described and illustrated from recent advances in the field.

  13. Biological Networks for Cancer Candidate Biomarkers Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wenying; Xue, Wenjin; Chen, Jiajia; Hu, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Due to its extraordinary heterogeneity and complexity, cancer is often proposed as a model case of a systems biology disease or network disease. There is a critical need of effective biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and/or outcome prediction from system level analyses. Methods based on integrating omics data into networks have the potential to revolutionize the identification of cancer biomarkers. Deciphering the biological networks underlying cancer is undoubtedly important for understanding the molecular mechanisms of the disease and identifying effective biomarkers. In this review, the networks constructed for cancer biomarker discovery based on different omics level data are described and illustrated from recent advances in the field. PMID:27625573

  14. Laboratory Building.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  15. Dynamics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Dynamics Lab replicates vibration environments for every Navy platform. Testing performed includes: Flight Clearance, Component Improvement, Qualification, Life...

  16. Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: To conduct fundamental studies of highway materials aimed at understanding both failure mechanisms and superior performance. New standard test methods are...

  17. Montlake Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NWFSC conducts critical fisheries science research at its headquarters in Seattle, WA and at five research stations throughout Washington and Oregon. The unique...

  18. Visualization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...

  19. Epikardiales Fett als Biomarker? // Epicardial Adipose Tissue as a Biomarker?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tscharre M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epicardial adipose tissue as the “visceral” adipose tissue of the heart is arousing more and more scientific interest, as it has numerous local and systemic effects. There is no fascia separating the epicardial adipose tissue and the myocardium and they both share its blood supply via the coronary arteries, thus allowing a possible interaction. Under normal physiological conditions, epicardial adipose tissue has mainly anti-atherogenic, thermogenic and mechanical characteristics. Under pathological conditions it becomes harmful to the myocardium and the coronary arteries. Important features in the clinical setting are correlations with coronary artery disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation and visceral adipose tissue, thus acting as a possible biomarker of cardiovascular risk. p bKurzfassung:/b Das epikardiale Fettgewebe erweckt als „viszerales“ Fettdepot des Herzens mit zahlreichen lokalen und systemischen Effekten immer mehr wissenschaftliches Interesse. Das Fehlen einer trennenden Faszie zwischen epikardialem Fettgewebe und Myokard und die gemeinsame Blutversorgung durch die Koronararterien erlauben eine potenzielle Interaktion. Unter normalen physiologischen Verhältnissen hat das epikardiale Fettgewebe hauptsächlich anti-atherogene, thermogenetische und mechanische Funktionen. Unter pathologischen Verhältnissen schädigt es das Myokard und die Koronararterien. Einen klinischen Stellenwert hat es aufgrund von Korrelationen mit koronarer Herzerkrankung, Herzinsuffizienz, Vorhofflimmern und viszeralem Fettgewebe. Dadurch könnte es als neuer Biomarker für das kardiovaskuläre Risiko dienen.

  20. [Biomarkers in inflammatory bowel diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roblin, Xavier; Cavaille, Alaric; Clavel, Léa; Paul, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Fecal calprotectine is of interest for diagnosis of IBD at the beginning. CRP and fecal calprotectine are predictive of long-term response in patients treated by anti-TNF therapy. Trough levels of anti-TNF are associated to clinical remission and mucosal healing. Detectable antibodies to anti-TNF are associated with lower response to treatment. Interventional studies are waiting before optimization of treatment in function of biomarkers. Trough levels of anti-TNF help to modify our treatment (optimization or de-escalation). PMID:24373717

  1. Developmental Milestones of Early Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Developmental Milestones of ...

  2. Neurobehavioural effects of developmental toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Landrigan, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    the known causes for this rise in prevalence. In 2006, we did a systematic review and identified five industrial chemicals as developmental neurotoxicants: lead, methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, arsenic, and toluene. Since 2006, epidemiological studies have documented six additional developmental...... neurotoxicants-manganese, fluoride, chlorpyrifos, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, tetrachloroethylene, and the polybrominated diphenyl ethers. We postulate that even more neurotoxicants remain undiscovered. To control the pandemic of developmental neurotoxicity, we propose a global prevention strategy. Untested...... chemicals should not be presumed to be safe to brain development, and chemicals in existing use and all new chemicals must therefore be tested for developmental neurotoxicity. To coordinate these efforts and to accelerate translation of science into prevention, we propose the urgent formation of a new...

  3. Attentional networks in developmental dyscalculia

    OpenAIRE

    Henik Avishai; Askenazi Sarit

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Very little is known about attention deficits in developmental dyscalculia, hence, this study was designed to provide the missing information. We examined attention abilities of participants suffering from developmental dyscalculia using the attention networks test - interactions. This test was designed to examine three different attention networks--executive function, orienting and alerting--and the interactions between them. Methods Fourteen university students that were...

  4. Learning Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Lyn; Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Considers the school library media center as an information learning laboratory. Topics include information literacy; Kuhlthau's Information Search Process model; inquiry theory and approach; discovery learning; process skills of laboratory science; the information scientist; attitudes of media specialists, teachers, and students; displays and Web…

  5. Laboratory microfusion capability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the issues involved in developing a Laboratory Microfusion Capability (LMC) which is the major objective of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program within the purview of the Department of Energy's Defense Programs. The study was initiated to support a number of DOE management needs: to provide insight for the evolution of the ICF program; to afford guidance to the ICF laboratories in planning their research and development programs; to inform Congress and others of the details and implications of the LMC; to identify criteria for selection of a concept for the Laboratory Microfusion Facility and to develop a coordinated plan for the realization of an LMC. As originally proposed, the LMC study was divided into two phases. The first phase identifies the purpose and potential utility of the LMC, the regime of its performance parameters, driver independent design issues and requirements, its development goals and requirements, and associated technical, management, staffing, environmental, and other developmental and operational issues. The second phase addresses driver-dependent issues such as specific design, range of performance capabilities, and cost. The study includes four driver options; the neodymium-glass solid state laser, the krypton fluoride excimer gas laser, the light-ion accelerator, and the heavy-ion induction linear accelerator. The results of the Phase II study are described in the present report

  6. 29 CFR 1952.351 - Developmental schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.351 Section 1952.351 Labor... (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Arizona § 1952.351 Developmental schedule. The Arizona State plan is developmental. The following is the developmental schedule as provided...

  7. 29 CFR 1952.161 - Developmental schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.161 Section 1952.161 Labor... (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Iowa § 1952.161 Developmental schedule. The Iowa State plan is developmental. The following is the developmental schedule as amended...

  8. 29 CFR 1952.101 - Developmental schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.101 Section 1952.101 Labor... (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Oregon § 1952.101 Developmental schedule. The Oregon plan is developmental. The schedule of developmental steps as described in the plan...

  9. 29 CFR 1952.111 - Developmental schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.111 Section 1952.111 Labor... (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Utah § 1952.111 Developmental schedule. The Utah plan is developmental. The following is the schedule of developmental steps provided by...

  10. Biomarkers of chronic alcohol misuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo P

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Philippe Gonzalo,1 Sylvie Radenne,2 Sylvie Gonzalo31Laboratoire de Biochimie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Saint-Etienne, Saint-Etienne, France; 2Service d'Hépatologie-Gastroentérologie, Hôpital de la Croix Rousse, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France; 3Laboratoire Biomnis, Lyon, FranceAbstract: Biological markers of chronic alcoholism can be divided into two groups: direct and indirect markers. Direct markers (mainly blood or serum and urine ethanol, ethylglucuronide, ethyl sulfate, and phosphatidylethanol directly track the intake of alcohol and vary in their sensitivity and kinetics of appearance and clearance. Indirect markers (mean corpuscular volume,γ-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin are biological parameters that are influenced by a steady and significant alcohol intake. We discuss the values of these tests and the relevance of their prescriptions for the clinical evaluation of heavy drinking. We indicate, when known, the pathophysiological mechanism of their elevations. We also discuss the amount and time of alcohol consumption required to give a positive result and the duration of abstinence required for the return to normal values. The forensic use of these biomarkers will not be considered in this review.Keywords: alcoholism, biomarker, CDT, relapse, alcohol-induced liver disease

  11. Biomarkers in Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Serafeim Theochari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of biomarkers is to identify patients most likely to benefit from a therapeutic strategy. Pancreatic neuroendocrinetumors are rare neoplasms that arise in the endocrine tissues of the pancreas. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors represent3% of primary pancreatic neoplasms and their incidence has risen. The SMAD4 gene is located on chromosome 18q andsomeday the SMAD4 gene status may be useful for prognostic stratification and therapeutic decision. The cells respond toenvironmental signals by modulating the expressions of genes contained within the nucleus, when genes are activated aretranscribed to generate messenger RNA (mRNA. The examination of multiple expressed genes and proteins provides moreuseful information for prognostication of individual tumors. Here we summarize and discuss findings presented at the 2014ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium. Anna Karpathakis et al. (Abstract #212 reported data about the role of DNAmethylation in gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors. Christina Lynn Roland et al. (Abstract #250 looked the impact OfSMAD4 on oncologic outcomes. Bong Kynn Kang et al. (Abstract #251 investigated prognostic biomarker using microRNAarray technology.

  12. Biomarkers of aggression in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotovac, Kristina; Nikolac Perković, Matea; Pivac, Nela; Borovečki, Fran

    2016-08-01

    Dementia is a clinical syndrome defined by progressive global impairment of acquired cognitive abilities. It can be caused by a number of underlying conditions. The most common types of dementia are Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Despite the fact that cognitive impairment is central to the dementia, noncognitive symptoms, most commonly described nowadays as neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) exist almost always at certain point of the illness. Aggression as one of the NPS represents danger both for patients and caregivers and the rate of aggression correlates with the loss of independence, cognitive decline and poor outcome. Therefore, biomarkers of aggression in dementia patients would be of a great importance. Studies have shown that different genetic factors, including monoamine signaling and processing, can be associated with various NPS including aggression. There have been significant and multiple neurotransmitter changes identified in the brains of patients with dementia and some of these changes have been involved in the etiology of NPS. Aggression specific changes have also been observed in neuropathological studies. The current consensus is that the best approach for development of such biomarkers may be incorporation of genetics (polymorphisms), neurobiology (neurotransmitters and neuropathology) and neuroimaging techniques. PMID:26952705

  13. Developmental changes in hippocampal associative coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsberry, Mary E; Kim, Jangjin; Freeman, John H

    2015-03-11

    Behavioral analyses of the ontogeny of memory have shown that hippocampus-dependent learning emerges relatively late in postnatal development compared with simple associative learning. Maturation of hippocampal mnemonic mechanisms has been hypothesized to underlie the development of the later emerging learning processes. However, the role of hippocampal maturation in learning has not been examined directly. The goal of the present study was to examine developmental changes in hippocampal neuronal coding during acquisition of a hippocampus-dependent learning task. We recorded activity from CA1 pyramidal cells in rat pups while they were trained on trace eyeblink conditioning. Trace eyeblink conditioning is a Pavlovian conditioning task that involves the association of a conditioned stimulus (CS) with an unconditioned stimulus over a stimulus-free trace interval. The inclusion of the trace interval is what makes the task hippocampus dependent. In the present study, rats were trained at 21-23, 24-26, and 31-33 d of age. Previous research from our laboratory and others shows that trace conditioning begins to emerge during the third postnatal week. The results indicate that hippocampal neurons show a substantial increase in responsiveness to task-relevant events during development. Moreover, there is an age-related increase in the proportion of neurons that respond to a combination of trial events (e.g., CS and trace). Our findings indicate that the developmental emergence of hippocampally mediated learning is related to increases in the strength and complexity of CA1 associative coding.

  14. Exploration of new HCC biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina M. Santella

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Analysis of plasma/serum for levels of viral antigens or antibodies to viral proteins has been used extensively as an early biomarker of potential risk of HCC. In addition, detection of elevated levels of alpha-fetoprotein is commonly used for early identification of HCC. Unfortunately, both of these approaches are not highly sensitive or specific. As a result, there is continuing investigation to identify additional biomarkers that may help in the early identification of cases. The use of DNA isolated from plasma or serum for detection of gene specific methylation has been discussed previously. In addition, tumor DNA isolated from blood has been analyzed for the presence of p53 mutations and found in a subset of cases to be present years prior to diagnosis as for methylated DNA. The general level of DNA present in blood has also been suggested as a potential biomarker of cancer.

    Among the newer methods being tested are the detection of specific mutations in HBV. In many cases of HCC in China and Africa a double mutation, an A to T transversion at nucleotide 1762 and a G to A transition at nucleotide 1764 (1762T/1764A have been found. These mutations have been associated with increased severity of HBV infection and cirrhosis suggesting that they might be a useful biomarker for high risk subjects.

    The field of proteomics also holds promise for the development of new biomarkers. A number of groups are developing mass spectrometry methods for the identification of serum/plasma proteomic patterns that will distinguish bloods of HCC cases from those of controls. While some interesting preliminary data have been developed for several cancers, much additional work needs to be done in this area

  15. Bias in emerging biomarkers for bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, A F; Köhler, C A; Fernandes, B S;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To date no comprehensive evaluation has appraised the likelihood of bias or the strength of the evidence of peripheral biomarkers for bipolar disorder (BD). Here we performed an umbrella review of meta-analyses of peripheral non-genetic biomarkers for BD. METHOD: The Pubmed...

  16. Current and emerging biomarkers of hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang X

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Xi Yang, William F Salminen, Laura K SchnackenbergDivision of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR, USAAbstract: Drug-induced liver injury (DILI is of great concern to human health. Generally, liver function and injury is evaluated based upon clinical signs, a select group of serum clinical biomarkers, and occasionally liver biopsies. While alanine aminotransferase, the most commonly used biomarker of hepatocellular injury, is a sensitive marker of liver injury, it is not necessarily specific for liver injury. Furthermore, alanine aminotransferase levels may not always correlate with the extent of injury. Therefore, new hepatotoxicity biomarkers are needed that are more predictive and specific indicators of liver injury and altered function. In addition, no current biomarker provides prognostic information about ultimate outcome once injury occurs, and any new biomarker filling this need is desperately needed. The omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, are being used in preclinical animal studies as well as clinical studies to evaluate markers of hepatotoxicity in easily obtained biofluids, such as urine and serum. Recently, the evaluation of circulating microRNAs in urine and blood has also shown promise for the identification of novel, sensitive markers of liver injury. This review evaluates the current status of proposed biomarkers of hepatotoxicity from the omics platforms, as well as from analysis of microRNAs. A brief description of the qualification of proposed biomarkers is also given.Keywords: biomarkers, hepatotoxicity, metabolomics, microRNA, proteomics, transcriptomics

  17. DNA Methylation Biomarkers: Cancer and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mikeska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers are naturally-occurring characteristics by which a particular pathological process or disease can be identified or monitored. They can reflect past environmental exposures, predict disease onset or course, or determine a patient’s response to therapy. Epigenetic changes are such characteristics, with most epigenetic biomarkers discovered to date based on the epigenetic mark of DNA methylation. Many tissue types are suitable for the discovery of DNA methylation biomarkers including cell-based samples such as blood and tumor material and cell-free DNA samples such as plasma. DNA methylation biomarkers with diagnostic, prognostic and predictive power are already in clinical trials or in a clinical setting for cancer. Outside cancer, strong evidence that complex disease originates in early life is opening up exciting new avenues for the detection of DNA methylation biomarkers for adverse early life environment and for estimation of future disease risk. However, there are a number of limitations to overcome before such biomarkers reach the clinic. Nevertheless, DNA methylation biomarkers have great potential to contribute to personalized medicine throughout life. We review the current state of play for DNA methylation biomarkers, discuss the barriers that must be crossed on the way to implementation in a clinical setting, and predict their future use for human disease.

  18. Fluid biomarkers in multiple system atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurens, Brice; Constantinescu, Radu; Freeman, Roy;

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing research efforts, no reliable biomarker currently exists for the diagnosis and prognosis of multiple system atrophy (MSA). Such biomarkers are urgently needed to improve diagnostic accuracy, prognostic guidance and also to serve as efficacy measures or surrogates of target...

  19. Proteomic Biomarkers for Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacerovsky, Marian; Lenco, Juraj; Musilova, Ivana;

    2014-01-01

    This review aimed to identify, synthesize, and analyze the findings of studies on proteomic biomarkers for spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). Three electronic databases (Medline, Embase, and Scopus) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of proteomic biomarkers for PTB published...

  20. Biomarkers in Alzheimer’s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajka M Liscic; Yuanhan Yang

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) so far did not have promising treatment. The accurate and early diagnosis is still the important issue. For these purpose, biomarkers related to diagnosis, clinical course, and other aims have been proposed and reported. Meanwhile, along with the ongoing researches for AD, biomarkers with their own aims are also on the way.

  1. Cytokines as Biomarkers in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Burska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available RA is a complex disease that develops as a series of events often referred to as disease continuum. RA would benefit from novel biomarker development for diagnosis where new biomarkers are still needed (even if progresses have been made with the inclusion of ACPA into the ACR/EULAR 2010 diagnostic criteria and for prognostic notably in at risk of evolution patients with autoantibody-positive arthralgia. Risk biomarkers for rapid evolution or cardiovascular complications are also highly desirable. Monitoring biomarkers would be useful in predicting relapse. Finally, predictive biomarkers for therapy outcome would allow tailoring therapy to the individual. Increasing numbers of cytokines have been involved in RA pathology. Many have the potential as biomarkers in RA especially as their clinical utility is already established in other diseases and could be easily transferable to rheumatology. We will review the current knowledge’s relation to cytokine used as biomarker in RA. However, given the complexity and heterogeneous nature of RA, it is unlikely that a single cytokine may provide sufficient discrimination; therefore multiple biomarker signatures may represent more realistic approach for the future of personalised medicine in RA.

  2. Stable isotopes and biomarkers in microbial ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschker, H.T.S.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of biomarkers in combination with stable isotope analysis is a new approach in microbial ecology and a number of papers on a variety of subjects have appeared. We will first discuss the techniques for analysing stable isotopes in biomarkers, primarily gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ra

  3. The Alzheimer's Association external quality control program for cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Niklas; Andreasson, Ulf; Persson, Staffan;

    2011-01-01

    The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers amyloid β (Aβ)-42, total-tau (T-tau), and phosphorylated-tau (P-tau) demonstrate good diagnostic accuracy for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there are large variations in biomarker measurements between studies, and between and within laboratories....... The Alzheimer's Association has initiated a global quality control program to estimate and monitor variability of measurements, quantify batch-to-batch assay variations, and identify sources of variability. In this article, we present the results from the first two rounds of the program....

  4. Novel diagnostic biomarkers for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikezie O. Madu, Yi Lu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in American men, and a more aggressive form of the disease is particularly prevalent among African Americans. The therapeutic success rate for prostate cancer can be tremendously improved if the disease is diagnosed early. Thus, a successful therapy for this disease depends heavily on the clinical indicators (biomarkers for early detection of the presence and progression of the disease, as well as the prediction after the clinical intervention. However, the current clinical biomarkers for prostate cancer are not ideal as there remains a lack of reliable biomarkers that can specifically distinguish between those patients who should be treated adequately to stop the aggressive form of the disease and those who should avoid overtreatment of the indolent form.A biomarker is a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. A biomarker reveals further information to presently existing clinical and pathological analysis. It facilitates screening and detecting the cancer, monitoring the progression of the disease, and predicting the prognosis and survival after clinical intervention. A biomarker can also be used to evaluate the process of drug development, and, optimally, to improve the efficacy and safety of cancer treatment by enabling physicians to tailor treatment for individual patients. The form of the prostate cancer biomarkers can vary from metabolites and chemical products present in body fluid to genes and proteins in the prostate tissues.Current advances in molecular techniques have provided new tools facilitating the discovery of new biomarkers for prostate cancer. These emerging biomarkers will be beneficial and critical in developing new and clinically reliable indicators that will have a high specificity for the diagnosis and prognosis of

  5. Novel diagnostic biomarkers for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Chikezie O; Lu, Yi

    2010-10-06

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in American men, and a more aggressive form of the disease is particularly prevalent among African Americans. The therapeutic success rate for prostate cancer can be tremendously improved if the disease is diagnosed early. Thus, a successful therapy for this disease depends heavily on the clinical indicators (biomarkers) for early detection of the presence and progression of the disease, as well as the prediction after the clinical intervention. However, the current clinical biomarkers for prostate cancer are not ideal as there remains a lack of reliable biomarkers that can specifically distinguish between those patients who should be treated adequately to stop the aggressive form of the disease and those who should avoid overtreatment of the indolent form.A biomarker is a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. A biomarker reveals further information to presently existing clinical and pathological analysis. It facilitates screening and detecting the cancer, monitoring the progression of the disease, and predicting the prognosis and survival after clinical intervention. A biomarker can also be used to evaluate the process of drug development, and, optimally, to improve the efficacy and safety of cancer treatment by enabling physicians to tailor treatment for individual patients. The form of the prostate cancer biomarkers can vary from metabolites and chemical products present in body fluid to genes and proteins in the prostate tissues.Current advances in molecular techniques have provided new tools facilitating the discovery of new biomarkers for prostate cancer. These emerging biomarkers will be beneficial and critical in developing new and clinically reliable indicators that will have a high specificity for the diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer. The

  6. Melanoma biomarkers: Vox clamantis in deserto (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shaer, Mays; Gollapudi, Divya; Papageorgio, Chris

    2010-05-01

    Detecting malignant melanoma at an early stage, monitoring therapy, predicting recurrence and identifying patients at risk for metastasis continue to be a challenging and demanding objective. The last two decades have witnessed innovations in the field of melanoma biomarkers. However, global agreement concerning monitoring and early detection has yet to be reached. This is a review of the current literature regarding melanoma biomarkers including demographic, clinical, pathological and molecular biomarkers that are produced by melanoma or non-melanoma cells. A number of these biomarkers demonstrate promising results as possible methods for early detection, predicting recurrence and monitoring therapy. Other biomarkers appear to be promising for identifying patients at risk for metastasis. We reviewed the most pertinent information in the field thus far and how this knowledge can impact, or not, the management of melanoma patients prognostically and therapeutically. PMID:22966315

  7. Diagnostic and prognostic epigenetic biomarkers in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Pinheiro, Pedro; Montezuma, Diana; Henrique, Rui; Jerónimo, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Growing cancer incidence and mortality worldwide demands development of accurate biomarkers to perfect detection, diagnosis, prognostication and monitoring. Urologic (prostate, bladder, kidney), lung, breast and colorectal cancers are the most common and despite major advances in their characterization, this has seldom translated into biomarkers amenable for clinical practice. Epigenetic alterations are innovative cancer biomarkers owing to stability, frequency, reversibility and accessibility in body fluids, entailing great potential of assay development to assist in patient management. Several studies identified putative epigenetic cancer biomarkers, some of which have been commercialized. However, large multicenter validation studies are required to foster translation to the clinics. Herein we review the most promising epigenetic detection, diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers for the most common cancers.

  8. Simultaneous concentration and detection of biomarkers on paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ricky Y T; Jue, Erik; Yip, Allison T; Berg, Andrew R; Wang, Stephanie J; Kivnick, Alexandra R; Nguyen, Phuong T; Kamei, Daniel T

    2014-08-21

    The lateral-flow immunoassay (LFA) is an inexpensive point-of-care (POC) paper-based diagnostic device with the potential to rapidly detect disease biomarkers in resource-poor settings. Although LFA is inexpensive, easy to use, and requires no laboratory equipment, it is limited by its sensitivity, which remains inferior to that of gold standard laboratory-based assays. Our group is the only one to have previously utilized various aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) to enhance LFA detection. In those studies, the sample was concentrated by an ATPS in a test tube and could only be applied to LFA after it had been extracted manually. Here, we bypass the extraction step by seamlessly integrating a polyethylene glycol-potassium phosphate ATPS with downstream LFA detection in a simple, inexpensive, power-free, and portable all-in-one diagnostic device. We discovered a new phenomenon in which the target biomarkers simultaneously concentrate as the ATPS solution flows through the paper membranes, and our device features a 3-D paper well that was designed to exploit this phenomenon. Studies with this device, which were performed at room temperature in under 25 min, demonstrated a 10-fold improvement in the detection limit of a model protein, transferrin. Our next-generation LFA technology is rapid, affordable, easy-to-use, and can be applied to existing LFA products, thereby providing a new platform for revolutionizing the current state of disease diagnosis in resource-poor settings. PMID:24950897

  9. Cerebrospinal fluid IL-12p40, CXCL13 and IL-8 as a combinatorial biomarker of active intrathecal inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Bielekova

    Full Text Available Diagnosis and management of the neuroinflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS are hindered by the lack of reliable biomarkers of active intrathecal inflammation. We hypothesized that measuring several putative inflammatory biomarkers simultaneously will augment specificity and sensitivity of the biomarker to the clinically useful range. Based on our pilot experiment in which we measured 18 inflammatory biomarkers in 10-fold concentrated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF derived from 16 untreated patients with highly active multiple sclerosis (MS we selected a combination of three CSF biomarkers, IL-12p40, CXCL13 and IL-8, for further validation.Concentrations of IL-12p40, CXCL13 and IL-8 were determined in a blinded fashion in CSF samples from an initial cohort (n = 72 and a confirmatory cohort (n = 167 of prospectively collected, untreated subjects presenting for a diagnostic work-up of possible neuroimmunological disorder. Diagnostic conclusion was based on a thorough clinical workup, which included laboratory assessment of the blood and CSF, neuroimaging and longitudinal follow-up. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis in conjunction with principal component analysis (PCA, which was used to combine information from all three biomarkers, assessed the diagnostic value of measured biomarkers.Each of the three biomarkers was significantly increased in MS and other inflammatory neurological disease (OIND in comparison to non-inflammatory neurological disorder patients (NIND at least in one cohort. However, considering all three biomarkers together improved accuracy of predicting the presence of intrathecal inflammation to the consistently good to excellent range (area under the ROC curve = 0.868-0.924.Future clinical studies will determine if a combinatorial biomarker consisting of CSF IL-12p40, CXCL13 and IL-8 provides utility in determining the presence of active intrathecal inflammation in diagnostically

  10. Modeling winter moth Operophtera brumata egg phenology: nonlinear effects of temperature and developmental stage on developmental rate

    OpenAIRE

    Salis, Lucia; Lof, Marjolein; van Asch, Margriet; Visser, Marcel E

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between an insect's developmental rate and temperature is crucial to forecast insect phenology under climate change. In the winter moth Operophtera brumata timing of egg-hatching has severe fitness consequences on growth and reproduction as egg-hatching has to match bud burst of the host tree. In the winter moth, as in many insect species, egg development is strongly affected by ambient temperatures. Here we use laboratory experiments to show for the first time ...

  11. Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... or conditions. What are lab tests? Laboratory tests are medical procedures that involve testing samples of blood, urine, or other tissues or ...

  12. Biomarkers in Parkinson's disease (recent update).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sushil; Moon, Carolyn Seungyoun; Khogali, Azza; Haidous, Ali; Chabenne, Anthony; Ojo, Comfort; Jelebinkov, Miriana; Kurdi, Yousef; Ebadi, Manuchair

    2013-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder mostly affecting the aging population over sixty. Cardinal symptoms including, tremors, muscle rigidity, drooping posture, drooling, walking difficulty, and autonomic symptoms appear when a significant number of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons are already destroyed. Hence we need early, sensitive, specific, and economical peripheral and/or central biomarker(s) for the differential diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of PD. These can be classified as clinical, biochemical, genetic, proteomic, and neuroimaging biomarkers. Novel discoveries of genetic as well as nongenetic biomarkers may be utilized for the personalized treatment of PD during preclinical (premotor) and clinical (motor) stages. Premotor biomarkers including hyper-echogenicity of substantia nigra, olfactory and autonomic dysfunction, depression, hyposmia, deafness, REM sleep disorder, and impulsive behavior may be noticed during preclinical stage. Neuroimaging biomarkers (PET, SPECT, MRI), and neuropsychological deficits can facilitate differential diagnosis. Single-cell profiling of dopaminergic neurons has identified pyridoxal kinase and lysosomal ATPase as biomarker genes for PD prognosis. Promising biomarkers include: fluid biomarkers, neuromelanin antibodies, pathological forms of α-Syn, DJ-1, amyloid β and tau in the CSF, patterns of gene expression, metabolomics, urate, as well as protein profiling in the blood and CSF samples. Reduced brain regional N-acetyl-aspartate is a biomarker for the in vivo assessment of neuronal loss using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and T2 relaxation time with MRI. To confirm PD diagnosis, the PET biomarkers include [(18)F]-DOPA for estimating dopaminergic neurotransmission, [(18)F]dG for mitochondrial bioenergetics, [(18)F]BMS for mitochondrial complex-1, [(11)C](R)-PK11195 for microglial activation, SPECT imaging with (123)Iflupane and βCIT for dopamine transporter, and urinary

  13. PET Metabolic Biomarkers for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Etienne; Renaud, Jennifer M.; Richard, Marie Anne; Ruddy, Terrence D.; Bénard, François; deKemp, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    The body’s main fuel sources are fats, carbohydrates (glucose), proteins, and ketone bodies. It is well known that an important hallmark of cancer cells is the overconsumption of glucose. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using the glucose analog 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) has been a powerful cancer diagnostic tool for many decades. Apart from surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy represent the two main domains for cancer therapy, targeting tumor proliferation, cell division, and DNA replication—all processes that require a large amount of energy. Currently, in vivo clinical imaging of metabolism is performed almost exclusively using PET radiotracers that assess oxygen consumption and mechanisms of energy substrate consumption. This paper reviews the utility of PET imaging biomarkers for the detection of cancer proliferation, vascularization, metabolism, treatment response, and follow-up after radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and chemotherapy-related side effects.

  14. Biomarkers in canine parvovirus enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, J P; Goddard, A; Leisewitz, A L

    2013-07-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis has, since its emergence in 1978, remained a common and important cause of morbidity and mortality in young dogs. The continued incidence of parvoviral enteritis is partly due to the virus' capability to evolve into more virulent and resistant variants with significant local gastrointestinal and systemic inflammatory sequelae. This paper reviews current knowledge on historical-, signalment-, and clinical factors as well as several haematological-, biochemical- and endocrine parameters that can be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in CPV enteritis. These factors include season of presentation, purebred nature, bodyweight, vomiting, leukopaenia, lymphopaenia, thrombocytopaenia, hypercoagulability, hypercortisolaemia, hypothyroxinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, elevated C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor, hypocholesterolaemia and hypocitrullinaemia. Factors contributing to the manifestations of CPV infection are multiple with elements of host, pathogen, secondary infections, underlying stressors and environment affecting severity and outcome. The availability of several prognosticators has made identification of patients at high risk of death and their subsequent targeted management more rewarding.

  15. Dissecting the Syndrome of Schizophrenia: Progress toward Clinically Useful Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Dean

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for clinically useful biomarkers has been one of the holy grails of schizophrenia research. This paper will outline the evolving notion of biomarkers and then outline outcomes from a variety of biomarkers discovery strategies. In particular, the impact of high-throughput screening technologies on biomarker discovery will be highlighted and how new or improved technologies may allow the discovery of either diagnostic biomarkers for schizophrenia or biomarkers that will be useful in determining appropriate treatments for people with the disorder. History tells those involved in biomarker research that the discovery and validation of useful biomarkers is a long process and current progress must always be viewed in that light. However, the approval of the first biomarker screen with some value in predicting responsiveness to antipsychotic drugs suggests that biomarkers can be identified and that these biomarkers that will be useful in diagnosing and treating people with schizophrenia.

  16. Dissecting the Syndrome of Schizophrenia: Progress toward Clinically Useful Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The search for clinically useful biomarkers has been one of the holy grails of schizophrenia research. This paper will outline the evolving notion of biomarkers and then outline outcomes from a variety of biomarkers discovery strategies. In particular, the impact of high-throughput screening technologies on biomarker discovery will be highlighted and how new or improved technologies may allow the discovery of either diagnostic biomarkers for schizophrenia or biomarkers that will be useful in determining appropriate treatments for people with the disorder. History tells those involved in biomarker research that the discovery and validation of useful biomarkers is a long process and current progress must always be viewed in that light. However, the approval of the first biomarker screen with some value in predicting responsiveness to antipsychotic drugs suggests that biomarkers can be identified and that these biomarkers that will be useful in diagnosing and treating people with schizophrenia.

  17. Biomarkers in chronic adult hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitchen Neil D

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Awareness of the importance of chronic adult hydrocephalus has been raised again with the recent emergence of epidemiological studies. It is estimated that between 5 and 10% of patients suffering from dementia might, in fact, have chronic hydrocephalus. Although, surgical diversion of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF represents the only known procedure able to treat the symptoms of this condition, the selection of surgical patients has always been problematic. In the last 40 years, we have become wiser in using appropriate diagnostic tests for the selection of these patients; however, the area of biological markers has so far been overlooked in this condition, in contrast to that for other neurodegenerative disorders and dementias. Biomarkers are biological substances that may be used to indicate either the onset or the presence, and the progression of a clinical condition, being closely linked to its pathophysiology. In such a setting they might assist in the more appropriate selection of patients for shunt surgery. In this article, we have reviewed research carried out in the last 25 years regarding the identification of serum and CSF biomarkers for chronic hydrocephalus, discussed the potential for each one, and finally discussed the limitations for use, as well as future directions and possibilities in this field. It is concluded that tumour-necrosis factor, tau protein, lactate, sulfatide and neurofilament triple protein are the most promising CSF markers for chronic hydrocephalus. At present however, none of these meet the criteria required to justify a change clinical practice. In the future, collaborative multi-centre projects will be needed to obtain more substantial data that overcome the problems that arise from small individual and uncoordinated studies.

  18. Developmental orthopaedic diseases in foals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developmental Orthopaedic Diseases (DOD) is seen frequently in horses which completed their maturity. Osteochondrosis, physitis, angular limb deformities, flexural deformities, juvenil arthritis, cervical vertebral anomalies, cuboidal bone abnormalities are problems investigated under Developmental Orthopaedic Diseases title. This diseases can develop single or some together in fast growing, heavy animals (especially Arabian and English Thoroughbreds). Multifactorial causes of this diseases etiopathogenesis can be listed as genetic predisposition, trauma, nutrition, vitamins/minerals and endocrine disorders. But the exact causes of these diseases are not known. In this review detailed information are given about the diseases mentioned above

  19. The renaissance of developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Johnston, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    Since its heyday in the 1980s and 90s, the field of developmental biology has gone into decline; in part because it has been eclipsed by the rise of genomics and stem cell biology, and in part because it has seemed less pertinent in an era with so much focus on translational impact. In this essay, I argue that recent progress in genome-wide analyses and stem cell research, coupled with technological advances in imaging and genome editing, have created the conditions for the renaissance of a new wave of developmental biology with greater translational relevance.

  20. Update of Thyroid Developmental Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoupa, Athanasia; Kariyawasam, Dulanjalee; Carré, Aurore; Polak, Michel

    2016-06-01

    Thyroid dysgenesis (TD) is the most common cause of congenital hypothyroidism in iodine-sufficient regions and includes a spectrum of developmental anomalies. The genetic components of TD are complex. Although a sporadic disease, advances in developmental biology have revealed monogenetic forms of TD. Inheritance is not based on a simple Mendelian pattern and additional genetic elements might contribute to the phenotypic spectrum. This article summarizes the key steps of normal thyroid development and provides an update on responsible genes and underlying mechanisms of TD. Up-to-date technologies in genetics and biology will allow us to advance in our knowledge of TD. PMID:27241962

  1. Cardiac Biomarkers and Cycling Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Le Goff, Jean-François Kaux, Sébastien Goffaux, Etienne Cavalier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In cycling as in other types of strenuous exercise, there exists a risk of sudden death. It is important both to understand its causes and to see if the behavior of certain biomarkers might highlight athletes at risk. Many reports describe changes in biomarkers after strenuous exercise (Nie et al., 2011, but interpreting these changes, and notably distinguishing normal physiological responses from pathological changes, is not easy. Here we have focused on the kinetics of different cardiac biomarkers: creatin kinase (CK, creating kinase midbrain (CK-MB, myoglobin (MYO, highly sensitive troponin T (hs-TnT and N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP. The population studied was a group of young trained cyclists participating in a 177-km cycling race. The group of individuals was selected for maximal homogeneity. Their annual training volume was between 10,000 and 16,000 kilometers. The rhythm of races is comparable and averages 35 km/h, depending on the race’s difficulty. The cardiac frequency was recorded via a heart rate monitor. Three blood tests were taken. The first blood test, T0, was taken approximately 2 hours before the start of the race and was intended to gather values which would act as references for the following tests. The second blood test, T1, was realized within 5 minutes of their arrival. The third and final blood test, T3, was taken 3 hours following their arrival. The CK, CK-MB, MYO, hs-TnT and NT-proBNP were measured on the Roche Diagnostic modular E (Manhein, Germany. For the statistical analysis, an ANOVA and post hoc test of Scheffé were calculated with the Statistica Software version 9.1. We noticed an important significant variation in the cardiac frequency between T0 and T1 (p < 0.0001, T0 and T3 (p < 0.0001, and T1 and T3 (p < 0.01. Table 1 shows the results obtained for the different biomarkers. CK and CK-MB showed significant variation between T0-T1 and T0-T3 (p < 0.0001. Myoglobin increased significantly

  2. Molecular Imaging of Biomarkers in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulaner, Gary A.; Riedl, Chris C.; Dickler, Maura N.; Jhaveri, Komal; Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; Weber, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The success of breast cancer therapy is ultimately defined by clinical endpoints such as survival. It is valuable to have biomarkers that can predict the most efficacious therapies or measure response to therapy early in the course of treatment. Molecular imaging has a promising role in complementing and overcoming some of the limitations of traditional biomarkers by providing the ability to perform noninvasive, repeatable whole-body assessments. The potential advantages of imaging biomarkers are obvious and initial clinical studies have been promising, but proof of clinical utility still requires prospective multicenter clinical trials. PMID:26834103

  3. AAPS and US FDA Crystal City VI workshop on bioanalytical method validation for biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowes, Steve; Ackermann, Bradley L

    2016-02-01

    Crystal City VI Workshop on Bioanalytical Method Validation of Biomarkers, Renaissance Baltimore Harborplace Hotel, Baltimore, MD, USA, 28-29 September 2015 The Crystal City VI workshop was organized by the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists in association with the US FDA to continue discussion on the bioanalysis of biomarkers. An outcome of the Crystal City V workshop, convened following release of the draft FDA Guidance for Industry on Bioanalytical Methods Validation in 2013 was the need to have further discussion on biomarker methods. Biomarkers ultimately became the sole focal point for Crystal City VI, a meeting attended by approximately 200 people and composed of industry scientists and regulators from around the world. The meeting format included several panel discussions to maximize the opportunity for dialogue among participants. Following an initial session on the general topic of biomarker assays and intended use, more focused sessions were held on chromatographic (LC-MS) and ligand-binding assays. In addition to participation by the drug development community, significant representation was present from clinical testing laboratories. The experience of this latter group, collectively identified as practitioners of CLIA (Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments), helped shape the discussion and takeaways from the meeting. While the need to operate within the framework of the current BMV guidance was clearly acknowledged, a general understanding that biomarker methods validation cannot be adequately depicted by current PK-centric guidelines emerged as a consensus from the meeting. This report is not intended to constitute the official proceedings from Crystal City VI, which is expected to be published in early 2016. PMID:26795584

  4. Glycoprotein Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Aggressive Prostate Cancer — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Early Detection Research Network of the NCI is charged with the discovery, development and validation of biomarkers for early detection and prognosis related to neoplastic disease. Our laboratory is an NCI EDRN (U01CA152813) working on "Glycoprotein biomarkers for the early detection of aggressive prostate cancer". This EDRN administratiVE! supplement is a collaboration with Robert Veltri on his project to identify men with very low risk (indolent) prostate cancer (CaP) at the diagnostic biopsy at selection for active surveillance (AS). We will assess biopsy tissue using quantitative nuclear histomorphometric measurements and molecular biomarkers to predict an unexpected catastrophic CaP in such men with indolent CaP. At Johns Hopkins Hospital w1e use the Epstein criteria that includes; PSA density (PSAD) aggressive disease from a AS diagnostic biopsy. Our approach will combine nuclear morphometry measured by digital microscopy with a unique biopsy tissue biomarker profile (DNA content, Ki67, Her2neu, CACND1 and periostin). Fc•r the molecular targets we will us•e a multiplex tissue blot (MTB) immunohistochemistry method. The Aims o'f our work include 1) to utilize retrospective archival biopsy material from 70 AS cases where the outcome was unexpected and disastrous and collect an equal number of AS cases (n=140) and perform assays for morphology and biomarker targi ts proposed, 2) and predict failure using Cox proportional hazards statistical modeling.

  5. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis biomarkers: clinical utility and a way of understanding disease pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flynn M

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Matthew Flynn, Elisabeth S Baker, Daniel J Kass Dorothy P and Richard P Simmons Center for Interstitial Lung Disease, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Abstract: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a typically fatal disease that remains incompletely understood despite intense study and the arrival of drugs that may alter the natural history of the disease. Rendering an accurate diagnosis and predicting prognosis remain challenging problems to clinicians. One potential solution to these clinical problems is the identification of IPF biomarkers, easily measured factors that can be employed to predict clinical behavior. Candidate biomarkers have been identified by research in the laboratory on potential culprit cells or genes that may contribute to the pathogenesis of IPF. In this review, we present the current data on a number of well-studied IPF biomarker candidates and their potential role in the pathogenesis of disease. We also establish a framework for evaluating utility of incorporating these IPF biomarkers into clinical practice. Keywords: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, usual interstitial pneumonia, biomarker, matrix metalloproteinases

  6. Detection of protein biomarker using a blood glucose meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian; Xiang, Yu; Lu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    mHeath technologies are recognized to play important roles in the future of personal care and medicine. However, their full potentials have not been reached, as most of current technologies are restricted to monitoring physical and behavioral parameters, such as body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, and physical movement, while direct monitoring of biomarkers in body fluids can provide much more accurate and useful information for medical diagnostics. A major barrier to realizing the full potential of mHealth is the high costs and long cycles of developing mHealth devices capable of monitoring biomarkers in body fluids. To lower the costs and shorten the developmental cycle, we have demonstrated the leveraging of the most successful portable medical monitoring device on the market, the blood glucose meter (BGM), with FDA-approved smartphone technologies that allow for wireless transmission and remote monitoring of a wide range of non-glucose targets. In this protocol, an aptamer-based assay for quantification of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) using an off-the-shelf BGM is described. In this assay, an aptamer-based target recognition system is employed. When IFN-γ binds to the aptamer, it triggers the release of a reporter enzyme, invertase, which can catalyze the conversion of sucrose (not detected by BGM) to glucose. The glucose being produced is then detected using a BGM. The system mimics a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), where the traditional immunoassay is replaced by an aptamer binding assay; the reporter protein is replaced by invertase, and finally the optical or fluorescence detector is replaced with widely available BGMs. PMID:25626534

  7. Writing Stages: A Developmental Hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Joseph O.

    The developmental stages of writing can be related to Jean Piaget's final three stages of development (preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational) and to the narrative, descriptive, explanative, analytical, and artistic rhetorical modes. As the child enters kindergarten or the first grade, narrative blooms. By this age most young…

  8. Developmental Principles: Fact or Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Durston

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While still at school, most of us are deeply impressed by the underlying principles that so beautifully explain why the chemical elements are ordered as they are in the periodic table, and may wonder, with the theoretician Brian Goodwin, “whether there might be equally powerful principles that account for the awe-inspiring diversity of body forms in the living realm”. We have considered the arguments for developmental principles, conclude that they do exist and have specifically identified features that may generate principles associated with Hox patterning of the main body axis in bilaterian metazoa in general and in the vertebrates in particular. We wonder whether this exercise serves any purpose. The features we discuss were already known to us as parts of developmental mechanisms and defining developmental principles (how, and at which level? adds no insight. We also see little profit in the proposal by Goodwin that there are principles outside the emerging genetic mechanisms that need to be taken into account. The emerging developmental genetic hierarchies already reveal a wealth of interesting phenomena, whatever we choose to call them.

  9. Developmental control of cell division

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxem, M. (Mike)

    2002-01-01

    During development of multicellular organisms, cell divisions need to be coordinated with the developmental program of the entire organism. Although the mechanisms that drive cells through the division cycle are well understood, very little is known about the pathways that link extracellular signals

  10. Developmental Dyscalculia and Medical Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Ruth S.; Gross-Tsur, Varda

    1993-01-01

    Medical evaluation of seven third-grade children with developmental dyscalculia in a mainstream setting identified neurological conditions (including petit mal seizures, Gerstmann syndrome, and attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity) in all the children. Findings suggest that children who are not improving academically should undergo…

  11. Developmental trends in adaptive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L; Smeets, Tom; Garner, Sarah R

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that memory is enhanced when information is processed for fitness-related purposes. The main objective of the current experiments was to test developmental trends in the evolutionary foundation of memory using different types of stimuli and paradigms. In Experiment 1, 11-year-olds and adults were presented with neutral, negative, and survival-related DRM word lists. We found a memory benefit for the survival-related words and showed that false memories were more likely to be elicited for the survival-related word lists than for the other lists. Experiment 2 examined developmental trends in the survival processing paradigm using neutral, negative, and survival-related pictures. A survival processing advantage was found for survival-related pictures in adults, for negative pictures in 11/12-year-olds, and for neutral pictures in 7/8-year-olds. In Experiment 3, 11/12-year-olds and adults had to imagine the standard survival scenario or an adapted survival condition (or pleasantness condition) that was designed to reduce the possibilities for elaborative processing. We found superior memory retention for both survival scenarios in children and adults. Collectively, our results evidently show that the survival processing advantage is developmentally invariant and that certain proximate mechanisms (elaboration and distinctiveness) underlie these developmental trends. PMID:23521432

  12. Transforming Developmental Education in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Developmental Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with support from the Texas Legislature, the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board has funded various developmental education initiatives, including research and evaluation efforts, to help Texas public institutions of higher education provide more effective programs and services to underprepared students. Based on evaluation…

  13. Developmental cholinotoxicants: nicotine and chlorpyrifos.

    OpenAIRE

    Slotkin, T A

    1999-01-01

    The stimulation of cholinergic receptors in target cells during a critical developmental period provides signals that influence cell replication and differentiation. Accordingly, environmental agents that promote cholinergic activity evoke neurodevelopmental damage because of the inappropriate timing or intensity of stimulation. Nicotine evokes mitotic arrest in brain cells possessing high concentrations of nicotinic cholinergic receptors. In addition, the cholinergic overstimulation programs...

  14. The diversification of developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Nathan; Dietrich, Michael R; Alomepe, Beverly S; Antrim, Amelia F; ByrneSim, Bay Lauris; He, Yi

    2015-10-01

    In the 1960s, "developmental biology" became the dominant term to describe some of the research that had previously been included under the rubrics of embryology, growth, morphology, and physiology. As scientific societies formed under this new label, a new discipline took shape. Historians, however, have a number of different perspectives on what changes led to this new field of developmental biology and how the field itself was constituted during this period. Using the General Embryological Information Service, a global index of post-World War II development-related research, we have documented and visualized significant changes in the kinds of research that occurred as this new field formed. In particular, our analysis supports the claim that the transition toward developmental biology was marked by a growth in new topics and forms of research. Although many historians privilege the role of molecular biology and/or the molecularization of biology in general during this formative period, we have found that the influence of molecular biology is not sufficient to account for the wide range of new research that constituted developmental biology at the time. Overall, our work creates a robust characterization of the changes that occurred with regard to research on growth and development in the decades following World War II and provides a context for future work on the specific drivers of those changes. PMID:26056745

  15. Topographical ability in Developmental Prosopagnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klargaard, Solja; Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests a relation between impaired spatial (navigational) processing and developmental prosopagnosia (DP). To address this formally, we tested nine individuals with DP and 18 matched controls on a four-choice match-to-sample test of (concurrent) topographical perception...

  16. Causal Inference and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Causal inference is of central importance to developmental psychology. Many key questions in the field revolve around improving the lives of children and their families. These include identifying risk factors that if manipulated in some way would foster child development. Such a task inherently involves causal inference: One wants to know whether…

  17. Vygotsky's Developmental and Educational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Peter E.

    2005-01-01

    Vygotsky is widely considered one of the most significant and influential psychologists of the twentieth century. Nevertheless, true appreciation of his theories has been hindered by a lack of understanding of the background to his thought. "Vygotsky's Developmental and Educational Psychology" aims to demonstrate how we can come to a new and…

  18. Cheating by exploitation of developmental prestalk patterning in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Khare

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The cooperative developmental system of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is susceptible to exploitation by cheaters-strains that make more than their fair share of spores in chimerae. Laboratory screens in Dictyostelium have shown that the genetic potential for facultative cheating is high, and field surveys have shown that cheaters are abundant in nature, but the cheating mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we describe cheater C (chtC, a strong facultative cheater mutant that cheats by affecting prestalk differentiation. The chtC gene is developmentally regulated and its mRNA becomes stalk-enriched at the end of development. chtC mutants are defective in maintaining the prestalk cell fate as some of their prestalk cells transdifferentiate into prespore cells, but that defect does not affect gross developmental morphology or sporulation efficiency. In chimerae between wild-type and chtC mutant cells, the wild-type cells preferentially give rise to prestalk cells, and the chtC mutants increase their representation in the spore mass. Mixing chtC mutants with other cell-type proportioning mutants revealed that the cheating is directly related to the prestalk-differentiation propensity of the victim. These findings illustrate that a cheater can victimize cooperative strains by exploiting an established developmental pathway.

  19. CSF Biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anoop

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common form of dementia that affects several million people worldwide. The major neuropathological hallmarks of AD are the presence of extracellular amyloid plaques that are composed of Aβ40 and Aβ42 and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFT, which is composed of hyperphosphorylated protein Tau. While the amyloid plaques and NFT could define the disease progression involving neuronal loss and dysfunction, significant cognitive decline occurs before their appearance. Although significant advances in neuroimaging techniques provide the structure and physiology of brain of AD cases, the biomarker studies based on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma represent the most direct and convenient means to study the disease progression. Biomarkers are useful in detecting the preclinical as well as symptomatic stages of AD. In this paper, we discuss the recent advancements of various biomarkers with particular emphasis on CSF biomarkers for monitoring the early development of AD before significant cognitive dysfunction.

  20. Early Detection Biomarkers for Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeja Sarojini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the widespread use of conventional and contemporary methods to detect ovarian cancer development, ovarian cancer remains a common and commonly fatal gynecological malignancy. The identification and validation of early detection biomarkers highly specific to ovarian cancer, which would permit development of minimally invasive screening methods for detecting early onset of the disease, are urgently needed. Current practices for early detection of ovarian cancer include transvaginal ultrasonography, biomarker analysis, or a combination of both. In this paper we review recent research on novel and robust biomarkers for early detection of ovarian cancer and provide specific details on their contributions to tumorigenesis. Promising biomarkers for early detection of ovarian cancer include KLK6/7, GSTT1, PRSS8, FOLR1, ALDH1, and miRNAs.

  1. Cancer Biomarkers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This group promotes research to identify, develop, and validate biological markers for early cancer detection and cancer risk assessment. | Research to identify, develop and validate biomarkers for early cancer detection and risk assessment.

  2. The development and applications of biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normandy, J.; Peeters, J. [eds.

    1994-04-15

    This report is a compilation of submitted abstracts of scientific papers presented at the second Department of Energy-supported workshop on the use and applications of biomarkers held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, from April 26--29, 1994. The abstracts present a synopsis of the latest scientific developments in biomarker research and how these developments meet with the practical needs of the occupational physician as well as the industrial hygienist and the health physicist. In addition to considering the practical applications and potential benefits of this promising technology, the potential ethical and legal ramifications of using biomarkers to monitor workers are discussed. The abstracts further present insights on the present benefits that can be derived from using biomarkers as well as a perspective on what further research is required to fully meet the needs of the medical community.

  3. Statistical design and evaluation of biomarker studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbin, Kevin K

    2014-01-01

    We review biostatistical aspects of biomarker studies, including design and analysis issues, covering the range of settings required for translational research-from early exploratory studies through clinical trials.

  4. CSF biomarkers in neurodegenerative and vascular dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Franc; Schmitz, Matthias; Ferrer, Isidro; Zerr, Inga

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases with abnormal protein aggregates such as Alzheimer's disease, tauopathies, synucleinopathies, and prionopathies, together with vascular encephalopathies, are cause of cognitive impairment and dementia. Identification of reliable biomarkers in biological fluids, particularly in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is of extreme importance in optimizing the precise early clinical diagnosis of distinct entities and predicting the outcome in particular settings. In addition, the study of CSF biomarkers is useful to identify and monitor the underlying pathological processes developing in the central nervous system of affected individuals. Evidence suggests that levels of key CSF molecules correlate, in some circumstances, with prediction, disease progression, and severity of cognitive decline. Correlation of CSF markers and underlying pathological molecular substrates in brain is an exciting field for further study. However, while some dementias such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease have accurate CSF biomarkers, other disease types such as dementia with Lewy bodies, vascular dementia, and frontotemporal dementia lack reliable biomarkers for their specific clinical diagnosis. PMID:27016008

  5. The development and applications of biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a compilation of submitted abstracts of scientific papers presented at the second Department of Energy-supported workshop on the use and applications of biomarkers held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, from April 26--29, 1994. The abstracts present a synopsis of the latest scientific developments in biomarker research and how these developments meet with the practical needs of the occupational physician as well as the industrial hygienist and the health physicist. In addition to considering the practical applications and potential benefits of this promising technology, the potential ethical and legal ramifications of using biomarkers to monitor workers are discussed. The abstracts further present insights on the present benefits that can be derived from using biomarkers as well as a perspective on what further research is required to fully meet the needs of the medical community

  6. Administration on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Home > Programs & Activities > Administration on Disabilities > AIDD Administration on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AIDD) Realizing the ... AIDD has a new address and phone number: Administration for Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Administration for Community ...

  7. Melanoma biomarkers: Vox clamantis in deserto (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    AL-SHAER, MAYS; GOLLAPUDI, DIVYA; PAPAGEORGIO, CHRIS

    2010-01-01

    Detecting malignant melanoma at an early stage, monitoring therapy, predicting recurrence and identifying patients at risk for metastasis continue to be a challenging and demanding objective. The last two decades have witnessed innovations in the field of melanoma biomarkers. However, global agreement concerning monitoring and early detection has yet to be reached. This is a review of the current literature regarding melanoma biomarkers including demographic, clinical, pathological and molecu...

  8. Current status of biomarker research in neurology

    OpenAIRE

    Polivka, Jiri; Krakorova, Kristyna; Peterka, Marek; Topolcan, Ondrej

    2016-01-01

    Neurology is one of the typical disciplines where personalized medicine has been recently becoming an important part of clinical practice. In this article, the brief overview and a number of examples of the use of biomarkers and personalized medicine in neurology are described. The various issues in neurology are described in relation to the personalized medicine and diagnostic, prognostic as well as predictive blood and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. Such neurological domains discussed in t...

  9. Biomarkers in precision therapy in colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Reimers, Marlies S.; Zeestraten, Eliane C.M.; Kuppen, Peter J.K.; Liefers, Gerrit Jan; van de Velde, Cornelis J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in Europe. Because CRC is also a major cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, a lot of research has been focused on the discovery and development of biomarkers to improve the diagnostic process and to predict treatment outcomes. Up till now only a few biomarkers are recommended by expert panels. Current TNM criteria, however, cause substantial under- and overtreatment of CRC patients. Consequently, there is a growing need for ne...

  10. Biomarkers of peripheral muscle fatigue during exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Finsterer Josef

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Biomarkers of peripheral muscle fatigue (BPMFs) are used to offer insights into mechanisms of exhaustion during exercise in order to detect abnormal fatigue or to detect defective metabolic pathways. This review aims at describing recent advances and future perspectives concerning the most important biomarkers of muscle fatigue during exercise. Results BPMFs are classified according to the mechanism of fatigue related to adenosine-triphosphate-metabolism, acidosis, or oxid...

  11. Comparison of Birth-and Conception-Based Definitions of Postnatal Age in Developmental and Reproductive Rodent Toxicity Studies: Influence of Gestation Length and Timing of Neonatal Examinations on Litter Data in Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratories conducting developmental and reproductive toxicity studies with rodents use varied protocols for determining the timing of neonatal litter examinations and subsequent measurements. Most laboratories determine timing based on the day of birth (DOB); l.e., gestation le...

  12. Renal biomarkers in domestic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokamp, Jessica A; Nabity, Mary B

    2016-03-01

    Current conventional tests of kidney damage and function in blood (serum creatinine and urea nitrogen) and urine (urine protein creatinine ratio and urine specific gravity) are widely used for diagnosis and monitoring of kidney disease. However, they all have important limitations, and additional markers of glomerular filtration rate and glomerular and tubular damage are desirable, particularly for earlier detection of renal disease when therapy is most effective. Additionally, urinary markers of kidney damage and function may help localize damage to the affected portion of the kidney. In general, the presence of high- and intermediate-molecular weight proteins in the urine are indicative of glomerular damage, while low-molecular weight proteins and enzymes in the urine suggest tubular damage due to decreased reabsorption of proteins, direct tubular damage, or both. This review aims to discuss many of these new blood and urinary biomarkers in domestic veterinary species, focusing primarily on dogs and cats, how they may be used for diagnosis of renal disease, and their limitations. Additionally, a brief discussion of serum creatinine is presented, highlighting its limitations and important considerations for its improved interpretation in domestic species based on past literature and recent studies. PMID:26918420

  13. Proteomic Approaches for Biomarker Panels in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanase, Cristiana; Albulescu, Radu; Neagu, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Proteomic technologies remain the main backbone of biomarkers discovery in cancer. The continuous development of proteomic technologies also enlarges the bioinformatics domain, thus founding the main pillars of cancer therapy. The main source for diagnostic/prognostic/therapy monitoring biomarker panels are molecules that have a dual role, being both indicators of disease development and therapy targets. Proteomic technologies, such as mass-spectrometry approaches and protein array technologies, represent the main technologies that can depict these biomarkers. Herein, we will illustrate some of the most recent strategies for biomarker discovery in cancer, including the development of immune-markers and the use of cancer stem cells as target therapy. The challenges of proteomic biomarker discovery need new forms of cross-disciplinary conglomerates that will result in increased and tailored access to treatments for patients; diagnostic companies would benefit from the enhanced co-development of companion diagnostics and pharmaceutical companies. In the technology optimization in biomarkers, immune assays are the leaders of discovery machinery. PMID:26565430

  14. Potential Blood-based Biomarkers for Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Linda

    2016-09-01

    Mounting research in the field of sports concussion biomarkers has led to a greater understanding of the effects of brain injury from sports. A recent systematic review of clinical studies examining biomarkers of brain injury following sports-related concussion established that almost all studies have been published either in or after the year 2000. In an effort to prevent chronic traumatic encephalopathy and long-term consequences of concussion, early diagnostic and prognostic tools are becoming increasingly important; particularly in sports and in military personnel, where concussions are common occurrences. Early and tailored management of athletes following a concussion with biomarkers could provide them with the best opportunity to avoid further injury. Should blood-based biomarkers for concussion be validated and become widely available, they could have many roles. For instance, a point-of-care test could be used on the field by trained sport medicine professionals to help detect a concussion. In the clinic or hospital setting, it could be used by clinicians to determine the severity of concussion and be used to screen players for neuroimaging (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging) and further neuropsychological testing. Furthermore, biomarkers could have a role in monitoring progression of injury and recovery and in managing patients at high risk of repeated injury by being incorporated into guidelines for return to duty, work, or sports activities. There may even be a role for biomarkers as surrogate measures of efficacy in the assessment of new treatments and therapies for concussion. PMID:27482776

  15. Biomarkers in T cell therapy clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalos Michael

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract T cell therapy represents an emerging and promising modality for the treatment of both infectious disease and cancer. Data from recent clinical trials have highlighted the potential for this therapeutic modality to effect potent anti-tumor activity. Biomarkers, operationally defined as biological parameters measured from patients that provide information about treatment impact, play a central role in the development of novel therapeutic agents. In the absence of information about primary clinical endpoints, biomarkers can provide critical insights that allow investigators to guide the clinical development of the candidate product. In the context of cell therapy trials, the definition of biomarkers can be extended to include a description of parameters of the cell product that are important for product bioactivity. This review will focus on biomarker studies as they relate to T cell therapy trials, and more specifically: i. An overview and description of categories and classes of biomarkers that are specifically relevant to T cell therapy trials, and ii. Insights into future directions and challenges for the appropriate development of biomarkers to evaluate both product bioactivity and treatment efficacy of T cell therapy trials.

  16. Blood biomarker for Parkinson disease: peptoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Umar; Zaman, Sayed; Hynan, Linda S; Brown, L Steven; Dewey, Richard B; Karp, David; German, Dwight C

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Because dopaminergic neuronal loss begins years before motor symptoms appear, a biomarker for the early identification of the disease is critical for the study of putative neuroprotective therapies. Brain imaging of the nigrostriatal dopamine system has been used as a biomarker for early disease along with cerebrospinal fluid analysis of α-synuclein, but a less costly and relatively non-invasive biomarker would be optimal. We sought to identify an antibody biomarker in the blood of PD patients using a combinatorial peptoid library approach. We examined serum samples from 75 PD patients, 25 de novo PD patients, and 104 normal control subjects in the NINDS Parkinson’s Disease Biomarker Program. We identified a peptoid, PD2, which binds significantly higher levels of IgG3 antibody in PD versus control subjects (P<0.0001) and is 68% accurate in identifying PD. The PD2 peptoid is 84% accurate in identifying de novo PD. Also, IgG3 levels are significantly higher in PD versus control serum (P<0.001). Finally, PD2 levels are positively correlated with the United Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale score (r = 0.457, P<0001), a marker of disease severity. The PD2 peptoid may be useful for the early-stage identification of PD, and serve as an indicator of disease severity. Additional studies are needed to validate this PD biomarker. PMID:27812535

  17. Biomarker-based dissection of neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Bob; Zetterberg, Henrik; Hampel, Harald; Blennow, Kaj

    2011-12-01

    The diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases within neurology and psychiatry are hampered by the difficulty in getting biopsies and thereby validating the diagnosis by pathological findings. Biomarkers for other types of disease have been readily adopted into the clinical practice where for instance troponins are standard tests when myocardial infarction is suspected. However, the use of biomarkers for neurodegeneration has not been fully incorporated into the clinical routine. With the development of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers that reflect pathological events within the central nervous system (CNS), important clinical diagnostic tools are becoming available. This review summarizes the most promising biomarker candidates that may be used to monitor different types of neurodegeneration and protein inclusions, as well as different types of metabolic changes, in living patients in relation to the clinical phenotype and disease progression over time. Our aim is to provide the reader with an updated lexicon on currently available biomarker candidates, how far they have come in development and how well they reflect pathogenic processes in different neurodegenerative diseases. Biomarkers for specific pathogenetic processes would also be valuable tools both to study disease pathogenesis directly in patients and to identify and monitor the effect of novel treatment strategies.

  18. The use of biomarkers in clinical osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Hebert Wilson Santos; Andolphi, Bruna Ferreira Galone; Ferreira, Brunna Vila Coutinho; Alves, Danielle Cristina Filgueira; Morelato, Renato Lírio; Chambo, Antônio; Borges, Lizânia Spinassé

    2016-07-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease of ascending character in the world population; in this context, bone biomarkers are being increasingly studied in order to aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of these patients. The main objective of this study was a literature review of articles whose main theme was the use of biomarkers for bone formation and degradation, and to evaluate their possible applicability in clinical practice. Literature review was performed through articles indexed and published in the last five years in the PubMed database. The findings of this study showed that most of the previously selected articles were published in the last two years, and the most cited markers were bone resorption, C-terminal collagen telopeptide (CTX), showing the highest correlation with the dynamics of bone, and the biomarker of bone formation, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), which is increased in the event of fracture or may suggest another bone disease. There was an increase in published articles, associating different bone biomarkers and their clinical applicability, especially for treatment control. Our findings suggest that in recent years there has been significant increase in publications evaluating the use of bone turnover biomarkers for bone formation and resorption and their possible clinical applicability, especially in the monitoring of treatment. Still, we believe that further studies need to be conducted to confirm these findings, given the advantages that bone biomarkers can deliver in the clinical management of the disease.

  19. Paleo-reconstruction: Using multiple biomarker parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhengzheng

    Advanced technologies have played essential roles in the development of molecular organic geochemistry. In this thesis, we have developed several new techniques and explored their applications, alone and with previous techniques, to paleo-reconstruction. First, we developed a protocol to separate biomarker fractions for accurate measurement of compound-specific isotope analysis. This protocol involves combination of zeolite adduction and HPLC separation. Second, an integrated study of traditional biomarker parameters, diamondoids and compound-specific biomarker isotopes, differentiated oil groups from Saudi Arabia. Specifically, Cretaceous reservoired oils were divided into three groups and the Jurassic reservoired oils were divided into two groups. Third, biomarker acids provide an alternative way to characterize biodegradation. Oils from San Joaquin Valley, U.S.A. and oils from Mediterranean display drastically different acid profiles. These differences in biomarker acids probably reflect different processes of biodegradation. Fourth, by analyzing biomarker distributions in the organic-rich rocks recording the onset of Late Ordovician extinction, we propose that changes in salinity associated with eustatic sea-level fall, contributed at least locally to the extinction of graptolite species.

  20. The potential use of porphyrins as nondestructive biomarker of contaminant exposure in bird populations; L`uso delle porfirine come biomarker non distruttivo di esposizione in popolazioni aviarie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casini, S.; Fossi, M.C. [Siena, Univ. (Italy). Dip. Biologia Ambientale

    1998-02-01

    In this work the potential use of porphyrins as nondestructive biomarker of contaminant exposure in bird populations was investigated. Three laboratory experiments were carried out using Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) treated with PCBs, methylmercury, hexachlorobenzene and lead (porphyrins were measured in liver and excreta). For the field validation of this approach two studies were carried out on excreta of colonial and fish eating birds. Porphyrins are confirmed to be suitable biomarkers of PCBs, MeHg and HCB exposure in birds, having also shown for the first two a response-dose relationship and a correlation between destructive and nondestructive samples. [Italiano] In questo lavoro viene proposto l`uso delle porfirie come biomarker non distruttivo di esposizione a contaminanti ambientali in popolazioni di uccelli. Lo studio si e` articolato in tre esperimenti di laboratorio su quaglie gaipponesi (Coturnix coturnix japonica) trattate con PCBs, metilmercurio (MeHg), esaclorobenzene (HCB) e piombo (alle quali stato misurato il contenuto porfirinico nel fegato e negli excreta) e in due campionamenti di excreta in popolazioni di uccelli marini coloniali. Le porfirine si sono confermate buoni biomarkers di esposizione ai contaminanti analizzati, inoltre nelle quaglie trattate con PCBs e MeHg le porfirine hanno subto un accumulo dose-dipendente ed stata misurata una correlazione ytra l`accumulo nel fegato e negli excreta.

  1. Developmental Education Repeaters: Stories about Repetition

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Jade J.

    2012-01-01

    Developmental education students make up almost half of the community college population in the United States (Bettinger & Long, 2005). Approximately 42% of first-time freshmen at community colleges must enroll in at least one developmental education course in English, reading and/or math (NCES, 2010). Many developmental education students are…

  2. 29 CFR 1952.231 - Developmental schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.231 Section 1952.231 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... schedule. The Kentucky state plan is developmental. The following is the developmental schedule as...

  3. 29 CFR 1952.123 - Developmental schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.123 Section 1952.123 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... schedule. The Washington State plan is developmental. The following is the developmental schedule...

  4. 29 CFR 1952.221 - Developmental schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.221 Section 1952.221 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... schedule. The Tennessee state plan is developmental. The following is the developmental schedule...

  5. Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (Saxton Laboratory) is a state-of-the-art facility for conducting transportation operations research. The laboratory...

  6. Developmental Modes and Developmental Mechanisms can Channel Brain Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Charvet, Christine J.; Georg F Striedter

    2011-01-01

    Anseriform birds (ducks and geese) as well as parrots and songbirds have evolved a disproportionately enlarged telencephalon compared with many other birds. However, parrots and songbirds differ from anseriform birds in their mode of development. Whereas ducks and geese are precocial (e.g., hatchlings feed on their own), parrots and songbirds are altricial (e.g., hatchlings are fed by their parents). We here consider how developmental modes may limit and facilitate specific changes in the mec...

  7. New serological biomarkers of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuhang; Conklin, Laurie; Alex, Philip

    2008-09-01

    Serological biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are a rapidly expanding list of non-invasive tests for objective assessments of disease activity, early diagnosis, prognosis evaluation and surveillance. This review summarizes both old and new biomarkers in IBD, but focuses on the development and characterization of new serological biomarkers (identified since 2007). These include five new anti-glycan antibodies, anti-chitobioside IgA (ACCA), anti-laminaribioside IgG (ALCA), anti-manobioside IgG (AMCA), and antibodies against chemically synthesized (Sigma) two major oligomannose epitopes, Man alpha-1,3 Man alpha-1,2 Man (SigmaMan3) and Man alpha-1,3 Man alpha-1,2 Man alpha-1,2 Man (SigmaMan4). These new biomarkers serve as valuable complementary tools to existing biomarkers not only in differentiating Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), normal and other non-IBD gut diseases, but also in predicting disease involvement (ileum vs colon), IBD risk (as subclinical biomarkers), and disease course (risk of complication and surgery). Interestingly, the prevalence of the antiglycan antibodies, including anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA), ALCA and AMCA, was found to be associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IBD susceptible genes such as NOD2/CARD15, NOD1/CARD4, toll-like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4, and beta-defensin-1. Furthermore, a gene dosage effect was observed: anti-glycan positivity became more frequent as the number of NOD2/CARD15 SNPS increased. Other new serum/plasma IBD biomarkers reviewed include ubiquitination factor E4A (UBE4A), CXCL16 (a chemokine), resistin, and apolipoprotein A-IV. This review also discusses the most recent studies in IBD biomarker discovery by the application of new technologies such as proteomics, fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy, and multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)'s (with an emphasis on cytokine/chemokine profiling). Finally, the prospects of developing more

  8. Lunar laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  9. Virtual Laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Hut, P

    2006-01-01

    At the frontier of most areas in science, computer simulations play a central role. The traditional division of natural science into experimental and theoretical investigations is now completely outdated. Instead, theory, simulation, and experimentation form three equally essential aspects, each with its own unique flavor and challenges. Yet, education in computational science is still lagging far behind, and the number of text books in this area is minuscule compared to the many text books on theoretical and experimental science. As a result, many researchers still carry out simulations in a haphazard way, without properly setting up the computational equivalent of a well equipped laboratory. The art of creating such a virtual laboratory, while providing proper extensibility and documentation, is still in its infancy. A new approach is described here, Open Knowledge, as an extension of the notion of Open Source software. Besides open source code, manuals, and primers, an open knowledge project provides simul...

  10. Translating discovery in zebrafish pancreatic development to human pancreatic cancer: biomarkers, targets, pathogenesis, and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Nelson S; Kazi, Abid A; Yee, Rosemary K

    2013-06-01

    Abstract Experimental studies in the zebrafish have greatly facilitated understanding of genetic regulation of the early developmental events in the pancreas. Various approaches using forward and reverse genetics, chemical genetics, and transgenesis in zebrafish have demonstrated generally conserved regulatory roles of mammalian genes and discovered novel genetic pathways in exocrine pancreatic development. Accumulating evidence has supported the use of zebrafish as a model of human malignant diseases, including pancreatic cancer. Studies have shown that the genetic regulators of exocrine pancreatic development in zebrafish can be translated into potential clinical biomarkers and therapeutic targets in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Transgenic zebrafish expressing oncogenic K-ras and zebrafish tumor xenograft model have emerged as valuable tools for dissecting the pathogenetic mechanisms of pancreatic cancer and for drug discovery and toxicology. Future analysis of the pancreas in zebrafish will continue to advance understanding of the genetic regulation and biological mechanisms during organogenesis. Results of those studies are expected to provide new insights into how aberrant developmental pathways contribute to formation and growth of pancreatic neoplasia, and hopefully generate valid biomarkers and targets as well as effective and safe therapeutics in pancreatic cancer.

  11. Laboratory investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our task is to design mined-repository systems that will adequately secure high-level nuclear waste for at least 10,000 yr and that will be mechanically stable for 50 to 100-yr periods of retrievability during which mistakes could be corrected and a valuable source of energy could be reclaimed, should national policy on the reprocessing of spent fuel ever change. The only credible path for the escape of radionuclides from the repository to the biosphere is through ground-water, and in hard rock, bulk permeability is largely governed by natural and artificial fracture systems. Catastrophic failure of an excavation in hard rock is likely to occur at the weakest links - the discontinuities in the rock mass that is perturbed first by mining and then by radiogenic heating. The laboratory can contribute precise measurements of the pertinent thermomechanical, hydrological and chemical properties and improve our understanding of the fundamental processes through careful experiments under well controlled conditions that simulate the prototype environment. Thus laboratory investigations are necessary, but they are not sufficient, for conventional sample sizes are small relative to natural defects like joints - i.e., the rock mass is not a continuum - and test durations are short compared to those that predictive modeling must take into account. Laboratory investigators can contribute substantially more useful data if they are provided facilities for testing large specimens(say one cubic meter) and for creep testing of all candidate host rocks. Even so, extrapolations of laboratory data to the field in neither space nor time are valid without the firm theoretical foundations yet to be built. Meanwhile in-situ measurements of structure-sensitive physical properties and access to direct observations of rock-mass character will be absolutely necessary

  12. Culham Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contains summaries of work carried out under the following headings: fusion research experiments; U.K. contribution to the JET project; supporting studies; theoretical plasma physics, computational physics and computing; fusion reactor studies; engineering and technology; contract research; external relations; staff, finance and services. Appendices cover main characteristics of Culham fusion experiments, staff, extra-mural projects supported by Culham Laboratory, and a list of papers written by Culham staff. (U.K.)

  13. Blinded Validation of Breath Biomarkers of Lung Cancer, a Potential Ancillary to Chest CT Screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Phillips

    Full Text Available Breath volatile organic compounds (VOCs have been reported as biomarkers of lung cancer, but it is not known if biomarkers identified in one group can identify disease in a separate independent cohort. Also, it is not known if combining breath biomarkers with chest CT has the potential to improve the sensitivity and specificity of lung cancer screening.Model-building phase (unblinded: Breath VOCs were analyzed with gas chromatography mass spectrometry in 82 asymptomatic smokers having screening chest CT, 84 symptomatic high-risk subjects with a tissue diagnosis, 100 without a tissue diagnosis, and 35 healthy subjects. Multiple Monte Carlo simulations identified breath VOC mass ions with greater than random diagnostic accuracy for lung cancer, and these were combined in a multivariate predictive algorithm. Model-testing phase (blinded validation: We analyzed breath VOCs in an independent cohort of similar subjects (n = 70, 51, 75 and 19 respectively. The algorithm predicted discriminant function (DF values in blinded replicate breath VOC samples analyzed independently at two laboratories (A and B. Outcome modeling: We modeled the expected effects of combining breath biomarkers with chest CT on the sensitivity and specificity of lung cancer screening.Unblinded model-building phase. The algorithm identified lung cancer with sensitivity 74.0%, specificity 70.7% and C-statistic 0.78. Blinded model-testing phase: The algorithm identified lung cancer at Laboratory A with sensitivity 68.0%, specificity 68.4%, C-statistic 0.71; and at Laboratory B with sensitivity 70.1%, specificity 68.0%, C-statistic 0.70, with linear correlation between replicates (r = 0.88. In a projected outcome model, breath biomarkers increased the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of chest CT for lung cancer when the tests were combined in series or parallel.Breath VOC mass ion biomarkers identified lung cancer in a separate independent cohort

  14. Blinded Validation of Breath Biomarkers of Lung Cancer, a Potential Ancillary to Chest CT Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Michael; Bauer, Thomas L.; Cataneo, Renee N.; Lebauer, Cassie; Mundada, Mayur; Pass, Harvey I.; Ramakrishna, Naren; Rom, William N.; Vallières, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background Breath volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been reported as biomarkers of lung cancer, but it is not known if biomarkers identified in one group can identify disease in a separate independent cohort. Also, it is not known if combining breath biomarkers with chest CT has the potential to improve the sensitivity and specificity of lung cancer screening. Methods Model-building phase (unblinded): Breath VOCs were analyzed with gas chromatography mass spectrometry in 82 asymptomatic smokers having screening chest CT, 84 symptomatic high-risk subjects with a tissue diagnosis, 100 without a tissue diagnosis, and 35 healthy subjects. Multiple Monte Carlo simulations identified breath VOC mass ions with greater than random diagnostic accuracy for lung cancer, and these were combined in a multivariate predictive algorithm. Model-testing phase (blinded validation): We analyzed breath VOCs in an independent cohort of similar subjects (n = 70, 51, 75 and 19 respectively). The algorithm predicted discriminant function (DF) values in blinded replicate breath VOC samples analyzed independently at two laboratories (A and B). Outcome modeling: We modeled the expected effects of combining breath biomarkers with chest CT on the sensitivity and specificity of lung cancer screening. Results Unblinded model-building phase. The algorithm identified lung cancer with sensitivity 74.0%, specificity 70.7% and C-statistic 0.78. Blinded model-testing phase: The algorithm identified lung cancer at Laboratory A with sensitivity 68.0%, specificity 68.4%, C-statistic 0.71; and at Laboratory B with sensitivity 70.1%, specificity 68.0%, C-statistic 0.70, with linear correlation between replicates (r = 0.88). In a projected outcome model, breath biomarkers increased the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of chest CT for lung cancer when the tests were combined in series or parallel. Conclusions Breath VOC mass ion biomarkers identified lung cancer in a

  15. Introduction: biomarkers in neurodevelopment toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Needleman, H.L.

    1987-10-01

    The search for markers of toxicant exposure and effect upon the development of organisms presents a set of challenges that differ in many ways from those encountered in the study of markers in reproduction or pregnancy. These latter two fields specify a relatively narrow set of organs or biological systems. The term development, on the other hand, can apply to any organ system, or to any set of phenomena that changes in an ordered way over time. For this reason the papers presented in the session on development were chosen to narrow the focus to neurodevelopmental markers, as such markers may be altered by neurotoxic exposure. In attempting to meet this task, the authors have been able to select a group of investigators who work at the leading edges of their respective fields of developmental neuroanatomy, neurotoxicology, neuroendocrinology, neuropsychology, and infant development. The notion that toxicants could affect behavior certainly is not new. Recent knowledge that behavioral aberrations can occur at exposures below those which produce organic changes, and that behavioral aberrations can occur at exposures below those which produce organic changes, and that behavioral observation might provide early markers of effect has given rise to two new fields: behavioral toxicology and behavioral teratology.

  16. Clinical relevance of different biomarkers in imported plasmodium falciparum malaria in adults: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Stauga, Sabine; Hahn, Andreas; Brattig, Norbert W.; Fischer-Herr, Johanna; Baldus, Stephan; Burchard, Gerd D; Cramer, Jakob P.

    2013-01-01

    Background For rapid initiation of anti-malarial treatment and prevention of complications, early diagnosis and risk stratification is important in patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Routine laboratory values do not correlate well with disease severity. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic and prognostic value of several biomarkers related to inflammation; endothelial and cardiac dysfunction; coagulation, and haemolysis in imported P. falciparum malaria. Methods In ...

  17. Developmental Dynamics of Rett Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Feldman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rett Syndrome was long considered to be simply a disorder of postnatal development, with phenotypes that manifest only late in development and into adulthood. A variety of recent evidence demonstrates that the phenotypes of Rett Syndrome are present at the earliest stages of brain development, including developmental stages that define neurogenesis, migration, and patterning in addition to stages of synaptic and circuit development and plasticity. These phenotypes arise from the pleotropic effects of MeCP2, which is expressed very early in neuronal progenitors and continues to be expressed into adulthood. The effects of MeCP2 are mediated by diverse signaling, transcriptional, and epigenetic mechanisms. Attempts to reverse the effects of Rett Syndrome need to take into account the developmental dynamics and temporal impact of MeCP2 loss.

  18. Clinical Biomarkers for Hypoxia Targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Quynh-Thu; Courter, Don

    2008-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia or a reduction of the tissue oxygen tension is a key microenvironmental factor for tumor progression and treatment resistance in solid tumors. Because hypoxic tumor cells have been demonstrated to be more resistant to ionizing radiation, hypoxia has been a focus of laboratory and clinical research in radiation therapy for many decades. It is believed that proper detection of hypoxic regions would guide treatment options and ultimately improve tumor response. To date, most clinic...

  19. DEVELOPMENTAL COORDINATION DISORDER IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Saeideh MIRAFKHAMI; Seyyed Hossein FAKHRAEE; Sina MIRAFKHAMI; Mojtaba YOUSEFI; Mona VARZANDEH FAR

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveIn this article, a motor skill disorder called developmental coordination disorder (DCD), that is usually first diagnosed during childhood, is explained and discussed. In the year 1987, DCD was formally recognized as a distinct disorder in children by the American Psychiatric Association  (APA). DCD is a generalized term for the children who have some degrees of impairment in the development of motor coordination and therefore have difficulties with physical skills which significantl...

  20. Developmental Dynamics of Rett Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle Feldman; Abhishek Banerjee; Mriganka Sur

    2016-01-01

    Rett Syndrome was long considered to be simply a disorder of postnatal development, with phenotypes that manifest only late in development and into adulthood. A variety of recent evidence demonstrates that the phenotypes of Rett Syndrome are present at the earliest stages of brain development, including developmental stages that define neurogenesis, migration, and patterning in addition to stages of synaptic and circuit development and plasticity. These phenotypes arise from the pleotropic ef...

  1. Developmental trends in adaptive memory

    OpenAIRE

    Otgaar, H.; Howe, M. L.; Smeets, T; Garner, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that memory is enhanced when information is processed for fitness-related purposes. The main objective of the current experiments was to test developmental trends in the evolutionary foundation of memory using different types of stimuli and paradigms. In Experiment 1, 11-year-olds and adults were presented with neutral, negative, and survival-related DRM word lists. We found a memory benefit for the survival-related words and showed that false memories were more l...

  2. Developmental genetics in primitive chordates.

    OpenAIRE

    P. SORDINO; L. Belluzzi; De Santis, R; Smith, W.C.

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in the study of the genetics and genomics of urochordates testify to a renewed interest in this chordate subphylum, believed to be the most primitive extant chordate relatives of the vertebrates. In addition to their primitive nature, many features of their reproduction and early development make the urochordates ideal model chordates for developmental genetics. Many urochordates spawn large numbers of transparent and externally developing embryos on a daily basis. Additionall...

  3. Psychology is a Developmental Science

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, Gary; Partridge, Ty; Mosack, Victoria; Lambdin, Charles

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we argue that psychology should be understood as a developmental science, and we place the discipline squarely in the realm of the natural sciences. The case is made that scientific progress in psychology has been (and still is) impeded by prolonged misadventures down conceptual dead ends such as biological reductionism, the nature/nurture debate, evolutionary psychology, and the persistent insistence on emphasizing dependent variables that defy observation and measurement, such...

  4. Phonemic restoration in developmental dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Del Tufo, Stephanie N.; Myers, Emily B.

    2014-01-01

    The comprehension of fluent speech in one's native language requires that listeners integrate the detailed acoustic-phonetic information available in the sound signal with linguistic knowledge. This interplay is especially apparent in the phoneme restoration effect, a phenomenon in which a missing phoneme is “restored” via the influence of top-down information from the lexicon and through bottom-up acoustic processing. Developmental dyslexia is a disorder characterized by an inability to read...

  5. Phonemic restoration in developmental dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Del Tufo, Stephanie N.; Myers, Emily B.

    2014-01-01

    The comprehension of fluent speech in one’s native language requires that listeners integrate the detailed acoustic-phonetic information available in the sound signal with linguistic knowledge. This interplay is especially apparent in the phoneme restoration effect, a phenomenon in which a missing phoneme is ‘restored’ via the influence of top-down information from the lexicon and through bottom-up acoustic processing. Developmental dyslexia is a disorder characterized by an inability to read...

  6. MicroRNAs as potential biomarkers in malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoni-Rugiu E

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eric Santoni-Rugiu, Morten Andersen, Morten Grauslund Laboratory of Molecular Pathology, Department of Pathology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark Abstract: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM, a highly lethal cancer strictly related to asbestos exposure, is usually characterized by delayed diagnosis, resistance to current therapies, and dismal prognosis. MPM is difficult to distinguish histologically from nonmalignant reactive mesothelial proliferations (RMPs as there are no clinically validated immunohistochemical markers yet and the main diagnostic criterion remains deep invasion into the pleura and underlying fat tissue, which is often not appreciable in small pleural biopsies. In this regard, microRNAs (miRNAs, given their size and stability, are particularly attractive biomarkers in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens for routine pathology. Moreover, circulating miRNAs appear to be promising biomarkers for early detection and monitoring of patients with MPM. Here, we review the studies mostly performed by miRNA arrays and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded or frozen tissue samples, MPM cell lines, and blood/plasma/serum samples that have highlighted the potential of miRNAs as biomarkers in MPM. Certain studies have pointed to the ability of miRNAs to distinguish the different histological MPM subtypes or separate MPM from lung adenocarcinoma, and other investigations have revealed that miRNAs can aid in differentiating MPM from RMP or have prognostic value in predicting the patient outcome. Mechanistic aspects of the involvement of miRNAs in mesothelioma genesis and possible use of miRNAs as future therapeutic targets in MPM are also emphasized. Finally, limitations of the data currently obtained due to the drawbacks of reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, heterogeneity of MPM tissue samples, and

  7. Developmental transcriptome of Aplysia californica'

    KAUST Repository

    Heyland, Andreas

    2010-12-06

    Genome-wide transcriptional changes in development provide important insight into mechanisms underlying growth, differentiation, and patterning. However, such large-scale developmental studies have been limited to a few representatives of Ecdysozoans and Chordates. Here, we characterize transcriptomes of embryonic, larval, and metamorphic development in the marine mollusc Aplysia californica and reveal novel molecular components associated with life history transitions. Specifically, we identify more than 20 signal peptides, putative hormones, and transcription factors in association with early development and metamorphic stages-many of which seem to be evolutionarily conserved elements of signal transduction pathways. We also characterize genes related to biomineralization-a critical process of molluscan development. In summary, our experiment provides the first large-scale survey of gene expression in mollusc development, and complements previous studies on the regulatory mechanisms underlying body plan patterning and the formation of larval and juvenile structures. This study serves as a resource for further functional annotation of transcripts and genes in Aplysia, specifically and molluscs in general. A comparison of the Aplysia developmental transcriptome with similar studies in the zebra fish Danio rerio, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and other studies on molluscs suggests an overall highly divergent pattern of gene regulatory mechanisms that are likely a consequence of the different developmental modes of these organisms. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  8. Developmental facial paralysis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzis, Julia K; Anesti, Katerina

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the confusing nomenclature and pathogenesis of Developmental Facial Paralysis, and how it can be differentiated from other causes of facial paralysis present at birth. Differentiating developmental from traumatic facial paralysis noted at birth is important for determining prognosis, but also for medicolegal reasons. Given the dramatic presentation of this condition, accurate and reliable guidelines are necessary in order to facilitate early diagnosis and initiate appropriate therapy, while providing support and counselling to the family. The 30 years experience of our center in the management of developmental facial paralysis is dependent upon a thorough understanding of facial nerve embryology, anatomy, nerve physiology, and an appreciation of well-recognized mishaps during fetal development. It is hoped that a better understanding of this condition will in the future lead to early targeted screening, accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment in this population of facially disfigured patients, which will facilitate their emotional and social rehabilitation, and their reintegration among their peers.

  9. Circular RNAs as potential biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengling; Nazarali, Adil J; Ji, Shaoping

    2016-01-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a naturally occurring type of universal and diverse endogenous noncoding RNAs which unlike linear RNAs, have covalently linked ends. They are usually stable, abundant, conserved RNA molecules and often exhibit tissue/developmental-stage specific expression. Functional circRNAs have been identified to act as microRNA sponges and RNA-binding protein (RBP) sequestering agents as well as transcriptional regulators. These multiple functional roles elicit a great potential for circRNAs in biological applications. Emerging evidence shows that circRNAs play important roles in several diseases, particularly in cancer where they act through regulating protein expression of the pivotal genes that are critical for carcinogenesis. The presence of abundant circRNAs in saliva, exosomes and clinical standard blood samples will make them potential diagnostic or predictive biomarkers for diseases, particularly for cancer development, progression and prognosis. Here, we review the current literature and provide evidence for the impact of circRNAs in cancers and their potential significance in cancer prognosis and clinical treatment. PMID:27429839

  10. Behavioural biomarkers of typical Rett syndrome: moving towards early identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einspieler, Christa; Freilinger, Michael; Marschik, Peter B

    2016-09-01

    The dynamic course of Rett syndrome (RTT) is still said to begin with a period of apparently normal development although there is mounting evidence that individuals with RTT show behavioural peculiarities and abnormalities during their infancy. Their spontaneous general movements are abnormal from birth onwards. Normal cooing vocalisation and canonical babbling (if at all required) are interspersed with abnormalities such as proto-vowel and proto-consonant alternations produced on ingressive airstream, breathy voice characteristics, and pressed or high-pitched vocalisations. The gestural repertoire is limited. Certain developmental motor and speech-language milestones are not at all acquired or show a significant delay. Besides abnormal blinking, repetitive and/or long lasting tongue protrusion, and bizarre smiling, there are already the first body and/or hand stereotypies during the first year of life. We are currently on a promising way to define a specific set of behavioural biomarkers pinpointing RTT. PMID:27514944

  11. New serological biomarkers of inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuhang Li; Laurie Conldin; Philip Alex

    2008-01-01

    Serological biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease(IBD)are a rapidty expanding list of non-invasive tests for objective assessments of disease activity,early diagnosis,prognosis evaluation and surveillance.This review summarizes both old and new biomarkers in IBD,but focuses on the development and characterization of new serological iomarkers(identified since 2007).These include five new anti-glycan antibodies,anti-chitobioside IgA(ACCA),anti-laminaribioside IgG(ALCA),anti-manobioside IgG(AMCA),and antibodies against chemically synthesized(∑)two major oligomannose epitopes,Man α-1,3 Man α-1,2 Man(∑Man3)and Man α-1,3 Man α-1,2 Man α-1,2 Man(∑Man4).These new biomarkers erve as valuable complementary tools to existing biomarkers not only in differentiating Crohn's disease(CD),ulcerative colitis(UC),normal and other non-IBD gut diseases,but also in predicting disease involvement(ileum vs colon),IBD risk(as subclinical biomarkers),and disease course(risk of complication and surgery).Interestingly,the prevalence of he antiglycan antibodies,including anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies(ASCA),ALCA and AMCA,was found to be associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs)of IBD susceptible genes such as NOD2/CARDl5,NOD1/CARD4,toll-like receptors(TLR)2 and 4,and β-defensin-1.Further more,a gene dosage effect was observed:anti-glycan positivity became more requent as the number of NOD2/CARDl5 SNPS increased.Other new serum/plasma IBD biomarkers reviewed include ubiquitination factor E4A(UBE4A),CXCL16(a chemokine),resistin,and apolipoprotein A-Ⅳ.This review also discusses the most recent studies in IBD biomarker discovery by the application of new technologies such as proteomics,fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy,and multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA)'s(with an emphasis on cytokine/chemokine profiling).Finally,the prospects of developing more clinically useful novel diagnostic algorithms by incorporating new technologies in

  12. Proteome-based biomarkers in pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Sun; Ann H Rosendahl; Daniel Ansari; Roland Andersson

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer, as a highly malignant cancer and the fourth cause of cancer-related death in world, is characterized by dismal prognosis, due to rapid disease progression, highly invasive tumour phenotype, and resistance to chemotherapy. Despite significant advances in treatment of the disease during the past decade,the survival rate is little improved. A contributory factor to the poor outcome is the lack of appropriate sensitive and specific biomarkers for early diagnosis. Furthermore, biomarkers for targeting, directing and assessing therapeutic intervention, as well as for detection of residual or recurrent cancer are also needed. Thus, the identification of adequate biomarkers in pancreatic cancer is of extreme importance. Recently, accompanying the development of proteomic technology and devices, more and more potential biomarkers have appeared and are being reported. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of proteome-based biomarkers in pancreatic cancer, including tissue, serum, juice, urine and cell lines. We also discuss the possible mechanism and prospects in the future. That information hopefully might be helpful for further research in the field.

  13. Biomarkers and infection in the emergency unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausfater, P

    2014-04-01

    The emergency unit is one of the main places for acute medical care and therefore, has a pivotal role in determining a diagnosis of bacterial infection and initiating antibiotic therapy. There is an unquestionable and growing interest for infection biomarkers because of the polymorphism of septic state presentations in the emergency unit and the lack of accuracy of available biological tools. The C Reactive protein (CRP) is a biomarker of inflammation, not of infection. CRP is highly sensitive but lacks specificity. Moreover, there are few interventional studies evaluating its true added diagnostic value in the emergency unit, therefore preventing using CRP as a biomarker of infection. Serum procalcitonin (PCT) dosage is more specific for the diagnosis of bacterial infection. PCT levels do not increase or only slightly in non-bacterial inflammatory syndromes. PCT also provides prognostic information and risk stratification assessment in the emergency unit. Moreover, many authors of interventional studies have validated the contribution of PCT in decision taking for antibiotic therapy when suspecting low respiratory tract infection. It is currently the first-line biomarker of infection in the emergency unit. Other biomarkers such as presepsin (sCD14) may be contributive for the diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:24556451

  14. Exploring Biomarkers for Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anshika Nikita

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is one of the most common form of dementia occurring in elderly population worldwide. Currently Aβ42, tau and p-tau in the cerebrospinal fluid is estimated for confirmation of AD. CSF which is being used as the potent source for biomarker screening is obtained by invasive lumbar punctures. Thus, there is an urgent need of minimal invasive methods for identification of diagnostic markers for early detection of AD. Blood serum and plasma serves as an appropriate source, due to minimal discomfort to the patients, promoting frequent testing, better follow-up and better consent to clinical trials. Hence, the need of the hour demands discovery of diagnostic and prognostic patient specific signature biomarkers by using emerging technologies of mass spectrometry, microarrays and peptidomics. In this review we summarize the present scenario of AD biomarkers such as circulatory biomarkers, blood based amyloid markers, inflammatory markers and oxidative stress markers being investigated and also some of the potent biomarkers which might be able to predict early onset of Alzheimer’s and delay cognitive impairment. PMID:27630867

  15. Use of Obesity Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Pischon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, yet, the underlying mechanisms are only poorly understood. The adipose tissue produces a variety of hormones and cytokines and thereby actively participates in a network of biomarkers that may be relevant for the development of CVD. Such obesity biomarkers have a great potential to better characterize the obesity phenotype that may be relevant for the risk of CVD beyond anthropometric parameters. They may be used to support mechanistic studies, to help identify individuals at risk for CVD, and to evaluate the effect of preventive measures. The present article discusses the role of some of the most promising obesity biomarkers in cardiovascular epidemiology, including inflammatory markers, adiponectin, resistin, and fetuin-A. Importantly, some of these markers have been related to cardiovascular risk even after accounting for anthropometric parameters. Further, the potential ability to manipulate blood levels of some of these biomarkers through medication, diet and lifestyle make them attractive markers for cardiovascular risk. However, many open questions remain – especially with regard to the causal role of the factors as well as with regard to the extent of improvement in CVD prediction by these markers – before measurement of these biomarkers may be recommended on a public health level.

  16. Biomarkers for wound healing and their evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, S; Maheshwari, A; Chandra, A

    2016-01-01

    A biological marker (biomarker) is a substance used as an indicator of biological state. Advances in genomics, proteomics and molecular pathology have generated many candidate biomarkers with potential clinical value. Research has identified several cellular events and mediators associated with wound healing that can serve as biomarkers. Macrophages, neutrophils, fibroblasts and platelets release cytokines molecules including TNF-α, interleukins (ILs) and growth factors, of which platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) holds the greatest importance. As a result, various white cells and connective tissue cells release both matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Studies have demonstrated that IL-1, IL-6, and MMPs, levels above normal, and an abnormally high MMP/TIMP ratio are often present in non-healing wounds. Clinical examination of wounds for these mediators could predict which wounds will heal and which will not, suggesting use of these chemicals as biomarkers of wound healing. There is also evidence that the application of growth factors like PDGF will alleviate the recuperating process of chronic, non-healing wounds. Finding a specific biomarker for wound healing status would be a breakthrough in this field and helping treat impaired wound healing.

  17. Biomarkers in the Management of Difficult Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleich, Florence; Sophie, Demarche; Renaud, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Difficult asthma is a heterogeneous disease of the airways including various types of bronchial inflammation and various degrees of airway remodeling. Therapeutic response of severe asthmatics can be predicted by the use of biomarkers of Type2-high or Type2-low inflammation. Based on sputum cell analysis, four inflammatory phenotypes have been described. As induced sputum is timeconsuming and expensive technique, surrogate biomarkers are useful in clinical practice. Eosinophilic phenotype is likely to reflect ongoing adaptive immunity in response to allergen. Several biomarkers of eosinophilic asthma are easily available in clinical practice (blood eosinophils, serum IgE, exhaled nitric oxyde, serum periostin). Neutrophilic asthma is thought to reflect innate immune system activation in response to pollutants or infectious agents while paucigranulocytic asthma is thought to be not inflammatory and characterized by smooth muscle dysfunction. We currently lack of user-friendly biomarkers of neutrophilic asthma and airway remodeling. In this review, we summarize the biomarkers available for the management of difficult asthma. PMID:26467509

  18. Fish metalloproteins as biomarkers of environmental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann; de Campos, Reinaldo Calixto; Ziolli, Roberta Lourenço

    2012-01-01

    Fish are well-recognized bioindicators of environmental contamination. Several recent proteomic studies have demonstrated the validity and value of using fish in the search and discovery of new biomarkers. Certain analytical tools, such as comparative protein expression analyses, both in field and lab exposure studies, have been used to improve the understanding of the potential for chemical pollutants to cause harmful effects. The metallomic approach is in its early stages of development, but has already shown great potential for use in ecological and environmental monitoring contexts. Besides discovering new metalloproteins that may be used as biomarkers for environmental contamination, metallomics can be used to more comprehensively elucidate existing biomarkers, which may enhance their effectiveness. Unfortunately, metallomic profiling for fish has not been explored, because only a few fish metalloproteins have thus far been discovered and studied. Of those that have, some have shown ecological importance, and are now successfully used as biomarkers of environmental contamination. These biomarkers have been shown to respond to several types of environmental contamination, such as cyanotoxins, metals, and sewage effluents, although many do not yet possess any known function. Examples of successes include MMPs, superoxide dismutases, selenoproteins, and iron-bound proteins. Unfortunately, none of these have, as yet, been extensively studied. As data are developed for them, valuable new information on their roles in fish physiology and in inducing environmental effects should become available.

  19. Incorporating Biomarkers in Studies of Chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Carol J; Kimler, Bruce F

    2016-01-01

    Despite Food and Drug Administration approval of tamoxifen and raloxifene for breast cancer risk reduction and endorsement by multiple agencies, uptake of these drugs for primary prevention in the United States is only 4% for risk eligible women likely to benefit from their use. Side effects coupled with incomplete efficacy and lack of a survival advantage are the likely reasons. This disappointing uptake, after the considerable effort and expense of large Phase III cancer incidence trials required for approval, suggests that a new paradigm is required. Current prevention research is focused on (1) refining risk prediction, (2) exploring behavioral and natural product interventions, and (3) utilizing novel translational trial designs for efficacy. Risk biomarkers will play a central role in refining risk estimates from traditional models and selecting cohorts for prevention trials. Modifiable risk markers called surrogate endpoint or response biomarkers will continue to be used in Phase I and II prevention trials to determine optimal dose or exposure and likely effectiveness from an intervention. The majority of Phase II trials will continue to assess benign breast tissue for response and mechanism of action biomarkers. Co-trials are those in which human and animal cohorts receive the same effective dose and the same tissue biomarkers are assessed for modulation due to the intervention, but then additional animals are allowed to progress to cancer development. These collaborations linking biomarker modulation and cancer prevention may obviate the need for cancer incidence trials for non-prescription interventions. PMID:26987531

  20. Sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandner MA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael A Grandner,1,2 Megan R Sands-Lincoln,3 Victoria M Pak,2,4 Sheila N Garland1,5 1Behavioral Sleep Medicine Program, Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 2Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 3Center for Evidence Based Medicine, Elsevier Inc, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Division of Sleep Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 5Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA Abstract: Habitual sleep duration has been associated with cardiometabolic disease, via several mechanistic pathways, but few have been thoroughly explored. One hypothesis is that short and/or long sleep duration is associated with a proinflammatory state, which could increase risk for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. This hypothesis has been largely explored in the context of experimental sleep deprivation studies which have attempted to demonstrate changes in proinflammatory markers following acute sleep loss in the laboratory. Despite the controlled environment available in these studies, samples tend to lack generalization to the population at large and acute sleep deprivation may not be a perfect analog for short sleep. To address these limitations, population based studies have explored associations between proinflammatory markers and habitual sleep duration. This review summarizes what is known from experimental and cross-sectional studies about the association between sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers. First, the association between sleep duration with both morbidity and mortality, with a focus on cardiovascular disease, is reviewed. Then, a brief review of the potential role of proinflammatory markers in cardiovascular disease is presented. The majority of this review details specific findings related to specific

  1. Using Aptamers for Cancer Biomarker Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Min Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are single-stranded synthetic DNA- or RNA-based oligonucleotides that fold into various shapes to bind to a specific target, which includes proteins, metals, and molecules. Aptamers have high affinity and high specificity that are comparable to that of antibodies. They are obtained using iterative method, called (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment SELEX and cell-based SELEX (cell-SELEX. Aptamers can be paired with recent advances in nanotechnology, microarray, microfluidics, and other technologies for applications in clinical medicine. One particular area that aptamers can shed a light on is biomarker discovery. Biomarkers are important in diagnosis and treatment of cancer. In this paper, we will describe ways in which aptamers can be used to discover biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and therapeutics.

  2. DETECTION OF CANCER BIOMARKERS WITH NANOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of cancer biomarkers with high precision is critically important for cancer therapy. A variety of sensors based on different nanostructured materials have attracted intensive research interest due to their potential for highly sensitive and selective detection of cancer biomarkers. This review covers the use of a variety of nanostructured materials, including carbon nanotubes, silicon nanowires, gold nanoparticles and quantum dots, in the fabrication of sensors. Emphases are placed on how the detection systems work and what detection limits can be achieved. Some assays described in this review outperform established methods for cancer biomarker detection. It is highly promising that these sensors would soon move into commercial-scale production and find routine use in hospitals.

  3. Clinical Relevance of Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frijhoff, Jeroen; Winyard, Paul G; Zarkovic, Neven;

    2015-01-01

    acids. RECENT ADVANCES: An increased understanding of the biology behind diseases and redox biology has led to more specific and sensitive tools to measure oxidative stress markers, which are very diverse and sometimes very low in abundance. CRITICAL ISSUES: The literature is very heterogeneous...... using nonspecific methods, while specific methodologies are often too sophisticated or laborious for routine clinical use. FUTURE DIRECTIONS: Several markers of oxidative stress still represent a viable biomarker opportunity for clinical use. However, positive findings with currently used biomarkers...... still need to be validated in larger sample sizes and compared with current clinical standards to establish them as clinical diagnostics. It is important to realize that oxidative stress is a nuanced phenomenon that is difficult to characterize, and one biomarker is not necessarily better than others...

  4. Do We Need Biomarkers for Disc Degeneration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen E. Gruber

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Disc degeneration plays a major role in this country's medical, social and economic structure. The life-time prevalence of low back pain, which has disc degeneration as its cause, is about 80% in the general population. It is a primary cause of disability and estimated costs related to low back disorders exceed $100 billion per year in the U.S. alone. Biomarkers are becoming increasingly important as indicators of the presence of disease, and in evaluating outcomes during clinical treatment. Cell-based biologic therapies which are currently being developed to treat disc degeneration are going to be most efficacious when applied to the early stages of disc disease. In this article we ask: 1 Whether there are existing biomarkers which could play a role in detecting early stages of disc degeneration, and 2 Highlight exciting potentials in future biomarker screening for disc degeneration.

  5. Biomarkers for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomro, Sanam; Mohan, Chandra

    2016-06-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is a rare but fatal type of spongiform encephalopathy with unknown cause. Unfortunately, definitive diagnosis of this disease can only be done by examination of postmortem brain tissue. Presumptive diagnosis is done through a combination of clinical manifestations, radiology results, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing for CSF 14-3-3. Even with these guidelines, premortem diagnosis of sCJD can be unreliable with high rates of misdiagnosis. This calls for more reliable biomarkers of the disease, allowing for better diagnosis as well as understanding the pathogenesis of sCJD. This review compiles potential genetic, protein, biomolecular, and imaging biomarker studies for sCJD since 2010, highlighting the promise of proteins, cytokines, and composite biomarkers for improving the diagnosis as well as understanding the pathogenesis of this mysterious ailment. PMID:27547775

  6. Developmental Gene Regulation and Mechanisms of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Marine Biological Laboratory and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration have established a cooperative agreement with the formation of a Center for Advanced Studies 'in the Space Life Sciences (CASSLS) at the MBL. This Center serves as an interface between NASA and the basic science community, addressing issues of mutual interest. The Center for Advanced Studies 'in the Space Life Sciences provides a forum for scientists to think and discuss, often for the first time, the role that gravity and aspects of spaceflight may play 'in fundamental cellular and physiologic processes. In addition the Center will sponsor discussions on evolutionary biology. These interactions will inform the community of research opportunities that are of interest to NASA. This workshop is one of a series of symposia, workshops and seminars that will be held at the MBL to advise NASA on a wide variety of topics in the life sciences, including cell biology, developmental biology, mg evolutionary biology, molecular biology, neurobiology, plant biology and systems biology.

  7. Morphometric analysis of human embryos to predict developmental competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebe, Søren

    2013-01-01

    , but rather choosing and prioritising between the available embryos. Data suggest that only approximately 5% of aspirated human oocytes have the competence to implant and develop into a child and that, in most treatment cycles, there is no oocyte capable of implanting. The most likely outcome is a negative...... pregnancy test, no matter what we choose in the laboratory. Still, both with the increasing complexity of infertile patients treated today and the important focus on reducing multiple pregnancies, it becomes increasingly important to improve our ability to predict the developmental competence of each embryo...

  8. Left Ventricular Structure and Function in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Daniele; O'Leary, Deborah; Cairney, John; Klentrou, Panagiota; Haluka, Karen; Hay, John; Faught, Brent

    2011-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease risk factors such as obesity and reduced cardio-respiratory fitness. However, there is limited data using laboratory measures for assessing the risk of cardiovascular disease associated with DCD. The purpose of this study was to examine…

  9. ALTERATIONS IN BRAIN PROTEIN KINASE C ISOFORMS FOLLOWING DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL MIXTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PCBs have been shown to alter several neurochemical end-points and are implicated in the etiology of some neurological diseases. Recent in vivo studies from our laboratory indicated that developmental exposure to a commercial PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254, caused perturbations in cal...

  10. MicroRNA biomarkers in glioblastoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Simon Kjær; Kristensen, Bjarne Winther

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is involved in initiation and progression of many cancers, including gliomas and that miRNAs hold great potential as future diagnostic and therapeutic tools in cancer. MiRNAs are a class of short non-coding RNA sequences (18...... tissues. Understanding these alterations is key to developing new biomarkers and intelligent treatment strategies. This review presents an overview of current knowledge about miRNA alterations in glioblastoma while focusing on the clinical future of miRNAs as biomarkers and discussing the strengths...

  11. Next-Generation Biomarkers of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ommen, Ben; Wopereis, Suzan

    2016-01-01

    Current biomarkers used in health care and in nutrition and health research are based on quantifying disease onset and its progress. Yet, both health care and nutrition should focus on maintaining optimal health, where the related biology is essentially differing from biomedical science. Health is characterized by the ability to continuously adapt in varying circumstances where multiple mechanisms of systems flexibility are involved. A new generation of biomarkers is needed that quantifies all aspects of systems flexibility, opening the door to real lifestyle-related health optimization, self-empowerment, and related products and services.

  12. Stable Feature Selection for Biomarker Discovery

    CERN Document Server

    He, Zengyou

    2010-01-01

    Feature selection techniques have been used as the workhorse in biomarker discovery applications for a long time. Surprisingly, the stability of feature selection with respect to sampling variations has long been under-considered. It is only until recently that this issue has received more and more attention. In this article, we review existing stable feature selection methods for biomarker discovery using a generic hierarchal framework. We have two objectives: (1) providing an overview on this new yet fast growing topic for a convenient reference; (2) categorizing existing methods under an expandable framework for future research and development.

  13. Developmental modes and developmental mechanisms can channel brain evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine J Charvet

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Anseriform birds (ducks and geese as well as parrots and songbirds have evolved a disproportionately enlarged telencephalon compared with many other birds. However, parrots and songbirds differ from anseriform birds in their mode of development. Whereas ducks and geese are precocial (e.g., hatchlings feed on their own, parrots and songbirds are altricial (e.g., hatchlings are fed by their parents. We here consider how developmental modes may limit and facilitate specific changes in the mechanisms of brain development. We suggest that altriciality facilitates the evolution of telencephalic expansion by delaying telencephalic neurogenesis. We further hypothesize that delays in telencephalic neurogenesis generate delays in telencephalic maturation, which in turn foster neural adaptations that facilitate learning. Specifically, we propose that delaying telencephalic neurogenesis was a prerequisite for the evolution of neural circuits that allow parrots and songbirds to produce learned vocalizations. Overall, we argue that developmental modes have influenced how some lineages of birds increased the size of their telencephalon and that this, in turn, has influenced subsequent changes in brain circuits and behavior.

  14. Developmental Modes and Developmental Mechanisms can Channel Brain Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet, Christine J; Striedter, Georg F

    2011-01-01

    Anseriform birds (ducks and geese) as well as parrots and songbirds have evolved a disproportionately enlarged telencephalon compared with many other birds. However, parrots and songbirds differ from anseriform birds in their mode of development. Whereas ducks and geese are precocial (e.g., hatchlings feed on their own), parrots and songbirds are altricial (e.g., hatchlings are fed by their parents). We here consider how developmental modes may limit and facilitate specific changes in the mechanisms of brain development. We suggest that altriciality facilitates the evolution of telencephalic expansion by delaying telencephalic neurogenesis. We further hypothesize that delays in telencephalic neurogenesis generate delays in telencephalic maturation, which in turn foster neural adaptations that facilitate learning. Specifically, we propose that delaying telencephalic neurogenesis was a prerequisite for the evolution of neural circuits that allow parrots and songbirds to produce learned vocalizations. Overall, we argue that developmental modes have influenced how some lineages of birds increased the size of their telencephalon and that this, in turn, has influenced subsequent changes in brain circuits and behavior.

  15. Recent Advances on Lipid Biomarkers in Marine Sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-lin

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent advances of marine biomarker. Biomarkers of marine microorganisms are also included. It is important to the origin of marine biological and the monitor and evaluation of marine environment.

  16. ARSENITE INDUCTION OF HEME OXYGENASE AS A BIOMARKER

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARSENITE INDUCTION OF HEME OXYGENASE AS A BIOMARKER Useful biomarkers of arsenic effects in both experimental animals and humans are needed. Arsenate and arsenite are good inducers of rat hepatic and renal heme oxygenase (HO); monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsi...

  17. Association between Pulmonary Function and Sputum Biomarkers in Cystic Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Aitken, Moira L.; Accurso, Frank J.; Kronmal, Richard A.; Konstan, Michael W.; Burns, Jane L.; Sagel, Scott D.; Ramsey, Bonnie W.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Sputum biomarkers of infection and inflammation are noninvasive measures that enable quantification of the complex pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Validation of these biomarkers as correlates of disease severity is a key step for their application.

  18. Music cognition: a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalinski, Stephanie M; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2012-10-01

    Although music is universal, there is a great deal of cultural variability in music structures. Nevertheless, some aspects of music processing generalize across cultures, whereas others rely heavily on the listening environment. Here, we discuss the development of musical knowledge, focusing on four themes: (a) capabilities that are present early in development; (b) culture-general and culture-specific aspects of pitch and rhythm processing; (c) age-related changes in pitch perception; and (d) developmental changes in how listeners perceive emotion in music. PMID:22811391

  19. Serum biomarkers in patients with relapsing eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dejaco

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggest a role for eotaxin-3, TARC/CCL17 and IgG4 in newly-diagnosed patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA, Churg-Strauss with highly active disease. The role of these biomarkers in relapsing disease is unclear.Serum levels of TARC/CCL17, eotaxin-3, IgG4, and IgG4/IgG ratio were determined in serum samples from a longitudinal cohort of patients with EGPA (105 visits of 25 patients. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data were available for all visits.At the first visit, 80% of patients were using glucocorticoids and 68% additional immunosuppressive drugs. Disease flares were seen at 18 visits. The median BVAS and BVAS/WG scores at time of relapse were 4 and 2, respectively. None of the biomarkers tested were useful to discriminate between active disease and remission. Patients treated with prednisone had lower eotaxin-3 and eosinophil levels compared to patients not taking glucocorticoids irrespective of disease activity. Use of immunosuppressive agents was not associated with biomarker levels.Serum levels of TARC/CCL17, eotaxin-3, IgG4, and IgG4/IgG ratio do not clearly differentiate active and inactive disease in established EGPA. Defining biomarkers in EGPA remains a challenge especially during times of glucocorticoid use.

  20. Strategies, models and biomarkers in experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willebrords, Joost; Pereira, Isabel Veloso Alves; Maes, Michaël; Yanguas, Sara Crespo; Colle, Isabelle; Van Den Bossche, Bert; Da silva, Tereza Cristina; Oliveira, Cláudia P; Andraus, Wellington; Alves, Venâncio Avancini Ferreira; Cogliati, Bruno; Vinken, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease encompasses a spectrum of liver diseases, including simple steatosis, steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is currently the most dominant chronic liver disease in Western countries due to the fact that hepatic steatosis is associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome and drug-induced injury. A variety of chemicals, mainly drugs, and diets is known to cause hepatic steatosis in humans and rodents. Experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease models rely on the application of a diet or the administration of drugs to laboratory animals or the exposure of hepatic cell lines to these drugs. More recently, genetically modified rodents or zebrafish have been introduced as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease models. Considerable interest now lies in the discovery and development of novel non-invasive biomarkers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, with specific focus on hepatic steatosis. Experimental diagnostic biomarkers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, such as (epi)genetic parameters and ‘-omics’-based read-outs are still in their infancy, but show great promise. . In this paper, the array of tools and models for the study of liver steatosis is discussed. Furthermore, the current state-of-art regarding experimental biomarkers such as epigenetic, genetic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabonomic biomarkers will be reviewed. PMID:26073454

  1. Non-traditional electrode materials for detection of biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Barek, Jiří; Moreira, Josino C.; Wang, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, new electrochemical methods suitable for detection of various types of biomarkers (biomarkers of exposition, tumor biomarkers, and biomarkers of medical treatment) are briefly reviewed. Attention is paid to the use of non-traditional electrode materials (various forms of amalgam electrodes, boron doped diamond film electrodes, carbon paste and carbon film electrodes, etc.) for voltammetric (batch analysis) and amperometric (flowing systems) detection of above mentio...

  2. Early Intervention in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Beena Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Developmental disabilities consist of conditions that delay or impair the physical, cognitive, and/or psychological development of children. If not intervened at the earliest, these disabilities will cause significant negative impact on multiple domains of functioning such as learning, language, self-care and capacity for independent living. Common developmental disabilities include autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disabilities, developmental delay and cerebral palsy. About one fourth...

  3. An introduction to evolutionary developmental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machluf, Karin; Liddle, James R; Bjorklund, David F

    2014-04-29

    Evolutionary developmental psychology represents a synthesis of modern evolutionary theory and developmental psychology. Here we introduce the special issue on evolutionary developmental psychology by briefly discussing the history of this field and then summarizing the variety of topics that are covered. In this special issue, leading researchers provide a collection of theoretical and empirical articles that highlight recent findings and propose promising areas for future research.

  4. Sexual dysfunction within an adult developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, P J; Meyer, J K; Schmidt, C W

    1986-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the adult who has adequately mastered the oedipal stage of psychosexual development and who presents with a sexual dysfunction. Drawing on the developmental sequence of Erik Erikson, the authors suggest that failure to address adequately an adult psychosocial crisis may result in sexual dysfunction. There may be both adult developmental deficits and regression to adolescent and adult stages previously negotiated. Both may be symptomatically represented by sexual dysfunction. The authors urge that the sexual and marital problems be evaluated within an adult developmental framework and that the therapy address the psychosocial issues which are appropriate to the developmental stage of the patient. PMID:3820320

  5. Context Matters: Support for Leader Developmental Readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sara E; Reichard, Rebecca J

    2016-01-01

    Leader developers need to consider support for leader developmental readiness by examining organizational culture, job design and rewards, social support, and availability and structure of leader development programming.

  6. Urinary Biomarkers in the Assessment of Early Diabetic Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluhovschi, Gheorghe; Petrica, Ligia; Timar, Romulus; Velciov, Silvia; Ionita, Ioana; Kaycsa, Adriana; Timar, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a frequent and severe complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Its diagnosis in incipient stages may allow prompt interventions and an improved prognosis. Towards this aim, biomarkers for detecting early DN can be used. Microalbuminuria has been proven a remarkably useful biomarker, being used for diagnosis of DN, for assessing its associated condition—mainly cardiovascular ones—and for monitoring its progression. New researches are pointing that some of these biomarkers (i.e., glomerular, tubular, inflammation markers, and biomarkers of oxidative stress) precede albuminuria in some patients. However, their usefulness is widely debated in the literature and has not yet led to the validation of a new “gold standard” biomarker for the early diagnosis of DN. Currently, microalbuminuria is an important biomarker for both glomerular and tubular injury. Other glomerular biomarkers (transferrin and ceruloplasmin) are under evaluation. Tubular biomarkers in DN seem to be of a paramount importance in the early diagnosis of DN since tubular lesions occur early. Additionally, biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress, podocyte biomarkers, and vascular biomarkers have been employed for assessing early DN. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current biomarkers used for the diagnosis of early DN.

  7. SERUM BIOMARKERS OF AGING IN THE BROWN NORWAY RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum biomarkers to identify susceptibility to disease in aged humans are well researched. On the other hand, our understanding of biomarkers in animal models of aging is limited. Hence, we applied a commercially available panel of 58 serum analytes to screen for possible biomark...

  8. Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — PNNL's Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL) houses 22 research laboratories for conducting a wide-range of research including catalyst formulation, chemical analysis,...

  9. Bio Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratories The Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...

  10. Distributed Energy Technology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) is an extension of the power electronics testing capabilities of the Photovoltaic System Evaluation Laboratory...

  11. FOOTWEAR PERFORMANCE LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory provides biomechanical and physical analyses for both military and commercial footwear. The laboratory contains equipment that is integral to the us...

  12. Protein biomarker enrichment by biomarker antibody complex elution for immunoassay biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatte, Gwenola; Feitsma, Harma; Evers, Toon H; Prins, Menno W J

    2011-11-15

    It is very challenging to perform sample enrichment for protein biomarkers because proteins can easily change conformation and denature. In this paper we demonstrate protein enrichment suited for high-sensitivity integrated immuno-biosensing. The method enhances the concentration of the biomarkers and simultaneously removes matrix components that could interfere with the immunoassay. Biomarkers are captured using antibody coated magnetic particles and the biomarker antibody complexes are released by enzymatic elution. The eluted complexes are subsequently detected in a sandwich immunoassay biosensor. A scaling study of the enrichment process demonstrates an enrichment factor of 15 in buffer and plasma. We analyze the enrichment factor in terms of the three basic steps of the assay (capture, concentration, elution) and we quantify their respective efficiencies. The process is suited for integration into bio-analytical tools.

  13. Identification of Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa was the second most common type of cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer-related death in men. The great challenge for physicians is being able to accurately predict PCa prognosis and treatment response in order to reduce PCa-speciic mortality while avoiding overtreatment by identifying of when to intervene, and in which patients. CONTENT: Currently, PCa prognosis and treatment decision of PCa involved digital rectal examination, Prostate-Speciic Antigens (PSA, and subsequent biopsies for histopathological staging, known as Gleason score. However, each procedure has its shortcomings. Efforts to find a better clinically meaningful and non-invasive biomarkers still developed involving proteins, circulating tumor cells, nucleic acids, and the ‘omics' approaches. SUMMARY: Biomarkers for PCa will most likely be an assay employing multiple biomarkers in combination using protein and gene microarrays, containing markers that are differentially expressed in PCa. KEYWORDS: prostate cancer, PSA, biomarkers, nomograms, miRNA, proteomic, genomic, metabolomic.

  14. Potential Serological Biomarkers of Cerebral Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi W. Lucchi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers have been used to diagnose and prognosticate the progress and outcome of many chronic diseases such as neoplastic and non communicable diseases. However, only recently did the field of malaria research move in the direction of actively identifying biomarkers that can accurately discriminate the severe forms of malaria. Malaria continues to be a deadly disease, killing close to a million people (mostly children every year. One life-threatening complication of malaria is cerebral malaria (CM. Studies carried out in Africa have demonstrated that even with the best treatment, as high as 15–30% of CM patients die and about 10–24% of CM survivors suffer short-or long-term neurological impairment. The transition from mild malaria to CM can be sudden and requires immediate intervention. Currently, there is no biological test available to confirm the diagnosis of CM and its complications. It is hoped that development of biomarkers to identify CM patients and potential risk for adverse outcomes would greatly enhance better intervention and clinical management to improve the outcomes. We review here what is currently known regarding biomarkers for CM outcomes.

  15. Functional MRI and CT biomarkers in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winfield, J.M. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, CRUK Imaging Centre at the Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom); Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Hospital, MRI Unit, Sutton (United Kingdom); Payne, G.S.; DeSouza, N.M. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, CRUK Imaging Centre at the Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    Imaging biomarkers derived from MRI or CT describe functional properties of tumours and normal tissues. They are finding increasing numbers of applications in diagnosis, monitoring of response to treatment and assessment of progression or recurrence. Imaging biomarkers also provide scope for assessment of heterogeneity within and between lesions. A wide variety of functional parameters have been investigated for use as biomarkers in oncology. Some imaging techniques are used routinely in clinical applications while others are currently restricted to clinical trials or preclinical studies. Apparent diffusion coefficient, magnetization transfer ratio and native T{sub 1} relaxation time provide information about structure and organization of tissues. Vascular properties may be described using parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced CT, transverse relaxation rate (R{sub 2}*), vessel size index and relative blood volume, while magnetic resonance spectroscopy may be used to probe the metabolic profile of tumours. This review describes the mechanisms of contrast underpinning each technique and the technical requirements for robust and reproducible imaging. The current status of each biomarker is described in terms of its validation, qualification and clinical applications, followed by a discussion of the current limitations and future perspectives. (orig.)

  16. BLOOD BIOMARKERS FOR EVALUATION OF PERINATAL ENCEPHALOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Marshall Graham

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in identification of brain injury after trauma shows many possible blood biomarkers that may help identify the fetus and neonate with encephalopathy. Traumatic brain injury shares many common features with perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Trauma has a hypoxic component, and one of the 1st physiologic consequences of moderate-severe traumatic brain injury is apnea. Trauma and hypoxia-ischemia initiate an excitotoxic cascade and free radical injury followed by the inflammatory cascade, producing injury in neurons, glial cells and white matter. Increased excitatory amino acids, lipid peroxidation products and alteration in microRNAs and inflammatory markers are common to both traumatic brain injury and perinatal encephalopathy. The blood-brain barrier is disrupted in both leading to egress of substances normally only found in the central nervous system. Brain exosomes may represent ideal biomarker containers, as RNA and protein transported within the vesicles are protected from enzymatic degradation. Evaluation of fetal or neonatal brain derived exosomes that cross the blood-brain barrier and circulate peripherally has been referred to as the liquid brain biopsy. A multiplex of serum biomarkers could improve upon the current imprecise methods of identifying fetal and neonatal brain injury such as fetal heart rate abnormalities, meconium, cord gases at delivery, and Apgar scores. Quantitative biomarker measurements of perinatal brain injury and recovery could lead to operative delivery only in the presence of significant fetal risk, triage to appropriate therapy after birth and measure the effectiveness of treatment.

  17. Biomarkers in kidney and heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maisel, Alan S.; Katz, Nevin; Hillege, Hans L.; Shaw, Andrew; Zanco, Pierluigi; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Anand, Inder; Anker, Stefan D.; Aspromonte, Nadia; Bagshaw, Sean M.; Berl, Tomas; Bobek, Ilona; Cruz, Dinna N.; Daliento, Luciano; Davenport, Andrew; Haapio, Mikko; House, Andrew A.; Mankad, Sunil; McCullough, Peter; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Palazzuoli, Alberto; Ponikowski, Piotr; Ronco, Federico; Sheinfeld, Geoff; Soni, Sachin; Vescovo, Giorgio; Zamperetti, Nereo; Ronco, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    There is much symptomatic similarity between acute kidney disease and acute heart disease. Both may present with shortness of breath and chest discomfort, and thus it is not surprising that biomarkers of acute myocardial and renal disease often coexist in many physicians' diagnostic work-up schedule

  18. Quantitative multiplex detection of pathogen biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukundan, Harshini; Xie, Hongzhi; Swanson, Basil I.; Martinez, Jennifer; Grace, Wynne K.

    2016-02-09

    The present invention addresses the simultaneous detection and quantitative measurement of multiple biomolecules, e.g., pathogen biomarkers through either a sandwich assay approach or a lipid insertion approach. The invention can further employ a multichannel, structure with multi-sensor elements per channel.

  19. Preeclampsia, biomarkers, syncytiotrophoblast stress, and placental capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Christopher W G; Staff, Anne Cathrine

    2015-10-01

    The maternal syndrome of preeclampsia is mediated by dysfunctional syncytiotrophoblast (STB). When this is stressed by uteroplacental malperfusion, its signaling to the mother changes, as part of a highly coordinated stress response. The STB signals are both proinflammatory and dysangiogenic such that the preeclamptic mother has a stronger vascular inflammatory response than normal, with an antiangiogenic bias. Angiogenic factors have limitations as preeclampsia biomarkers, especially for prediction and diagnosis of preeclampsia at term. However, if they are recognized as markers of STB stress, their physiological changes at term demonstrate that STB stress develops in all pregnancies. The biomarkers reveal that the duration of pregnancies is restricted by placental capacity, such that there is increasing placental dysfunction, at and beyond term. This capacity includes limitations imposed by the size of the uterus, the capacity of the uteroplacental circulation and, possibly, the supply of villous progenitor trophoblast cells. Limited placental capacity explains the increasing risks of postmaturity, including preeclampsia. Early-onset preeclampsia is predictable because STB stress and changes in its biomarkers are intrinsic to poor placentation, an early pregnancy pathology. Prediction of preeclampsia at term is not good because there is no early STB pathology. Moreover, biomarkers cannot accurately diagnose term preeclampsia against a background of universal STB dysfunction, which may or may not be clinically revealed before spontaneous or induced delivery. In this sense, postterm pregnancy is, at best, a pseudonormal state. However, the markers may prove useful in screening for women with more severe problems of postmaturity.

  20. Dissociable brain biomarkers of fluid intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Erick J; Larsen, Ryan J; Nikolaidis, Aki; Ward, Nathan; Hillman, Charles H; Cohen, Neal J; Kramer, Arthur F; Barbey, Aron K

    2016-08-15

    Cognitive neuroscience has long sought to understand the biological foundations of human intelligence. Decades of research have revealed that general intelligence is correlated with two brain-based biomarkers: the concentration of the brain biochemical N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and total brain volume measured using structural MR imaging (MRI). However, the relative contribution of these biomarkers in predicting performance on core facets of human intelligence remains to be well characterized. In the present study, we sought to elucidate the role of NAA and brain volume in predicting fluid intelligence (Gf). Three canonical tests of Gf (BOMAT, Number Series, and Letter Sets) and three working memory tasks (Reading, Rotation, and Symmetry span tasks) were administered to a large sample of healthy adults (n=211). We conducted exploratory factor analysis to investigate the factor structure underlying Gf independent from working memory and observed two Gf components (verbal/spatial and quantitative reasoning) and one working memory component. Our findings revealed a dissociation between two brain biomarkers of Gf (controlling for age and sex): NAA concentration correlated with verbal/spatial reasoning, whereas brain volume correlated with quantitative reasoning and working memory. A follow-up analysis revealed that this pattern of findings is observed for males and females when analyzed separately. Our results provide novel evidence that distinct brain biomarkers are associated with specific facets of human intelligence, demonstrating that NAA and brain volume are independent predictors of verbal/spatial and quantitative facets of Gf. PMID:27184204

  1. Biomarkers in Pediatric ARDS: Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin E Orwoll

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is common among mechanically ventilated children, and accompanies up to 30% of all PICU deaths. Though ARDS diagnosis is based on clinical criteria, biological markers of acute lung damage have been extensively studied in adults and children. Biomarkers of inflammation, alveolar epithelial and capillary endothelial disruption, disordered coagulation, and associated derangements measured in the circulation and other body fluids such as brochoalveolar lavage have improved our understanding of pathobiology of ARDS. The biochemical signature of ARDS has been increasingly well described in adult populations, and this has led to the identification of molecular phenotypes to augment clinical classifications. However, there is a paucity of data from pediatric ARDS patients. Biomarkers and molecular phenotypes have the potential to identify patients at high risk of poor outcomes, and perhaps inform the development of targeted therapies for specific groups of patients. Additionally, because of the lower incidence of and mortality from ARDS in pediatric patients relative to adults and lack of robust clinical predictors of outcome, there is an ongoing interest in biological markers as surrogate outcome measures. The recent definition of pediatric ARDS (pARDS provides additional impetus for measurement of established and novel biomarkers in future pediatric studies in order to further characterize this disease process. This chapter will review the currently available literature and discuss potential future directions for investigation into biomarkers in ARDS among children.

  2. Biomarkers of Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy in Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha V. Douglas-Escobar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As neonatal intensive care has evolved, the focus has shifted from improving mortality alone to an effort to improve both mortality and morbidity. The most frequent source of neonatal brain injury occurs as a result of hypoxic-ischemic injury. Hypoxic-ischemic injury occurs in about 2 of 1,000 full-term infants and severe injured infants will have lifetime disabilities and neurodevelopmental delays. Most recently, remarkable efforts toward neuroprotection have been started with the advent of therapeutic hypothermia and a key step in the evolution of neonatal neuroprotection is the discovery of biomarkers that enable the clinician-scientist to screen infants for brain injury, monitor progression of disease, identify injured brain regions, and assess efficacy of neuroprotective clinical trials. Lastly, biomarkers offer great hope identifying when an injury occurred shedding light on the potential pathophysiology and the most effective therapy. In this article, we will review biomarkers of HIE including S100b, neuron specific enolase, umbilical cord IL-6, CK-BB, GFAP, myelin basic protein, UCHL-1, and pNF-H. We hope to contribute to the awareness, validation and clinical use of established as well as novel neonatal brain injury biomarkers.

  3. Biomarkers of necrotising soft tissue infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marco Bo; Simonsen, Ulf; Garred, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The mortality and amputation rates are still high in patients with necrotising soft tissue infections (NSTIs). It would be ideal to have a set of biomarkers that enables the clinician to identify high-risk patients with NSTI on admission. The objectives of this study are to evaluate...

  4. Novel biomarkers for cancer detection and prognostication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehra, N.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis we used a variety of approaches for biomarker discovery; in Part I we assessed whether we could identify a non-invasive surrogate markers of angiogenesis, as new vessel formation plays critical roles in the growth and metastatic spread of tumors. Moreover, many agents targeting the va

  5. Imaging biomarkers in primary brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopci, Egesta; Chiti, Arturo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Franzese, Ciro; Navarria, Pierina; Scorsetti, Marta [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Radiosurgery and Radiotherapy, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Grimaldi, Marco [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Radiology, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Zucali, Paolo Andrea; Simonelli, Matteo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Medical Oncology, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Bello, Lorenzo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Neurosurgery, Rozzano, MI (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    We are getting used to referring to instrumentally detectable biological features in medical language as ''imaging biomarkers''. These two terms combined reflect the evolution of medical imaging during recent decades, and conceptually comprise the principle of noninvasive detection of internal processes that can become targets for supplementary therapeutic strategies. These targets in oncology include those biological pathways that are associated with several tumour features including independence from growth and growth-inhibitory signals, avoidance of apoptosis and immune system control, unlimited potential for replication, self-sufficiency in vascular supply and neoangiogenesis, acquired tissue invasiveness and metastatic diffusion. Concerning brain tumours, there have been major improvements in neurosurgical techniques and radiotherapy planning, and developments of novel target drugs, thus increasing the need for reproducible, noninvasive, quantitative imaging biomarkers. However, in this context, conventional radiological criteria may be inappropriate to determine the best therapeutic option and subsequently to assess response to therapy. Integration of molecular imaging for the evaluation of brain tumours has for this reason become necessary, and an important role in this setting is played by imaging biomarkers in PET and MRI. In the current review, we describe most relevant techniques and biomarkers used for imaging primary brain tumours in clinical practice, and discuss potential future developments from the experimental context. (orig.)

  6. Coagulation Biomarkers in Critically Ill Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Levi; M. Schultz; T. van der Poll

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses coagulation biomarkers in critically ill patients where coagulation abnormalities occur frequently and may have a major impact on the outcome. An adequate explanation for the cause is important, since many underlying disorders may require specific treatment and supportive ther

  7. Imaging biomarkers in primary brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are getting used to referring to instrumentally detectable biological features in medical language as ''imaging biomarkers''. These two terms combined reflect the evolution of medical imaging during recent decades, and conceptually comprise the principle of noninvasive detection of internal processes that can become targets for supplementary therapeutic strategies. These targets in oncology include those biological pathways that are associated with several tumour features including independence from growth and growth-inhibitory signals, avoidance of apoptosis and immune system control, unlimited potential for replication, self-sufficiency in vascular supply and neoangiogenesis, acquired tissue invasiveness and metastatic diffusion. Concerning brain tumours, there have been major improvements in neurosurgical techniques and radiotherapy planning, and developments of novel target drugs, thus increasing the need for reproducible, noninvasive, quantitative imaging biomarkers. However, in this context, conventional radiological criteria may be inappropriate to determine the best therapeutic option and subsequently to assess response to therapy. Integration of molecular imaging for the evaluation of brain tumours has for this reason become necessary, and an important role in this setting is played by imaging biomarkers in PET and MRI. In the current review, we describe most relevant techniques and biomarkers used for imaging primary brain tumours in clinical practice, and discuss potential future developments from the experimental context. (orig.)

  8. Blood Biomarkers for Evaluation of Perinatal Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ernest M.; Burd, Irina; Everett, Allen D.; Northington, Frances J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research in identification of brain injury after trauma shows many possible blood biomarkers that may help identify the fetus and neonate with encephalopathy. Traumatic brain injury shares many common features with perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Trauma has a hypoxic component, and one of the 1st physiologic consequences of moderate-severe traumatic brain injury is apnea. Trauma and hypoxia-ischemia initiate an excitotoxic cascade and free radical injury followed by the inflammatory cascade, producing injury in neurons, glial cells and white matter. Increased excitatory amino acids, lipid peroxidation products, and alteration in microRNAs and inflammatory markers are common to both traumatic brain injury and perinatal encephalopathy. The blood-brain barrier is disrupted in both leading to egress of substances normally only found in the central nervous system. Brain exosomes may represent ideal biomarker containers, as RNA and protein transported within the vesicles are protected from enzymatic degradation. Evaluation of fetal or neonatal brain derived exosomes that cross the blood-brain barrier and circulate peripherally has been referred to as the “liquid brain biopsy.” A multiplex of serum biomarkers could improve upon the current imprecise methods of identifying fetal and neonatal brain injury such as fetal heart rate abnormalities, meconium, cord gases at delivery, and Apgar scores. Quantitative biomarker measurements of perinatal brain injury and recovery could lead to operative delivery only in the presence of significant fetal risk, triage to appropriate therapy after birth and measure the effectiveness of treatment. PMID:27468268

  9. Biomarkers: A potential prognostic tool for silicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai Krishna Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term exposure to respirable dust containing silica leads to pneumoconiosis/silicosis. The disease is irreversible and incurable, and only preventive steps such as job rotation, use of personal protective equipment, etc., remain solutions to the problem. Under such a situation, early diagnosis or prediction may become very useful to control the disease. Biomarkers are biological parameters in blood serum that change their values with deposition of dust in the lung and onset of lung fibrosis. Since these biomarkers can help us to diagnose and in the prognosis of the disease before it is actually diagnosed by the conventional X-ray technique and lung function test used for diagnosis of silicosis. The present paper describes the various types of available biomarkers, their application and usefulness. The paper also suggests that further study of the behavior/level of these biomarkers on a specific subject with time may provide more useful information of a confirmatory nature for prevention of dust-linked diseases.

  10. Novel biomarkers for pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Anjum; Ruffenach, Gregoire; Mahajan, Aman; Eghbali, Mansoureh; Umar, Soban

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a deadly disease characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressures leading to right ventricular hypertrophy and failure. The confirmatory gold standard test is the invasive right heart catheterization. The disease course is monitored by pulmonary artery systolic pressure measurement via transthoracic echocardiography. A simple non-invasive test to frequently monitor the patients is much needed. Search for a novel biomarker that can be detected by a simple test is ongoing and many different options are being studied. Here we review some of the new and unique pre-clinical options for potential pulmonary hypertension biomarkers. These biomarkers can be broadly categorized based on their association with endothelial cell dysfunction, inflammation, epigenetics, cardiac function, oxidative stress, metabolism,extracellular matrix, and volatile compounds in exhaled breath condensate. A biomarker that can be detected in blood, urine or breath condensate and correlates with disease severity, progression and response to therapy may result in significant cost reduction and improved patient outcomes. PMID:27439993

  11. Cocktail effects on biomarker responses in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of today's greatest challenges in environmental toxicology is to understand effects of mixture toxicity, commonly referred to as cocktail effects, in humans and in wildlife. Biomarker responses in fish are routinely used to assess exposure of anthropogenic chemicals in the aquatic environment. However, little is known about how cocktail effects affect these biomarker responses. For this reason, there is an obvious risk for misinterpretation of biomarker-data and this can have profound negative effects on stakeholder's decisions and actions, as well as on legislations and remediation-plans initiated in order to reduce exposure to certain chemicals. Besides, chemical safety-levels are traditionally based on experiences from lab-studies with single chemicals, which is unfortunate as a chemical can be more toxic when it is mixed with other chemicals, because of the cocktail effect. This review focuses on pharmacokinetic interactions between different classes of pollutants on detoxification mechanisms and how that affects two commonly used biomarkers in the aquatic environment: (1) induction of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) that is mediated via activation of the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR), used to assess exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons; (2) induction of vitellogenin (VTG) that is mediated via activation of the estrogen receptor (ER), used to assess exposure to estrogenic chemicals. These responses can be either directly or indirectly affected by the presence of other classes of pollutants as a result of cocktail effects. For example, chemicals that inhibit the function of key metabolic enzymes and transporter pumps that are involved in elimination of AhR- and ER agonists, can result in bioaccumulation of aromatic hydrocarbons and estrogenic chemicals resulting in increased biomarker responses. This cocktail effect can lead to overestimation of the actual exposure pressure. On the contrary, induction of expression of key metabolic enzymes and transporter

  12. Circulating Biomarker Panels in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafari, Sachli; Backes, Christina; Meese, Eckart; Keller, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The early diagnosis of diseases frequently represents an important unmet clinical need supporting in-time treatment of pathologies. This also applies to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, estimated to affect millions of individuals worldwide. The respective diagnostic and prognostic markers, especially for the preclinical stages of AD, are expected to improve patients' outcome significantly. In the last decades, many approaches to detecting AD have been developed, including markers to discover changes in amyloid-β levels [from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or using positron emission tomography] or other brain imaging technologies such as structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional-connectivity MRI or task-related functional MRI. A major challenge is the detection of AD using minimally or even noninvasive biomarkers from body fluids such as plasma or serum. Circulating biomarker candidates based on mRNAs or proteins measured from blood cells, plasma or serum have been proposed for various pathologies including AD. As for other diseases, there is a tendency to use marker signatures obtained by high-throughput approaches, which allow the generation of profiles of hundreds to thousands of biomarkers simultaneously [microarrays, mass spectrometry or next-generation sequencing (NGS)]. Beyond mRNAs and proteins, recent approaches have measured small noncoding RNA (so-called microRNA) profiles in AD patients' blood samples using NGS or array-based technologies. Generally, the development of marker panels is in its early stages and requires further, substantial clinical validation. In this review, we provide an overview of different circulating AD biomarkers, starting with a brief summary of CSF markers and focusing on novel biomarker signatures such as small noncoding RNA profiles.

  13. An update on biomarkers in axial spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajzlerová, Klára; Grobelná, Kristýna; Pavelka, Karel; Šenolt, Ladislav; Filková, Mária

    2016-06-01

    Axial spondyloarthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease with the onset at a young age, and, if undiagnosed and untreated, it may result in permanent damage and lifelong disability. Rates of early diagnosis have improved, due in particular to the addition of magnetic resonance imaging into the diagnostic armamentaria; however, it is costly, not widely available, and requires experienced readers to interpret the findings. In addition to clinical measures and imaging techniques, biomarkers that will be described in this review may represent useful tools for diagnosis, monitoring disease activity and outcomes as well as therapeutic responses. Currently, HLA-B27 remains the best genetic biomarker for making a diagnosis, while CRP currently appears to be the best circulating measure for assessing disease activity, predicting structural progression and therapeutic response. Interestingly, key molecules in the pathogenesis of the disease and essential therapeutic targets, such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α, interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-23, show only limited association with disease characteristics or disease progression. Some genetic biomarkers and particularly anti-CD74 antibodies, may become a promising tool for the early diagnosis of axSpA. Further biomarkers, such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-3, calprotectin (S100A8/9), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), C-terminal telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II) or dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), are not sufficient to reflect disease activity, but may predict spinal structural progression. In addition, recent data have shown that monitoring calprotectin might represent a valuable biomarker of therapeutic response. However, all of these results need to be confirmed in large cohort studies prior to use in daily clinical practice. PMID:26851549

  14. Chiral biomarkers and microfossils in carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2010-09-01

    Homochirality of the biomolecules (D-sugars of DNA and RNA and L-amino acids of proteins) is a fundamental property of all life on Earth. Abiotic mechanisms yield racemic mixtures (D/L=1) of chiral molecules and after the death of an organism, the enantiopure chiral biomolecules slowly racemize. Several independent investigators have now established that the amino acids present in CI1 and CM2 carbonaceous meteorites have a moderate to strong excess of the L-enantiomer. Stable isotope data have established that these amino acids are both indigenous and extraterrestrial. Carbonaceous meteorites also contain many other strong chemical biomarkers including purines and pyrimidines (nitrogen heterocycles of nucleic acids); pristine and phytane (components of the chlorophyll pigment) and morphological biomarkers (microfossils of filamentous cyanobacteria). Energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis reveals that nitrogen is below the detectability level in most of the meteorite filaments as well as in Cambrian Trilobites and filaments of 2.7 Gya Archaean cyanobacteria from Karelia. The deficiency of nitrogen in the filaments and the total absence of sugars, of twelve of the life-critical protein amino acids, and two of the nucleobases of DNA and RNA provide clear and convincing evidence that these filaments are not modern biological contaminants. This paper reviews the chiral, chemical biomarkers morphological biomarkers and microfossils in carbonaceous meteorites. This paper reviews chiral and morphological biomarkers and discusses the missing nitrogen, sugars, protein amino acids, and nucleobases as "bio-discriminators" that exclude modern biological contaminants as a possible explanation for the permineralized cyanobacterial filaments found in the meteorites.

  15. Utility of propidium monoazide viability assay as a biomarker for a tuberculosis disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolayevskyy, Vladyslav; Miotto, Paolo; Pimkina, Edita; Balabanova, Yanina; Kontsevaya, Irina; Ignatyeva, Olga; Ambrosi, Alessandro; Skenders, Girts; Ambrozaitis, Arvydas; Kovalyov, Alexander; Sadykhova, Anna; Simak, Tatiana; Kritsky, Andrey; Mironova, Svetlana; Tikhonova, Olesya; Dubrovskaya, Yulia; Rodionova, Yulia; Cirillo, Daniela; Drobniewski, Francis

    2015-03-01

    Reliable laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB), including laboratory biomarkers of cure, remains a challenge. In our study we evaluated the performance of a Propidium Monoazide (PMA) assay for the detection of viable TB bacilli in sputum specimens during anti-TB chemotherapy and its potential use as a TB biomarker. The study was conducted at three centres on 1937 sputum specimens from 310 adult bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB patients obtained before commencing anti-TB treatment and at regular intervals afterwards. Performance of the PMA assay was assessed using various readout assays with bacteriology culture results and time to positivity on liquid media used as reference standards. Treatment of sputum with N-acetyl-cysteine was found to be fully compatible with the PMA assay. Good sensitivity and specificity (97.5% and 70.7-80.0%) for detection of live TB bacilli was achieved using the Xpert(®) MTB/RIF test as a readout assay. Tentative Ct and ΔCt thresholds for the Xpert(®) MTB/RIF system were proposed. Good correlation (r = 0.61) between Ct values and time to positivity of TB cultures on liquid media was demonstrated. The PMA method has potential in monitoring bacterial load in sputum specimens and so may have a role as a biomarker of cure in TB treatment. PMID:25534168

  16. Use of vitellogenin as a biomarker for estrogenic effect: What is the baseline?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Poul; Holbech, Henrik; Pedersen, Knud Ladegaard;

    Vitellogenin is used as a biomarker for estrogenic effect in laboratory-based regulatory test systems OECD TGs 229, 230 and 234 and vitellogenin levels in the plasma of juvenile or male specimens of various fish species have also been used for monitoring estrogenic impacts in freshwater and estua......Vitellogenin is used as a biomarker for estrogenic effect in laboratory-based regulatory test systems OECD TGs 229, 230 and 234 and vitellogenin levels in the plasma of juvenile or male specimens of various fish species have also been used for monitoring estrogenic impacts in freshwater...... and estuarine environments, especially in association with discharges from waste water treatment plants. The use of any biomarker requires knowledge about the baseline levels in an uncontaminated environment and the present investigation was initiated to identify baseline vitellogenin levels in juvenile brown...... indicate that baseline vitellogenin levels in juvenile, male brown trout in an uncontaminated environment are below 100 ng/ml. This also indicates that most of the high values obtained in earlier investigations (2000 to 2004) investigations could be attributed to estrogenic exposure. Six of the streams...

  17. Making developmental biology relevant to undergraduates in an era of economic rationalism in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Brian; Nurcombe, Victor

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the road map we followed at our university to accommodate three main factors: financial pressure within the university system; desire to enhance the learning experience of undergraduates; and motivation to increase the prominence of the discipline of developmental biology in our university. We engineered a novel, multi-year undergraduate developmental biology program which was "student-oriented," ensuring that students were continually exposed to the underlying principles and philosophy of this discipline throughout their undergraduate career. Among its key features are introductory lectures in core courses in the first year, which emphasize the relevance of developmental biology to tissue engineering, reproductive medicine, therapeutic approaches in medicine, agriculture and aquaculture. State-of-the-art animated computer graphics and images of high visual impact are also used. In addition, students are streamed into the developmental biology track in the second year, using courses like human embryology and courses shared with cell biology, which include practicals based on modern experimental approaches. Finally, fully dedicated third-year courses in developmental biology are undertaken in conjunction with stand-alone practical courses where students experiencefirst-hand work in a research laboratory. Our philosophy is a "cradle-to-grave" approach to the education of undergraduates so as to prepare highly motivated, enthusiastic and well-educated developmental biologists for entry into graduate programs and ultimately post-doctoral research. PMID:12705657

  18. Theme: Laboratory Facilities Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Glen M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Laboratory Facilities Improvement" (Miller); "Remodeling Laboratories for Agriscience Instruction" (Newman, Johnson); "Planning for Change" (Mulcahy); "Laboratory Facilities Improvement for Technology Transfer" (Harper); "Facilities for Agriscience Instruction" (Agnew et al.); "Laboratory Facility Improvement" (Boren, Dwyer); and…

  19. Biomarkers for Primary Sjo¨ gren’s Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiqian Chen; Heng Cao; Jin Lin; Nancy Olsen; Song Guo Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Primary Sjogren’s syndrome (pSS) is a systemic autoimmune disease with exocrine gland dysfunction and multi-organ involvement. Recent progress in understanding the pathogenesis of pSS offers an opportunity to find new biomarkers for the diagnosis and assessment of disease activity. Screening noninvasive biomarkers from the saliva and tears has significant potential. The need for specific and sensitive biomarker candidates in pSS is significant. This review aims to summarize recent advances in the identification of biomarkers of Sjogren syndrome, trying to identify reliable, sensitive, and specific biomarkers that can be used to guide treatment decisions.

  20. Laboratory markers in ulcerative colitis: Current insights and future advances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michele; Cioffi; Antonella; De; Rosa; Rosalba; Serao; Ilaria; Picone; Maria; Teresa; Vietri

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis(UC)and Crohn’s disease(CD)are the major forms of inflammatory bowel diseases(IBD)in man.Despite some common features,these forms can be distinguished by different genetic predisposition,risk factors and clinical,endoscopic and histological characteristics.The aetiology of both CD and UC remains unknown,but several evidences suggest that CD and perhaps UC are due to an excessive immuneresponse directed against normal constituents of the intestinal bacterial flora.Tests sometimes invasive are routine for the diagnosis and care of patients with IBD.Diagnosis of UC is based on clinical symptoms combined with radiological and endoscopic investigations.The employment of non-invasive biomarkers is needed.These biomarkers have the potential to avoid invasive diagnostic tests that may result in discomfort and potential complications.The ability to determine the type,severity,prognosis and response to therapy of UC,using biomarkers has long been a goal of clinical researchers.We describe the biomarkers assessed in UC,with special reference to acute-phase proteins and serologic markers and thereafter,we describe the new biological markers and the biological markers could be developed in the future:(1)serum markers of acute phase response:The laboratory tests most used to measure the acute-phase proteins in clinical practice are the serum concentration of C-reactive protein and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate.Other biomarkers of inflammation in UC include platelet count,leukocyte count,and serum albumin and serum orosomucoid concentrations;(2)serologic markers/antibodies:In the last decades serological and immunologic biomarkers have been studied extensively in immunology and have been used in clinical practice to detect specific pathologies.In UC,the presence of these antibodies can aid as surrogate markers for the aberrant host immune response;and(3)future biomarkers:The development of biomarkers in UC will be very important in the future.The progress

  1. State of the States in Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, David; Hemp, Richard; Rizzolo, Mary Kay

    2008-01-01

    This is the latest edition of the "State of the States in Developmental Disabilities" study--a thorough and the only one of its kind investigation on public spending, revenues, and programmatic trends of intellectual and developmental programs and services within the United States since 1977. Directed by leading researcher, Dr. David Braddock, the…

  2. Developmental Perspectives on the Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Linda W., Ed.

    This bulletin provides an overview of developmental theory and practice in relation to social studies instruction in K-12 curriculum. In the first of eight chapters developmental theories pertaining to teaching and learning social studies are presented. The theories of Erik Erikson, Jane Loevinger, Jean Piaget, Lawrence Kohlberg, and Robert Selman…

  3. Piaget's Enduring Contribution to Developmental Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilin, Harry

    1992-01-01

    Describes Jean Piaget's transformation of society's conception of childhood thought. Emphasizes the enduring contribution to developmental psychology of Piaget's constructivism, his description of developmental mechanisms, his cognitivism, his explication of structural and functional analysis, and his addressing of epistemological issues and…

  4. Essential Role of Culture in Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joan G.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter argues for the essential role of culture in forming the basic constructs and theories of developmental psychology. The case is made for the need to overcome the cultural insularity of core developmental concepts and methods in order to create a psychology that is more truly universal.

  5. Progress and unresolved issues in developmental psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Sergeant; P.J.M. Prins

    1997-01-01

    (from the chapter) Discusses the definition of abnormality, the association between disorders, role of age, maturation and developmental processes in the manifestation, recognition, and assessment of developmental psychopathology in children using the life-span approach. Questions of how the predict

  6. Innovative Developmental Education Programs: A Texas Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Eric A.; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Capraro, Robert M.; Chaudhuri, Nandita; Dyer, James; Marchbanks, Miner P., III

    2014-01-01

    This article provides insights from a 2-year, cross-site evaluation of state funded developmental education sites and serves as a focus article for response by those sites. Receiving grants from the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB), nine sites (5 community colleges and 4 universities) implemented innovative developmental education…

  7. Psychological Resources of Adults with Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockiewicz, Marta; Bogdanowicz, Katarzyna M.; Bogdanowicz, Marta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to describe specific psychological resources of adults with developmental dyslexia and compare them with psychological resources of adults without developmental dyslexia. Potential differences were analyzed in visual-spatial, creative, and motivational abilities. No evidence was found for either creative, or visuospatial…

  8. A Taxometric Investigation of Developmental Dyslexia Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Beth A.; Wolf, Maryanne; Lovett, Maureen W.

    2012-01-01

    Long-standing issues with the conceptualization, identification and subtyping of developmental dyslexia persist. This study takes an alternative approach to examine the heterogeneity of developmental dyslexia using taxometric classification techniques. These methods were used with a large sample of 671 children ages 6-8 who were diagnosed with…

  9. Developmental Assessment. Assessment Resource Kit(ARK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Geoff; Forster, Margaret

    Developmental assessment is the process of monitoring a student's progress through an area of learning so that decisions can be made about the best way to facilitate further learning. The unique feature of developmental assessment is its use of a progress map. The progress map, or continuum, describes the development in an area of learning and so…

  10. Delaying Developmental Mathematics: The Characteristics and Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marianne; Kuennen, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates which students delay taking a required developmental mathematics course and the impact of delay on student performance in introductory microeconomics. Analysis of a sample of 1462 students at a large Midwestern university revealed that, although developmental-level mathematics students did not reach the same level of…

  11. Developmental Dislocation (Dysplasia) of the Hip (DDH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    .org Developmental Dislocation (Dysplasia) of the Hip (DDH) Page ( 1 ) The hip is a “ball-and-socket” joint. In a normal hip, the ball at the ... American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. .org Developmental Dislocation (Dysplasia) of the Hip cont. • Family history of DDH (parents or siblings) • ...

  12. Exploring Best Practices in Developmental Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafarella, Brian V.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, many community colleges are struggling with poor student success rates in developmental math. Therefore, this qualitative study focused on employing best practices in developmental mathematics at an urban community college in Dayton, Ohio. Guiding the study were the following research questions: What are the best practices utilized by a…

  13. Modeling developmental transitions in adaptive resonance theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E.J. Raijmakers; P.C.M. Molenaar

    2004-01-01

    Neural networks are applied to a theoretical subject in developmental psychology: modeling developmental transitions. Two issues that are involved will be discussed: discontinuities and acquiring qualitatively new knowledge. We will argue that by the appearance of a bifurcation, a neural network can

  14. Introducing Newspapers in Developmental Reading Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstadt, Roberta; Rey, Victoria M.

    2009-01-01

    Newspapers are an effective educational and motivational tool in developmental reading classes. However, many students are unfamiliar with newspapers and read them infrequently. In order to foster newspaper reading and familiarize the college freshmen enrolled in their developmental reading classes with newspapers, the writers of this article…

  15. 29 CFR 1952.311 - Developmental schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.311 Section 1952.311 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Hawaii § 1952.311 Developmental...

  16. 29 CFR 1952.321 - Developmental schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.321 Section 1952.321 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Indiana § 1952.321 Developmental...

  17. 29 CFR 1952.91 - Developmental schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.91 Section 1952.91 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... schedule. The South Carolina plan is developmental. The following is the schedule of the...

  18. 29 CFR 1952.273 - Developmental schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.273 Section 1952.273 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Vermont § 1952.273 Developmental...

  19. 29 CFR 1952.341 - Developmental schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.341 Section 1952.341 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Wyoming § 1952.341 Developmental...

  20. 29 CFR 1952.291 - Developmental schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.291 Section 1952.291 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Nevada § 1952.291 Developmental...

  1. 29 CFR 1952.241 - Developmental schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exceptions to be no broader than those contained in 29 CFR part 1903); (4) Clarification of the appropriate... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.241 Section 1952.241 Labor... (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Alaska § 1952.241 Developmental...

  2. 29 CFR 1952.151 - Developmental schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.151 Section 1952.151 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... schedule. The North Carolina Plan is developmental. The following is the schedule of the...

  3. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This developmental effort clearly shows that a Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory System is a worthwhile and achievable goal. The RTAL is designed to fully analyze (radioanalytes, and organic and inorganic chemical analytes) 20 samples per day at the highest levels of quality assurance and quality control. It dramatically reduces the turnaround time for environmental sample analysis from 45 days (at a central commercial laboratory) to 1 day. At the same time each RTAL system will save the DOE over $12 million per year in sample analysis costs compared to the costs at a central commercial laboratory. If RTAL systems were used at the eight largest DOE facilities (at Hanford, Savannah River, Fernald, Oak Ridge, Idaho, Rocky Flats, Los Alamos, and the Nevada Test Site), the annual savings would be $96,589,000. The DOE's internal study of sample analysis needs projects 130,000 environmental samples requiring analysis in FY 1994, clearly supporting the need for the RTAL system. The cost and time savings achievable with the RTAL system will accelerate and improve the efficiency of cleanup and remediation operations throughout the DOE complex

  4. Dyslexia: a developmental language disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, S

    2000-09-01

    The acquisition of literacy in an alphabetic script such as English makes heavy demands on linguistic skills. The relation between spoken and written language however, is far from straightforward. This article reviews the research that suggests that phonological processing skills are crucial in the translation of symbols to sounds, and the development of rapid and automatic decoding skills. It examines research that indicates that children whose phonological processing skills are compromised in some way, are at-risk of experiencing difficulties in the acquisition of literacy; it supports the suggestion that dyslexia can be viewed as lying on the continuum of developmental language disorders. It goes on to relate theory to practice and discusses the responsibilities of health care professionals in relation to the early identification of dyslexia, and makes suggestions regarding intervention. In particular, it looks at the responsibilities of speech and language therapy services in the care and management of children with dyslexia.

  5. Developmental hip dysplasia in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Zoran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors define adolescence and developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH. Special attention is paid to pathological findings characteristic of DDH in adolescence (unrecognized and untreated DDH; treated DDH, but non-terminated treatment; DDH diagnosed with delay, inadequately treated, with complications. The authors emphasise that DDH treatment has to be successfully terminated well before the adolescence; possibilities are explained on management modes at the time of adolescence, and possible persons guilty for the persistence of later hip problems are indicated. Based on the authors' experience and having in mind all surgical possibilities for the treatment (pelvic osteotomies, femoral osteotomies, trochanteroplasties, leg length equalization procedures the authors propose treatment protocols. The intention is to provide better treatment results and to prevent secondary hip arthrosis. Furthermore, how to improve the struggle against DDH is suggested.

  6. South Africa's "Developmental State" Distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bond

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea that the South African ruling elite has the political will to establish a “developmental state” project early in the 21st century is popular, but is not borne out by evidence thus far. Patrick Bond reviews new information about the neoliberal project’s failures, which range from macroeconomics to microdevelopment to pro-corporate megaprojects, and which are accompanied by a tokenistic welfare policy not designed to provide sufficient sustenance or entitlements to the society. The critique by the independent left might be revised in the event that the trade unions and communist influences within the ruling Alliance strengthen, but there is a greater likelihood that the world capitalist crisis will have the opposite impact. Nevertheless, widespread grassroots protests and impressive campaigning by civil society keep alive the hope for a post-capitalist, post-nationalist politics, as bandaiding South African capitalism runs into trouble.

  7. Effect of mussel reproductive status on biomarker responses to PAHs: Implications for large-scale monitoring programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, Carmen; Albentosa, Marina; Campillo, Juan A; Viñas, Lucía; Franco, Angeles; Bellas, Juan

    2016-08-01

    Biomarkers are useful tools to assess biological effects of pollutants and have been extensively used in monitoring programs to determine ecosystem health. In these programs, a wide range of environmental conditions are covered and sometimes, obtained data are difficult to interpret because of natural variables are affecting biomarker responses. Among these variables, musseĺs reproductive status has been considered one of the most changing variables between sites in a monitoring survey. Thus, the main aim of this work was to identify the effect that mussel reproductive status has on biomarker responses. For that purpose, mussels sampled at two periods in the reproductive cycle (reproductive and resting stages) were conditioned to the same laboratory conditions and exposed to fluoranthene (FLU) for three weeks. Studied biomarkers covering a wide range of organism responses were included: bioaccumulation, physiological rates (clearance rate -CR-, absorption efficiency -AE-, respiration rate -RR- and their integration in the scope for growth -SFG-), antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide-dismutase -SOD-, catalase -CAT-, glutathione reductase -GR-, glutathione peroxidase -GPx-, glutathione-S-tranferase -GST-) and biochemical damage responses (lipid membrane peroxidation -LPO-). The results obtained evidenced that the levels of the biomarkers studied (RR, SOD, CAT and GPx) were higher at reproductive than at resting stage. On the other hand, the effect of toxicant was observed in SFG, CAT and GPx but this effect was only detected during the resting period. Moreover, there was a deterioration of mussel gonadal tissue with FLU exposure during reproductive stage. FLU accumulation in mussel tissues was also dependent of the reproductive status with higher internal concentrations during resting than reproductive period. In conclusion, there was a strong effect of reproductive status on studied biomarkers which seems to mask the effect of FLU at reproductive stage. The

  8. Association between biomarkers of endothelial injury and hypocoagulability in patients with severe sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse Rye; Haase, Nicolai; Müller, Rasmus Beier;

    2015-01-01

    ) Trial. Study patients were admitted to two Danish intensive care units. Inclusion criteria were severe sepsis, pre-intervention whole blood TEG measurement and a plasma/serum research sample available from baseline (pre-intervention) for analysis of endothelial-derived biomarkers. Endothelial......-derived biomarkers were measured in plasma/serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (syndecan-1, thrombomodulin, protein C (PC), tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1). Pre-intervention TEG, functional fibrinogen (FF) and laboratory and clinical data, including mortality, were......-, 28- and 90-day mortality rates being 21%, 39% and 53%, respectively. Pre-intervention (before treatment with different fluids), TEG reaction (R)-time, angle and maximum amplitude (MA) and FF MA all correlated with syndecan-1, thrombomodulin and PC levels. By multivariate linear regression analyses...

  9. Fluorescence induction as a biomarker of creosote phototoxicity to the aquatic macrophyte Lemna gibba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gensemer, R.W.; Solomon, K.R. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada). Centre for Toxicology; Ren, L.; Greenberg, B.M. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Day, K.E. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada). Centre for Toxicology]|[Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) toxicity to aquatic plants were developed using the wood preservative creosote. The authors tested physiological indicators of photosynthetic performance in cultures of the floating aquatic macrophyte Lemna gibba (G3). Creosote was applied at concentrations ranging from 1--300 ppm, and plants were grown under laboratory lighting that mimics the relative levels of UV radiation found in natural sunlight (simulated solar radiation; SSR). Population growth bioassays demonstrated that similar to individual PAHs, creosote exhibited UV-enhanced phototoxicity. Chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence induction parameters were also diminished by creosote, and closely corresponded to functional responses of population growth by the end of each experiment. Fluorescence induction thus is a validated biomarker assay that is closely and functionally related to population growth inhibition in aquatic plants.

  10. Use of biomarkers to assess the effects of oil pollution on echinoderms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, L.; McKenzie, D. [Scottish Association for Marine Science, Oban (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    A major source of oil pollution in the North Sea arises from oil production activities. Drill cuttings are a waste product of drilling operations and often contain oil-based drilling muds. Echinoderms are important members of marine communities, often cornerstone species, and tend lo be sensitive to various types of pollution. The response of Amphiura spp. to drill cuttings was examined under laboratory conditions, semi-natural conditions (mesocosms) and in the field. Sublethal stress was monitored using a suite of biomarkers including destabilization of lysosomes, induction of detoxification enzymes (MFO) and changes in tissue loading of symbiotic sub-cuticular bacteria (SCB). When exposed to drill cuttings there was a decrease in lysosome integrity and a decline in SCB loading. Preliminary studies did not detect inducement of MFO enzymes. The potential use of echinoderm biomarkers to detect pollution is discussed.

  11. Crowding, reading, and developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Marialuisa; Di Filippo, Gloria; Spinelli, Donatella; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi

    2009-04-17

    We tested the hypothesis that crowding effects are responsible for the reading slowness characteristic of developmental dyslexia. A total of twenty-nine Italian dyslexics and thirty-three age-matched controls participated in various parts of the study. In Experiment 1, we measured contrast thresholds for identifying letters and words as a function of stimulus duration. Thresholds were higher in dyslexics than controls for words (at a limited time exposure) but not for single letters. Adding noise to the stimuli produced comparable effects in dyslexics and controls. At the long time exposure thresholds were comparable in the two groups. In Experiment 2, we measured the spacing between a target letter and two flankers at a fixed level of performance as a function of eccentricity and size. With eccentricity, the critical spacing (CS) scaled in the control group with 0.62 proportionality (a value of b close to Bouma's law, 0.50) and with a greater proportionality (0.95) in the dyslexic group. CS was independent of size in both groups. In Experiment 3, we examined the critical print size (CPS), that is, the increase in reading rate up to a critical character size (S. T. Chung, J. S. Mansfield, & G. E. Legge, 1998). CPS of dyslexic children was greater than that of controls. Individual maximal reading speed was predicted by individual bs (from Experiment 2). The maximal reading rate achieved by dyslexics at CPS (and also for larger print sizes) was below the values observed in controls. We conclude that word analysis in dyslexics is slowed because of greater crowding effects, which limit letter identification in multi-letter arrays across the visual field. We propose that the peripheral reading of normal readers might constitute a model for dyslexic reading. The periphery model accounts for 60% of dyslexics' slowness. After compensating for crowding, the dyslexics' reading rate remains slower than that of proficient readers. This failure is discussed in terms of a

  12. DEVELOPMENTAL COORDINATION DISORDER IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh MIRAFKHAMI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveIn this article, a motor skill disorder called developmental coordination disorder (DCD, that is usually first diagnosed during childhood, is explained and discussed. In the year 1987, DCD was formally recognized as a distinct disorder in children by the American Psychiatric Association  (APA. DCD is a generalized term for the children who have some degrees of impairment in the development of motor coordination and therefore have difficulties with physical skills which significantly interfere with their academic achievements and /or performing everyday activities. As they develop, other age-related tasks are also below average. Because these impairment & conditions are often associated with emotional distress, they can seriously interfere with the person's everyday life and social relationships. Reviews indicate that most of the training rocedures have only a limited effect on the development of general coordination, and that they have no effect at all on academic progress.This includes approaches based on assumed underlying deficiencies such as sensory integration deficits and kinesthetic functioning deficits, as well as the more traditional perceptual - motor training. One new approach is Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP, based on problem - solving strategies and guided discovery of the child and task specific strategies. The aim of this article was to inform, promote and disseminate more information about some difficulties in applying the diagnostic criteria for DCD. Also, a brief review of the researches on the intervention methods is presented.Keywords: Developmental coordination disorder, Motor skills disorder, Childhood disorder, Intervention methods

  13. Developmental systems biology flourishing on new technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Organism development is a systems level process. It has benefited greatly from the recent technological advances in the field of systems biology. DNA microarray, phenome, interactome and transcriptome mapping, the new generation of deep sequencing technologies,and faster and better computational and modeling approaches have opened new frontiers for both systems biologists and developmental biologists to reexamine the old developmental biology questions, such as pattern formation, and to tackle new problems, such as stem cell reprogramming. As showcased in the International Developmental Systems Biology Symposium organized by Chinese Academy of Sciences, developmental systems biology is flourishing in many perspectives, from the evolution of developmental systems, to the underlying genetic and molecular pathways and networks, to the genomic, epigenomic and noncoding levels, to the computational analysis and modeling. We believe that the field will continue to reap rewards into the future with these new approaches.

  14. Developmental systems biology flourishing on new technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing-Dong J; Liu, Yi; Xue, Huiling; Xia, Kai; Yu, Hong; Zhu, Shanshan; Chen, Zhang; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Zheng; Jin, Chunyu; Xian, Bo; Li, Jing; Hou, Lei; Han, Yixing; Niu, Chaoqun; Alcon, Timothy C

    2008-10-01

    Organism development is a systems level process. It has benefited greatly from the recent technological advances in the field of systems biology. DNA microarray, phenome, interactome and transcriptome mapping, the new generation of deep sequencing technologies, and faster and better computational and modeling approaches have opened new frontiers for both systems biologists and developmental biologists to reexamine the old developmental biology questions, such as pattern formation, and to tackle new problems, such as stem cell reprogramming. As showcased in the International Developmental Systems Biology Symposium organized by Chinese Academy of Sciences, developmental systems biology is flourishing in many perspectives, from the evolution of developmental systems, to the underlying genetic and molecular pathways and networks, to the genomic, epigenomic and noncoding levels, to the computational analysis and modeling. We believe that the field will continue to reap rewards into the future with these new approaches. PMID:18937914

  15. Early Intervention in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental disabilities consist of conditions that delay or impair the physical, cognitive, and/or psychological development of children. If not intervened at the earliest, these disabilities will cause significant negative impact on multiple domains of functioning such as learning, language, self-care and capacity for independent living. Common developmental disabilities include autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disabilities, developmental delay and cerebral palsy. About one fourth of young children in developing countries are at risk for or have developmental delay or disabilities. Inadequate stimulation has significant negative impact on physical, socioemotional and cognitive development of children. Hence early scientific intervention programs are necessary in the management of children at risk for developmental delay.

  16. An Integrated Protein Chemistry Laboratory: Chlorophyll and Chlorophyllase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkus, Kiani A. J.; Jez, Joseph M.

    2008-01-01

    Chlorophyll, the most abundant pigment in nature, is degraded during normal plant growth, when leaves change color, and at specific developmental stages. Chlorophyllase catalyzes the first chemical reaction in this process, that is, the hydrolysis of chlorophyll into chlorophyllide. Here, we describe a series of laboratory sessions designed to…

  17. Biomarker patterns in present-day vegetation: consistency and variation - A study on plaggen soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkels, Frédérique; Jansen, Boris; Kalbitz, Karsten

    2013-04-01

    Biomarker patterns in present-day vegetation are commonly used as proxies to reconstruct paleo-vegetation composition, land use history and to elucidate carbon cycling. Plaggen soils are formed by diverse vegetational inputs during century-long plaggen (i.e. sod) application associated with plaggen-agriculture on poor soils in north-western Europe. This resulted in remarkably stable organic matter. Plant source identification by biomarkers could provide insight in yet unknown stabilization mechanisms and the fate of organic matter upon ongoing land use change. The current rationale behind biomarker-based source identification is that patterns observed in present-day vegetation are generally representative with little random variation. However, our knowledge on variability and consistency of biomarker patterns is yet scarce. Therefore, to assess the applicability of biomarkers for source identification in plaggen soils, we analyzed published n-alkane and n-alcohol patterns of species and their various parts which contribute(d) input to plaggen soils. We considered shrubs, trees and grass species and evaluated rescaled patterns (i.e. relative abundances in chain-length range C17-36), odd-over-even predominance (OEP) and predominant n-alkanes. In addition, we explicitly looked into potential sources of systematic variation, e.g. spatial variation (climate, site conditions), temporal variation (seasonality, ontogeny) and laboratory methodology (extraction technique: washing/shaking, Soxhlet/ASE, saponification). We found meaningful clustering of n-alkanes C27, C29, C31 and C33, allowing for clear distinction of input by shrubs, trees and grasses to plaggen soils. Combination of these homologues with complete n-alkane patterns (C17-36) and OEP enabled further differentiation, while n-alcohols patterns were less distinct. Current limitation is the lack of extended and diverse quantitative records on biomarker patterns, especially for n-alcohols, non-leaf and belowground

  18. Chasing the effects of Pre-analytical Confounders - a Multicentre Study on CSF-AD biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Joao Leitao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Core cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers-Aβ42, Tau and pTau–have been recently incorporated in the revised criteria for Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, their widespread clinical application lacks standardization. Pre-analytical sample handling and storage play an important role in the reliable measurement of these biomarkers across laboratories. In this study, we aim to surpass the efforts from previous studies, by employing a multicentre approach to assess the impact of less studied CSF pre-analytical confounders in AD-biomarkers quantification. Four different centres participated in this study and followed the same established protocol. CSF samples were analysed for three biomarkers (Aβ42, Tau and pTau and tested for different spinning conditions (temperature: Room temperature (RT vs. 4oC; speed: 500g vs. 2000g vs. 3000g, storage volume variations (25%, 50% and 75% of tube total volume as well as freezing-thaw cycles (up to 5 cyles. The influence of sample routine parameters, inter-centre variability and relative value of each biomarker (reported as normal/abnormal, was analysed. Centrifugation conditions did not influence biomarkers levels, except for samples with a high CSF total protein content, where either non centrifugation or centrifugation at RT, compared to 4ºC, led to higher Aβ42 levels. Reducing CSF storage volume from 75% to 50% of total tube capacity, decreased Aβ42 concentration (within analytical CV of the assay, whereas no change in Tau or pTau was observed. Moreover, the concentration of Tau and pTau appears to be stable up to 5 freeze-thaw cycles, whereas Aβ42 levels decrease if CSF is freeze-thawed more than 3 times. This systematic study reinforces the need for CSF centrifugation at 4ºC prior to storage and highlights the influence of storage conditions in Aβ42 levels. This study contributes to the establishment of harmonized standard operating procedures that will help reducing inter-lab variability of CSF

  19. Emerging concepts in biomarker discovery; The US-Japan workshop on immunological molecular markers in oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivoltini Licia

    2009-06-01

    were recognized that might be added to the list of known entities applicable in immunotherapy trials. The need for a systematic approach to biomarker discovery that takes advantage of powerful high-throughput technologies was recognized; it was clear from the current state of the science that immunotherapy is still in a discovery phase and only a few of the current biomarkers warrant extensive validation. It was, finally, clear that, while current technologies have almost limitless potential, inadequate study design, limited standardization and cross-validation among laboratories and suboptimal comparability of data remain major road blocks. The institution of an interactive consortium for high throughput molecular monitoring of clinical trials with voluntary participation might provide cost-effective solutions.

  20. Emerging concepts in biomarker discovery; the US-Japan Workshop on Immunological Molecular Markers in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Hideaki; Sato, Marimo; Thurin, Magdalena; Wang, Ena; Butterfield, Lisa H; Disis, Mary L; Fox, Bernard A; Lee, Peter P; Khleif, Samir N; Wigginton, Jon M; Ambs, Stefan; Akutsu, Yasunori; Chaussabel, Damien; Doki, Yuichiro; Eremin, Oleg; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Imai, Kohzoh; Jacobson, James; Jinushi, Masahisa; Kanamoto, Akira; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed; Kato, Kazunori; Kawakami, Yutaka; Kirkwood, John M; Kleen, Thomas O; Lehmann, Paul V; Liotta, Lance; Lotze, Michael T; Maio, Michele; Malyguine, Anatoli; Masucci, Giuseppe; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Mayrand-Chung, Shawmarie; Nakamura, Kiminori; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi; Palucka, A Karolina; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Pos, Zoltan; Ribas, Antoni; Rivoltini, Licia; Sato, Noriyuki; Shiku, Hiroshi; Slingluff, Craig L; Streicher, Howard; Stroncek, David F; Takeuchi, Hiroya; Toyota, Minoru; Wada, Hisashi; Wu, Xifeng; Wulfkuhle, Julia; Yaguchi, Tomonori; Zeskind, Benjamin; Zhao, Yingdong; Zocca, Mai-Britt; Marincola, Francesco M

    2009-06-17

    might be added to the list of known entities applicable in immunotherapy trials. The need for a systematic approach to biomarker discovery that takes advantage of powerful high-throughput technologies was recognized; it was clear from the current state of the science that immunotherapy is still in a discovery phase and only a few of the current biomarkers warrant extensive validation. It was, finally, clear that, while current technologies have almost limitless potential, inadequate study design, limited standardization and cross-validation among laboratories and suboptimal comparability of data remain major road blocks. The institution of an interactive consortium for high throughput molecular monitoring of clinical trials with voluntary participation might provide cost-effective solutions.

  1. Microparticles as Potential Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    França, Carolina Nunes, E-mail: carolufscar24@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UNIFESP - UNISA, SP, São Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Santo Amaro - UNISA, SP, São Paulo (Brazil); Izar, Maria Cristina de Oliveira; Amaral, Jônatas Bussador do; Tegani, Daniela Melo; Fonseca, Francisco Antonio Helfenstein [Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UNIFESP - UNISA, SP, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-02-15

    Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is a choice of great relevance because of its impact on health. Some biomarkers, such as microparticles derived from different cell populations, have been considered useful in the assessment of cardiovascular disease. Microparticles are released by the membrane structures of different cell types upon activation or apoptosis, and are present in the plasma of healthy individuals (in levels considered physiological) and in patients with different pathologies. Many studies have suggested an association between microparticles and different pathological conditions, mainly the relationship with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, the effects of different lipid-lowering therapies have been described in regard to measurement of microparticles. The studies are still controversial regarding the levels of microparticles that can be considered pathological. In addition, the methodologies used still vary, suggesting the need for standardization of the different protocols applied, aiming at using microparticles as biomarkers in clinical practice.

  2. Models of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Biomarker Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagi, Cedo M., E-mail: cedo.bagi@pfizer.com; Andresen, Catharine J. [Global Science & Technology, PGRD, Pfizer Inc, Groton, CT 06340 (United States)

    2010-07-07

    The overwhelming need to improve preclinical models in oncology has stimulated research efforts to refine and validate robust orthotopic models that closely mimic the disease population and therefore have the potential to better predict clinical outcome with novel therapies. Sophisticated technologies including bioluminescence, contrast enhanced ultrasound imaging, positron emission tomography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have been added to existing serum- and histology-based biomarkers to assist with patient selection and the design of clinical trials. The rationale for the use of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, implementation of xenograft and orthotopic animal models and utilization of available biomarkers have been discussed, providing guidelines to facilitate preclinical research for the development of treatments for HCC patients.

  3. Biomarkers for Lupus Nephritis: A Critical Appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Chiu Mok

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney disease is one of the most serious manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Despite the improvement in the medical care of SLE in the past two decades, the prognosis of lupus nephritis remains unsatisfactory. Besides exploring more effective but less toxic treatment modalities that will further improve the remission rate, early detection and treatment of renal activity may spare patients from intensive immunosuppressive therapies and reduce renal damage. Conventional clinical parameters such as creatinine clearance, proteinuria, urine sediments, anti-dsDNA, and complement levels are not sensitive or specific enough for detecting ongoing disease activity in the lupus kidneys and early relapse of nephritis. Thus, novel biomarkers are necessary to enhance the diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity of lupus renal disease, prognostic stratification, monitoring of treatment response, and detection of early renal flares. This paper reviews promising biomarkers that have recently been evaluated in longitudinal studies of lupus nephritis.

  4. HCC Biomarkers in China and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina M. Santella

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    A number of different types of biomarkers have been used to understand the etiology and progression of hepatocellular cancer (HCC. Perhaps the most well known are the serum/ plasma markers of HBV or HCV infection. These markers include analysis of viral DNA or proteins or antibodies produced against the viral proteins. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg is most frequently used to determine chronic infection with high or low viral replication, while HBeAg is a measure of chronic infection with high viral replication. Analysis of antibodies includes measurement of anti-HBV core antigen, anti-HBV e antigen and anti-HBsAg. The response to immunization can be monitored by analysis of anti-HBsAg. The other major classes of biomarkers used in studies of HCC are biomarkers of exposure to environmental, lifestyle or dietary carcinogens, biomarkers of oxidative stress and early biologic response. In addition, studies of genetic susceptibility have studied polymorphisms in a number of pathways and their role in HCC risk. The biomarkers of exposure include the measurement of carcinogens in urine and carcinogen-DNA and protein adducts. Examples are measurement of aflatoxin and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites, and DNA and protein adducts.

    Biomarkers of oxidative stress include urinary isoprostanes and 8-oxodeoxyguanosine and oxidized plasma proteins. Most of these assays are immunologic although the use of high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC as well as gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS have been utilized. In nested case-control studies, many of these markers are associated with elevated risk. For example, elevated aflatoxin and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-albumin adducts, aflatoxin metabolites in urine and urinary isoprostanes were observed in baseline samples from

  5. Biomarkers for rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheul, M K; Fearon, U; Trouw, L A; Veale, D J

    2015-11-01

    Rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis are systemic inflammatory conditions characterized by a chronic form of arthritis, often leading to irreversible joint damage. Early treatment for patients with rheumatic diseases is required to reduce or prevent joint injury. However, early diagnosis can be difficult and currently it is not possible to predict which individual patient will develop progressive erosive disease or who may benefit from a specific treatment according to their clinical features at presentation. Biomarkers are therefore required to enable earlier diagnosis and predict prognosis in both rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. In this review we will examine the evidence and current status of established and experimental biomarkers in rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis for three important purposes; disease diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of response to therapy.

  6. Models of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Biomarker Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overwhelming need to improve preclinical models in oncology has stimulated research efforts to refine and validate robust orthotopic models that closely mimic the disease population and therefore have the potential to better predict clinical outcome with novel therapies. Sophisticated technologies including bioluminescence, contrast enhanced ultrasound imaging, positron emission tomography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have been added to existing serum- and histology-based biomarkers to assist with patient selection and the design of clinical trials. The rationale for the use of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, implementation of xenograft and orthotopic animal models and utilization of available biomarkers have been discussed, providing guidelines to facilitate preclinical research for the development of treatments for HCC patients

  7. Methylated genes as new cancer biomarkers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, M J

    2012-02-01

    Aberrant hypermethylation of promoter regions in specific genes is a key event in the formation and progression of cancer. In at least some situations, these aberrant alterations occur early in the formation of malignancy and appear to be tumour specific. Multiple reports have suggested that measurement of the methylation status of the promoter regions of specific genes can aid early detection of cancer, determine prognosis and predict therapy responses. Promising DNA methylation biomarkers include the use of methylated GSTP1 for aiding the early diagnosis of prostate cancer, methylated PITX2 for predicting outcome in lymph node-negative breast cancer patients and methylated MGMT in predicting benefit from alkylating agents in patients with glioblastomas. However, prior to clinical utilisation, these findings require validation in prospective clinical studies. Furthermore, assays for measuring gene methylation need to be standardised, simplified and evaluated in external quality assurance programmes. It is concluded that methylated genes have the potential to provide a new generation of cancer biomarkers.

  8. Biomarker Records Associated with Mass Extinction Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Jessica H.; Grice, Kliti

    2016-06-01

    The history of life on Earth is punctuated by a series of mass extinction episodes that vary widely in their magnitude, duration, and cause. Biomarkers are a powerful tool for the reconstruction of historical environmental conditions and can therefore provide insights into the cause and responses to ancient extinction events. In examining the five largest mass extinctions in the geological record, investigators have used biomarkers to elucidate key processes such as eutrophy, euxinia, ocean acidification, changes in hydrological balance, and changes in atmospheric CO2. By using these molecular fossils to understand how Earth and its ecosystems have responded to unusual environmental activity during these extinctions, models can be made to predict how Earth will respond to future changes in its climate.

  9. Biomarkers of Barrett’s esophagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasser; Mahrous; Fouad; Ibrahim; Mostafa; Reem; Yehia; Hisham; El-Khayat

    2014-01-01

    Barrett’s esophagus is the strongest risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma(EAC). Metaplasia in patients with BE may progress to dysplasia and then invasive carcinoma. Well-defined diagnostic, progressive, predictive, and prognostic biomarkers are needed to identify the presence of the disease, estimate the risk of malignant transformation, and predict the therapeutic outcome and survival of EAC patients. There are many predictive and prognostic markers that lack substantial validation, and do not allow stratification of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease in clinical practice for outcome and effectiveness of therapy. In this short review we summarize the current knowledge regarding possible biomarkers, focusing on the pathophysiologic mechanisms to improve prognostic and therapeutic approaches.

  10. Current and emerging breast cancer biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer treatment has experienced several advancements in the past few decades with the discovery of specific predictive and prognostic biomarkers that make possible the application of individualized therapies. In addition to traditional prognostic factors of breast carcinoma, molecular biomarkers have played a significant role in tumor prediction and treatment. The most frequent genetic alterations of breast cancer are gained along chromosome 1q, 8q, 17q, 20q, and 11q and losses along 8p, 13q, 16q, 18q, and 11q. Interestingly, many of these chromosomal fragments harbor known proto oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes such as BRCA1, BRCA2, p53, HER2-neu, cyclin D1, and cyclin E, which are briefly described in this review.

  11. Fibrosis biomarkers in workers exposed to MWCNTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatkhutdinova, Liliya M; Khaliullin, Timur O; Vasil'yeva, Olga L; Zalyalov, Ramil R; Mustafin, Ilshat G; Kisin, Elena R; Birch, M Eileen; Yanamala, Naveena; Shvedova, Anna A

    2016-05-15

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with their unique physico-chemical properties offer numerous technological advantages and are projected to drive the next generation of manufacturing growth. As MWCNT have already found utility in different industries including construction, engineering, energy production, space exploration and biomedicine, large quantities of MWCNT may reach the environment and inadvertently lead to human exposure. This necessitates the urgent assessment of their potential health effects in humans. The current study was carried out at NanotechCenter Ltd. Enterprise (Tambov, Russia) where large-scale manufacturing of MWCNT along with relatively high occupational exposure levels was reported. The goal of this small cross-sectional study was to evaluate potential biomarkers during occupational exposure to MWCNT. All air samples were collected at the workplaces from both specific areas and personal breathing zones using filter-based devices to quantitate elemental carbon and perform particle analysis by TEM. Biological fluids of nasal lavage, induced sputum and blood serum were obtained from MWCNT-exposed and non-exposed workers for assessment of inflammatory and fibrotic markers. It was found that exposure to MWCNTs caused significant increase in IL-1β, IL6, TNF-α, inflammatory cytokines and KL-6, a serological biomarker for interstitial lung disease in collected sputum samples. Moreover, the level of TGF-β1 was increased in serum obtained from young exposed workers. Overall, the results from this study revealed accumulation of inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers in biofluids of workers manufacturing MWCNTs. Therefore, the biomarkers analyzed should be considered for the assessment of health effects of occupational exposure to MWCNT in cross-sectional epidemiological studies. PMID:26902652

  12. Biomarkers of Mercury Exposure in the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Nathália Santos Serrão de Castro; Marcelo de Oliveira Lima

    2014-01-01

    Mercury exposure in the Amazon has been studied since the 1980s decade and the assessment of human mercury exposure in the Amazon is difficult given that the natural occurrence of this metal is high and the concentration of mercury in biological samples of this population exceeds the standardized value of normality established by WHO. Few studies have focused on the discovery of mercury biomarkers in the region's population. In this way, some studies have used genetics as well as immunologica...

  13. Biomarkers for early detection of sickle nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Sundaram, Nambirajan; Bennett, Michael; Wilhelm, Jamie; Kim, Mi-Ok; Atweh, George; Devarajan, Prasad; Malik, Punam

    2011-01-01

    Renal complications affect nearly 30–50% of adults with sickle cell anemia (SCA), causing significant morbidity and mortality. Standard renal function tests like serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate become abnormal in this disease only when renal damage has become extensive and largely irreversible. Moreover, not all patients develop sickle nephropathy (SN). Therefore, noninvasive biomarkers that predict early onset of SN are necessary. We performed a cross-sectional analysis for n...

  14. Network-based drugs and biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erler, Janine Terra; Linding, Rune

    2010-01-01

    The structure and dynamics of protein signalling networks governs cell decision processes and the formation of tissue boundaries. Complex diseases such as cancer and diabetes are diseases of such networks. Therefore approaches that can give insight into how these networks change during disease...... associated technologies. We then focus on the multivariate nature of cellular networks and how this has implications for biomarker and drug discovery using cancer metastasis as an example....

  15. Biomarkers as Proxies for Life and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summons, R. E.

    2006-05-01

    Biomarkers are organic molecules that can be used to trace specific types of organisms or biological processes in contemporary ecosystems, ancient sediments and, potentially, beyond the Earth. Biomarkers offer a means to evaluate Earth's biosphere from its earliest development to the modern day. Hydrocarbons, which are the remains of lipids that once resided in the membranes of ancestral organisms, carry chemical and isotopic clues about the nature of early ecosystems. The hydrocarbon remains of fatty acids, sterols, bacterial triterpenoids and pigments are very recalcitrant substances and can be found in rocks as old as 2.8 billion years. These molecules tell us that the three domains, archaea, bacteria and eukarya that comprise all extant life appeared quite early in Earth's history as did the oxygen-producing photosynthesis that oxidized our atmosphere and made it possible for animal life to evolve and increase in complexity. Pigment-derived biomarkers are especially useful for evaluating paleo-environmental conditions. They occur in rocks from the Archean to the present day and can be especially diagnostic for euxinic conditions. The greatest known mass extinction event occurred at the end of the Permian period and extinguished about 70% of the animals and plants that existed at that time. Much controversy surrounds its cause with many different scenarios having been proposed. An international collaboration has enabled biomarker profiles to be obtained from Permian- Triassic boundary sections in China, Australia, Canada, Tibet and Greenland. These data suggest that euxinic conditions prevailed widely in the oceans for an extended period from the Late Permian and that sulfide toxicity may have been a major factor in the demise of both plant and animal life.

  16. Evidence from Biomarkers and Surrogate Endpoints

    OpenAIRE

    Feigin, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Summary: The use of physiological, anatomical, and other biological tests is commonplace in the practice of medicine. In neurology, objectively measured tests termed biomarkers (BMs) are playing an increasing role in diagnosis and management of disease, both in clinical practice and in experimental therapeutics. This article will discuss the various applications of BMs to the assessment of therapies for neurological diseases and will use examples from neurological diseases to elucidate the st...

  17. Bayesian methods for proteomic biomarker development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Hernández

    2015-12-01

    In this review we provide an introduction to Bayesian inference and demonstrate some of the advantages of using a Bayesian framework. We summarize how Bayesian methods have been used previously in proteomics and other areas of bioinformatics. Finally, we describe some popular and emerging Bayesian models from the statistical literature and provide a worked tutorial including code snippets to show how these methods may be applied for the evaluation of proteomic biomarkers.

  18. Do We Need Biomarkers for Disc Degeneration?

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Helen E.; Edward N. Hanley, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Disc degeneration plays a major role in this country's medical, social and economic structure. The life-time prevalence of low back pain, which has disc degeneration as its cause, is about 80% in the general population. It is a primary cause of disability and estimated costs related to low back disorders exceed $100 billion per year in the U.S. alone. Biomarkers are becoming increasingly important as indicators of the presence of disease, and in evaluating outcomes during clinical treatment. ...

  19. New serum biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash C Chadha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA is currently used as a biomarker for diagnosis and management of prostate cancer (CaP. However, PSA typically lacks the sensitivity and specificity desired of a diagnostic marker. Objective: The goal of this study was to identify an additional biomarker or a panel of biomarkers that is more sensitive and specific than PSA in differentiating benign versus malignant prostate disease and/or localized CaP versus metastatic CaP. Methods: Concurrent measurements of circulating interleukin-8 (IL-8, Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptors 1 (sTNFR1 were obtained from four groups of men: (1 Controls (2 with elevated prostate-specific antigen with a negative prostate biopsy (elPSA_negBx (3 with clinically localized CaP and (4 with castration resistant prostate cancer. Results: TNF-α Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.93 and sTNFR1 (AUC = 0.97 were strong predictors of elPSA_negBx (vs. CaP. The best predictor of elPSA_negBx vs CaP was sTNFR1 and IL-8 combined (AUC = 0.997. The strongest single predictors of localized versus metastatic CaP were TNF-α (AUC = 0.992 and PSA (AUC = 0.963 levels. Conclusions: The specificity and sensitivity of a PSA-based CaP diagnosis can be significantly enhanced by concurrent serum measurements of IL-8, TNF-α and sTNFR1. In view of the concerns about the ability of PSA to distinguish clinically relevant CaP from indolent disease, assessment of these biomarkers in the larger cohort is warranted.

  20. New serum biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Kailash C.; Miller, Austin; Nair, Bindukumar B.; Schwartz, Stanley A.; Trump, Donald L.; Underwood, Willie

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a biomarker for diagnosis and management of prostate cancer (CaP). However, PSA typically lacks the sensitivity and specificity desired of a diagnostic marker. Objective The goal of this study was to identify an additional biomarker or a panel of biomarkers that is more sensitive and specific than PSA in differentiating benign versus malignant prostate disease and/or localized CaP versus metastatic CaP. Methods Concurrent measurements of circulating interleukin-8 (IL-8), Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptors 1 (sTNFR1) were obtained from four groups of men: (1) Controls (2) with elevated prostate-specific antigen with a negative prostate biopsy (elPSA_negBx) (3) with clinically localized CaP and (4) with castration resistant prostate cancer. Results TNF-α Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.93) and sTNFR1 (AUC = 0.97) were strong predictors of elPSA_negBx (vs. CaP). The best predictor of elPSA_negBx vs CaP was sTNFR1 and IL-8 combined (AUC = 0.997). The strongest single predictors of localized versus metastatic CaP were TNF-α (AUC = 0.992) and PSA (AUC = 0.963) levels. Conclusions The specificity and sensitivity of a PSA-based CaP diagnosis can be significantly enhanced by concurrent serum measurements of IL-8, TNF-α and sTNFR1. In view of the concerns about the ability of PSA to distinguish clinically relevant CaP from indolent disease, assessment of these biomarkers in the larger cohort is warranted. PMID:25593898

  1. Sleep electroencephalography as a biomarker in depression

    OpenAIRE

    Steiger, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Axel Steiger, Marcel Pawlowski, Mayumi Kimura Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany Abstract: The sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) provides biomarkers of depression, which may help with diagnosis, prediction of therapy response, and prognosis in the treatment of depression. In patients with depression, characteristic sleep EEG changes include impaired sleep continuity, disinhibition of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, and impaired non-REM sleep. Most antidepressants suppress REM...

  2. Biomarker in der Osteologie: Aktueller Stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bieglmayer C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboruntersuchungen helfen Ursachen von Osteopathien aufzudecken und Geschwindigkeit und Bilanz des Knochenumbaus zu beurteilen. Diese Faktoren können durch Resorptions- und Anbaumarker erfaßt werden. Für einige Marker haben wir geschlechtsspezifische Referenzbereiche evaluiert. Die Konzentrationsveränderungen zirkulierender Biomarker zeigen Erfolg oder Mißerfolg von osteoprotektiven Therapien erheblich rascher an als densitometrische Messungen. Die zur Interpretation von Verlaufsbeobachtungen wichtigen kleinsten signifikanten Änderungen der Markerspiegel liegen zwischen 15 % und 60%.

  3. Validation of soluble amyloid-β precursor protein assays as diagnostic CSF biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Waalwijk van Doorn, Linda J C; Koel-Simmelink, Marleen J; Haußmann, Ute; Klafki, Hans; Struyfs, Hanne; Linning, Philipp; Knölker, Hans-Joachim; Twaalfhoven, Harry; Kuiperij, H Bea; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Scheltens, Philip; Verbeek, Marcel M; Vanmechelen, Eugeen; Wiltfang, Jens; Teunissen, Charlotte E

    2016-04-01

    Analytical validation of a biomarker assay is essential before implementation in clinical practice can occur. In this study, we analytically validated the performance of assays detecting soluble amyloid-β precursor protein (sAPP) α and β in CSF in two laboratories according to previously standard operating procedures serving this goal. sAPPα and sAPPβ ELISA assays from two vendors (IBL-international, Meso Scale Diagnostics) were validated. The performance parameters included precision, sensitivity, dilutional linearity, recovery, and parallelism. Inter-laboratory variation, biomarker comparison (sAPPα vs. sAPPβ) and clinical performance was determined in three laboratories using 60 samples of patients with subjective memory complaints, Alzheimer's disease, or frontotemporal dementia. All performance parameters of the assays were similar between labs and within predefined acceptance criteria. The only exceptions were minor out-of-range results for recovery at low concentrations and, despite being within predefined acceptance criteria, non-comparability of the results for evaluation of the dilutional linearity and hook-effect. Based on the inter-laboratory correlation between Lab #1 and Lab #2, the IBL-international assays were more robust (sAPPα: r(2) = 0.92, sAPPβ: r(2) = 0.94) than the Meso Scale Diagnostics (MSD) assay (sAPPα: r(2) = 0.70, sAPPβ: r(2) = 0.80). Specificity of assays was confirmed using assay-specific peptide competitors. Clinical validation showed consistent results across the clinical groups in the different laboratories for all assays. The validated sAPP assays appear to be of sufficient technical quality and perform well. Moreover, the study shows that the newly developed standard operating procedures provide highly useful tools for the validation of new biomarker assays. A recommendation was made for renewed instructions to evaluate the dilutional linearity and hook-effect. We analytically validated the performance of assays

  4. Biomarkers in Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eRiverol

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common form of dementia in the elderly, and it is characterized by progressive impairment in multiple cognitive domains of sufficient severity to interfere with individuals’ daily living activities. Historically, the diagnosis of AD has been based on the identification of a clinical syndrome, and accuracy studies of the current clinical criteria conducted in referral clinics have shown high sensitivity for AD. However, the identification of the disease is still not perfect, and there is growing evidence that the use of biomarkers will increase our ability to better indentify the underlying biology of AD, especially in its early stages. These biomarkers will improve the detection of the patients suitable for research studies and drug trials, and they will contribute to a better management of the disease in the clinical practice. In this review, we discuss the most studied biomarkers in AD: cerebrospinal fluid proteins, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, functional neuroimaging techniques, and amyloid imaging.

  5. Nanostructured optical microchips for cancer biomarker detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianhua; He, Yuan; Wei, Jianjun; Que, Long

    2012-01-01

    Herein we report the label-free detection of a cancer biomarker using newly developed arrayed nanostructured Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) microchips. Specifically, the prostate cancer biomarker free prostate-specific antigen (f-PSA) has been detected with a mouse anti-human PSA monoclonal antibody (mAb) as the receptor. Experiments found that the limit-of-detection of current nanostructured FPI microchip for f-PSA is about 10 pg/mL and the upper detection range for f-PSA can be dynamically changed by varying the amount of the PSA mAb immobilized on the sensing surface. The control experiments have also demonstrated that the immunoassay protocol used in the experiments shows excellent specificity and selectivity, suggesting the great potential to detect the cancer biomarkers at trace levels in complex biofluids. In addition, given its nature of low cost, simple-to-operation and batch fabrication capability, the arrayed nanostructured FPI microchip-based platform could provide an ideal technical tool for point-of-care diagnostics application and anticancer drug screen and discovery.

  6. Biomarkers for early detection of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Robert C

    2010-09-01

    The existence of an effective biomarker for early detection of Alzheimer disease would facilitate improved diagnosis and stimulate therapeutic trials. Multidisciplinary clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer disease is time consuming and expensive and relies on experts who are rarely available outside of specialty clinics. Thus, many patients do not receive proper diagnosis until the disease has progressed beyond stages in which treatments are maximally effective. In the clinical trial setting, rapid, cost-effective screening of patients for Alzheimer disease is of paramount importance for the development of new treatments. Neuroimaging of cortical amyloid burden and volumetric changes in the brain and assessment of protein concentrations (eg, β-amyloid 1-42, total tau, phosphorylated tau) in cerebrospinal fluid are diagnostic tools that are not widely available. Known genetic markers do not provide sufficient discriminatory power between different forms of dementia to be useful in isolation. Recent studies using panels of biomarkers for diagnosis of Alzheimer disease or mild cognitive impairment have been promising, though no such studies have been cross-validated in independent samples of subjects. The ideal biomarker enabling early detection of Alzheimer disease has not yet been identified.

  7. Copeptin as a biomarker in cardiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Georgios; Deftereos, Spyridon; Panagopoulou, Vasiliki; Kossyvakis, Charalambos; Kaoukis, Andreas; Bouras, Georgios; Pyrgakis, Vlassios; Cleman, Michael W

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of biochemical biomarkers in the evaluation of patients with cardiovascular disease has led to practice-changing advancements in the way these patients are diagnosed and managed. Measurements of cardiac troponins or brain-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its precursor, N-terminal brain-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), have become indispensable in the evaluation of patients with acute coronary syndromes and heart failure, respectively, constituting an integral part of the diagnostic algorithm and risk stratification of these conditions. Copeptin, a glycopeptide, part of the prehormone molecule of the antidiuretic hormone - or arginine-vasopressin - has shown considerable promise in this field. There is evidence that copeptin might be useful as a diagnostic or prognostic biomarker and risk-stratifier in a range of cardiovascular disease conditions. The main clinical scenarios where copeptin has been studied as a biomarker are: early rule-out of myocardial infarction in patients with acute chest pain, diagnosis of heart failure in patients with acute dyspnea and determining the prognosis of destabilized or chronic stable heart failure. The present review is aimed at providing concise information about the molecular structure and biosynthesis of copeptin, the available medical chemistry methods of quantification, and the potential clinical uses of this molecule in patients with heart disease.

  8. The importance of biomarkers in neonatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussap, M; Noto, A; Cibecchini, F; Fanos, V

    2013-02-01

    Despite a 35% decline in the mortality rate for infants aged years over the past two decades, every year nearly 40% of all deaths in this age group occur in the neonatal period, defined as the first 28 days of life. New knowledge on molecular and biochemical pathways in neonatal diseases will lead to the discovery of new candidate biomarkers potentially useful in clinical practice. In the era of personalized medicine, biomarkers may play a strategic role in accelerating the decline in neonatal mortality by assessing the risk of developing neonatal diseases, by implementing tailored therapeutic treatment, and by predicting the clinical outcome. However, there is an urgent need to reduce the gap in translating newly acquired knowledge from bench to bedside. Traditional and candidate biomarkers for neonatal sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis will be discussed in this review, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), serum amyloid A (SAA), soluble form of CD14 subtype presepsin (sCD14-ST), lipolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), angiopoietins (Ang)-1 and -2, soluble form of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (sTREM-1), soluble form of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), platelet-activating factor (PAF) and calprotectin. New frontiers in managing critically ill newborns may be opened by metabolomics, a diagnostic tool based on the recognition of metabolites contained in biological fluids. Metabolomics represents the passage from a descriptive science to a predictive science, having the potential to translate benchtop research to real clinical benefits. PMID:23164809

  9. Biomarkers and Pharmacogenetics in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunhai Xu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate identification and validation of biomarkers as well as pharmacogenetics are important in formulating patient-oriented, individualized chemotherapy or biological therapy in cancer patients. These markers can be especially valuable in pancreatic cancer, where high mortality and complex disease biology are frequently encountered. Recently, several advances have been made to further our knowledge in this specific area of pancreatic cancer. In the 2011 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO Annual Meeting, researchers have presented several interesting results in biomarkers development: the identifications of 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that is associated with positive efficacy of gemcitabine (Abstract #4022; the introduction of circulating tumor cells as a prognostic markers in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (Abstract #e14657; the re-affirmation of plasma cytidine deaminase (CDA as a positive predictive markers for gemcitabine efficacy, as well as the postulations that CDA*3 as a potential genotype marker to predict gemcitabine responses (Abstract #e14645; and finally the retrospective tumor tissues analysis in the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Internistische Onkologie (AIO trial in an attempt for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR pathway biomarker identifications (Abstract #4047

  10. Biomarkers for cardiac cachexia: reality or utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Telma; Vitorino, Rui; Amado, Francisco; Duarte, José Alberto; Ferreira, Rita

    2014-09-25

    Cardiac cachexia is a serious complication of chronic heart failure, characterized by significant weight loss and body wasting. Chronic heart failure-related muscle wasting results from a chronic imbalance in the activation of anabolic or catabolic pathways, caused by a series of immunological, metabolic, and neurohormonal processes. In spite of the high morbidity and mortality associated to this condition, there is no universally accepted definition or specific biomarkers for cardiac cachexia, which makes its diagnosis and treatment difficult. Several hormonal, inflammatory and oxidative stress molecules have been proposed as serological markers of prognosis in cardiac cachexia but with doubtful success. As individual biomarkers may have limited sensitivity and specificity, multimarker strategies involving mediators of the biological processes modulated by cardiac cachexia will strongly contribute for the diagnosis and management of the disease, as well as for the establishment of new therapeutic targets. An integrated analysis of the biomarkers proposed so far for cardiac cachexia is made in the present review, highlighting the biological processes to which they are related. PMID:24978823

  11. Biological features and biomarkers in hepatocellularcarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Similar to other cancers, a multistep process of carcinogenesisis observed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Although the mechanisms underlying the developmentof HCC have been investigated in terms of oncology,virology, and stem cell biology, the whole picture ofhepatocarcinogenesis remains to be elucidated. Recentprogress in molecular biology has provided clues tothe underlying cause of various diseases. In particular,sequencing technologies, such as whole genome andexome sequencing analyses, have made an impacton genomic research on a variety of cancers includingHCC. Comprehensive genomic analyses have detectednumerous abnormal genetic alterations, such asmutations and copy number alterations. Based on thesefindings, signaling pathways and cancer-related genesinvolved in hepatocarcinogenesis could be analyzed indetail. Simultaneously, a number of novel biomarkers,both from tissue and blood samples, have been recentlyreported. These biomarkers have been successfullyapplied to early diagnosis and prognostic prediction ofpatients with HCC. In this review, we focus on the recentdevelopments in molecular cancer research on HCC andexplain the biological features and novel biomarkers.

  12. Saliva: A diagnostic biomarker of periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Priti Basgauda; Patil, Basgauda Ramesh

    2011-10-01

    Early detection of disease plays a crucial role in successful therapy. Early diagnosis and management reduces the severity and possible complications of the disease process. To overcome this challenge, medical researchers are devoted to finding molecular disease biomarkers that reveal a hidden lethal threat before the disease becomes complicated. Saliva, an important physiologic fluid, containing a highly complex mixture of substances, is rapidly gaining popularity as a diagnostic tool. Periodontal disease is a chronic disease of the oral cavity comprising a group of inflammatory conditions affecting the supporting structures of the dentition. In the field of periodontology, traditional clinical criteria are often insufficient for determining sites of active disease, for monitoring the response to therapy, or for measuring the degree of susceptibility to future disease progression. Saliva, as a mirror of oral and systemic health, is a valuable source for clinically relevant information because it contains biomarkers specific for the unique physiologic aspects of periodontal diseases. This review highlights the various potentials of saliva as a diagnostic biomarker for periodontal diseases.

  13. A photoacoustic immunoassay for biomarker detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunfei; Cao, Mingfeng; McClelland, John F; Shao, Zengyi; Lu, Meng

    2016-11-15

    Challenges in protein biomarker analysis include insufficient sensitivity for detecting low-abundance biomarkers, poor measurement reproducibility, and the high costs and large footprints of detection systems. To address these issues, a new detection modality was developed for analyzing protein biomarkers based on the plasmon-enhanced photoacoustic (PA) effect. The detection modality employed a heterogeneous immunoassay scheme and used gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as the signal reporter. Due to their localized plasmon resonance, AuNPs can strongly interact with intensity-modulated laser excitation and generate strong PA signals, which are subsequently sensed and quantified using a microphone. As an example, the performance of the PA immunoassay was evaluated by detecting the human interleukin 8 chemokine. The PA immunoassay provided approximately 143× lower limit of detection (LOD) than observed with the gold standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay - a decrease from 23pg/mL to 0.16pg/mL. In addition to the significant performance improvement in terms of the LOD, the PA immunoassay also offers advantages in terms of compatibility with low-cost instruments and the long-term stability of assay results. PMID:27183276

  14. Translation of neurological biomarkers to clinically relevant platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Ronald L; Robinson, Gillian; Muller, Uwe; Wang, Kevin K W

    2009-01-01

    Like proteomics more generally, neuroproteomics has recently been linked to the discovery of biochemical markers of central nervous system (CNS) injury and disease. Although neuroproteomics has enjoyed considerable success in discovery of candidate biomarkers, there are a number of challenges facing investigators interested in developing clinically useful platforms to assess biomarkers for damage to the CNS. These challenges include intrinsic physiological complications such as the blood-brain barrier. Effective translation of biomarkers to clinical practice also requires development of entirely novel pathways and product development strategies. Drawing from lessons learned from applications of biomarkers to traumatic brain injury, this study outlines major elements of such a pathway. As with other indications, biomarkers can have three major areas of application: (1) drug development; (2) diagnosis and prognosis; (3) patient management. Translation of CNS biomarkers to practical clinical platforms raises a number of integrated elements. Biomarker discovery and initial selection needs to be integrated at the earliest stages with components that will allow systematic prioritization and triage of biomarker candidates. A number of important criteria need to be considered in selecting clinical biomarker candidates. Development of proof of concept assays and their optimization and validation represent an often overlooked feature of biomarker translational research. Initial assay optimization should confirm that assays can detect biomarkers in relevant clinical samples. Since access to human clinical samples is critical to identification of biomarkers relevant to injury and disease as well as for assay development, design of human clinical validation studies is an important component of translational biomarker research platforms. Although these clinical studies share much in common with clinical trials for assessment of drug therapeutic efficacy, there are a number of

  15. Specific Developmental Disorders of Scholastic Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Several factors contribute to scholastic backwardness in children. Causes include specific developmental disorders of scholastic skills, low intelligence, chronic illnesses, family dysfunction, social problems, attention deficits, and emotional disorders. Children with specific developmental disorders of scholastic skills experience significant impairment in the acquisition of reading, writing and mathematical skills. If not remedied at the earliest, these children are at risk of developing severe stress related disorders. There is high comorbidity of behaviour disorders and emotional disorders in these children. Hence early intensive remedial education is essential in the management of children with specific developmental disorders of scholastic skills.

  16. Automated assessment of bilateral breast volume asymmetry as a breast cancer biomarker during mammographic screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alex C.; Hitt, Austin; Voisin, Sophie; Tourassi, Georgia

    2013-03-01

    The biological concept of bilateral symmetry as a marker of developmental stability and good health is well established. Although most individuals deviate slightly from perfect symmetry, humans are essentially considered bilaterally symmetrical. Consequently, increased fluctuating asymmetry of paired structures could be an indicator of disease. There are several published studies linking bilateral breast size asymmetry with increased breast cancer risk. These studies were based on radiologists' manual measurements of breast size from mammographic images. We aim to develop a computerized technique to assess fluctuating breast volume asymmetry in screening mammograms and investigate whether it correlates with the presence of breast cancer. Using a large database of screening mammograms with known ground truth we applied automated breast region segmentation and automated breast size measurements in CC and MLO views using three well established methods. All three methods confirmed that indeed patients with breast cancer have statistically significantly higher fluctuating asymmetry of their breast volumes. However, statistically significant difference between patients with cancer and benign lesions was observed only for the MLO views. The study suggests that automated assessment of global bilateral asymmetry could serve as a breast cancer risk biomarker for women undergoing mammographic screening. Such biomarker could be used to alert radiologists or computer-assisted detection (CAD) systems to exercise increased vigilance if higher than normal cancer risk is suspected.

  17. Serum Osteopontin as a Novel Biomarker for Muscle Regeneration in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuraoka, Mutsuki; Kimura, En; Nagata, Tetsuya; Okada, Takashi; Aoki, Yoshitsugu; Tachimori, Hisateru; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Imamura, Michihiro; Takeda, Shin'ichi

    2016-05-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a lethal X-linked muscle disorder. We have already reported that osteopontin (OPN), an inflammatory cytokine and myogenic factor, is expressed in the early dystrophic phase in canine X-linked muscular dystrophy in Japan, a dystrophic dog model. To further explore the possibility of OPN as a new biomarker for disease activity in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, we monitored serum OPN levels in dystrophic and wild-type dogs at different ages and compared the levels to other serum markers, such as serum creatine kinase, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1. Serum OPN levels in the dystrophic dogs were significantly elevated compared with those in wild-type dogs before and 1 hour after a cesarean section birth and at the age of 3 months. The serum OPN level was significantly correlated with the phenotypic severity of dystrophic dogs at the period corresponding to the onset of muscle weakness, whereas other serum markers including creatine kinase were not. Immunohistologically, OPN was up-regulated in infiltrating macrophages and developmental myosin heavy chain-positive regenerating muscle fibers in the dystrophic dogs, whereas serum OPN was highly elevated. OPN expression was also observed during the synergic muscle regeneration process induced by cardiotoxin injection. In conclusion, OPN is a promising biomarker for muscle regeneration in dystrophic dogs and can be applicable to boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. PMID:26963343

  18. Automated assessment of bilateral breast volume asymmetry as a breast cancer biomarker during mammographic screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alex C [ORNL; Hitt, Austin N [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The biological concept of bilateral symmetry as a marker of developmental stability and good health is well established. Although most individuals deviate slightly from perfect symmetry, humans are essentially considered bilaterally symmetrical. Consequently, increased fluctuating asymmetry of paired structures could be an indicator of disease. There are several published studies linking bilateral breast size asymmetry with increased breast cancer risk. These studies were based on radiologists manual measurements of breast size from mammographic images. We aim to develop a computerized technique to assess fluctuating breast volume asymmetry in screening mammograms and investigate whether it correlates with the presence of breast cancer. Using a large database of screening mammograms with known ground truth we applied automated breast region segmentation and automated breast size measurements in CC and MLO views using three well established methods. All three methods confirmed that indeed patients with breast cancer have statistically significantly higher fluctuating asymmetry of their breast volumes. However, statistically significant difference between patients with cancer and benign lesions was observed only for the MLO views. The study suggests that automated assessment of global bilateral asymmetry could serve as a breast cancer risk biomarker for women undergoing mammographic screening. Such biomarker could be used to alert radiologists or computer-assisted detection (CAD) systems to exercise increased vigilance if higher than normal cancer risk is suspected.

  19. Executive Functions in Developmental Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eVarvara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at investigating different aspects of Executive Functions (EF in children with Developmental Dyslexia (DD.A neuropsychological battery tapping verbal fluency, spoonerism, attention, verbal shifting, short-term and working memory was used to assess 60 children with DD and 65 with typical reading abilities.Compared to their controls, children with DD showed deficits in several EF domains such as verbal categorical and phonological fluency, visual-spatial and auditory attention, spoonerism, verbal and visual short-term memory, and verbal working memory. Moreover, exploring predictive relationships between EF measures and reading, we found that spoonerism abilities better explained word and non-word reading deficits. Although to a lesser extent, auditory and visual-spatial attention also explained the increased percentage of variance related to reading deficit.EF deficits found in DD are interpreted as an expression of a deficient functioning of the Central Executive System and are discussed in the context of the recent temporal sampling theory.

  20. Developmental dysplasia of the hip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Noordin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH is a spectrum of anatomical abnormalities of the hip joint in which the femoral head has an abnormal relationship with the acetabulum. Most studies report an incidence of 1 to 34 cases per 1,000 live births and differences could be due to different diagnostic methods and timing of evaluation. Risk factors include first born status, female sex, positive family history, breech presentation and oligohydramnios. Clinical presentations of DDH depend on the age of the child. Newborns present with hip instability, infants have limited hip abduction on examination, and older children and adolescents present with limping, joint pain, and/or osteoarthritis. Repeated, careful examination of all infants from birth and throughout the first year of life until the child begins walking is important to prevent late cases. Provocative testing includes the Barlow and Ortolani maneuvers. Other signs, such as shorting of the femur with hips and knees flexed (Galeazzi sign, asymmetry of the thigh or gluteal folds, and discrepancy of leg lengths are potential clues. Treatment depends on age at presentation and outcomes are much better when the child is treated early, particularly during the first six months of life.

  1. DEVELOPMENTAL COORDINATION DISORDER IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh MIRAFKHAMI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveIn this article, a motor skill disorder called developmental coordination disorder (DCD, that is usually first diagnosed during childhood, is explained and discussed. In the year 1987, DCD was formally recognized as a distinct disorder in children by the American Psychiatric Association (APA. DCD is a generalized term for the children who have some degrees of impairment in the development of motor coordination and therefore have difficulties with physical skills which significantly interfere with their academic achievements and /or performing everyday activities. As they develop, other age-related tasks are also below average. Because these impairment & conditions are often associated with emotional distress, they can seriously interfere with the person's everyday life and social relationships. Reviews indicate that most of the training rocedures have only a limited effect on the development of general coordination, and that they have no effect at all on academic progress.This includes approaches based on assumed underlying deficiencies such as sensory integration deficits and kinesthetic functioning deficits, as well as the more traditional perceptual - motor training. One new approach is Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP, based on problem - solving strategies and guided discovery of the child and task specific strategies. The aim of this article was to inform, promote and disseminate more information about some difficulties in applying the diagnostic criteria for DCD. Also, a brief review of the researches on the intervention methods is presented.

  2. Emerging from the fog: hypotheses and paradigms in developmental biology--the Society for Developmental Biology 2005 Annual Meeting Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Barolo, Scott; Bilder, David; Montgomery, Mary; Sinha, Neelima

    2006-01-15

    The Society for Developmental Biology 64th annual meeting took place by the beautiful San Francisco Bay from July 27th to August 1st, 2005. Organized under the leadership of Judith Kimble (SDB President, U. Wisconsin-Madison), the meeting attracted over one thousand developmental biologists from all over the world. They gathered to present data, exchange ideas and enjoy basking in the warm sun on the piers. Strong themes emerged from the diverse subjects discussed at the meeting, demonstrating exciting trends towards the unifying goal of understanding the progression from a single cell to an adult organism. Cell and Tissue Polarity was a recurring topic at the meeting. Questions like "is there polarity", "how is it achieved" and "how is it linked to stem cell maintenance" were discussed. Post-transcriptional regulation involving protein degradation and microRNA (miRNA) modulation of gene expression was featured in the context of transition between meiosis to mitosis and asymmetries in the embryo. It is apparent that Evolutionary Developmental Biology, once a major driving influence in the early days of the field, continues to enjoy a renaissance as researchers familiar with traditional model organisms are increasingly attracted to the field and as modern genetic and molecular approaches are applied to an increasingly varied assortment of organisms. The attention is beginning to pay off as laboratories are starting to generate significant results shedding light into how developmental programs are altered to generate morphological diversity. In the Satellite Symposium on Plant Development held on July 27th, 2005, the overriding theme was on the identity and maintenance of Stem Cells in Plants. Finally, researchers working on diverse organisms have shown a strong effort to address Developmental Coordination: on the subcellular, cellular and tissue levels. Advanced imaging techniques are combined with traditional genetic methods to scrutinize and compare dynamic

  3. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Workshop Characterization of Pathogenicity, Virulence and Host-Pathogen Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, A

    2006-08-30

    The threats of bio-terrorism and newly emerging infectious diseases pose serious challenges to the national security infrastructure. Rapid detection and diagnosis of infectious disease in human populations, as well as characterizing pathogen biology, are critical for reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with such threats. One of the key challenges in managing an infectious disease outbreak, whether through natural causes or acts of overt terrorism, is detection early enough to initiate effective countermeasures. Much recent attention has been directed towards the utility of biomarkers or molecular signatures that result from the interaction of the pathogen with the host for improving our ability to diagnose and mitigate the impact of a developing infection during the time window when effective countermeasures can be instituted. Host responses may provide early signals in blood even from localized infections. Multiple innate and adaptive immune molecules, in combination with other biochemical markers, may provide disease-specific information and new targets for countermeasures. The presence of pathogen specific markers and an understanding of the molecular capabilities and adaptations of the pathogen when it interacts with its host may likewise assist in early detection and provide opportunities for targeting countermeasures. An important question that needs to be addressed is whether these molecular-based approaches will prove useful for early diagnosis, complement current methods of direct agent detection, and aid development and use of countermeasures. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will host a workshop to explore the utility of host- and pathogen-based molecular diagnostics, prioritize key research issues, and determine the critical steps needed to transition host-pathogen research to tools that can be applied towards a more effective national bio-defense strategy. The workshop will bring together leading researchers/scientists in the

  4. Developmental Writing Disorders and Their Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, Yvan; Van De Craen, Piet

    1975-01-01

    Examination of children with developmental dsygraphia (inability to write) suggests the need to instruct young children in the basic principles of the writing process including phonemic analysis, transcription rules, morphemic analysis, script, and style. (DB)

  5. Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Database (DART)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A bibliographic database on the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET) with references to developmental and reproductive toxicology...

  6. Developmental Norms for the Sentence Repetition Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, John A.; MacDonald, John W.

    1984-01-01

    Obtained developmental norms for the Sentence Repetition Test from children (N=1,081) ranging in age from three to 13 years. Utilized a substanially larger number of children in each age group than previous reports. (Author/LLL)

  7. EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY OF ORGANOTINS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organotins, including monomethyltin (MMT), dimethyltin (DMT), and dibutyltin (DBT), are widely used as heat stabilizers in PVC and CPVC piping, which results in their presence in drinking water supplies. Concern for developmental neurotoxic effects were raised by published findi...

  8. Lincoln Laboratory Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Lincoln Laboratory Grid (LLGrid) is an interactive, on-demand parallel computing system that uses a large computing cluster to enable Laboratory researchers to...

  9. NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is a NASA funded facility, delivering heavy ion beams to a target area where scientists...

  10. Circulating Cytokines as Biomarkers of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeshwara N. Achur; Freeman, Willard M.; Vrana, Kent E.

    2009-01-01

    There are currently no consistent objective biochemical markers of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Development of reliable diagnostic biomarkers that permit accurate assessment of alcohol intake and patterns of drinking is of prime importance to treatment and research fields. Diagnostic biomarker development in other diseases has demonstrated the utility of both open, systems biology, screening for biomarkers and more rational focused efforts on specific biomolecules or families of biomolecules...

  11. Biomarker Discovery by Novel Sensors Based on Nanoproteomics Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fuentes

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, proteomics has facilitated biomarker discovery by coupling high-throughput techniques with novel nanosensors. In the present review, we focus on the study of label-based and label-free detection systems, as well as nanotechnology approaches, indicating their advantages and applications in biomarker discovery. In addition, several disease biomarkers are shown in order to display the clinical importance of the improvement of sensitivity and selectivity by using nanoproteomics approaches as novel sensors.

  12. Biomarkers and Personalized Therapy in Lower Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Treatment of IBS and lower functional gastrointestinal disorders is still based predominantly on symptoms; biomarkers that reflect the mechanism or pathophysiology have been identified. Given the diverse mechanisms that result in the same clinical phenotype of IBS, it is hypothesized that identification of biomarkers may lead to individualization of medical therapy. Aim To review the biomarkers that have been appraised in IBS. Methods A single author reviewed the published literature on biomarkers appraised in IBS. Results The current literature suggests that these biomarkers are insufficiently sensitive or specific to differentiate IBS from health or from other diseases causing similar symptoms, such as celiac disease or inflammatory bowel disease. Most of the proposed biomarkers are not actionable, that is, they do not lead to an efficacious therapy based on the biological inference of the biomarker itself. However, among proposed biomarkers in IBS, some are actionable, as they specifically reflect a quantitative difference in a mediator of dysfunction or result in a quantifiable disturbance of function that can be specifically treated. Such biomarkers may potentially identify relevant subgroups that respond to specific therapy. The most promising actionable biomarkers are measurement of colonic transit (leading to treatments that reverse the abnormal transit) and measurements of bile acid diarrhea to identify responders to bile acid sequestrants. Conclusions Therefore, although biomarkers are not ready for prime time as diagnostic tests in IBS, some biomarkers could identify subgroups of patients with IBS for inclusion in clinical trials that target specific dysfunctions. Such an approach may enhance treatment efficacy, and may ultimately help reduce costs in drug development and in the management of patients in clinical practice. PMID:26264216

  13. Emerging Risk Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Diseases and Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay

    2015-01-01

    Present review article highlights various cardiovascular risk prediction biomarkers by incorporating both traditional risk factors to be used as diagnostic markers and recent technologically generated diagnostic and therapeutic markers. This paper explains traditional biomarkers such as lipid profile, glucose, and hormone level and physiological biomarkers based on measurement of levels of important biomolecules such as serum ferritin, triglyceride to HDLp (high density lipoproteins) ratio, l...

  14. Validation of biomarkers for the study of environmental carcinogens: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallo, Valentina; Khan, Aneire; Gonzales, Carlos;

    2008-01-01

    of the technique used for their identification; reproducibility improved after the correction for a laboratory factor. A high-sensitivity method is available for the measurement of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. There is consensus on validation of biomarkers of oxidative damage DNA based on the comet...... assay and chromatographic measurement in blood while urinary measurements by chromatographic assays are well validated, and ELISA-based assays appear to lack specificity. Immunoassays for the quantification of adducts of N-nitroso compounds are useful for large epidemiological studies, given their...

  15. Effects of an oil spill in a harbor assessed using biomarkers of exposure in eelpout

    OpenAIRE

    Sturve, Joachim; Balk, Lennart; Liewenborg, Birgitta; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Förlin, Lars; Carney Almroth, Bethanie

    2014-01-01

    Oil spills occur commonly, and chemical compounds originating from oil spills are widespread in the aquatic environment. In order to monitor effects of a bunker oil spill on the aquatic environment, biomarker responses were measured in eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) sampled along a gradient in Göteborg harbor where the oil spill occurred and at a reference site, 2 weeks after the oil spill. Eelpout were also exposed to the bunker oil in a laboratory study to validate field data. The results show...

  16. Aberrant Crypt Foci: The Case for Inclusion as a Biomarker for Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Morris

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant crypt foci (ACF are one of the earliest histopathological manifestations of colon cancer. In this review, we critically present the molecular, cellular, histopathological, and chemopreventive evidence that ACF are relevant biomarkers for colon cancer. The laboratory and clinical evidence are highly suggestive that ACF are in the pathway leading to colon cancer, but not all ACF will do so. The possible fate and outcome of ACF in the progression toward colon cancer may be dependent on a number of features that define their predictive power for the prevention or progression of cancer.

  17. Lung cancer biomarkers for the assessment of modified risk tobacco products: an oxidative stress perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Frazer J; Luettich, Karsta; Gregg, Evan O

    2013-05-01

    Manufacturers have developed prototype cigarettes yielding reduced levels of some tobacco smoke toxicants, when tested using laboratory machine smoking under standardised conditions. For the scientific assessment of modified risk tobacco products, tests that offer objective, reproducible data, which can be obtained in a much shorter time than the requirements of conventional epidemiology are needed. In this review, we consider whether biomarkers of biological effect related to oxidative stress can be used in this role. Based on published data, urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine, thymidine glycol, F2-isoprostanes, serum dehydroascorbic acid to ascorbic acid ratio and carotenoid concentrations show promise, while 4-hydroxynonenal requires further qualification.

  18. Developmental Regimes in Africa synthesis report

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, D.; Dietz, A.J.; Golooba-Mutebi, F.; Fuady, A.H.; Henley, D; Kelsall, T.; Leliveld, A.H.M.; Donge, van, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    Many African countries have experienced sustained economic growth, but few have achieved the type of structural change, driven by rising productivity, that has transformed mass living standards in parts of Asia. In the Developmental Regimes in Africa Synthesis Report, editor David Booth examines how DRA research has shed new light on how developmental regimes might emerge and be sustained in Africa in the 21st century. He outlines a concept with defining features at three levels: policy conte...

  19. The Concept of Development in Developmental Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Sroufe, L. Alan

    2009-01-01

    So important is the perspective of development for understanding psychopathology that it spawned a new discipline—“developmental psychopathology”—which has seen remarkable advances since its introduction,, but has yet to completely fulfill its promise. To do this requires maintaining a thoroughgoing developmental perspective. When we take development seriously, there are implications for how we understand psychopathology, describe and conceptualize the origins and course of disorder, and inte...

  20. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, C.; Knudsen, J.D.; Lebech, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9......Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  1. Plant Developmental Biology in Spain: from the origins to our days and prospects for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, José-Pío

    2009-01-01

    The origins of modern Plant Developmental Biology in Spain can be traced back to a handful of scientists settled in Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia and Sevilla, who devoted themselves to plant biochemistry, molecular biology and genetics, and also to Drosophila developmental biology, which influenced, often unintentionally, the pioneers of this field. To reach the present day situation, the experience acquired in centres abroad has also been important, especially in plant research institutes in the USA, Germany (Max-Planck Institute für Züchtungsforschung) and United Kingdom (John Innes Centre). The contributions of Spanish scientists to the advancement of Plant Developmental Biology appears to be imbalanced towards reproductive biology, although relevant publications have also been reported on embryogenesis and seed development, shoot branching, tuberization, vascular morphogenesis, leaf development, regulation of development by light, signal transduction and hormone action and the connection between growth and development. Plant Developmental Biology in Spain is going through a flourishing time, with its future being highly dependent on i) appropriate funding conditions to its young scientists, ii) the opening of new areas of research, iii) the incorporation of technological breakthroughs into laboratories and iv) the carrying out of cooperative research by means of networking. Currently, besides many Departments of the Spanish universities, several centres in which competitive research in plant Developmental Biology can be accomplished, exist: the CNB and CBGP in Madrid, the LGMV CSIC-IRTA in Barcelona, the IBMCP CSIC-UPV, in Valencia and the IBVF CSIC-USE in Sevilla. Let's go for more!

  2. Sparse discriminant analysis for breast cancer biomarker identification and classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Shi; Daoqing Dai; Chaochun Liu; Hong Yan

    2009-01-01

    Biomarker identification and cancer classification are two important procedures in microarray data analysis. We propose a novel uni-fied method to carry out both tasks. We first preselect biomarker candidates by eliminating unrelated genes through the BSS/WSS ratio filter to reduce computational cost, and then use a sparse discriminant analysis method for simultaneous biomarker identification and cancer classification. Moreover, we give a mathematical justification about automatic biomarker identification. Experimental results show that the proposed method can identify key genes that have been verified in biochemical or biomedical research and classify the breast cancer type correctly.

  3. YKL-40: a new biomarker in cardiovascular disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Anders Bruun; Henningsen, Kristoffer Mads Aaris; Harutyunyan, Marina Jurjevna;

    2010-01-01

    . But in spite of improved treatments, many patients are still plagued by a high frequency of angina symptoms, hospitalizations and a poor prognosis. There is a need for new independent or supplementary biomarkers that can help to predict cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular events earlier and more...... precisely, and thus accompany existing biomarkers in both primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention. One such potential new biomarker is the protein YKL-40. As an independent biomarker in both cardiovascular diseases and noncardiovascular diseases, current evidence suggests YKL-40 to be most useful...

  4. Acute kidney injury in children: Enhancing diagnosis with novel biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Nkachukwu Uwaezuoke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This narrative review aims to appraise the sensitivity and specificity of novel biomarkers in identifying acute kidney injury (AKI in children. Serum creatinine represents a poor traditional biomarker for AKI due to some limitations. Although alternative reliable biomarkers that would better identify individuals at high risk for developing AKI, identify AKI early enough, monitor its progression and patients' recovery, as well as identify those patients at higher risk for poor outcomes are not yet available in renal care, the search-light has recently been focused on various novel biomarkers, some of which could provide this information in time ahead. Several studies have established their predictive value. However, none of them could solely fulfill all the criteria of the ideal biomarker. Therefore, to increase their sensitivity and specificity and enhance the diagnosis of AKI, constellations of different biomarkers with specific features are probably required. In future, the diagnostic evaluation of AKI in intensive care units will have to undergo a paradigm shift from serum creatinine as the traditional biomarker to tissue-specific injury biomarkers. A panel of these novel biomarkers employed at the bedside setting will ultimately revolutionize the diagnosis and prognostication of AKI in children.

  5. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in neurological diseases in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahim, Pashtun; Månsson, Jan-Eric; Darin, Niklas; Zetterberg, Henrik; Mattsson, Niklas

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers is an integral part of neurology. Basic CSF biomarkers, such as CSF/serum albumin ratio and CSF cell counts, have been used to diagnose inflammatory and infectious CNS disorders in adults and children for decades. During recent years, however, numerous biomarkers for neuronal and astroglial injury, as well as disease-specific protein inclusions, have been developed for neurodegenerative disorders in adults. The overall aim of this paper is to give an updated overview of some of these biomarkers with special focus on their possible relevance to neurological disorders in children and adolescents.

  6. The economics of cardiac biomarker testing in suspected myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodacre, Steve; Thokala, Praveen

    2015-03-01

    Suspected myocardial infarction (MI) is a common reason for emergency hospital attendance and admission. Cardiac biomarker measurement is an essential element of diagnostic assessment of suspected MI. Although the cost of a routinely available biomarker may be small, the large patient population and consequences in terms of hospital admission and investigation mean that the economic impact of cardiac biomarker testing is substantial. Economic evaluation involves comparing the estimated costs and effectiveness (outcomes) of two or more interventions or care alternatives. This process creates some difficulties with respect to cardiac biomarkers. Estimating the effectiveness of cardiac biomarkers involves identifying how they help to improve health and how we can measure this improvement. Comparison to an appropriate alternative is also problematic. New biomarkers may be promoted on the basis of reducing hospital admission or length of stay, but hospital admission for low risk patients may incur significant costs while providing very little benefit, making it an inappropriate comparator. Finally, economic evaluation may conclude that a more sensitive biomarker strategy is more effective but, by detecting and treating more cases, is also more expensive. In these circumstances it is unclear whether we should use the more effective or the cheaper option. This article provides an introduction to health economics and addresses the specific issues relevant to cardiac biomarkers. It describes the key concepts relevant to economic evaluation of cardiac biomarkers in suspected MI and highlights key areas of uncertainty and controversy. PMID:25173750

  7. Multicentre quality control evaluation of different biomarker candidates for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Stefan; Costa, Julia; de Carvalho, Mamede; Kirby, Janine; Kuzma-Kozakiewicz, Magdalena; Morelli, Claudia; Robberecht, Wim; Shaw, Pamela; Silani, Vincenzo; Steinacker, Petra; Tumani, Hayrettin; Van Damme, Philip; Ludolph, Albert; Otto, Markus

    2014-09-01

    Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive motor neuron disease that mainly causes degeneration of the upper and lower motor neurons, ultimately leading to paralysis and death within three to five years after first symptoms. The pathological mechanisms leading to ALS are still not completely understood. Several biomarker candidates have been proposed in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, none of these has successfully translated into clinical routine. Part of the reason for this failure to translate may relate to differences across laboratories. For this reason, several of the most commonly used ALS biomarker candidates were evaluated on clinically well-defined ALS samples from six European centres in a multicentre sample-collection approach with centralized sample processing. Results showed that phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain differentiated between ALS and control cases in all centres. We therefore propose that measurement of phosphorylated neurofilaments in CSF is the most promising candidate for translation into the clinical setting and might serve as a benchmark for other biomarker candidates.

  8. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for differentiation of frontotemporal lobar degeneration from Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, David J; Trojanowski, John Q; Grossman, Murray

    2013-01-01

    Accurate ante mortem diagnosis in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is crucial to the development and implementation of etiology-based therapies. Several neurodegenerative disease-associated proteins, including the major protein constituents of inclusions in Alzheimer's disease (AD) associated with amyloid-beta (Aβ(1-42)) plaque and tau neurofibrillary tangle pathology, can be measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for diagnostic applications. Comparative studies using autopsy-confirmed samples suggest that CSF total-tau (t-tau) and Aβ(1-42) levels can accurately distinguish FTLD from AD, with a high t-tau to Aβ(1-42) ratio diagnostic of AD; however, there is also an urgent need for FTLD-specific biomarkers. These analytes will require validation in large autopsy-confirmed cohorts and face challenges of standardization of within- and between-laboratory sources of error. In addition, CSF biomarkers with prognostic utility and longitudinal study of CSF biomarker levels over the course of disease are also needed. Current goals in the field include identification of analytes that are easily and reliably measured and can be used alone or in a multi-modal approach to provide an accurate prediction of underlying neuropathology for use in clinical trials of disease modifying treatments in FTLD. To achieve these goals it will be of the utmost importance to view neurodegenerative disease, including FTLD, as a clinicopathological entity, rather than exclusively a clinical syndrome.

  9. Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers for Differentiation of Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration from Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Irwin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Accurate ante mortem diagnosis in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD is crucial to the development and implementation of etiology-based therapies. Several neurodegenerative disease-associated proteins, including the major protein constituents of inclusions in Alzheimer’s disease (AD associated with amyloid-beta (Aβ1-42 plaque and tau neurofibrillary tangle pathology, can be measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF for diagnostic applications. Comparative studies using autopsy-confirmed samples suggest that CSF total-tau (t-tau and Aβ1-42 levels can accurately distinguish FTLD from AD, with a high t-tau to Aβ1-42 ratio diagnostic of AD; however, there is also an urgent need for FTLD-specific biomarkers. These analytes will require validation in large autopsy-confirmed cohorts and face challenges of standardization of within- and between-laboratory sources of error. In addition, CSF biomarkers with prognostic utility and longitudinal study of CSF biomarker levels over the course of disease are also needed. Current goals in the field include identification of analytes that are easily and reliably measured and can be used alone or in a multi-modal approach to provide an accurate prediction of underlying neuropathology for use in clinical trials of disease modifying treatments in FTLD. To achieve these goals it will be of the utmost importance to view neurodegenerative disease, including FTLD, as a clinicopathological entity, rather than exclusively a clinical syndrome.

  10. Laboratory of Chemical Physics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Current research in the Laboratory of Chemical Physics is primarily concerned with experimental, theoretical, and computational problems in the structure, dynamics,...

  11. Embedded Processor Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Embedded Processor Laboratory provides the means to design, develop, fabricate, and test embedded computers for missile guidance electronics systems in support...

  12. COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory conducts basic and applied human research studies to characterize cognitive performance as influenced by militarily-relevant contextual and physical...

  13. Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory deploys rugged, cutting-edge electro-optical instrumentation for the collection of various event signatures, with expertise in...

  14. Intelligent Optics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Intelligent Optics Laboratory supports sophisticated investigations on adaptive and nonlinear optics; advancedimaging and image processing; ground-to-ground and...

  15. Environmental Microbiology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Microbiology Laboratory, located in Bldg. 644 provides a dual-gas respirometer for measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide evolution...

  16. ANALYTICAL MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment that performs a broad array of microbiological analyses for pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. It performs challenge studies...

  17. Neural Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As part of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department and The Institute for System Research, the Neural Systems Laboratory studies the functionality of the...

  18. Central Laboratories Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The TVA Central Laboratories Services is a comprehensive technical support center, offering you a complete range of scientific, engineering, and technical services....

  19. Tactical Systems Integration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Tactical Systems Integration Laboratory is used to design and integrate computer hardware and software and related electronic subsystems for tactical vehicles....

  20. Virtual Training Devices Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Virtual Training Devices (VTD) Laboratory at the Life Cycle Software Engineering Center, Picatinny Arsenal, provides a software testing and support environment...

  1. FOOD SAFETY TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory develops screening assays, tests and modifies biosensor equipment, and optimizes food safety testing protocols for the military and civilian sector...

  2. Space Weather Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Weather Computational Laboratory is a Unix and PC based modeling and simulation facility devoted to research analysis of naturally occurring electrically...

  3. Composites Characterization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose of the Composites Characterization Laboratory is to investigate new and/or modified matrix materials and fibers for advanced composite applications both...

  4. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  5. Engineered Natural Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — With its pressure vessels that simulate the pressures and temperatures found deep underground, NETL’s Engineered Natural Systems Laboratory in Pittsburgh, PA, gives...

  6. [Theme: Using Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Jack; Braker, Clifton

    1982-01-01

    Pritchard discusses the opportunities for applied learning afforded by laboratories. Braker describes the evaluation of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor skills in the agricultural mechanics laboratory. (SK)

  7. Vehicle Development Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems. DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...

  8. Fuels Processing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Fuels Processing Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, provides researchers with the equipment they need to thoroughly explore the catalytic issues associated with...

  9. Thermogravimetric Analysis Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Thermogravimetric Analysis Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, researchers study how chemical looping combustion (CLC) can be applied to fossil energy systems....

  10. Neural Biomarkers for Dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD in the Auditory Cortex of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrallach, Bettina; Groß, Christine; Bernhofs, Valdis; Engelmann, Dorte; Benner, Jan; Gündert, Nadine; Blatow, Maria; Wengenroth, Martina; Seitz, Angelika; Brunner, Monika; Seither, Stefan; Parncutt, Richard; Schneider, Peter; Seither-Preisler, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and attention deficit disorder (ADD) show distinct clinical profiles that may include auditory and language-related impairments. Currently, an objective brain-based diagnosis of these developmental disorders is still unavailable. We investigated the neuro-auditory systems of dyslexic, ADHD, ADD, and age-matched control children (N = 147) using neuroimaging, magnetencephalography and psychoacoustics. All disorder subgroups exhibited an oversized left planum temporale and an abnormal interhemispheric asynchrony (10-40 ms) of the primary auditory evoked P1-response. Considering right auditory cortex morphology, bilateral P1 source waveform shapes, and auditory performance, the three disorder subgroups could be reliably differentiated with outstanding accuracies of 89-98%. We therefore for the first time provide differential biomarkers for a brain-based diagnosis of dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD. The method allowed not only allowed for clear discrimination between two subtypes of attentional disorders (ADHD and ADD), a topic controversially discussed for decades in the scientific community, but also revealed the potential for objectively identifying comorbid cases. Noteworthy, in children playing a musical instrument, after three and a half years of training the observed interhemispheric asynchronies were reduced by about 2/3, thus suggesting a strong beneficial influence of music experience on brain development. These findings might have far-reaching implications for both research and practice and enable a profound understanding of the brain-related etiology, diagnosis, and musically based therapy of common auditory-related developmental disorders and learning disabilities. PMID:27471442

  11. Neural Biomarkers for Dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD in the Auditory Cortex of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrallach, Bettina; Groß, Christine; Bernhofs, Valdis; Engelmann, Dorte; Benner, Jan; Gündert, Nadine; Blatow, Maria; Wengenroth, Martina; Seitz, Angelika; Brunner, Monika; Seither, Stefan; Parncutt, Richard; Schneider, Peter; Seither-Preisler, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and attention deficit disorder (ADD) show distinct clinical profiles that may include auditory and language-related impairments. Currently, an objective brain-based diagnosis of these developmental disorders is still unavailable. We investigated the neuro-auditory systems of dyslexic, ADHD, ADD, and age-matched control children (N = 147) using neuroimaging, magnetencephalography and psychoacoustics. All disorder subgroups exhibited an oversized left planum temporale and an abnormal interhemispheric asynchrony (10–40 ms) of the primary auditory evoked P1-response. Considering right auditory cortex morphology, bilateral P1 source waveform shapes, and auditory performance, the three disorder subgroups could be reliably differentiated with outstanding accuracies of 89–98%. We therefore for the first time provide differential biomarkers for a brain-based diagnosis of dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD. The method allowed not only allowed for clear discrimination between two subtypes of attentional disorders (ADHD and ADD), a topic controversially discussed for decades in the scientific community, but also revealed the potential for objectively identifying comorbid cases. Noteworthy, in children playing a musical instrument, after three and a half years of training the observed interhemispheric asynchronies were reduced by about 2/3, thus suggesting a strong beneficial influence of music experience on brain development. These findings might have far-reaching implications for both research and practice and enable a profound understanding of the brain-related etiology, diagnosis, and musically based therapy of common auditory-related developmental disorders and learning disabilities. PMID:27471442

  12. Neural biomarkers for dyslexia, ADHD and ADD in the auditory cortex of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Serrallach

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and attention deficit disorder (ADD show distinct clinical profiles that may include auditory and language-related impairments. Currently, an objective brain-based diagnosis of these developmental disorders is still unavailable. We investigated the neuro-auditory systems of dyslexic, ADHD, ADD, and age-matched control children (N=147 using neuroimaging, magnet-encephalography and psychoacoustics. All disorder subgroups exhibited an oversized left planum temporale and an abnormal interhemispheric asynchrony (10-40 ms of the primary auditory evoked P1-response. Considering right auditory cortex morphology, bilateral P1 source waveform shapes, and auditory performance, the three disorder subgroups could be reliably differentiated with outstanding accuracies of 89-98%. We therefore for the first time provide differential biomarkers for a brain-based diagnosis of dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD. The method allowed not only a clear discrimination between two subtypes of attentional disorders (ADHD and ADD, a topic controversially discussed for decades in the scientific community, but also revealed the potential for objectively identifying comorbid cases. Noteworthy, in children playing a musical instrument, after three and a half years of training the observed interhemispheric asynchronies were reduced by about 2/3, thus suggesting a strong beneficial influence of music experience on brain development. These findings might have far-reaching implications for both research and practice and enable a profound understanding of the brain-related etiology, diagnosis, and musically based therapy of common auditory-related developmental disorders and learning disabilities.

  13. Phonemic restoration in developmental dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie N. Del Tufo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The comprehension of fluent speech in one’s native language requires that listeners integrate the detailed acoustic-phonetic information available in the sound signal with linguistic knowledge. This interplay is especially apparent in the phoneme restoration effect, a phenomenon in which a missing phoneme is ‘restored’ via the influence of top-down information from the lexicon and through bottom-up acoustic processing. Developmental dyslexia is a disorder characterized by an inability to read at the level of one’s peers without any clear failure due to environmental influences. In the current study we utilized the phonemic restoration illusion paradigm, to examine individual differences in phonemic restoration across a range of reading ability, from very good to dyslexic readers. Results demonstrate that restoration occurs less in those who have high scores on measures of phonological processing. Based on these results, we suggest that the processing or representation of acoustic detail may not be as reliable in poor and dyslexic readers, with the result that lexical information is more likely to override acoustic properties of the stimuli. This pattern of increased restoration could result from a failure of perceptual tuning, in which unstable representations of speech sounds result in the acceptance of non-speech sounds as speech. An additional or alternative theory is that degraded or impaired phonological processing at the speech sound level may reflect architecture that is overly plastic and consequently fails to stabilize appropriately for speech sound representations. Therefore the inability to separate speech and noise may result as a deficit in separating noise from the acoustic signal.

  14. Phonemic restoration in developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Tufo, Stephanie N; Myers, Emily B

    2014-01-01

    The comprehension of fluent speech in one's native language requires that listeners integrate the detailed acoustic-phonetic information available in the sound signal with linguistic knowledge. This interplay is especially apparent in the phoneme restoration effect, a phenomenon in which a missing phoneme is "restored" via the influence of top-down information from the lexicon and through bottom-up acoustic processing. Developmental dyslexia is a disorder characterized by an inability to read at the level of one's peers without any clear failure due to environmental influences. In the current study we utilized the phonemic restoration illusion paradigm to examine individual differences in phonemic restoration across a range of reading ability, from very good to dyslexic readers. Results demonstrate that restoration occurs less in those who have high scores on measures of phonological processing. Based on these results, we suggest that the processing or representation of acoustic detail may not be as reliable in poor and dyslexic readers, with the result that lexical information is more likely to override acoustic properties of the stimuli. This pattern of increased restoration could result from a failure of perceptual tuning, in which unstable representations of speech sounds result in the acceptance of non-speech sounds as speech. An additional or alternative theory is that degraded or impaired phonological processing at the speech sound level may reflect architecture that is overly plastic and consequently fails to stabilize appropriately for speech sound representations. Therefore, the inability to separate speech and noise may result as a deficit in separating noise from the acoustic signal. PMID:24926230

  15. Informatics and the clinical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard G; Johnson, Owen A; Batstone, Gifford

    2014-08-01

    The nature of pathology services is changing under the combined pressures of increasing workloads, cost constraints and technological advancement. In the face of this, laboratory systems need to meet new demands for data exchange with clinical electronic record systems for test requesting and results reporting. As these needs develop, new challenges are emerging especially with respect to the format and content of the datasets which are being exchanged. If the potential for the inclusion of intelligent systems in both these areas is to be realised, the continued dialogue between clinicians and laboratory information specialists is of paramount importance. Requirements of information technology (IT) in pathology, now extend well beyond the provision of purely analytical data. With the aim of achieving seamless integration of laboratory data into the total clinical pathway, 'Informatics' - the art and science of turning data into useful information - is becoming increasingly important in laboratory medicine. Informatics is a powerful tool in pathology - whether in implementing processes for pathology modernisation, introducing new diagnostic modalities (e.g. proteomics, genomics), providing timely and evidence-based disease management, or enabling best use of limited and often costly resources. Providing appropriate information to empowered and interested patients - which requires critical assessment of the ever-increasing volume of information available - can also benefit greatly from appropriate use of informatics in enhancing self-management of long term conditions. The increasing demands placed on pathology information systems in the context of wider developmental change in healthcare delivery are explored in this review. General trends in medical informatics are reflected in current priorities for laboratory medicine, including the need for unified electronic records, computerised order entry, data security and recovery, and audit. We conclude that there is a

  16. Proteomics in Cancer Biomarkers Discovery: Challenges and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem M. Sallam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of recent high-throughput technologies to various fields of science and medicine, it is becoming clear that obtaining large amounts of data is no longer a problem in modern research laboratories. However, coherent study designs, optimal conditions for obtaining high-quality data, and compelling interpretation, in accordance with the evidence-based systems biology, are critical factors in ensuring the emergence of good science out of these recent technologies. This review focuses on the proteomics field and its new perspectives on cancer research. Cornerstone publications that have tremendously helped scientists and clinicians to better understand cancer pathogenesis; to discover novel diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarkers; and to suggest novel therapeutic targets will be presented. The author of this review aims at presenting some of the relevant literature data that helped as a step forward in bridging the gap between bench work results and bedside potentials. Undeniably, this review cannot include all the work that is being produced by expert research groups all over the world.

  17. Peptide biomarkers as a way to determine meat authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentandreu, Miguel Angel; Sentandreu, Enrique

    2011-11-01

    Meat fraud implies many illegal procedures affecting the composition of meat and meat products, something that is commonly done with the aim to increase profit. These practices need to be controlled by legal authorities by means of robust, accurate and sensitive methodologies capable to assure that fraudulent or accidental mislabelling does not arise. Common strategies traditionally used to assess meat authenticity have been based on methods such as chemometric analysis of a large set of data analysis, immunoassays or DNA analysis. The identification of peptide biomarkers specific of a particular meat species, tissue or ingredient by proteomic technologies constitutes an interesting and promising alternative to existing methodologies due to its high discriminating power, robustness and sensitivity. The possibility to develop standardized protein extraction protocols, together with the considerably higher resistance of peptide sequences to food processing as compared to DNA sequences, would overcome some of the limitations currently existing for quantitative determinations of highly processed food samples. The use of routine mass spectrometry equipment would make the technology suitable for control laboratories.

  18. Discovery, screening and evaluation of a plasma biomarker panel for subjects with psychological suboptimal health state using 1H-NMR-based metabolomics profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun-sheng; Xia, Xiao-tao; Wu, Yan-fei; Zhao, Lei; Xiang, Huan; Du, Guan-hua; Zhang, Xiang; Qin, Xue-mei

    2016-01-01

    Individuals in the state of psychological suboptimal health keep increasing, only scales and questionnaires were used to diagnose in clinic under current conditions, and symptoms of high reliability and accuracy are destitute. Therefore, the noninvasive and precise laboratory diagnostic methods are needed. This study aimed to develop an objective method through screen potential biomarkers or a biomarker panel to facilitate the diagnosis in clinic using plasma metabolomics. Profiles were based on H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) metabolomics techniques combing with multivariate statistical analysis. Furthermore, methods of correlation analysis with Metaboanalyst 3.0 for selecting a biomarker panel, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) drug intervention for validating the close relations between the biomarker panel and the state and the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC curves) analysis for evaluation of clinical diagnosis ability were carried out. 9 endogenous metabolites containing trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), glutamine, N-acetyl-glycoproteins, citrate, tyrosine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, valine and glucose were identified and considered as potential biomarkers. Then a biomarker panel consisting of phenylalanine, glutamine, tyrosine, citrate, N-acetyl-glycoproteins and TMAO was selected, which exhibited the highest area under the curve (AUC = 0.971). This study provided critical insight into the pathological mechanism of psychological suboptimal health and would supply a novel and valuable diagnostic method. PMID:27650680

  19. Autologous Blood Transfusion in Sports: Emerging Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamin, Olivier; De Angelis, Sara; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Saugy, Martial; Leuenberger, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Despite being prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency, blood doping through erythropoietin injection or blood transfusion is frequently used by athletes to increase oxygen delivery to muscles and enhance performance. In contrast with allogeneic blood transfusion and erythropoietic stimulants, there is presently no direct method of detection for autologous blood transfusion (ABT) doping. Blood reinfusion is currently monitored with individual follow-up of hematological variables via the athlete biological passport, which requires further improvement. Microdosage is undetectable, and suspicious profiles in athletes are often attributed to exposure to altitude, heat stress, or illness. Additional indirect biomarkers may increase the sensitivity and specificity of the longitudinal approach. The emergence of "-omics" strategies provides new opportunities to discover biomarkers for the indirect detection of ABT. With the development of direct quantitative methods, transcriptomics based on microRNA or messenger RNA expression is a promising approach. Because blood donation and blood reinfusion alter iron metabolism, quantification of proteins involved in metal metabolism, such as hepcidin, may be applied in an "ironomics" strategy to improve the detection of ABT. As red blood cell (RBC) storage triggers changes in membrane proteins, proteomic methods have the potential to identify the presence of stored RBCs in blood. Alternatively, urine matrix can be used for the quantification of the plasticizer di(2-ethyhexyl)phthalate and its metabolites that originate from blood storage bags, suggesting recent blood transfusion, and have an important degree of sensitivity and specificity. This review proposes that various indirect biomarkers should be applied in combination with mathematical approaches for longitudinal monitoring aimed at improving ABT detection. PMID:27260108

  20. Salivary biomarkers for detection of systemic diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilminie Rathnayake

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Analysis of inflammatory biomarkers in saliva could offer an attractive opportunity for the diagnosis of different systemic conditions specifically in epidemiological surveys. The aim of this study was to investigate if certain salivary biomarkers could be used for detection of common systemic diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomly selected sample of 1000 adults living in Skåne, a county in the southern part of Sweden, was invited to participate in a clinical study of oral health. 451 individuals were enrolled in this investigation, 51% women. All participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire, history was taken, a clinical examination was made and stimulated saliva samples were collected. Salivary concentrations of IL-1β, -6, -8, TNF-α, lysozyme, MMP-8 and TIMP-1 were determined using ELISA, IFMA or Luminex assays. RESULTS: Salivary IL-8 concentration was found to be twice as high in subjects who had experience of tumour diseases. In addition, IL-8 levels were also elevated in patients with bowel disease. MMP-8 levels were elevated in saliva from patients after cardiac surgery or suffering from diabetes, and muscle and joint diseases. The levels of IL-1β, IL-8 and MMP-8, as well as the MMP-8/TIMP-1 ratio were higher in subjects with muscle and joint diseases. CONCLUSION: Biomarkers in saliva have the potential to be used for screening purposes in epidemiological studies. The relatively unspecific inflammatory markers used in this study can not be used for diagnosis of specific diseases but can be seen as markers for increased systemic inflammation.