Sample records for biology ethical ramifications

  1. Synthetic biology: ethical ramifications 2009. (United States)

    Rabinow, Paul; Bennett, Gaymon


    During 2007 and 2008 synthetic biology moved from the manifesto stage to research programs. As of 2009, synthetic biology is ramifying; to ramify means to produce differentiated trajectories from previous determinations. From its inception, most of the players in synthetic biology agreed on the need for (a) rationalized design and construction of new biological parts, devices, and systems as well as (b) the re-design of natural biological systems for specified purposes, and that (c) the versatility of designed biological systems makes them suitable to address such challenges as renewable energy, the production of inexpensive drugs, and environmental remediation, as well as providing a catalyst for further growth of biotechnology. What is understood by these goals, however, is diverse. Those assorted understandings are currently contributing to different ramifications of synthetic biology. The Berkeley Human Practices Lab, led by Paul Rabinow, is currently devoting its efforts to documenting and analyzing these ramifications as they emerge.

  2. Teaching the Ethics of Biology. (United States)

    Johansen, Carol K.; Harris, David E.


    Points out the challenges of educating students about bioethics and the limited training of many biologists on ethics. Discusses the basic principles of ethics and ethical decision making as applied to biology. Explains the models of ethical decision making that are often difficult for students to determine where to begin analyzing. (Contains 28…

  3. [Ethical issues of personal genome: a legal perspective--ethical and legal ramifications of personal genome research]. (United States)

    Maruyama, Eiji


    Whole-genome research projects, especially those involving whole-genome sequencing, tend to raise intractable ethical and legal challenges. In this kind of research, genetic and genomic data obtained by typing or sequencing are usually put in open or limited access scientific databases on the Internet to promote studies by many researchers. Once data become available on the Internet, it will be virtually meaningless to withdraw the information, effectively nullifying participants' right to revoke consent. Although the author favors the governance system that will assure research subjects of the right to withdraw their participation, considering these characteristics of whole-genome research, he finds those recommendations offered in Caulfield T, et al: Research ethics recommendations for whole-genome research: Consensus statement. PLoS Biol 6(3): e73(2008), especially to the effect that the consent process should include information about data security and the governance structure and, in particular, the mechanism for considering future research protocols, well reasoned and acceptable.

  4. The Ethics of Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    The dissertation analyses and discusses a number of ethical issues that have been raised in connection with the development of synthetic biology. Synthetic biology is a set of new techniques for DNA-level design and construction of living beings with useful properties. The dissertation especially...

  5. The Ethics of Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    The dissertation analyses and discusses a number of ethical issues that have been raised in connection with the development of synthetic biology. Synthetic biology is a set of new techniques for DNA-level design and construction of living beings with useful properties. The dissertation especially......) popular responsesto them succeed, and whether the objections are ultimately persuasive.2. Given that synthetic biology is a new technology, there is a certain degree of uncertainty about its ultimate effects, and many perceive the technology as risky. I discuss two common approaches in risk regulation...

  6. [Ethics code of the Chilean Biological Society]. (United States)

    de Etica, C; Valenzuela, C; Cruz-Coke, R; Ureta, T; Bull, R


    The Chilean Biological Society has approved an ethics code for researchers, elaborated by its Ethic Committee. The text, with 16 articles, undertakes the main ethical problems that researchers must solve, such as institutional, professional or societal ethics, scientific fraud, breaches in collaborative work, relationships between researchers, participation in juries and committees, ethical breaches in scientific publications, scientific responsibility and punishments. This code declares its respect and valorization of all life forms and adheres to international biomedical ethical codes. It declares that all knowledge, created or obtained by researchers is mankind's heritage.

  7. Biological ramifications of the subseabed disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, L.S.; Hessler, R.R.; Jackson, D.W.; Marietta, M.G.; Smith, K.L. Jr.; Talbert, D.M.; Yayanos, A.A.


    The primary goal of the US Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) is to assess the technical and environmental feasibility of disposing of high-level nuclear waste in deep-sea sediments. The subseabed biology program is charged with assessing possible ecosystem effects of radionuclides as well as possible health effects to man from radionuclides which may be released in the deep sea and transported to the ocean surface. Current biological investigations are attempting to determine benthic community structure; benthic community metabolism; the biology of deep-sea mobile scavengers; the faunal composition of midwater nekton; rates of microbial processes; and the radiation sensitivity of deep-sea organisms. Existing models of the dispersal of radionuclides in the deep sea have not considered many of the possible biological mechanisms which may influence the movement of radionuclides. Therefore, a multi-compartment foodweb model is being developed which considers both biological and physical influences on radionuclide transport. This model will allow parametric studies to be made of the impact on the ocean environment and on man of potential releases of radionuclides.

  8. Biological ramifications of the subseabed disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, L.S.; Hessler, R.R.; Jackson, D.W.; Marietta, M.G.; Smith, K.L. Jr.; Talbert, D.M.; Yayanos, A.A.


    The primary goal of the US Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) is to assess the technical and environmental feasibility of disposing of high-level nuclear waste in deep-sea sediments. The subseabed biology program is charged with assessing possible ecosystem effects of radionuclides as well as possible health effects to man from radionuclides which may be released in the deep sea and transported to the ocean surface. Current biological investigations are attempting to determine benthic community structure; benthic community metabolism; the biology of deep-sea mobile scavengers; the faunal composition of midwater nekton; rates of microbial processes, and the radiation sensitivity of deep-sea organisms. Existing models of the dispersal of radionuclides in the deep sea have not considered many of the possible biological mechanisms which may influence the movement of radionuclides. Therefore, a multi-compartment foodweb model is being developed which considers both biological and physical influences on radionuclide transport. This model will allow parametric studies to be made of the impact on the ocean environment and on man of potential releases of radionuclides.

  9. Giant and universal magnetoelectric coupling in soft materials and concomitant ramifications for materials science and biology. (United States)

    Liu, Liping; Sharma, Pradeep


    Magnetoelectric coupling-the ability of a material to magnetize upon application of an electric field and, conversely, to polarize under the action of a magnetic field-is rare and restricted to a rather small set of exotic hard crystalline materials. Intense research activity has recently ensued on materials development, fundamental scientific issues, and applications related to this phenomenon. This tantalizing property, if present in adequate strength at room temperature, can be used to pave the way for next-generation memory devices such as miniature magnetic random access memories and multiple state memory bits, sensors, energy harvesting, spintronics, among others. In this Rapid Communication, we prove the existence of an overlooked strain mediated nonlinear mechanism that can be used to universally induce the giant magnetoelectric effect in all (sufficiently) soft dielectric materials. For soft polymer foams-which, for instance, may be used in stretchable electronics-we predict room-temperature magnetoelectric coefficients that are comparable to the best known (hard) composite materials created. We also argue, based on a simple quantitative model, that magnetoreception in some biological contexts (e.g., birds) most likely utilizes this very mechanism.

  10. Synthetic biology ethics: a deontological assessment. (United States)

    Heavey, Patrick


    In this article I discuss the ethics of synthetic biology from a broadly deontological perspective, evaluating its morality in terms of the integrity of nature, the dignity of life and the relationship between God and his creation. Most ethical analyses to date have been largely consequentialist in nature; they reveal a dual use dilemma, showing that synbio has potential for great good and great evil, possibly more so than any step humanity has taken before. A deontological analysis may help to resolve this dilemma, by evaluating whether synbio is right or wrong in itself. I also assess whether deontology alone is a sufficient methodological paradigm for the proper evaluation of synbio ethics.

  11. [The ethical implications of conserving biological samples]. (United States)

    Tazzite, A; Roky, R; Avard, D


    The conservation and use of biological samples become more and more frequent all around the world. Biobanks of human body substances (blood, urine, DNA, tissues, cells, etc.), and personal data associated with them are created. They have a double character as they are collections of both human biological samples and personal data. In some cases, the gametes, reproductive tissues, embryos, foetal tissue after abortion or even specimens of dead donors are collected and conserved. Although biobanks raise hopes in both the development of new therapies, new drugs and their integration into clinical medicine, they also point to concerns related to ethical questions such as: the principles of information, the consent of the persons concerned, the confidentiality about the personal data, and in some cases discrimination and stigmatisation. Other ethical aspects could raise gradually as research advance. Research being carried out on human sample requires informed free consent from the person who should be able to consent. The donor must be sufficiently informed about the process of research, the purpose, benefits and the risks involved in participating in this research. In the case of persons unable to give consent such minors or persons with mental disabilities, special measures are undertaken. Once the consent was given, the right of withdrawal has been consistently supported by the various declarations and regulations, but some oppose this right for a number of reasons particularly in the case of research on the samples without risk of physical exposure. In this case the notion of human body integrity is different than in research involving therapeutic or clinical intervention. In the case of withdrawal of consent, the samples should be destroyed, but the anonymous results arising from them and their analysis are not affected. What is the case for future uses? Should the researcher obtain again the consent from the donor for a secondary use of the samples? This is a

  12. Constructing Ethical Principles for Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Morten


    The ethical discussion over synbio naturally raises metaquestions or questions of methodology: Which ethical principles and values could or should function as orientation or guidelines in discussing these issues?...

  13. Playing God? Synthetic biology as a theological and ethical challenge



    In the ethical debate over synthetic biology the formula “playing god” is widely used in order to attack this new branch of biotechnology. The article analyses, contextualizes and criticises this usage with respect to the theological concepts of creation, sin and humans as created in the image of God. Against the background of these theological understandings an ethical corridor of how to responsibly cope with the societal challenges of synthetic biology is presented.

  14. Playing God? Synthetic biology as a theological and ethical challenge. (United States)

    Dabrock, Peter


    In the ethical debate over synthetic biology the formula "playing god" is widely used in order to attack this new branch of biotechnology. The article analyses, contextualizes and criticises this usage with respect to the theological concepts of creation, sin and humans as created in the image of God. Against the background of these theological understandings an ethical corridor of how to responsibly cope with the societal challenges of synthetic biology is presented.

  15. Integrating ethical analysis "into the DNA" of synthetic biology. (United States)

    Heavey, Patrick


    Current ethical analysis tends to evaluate synthetic biology at an overview level. Synthetic biology, however, is an umbrella term that covers a variety of areas of research. These areas contain, in turn, a hierarchy of different research fields. This abstraction hierarchy-the term is borrowed from engineering-permits synthetic biologists to specialise to a very high degree. Though synthetic biology per se may create profound ethical challenges, much of the day-to-day research does not. Yet seemingly innocuous research could lead to ethically problematic results. For example, Dolly the sheep resulted from a long series of research steps, none of which presented any ethical problems. The atomic bomb was developed as a result of Einstein's uncontentions theoretical research that proved the equivalence of matter and energy. Therefore it would seem wise for ethicists to evaluate synbio research across its subfields and through its abstraction hierarchies, comparing and inter-relating the various areas of research. In addition, it would be useful if journals that publish synbio papers require an ethical statement from authors, as standard practice, so as to encourage scientists to constantly engage with ethical issues in their work. Also, this would allow an ethical snapshot of the state of the research at any given time to exist, allowing for accurate evaluation by scientists and ethicists, regulators and policymakers.

  16. [Biologism controversy: ethical implications for psychiatry]. (United States)

    Stier, M; Muders, S; Rüther, M; Schöne-Seifert, B


    Current biological psychiatry, it is frequently claimed by its opponents, is "biologistic" and unduly narrows psychological disorders to neurobiology and molecular biology. They deem a complete neuroscientific reduction of the mental phenomena to be impossible because of the impossibility of reducing certain phenomena, such as the individual subjective experience. If such a reduction is nevertheless undertaken it is ultimately to the disadvantage of the patients. We argue in this article that the very term "biologism" has to be put under scrutiny in the first place. As a result it becomes obvious that "biologism", as a subclass of "philosophical naturalism", is ultimately quite unproblematic. Biologism is dangerous only if it implies an eliminative rejection or an inappropriate underestimation of the relevance of the psyche. On closer examination it gets evident that such implications do not follow necessarily from biologism but cannot be precluded either. To better identify and possibly prevent such dangers, a more differentiated terminology seems helpful.

  17. [Brain death: biological and ethical aspects]. (United States)

    Roczeń, R; Bohatyrewicz, R


    The article presents briefly historical development of death criteria from the modern times to the present. The criteria which are used for identification and diagnosing death on the base of respiratory and circulatory death definition are described. This work underlines the inadequacy of the definition of the brain death in relation to patients with persistent vegetative state and in relation to anencephalic newborns. The author describes the pathology and clinical and laboratory evidence of the brain stem death, which gave the possibility to justify the thesis that in case of the brain stem death ontological arguments are sufficient for diagnosing the death of a human being. The attention of the ethic of the life sanctity (on the base of halachic's law) and its opposing influence on the evolution of the medical definition of death has been paid. The recognition of the brain as the death of an individual is a cultural shock, which from scientific point of view changed the ways of thinking, almost immediately but did not in the awareness of the society. The work also underlies the fact that utilitarian argumentation can not be a criterion for making a decision concerning the life of an individual.

  18. Cloning humans? Biological, ethical, and social considerations. (United States)

    Ayala, Francisco J


    There are, in mankind, two kinds of heredity: biological and cultural. Cultural inheritance makes possible for humans what no other organism can accomplish: the cumulative transmission of experience from generation to generation. In turn, cultural inheritance leads to cultural evolution, the prevailing mode of human adaptation. For the last few millennia, humans have been adapting the environments to their genes more often than their genes to the environments. Nevertheless, natural selection persists in modern humans, both as differential mortality and as differential fertility, although its intensity may decrease in the future. More than 2,000 human diseases and abnormalities have a genetic causation. Health care and the increasing feasibility of genetic therapy will, although slowly, augment the future incidence of hereditary ailments. Germ-line gene therapy could halt this increase, but at present, it is not technically feasible. The proposal to enhance the human genetic endowment by genetic cloning of eminent individuals is not warranted. Genomes can be cloned; individuals cannot. In the future, therapeutic cloning will bring enhanced possibilities for organ transplantation, nerve cells and tissue healing, and other health benefits.

  19. Ethical and regulatory challenges posed by synthetic biology. (United States)

    Rager-Zisman, Bracha


    Synthetic biology is a relatively new science with tremendous potential to change how we view and know the life sciences, but like many developing technologies, it has provoked ethical concerns from the scientific community and the public and confronts demands for new regulatory measures. The concerns raised involve the danger of "dual use," in which results for improving human well-being and the environment may be misappropriated for bioterror. To counteract these dangers, many governments, but the United States and Israel in particular, have introduced new laws and redoubled measures for biosafety and biosecurity. In the United States, the recent H5N1 results achieved by two groups of NIH-funded investigators highlighted the dilemma of balancing the risk of dual-use research and the freedom of science. In Israel, concern for unconventional terrorism is long-standing, and the country is constantly engaged in improving biosecurity and biodefense measures. In 2008, the Israeli parliament passed the Regulation of Research into Biological Disease Agents Law, a legislative framework for safeguarding research into biological disease agents. This article summarizes and analyzes the current state of affairs in the United States and Israel, ethical attitudes, and regulatory responses to synthetic biology.

  20. [Biology and ethics of bioethics: an urgent need of realism]. (United States)

    López Moratalla, Natalia


    Tenets and recommendations of bioethics should be based on a profound knowledge of biological processes and at the same time deeply integrated with their human significance. Integration has been usually distorted by those implied in disciplines involved with human nature. Biology of fertilization and embryo development have been often fodder of science fiction, when considering that techniques can achieve any aim without acknowledging natural limits, and often handling data, and accepting without any critical attitude pseudoscientific dogma. In the middle of that pseudo-biology bioethics has suffered the onslaught of the ideology of man believing himself autonomous and claiming he is the only one who dictates the rules of reality of world and man, and leading development and progress with this technological power in his hands. The profoundly different response to this deep question of whether what is properly human and essential to each man emerges as a consequence of his own construction and development or, on the contrary, is inherent to the constitution of each man, has caused the splitting of bioethics into two really irreconcilable bioethics. And that because of their different reasoning and criteria. The Ethics of Bioethics requires a new thinking on this crucial point allowing it to grow as an unprejudiced Science. Serious consequences derive from taking one perspective or another. Adopting one or another perspective confront us with a serious problem. Is human life disposable? Or should it be elegantly preserved?

  1. The Defence of Artificial Life by Synthetic Biology From Ethical and Social Aspects. (United States)

    Chen, Yiyi; Yin, Zhou; Shao, Zhexin; Xie, Qiong


    Synthetic biology opens up exciting new opportunities for research and industry. Although the work of synthetic biologists presents many beneficial applications, it also raises potentially serious ethical concerns. Therefore, clear ideas must be formed regarding its ethical and social implications, e.g., public perception, safety, security, intellectual property rights and so on. In this review, the authors identified four issues relevant to synthetic biology and discussed associated ethical and practical implications. By weighing these perspectives of all sides, this paper clarifies the point that synthetic biology, as an emerging discipline with many anticipated benefits and positive impacts on society, can acquire moral support and ethical defence. Therefore, synthetic biologists should not be shackled with heavy ethical chains, but we must ensure that research is conducted under strict control and effective supervisory methods.

  2. Personalized Genetic Testing as a Tool for Integrating Ethics Instruction into Biology Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenny R. Zhang


    Full Text Available Personalized genetic testing (PGT has been used by some educational institutions as a pedagogical tool for teaching human genetics. While work has been done that examines the potential for PGT to improve students’ interest and understanding of the science involved in genetic testing, there has been less dialogue about how this method might be useful for integrating ethical and societal issues surrounding genetic testing into classroom discussions. Citing the importance of integrating ethics into the biology classroom, we argue that PGT can be an effective educational tool for integrating ethics and science education, and discuss relevant ethical considerations for instructors using this approach. 

  3. Environmental philosophy 2.0: ethics and conservation biology for the 21st century. (United States)

    Odenbaugh, Jay


    In this essay, I critically engage Sahotra Sarkar's Environmental Philosophy. The several topics include the conceptual foundations of conservation biology and traditional philosophy of science, naturalism and its implications, and ethical theory and specifically the status of human welfare.

  4. An Education Grounded in Biology: Interdisciplinary and Ethical Considerations (United States)

    Gardner, Howard


    Work in the new area of Mind, Brain, and Education (MBE) raises epistemological and ethical issues. With respect to epistemology, the norms of the component disciplines must be honored and the resulting amalgam must be more than a mere sum of the parts. With respect to ethics, the roles of scientist, educator, and practitioner each raise ethical…

  5. Ethical Values and Biological Diversity: A Preliminary Assessment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel I. Cohen


    Full Text Available There have been five major extinction events over geological time. However, the current rate of extinction or reduction of species and their habitats is directly related to anthropomorphic causes. For seventh grade students, biodiversity and its ethical considerations were introduced in a life sciences curriculum, following lessons on evolution, natural selection, and decent from common ancestry. This paper takes a preliminary look at the approach used in this unit, the ethical survey developed, and improvements to be made in subsequent years.

  6. Tracing "Ethical Subjectivities" in Science Education: How Biology Textbooks Can Frame Ethico-Political Choices for Students (United States)

    Bazzul, Jesse


    This article describes how biology textbooks can work to discursively constitute a particular kind of "ethical subjectivity." Not only do textbooks constrain the possibilities for thought and action regarding ethical issues, they also require a certain kind of "subject" to partake in ethical exercises and questions. This study…

  7. Developing a code of ethics for human cloning. (United States)

    Collmann, J; Graber, G


    Under what conditions might the cloning of human beings constitute an ethical practice? A tendency exists to analyze human cloning merely as a technical procedure. As with all revolutionary technological developments, however, human cloning potentially exists in a broad social context that will both shape and be shaped by the biological techniques. Although human cloning must be subjected to technical analysis that addresses fundamental ethical questions such as its safety and efficacy, questions exist that focus our attention on broader issues. Asserting that cloning inevitably leads to undesirable consequences commits the fallacy of technological determinism and untenably separates technological and ethical evaluation. Drawing from the Report of the National Bioethics Advisory Committee and Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, we offer a draft "Code of Ethics for Human Cloning" in order to stimulate discussion about the ethics of the broader ramifications of human cloning as well as its particular technological properties.

  8. A priority paper for the societal and ethical aspects of synthetic biology. (United States)

    Schmidt, Markus; Ganguli-Mitra, Agomoni; Torgersen, Helge; Kelle, Alexander; Deplazes, Anna; Biller-Andorno, Nikola


    As synthetic biology develops into a promising science and engineering field, we need to have clear ideas and priorities regarding its safety, security, ethical and public dialogue implications. Based on an extensive literature search, interviews with scientists, social scientists, a 4 week long public e-forum, and consultation with several stakeholders from science, industry and civil society organisations, we compiled a list of priority topics regarding societal issues of synthetic biology for the years ahead. The points presented here are intended to encourage all stakeholders to engage in the prioritisation of these issues and to participate in a continuous dialogue, with the ultimate goal of providing a basis for a multi-stakeholder governance in synthetic biology. Here we show possible ways to solve the challenges to synthetic biology in the field of safety, security, ethics and the science-public interface.

  9. Social and ethical checkpoints for bottom-up synthetic biology, or protocells. (United States)

    Bedau, Mark A; Parke, Emily C; Tangen, Uwe; Hantsche-Tangen, Brigitte


    An alternative to creating novel organisms through the traditional "top-down" approach to synthetic biology involves creating them from the "bottom up" by assembling them from non-living components; the products of this approach are called "protocells." In this paper we describe how bottom-up and top-down synthetic biology differ, review the current state of protocell research and development, and examine the unique ethical, social, and regulatory issues raised by bottom-up synthetic biology. Protocells have not yet been developed, but many expect this to happen within the next five to ten years. Accordingly, we identify six key checkpoints in protocell development at which particular attention should be given to specific ethical, social and regulatory issues concerning bottom-up synthetic biology, and make ten recommendations for responsible protocell science that are tied to the achievement of these checkpoints.

  10. The Use of Ethical Frameworks for Implementing Science as a Human Endeavour in Year 10 Biology (United States)

    Yap, Siew Fong; Dawson, Vaille


    This research focuses on the use of ethical frameworks as a pedagogical model for socio-scientific education in implementing the "Science as a Human Endeavour" (SHE) strand of the Australian Curriculum: Science in a Year 10 biology class in a Christian college in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia. Using a case study approach, a mixed…

  11. Cloning, Stem Cells, and the Current National Debate: Incorporating Ethics into a Large Introductory Biology Course (United States)

    Fink, Rachel D.


    Discussing the ethical issues involved in topics such as cloning and stem cell research in a large introductory biology course is often difficult. Teachers may be wary of presenting material biased by personal beliefs, and students often feel inhibited speaking about moral issues in a large group. Yet, to ignore what is happening "out there"…

  12. Animal Experimentation: Bringing Ethical Issues into Biology Teaching. (United States)

    Van Rooy, Wilhelmina


    There are many possibilities for the use of controversial issues such as animal experimentation in biology classrooms. Outlines a series of three lessons that asked senior biology students to consider the issue of animal experimentation from three perspectives. (Author/LM)

  13. Ethics and methods for biological rhythm research on animals and human beings. (United States)

    Portaluppi, Francesco; Smolensky, Michael H; Touitou, Yvan


    This article updates the ethical standards and methods for the conduct of high-quality animal and human biological rhythm research, which should be especially useful for new investigators of the rhythms of life. The editors of Chronobiology International adhere to and endorse the Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines of the Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE), which encourages communication of such updates at regular intervals in the journal. The journal accepts papers representing original work, no part of which was previously submitted for publication elsewhere, except as brief abstracts, as well as in-depth reviews. The majority of research papers published in Chronobiology International entails animal and human investigations. The editors and readers of the journal expect authors of submitted manuscripts to have made an important contribution to the research of biological rhythms and related phenomena using ethical methods/procedures and unbiased, accurate, and honest reporting of findings. Authors of scientific papers are required to declare all potential conflicts of interest. The journal and its editors endorse compliance of investigators to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council, relating to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals, and the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, relating to the conduct of ethical research on human beings. The peer review of manuscripts by Chronobiology International thus includes judgment as to whether or not the protocols and methods conform to ethical standards. Authors are expected to show mastery of the basic methods and procedures of biological rhythm research and proper statistical assessment of data, including the appropriate application of time series data analyses, as briefly reviewed in this article. The journal editors strive to consistently achieve

  14. Using a popular science nonfiction book to introduce biomedical research ethics in a biology majors course. (United States)

    Walton, Kristen L W


    Although bioethics is an important topic in modern society, it is not a required part of the curriculum for many biology degree programs in the United States. Students in our program are exposed to biologically relevant ethical issues informally in many classes, but we do not have a requirement for a separate bioethics course. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks is a recent nonfiction book that describes the life of the woman whose cervical cancer biopsy gave rise to the HeLa cell line, as well as discussing relevant medical, societal, and ethical issues surrounding human tissue use for research. Weekly reading assignments from the book with discussion questions and a final paper were used to engage students in learning about the ethics of human subjects and human tissues research. Students were surveyed for qualitative feedback on the usefulness of including this book as part of the course. This book has been a successful platform for increasing student knowledge and interest in ethics related to biomedical and biological research.

  15. Using a Popular Science Nonfiction Book to Introduce Biomedical Research Ethics in a Biology Majors Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L.W. Walton


    Full Text Available Although bioethics is an important topic in modern society, it is not a required part of the curriculum for many biology degree programs in the United States.  Students in our program are exposed to biologically relevant ethical issues informally in many classes, but we do not have a requirement for a separate bioethics course.  The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks is a recent nonfiction book that describes the life of the woman whose cervical cancer biopsy gave rise to the HeLa cell line, as well as discussing relevant medical, societal, and ethical issues surrounding human tissue use for research.  Weekly reading assignments from the book with discussion questions and a final paper were used to engage students in learning about the ethics of human subjects and human tissues research.  Students were surveyed for qualitative feedback on the usefulness of including this book as part of the course.  This book has been a successful platform for increasing student knowledge and interest in ethics related to biomedical and biological research.

  16. Current ethical issues in synthetic biology: where should we go from here? (United States)

    Newson, Ainsley J


    Synthetic biology (SynBio) is an emerging scientific field which has quickly established momentum and visibility. Although no single definition of SynBio prevails, the field broadly encompasses the application of engineering principles to biology, redesigning biological materials and using them as new substrates to create products and entities not otherwise found in nature. This article first reviews SynBio, highlighting the novel aspects of this technology. It then synthesizes ethical issues highlighted in the literature to date and makes some initial claims that research on the ethical aspects of SynBio should: avoid creating a new subtype of bioethics, concentrate on novel concepts and problems, and be situated within a context of cooperative interdisciplinary investigation.

  17. Lex genetica: the law and ethics of programming biological code. (United States)

    Burk, Dan L


    Recent advances in genetic engineering now allow the design of programmable biological artifacts. Such programming may include usage constraints that will alter the balance of ownership and control for biotechnology products. Similar changes have been analyzed in the context of digital content management systems, and while this previous work is useful in analyzing issues related to biological programming, the latter technology presents new conceptual problems that require more comprehensive evaluation of the interplay between law and technologically embedded values. In particular, the ability to embed contractual terms in technological artifacts now requires a re-examination of disclosure and consent in transactions involving such artifacts.

  18. The physics, biology, and environmental ethics of making mars habitable (United States)

    McKay, C. P.; Marinova, M. M.


    The considerable evidence that Mars once had a wetter, more clement, environment motivates the search for past or present life on that planet. This evidence also suggests the possibility of restoring habitable conditions on Mars. While the total amounts of the key molecules--carbon dioxide, water, and nitrogen--needed for creating a biosphere on Mars are unknown, estimates suggest that there may be enough in the subsurface. Super greenhouse gases, in particular, perfluorocarbons, are currently the most effective and practical way to warm Mars and thicken its atmosphere so that liquid water is stable on the surface. This process could take approximately 100 years. If enough carbon dioxide is frozen in the South Polar Cap and absorbed in the regolith, the resulting thick and warm carbon dioxide atmosphere could support many types of microorganisms, plants, and invertebrates. If a planet-wide martian biosphere converted carbon dioxide into oxygen with an average efficiency equal to that for Earth's biosphere, it would take > 100,000 years to create Earth-like oxygen levels. Ethical issues associated with bringing life to Mars center on the possibility of indigenous martian life and the relative value of a planet with or without a global biosphere.

  19. Social and ethical checkpoints for bottom-up synthetic biology, or protocells



    An alternative to creating novel organisms through the traditional “top-down” approach to synthetic biology involves creating them from the “bottom up” by assembling them from non-living components; the products of this approach are called “protocells.” In this paper we describe how bottom-up and top-down synthetic biology differ, review the current state of protocell research and development, and examine the unique ethical, social, and regulatory issues raised by bottom-up synthetic biology....

  20. Hormones and ethics: Understanding the biological basis of unethical conduct. (United States)

    Lee, Jooa Julia; Gino, Francesca; Jin, Ellie Shuo; Rice, Leslie K; Josephs, Robert A


    Globally, fraud has been rising sharply over the last decade, with current estimates placing financial losses at greater than $3.7 trillion annually. Unfortunately, fraud prevention has been stymied by lack of a clear and comprehensive understanding of its underlying causes and mechanisms. In this paper, we focus on an important but neglected topic--the biological antecedents and consequences of unethical conduct--using salivary collection of hormones (testosterone and cortisol). We hypothesized that preperformance cortisol levels would interact with preperformance levels of testosterone to regulate cheating behavior in 2 studies. Further, based on the previously untested cheating-as-stress-reduction hypothesis, we predicted a dose-response relationship between cheating and reductions in cortisol and negative affect. Taken together, this research marks the first foray into the possibility that endocrine-system activity plays an important role in the regulation of unethical behavior.

  1. Ethical Dilemmas in the Biology Undergraduate Classroom: Role-Playing Congressional Testimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Wiles


    Full Text Available Students often struggle with weighing multiple sides of bioethical dilemmas. The assignment described here incorporates discussion of ethical dilemmas in an upper-level undergraduate biology course. Students are introduced to ethical dilemmas in genetics through discussion of issues in small groups. They are then polled as to what positions they take on each dilemma and are assigned to argue a side opposite of one of their choices. Each student receives a subpoena to appear before a Senate subcommittee to give testimony as an expert witness. This role-play provides students with a starting point and motivation for developing their argument as well as a way to distance themselves from their own opinions by acting as someone holding the opposite stance. At the end of the presentations, students are required to reflect on the experience.

  2. Ethical dilemmas in the biology undergraduate classroom: role-playing congressional testimony. (United States)

    Wiles, Amy M


    Students often struggle with weighing multiple sides of bioethical dilemmas. The assignment described here incorporates discussion of ethical dilemmas in an upper-level undergraduate biology course. Students are introduced to ethical dilemmas in genetics through discussion of issues in small groups. They are then polled as to what positions they take on each dilemma and are assigned to argue a side opposite of one of their choices. Each student receives a subpoena to appear before a Senate subcommittee to give testimony as an expert witness. This role-play provides students with a starting point and motivation for developing their argument as well as a way to distance themselves from their own opinions by acting as someone holding the opposite stance. At the end of the presentations, students are required to reflect on the experience.

  3. Synthetic biology in space: considering the broad societal and ethical implications (United States)

    Race, Margaret S.; Moses, Jacob; McKay, Christopher; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.


    Although the field of synthetic biology is still in its infancy, there are expectations for great advances in the coming decades, both on Earth and potentially in space. Promising applications for long duration space missions include a variety of biologically engineered products and biologically aided processes and technologies, which will undoubtedly be scrutinized for risks and benefits in the broad context of ethical, legal and social realms. By comparing and contrasting features of Earth-based and space-applied synthetic biology, it is possible to identify the likely similarities and differences, and to identify possible challenges ahead for space applications that will require additional research, both in the short and long terms. Using an analytical framework associated with synthetic biology and new technologies on Earth, this paper analyses the kinds of issues and concerns ahead, and identifies those areas where space applications may require additional examination. In general, while Earth- and space-based synthetic biology share many commonalities, space applications have additional challenges such as those raised by space microbiology and environmental factors, legal complications, planetary protection, lack of decision-making infrastructure(s), long duration human missions, terraforming and the possible discovery of extraterrestrial (ET) life. For synthetic biology, the way forward offers many exciting opportunities, but is not without legitimate concerns - for life, environments and society, both on Earth and beyond.

  4. Medico-ethical versus biological evaluationism, and the concept of disease. (United States)

    Lindstrøm, Jon A


    According to the 'fact-plus-value' model of pathology propounded by K. W. M. Fulford, 'disease' is a value term that ought to reflect a 'balance of values' stemming from patients and doctors and other 'stakeholders' in medical nosology. In the present article I take issue with his linguistic-analytical arguments for why pathological status must be relative to such a kind of medico-ethical normativity. Fulford is right to point out that Boorse and other naturalists are compelled to utilize evaluative terminology when they characterize the nature of diseases and biological dysfunctions. But the relevant 'biofunctional judgements' are no less factual and empirical for that. While it is indeed evaluative to say that biological dysfunctions involve failures to execute naturally selected functions, such judgments are not bound to entail anything about what is good or bad for us, and what should be treated or not. In the last part of the paper I ruminate briefly on the relationship between 'biological evaluationism', on my construal, and descriptions of 'causal biology'. As I note in my conclusion, a strict bioevaluative concept of disease can be valid for every species on earth, and thus be of particular usefulness in general biological contexts.

  5. On the spot ethical decision-making in CBRN (chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear event) response: approaches to on the spot ethical decision-making for first responders to large-scale chemical incidents. (United States)

    Rebera, Andrew P; Rafalowski, Chaim


    First responders to chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) events face decisions having significant human consequences. Some operational decisions are supported by standard operating procedures, yet these may not suffice for ethical decisions. Responders will be forced to weigh their options, factoring-in contextual peculiarities; they will require guidance on how they can approach novel (indeed unique) ethical problems: they need strategies for "on the spot" ethical decision making. The primary aim of this paper is to examine how first responders should approach on the spot ethical decision-making amid the stress and uncertainty of a CBRN event. Drawing on the long-term professional CBRN experience of one of the authors, this paper sets out a series of practical ethical dilemmas potentially arising in the context of a large-scale chemical incident. We propose a broadly consequentialist approach to on the spot ethical decision-making, but one which incorporates ethical values and rights as "side-constraints".

  6. The ethical landscape: identifying the right way to think about the ethical and societal aspects of synthetic biology research and products. (United States)

    Yearley, Steven


    Synthetic biology promises to be highly innovative in its contribution to scientific understanding. But it offers other sorts of innovation too: in the variety of applications that could result and in the wide range of practitioners who could become involved. But directly corresponding to each of these is a kind of regulatory concern. If the entry barriers are low for a form of scientific practice with dramatic implications then the need for regulatory control over access is great since no one wants unlicensed operators releasing experimental organisms. If there are likely to be extensive opportunities for application within the human body and in the open environment (for energy production or novel forms of bioremediation) then the release and safety-testing implications are potentially enormous. Proponents of synthetic biology have been quick to realise that these challenges call for reviews of the societal and ethical aspects of synthetic biology. This paper shows that the template commonly adopted for such reviews draws on bioethics. It goes on to show that this template is far from ideal, both because of limitations in the way that bioethics has been institutionalized and because of key differences between the regulatory demands on synthetic biology and on bioethics. The paper concludes that broader models of societal and ethical review of synthetic biology are urgently required.

  7. How Discourses of Biology Textbooks Work to Constitute Subjectivity: From the Ethical to the Colonial (United States)

    Bazzul, Jesse

    This thesis examines how discourses of biology textbooks can work to constitute various kinds of subjectivities. Using a Foucauldian archaeological approach to discourse analysis I examine how four Ontario secondary school biology textbooks discursively delimit what can be thought and acted upon, and in the process work to partially constitute students/teachers as sex/gendered; neocolonial; neoliberal (and a subject of work), and ethical subjects and subjectivities. This thesis engages the topic of how discourse can constitute subjectivity in science in three basic ways: First, on a theoretical level, in terms of working out an understanding of subject constitution/interpellation that would also be useful when engaging with other sociopolitical and ethical questions in science education. Secondly, in terms of an empirically based critical discourse analysis that examines how various statements within these four textbooks could set limits on what is possible for students to think and act upon in relation to themselves, science, and the world. Thirdly, this thesis represents a narrative of scholarly development that moves from an engagement of my personal experiences in science education and current science education literature towards the general politico-philosophical topic of subjectivity and biopolitics. This thesis begins with a discussion of my experiences as a science teacher, a review of relevant science education literature, and considerations of subjectivity that relate specifically ii to the specific methodological approach I employ when examining these textbooks. After this I present five chapters, each of which can be thought of as a somewhat separate analysis concerning how the discourses of these textbooks can work to constitute specific subjectivities (each involving different theoretical/methodological considerations). I conclude with a reflection/synthesis chapter and a call to see science education as a site for biopolitical struggle.

  8. Using a Popular Science Nonfiction Book to Introduce Biomedical Research Ethics in a Biology Majors Course † (United States)

    Walton, Kristen L. W.


    Although bioethics is an important topic in modern society, it is not a required part of the curriculum for many biology degree programs in the United States. Students in our program are exposed to biologically relevant ethical issues informally in many classes, but we do not have a requirement for a separate bioethics course. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks is a recent nonfiction book that describes the life of the woman whose cervical cancer biopsy gave rise to the HeLa cell line, as well as discussing relevant medical, societal, and ethical issues surrounding human tissue use for research. Weekly reading assignments from the book with discussion questions and a final paper were used to engage students in learning about the ethics of human subjects and human tissues research. Students were surveyed for qualitative feedback on the usefulness of including this book as part of the course. This book has been a successful platform for increasing student knowledge and interest in ethics related to biomedical and biological research. PMID:25574289

  9. Ethical and methodological standards for laboratory and medical biological rhythm research. (United States)

    Portaluppi, Francesco; Touitou, Yvan; Smolensky, Michael H


    The main objectives of this article are to update the ethical standards for the conduct of human and animal biological rhythm research and recommend essential elements for quality chronobiological research information, which should be especially useful for new investigators of the rhythms of life. A secondary objective is to provide for those with an interest in the results of chronobiology investigations, but who might be unfamiliar with the field, an introduction to the basic methods and standards of biological rhythm research and time series data analysis. The journal and its editors endorse compliance of all investigators to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, which relate to the conduct of ethical research on human beings, and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council, which relate to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals. The editors and the readers of the journal expect the authors of submitted manuscripts to have adhered to the ethical standards dictated by local, national, and international laws and regulations in the conduct of investigations and to be unbiased and accurate in reporting never-before-published research findings. Authors of scientific papers are required to disclose all potential conflicts of interest, particularly when the research is funded in part or in full by the medical and pharmaceutical industry, when the authors are stock-holders of the company that manufactures or markets the products under study, or when the authors are a recent or current paid consultant to the involved company. It is the responsibility of the authors of submitted manuscripts to clearly present sufficient detail about the synchronizer schedule of the studied subjects (i.e., the sleep-wake schedule, ambient light-dark cycle, intensity and spectrum of ambient light exposure, seasons when the research was

  10. Exploring ethical considerations for the use of biological and physiological markers in population-based surveys in less developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyder Adnan A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health information needs of developing countries increasingly include population-based estimates determined by biological and physiological measures. Collection of data on these biomarkers requires careful reassessment of ethical standards and procedures related to issues of safety, informed consent, reporting, and referral policies. This paper reviews the survey practices of health examination surveys that have been conducted in developed nations and discusses their application to similar types of surveys proposed for developing countries. Discussion The paper contends that a unitary set of ethical principles should be followed for surveys around the world that precludes the danger of creating double standards (and implicitly lowers standards for work done in developing countries. Global ethical standards must, however, be interpreted in the context of the unique historical and cultural context of the country in which the work is being done. Factors that influence ethical considerations, such as the relationship between investigators in developed and developing countries are also discussed. Summary The paper provides a set of conclusions reached through this discussion and recommendations for the ethical use of biomarkers in populations-based surveys in developing countries.

  11. 'Biologizing' Psychopathy: Ethical, Legal, and Research Implications at the Interface of Epigenetics and Chronic Antisocial Conduct. (United States)

    Tamatea, Armon J


    Epigenetics, a field that links genetics and environmental influences on the expression of phenotypic traits, offers to increase our understanding of the development and trajectory of disease and psychological disorders beyond that thought of traditional genetic research and behavioural measures. By extension, this new perspective has implications for risk and risk management of antisocial behaviour where there is a biological component, such as psychopathy. Psychopathy is a personality disorder associated with repeat displays of antisocial behaviour, and is associated with the disproportionate imposition of harm on communities. Despite advances in our knowledge of psychopathic individuals, the construct remains complex and is hampered by a lack of integration across a range of fundamental domains. The clinical and forensic research on psychopathy is brought into conversation with the emerging field of epigenetics to highlight critical issues of (1) clinical definition and diagnosis, (2) assessment, (3) aetiology of psychopathic phenotypes, and (4) treatment and rehabilitation approaches. Broader ethical and legal questions of the role of epigenetic mechanisms in the management of psychopathy beyond the criminal justice arena are also outlined.

  12. Ethical and legal considerations regarding the ownership and commercial use of human biological materials and their derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrini C


    Full Text Available Carlo PetriniItalian National Institute of Health, Rome, ItalyAbstract: This article considers some of the ethical and legal issues relating to the ownership and use – including for commercial purposes – of biological material and products derived from humans. The discussion is divided into three parts: after first examining the general notion of ownership, it moves to the particular case of possible commercial use, and finally reflects on the case in point in the light of the preceding considerations. Units of cord blood donated altruistically for transplantation and which are found unsuitable for storage and transplantation, or which become unsuitable while stored in biobanks, are taken as an example. These cord-blood units can be discarded together with other biological waste, or they can be used for research or the development of blood-derived products such as platelet gel. Several ethical questions (eg, informed consent, property, distribution of profits, and others arise from these circumstances. In this regard, some criteria and limits to use are proposed.Keywords: bioethics, biological specimen banks, cord-blood stem cell transplantation, ethics, informed consent, legislation

  13. Community and ecosystem ramifications of increasing lianas in neotropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnitzer, S.A.; Bongers, F.; Wright, J.


    Lianas (woody vines) are increasing in neotropical forests, representing one of the first large-scale structural changes documented for these important ecosystems. The potential ramifications of increasing lianas are huge, as lianas alter both tropical forest diversity and ecosystem functioning. At

  14. Professional Ethics of Software Engineers: An Ethical Framework. (United States)

    Lurie, Yotam; Mark, Shlomo


    The purpose of this article is to propose an ethical framework for software engineers that connects software developers' ethical responsibilities directly to their professional standards. The implementation of such an ethical framework can overcome the traditional dichotomy between professional skills and ethical skills, which plagues the engineering professions, by proposing an approach to the fundamental tasks of the practitioner, i.e., software development, in which the professional standards are intrinsically connected to the ethical responsibilities. In so doing, the ethical framework improves the practitioner's professionalism and ethics. We call this approach Ethical-Driven Software Development (EDSD), as an approach to software development. EDSD manifests the advantages of an ethical framework as an alternative to the all too familiar approach in professional ethics that advocates "stand-alone codes of ethics". We believe that one outcome of this synergy between professional and ethical skills is simply better engineers. Moreover, since there are often different software solutions, which the engineer can provide to an issue at stake, the ethical framework provides a guiding principle, within the process of software development, that helps the engineer evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of different software solutions. It does not and cannot affect the end-product in and of-itself. However, it can and should, make the software engineer more conscious and aware of the ethical ramifications of certain engineering decisions within the process.

  15. Synthetic biology & human health: some initial thoughts on the ethical questions and how we ought to approach them. (United States)

    ter Meulen, Ruud; Calladine, Alex


    The emerging field of synthetic biology aims to move beyond our current state of being able to read and manipulate genetic code to being able to write it. Drawing on the other disciplines such as engineering it will allow scientists to create new artificial biological systems as well as modify and redesign systems which already exist in nature. This is likely to result in a range of new and innovative applications. This essay has three aims. First, it provides a brief introduction to synthetic biology, explains what it is, some of the ways in which it has been defined and some of its possible future applications. Second, the essay considers some of the ethical questions which synthetic biology may raise. Finally, the essay reflects on how we ought to answer these sorts of questions and suggests a more reflective, philosophical approach.

  16. Ethics in sports medicine. (United States)

    Dunn, Warren R; George, Michael S; Churchill, Larry; Spindler, Kurt P


    Physicians have struggled with the medical ramifications of athletic competition since ancient Greece, where rational medicine and organized athletics originated. Historically, the relationship between sport and medicine was adversarial because of conflicts between health and sport. However, modern sports medicine has emerged with the goal of improving performance and preventing injury, and the concept of the "team physician" has become an integral part of athletic culture. With this distinction come unique ethical challenges because the customary ethical norms for most forms of clinical practice, such as confidentiality and patient autonomy, cannot be translated easily into sports medicine. The particular areas of medical ethics that present unique challenges in sports medicine are informed consent, third parties, advertising, confidentiality, drug use, and innovative technology. Unfortunately, there is no widely accepted code of sports medicine ethics that adequately addresses these issues.

  17. Ethical Considerations Regarding the Biological Contamination of Climatically Recurrent Special Regions. (United States)

    Clifford, S. M.


    With the dawn of planetary exploration, the international science community expressed concerns regarding the potential contamination of habitable planetary environments by the introduction of terrestrial organisms on robotic spacecraft. The initial concern was that such contamination would confound our efforts to find unambiguous evidence of life elsewhere in the Solar System, although, more recently, this concern has been expanded to include ethical considerations regarding the need to protect alien biospheres from potentially harmful and irreversible contamination. The international agreements which address this concern include the UN Space Treaty of 1967 and the Planetary Protection Policy of the International Council for Science's Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). In the context of Mars exploration, COSPAR calls a potentially habitable environment a 'Special Region', which it defines as: "A region within which terrestrial organisms are likely to propagate, or a region which is interpreted to have a high potential for the existence of extant Martian life forms." Specifically included in this definition are regions where liquid water is present or likely to occur and the Martian polar caps. Over the years, scientists have debated the level of cleanliness required for robotic spacecraft to investigate such environments with the goal of defining international standards that are strict enough to ensure the integrity of life-detection efforts during the period of 'biological exploration', which has been somewhat arbitrarily defined as 50 years from the arrival date of any given mission. More recently, NASA and ESA have adopted a definition of Special Regions as any Martian environment where liquid water is likely to exist within the next 500 years. While this appears to be a more conservative interpretation of the original COSPAR definition, it specifically excludes some environments where there is a high probability of liquid water on timescales greater than 500

  18. Violations of service fairness and legal ramifications: the case of the managed care industry. (United States)

    Chan, M


    Adapted from Chan's (2000) model depicting success of litigation, this paper argues that with the application of various legislation, health maintenance organizations' (HMOs') violations of service fairness to each group: enrollees, physicians, and hospitals give rise to each group's lawsuits against the HMOs. Various authors (Bowen et al., 1999; Seiders and Berry, 1998) indicate that justice concepts such as distributive, procedural, and interactional justice can be applied to the area of service fairness. The violation of these underlying justice principles with HMOs' service unfairness to enrollees, physicians, and hospitals is examined. A general synopsis of the ethical issues in the managed care industry is provided. The various lawsuits launched by each group: enrollees, physicians, and hospitals together with the key statutes used are discussed. This paper also highlights the provisions and ramifications of the 11 April 2000 landmark agreement that Aetna made with Texas Attorney General John Cornyn to settle the 1998 lawsuit brought against the company. Lastly, the current ethical issues in the managed care industry are further discussed. The value of this paper can be adapted to the study of organizations' service fairness violations in other industries or in the educational, governmental, and not-for-profit sectors both nationally and internationally.

  19. "We Share the Same Biology..." Cultivating Cross-Cultural Empathy and Global Ethics through Multilingualism (United States)

    Rolbin, Cyrus; Chiesa, Bruno Della


    The "language-culture tesseract" hypothesized in the September 2010 issue of "Mind, Brain, and Education" suggests successive links between non-native language (NNL) acquisition, the development of cross-cultural empathy, and prosocial global ethics. Invoking Goethe's (1833/1999) aphorism, "those who do not know other languages know nothing of…




    This paper explores the ethics behind ethical hacking and whether there are problems that lie with this new field of work. Since ethical hacking has been a controversial subject over the past few years, the question remains of the true intentions of ethical hackers. The paper also looks at ways in which future research could be looked intoto help keep ethical hacking, ethical.

  1. The Manila Declaration concerning the ethical utilization of Asian biological resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    — the maintenance of biological and cultural diversity is of global concern — developing countries are major centres of biological and cultural diversity — there is increased interest in biological material with medicinal and other economic values — indigenous peoples frequently possess knowledge th

  2. The Manila Declaration concerning the ethical utilization of Asian biological resources




    — the maintenance of biological and cultural diversity is of global concern — developing countries are major centres of biological and cultural diversity — there is increased interest in biological material with medicinal and other economic values — indigenous peoples frequently possess knowledge that provides a key to natural products of economic value

  3. Micro-column enhanced boiling structure and its ramification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤勇; 陆龙生; 袁冬; 苏达士


    Enhanced boiling experiments of two different enhanced structures were carried out in a thermosyphon loop evaporator chamber. One was micro-columns array structure (MCAS), which was fabricated on copper plate surface with interaction high speed wire electrode discharge machining (HS-WEDM). The other was the ramification of MCAS, named micro-column-array and sintered-copper compound structure (MSCS), which was fabricated with sintered method on micro-column array structure. Considering the wall superheat and critical heat flux (CHF), comparisons were made between them. The results show that both MCAS and MSCS can enhance the boiling heat transfer. It is also found that the enhanced boiling heat transfer ability of MSCS is changed obviously while the porosity of the sintered copper layer is changed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper explores the ethics behind ethical hacking and whether there are problems that lie with this new field of work. Since ethical hacking has been a controversial subject over the past few years, the question remains of the true intentions of ethical hackers. The paper also looks at ways in which future research could be looked intoto help keep ethical hacking, ethical.

  5. Chimeras: an ethical consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J.G. Zandman


    Full Text Available Scientists have started with experimentation that raises difficult ethical questions. It comprises taking material from the human blueprint (DNA and inserting this in various test animals. The purpose of such research is noble, namely the alleviation of hu- man suffering. Yet the ethical ramifications of blending the hu- man and animal genome are significant, especially for Chris- tians. The creation of all living entities after their kind and the image-bearing dignity attributed to man both come under se- vere ethical stress for those who presuppose divine order in God’s ecology.  For non-Christians the philosophical dilemma ought not to exist in the ethical sense if applied at the purest level. If the human is merely a kind of animal, along with and ontologically not diffe- rent from other animals, there is little logical reason to object to chimeric research apart from a concern about what such re- search and application might do to the order of life pragmati- cally. However, many non-Christian do object. Man is made in God’s image and the concept of human dignity and a universal sense of right and wrong still binds Christians and non-Chris- tians when considering ethics in the field of chimeric research. As the mixing of human stem cells with embryonic animals takes place, certain non-Christian authors protest that human dignity is being diminished and the animal essence is being vio- lated.

  6. Ethics of Reproductive Engineering (United States)

    Buuck, R. John


    Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, artificial placentas, and cloning are examined from a ethical viewpoint. The moral, social, and legal implications of reproductive engineering are considered important to biology as well as medicine. The author suggests that these ethical issues should be included in the biology curriculum and lists…

  7. Engineer Ethics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin


    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  8. Ethical Issues of Synthetic Biology and Regulatory Recommendations%合成生命的伦理问题及其管理建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨磊; 翟晓梅


    探讨了合成生物学四个主要伦理问题:合成生命概念,风险受益,可专利性和合成生物学家的道德义务.基于目前我国尚没有关于合成生物学的伦理-政策,合成生物学的伦理意见并未引起科学界和社会的充分重视的现实,认为我国需要尽快建立合成生物学研究的监督管理机制,在保证合成生物学发展的同时,规避其潜在风险.%The paper explores four major concerns with respect to synthetic biology: the concept of synthetic life, analyses of risk/benefits, patenting and scientists'moral duty. Until now none ethics and policy framework has been made in China and the lack of attention to ethical views from the public and scientists is still popular. Considering concerns all above, it's high time to develop an ethics and policy framework for synthetic biology, thus ensuring the development of synthetic biology and avoiding its potential risks.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary F.Alexander


    @@ "The international market for used equipment is evolving very rapidly. Unfortunately, most buyers and sellers of used equipment have not made the effort to understand and keep pace with the global ramifications of the business they are in."

  10. Ethical controversies at end of life after traumatic brain injury: defining death and organ donation. (United States)

    Souter, Michael; Van Norman, Gail


    Death is more than a mere biological occurrence. It has important legal, medical, and social ramifications that make it imperative that those who are responsible for determination of death be accurate and above suspicion. The medical and legal definitions of death have evolved to include consideration of such concepts as loss of integration of the whole organism, loss of autonomy, and loss of personhood. Development of the concept of brain death coincided with advances in medical technology that facilitated artificial ventilation and organ transplantation. More recently, the process of "timed" death with subsequent organ donation (controlled donation after cardiac death transplantation) has raised controversial questions having to do with the limits of treatments that facilitate organ transplant but might hasten death, and the duration of cardiac arrest necessary for declaration of death and the commencement of organ procurement. In this review, we discuss the background and ethical ramifications of the concepts of brain death, and of controversies involved in controlled donation after cardiac death organ transplantation.

  11. On the Ethical Problems in Criminal Biology Study%犯罪生物学研究中的伦理问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Researchers are always in a difficult position in the study of crimes,especially in the study of relationship between criminal biology and ethics because of the social,historical and partly scientific characteristics in the crime study.This paper explores the roots of this problem in criminal biology study and analyzes the importance of this study.%由于犯罪社会历史性和它本身存在的部分科学因素致使人们在研究犯罪问题时,特别是在研究犯罪生物学与伦理关系产生矛盾时常常陷入困境。文章阐述了这种矛盾产生的根源,分析了研究此种矛盾的价值所在。

  12. 合成生物学伦理、法律与社会问题探讨%Ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) of synthetic biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓; 熊燕; 王方; 赵国屏


    Synthetic biology is an emerging cross-disciplinary research field that integrates science and engineering based on the knowledge of genomics/systems biology and the techniques of molecular biology. It makes life science and biotechnology entered a new era that enables designing and synthesizing artificial biological systems which can be further optimized in vivo and in vitro or employed in exploring natural biological systems. However, the social, ethical, safety, and intellectual property issues in synthetic biology is largely yet to be addressed. This review will discuss the ethics, risk and regulation issues of synthetic biology globally interested, including the concept of life versus synthetic life, potential harms of synthetic biology products, and the research risk assessment and regulation, etc.%合成生物学是以基因组学、系统生物学知识和分子生物学技术为基础,综合了科学与工程的一门新兴交叉学科.它使生命科学和生物技术研发进入了以人工设计、合成自然界中原本不曾出现的人造生命体系,以及对这些人工体系进行体内、体外优化,或利用这些人造生命体系研究自然生命规律为目标的新时代.然而,合成生物学研究在迅速发展、表现出巨大潜力和应用前景的同时,也引发了社会各界对相关社会、伦理、安全,以及知识产权等问题的重视与讨论.就世界各国针对合成生命对传统意义上生命概念的挑战、合成生物学产品存在的潜在风险危害、合成生物学研究的风险评估与监管等问题进行回顾综述和相关探讨.

  13. The importance of vocational ethics in paramedic education, vocational ethics course for paramedics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakdemirli Ahu


    Full Text Available Ethics are rules of behaviors which morally good or bad. Bioethics is the study of ethics about by advances in biology and medicine. Health care providers should have knowledge about health professional ethics principles, public officials’ ethical behavior principles and ethical principles concerned about other legislation. They should find the required information to make logical, objective and accurate decisions where they may face with ethical problems in their professional life. Unfortunately in our country there isn’t any special vocational ethics course designed for paramedics. Our aim is to design a Vocational Ethics Course for Paramedics which includes all issues of bioethics.

  14. Business ethics


    Duong, Thi


    The goal of this paper is to present examples of business ethics issues. What is business ethics, things concerned in this field are and why it is needed and important when doing business? The concept of business ethics has connotations to provision, rules and standards in directing the behavior of actors in the business. Business ethics involves compliance with the law, the implementation of ethical responsibilities of a business, the protection of the rights of those who are related to the ...

  15. Performance Enhancement at the Cost of Potential Brain Plasticity: Neural Ramifications of Nootropic Drugs in the Healthy Developing Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly R. Urban


    Full Text Available Cognitive enhancement is perhaps one of the most intriguing and controversial topics in neuroscience today. Currently, the main classes of drugs used as potential cognitive enhancers include psychostimulants (methylphenidate, amphetamine, but wakefulness-promoting agents (modafinil and glutamate activators (ampakine are also frequently used. Pharmacologically, substances that enhance the components of the memory/learning circuits - dopamine, glutamate (neuronal excitation, and/or norepinephrine - stand to improve brain function in healthy individuals beyond their baseline functioning. In particular, non-medical use of prescription stimulants such as methylphenidate and illicit use of psychostimulants for cognitive enhancement have seen a recent rise among teens and young adults in schools and college campuses. However, this enhancement likely comes with a neuronal, as well as ethical, cost. Altering glutamate function via the use of psychostimulants may impair behavioral flexibility, leading to the development and/or potentiation of addictive behaviors. Furthermore, dopamine and norepinephrine do not display linear effects; instead, their modulation of cognitive and neuronal function maps on an inverted-U curve. Healthy individuals run the risk of pushing themselves beyond optimal levels into hyperdopaminergic and hypernoradrenergic states, thus vitiating the very behaviors they are striving to improve. Finally, recent studies have begun to highlight potential damaging effects of stimulant exposure in healthy juveniles. This review explains how the main classes of cognitive enhancing drugs affect the learning and memory circuits, and highlights the potential risks and concerns in healthy individuals, particularly juveniles and adolescents. We emphasize the performance enhancement at the potential cost of brain plasticity that is associated with the neural ramifications of nootropic drugs in the healthy developing brain.

  16. Ramifications of DARPA’s Programming Computation on Encrypted Data Program (United States)


    the Re-Identification Threat: The Facebook Advertiser Case Study,” North Carolina Law Review, Vol. 90, No. 5, 2012. 32 Ramifications of DARPA’s...Klinefelter, “Differential Privacy as a Response to the Re-Identification Threat: The Facebook Advertiser Case Study,” North Carolina Law Review, Vol...the argument that follows, see Martin C. Libicki, Brian A. Jackson, David R. Frelinger, Beth E . Lachman, Cesse Cameron Ip, and Nidhi Kalra, What

  17. Origins, distributions, and ramifications of the femoral nerves in giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseâmely Angélica de Carvalho-Barros


    Full Text Available The study of nerves making up the lumbosacral plexus is extremely important, because it relates the various evolutionary aspects of animals’ posture and locomotion. Taking into account that the femoral nerve is the largest one in the cranial part of the lumbosacral plexus, one aimed to describe the origins, distributions, and ramifications of femoral nerves in giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, comparing them to the literature describing domestic and wild animals, in order to establish correlations of morphological similarities and provide the related areas with means. One used three specimens, prepared through an injection of 10% aqueous formaldehyde solution via femoral artery, for their conservation and posterior dissection. The origins in the right and left antimeres took place in the ventral braches of lumbar spinal nerves 1, 2, and 3. The distributions and ramifications were observed for the major and minor psoas, lateral and medial iliac, pectineus, adductor magnus, sartorius, and femoral quadriceps muscles. Having the origins of the M. tridactyla femoral nerves as a basis, a reframing was observed due to the variance in the number of lumbar vertebrae (L1, L2, and L3. However, a partial morphological similarity was kept with regard to the distributions and ramifications, when compared to the domestic and wild animals taken into account in this study.

  18. Perspectives on Applied Ethics



    Applied ethics is a growing, interdisciplinary field dealing with ethical problems in different areas of society. It includes for instance social and political ethics, computer ethics, medical ethics, bioethics, envi-ronmental ethics, business ethics, and it also relates to different forms of professional ethics. From the perspective of ethics, applied ethics is a specialisation in one area of ethics. From the perspective of social practice applying eth-ics is to focus on ethical aspects and ...

  19. Ethical Revision. (United States)

    Jackman, Mary Kathryn


    Discusses the dilemma of how to respond to student papers advancing morally repugnant positions. Advocates conceptualizing writing as an ethical act and connecting ethics and revision. Describes briefly how three such student papers were handled. (SR)

  20. Project ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Jonasson, Haukur Ingi


    How relevant is ethics to project management? The book - which aims to demystify the field of ethics for project managers and managers in general - takes both a critical and a practical look at project management in terms of success criteria, and ethical opportunities and risks. The goal is to help the reader to use ethical theory to further identify opportunities and risks within their projects and thereby to advance more directly along the path of mature and sustainable managerial practice.

  1. Ethical Impotence (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.


    Ethical impotence occurs when one wants to act ethically but feels powerless to do anything about the perceived unethical behavior. One may feel that one's actions will have no impact or that those actions actually will have harmful consequences to oneself and/or others. Ethical impotence can be understood in terms of an eight-step model of…

  2. Ethical leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, D.N.


    High-profile cases of leaders’ ethical failure in different settings and sectors have led to increased attention to ethical leadership in organizations. In this review, I discuss the rapidly developing field of ethical leadership from an organizational behavior/psychology perspective, taking a behav

  3. [Medical ethics as professional ethics]. (United States)

    Kwon, Ivo


    Contemporary medical ethics is far from the traditional concept of "In-Sul (benevolent art)" or "Yul-Li (倫, ethics), which emphasizes so much the personality or the character of a doctor. Nowadays, medical ethics should be considered as "professional ethics" which regulates the acts and medical practices of ordinary doctors in their daily practice. The key concepts of the professional ethics are "autonomy", "integrity", and "professional standard" established by medical organizations such as medical societies or associations. Most of Korean doctors have not been familiar with the concept of professional ethics or professionalism, which is due to the modern history of Korea. However, the concept of professional ethics is really critical to Korean doctors from the perspective of professional dignity and social respect to this profession. The current healthcare system of Korea is suffering from many problems of both private and public sector. Nonetheless, the professional ethics is urgently demanded for that very reason.

  4. Nursing management and organizational ethics in the intensive care unit. (United States)

    Wlody, Ginger Schafer


    This article describes organizational ethics issues involved in nursing management of an intensive care unit. The intensive care team and medical center management have the dual responsibility to create an ethical environment in which to provide optimum patient care. Addressing organizational ethics is key to creating that ethical environment in the intensive care unit. During the past 15-20 yrs, increasing costs in health care, competitive markets, the effect of high technology, and global business changes have set the stage for business and healthcare organizational conflicts that affect the ethical environment. Studies show that critical care nurses experience moral distress and are affected by the ethical climate of both the intensive care unit and the larger organization. Thus, nursing moral distress may result in problems related to recruitment and retention of staff. Other issues with organizational ethics ramifications that may occur in the intensive care unit include patient safety issues (including those related to disruptive behavior), intensive care unit leadership style, research ethics, allocation of resources, triage, and other economic issues. Current organizational ethics conflicts are discussed, a professional practice model is described, and multidisciplinary recommendations are put forth.

  5. Noncommutative reciprocity laws on algebraic surfaces: the case of tame ramification (United States)

    Osipov, D. V.


    We prove noncommutative reciprocity laws on an algebraic surface defined over a perfect field. These reciprocity laws establish that some central extensions of globally constructed groups split over certain subgroups constructed by points or projective curves on a surface. For a two-dimensional local field with a last finite residue field, the local central extension which is constructed is isomorphic to the central extension which comes from the case of tame ramification of the Abelian two-dimensional local Langlands correspondence suggested by Kapranov. Bibliography: 9 titles.

  6. Potential Ramifications of Common Core State Standards Adoption on Information Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Paul Eubanks


    Full Text Available In the United States, the decline in jobs for high school educated workers and the proliferation of jobs for post-secondary educated workers is driving the development of the Common Core State Standards. The Common Core State Standards theoretically shift K-12 pedagogy towards ability development of critical and extended thinking skills, preparing high school graduates for college and career readiness. This literature review explores the reasoning behind the shift to the Common Core State Standards and asks questions regarding the potential ramifications their adoption might have on post-secondary information literacy instruction.

  7. Photovoltaic hysteresis and its ramifications for concentrator solar cell design and diagnostics (United States)

    Gordon, Jeffrey M.; Katz, Eugene A.; Tassew, Wondesen; Feuermann, Daniel


    We report the observation of a photovoltaic effect with pronounced hysteresis. The phenomenon derives from the sharp transition in the dominant mode of electron transport in the tunnel diodes that regulate multijunction solar cells, and is only observable at high flux. These results emerged from measurements of cell current-voltage characteristics performed with miniature fiber-optic solar concentrators that can deliver flux levels up to 10 000 times that of ambient sunlight in a highly localized fashion. The ramifications of our findings for photovoltaic design, diagnostics, and performance are addressed, and a nondestructive determination of the peak and valley threshold current densities of tunnel diodes is presented.

  8. Business ethics in ethics committees? (United States)

    Boyle, P


    The "Ethics committees" column in this issue of the Hastings Center Report features an introduction by Cynthia B. Cohen and four brief commentaries on the roles hospital ethics committees may play in the making of institutional and public health care policy in the 1990s. The pros and cons of a broader, more public role for ethics committees in reconciling the business and patient care aspects of health care delivery are debated by Cohen in "Ethics committees as corporate and public policy advocates," and by Philip Boyle in this article. Boyle is an associate for ethical studies at The Hastings Center.

  9. Values, Advocay and Conservation Biology



    In this essay, I examine the controversy concerning the advocacy of ethical values in conservation biology. First, I argue, as others have, that conservation biology is a science laden with values both ethical and non-ethical. Second, after clarifying the notion of advocacy at work, I contend that conservation biologists should advocate the preservation of biological diversity. Third, I explore what ethical grounds should be used for advocating the preservation of ecological systems by conser...

  10. Ethics, evolution and culture. (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex; Danielson, Peter


    Recent work in the fields of evolutionary ethics and moral psychology appears to be converging on a single empirically- and evolutionary-based science of morality or ethics. To date, however, these fields have failed to provide an adequate conceptualisation of how culture affects the content and distribution of moral norms. This is particularly important for a large class of moral norms relating to rapidly changing technological or social environments, such as norms regarding the acceptability of genetically modified organisms. Here we suggest that a science of morality/ethics can benefit from adopting a cultural evolution or gene-culture coevolution approach, which treats culture as a second, separate evolutionary system that acts in parallel to biological/genetic evolution. This cultural evolution approach brings with it a set of established theoretical concepts (e.g. different cultural transmission mechanisms) and empirical methods (e.g. evolutionary game theory) that can significantly improve our understanding of human morality.

  11. Locating Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas-Jones, Rachel


    Research ethics has become integrated into what it means to conduct good science. This thesis is about the nature of that integration, which I argue is not neutral, carrying with it ideas of duty, moral obligations, organisational mechanisms, and processes of monitoring. For developing countries...... to participate in global research, the pre-requisite of ethical review has necessitated a growth in capacity building exercises. The chapters aim to elucidate ethnographically the activities and implications of 'capacity building' activities in biomedical research ethics, through following the trainings......, assessments and networking of the Forum of Ethics Review Committees of Asia and the Pacific (FERCAP), a Non-Governmental Organisation. The work provides a critical reflection on the spread and uptake of ethics, contributing particularly to literatures in medical anthropology, organisational studies...

  12. Intelligence Ethics:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, Kira Vrist


    Questions concerning what constitutes a morally justified conduct of intelligence activities have received increased attention in recent decades. However, intelligence ethics is not yet homogeneous or embedded as a solid research field. The aim of this article is to sketch the state of the art...... of intelligence ethics and point out subjects for further scrutiny in future research. The review clusters the literature on intelligence ethics into two groups: respectively, contributions on external topics (i.e., the accountability of and the public trust in intelligence agencies) and internal topics (i.......e., the search for an ideal ethical framework for intelligence actions). The article concludes that there are many holes to fill for future studies on intelligence ethics both in external and internal discussions. Thus, the article is an invitation – especially, to moral philosophers and political theorists...

  13. e-Government Ethics : a Synergy of Computer Ethics, Information Ethics, and Cyber Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Ramadhan


    Full Text Available Ethics has become an important part in the interaction among humans being. This paper specifically discusses applied ethics as one type of ethics. There are three applied ethics that will be reviewed in this paper, i.e. computer ethics, information ethics, and cyber ethics. There are two aspects of the three applied ethics that were reviewed, i.e. their definition and the issues associated with them. The reviewing results of the three applied ethics are then used for defining e-Government ethics and formulating the issues of e-Government ethics. The e-Government ethics position, based on the previous three applied ethics, is also described in this paper. Computer ethics, information ethics and cyber ethics are considered as the foundations of e-Government ethics and several others applied ethics could enrich the e-Government ethics.

  14. The Deconstruction and Interpretation of Convention on Biological Diversity from The Perspective of Environmental Ethics%环境伦理视域下《生物多样性公约》的解构与阐释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    作为国际法律框架的基石,伦理道德在国际法领域具有重要的作用。文章从两个方面论述了环境伦理和《生物多样性公约》的关系:一方面是伦理道德中的《生物多样性公约》,在分析道德的涵义和作为中级原则的正义的内涵和类别的基础上,以亚里士多德和罗马法的交换正义理论以及托马斯·阿奎那和约翰·洛克财产权分配正义理论为基础解构了《生物多样性公约》中的环境正义;另一方面是《生物多样性公约》中的伦理道德,从公约具体规范的角度阐释了隐含在其中的环境伦理,尤其是正义观念。%As the foundation of international legal framework, the ethics plays an important role in the field of international law. This article discussed the relationship between environmental ethics and the Convention on Biological Diversity from two aspects: (a) the Convention on Biological Diversity in terms of ethics, on the basis of analyzing the meaning of moral and the connotation and category of justice as the intermediate principles, according to the theory of justice exchange of Aristotle, and the Roman Law , as well as the theory of distributive justice of John Locke and Thomas Aquinas, this article deconstructed the environmental justice in the Convention on Biological Diversity. (b) the ethics in the Convention on Biological Diversity, from the perspective of the conventionˊs specific specifications, the article illustrated the environmental ethics implied in it, especially the concept of justice.

  15. Assistive Technologies and Issues Relating to Privacy, Ethics and Security (United States)

    Martin, Suzanne; Bengtsson, Johan E.; Dröes, Rose-Marie

    Emerging technologies provide the opportunity to develop innovative sustainable service models, capable of supporting adults with dementia at home. Devices range from simple stand-alone components that can generate a responsive alarm call to complex interoperable systems that even can be remotely controlled. From these complex systems the paradigm of the ubiquitous or ambient smart home has emerged, integrating technology, environmental design and traditional care provision. The service context is often complex, involving a variety of stakeholders and a range of interested agencies. Against this backdrop, as anecdotal evidence and government policies spawn further innovation it is critical that due consideration is given to the potential ethical ramifications at an individual, organisational and societal level. Well-grounded ethical thinking and proactive ethical responses to this innovation are required. Explicit policy and practice should therefore emerge which engenders confidence in existing supported living option schemes for adults with dementia and informs further innovation.

  16. Investigating Public trust in Expert Knowledge: Narrative, Ethics, and Engagement. (United States)

    Camporesi, Silvia; Vaccarella, Maria; Davis, Mark


    "Public Trust in Expert Knowledge: Narrative, Ethics, and Engagement" examines the social, cultural, and ethical ramifications of changing public trust in the expert biomedical knowledge systems of emergent and complex global societies. This symposium was conceived as an interdisciplinary project, drawing on bioethics, the social sciences, and the medical humanities. We settled on public trust as a topic for our work together because its problematization cuts across our fields and substantive research interests. For us, trust is simultaneously a matter of ethics, social relations, and the cultural organization of meaning. We share a commitment to narrative inquiry across our fields of expertise in the bioethics of transformative health technologies, public communications on health threats, and narrative medicine. The contributions to this symposium have applied, in different ways and with different effects, this interdisciplinary mode of inquiry, supplying new reflections on public trust, expertise, and biomedical knowledge.

  17. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H


    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  18. Ethical leadership. (United States)

    Keselman, David


    In today's climate and environment, the conventional relationship between caring, economic, and administrative practices no longer serves the interest of patients, clinicians, or systems. A shift toward human caring values and an ethic of authentic healing relationships is required as systems now have to value human resources and life purposes, inner meaning, and processes for providers and patients alike. The costs of unethical behavior can be even greater for followers. When we assume the benefits of leadership, we also assume ethical burdens. It is the assertion and experience of the author that the triangle of ethics and ethical behavior, followers, and patient's outcomes are closely interrelated and affect each other in a very intimate and direct way. Unethical leadership may lead to follower disappointment and distrust, leading to lack of interest and commitment, consequently negatively impacting patient outcomes and organizational effectiveness.

  19. Ethical dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabro, Christian


    What are the characteristics of an ethical dilemma? And how do we handle them in the area of early childhood education? These are some of the questions that will be dealt with in this chapter.......What are the characteristics of an ethical dilemma? And how do we handle them in the area of early childhood education? These are some of the questions that will be dealt with in this chapter....

  20. The Accordion Sign in the Transplant Ureter: Ramifications During Balloon Dilation of Strictures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriegshauser, J. Scott, E-mail:; Naidu, Sailen G. [Mayo Clinic Hospital, Department of Radiology (United States); Chang, Yu-Hui H. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Biostatistics (United States); Huettl, Eric A. [Mayo Clinic Hospital, Department of Radiology (United States)


    PurposeThis study was designed to demonstrate the accordion sign within the transplant ureter and evaluate its ramifications during balloon dilation of strictures.MethodsA retrospective electronic chart and imaging review included demographic characteristics, procedure reports, and complications of 28 renal transplant patients having ureteral strictures treated with percutaneous balloon dilation reported in our transplant nephrology database during an 8-year period. The accordion sign was deemed present or absent on the basis of an imaging review and was defined as present when a tortuous ureter became kinked and irregular when foreshortened after placement of a wire or a catheter. Procedure-related urine leaks were categorized as occurring at the stricture if within 2 cm; otherwise, they were considered away from the stricture.ResultsThe accordion sign was associated with a significantly greater occurrence of leaks away from the stricture (P = 0.001) but not at the stricture (P = 0.34).ConclusionsThe accordion sign is an important consideration when performing balloon dilation procedures on transplant ureteral strictures, given the increased risk of leak away from the stricture. Its presence should prompt additional care during wire and catheter manipulations.

  1. The nude in medical photography: a historical perspective, with modern legal ramifications. (United States)

    Burns, S B


    Taking medical photographs of nude patients was common in the nineteenth century and was related to the diagnostic promises of photography. Nude photography today, while just as diagnostically important, is a carefully thought out practice fraught with serious legal ramifications especially when dealing with children and adolescents. As members of the human race, we are diverse in our practices and not only on a country wide but a regional level. What is acceptable in New York is not necessarily acceptable in central Kansas. Unfortunately, in many circumstances, it is difficult to measure intent. Vintage medical photographs have become valued as art, as well as historic and cultural documents. Nude vintage medical photographs fully expose the human condition and have become among the most valued of historic medical photographs. The implications for the future treatment of nude medical photography is well established. The passage of time, nostalgia, and, most importantly, the attempt to learn the secrets of life and means of death in past epochs will result in preserving and valuing these most important clinical photographs.

  2. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter


    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  3. Capability ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A.M. Robeyns (Ingrid)


    textabstractThe capability approach is one of the most recent additions to the landscape of normative theories in ethics and political philosophy. Yet in its present stage of development, the capability approach is not a full-blown normative theory, in contrast to utilitarianism, deontological theor

  4. Computer and Applied Ethics


    越智, 貢


    With this essay I treat some problems raised by the new developments in science and technology, that is, those about Computer Ethics to show how and how far Applied Ethics differs from traditional ethics. I take up backgrounds on which Computer Ethics rests, particularly historical conditions of morality. Differences of conditions in time and space explain how Computer Ethics and Applied Ethics are not any traditional ethics in concrete cases. But I also investigate the normative rea...

  5. The Tuskegee Experiment: An Introduction in Ethics for Pre-Healthcare Professional Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Miranda, Jr.


    Full Text Available Over the past years, professional students have had extensive exposure to clinical cases during basic science classes. With this in mind, we have taken this clinical case exposure moment to be an opportune time to introduce the ethics of working with patients during biomedical research. Our goal is to present a straightforward assignment that allows for active student research into the facts of the Tuskegee Experiment of the 1900s. The assignment provides the necessary background to allow for a student-centered discussion on the ethical issues of the events and ramifications of what happened. Thus, in educating a class on the event’s happenings, one concomitantly creates a platform for meaningful discussion on the principles and ethics of patient care. We have found that an ethics-infused event such as the Tuskegee Experiment is an excellent way to introduce students to these topics.

  6. Do Ethics Classes Teach Ethics? (United States)

    Curzer, Howard J.; Sattler, Sabrina; DuPree, Devin G.; Smith-Genthôs, K. Rachelle


    The ethics assessment industry is currently dominated by the second version of the Defining Issues Test (DIT2). In this article, we describe an alternative assessment instrument called the Sphere-Specific Moral Reasoning and Theory Survey (SMARTS), which measures the respondent's level of moral development in several respects. We describe eight…

  7. e-Government Ethics : a Synergy of Computer Ethics, Information Ethics, and Cyber Ethics


    Arief Ramadhan; Dana Indra Sensuse; Aniati Murni Arymurthy


    Ethics has become an important part in the interaction among humans being. This paper specifically discusses applied ethics as one type of ethics. There are three applied ethics that will be reviewed in this paper, i.e. computer ethics, information ethics, and cyber ethics. There are two aspects of the three applied ethics that were reviewed, i.e. their definition and the issues associated with them. The reviewing results of the three applied ethics are then used for defining e-Government eth...

  8. The Ethic of Community (United States)

    Furman, Gail C.


    This article proposes the concept of an ethic of community to complement and extend other ethical frames used in education e.g. the ethics of justice, critique, and care. Proceeding from the traditional definition of ethics as the study of moral duty and obligation, ethic of community is defined as the moral responsibility to engage in communal…

  9. Ethics for life scientists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, M.J.J.A.A.; Bogers, R.J.


    In this book we begin with two contributions on the ethical issues of working in organizations. A fruitful side effect of this start is that it gives a good insight into business ethics, a branch of applied ethics that until now is far ahead of ethics for life scientists. In the second part, ethics

  10. Ethical and Legal Implications of Animal Use in Didactic Situations: The Conceptions of undergraduate Biology and Biomedicine students of a Federal Institution of Higher Education located in the State of Rio de Janeiro – Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Christina Pitta P. de S. Melgaço


    Full Text Available The use of animals in teaching situations is one of the methods of animal experimentation that has been institutionalized in the scientific context of the eighteenth century, when it was believed that animals had no soul or feel pain. Today, new knowledge about the physiology of animals brought to the ethical implications of the scientific experiments on animals, they show that the basic model of organization of the nervous system of humans and vertebrate animals is qualitatively the same. This study aimed to investigate the conceptions of Biological Sciences and Biomedicine students at a federal institution of higher education in the State of Rio de Janeiro on the use of animals in teaching situations during graduation. The results show that the university community remains hostage to the vivisectionist paradigm when the use of animals is recurrent and unjustifiable, and teachers and students are unaware of the ethical and legal implications of the use of animals in teaching situations during science education.

  11. Biomedical ethics. (United States)

    Walters, LeRoy


    An overview is provided of bioethical issues recently under discussion in the United States. Six topics dominated the field in 1984 and early 1985: human gene therapy; in vitro fertilization and research with human embryos; appropriate care for dying patients, both adults and newborns; organ transplantation; resource allocation and payment for health care services; and the role of hospital ethics committees in medical decision making. Walters focuses on three of these topics: (1) the issuing of standards for somatic-cell gene therapy; (2) developments in the death and dying arena, including state living will legislation, the emergence of a viewpoint that artificial nutrition and hydration are not qualitatively different from respiratory life-support systems, and federal efforts to regulate appropriate treatment for handicapped newborns; and (3) the growing support among medical organizations for hospital ethics committees.

  12. The Analysis of the Biological Attribution of the Professional Ethics Deficiency among University Faculties%高校师德缺失的生态归因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    伴随着生态学的悄然兴起,人们认识世界的视角也随之拓宽了。生态学为人们研究高校教师师德问题提供了一个全新的研究视角。当前,在高校教师生态系统内部,教师的总体生态环境不容乐观,这势必会给高校师德的建设带来负面的影响。本文拟从生态环境的角度出发,尝试性地从教师所处的物质环境、学术环境、制度环境及心理环境四个方面分析高校师德缺失的原因并提出相应的对策。%The development of ecology broadens human perspectives of the world and provides a new way to study the construction of the professional ethics of university faculties. Nowadays, the eeological environment is not positive in the university ecosystems and thus gives a negative impact on the construction of professional ethics. This paper analyzes the ecological factors causing the professional ethics deficiency in the aspects of the physical environment, the academic environment, the institutional environment and the psychological environment with the view to proposing the countermeasures.

  13. [Hospital clinical ethics committees]. (United States)

    Gómez Velásquez, Luis; Gómez Espinosa, Luis Néstor


    The scientific and technological advances have been surprising, more in the two last decades, but they don't go united with to the ethical values of the medical professional practice, it has been totally escaped, specially when the biological subsistence, the maintenance of the life through apparatuses and the mechanisms that prolong the existence are who undergoes an alteration that until recently time was mortal shortly lapse. It is common listening that exist a crisis in the medical profession, but what really is it of human values, which as soon and taken into nowadays, actually professional account, which gives rise to a dehumanization towards the life, the health, the disease, the suffering and the death. The ideal of the doctor to give to service to the man in its life and health, as well to be conscious that the last biological process that must fulfill is the death, and when it appears, does not have considered as a actually professional failure. It has protect to the patient as the extreme cruelty therapeutic, that it has right a worthy death. It's taking to the birth of the hospital ethics committees, they have like function to analyze, to advise and to think about the ethical dilemmas that appear actually clinical or in the biomedical investigation. In 1982 in the UEA only 1% of its hospitals had a ethics committees; by 1988, it was 67% and the 100% in 2000. In Mexico the process of the formation by these committees begins, only in the Military Central Hospital, to count the ethics committee on 1983, also the Hospital no. 14 of the IMSS in Guadalajara, it works with regularity from 1995, with internal teaching of bioethic. The Secretariat of Health has asked the formation of the bioethical committees in each hospital, and order the it was be coordinated by the National Committee of Bioética. The integration of these committees is indispensable that their members have the knowledge necessary of bioética. The Mexican Society of Ortopedia, conscious of

  14. Biblical Ethics and Plotinus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maria


    A discussion of two contrasting views on the nature and purpose of ethics: the 'unifying' ethics of the Neoplatonic Pagan philosopher Plotinus (204/5-270 CE) as opposed to the 'relational' ethics of the Judeo-Christian tradition.......A discussion of two contrasting views on the nature and purpose of ethics: the 'unifying' ethics of the Neoplatonic Pagan philosopher Plotinus (204/5-270 CE) as opposed to the 'relational' ethics of the Judeo-Christian tradition....

  15. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter


    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...... the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up one’s mind....

  16. Behavioral Ethics and Teaching Ethical Decision Making (United States)

    Drumwright, Minette; Prentice, Robert; Biasucci, Cara


    Business education often renders students less likely to act ethically. An infusion of liberal learning in the form of behavioral ethics could improve this situation by prompting students to develop higher levels of professionalism that encompass ethics, social responsibility, self-critical reflection, and personal accountability. More…

  17. Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically? (United States)

    Stablein, Ralph


    Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

  18. Field and Experience Influences on Ethical Decision-Making in the Sciences


    Mumford, Michael D.; Connelly, Shane; Murphy, Stephen T.; Devenport, Lynn D.; Antes, Alison L.; Brown, Ryan P.; Hill, Jason H.; Waples, Ethan P.


    Differences across fields and experience levels are frequently considered in discussions of ethical decision-making and ethical behavior. In the present study, doctoral students in the health, biological, and social sciences completed measures of ethical decision-making. The effects of field and level of experience with respect to ethical decision-making, metacognitive reasoning strategies, social-behavioral responses, and exposure to unethical events were examined. Social and biological scie...

  19. REU Students' Initial Perceptions of Scientific Ethics (United States)

    Murphy, Sytil; Zollman, Dean


    One goal of undergraduate research, particularly Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) programs, is to help students become aware of the importance of ethical conduct in research. The Survey of Undergraduate Research Experiences (SURE) indicates that biology students believe they learn more about ethical conduct from their research experiences than physics students. Motivated by this, we initiated a study of both biology and physics REU students at Kansas State University consisting of pre- and post-interviews regarding their understanding of ethics with results to be compared to the SURE. This paper presents the students' initial perceptions (from the pre-interview) of how ethical issues impact science in general as well as their own specific work. We also discuss the differences in the interview responses of the two groups.

  20. Spatial training preserves associative memory capacity with augmentation of dendrite ramification and spine generation in Tg2576 mice. (United States)

    Jiang, Xia; Chai, Gao-Shang; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Hu, Yu; Li, Xiao-Guang; Ma, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Qun; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Liu, Gong-Ping


    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and there is currently no efficient cure for this devastating disease. Cognitive stimulation can delay memory loss during aging and in patients with mild cognitive impairment. In 3 × Tg-AD mice, training decreased the neuropathologies with transient amelioration of memory decline. However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the learning-improved memory capacity are poorly understood. Here, we found in Tg2576 mice spatial training in Morris water maze (MWM) remarkably improved the subsequent associative memory acquisition detected by contextual fear conditioning. We also found that spatial training enhanced long term potentiation, dendrite ramification and spine generation in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1 neurons at 24 h after the training. In the molecular level, the MWM training remarkably activated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) with elevation of glutamate AMPA receptor GluA1 subunit (GluA1), postsynaptic density protein 93 (PSD93) and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95) in the hippocampus. Finally, the training also significantly ameliorated AD-like tau and amyloid pathologies. We conclude that spatial training in MWM preserves associative memory capacity in Tg2576 mice, and the mechanisms involve augmentation of dendrite ramification and spine generation in hippocampus.

  1. High performance liquid chromatographic separation of eight drugs collected in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 on amylose ramification chiral stationary phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang


    Full Text Available The enantiomers separation of eight pharmaceutical racemates collected in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 (Ch.P2010, including nitrendipine, felodipine, omeprazole, praziquantel, sulpiride, clenbuterol hydrochloride, verapamil hydrochloride and chlorphenamine maleate, was performed on chiral stationary phase of amylose ramification by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC on Chiralpak AD-H column and Chiralpak AS-H column with the mobile phase consisted of isopropanol and n-hexane. The detection wavelength and the flow rate were set at 254 nm and 0.7 mL/min, respectively. The effects of proportion of organic additives, alcohol displacer and temperature on the separation were investigated. The results indicated that eight chiral drugs were separated on chiral stationary phase of amylase ramification in normal phase chromatographic system. The chromatographic retention and resolution of enantiomers were adjusted by factors, including the changes of the concentration of alcohol displacer in mobile phase, organic alkaline modifier and column temperature. It was shown that the resolution was improved with reducing concentration of alcohol displacer. When the concentration of organic alkaline modifier was 0.2%, the resolution and the peak shape were fairly good. Most racemates mentioned above had the best resolution at column temperature of 25 °C. The best temperature should be kept unchanged in the process of separation so as to obtain stable separation results.

  2. Teaching for Ethical Reasoning (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.


    This article argues for the importance of teaching for ethical reasoning. Much of our teaching is in vain if it is not applied to life in an ethical manner. The article reviews lapses in ethical reasoning and the great costs they have had for society. It proposes that ethical reasoning can be taught across the curriculum. It presents an eight-step…

  3. Seamless Integration of Ethics (United States)

    Beggs, Jeri Mullins


    The ineffectiveness of business ethics education has received attention from the popular press and the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business after repeated ethics scandals. One possibility is that teaching ethics is different from other content areas because ethics is best learned when the student does not know it is being taught.…

  4. Emerging technology and ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Wakunuma, Kutoma


    This e-book on Emerging Technologies and Ethics includes a collection of essays which explore the future and ethics of emerging information and communication technologies. Articles in the collection include an overview of the legal implications which may be relevant to the ethical aspects of emerging technologies and also ethical issues arising from the mass-take up of mobile technologies.

  5. [Ethics in medical journals. (United States)

    Lifshitz, Alberto


    The title of this reflection evokes several contents that may encompass from ethics in research; fraud in science; ethics in medical advertising and relations between sponsors and science; and, finally, papers related to ethic content. This paper is limited to the ethic responsibilities of the medical writers or "scriptwriters."

  6. The Research Status of Synthetic Biology Safety Ethics%合成生物学安全伦理研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱万强; 墨宏山; 闫金定; 张敏


    近年来合成生物学取得了突破性进展,然而,公众在关注合成生物学突破的同时,也陷入了对其安全性的担忧。本文阐述了合成生物学的概念及其发展途径,分析了国外政府和科研机构对于合成生物学安全性的考虑,并提出了针对我国合成生物学理性发展的建议。%Synthetic biology achieves a breakthrough in recent years.The public have been paying attention to the breakthroughs of synthetic biology as well as lost in wor-ries about its safety .In this paper , we expound the con-cept of synthetic biology and its development pathway , analyze the security considerations of foreign govern-ments and research institutions on synthetic biology , and puts forward suggestions for rational development of synthetic biology in China .

  7. Applied Ethics in Nowadays Society


    Tomita CIULEI


    This special issue is dedicated to Nowadays Applied Ethics in Society, and falls in the field of social sciences and humanities, being hosted both theoretical approaches and empirical research in various areas of applied ethics. Applied ethics analyzes of a series of morally concrete situations of social or professional practice in order to make / adopt decisions. In the field of applied ethics are integrated medical ethics, legal ethics, media ethics, professional ethics, environmental ethic...

  8. 'What is professional ethics?'. (United States)

    Brecher, Bob


    The very term 'professional ethics' is puzzling with respect to what both 'professional' and 'ethics' might mean. I argue (1) that professionalism is ambiguous as to whether or not it is implicitly committed to ethical practice; (2) that to be 'professionally' ethical is at best ambiguous, if not in fact bizarre; and (3) that, taken together, these considerations suggest that professional ethics is something to be avoided rather than lauded.

  9. Ethics Is Not Rocket Science: How to Have Ethical Discussions in Your Science Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly C. Smith


    Full Text Available The Rutland Institute for Ethics at Clemson University seeks to encourage discussion on campus, in businesses, and in the community about how ethical decision-making can be the basis of both personal and professional success.  In the last 15 years, our fellows have, among other things, served as Co-PI’s on a wide range of grants, produced Responsible Conduct of Research training for science and engineering graduate students and faculty, managed the ethics curriculum at a medical school, and produced video lectures on ethical thinking for undergraduate Biology majors.  The crown jewel of our efforts to-date is our Ethics Across the Curriculum program, affectionately known as “ethics boot camp.”Each year, we bring faculty from all corners of the disciplinary spectrum together to show them how to have rich ethical discussions in their own classes with the students from their majors.  The program has been extremely successful and over the past 15 years has touched the lives of hundreds of faculty and thousands of students.  The purpose of this paper is to provide a very abbreviated version of the Rutland Ethics Across the Curriculum material to a wider audience of science educators.  It is our hope that this will motivate more faculty to introduce ethics into their classes as well as provide them the basic tools they will need to make this experience fruitful for all concerned.

  10. Ethical Leadership: Need for Business Ethics Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpa Shetty


    Full Text Available “Leadership is lifting a person’s vision to higher sights, the raising of a person’s performance to a higher standard, the building of a personality beyond its normal limitations” – Peter F Drucker. Leadership is a special talent based on timeless wisdom that not all people possess. Leadership is based on one’s vision, principle and integrity. To be effective, a leader must be ethical. Ethical leadership involves one’s core values, to live a life of integrity and in service of the common good. It is ultimately about ethically motivating others in ethical directions. Management and businesses are constantly facing important ethical challenges. Ethical decision-making and leadership are the basis of ethical organizations. There is sheer dearth of ethical leadership which is evident by the recent financial crisis that triggered the worst global recession. The current unrelenting scandals by the politicians and the business community are having serious negative repercussions on business, society and the environment which needs to be addressed immediately. This article introduces the concept and reasoning behind ethical leadership and the role it plays in today’s business and society. The article discussing the role of education in nurturing ethical culture in future professional business leaders in depth is addressed to educationists, students and professionals in view of the urgency in the current context.

  11. The Best Defense is a Good Offense: Preemption, Ramifications for the Department of Defense (United States)


    Penguin Books, 1991), 326-329. 27 Carl von Clausewitz, On War, trans. and ed. Michael Howard and Peter Paret (Princeton: Princeton University Press...New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 90. 83 Scott D. Sagan , “The Origins of Military Doctrine and Command and Control Systems,” in Planning...the Unthinkable, How New Powers Will Use Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Weapons, ed. Peter R. Lavoy, Scott D. Sagan and James J. Wirtz (Ithaca

  12. What are applied ethics? (United States)

    Allhoff, Fritz


    This paper explores the relationships that various applied ethics bear to each other, both in particular disciplines and more generally. The introductory section lays out the challenge of coming up with such an account and, drawing a parallel with the philosophy of science, offers that applied ethics may either be unified or disunified. The second section develops one simple account through which applied ethics are unified, vis-à-vis ethical theory. However, this is not taken to be a satisfying answer, for reasons explained. In the third section, specific applied ethics are explored: biomedical ethics; business ethics; environmental ethics; and neuroethics. These are chosen not to be comprehensive, but rather for their traditions or other illustrative purposes. The final section draws together the results of the preceding analysis and defends a disunity conception of applied ethics.

  13. Educating for ethical leadership. (United States)

    Gallagher, Ann; Tschudin, Verena


    In this article we consider the nature of ethical leadership in nursing. An appreciation of the basis of such leadership requires an understanding of responsibility and of key intellectual and ethical qualities or virtues. We examine some of the educational and practice strategies to promote ethical leadership. We argue that there are different levels of ethical leadership. All members of the nursing workforce are ethical leaders in so far as they demonstrate a commitment to ethical practice in their everyday work and act as ethical role models for others. Nurse managers are responsible for influencing their team and for acting as arbiters between organisational and professional values. Nurse educators are role models and ethical leaders as they ensure that the explicit and hidden curriculum demonstrate a commitment to professional values. Nurses who assume political roles have an obligation to lead on ethical agenda compatible with the values of nursing.

  14. Abortion ethics. (United States)

    Fromer, M J


    Nurses have opinions about abortion, but because they are health professionals and their opinions are sought as such, they are obligated to understand why they hold certain views. Nurses need to be clear about why they believe as they do, and they must arrive at a point of view in a rational and logical manner. To assist nurses in this task, the ethical issues surrounding abortion are enumerated and clarified. To do this, some of the philosophic and historic approaches to abortion and how a position can be logically argued are examined. At the outset some emotion-laden terms are defined. Abortion is defined as the expulsion of a fetus from the uterus before 28 weeks' gestation, the arbitrarily established time of viability. This discussion is concerned only with induced abortion. Since the beginning of recorded history women have chosen to have abortions. Early Jews and Christians forbade abortion on practical and religious grounds. A human life was viewed as valuable, and there was also the practical consideration of the addition of another person to the population, i.e., more brute strength to do the necessary physical work, defend against enemies, and ensure the continuation of the people. These kinds of pragmatic reasons favoring or opposing abortion have little to do with the Western concept of abortion in genaeral and what is going on in the U.S. today in particular. Discussion of the ethics of abortion must rest on 1 or more of several foundations: whether or not the fetus is a human being; the rights of the pregnant woman as opposed to those of the fetus, and circumstances of horror and hardship that might surround a pregnancy. Viability is relative. Because viability is not a specific descriptive entity, value judgments become part of the determination, both of viability and the actions that might be taken based on that determination. The fetus does not become a full human being at viability. That occurs only at conception or birth, depending on one's view

  15. Potential ramifications of the global economic crisis on human-mediated dispersal of marine non-indigenous species. (United States)

    Floerl, Oliver; Coutts, Ashley


    The global economy is currently experiencing one of its biggest contractions on record. A sharp decline in global imports and exports since 2008 has affected global merchant vessel traffic, the principal mode of bulk commodity transport around the world. During the first quarter of 2009, 10% and 25% of global container and refrigerated vessels, respectively, were reported to be unemployed. A large proportion of these vessels are lying idle at anchor in the coastal waters of South East Asia, sometimes for periods of greater than 3 months. Whilst at anchor, the hulls of such vessels will develop diverse and extensive assemblages of marine biofouling species. Once back in service, these vessels are at risk of transporting higher-than-normal quantities of marine organisms between their respective global trading ports. We discuss the potential ramifications of the global economic crisis on the spread of marine non-indigenous species via global commercial shipping.

  16. Ethics Hype? (United States)

    Caulfield, Timothy


    There has been growing concern about the phenomenon of science hype, the tendency to exaggerate the value or near-future application of research results. Although this is a problem that touches every area of biomedicine, the topic of genetics seems to be particularly prone to enthusiastic predictions. The world has been told for over two decades-by the media, researchers, politicians, and the biotech industry-that a genome-driven health care revolution is just around the corner. And while the revolution never seems to arrive, the hopeful rhetoric continues. It has been suggested that this unrelenting "genohype" is having a range of adverse social consequences, including misleading the public and hurting the long-term legitimacy of the field. While we need more good data on the nature and magnitude of these possible harms, few would argue with the proposition that sustained science hype is a bad thing. We all benefit from robust science and accurate public representations of biomedical research. But, to date, there has been very little consideration of the degree to which the scholarship on the related ethical, legal, and social issues has been hyped. Are the conclusions from ELSI scholarship also exaggerated?

  17. Code of ethics: principles for ethical leadership. (United States)

    Flite, Cathy A; Harman, Laurinda B


    The code of ethics for a professional association incorporates values, principles, and professional standards. A review and comparative analysis of a 1934 pledge and codes of ethics from 1957, 1977, 1988, 1998, 2004, and 2011 for a health information management association was conducted. Highlights of some changes in the healthcare delivery system are identified as a general context for the codes of ethics. The codes of ethics are examined in terms of professional values and changes in the language used to express the principles of the various codes.

  18. Ethics Training in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Guloksuz


    Full Text Available Although ethics training is one of the core components of psychiatric education, it is not sufficiently addressed in the curricula of many educational institutions. It is shown that many of the psychiatry residents received no ethics training in both residency and medical school. Predictably, over half of the psychiatry residents had faced an ethical dilemma that they felt unprepared to meet, and nearly all of them indicated ethics education would have helped them to solve this dilemma. In addition to learning about the fundamental topics of ethics like confidentiality, boundary violations, justice, benefience and nonmaleficence, psychiatrists must also learn to deal with other hidden ethical dilemmas which are mostly due to the changing world order. It is obvious that residency training should include a well developed ethics curriculum. However, some still believe that ethical principles cannot be taught and are formed in one’s early moral development. Accepting the fact that teaching ethics is difficult, we believe that it is getting easier with the new methods for teaching in medicine. These methods are clinical supervisions, rol-models, case studies, role playing, small group discussions, team based learning and “let’s talking medicine” groups which is a useful methods for discussing ethics dilemmas on daily practice and C.A.R.E (Core Beliefs, Actions, Reasons, Experience which is a special training method for teaching ethics. In this review, the need of ethics training in residency curriculum will be discussed and new methods for teaching ethics will be proposed.

  19. Ethical Imagination in Peace Studies: Beyond the Seville Statement. (United States)

    Rivage-Seul, M.


    Asks reader to look beyond Seville Statement, Social Darwinism, and utopian ideals and come to understand ethical imagination more fully as it relates to peace studies. Examines Seville Statement and its opposition to Social Darwinism. Explains how ethical imagination serves to provide radical alternative to biological determinism. (Author/NB)

  20. Ethical Issues Related to Restructuring. (United States)

    Mielke, Patricia L.; Schuh, John H.


    Offers a framework for thinking about ethical principles through the use of codes of ethics. Examines the ethical issues of restructuring and discusses specific ethical dilemmas. Specifically outlines ethics related to resources allocation and management, and details critical points in restructuring. Argues that ethical guidelines help shape…

  1. [Toward a practical ethic]. (United States)

    Vanbelle, Guido


    The relationship between ethics and philosophy and jurisdiction is described; different kinds of ethics are presented. The increasing pressure of liberal points of view has boosted the ethics of utility. The ethics of care oppose a too rational utilitarianism, taking into consideration relationships such as the caregiver-patient relationship. In the multicultural society ethics of care and virtue ethics are being criticised for not giving universal answers to ethical dilemmas. Can one still define "doing good"? Is "doing good" so culturally biased that it no longer provides the basis for ethical conduct? An accurate procedural assessment of values, sometimes interpreted quite differently in different cultures, could be a tool to judge values in a less relativistic way.

  2. Animating the Ethical Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Jensen, Thessa; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig


    This paper addresses the challenge of attaining ethical user stances during the design process of products and services and proposes animation-based sketching as a design method, which supports elaborating and examining different ethical stances towards the user. The discussion is qualified...... dispositions, as well as create an incentive for ethical conduct in development and innovation processes. The ethical fulcrum evolves around Løgstrup’s Ethical Demand and his notion of spontaneous life manifestations. From this, three ethical stances are developed; apathy, sympathy and empathy. By exploring...... both apathetic and sympathetic views, the ethical reflections are more nuanced as a result of actually seeing the user experience simulated through different user dispositions. Exploring the three ethical stances by visualising real use cases with the technologies simulated as already being implemented...

  3. Ethical issues in cloning. (United States)

    Satris, S


    There is great public concern with the ethics of human cloning. This paper briefly examines some of what I identify as pseudo-problems or myths associated with cloning, and some of the more substantial ethical concerns.

  4. Digital Media Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ess, Charles

    Provides a philosophical-ethical "toolkit" for analyzing central ethical issues evoked by our use of new media, including privacy, copyright, violent and sexual content online, and cross-cultural communication online.......Provides a philosophical-ethical "toolkit" for analyzing central ethical issues evoked by our use of new media, including privacy, copyright, violent and sexual content online, and cross-cultural communication online....

  5. Ethics and Law (United States)

    Vilacoba Ramos, Andrés


    Ethics are the set of moral rules that govern human conduct. Hegel, for his part, asserted that ethicity implied the full realization of freedom, as well as the suppression of it as arbitrariness. In this paper, we point out that, through the relation between Law and Ethics, we can discover how high are the Ethics of a society, as well as the adherence of its members to it.

  6. Improving Ethical Attitudes or Simply Teaching Ethical Codes? The Reality of Accounting Ethics Education (United States)

    Cameron, Robyn Ann; O'Leary, Conor


    Ethical instruction is critical in accounting education. However, does accounting ethics teaching actually instil core ethical values or simply catalogue how students should act when confronted with typical accounting ethical dilemmas? This study extends current literature by distinguishing between moral/ethical and legal/ethical matters and then…

  7. The Ethics and Politics of Ethics Approval (United States)

    Battin, Tim; Riley, Dan; Avery, Alan


    The regulatory scope of Human Research Ethics Committees can be problematic for a variety of reasons. Some scholars have argued the ethics approval process, for example, is antithetical to certain disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, while others are willing to give it qualified support. This article uses a case study to cast the…

  8. The "Ethics" Expertise in Clinical Ethics Consultation. (United States)

    Iltis, Ana S; Rasmussen, Lisa M


    The nature, possibility, and implications of ethics expertise (or moral expertise) in general and of bioethics expertise in particular has been the focus of extensive debate for over thirty years. What is ethics expertise and what does it enable experts to do? Knowing what ethics expertise is can help answer another important question: What, if anything, makes a claim of expertise legitimate? In other words, how does someone earn the appellation "ethics expert?" There remains deep disagreement on whether ethics expertise is possible, and if so, what constitutes such expertise and what it entails and legitimates. Discussion of bioethics expertise has become particularly important given the growing presence of bioethicists in the clinical setting as well as efforts to professionalize bioethics through codes of ethics and certification (or quasi-certification) efforts. Unlike in the law or in engineering, where there may be a body of knowledge that professional organizations or others have articulated as important for education and training of experts, ethics expertise admits of no such body of knowledge or required experience. Nor is there an entity seen as having the authority to articulate the necessary scope of knowledge. Questions about whether there is such a body of knowledge for particular areas within bioethics have emerged and played a central role in professionalization efforts in recent years, especially in the area of clinical ethics.

  9. Ethical Delphi Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Millar, K.; Tomkins, S.; Thorstensen, E.; Mepham, B.; Kaiser, M.


    An ethical Delphi is an iterative participatory process between experts for exchanging views and arguments on ethical issues. The method is structured around the notion of a virtual committee where the exchange of ideas is conducted remotely through a series of opinion exchanges. The ethical Delphi

  10. Ethics for Fundraisers. (United States)

    Anderson, Albert

    Intended for professionals and others in the field of philanthropy, this book applies ethics and ethical decision-making to fund raising. Its primary aim is to enhance the level of ethical fund raising throughout the nonprofit sector by equipping those involved with frameworks for understanding and taking principled actions and preventing…

  11. Ethics in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders


    might find inspiration in John Dewey’s thoughts on ethics, and that these thoughts resonate well with ontological assumptions made by contemporary practice theoretical approaches to organizational theory. This paper thus discusses the role of normativity and ethics in practice theoretical approaches...... theory might look to Dewey in order to develop an ethical perspective that is compatible with its view on normativity....

  12. Designing an Ethics Class. (United States)

    Prager, Richard


    Describes a required ethics course designed for juniors and seniors at a small Connecticut boarding school. Students explore the ethics of care and justice, examine ethical assumptions behind the school's disciplinary system, consider a series of dilemmas, and discuss complex topics such as abortion, euthanasia, and racism. A sidebar outlines…

  13. Ethics in the Marketplace. (United States)

    Sugnet, Chris, Ed.


    Representatives of five library integrated system vendors express their views on ethics and the marketplace, emphasizing the need for ethical behavior by librarians, consultants, and vendors. Four sidebars are included: one on the need for customer data rights standards; others containing the codes of ethics of three professional consultants'…

  14. Developments in marketing ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, R.J.M.; Ven, van de B.W.


    This article presents a response to the following papers: "Ethical Marketing," by P.E. Murphy, G.R. Laczniak, N.E. Bowie, and T.A. Klein, "Marketing Ethics: Cases and Readings," edited by P.E. Murphy and G.R. Laczniak, "Advertising Ethics" by E.H. Spence and B. van Heekeren, and "Corporate Social Re

  15. Ethics in Practice (United States)

    Medlin, E. Lander


    Ethics is defined as a set of guidelines and/or rules for the conduct of individual behavior in an organization or civil society. This ethical code of conduct is intended to guide policies, practices, and decision-making for employees on behalf of the organization. This article explores the importance of ethics, the basis for making ethical…

  16. Making Ethics Come Alive (United States)

    McQueeney, Edward


    Making ethics relevant to students in a business communications course continues to be a challenge. Classroom practitioners have long noted the difficulties in surmounting the contradictions students sense in business ethics instruction. Furthermore, students often perceive ethics to be largely irrelevant to the skills necessary for success in…

  17. Ethics in Management. (United States)

    Talley, F. J.


    Presents an overview of recent approaches to management and examines the ethical implications of using these approaches. Applies elements of these innovative systems to three cases that are both managerially and ethically complex. Claims that new processes must be developed to address ethical issues as part of all management decisions. (RJM)

  18. Applied Ethics in Nowadays Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomita CIULEI


    Full Text Available This special issue is dedicated to Nowadays Applied Ethics in Society, and falls in the field of social sciences and humanities, being hosted both theoretical approaches and empirical research in various areas of applied ethics. Applied ethics analyzes of a series of morally concrete situations of social or professional practice in order to make / adopt decisions. In the field of applied ethics are integrated medical ethics, legal ethics, media ethics, professional ethics, environmental ethics, business ethics etc. Classification-JEL: A23

  19. The Ramifications of Meddling with Systems Governed by Self-organized Critical Dynamics (United States)

    Carreras, B. A.; Newman, D. E.; Dobson, I.


    Complex natural, well as man-made, systems often exhibit characteristics similar to those seen in self-organized critical (SOC) systems. The concept of self-organized criticality brings together ideas of self-organization of nonlinear dynamical systems with the often-observed near critical behavior of many natural phenomena. These phenomena exhibit self-similarities over extended ranges of spatial and temporal scales. In those systems, scale lengths may be described by fractal geometry and time scales that lead to 1/f-like power spectra. Natural applications include modeling the motion of tectonics plates, forest fires, magnetospheric dynamics, spin glass systems, and turbulent transport. In man-made systems, applications have included traffic dynamics, power and communications networks, and financial markets among many others. Simple cellular automata models such as the running sandpile model have been very useful in reproducing the complexity and characteristics of these systems. One characteristic property of the SOC systems is that they relax through what we call events. These events can happen over all scales of the system. Examples of these events are: earthquakes in the case of plate tectonic; fires in forest evolution extinction in the co evolution of biological species; and blackouts in power transmission systems. In a time-averaged sense, these systems are subcritical (that is, they lie in an average state that should not trigger any events) and the relaxation events happen intermittently. The time spent in a subcritical state relative to the time of the events varies from one system to another. For instance, the chance of finding a forest on fire is very low with the frequency of fires being on the order of one fire every few years and with many of these fires small and inconsequential. Very large fires happen over time periods of decades or even centuries. However, because of their consequences, these large but infrequent events are the important ones

  20. Ethical Grand Rounds: Teaching Ethics at the Point of Care. (United States)

    Airth-Kindree, Norah M M; Kirkhorn, Lee-Ellen C


    We offer an educational innovation called Ethical Grand Rounds (EGR) as a teaching strategy to enhance ethical decision-making. Nursing students participate in EGR-flexible ethical laboratories, where they take stands on ethical dilemmas, arguing for--or against--an ethical principle. This process provides the opportunity to move past normative ethics, that is, an ideal ethical stance in accord with ethical conduct codes, to applied ethics, what professional nurses would do in actual clinical practice, given the constraints that exist in contemporary care settings. EGR serves as a vehicle to translate "what ought to be" into "what is."

  1. Ramifications of ostracism as a consequence of revelation of HIV positive status: its effect o individuals and families in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langeni, Tabitha T.


    Full Text Available Using primary data and a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods the study looks into ramifications of ostracism as a factor influencing people’s behavior towards the spread of HIV/AIDS, which have devastating effects on the structure and composition of the family in Botswana. The study showed that the highest proportion of respondents who would abandon an HIV positive partner (58.4% occurs among young people aged 15 to 19 years; and that the propensity to abandon an HIV positive partner diminishes with advancement in age. In-depth inquiries on why HIV positive partners would be abandoned produced responses that revolved around fear of exposure, vulnerability and association with an HIV positive individual. The study showed that the highest proportion of respondents who would not reveal their HIV positive status occurs among those who have lost a relative or a friend to AIDS. Fear of being isolated, rejected, stigmatized and unwanted featured among the top reasons why respondents would not reveal their HIV positive status. Society’s reaction towards HIV positive individuals and families with HIV/AIDS patients appeared strong enough to drive individuals to hide their positive status and to go ahead and take the risk of onward transmission of the virus.

  2. Teaching GeoEthics Across the Geoscience Curriculum (United States)

    Mogk, D. W.; Geissman, J. W.; Kieffer, S. W.; Reidy, M.; Taylor, S.; Vallero, D. A.; Bruckner, M. Z.


    Ethics education is an increasingly important component of the pre-professional training of geoscientists. Funding agencies (NSF) require training of graduate students in the responsible conduct of research, employers are increasingly expecting their workers to have basic training in ethics, and the public demands that scientists abide by the highest standards of ethical conduct. Yet, few faculty have the requisite training to effectively teach about ethics in their classes, or even informally in mentoring their research students. To address this need, an NSF-funded workshop was convened to explore how ethics education can be incorporated into the geoscience curriculum. Workshop goals included: examining where and how geoethics topics can be taught from introductory courses for non-majors to modules embedded in "core" geoscience majors courses or dedicated courses in geoethics; sharing best pedagogic practices for "what works" in ethics education; developing a geoethics curriculum framework; creating a collection of online instructional resources, case studies, and related materials; applying lessons learned about ethics education from sister disciplines (biology, engineering, philosophy); and considering ways that geoethics instruction can contribute to public scientific literacy. Four major themes were explored in detail: (1) GeoEthics and self: examining the internal attributes of a geoscientist that establish the ethical values required to successfully prepare for and contribute to a career in the geosciences; (2) GeoEthics and the geoscience profession: identifying ethical standards expected of geoscientists if they are to contribute responsibly to the community of practice; (3) GeoEthics and society: exploring geoscientists' responsibilities to effectively and responsibly communicate the results of geoscience research to inform society about issues ranging from geohazards to natural resource utilization in order to protect public health, safety, and economic

  3. Anticipatory Ethics for Emerging Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, P.A.E.


    In this essay, a new approach for the ethical study of emerging technology ethics will be presented, called anticipatory technology ethics (ATE). The ethics of emerging technology is the study of ethical issues at the R&D and introduction stage of technology development through anticipation of possi

  4. The ethical dimensions of nanomedicine. (United States)

    Bawa, Raj; Johnson, Summer


    Medical practice is about to enter a new era focused on the nanoscale and the practice of nanomedicine, defined as the monitoring, control, construction, repair, defense, and improvement of human biologic systems via engineered nanodevices and nanomaterials. The potential impact of nanomedicine on society is expected to be huge as the nanopharma market grows significantly in the coming years. Given this backdrop, nanomedicine is poised to add a profound and complex set of ethical and societal questions. Some of these are recurring themes in bioethics while others will be discussed in slightly new ways due to nanomedicine's interdisciplinary nature: privacy, confidentiality, risks and benefits, defining disease, and enhancement.

  5. Scriptural ethical principles and traditional African ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. van Rooy


    Full Text Available The traditional ethical code of Africa is dominated by two factors, to wit, interpersonal relationships, which include the ancestor spirits, and taboo, which is mainly concerned with respecting the hierarchy of forces. God is hardly a factor in everyday conduct. Biblical ethics, on the other hand, is totally dominated by the idea of and relationship with God. The origin of biblical ethics (creation and redemption, history (God's redemptive acts, content (being God’s image, holy as He is holy, motivation (do as I have done to you, responsibility (both individual and communal responsibility is directed towards God. Expectation (rewards and sanctions, universality (including all peoples, since God is the Creator of all, internal character (in that thoughts and motives are also judged by God, teaching about property, jurisprudence (placing kings and the lowliest on the same level before God and his law, and work ethic (which is strongly critical of using any magical means - all of these are God-centred, and therefore sharply distinguished from African ethics which is man-centred. In the New Testament, the distinguishing factor is the new being, who is in Christ, being born again by the Holy Spirit, by which man is conformed to the image of his Redeemer and King. The dominant theme in both Testaments is love, which in African ethics is reserved for one's nearest kin, but in Scripture demanded even for one's enemies.

  6. Fieldwork and ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilianova Gabriela


    Full Text Available The Slovak Association of Social Anthropologists initiated recently a discussion about the ethics in the ethnology, social and cultural anthropology. In January 2009 the association organized the seminar “Ethics in ethnology/social anthropology which brought vivid response in the academic community in Slovakia. The paper will deal with the question which are the most frequent ethic problems in field work such as for example the selection of research topic from the ethic point of view, ethic regulations during the conducting of field work, the protection of respondent’s personal data during the elaboration of data and archiving, the publication of research data etc. The author will inform about approaches and react to the current discussion about the possibilities how to solve the ethic questions in the field work.

  7. Revisiting eco-ethics and econ-ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Kinne


    Full Text Available Modern humanity can survive only if traditional ethics are extended to include eco-ethics and econ-ethics. Success or failure in developing and implementing these new ethical constructs will affect the fate of our species Homo sapiens and that of millions of other forms of life. In the long run failure to accept and apply eco-ethics and econ-ethics would reduce the capacities of Planet Earth to support life.

  8. Advancing Ethical Neuroscience Research. (United States)

    Borah, B Rashmi; Strand, Nicolle K; Chillag, Kata L


    As neuroscience research advances, researchers, clinicians, and other stakeholders will face a host of ethical challenges. The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (Bioethics Commission) has published two reports that provide recommendations on how to advance research endeavors ethically. The commission addressed, among other issues, how to prioritize different types of neuroscience research and how to include research participants who have impaired consent capacity. The Bioethics Commission's recommendations provide a foundation for ethical guidelines as neuroscience research advances and progresses.

  9. [Population, ethics and equity]. (United States)

    Berlinguer, G


    "Demography is, explicitly and not, imbued with an [ethical] content.... As demography involves both public policies and individual choices, the [ethical] slant should be [examined]. Thus, what we have on the one hand is an [ethical] state, which dictates its citizens' personal behaviour and, on the other, a state based on liberty, backed up by three shared values: human rights, pluralism and equality. This article looks at how today these may be reinterpreted when making decisions regarding the population." (EXCERPT)

  10. [A study on origin of genetic ethics problem and countermeasure]. (United States)

    Cheng, Yan-Ping


    The genetic ethical problem is one of problems which are the most disputable or difficult to resolve perfectly in the fields of life science. In these years the research for the problems is being concentrated on the types of genetic ethical problem and the ways to resolve them. But the systematic research for origin of genetic ethical problem is rare to be known. Thus it seems to be short of theoretical support to bring forward corresponding countermeasure. In this paper we focus on the evolving germ of genetic ethical problem and its evolving rule from the twofold views of human biological evolution and cultural evolution. A human being is a double offspring with biological evolution and cultural evolution . And he is a species which has both biological and cultural attribute on the earth. Through comparing and studying human biological evolution , cultural evolution, and characteristics of both biological attribute and cultural attribute, we bring forward a viewpoint that all ethical problems originate from a conflict originating from interplay of human biological evolution and cultural evolution. We intend to seek for the gist of theory and practice in order to research for genetic ethical problem and put forward some corresponding countermeasures. At the same time we'll advance a series of corresponding countermeasures of genetic ethical problem. The final aim in the paper is that not only some of our opinions will be admitted, but also through learning and understanding genetic ethical problem and its origin, the decision-makers and investigators in genetics field will be promoted to have more sense of fate and responsibility , so that the average public are able to misunderstand less and understand more for studying and genetics applying. We all work hard for genetics career to make it in healthy and continuing development and give a lot of happiness to human beings.

  11. Peter Koslowski’s Ethics and Economics or Ethical Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl


    This paper presents the concept of ethical economy (Wirtschaftsethik) and the relation between ethics and economics on the basis of the work of the German ethical economist Peter Koslowski. The concept of ethical economy includes three levels: micro, meso and macro levels; and it also deals...... with the philosophical analysis of the ethical foundations of the economy. After the discussion of these elements of the ethical economy, the paper presents some possible research topics for a research agenda about economic ethics or ethical economy....

  12. Professional Ethics: Caught and Taught. (United States)

    Nickols, Sharon Y.; Belliston, Lisa M.


    Compares codes of professional ethics of several professional associations in light of rapidly changing technology. Explores the relation between academic honesty and ethical practice and provides a summary of approaches to teaching ethics. (Contains 34 references.) (JOW)



    Hadartseva, L.; Kaytmazov, V.


    The article deals with the general concept of business ethics and a corporate code of ethics. Corporations take pains to promote sustainability through codes of ethics and their efforts are positively received by consumers

  14. Computer Ethics and Neoplatonic Virtue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamatellos, Giannis


    n normative ethical theory, computer ethics belongs to the area of applied ethics dealing with practical and everyday moral problems arising from the use of computers and computer networks in the information society. Modern scholarship usually approves deontological and utilitarian ethics...... as appropriate to computer ethics, while classical theories of ethics, such as virtue ethics, are usually neglected as anachronistic and unsuitable to the information era and ICT industry. During past decades, an Aristotelian form of virtue ethics has been revived in modern philosophical enquiries with serious...... attempts for application to computer ethics and cyberethics. In this paper, the author argues that current trends and behaviours in online communication require an ethics of self-care found in Plotinus’ self-centred virtue ethics theory. The paper supports the position that Plotinus’ virtue ethics...

  15. Ethics in IT Outsourcing

    CERN Document Server

    Gold, Tandy


    In IT divisions and organizations, the need to execute in a competitive and complex technical environment while demonstrating personal integrity can be a significant personal and organizational challenge. Supplying concrete guidelines for those at an ethical crossroads, Ethics in IT Outsourcing explores the complex challenges of aligning IT outsourcing programs with ethical conduct and standards. This one-stop reference on the ethical structure and execution of IT outsourcing incorporates an easy-to-apply checklist of principles for outsourcing executives and managers. It examines certificatio

  16. It takes three to tango: 2. Bubble dynamics in basaltic volcanoes and ramifications for modeling normal Strombolian activity (United States)

    Suckale, Jenny; Hager, Bradford H.; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.; Nave, Jean-Christophe


    This is the second paper of two that examine numerical simulations of buoyancy-driven flow in the presence of large viscosity contrasts. In the first paper, we demonstrated that a combination of three numerical tools, an extended ghost fluid type method, the level set approach, and the extension velocity technique, accurately simulates complex interface dynamics in the presence of large viscosity contrasts. In this paper, we use this threefold numerical method to investigate bubble dynamics in the conduits of basaltic volcanos with a focus on normal Strombolian eruptions. Strombolian type activity, named after the famously episodic eruptions at Stromboli volcano, is characterized by temporally discrete fountains of incandescent clasts. The mildly explosive nature of normal Strombolian activity, as compared to more effusive variants of basaltic volcanism, is related to the presence of dissolved gas in the magma, yielding a complex two-phase flow problem. We present a detailed scaling analysis allowing identification of the pertinent regime for a given flow problem. The dynamic interactions between gas and magma can be classified into three nondimensional regimes on the basis of bubble sizes and magma viscosity. Resolving the fluid dynamics at the scale of individual bubbles is not equally important in all three regimes: As long as bubbles remain small enough to be spherical, their dynamic interactions are limited compared to the rich spectrum of coalescence and breakup processes observed for deformable bubbles, in particular, once inertia ceases to be negligible. One key finding in our simulations is that both large gas bubbles and large conduit-filling gas pockets ("slugs") are prone to dynamic instabilities that lead to their rapid breakup during buoyancy-driven ascent. We provide upper bound estimates for the maximum stable bubble size in a given magmatic system and discuss the ramifications of our results for two commonly used models of normal Strombolian type

  17. Ethical considerations in clinical training, care and research in psychopharmacology. (United States)

    Strous, Rael D


    Psychopharmacology is a powerful tool in psychiatry; however, it is one that demands responsibility in order to deal with the ethical complexities that accompany advances in the field. It is important that questions are asked and that ethical mindfulness and sensitivity are developed along with clinical skills. In order to cultivate and deepen ethical awareness and subsequently solve issues in optimal fashion, investment should be made in the development of an ethical decision-making process as well as in education in the ethics of psychopharmacology to trainees in the field at all stages of their educational development. A clear approach to identifying ethical problems, engaging various ethical concepts in considering solutions and then applying these principles in problem resolution is demanded. An openness in identifying and exploring issues has become crucial to the future development and maturation of psychopharmacologists, both research and clinical. Consideration must be given to the social implications of psychopharmacological practice, with the best interests of patients always paramount. From both a research and clinical perspective, psychopharmacology has to be practised with fairness, sensitivity and ethical relevance to all. While ethical issues related to psychopharmacological practice are varied and plentiful, this review focuses on advances in technology and biological sciences, personal integrity, special populations, and education and training.

  18. Pharmacy ethics: evaluation pharmacists' ethical attitude. (United States)

    Sharif, Pooneh Salari; Javadi, Mohammadreza; Asghari, Fariba


    Alterations in pharmacy practice from prescription dispensing to more patient-centered relationship intensifies the necessity of clinical decision-making. Pharmacists' knowledge as well as ethical reasoning affects their clinical decision-making. Unfortunately in Iran pharmacy ethics did not develop along with medical ethics and special considerations are of major importance. The study was designed to evaluate pharmacists' attitude toward some principles of bioethics. A cross-sectional survey was performed on a sample of Iranian pharmacists attended in continuous education programs in 2010. Based on the pharmacists' attitude toward common ethical problems, 9 Likert-type scale scenarios were designed. A thousand pharmacists were surveyed and 505 questionnaires were filled. For the whole questionnaire the strongly disagree answer was the most ethical answer. On a scale from 1-5 on which 5=strongly disagree, the total score of pharmacists ethical attitude was 17.69 ± 3.57. For easier analysis we considered the score of 1 for agree and strongly agree answers, score of 2 for neutral answers and score of 3 for disagree and strongly disagree answers. The total score in confidentiality for all participants was 4.15 ± 1.45 out of 9, in autonomy 6.25 ± 1.85 out of 9, in non-maleficence 5.14 ± 1.17 out of 6 and in justice was 2.27 ± 0.89 out of 3, however there was no significant difference between men and women in the total score and the score of each theme. The older participants (> 40 years) significantly had lower total score (Pethical guidelines and improving pharmacy ethics curriculum is highly critical to provide the best pharmaceutical care and to make clinical decisions in critical situations. Therefore further quantitative and qualitative investigations into finding pitfalls and challenges in this issue are highly recommended.

  19. Introducing the Medical Ethics Bowl. (United States)

    Merrick, Allison; Green, Rochelle; Cunningham, Thomas V; Eisenberg, Leah R; Hester, D Micah


    Although ethics is an essential component of undergraduate medical education, research suggests that current medical ethics curricula face considerable challenges in improving students' ethical reasoning. This article discusses these challenges and introduces a promising new mode of graduate and professional ethics instruction for overcoming them. We begin by describing common ethics curricula, focusing in particular on established problems with current approaches. Next, we describe a novel method of ethics education and assessment for medical students that we have devised: the Medical Ethics Bowl (MEB). Finally, we suggest the pedagogical advantages of the MEB when compared to other ethics curricula.

  20. What is data ethics? (United States)


    This theme issue has the founding ambition of landscaping data ethics as a new branch of ethics that studies and evaluates moral problems related to data (including generation, recording, curation, processing, dissemination, sharing and use), algorithms (including artificial intelligence, artificial agents, machine learning and robots) and corresponding practices (including responsible innovation, programming, hacking and professional codes), in order to formulate and support morally good solutions (e.g. right conducts or right values). Data ethics builds on the foundation provided by computer and information ethics but, at the same time, it refines the approach endorsed so far in this research field, by shifting the level of abstraction of ethical enquiries, from being information-centric to being data-centric. This shift brings into focus the different moral dimensions of all kinds of data, even data that never translate directly into information but can be used to support actions or generate behaviours, for example. It highlights the need for ethical analyses to concentrate on the content and nature of computational operations—the interactions among hardware, software and data—rather than on the variety of digital technologies that enable them. And it emphasizes the complexity of the ethical challenges posed by data science. Because of such complexity, data ethics should be developed from the start as a macroethics, that is, as an overall framework that avoids narrow, ad hoc approaches and addresses the ethical impact and implications of data science and its applications within a consistent, holistic and inclusive framework. Only as a macroethics will data ethics provide solutions that can maximize the value of data science for our societies, for all of us and for our environments. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The ethical impact of data science’.

  1. What is data ethics? (United States)

    Floridi, Luciano; Taddeo, Mariarosaria


    This theme issue has the founding ambition of landscaping data ethics as a new branch of ethics that studies and evaluates moral problems related to data (including generation, recording, curation, processing, dissemination, sharing and use), algorithms (including artificial intelligence, artificial agents, machine learning and robots) and corresponding practices (including responsible innovation, programming, hacking and professional codes), in order to formulate and support morally good solutions (e.g. right conducts or right values). Data ethics builds on the foundation provided by computer and information ethics but, at the same time, it refines the approach endorsed so far in this research field, by shifting the level of abstraction of ethical enquiries, from being information-centric to being data-centric. This shift brings into focus the different moral dimensions of all kinds of data, even data that never translate directly into information but can be used to support actions or generate behaviours, for example. It highlights the need for ethical analyses to concentrate on the content and nature of computational operations-the interactions among hardware, software and data-rather than on the variety of digital technologies that enable them. And it emphasizes the complexity of the ethical challenges posed by data science. Because of such complexity, data ethics should be developed from the start as a macroethics, that is, as an overall framework that avoids narrow, ad hoc approaches and addresses the ethical impact and implications of data science and its applications within a consistent, holistic and inclusive framework. Only as a macroethics will data ethics provide solutions that can maximize the value of data science for our societies, for all of us and for our environments.This article is part of the themed issue 'The ethical impact of data science'.

  2. "Facilis Descensus Averni" Mind, Brain, Education, and Ethics: Highway to Hell, Stairway to Heaven, or Passing Dead End? (United States)

    della Chiesa, Bruno


    Are human beings born unequal when it comes to ethics? Or are ethical standards acquired? Or both nature and nurture? Neuroscience is on its way to discovering biological underpinnings of ethics in our brains. Whatever the upcoming findings on this front will be, our philosophical, political, and educational views, and even the way we look at…

  3. Ethics committees in Croatia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borovecki, Ana


    In this thesis the work of ethics committees in Croatia is being investigated for the first time. The 1997 Law on Health Protection introduced legal standards for the establishment of the so-called 'mixed' type of ethics committees in healthcare institutions. Our study aims to examine whether this t

  4. Information technology ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hongladarom, Soraj; Ess, Charles

    This book was the first publication to take a genuinely global approach to the diverse ethical issues evoked by Information and Communication Technologies and their possible resolutions. Readers will gain a greater appreciation for the problems and possibilities of genuinely global information...... ethics, which are urgently needed as information and communication technologies continue their exponential growth...

  5. [Ethical dilemmas in health]. (United States)

    Boléo-Tomé, J


    It is difficult to speak of ethic dilemmas in a society that has relativism as the oficial philosophical and political doctrine, i.e., stable values and behavior references, are denied, both in health care and in any other area of human knowledge. In the field of medical sciences it is even pretended to pass from the observational methodology to a field of manipulation and manipulability. It is the very Ethic that is presented as a dilemma. In these conditions one needs to know the lines of thought that are defended, to replace and make disappear the stable ethic references: ecletism, historicism, scientificism, pragmatism, and nihilism itself, that lead to the 'new ethic paradigm', that has created by itself a pseudo-spirituality. The truth is we are adrift in the 'Ethic of Convenience' which changes according to the majorities. In this setting the way to go is to rediscover the abandoned ethic values: only with an objective ethic, with sound references and foundations, it is possible to re-establish and perfect the patient-physician relationship, for a better social health. And this begins with the ethic problem of human life.

  6. Ethics for Industrial Technology (United States)

    Rosentrater, Kurt A.; Balamuralikrishna, Radha


    This paper takes aim at one specific, as well as basic, need in teamwork and interdisciplinary projects--ethics and its implications for professional practice. A preliminary study suggests that students majoring in industrial technology degree programs may not have adequate opportunity to formally study and engage in ethical aspects of technology…

  7. Care Ethics in Education. (United States)

    Shelby, Candice L.


    Difficulties with current models of ethics education (correct reasoning, virtue theory, directive moral education) include emphasis on reward/punishment and a presumptive bias toward abstract reasoning. Teaching a care-based ethics would promote a fuller notion of mature moral agents and broaden the school climate beyond compliance. (Contains 19…

  8. Teaching Ethics: Telling Stories. (United States)

    Bowman, Ann


    In order to develop moral literacy, nursing students should be exposed to both rules- and justice-based ethics and to a feminist care perspective. They can learn to analyze and understand ethical dilemmas and to tell their own stories in order to identify the influences on their decision making. (SK)

  9. Ethical issues in physiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstegaard, Jeanette; Gard, Gunvor


    Background: An important aspect of physiotherapy professional autonomy is the ethical code of the profession, both collectively and for the individual member of the profession. The aim of this study is to explore and add additional insight into the nature and scope of ethical issues as they are u......Background: An important aspect of physiotherapy professional autonomy is the ethical code of the profession, both collectively and for the individual member of the profession. The aim of this study is to explore and add additional insight into the nature and scope of ethical issues......: The ideal of being beneficent toward the patient. Here, the ethical issues uncovered in the interviews were embedded in three code-groups: 1) ethical issues related to equality; 2) feeling obligated to do one's best; and 3) transgression of boundaries. Conclusions: In an ethical perspective, physiotherapy...... in private practice is on a trajectory toward increased professionalism. Physiotherapists in private practice have many reflections on ethics and these reflections are primarily based on individual common sense arguments and on deontological understandings. As physiotherapy by condition is characterized...

  10. The Ethics behind Efficiency (United States)

    Wight, Jonathan B.


    The normative elements underlying efficiency are more complex than generally portrayed and rely upon ethical frameworks that are generally absent from classroom discussions. Most textbooks, for example, ignore the ethical differences between Pareto efficiency (based on voluntary win-win outcomes) and the modern Kaldor-Hicks efficiency used in…

  11. Depending on Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne-Marie Søndergaard


    According to the standard reception, Kierkegaard thinks of ethics as a possible stage in human life. In this paper, I do not want to contest this interpretation, but I will argue that it often overlooks how the concept of ethics plays another vital role in Kierkegaard's thinking, namely that of e...

  12. Modular Approach for Ethics (United States)

    Wyne, Mudasser F.


    It is hard to define a single set of ethics that will cover an entire computer users community. In this paper, the issue is addressed in reference to code of ethics implemented by various professionals, institutes and organizations. The paper presents a higher level model using hierarchical approach. The code developed using this approach could be…

  13. Ethics and Computer Scientists. (United States)

    Pulliam, Sylvia Clark

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions that computer science educators have about computer ethics. The study focused on four areas: (1) the extent to which computer science educators believe that ethically inappropriate practices are taking place (both on campus and throughout society); (2) perceptions of such educators about…

  14. Ethics by Example (United States)

    Mirk, Paula


    Research from the Schools of Integrity project identified openness, honesty, relationship-building, and constant rigorous reflection as key elements in schools that successfully balance academic rigor with ethical development. To translate these findings into the public school setting, the Institute for Global Ethics spoke to six secondary school…

  15. Joint Ethics Regulation (JER) (United States)


    or to VieW represintathise. (c) Review of approval. The Offi1ce of Government Eticas aia maintain a program Ito assess, an a frequent beses, the...shall be submitted promptly by the designated agency ethics official to the Office Of Government Etica . A designated agency ethics official or an employee

  16. Ethics in Statistics (United States)

    Lenard, Christopher; McCarthy, Sally; Mills, Terence


    There are many different aspects of statistics. Statistics involves mathematics, computing, and applications to almost every field of endeavour. Each aspect provides an opportunity to spark someone's interest in the subject. In this paper we discuss some ethical aspects of statistics, and describe how an introduction to ethics has been…

  17. Digital media ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ess, Charles

    Designed as both a teaching text and reader for students and faculty across diverse disciplines, the book provides an "ethical toolkit" - an introduction to prevailing ethical frameworks - and shows their application to both general issues and specific case-studies in digital media (privacy...

  18. The Ethical Employee. (United States)


    A study examined the extent to which the issues of business ethics and corporate social responsibility are becoming pertinent among the United Kingdom workforce. A self-completion questionnaire sought views on a range of issues relating to employment and asked about perceptions of individual companies/organizations on work and ethical issues.…

  19. UNESCO's Ethics Education Programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, H.A.M.J. ten


    Unesco initiated the Ethics Education Programme in 2004 at the request of member states to reinforce and increase the capacities in the area of ethics teaching. The programme is focused on providing detailed information about existing teaching programmes. It also develops and promotes teaching throu

  20. Ethics in Government. (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1990


    Presents a lesson developed by the Center for Civic Education giving secondary students the opportunity to explore ethical issues in government from the perspective of corrective justice. Outlines role plays and other class activities based on a fictitious ethics scandal involving bribery. Identifies specific questions to be asked on issues of…

  1. Is Business Ethics Dying? (United States)

    Pamental, George L.


    Discusses the need for business ethics courses in undergraduate and graduate business degree programs. Describes reasons for and objections to such programs. Explains that business ethics instruction requires varied case studies, adequate teaching materials, cooperation between philosophers and business faculty, and instructors who are forthcoming…

  2. Ethics in Online Publications. (United States)

    Vervaart, Peter


    Journals have been publishing the results of scientific investigations since the founding of Philosophical Transactions in 1665. Since then we have witnessed a massive expansion in the number of journals to the point that there are now approximately 28,000 active, peer reviewed journals collectively publishing more than 1.8 million articles per year. Before the mid-1990s, these journals were only available on paper but by the end of the 20th century, most journals had moved to online platforms. Online publication has also served as the impetus for the move to 'open-access' to the information contained in journals. The fact that a publication is 'on-line' and 'open-access' does not negate the responsibility of the author and the publisher to publish in an ethical way. [1] The document produced by the IFCC Ethics Task Force (TF-E) on publication ethics states that 'Ethics in Science at its broadest level encompasses research ethics, medical ethics, publication ethics, conflicts of interest, ethical responsibilities as educator, plus many other areas.' Thus publication ethics is a continuum from the first step of research design through to the information being read by the reader. In general terms 'publication ethics' includes the ethical behaviour of the authors in writing and submitting a scientific manuscript to a publisher for the purpose of publication, thus any discussion of publication ethics must include the role of the authors, referees, publisher and reader and the issues of authorship (and the use of 'ghosts'), plagiarism, duplicate publication (including in different languages), image manipulation (particularly in the era of digitisation), and conflict of interest [2]. To aid the authors, and others involved in the process of publication, a number of resources are now available particularly those from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) [3] and the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) [4]. More recently the issue of 'publisher ethics' has

  3. Code of Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelstein, Jennifer; Clegg, Stewart


    Ethical codes have been hailed as an explicit vehicle for achieving more sustainable and defensible organizational practice. Nonetheless, when legal compliance and corporate governance codes are conflated, codes can be used to define organizational interests ostentatiously by stipulating norms...... for employee ethics. Such codes have a largely cosmetic and insurance function, acting subtly and strategically to control organizational risk management and protection. In this paper, we conduct a genealogical discourse analysis of a representative code of ethics from an international corporation...... to understand how management frames expectations of compliance. Our contribution is to articulate the problems inherent in codes of ethics, and we make some recommendations to address these to benefit both an organization and its employees. In this way, we show how a code of ethics can provide a foundation...

  4. The ethics of information

    CERN Document Server

    Floridi, Luciano


    Luciano Floridi develops an original ethical framework for dealing with the new challenges posed by Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). ICTs have profoundly changed many aspects of life, including the nature of entertainment, work, communication, education, health care, industrial production and business, social relations, and conflicts. They have had a radical and widespread impact on our moral lives and on contemporary ethical debates. Privacy, ownership, freedom of speech, responsibility, technological determinism, the digital divide, and pornography online are only some of the pressing issues that characterise the ethical discourse in the information society. They are the subject of Information Ethics (IE), the new philosophical area of research that investigates the ethical impact of ICTs on human life and society. Since the seventies, IE has been a standard topic in many curricula. In recent years, there has been a flourishing of new university courses, international conferences, workshop...

  5. Nuclear Waste and Ethics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damveld, Herman [Groningen (Netherlands)


    In the past years in almost all conferences on storage of nuclear waste, ethics has been considered as an important theme. But what is ethics? We will first give a sketch of this branch of philosophy. We will then give a short explanation of the three principal ethical theories. In the discussion about storage of nuclear waste, the ethical theory of utilitarianism is often implicitly invoked. In this system future generations weigh less heavily than the present generation, so that people of the future are not considered as much as those now living. We reject this form of reasoning. The discussion about nuclear waste is also sometimes pursued from ethical points of departure such as equality and justice. But many loose ends remain in these arguments, which gives rise to the question of whether the production and storage of nuclear waste is responsible.

  6. Ethical Awareness and Ethical Orientation of Turkish Teachers (United States)

    Gökçe, Asiye Toker


    This study inquires ethical evaluation of teachers, investigating their moral reasoning to ethical decision making, in Turkey. Specifically three hypotheses were tested: Overall ethical awareness of teachers is high; Teachers will identify reasons for ethical evaluation related to philosophical values such as justice, deontology, utilitarianism,…

  7. Future global ethics: environmental change, embedded ethics, evolving human identity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Work on global ethics looks at ethical connections on a global scale. It should link closely to environmental ethics, recognizing that we live in unified social-ecological systems, and to development ethics, attending systematically to the lives and interests of contemp

  8. The Contribution of Islamic Ethics Towards Ethical Accounting Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochania Ayu Yunanda


    and also increase public confidence in the profession. However, the efforts to integrate ethical values in educational system will not work well if there are no moral commitments implanted in the individuals.  Islam with its divine values plays the notable role to embed cognitive ethical values. It emphasizes on the unity of God, the accountability to God and the concept of maslahah (public benefits to be the foundations of ethics. Incorporating Islamic ethics into the system will be a significant contribution towards generating ethical accounting education. This paper attempts to elucidate how the Islamic ethics contribute its role towards ethical accountants as the products of accounting education.

  9. Ethics into Finance: The Level of Ethics in Islamic Insurance


    Lukman Ayinde Olorogun


    Purpose: Recently, ethics have become an essential marketing tool. Both conventional and Islamic financial institutions have claimed to have operates on ethical ground. In the wave of overlapping between these institutions, Islamic insurance has adopted “ethics†as its major marketing strategy or slogan in order to penetrate into the Muslims and non-Muslims insurance markets. Methodology: Using Islamic principles to present ethics in its business relegates Islamic law to ethics only. Thus,...

  10. Toward robot ethics through the ethics of autism



    The aim of this chapter is to present an ethical landscape for humans and autonomous robots in the future of a physicalistic world, and which will touch mainly on a framework of robot ethics rather than the concrete ethical problems possibly caused by recent robot technologies. It might be difficult to find sufficient answers to such ethical problems as those occurring with future military robots unless we understand what autonomy in autonomous robots exactly implies for robot ethics. This ch...

  11. A Framework for Ethical Analysis. (United States)

    Gunby, Susan Sweat

    This paper on ethical issues in the gerontological nursing curriculum explores meanings of the concept of ethics and differences between ethical decision making and other decision-making processes. Four mind-sets about health care that influence the analysis of ethical dilemmas, identified by M. Aroskar, are described. The contributions of…

  12. Introducing survival ethics into engineering education and practice. (United States)

    Verharen, C; Tharakan, J; Middendorf, G; Castro-Sitiriche, M; Kadoda, G


    Given the possibilities of synthetic biology, weapons of mass destruction and global climate change, humans may achieve the capacity globally to alter life. This crisis calls for an ethics that furnishes effective motives to take global action necessary for survival. We propose a research program for understanding why ethical principles change across time and culture. We also propose provisional motives and methods for reaching global consensus on engineering field ethics. Current interdisciplinary research in ethics, psychology, neuroscience and evolutionary theory grounds these proposals. Experimental ethics, the application of scientific principles to ethical studies, provides a model for developing policies to advance solutions. A growing literature proposes evolutionary explanations for moral development. Connecting these approaches necessitates an experimental or scientific ethics that deliberately examines theories of morality for reliability. To illustrate how such an approach works, we cover three areas. The first section analyzes cross-cultural ethical systems in light of evolutionary theory. While such research is in its early stages, its assumptions entail consequences for engineering education. The second section discusses Howard University and University of Puerto Rico/Mayagüez (UPRM) courses that bring ethicists together with scientists and engineers to unite ethical theory and practice. We include a syllabus for engineering and STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) ethics courses and a checklist model for translating educational theory and practice into community action. The model is based on aviation, medicine and engineering practice. The third and concluding section illustrates Howard University and UPRM efforts to translate engineering educational theory into community action. Multidisciplinary teams of engineering students and instructors take their expertise from the classroom to global communities to examine further the

  13. Ethics in systematic reviews. (United States)

    Vergnes, Jean-Noel; Marchal-Sixou, Christine; Nabet, Cathy; Maret, Delphine; Hamel, Olivier


    Since its introduction by the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki, the place held by ethics in biomedical research has been continuously increasing in importance. The past 30 years have also seen exponential growth in the number of biomedical articles published. A systematic review of the literature is the scientific way of synthesising a plethora of information, by exhaustively searching out and objectively analysing the studies dealing with a given issue. However, the question of ethics in systematic reviews is rarely touched upon. This could lead to some drawbacks, as systematic reviews may contain studies with ethical insufficiencies, may be a possible way to publish unethical research and may also be prone to conflict of interest. Finally, informed consent given for an original study is not necessarily still valid at the systematic review level. There is no doubt that routine ethical assessment in systematic reviews would help to improve the ethical and methodological quality of studies in general. However, ethical issues change so much with time and location, and are so broad in scope and in context that it appears illusory to search for a universal, internationally accepted standard for ethical assessment in systematic reviews. Some simple suggestions could nevertheless be drawn from the present reflection and are discussed in the paper.

  14. Bio-fabrication: Experiments and Experiences in Ethics and Sciences


    Bennett, Gaymon Lamont


    Bio-fabrication: Experiments and Experiences in Ethics and Sciences provides an account of an experiment I undertook in ethics and anthropology as part of the International Open Facility Advancing Biotechnology, the BIOFAB. It offers an analysis of the facility's programmatic attempt to actualize a core claim of the new field of synthetic biology: that living beings can be conceived as collections of interoperable genetic components, constructed through rational design, standardized, and fabr...

  15. Ethics and code of conduct in zoo management


    Bahne, Rita


    There are around 1 million wild animals living in the 10,000-12,000 zoos worldwide. They include zoological parks, biological parks, safari parks, public aquariums, bird parks, reptile parks and insectariums. Zoo tourism is both domestic and international. The purpose of this research thesis is to clarify the ethics and codes of conduct in present day zoo management by presenting the current nature of zoos, ethics behind zoo business and the current codes of conduct. Zoo management i...

  16. The Influence of Compensatory Strategies on Ethical Decision Making


    Mecca, Jensen T.; Medeiros, Kelsey E.; Giorgini, Vincent; Gibson, Carter; Mumford, Michael D.; Connelly, Shane; Devenport, Lynn D.


    Ethical decision making is of concern to researchers across all fields. However, researchers typically focus on the biases that may act to undermine ethical decision making. Taking a new approach, this study focused on identifying the most common compensatory strategies that counteract those biases. These strategies were identified using a series of interviews with university researchers in a variety of areas, including biological, physical, social, and health as well as scholarship and the p...

  17. Expertise, Ethics Expertise, and Clinical Ethics Consultation: Achieving Terminological Clarity. (United States)

    Iltis, Ana S; Sheehan, Mark


    The language of ethics expertise has become particularly important in bioethics in light of efforts to establish the value of the clinical ethics consultation (CEC), to specify who is qualified to function as a clinical ethics consultant, and to characterize how one should evaluate whether or not a person is so qualified. Supporters and skeptics about the possibility of ethics expertise use the language of ethics expertise in ways that reflect competing views about what ethics expertise entails. We argue for clarity in understanding the nature of expertise and ethics expertise. To be an ethics expert, we argue, is to be an expert in knowing what ought to be done. Any attempt to articulate expertise with respect to knowing what ought to be done must include an account of ethics that specifies the nature of moral truth and the means by which we access this truth or a theoretical account of ethics such that expertise in another domain is linked to knowing or being better at judging what ought to be done and the standards by which this "knowing" or "being better at judging" is determined. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our analysis for the literature on ethics expertise in CEC. We do think that there are clear domains in which a clinical ethics consultant might be expert but we are skeptical about the possibility that this includes ethics expertise. Clinical ethics consultants should not be referred to as ethics experts.

  18. Rating Ethical Content-Short Form (RECS) (United States)

    Gomberg, Anna; Orlova, Darya; Matthews, Amanda; Narvaez, Darcia


    The "Rating Ethical Content Scale" ("RECS") judges the content of stories for positive content, based on the Four Process model of ethical behavior: ethical sensitivity, ethical judgment, ethical focus and ethical action (Rest, 1983; Narvaez, & Rest, 1995). For example, a story with Ethical Sensitivity has evidence of…

  19. Towards a systemic ethic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo; Kristensen, Erik Steen


    ambiguities of the new normative concepts and the conflicts between new and traditional moral concepts and theories. We employ a systemic approach to analyze the past and possible future extension of ethics and establish an inclusive framework of ethical extension. This framework forms the basis for what we......There are many different meanings of sustainability and precaution and no evident connection between the new normative concepts and the traditional moral theories. We seek an ethical basis for sustainability and precaution-a common framework that can serve as a means of resolving the conceptual...

  20. Is Capitalism Ethical?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suciu T.


    Full Text Available The author of this paper have set off from the question: is the present capitalism ethical? We started with the delimitation and correlation of the concepts of ethics, morals, morality. Further on, we analysed the evolution of capitalism in connection with morals. Based on this research, we came to the conclusion that the capitalist system has undergone through three stages: moral capitalism, amoral capitalism, and immoral capitalism. We concluded by implying that the corporate capitalist society is immoral, that it cannot regulate itself and that the government’s assistance is needed to inoculate the ethics.



    Amantova-Salmane, Liene


    In the beginning of economic history, economics as a social science was closely related to ethics and had a moral dimension. The works of Aristotle and Adam Smith show that the science of economics has evolved taking into consideration the ethical stand. However, during the twentieth century, ethics was not considered in the economic analysis, but this situation transformed and ethics became a part of economics. Removing ethics from economics also removes social responsibility and critical aw...

  2. Animal agriculture: symbiosis, culture or ethical conflict?


    Lund, Vonne; Olsson, I Anna S


    Several writers on animal ethics defend the abolition of most or all animal agriculture, which they consider an unethical exploitation of sentient non-human animals. However, animal agriculture can also be seen as a co-evolution over thousands of years, that has affected biology and behaviour on the one hand, and quality of life of humans and domestic animals on the other. Furthermore, animals are important in sustainable agriculture. They can increase efficiency by their ability to transform...

  3. Heritage ethics: Toward a thicker account of nursing ethics. (United States)

    Fowler, Marsha D


    The key to understanding the moral identity of modern nursing and the distinctiveness of nursing ethics resides in a deeper examination of the extensive nursing ethics literature and history from the late 1800s to the mid 1960s, that is, prior to the "bioethics revolution". There is a distinctive nursing ethics, but one that falls outside both biomedical and bioethics and is larger than either. Were, there a greater corpus of research on nursing's heritage ethics it would decidedly recondition the entire argument about a distinctive nursing ethics. It would also provide a thicker account of nursing ethics than has been afforded thus far. Such research is dependent upon identifying, locating, accessing and, more importantly, sharing these resources. A number of important heritage ethics sources are identified so that researchers might better locate them. In addition, a bibliography of heritage ethics textbooks and a transcript of the earliest known journal article on nursing ethics in the US are provided.

  4. PHM-Ethics and ETICA: complementary approaches to ethical assessment. (United States)

    Mittelstadt, Brent; Stahl, Bernd; Fairweather, Ben


    The chapter undertakes a comparison of different approaches to the ethical assessment of novel technologies by looking at two recent research projects. ETICA was a FP7 sister project to PHM-Ethics, responsible for identification and ethical evaluation of information and communication technologies emerging in the next 10-15 years. The aims, methods, outcomes and recommendations of ETICA are compared to those of PHM-Ethics, with identification of linkages and similar findings. A relationship is identified between the two projects, in which the assessment methodologies developed in the projects are shown to operate at separate, but complementary levels. ETICA sought to reform EU ethics governance for emerging ICTs. The outcomes of PHM-Ethics are analyzed within the policy recommendations of ETICA, which demonstrate how the PHM-Ethics toolbox can contribute to ethics governance reform and context-sensitive ethical assessment of the sort called for by ETICA.

  5. Ethics and technology design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    This article offers a discussion of the connection between technology and values and, specifically, I take a closer look at ethically sound design. In order to bring the discussion into a concrete context, the theory of Value Sensitive Design (VSD) will be the focus point. To illustrate my argument...... concerning design ethics, the discussion involves a case study of an augmented window, designed by the VSD Research Lab, which has turned out to be a potentially surveillanceenabling technology. I call attention to a “positivist problem” that has to do with the connection between the design context...... of design ethics, is intended as a constructive criticism, which can hopefully contribute to the further development of design ethics....

  6. Machine medical ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Pontier, Matthijs


    The essays in this book, written by researchers from both humanities and sciences, describe various theoretical and experimental approaches to adding medical ethics to a machine in medical settings. Medical machines are in close proximity with human beings, and getting closer: with patients who are in vulnerable states of health, who have disabilities of various kinds, with the very young or very old, and with medical professionals. In such contexts, machines are undertaking important medical tasks that require emotional sensitivity, knowledge of medical codes, human dignity, and privacy. As machine technology advances, ethical concerns become more urgent: should medical machines be programmed to follow a code of medical ethics? What theory or theories should constrain medical machine conduct? What design features are required? Should machines share responsibility with humans for the ethical consequences of medical actions? How ought clinical relationships involving machines to be modeled? Is a capacity for e...

  7. Test Your Ethics. (United States)

    Currents, 1987


    To illustrate the sorts of ethical quandaries institutional advancement professionals face, five fictitious case studies were compiled, including the matching gift muddle, deception dilemma, public relations predicament, vexing vendor, and the plagiarism puzzle. (MLW)

  8. Animal ethics dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Trine; Hansen, Tina; Algers, Anne


    'Animal Ethics Dilemma' is a freely available computer-supported learning tool ( or which has been developed primarily for veterinary undergraduates but is applicable also to students in other fields of animal science. The objectives of the computer...... program are to promote students' understanding of the ethics related to animal use, to illustrate ethical dilemmas that arise in animal use, to broaden students' moral imagination, and to enable students to differentiate between types of ethical argument. The program comprises five case studies: (1......) the blind hens; (2) ANDi the genetically modified monkey; (3) euthanasia of a healthy dog; (4) animal slaughter; and (5) rehabilitation of seals. Special consideration has been given to enhancing the pedagogic value of the program. Students can control their learning by selecting a variety of ways...

  9. Frankenstein, Dolly, and Ethics. (United States)

    Bushweller, Kevin


    A growing cadre of science teachers and researchers are developing curriculum blueprints for teaching the science and ethics of genetics to help students put advances in biotechnology into proper perspective. Lists five sources for teaching genetics. (MLF)

  10. Ethics and engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia King


    Full Text Available Ethical issues are encountered by many engineers in industry. In a new book, Gail D. Baura delves into 13 real case studies, looking at the background, the media involvement, and the official outcome.

  11. Ethics in Digital Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiidenberg, Katrin


    This chapter joins the voices that consider research ethics to be a matter of situated, responsible judgment, rather than a matter of universal principles and rigid guidelines. When collecting data about or in digitally saturated contexts, we need to consciously choose between what is available......, findable and collectable, and what should be found, collected and used for research. Thus, this chapter will not offer a set of rules; rather, it advocates for systematic (self) reflexivity in ethical qualitative inquiry. In the following I outline some of the persistent ethical issues that scholars...... involved in internet research are faced with. Classical ethical concepts like informed consent, confidentiality, anonymity, privacy, publicity and harm are difficult to operationalize in a socio-technical context that is persistent, replicable, scalable, and searchable. Examples from my own work...

  12. Ethics in Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Williams


    Full Text Available In order to reflect on some ethical improprieties which I had committed during the data collection phase of an information systems research study, I conducted an heuristic and psychologically-oriented self-study. As part of this heuristic reflection, I engaged in a number of self dialogues in the form of a conversation between various characters. Reported in this paper is one of these dialogues, concerning broad issues of ethics and research and discussing the notion of wisdom, maturity, meaning, and virtue. Ethical considerations are always of primary importance, and I would assert that this is even more so when considering research investigating and using new media, such as the world wide web, in which acceptable ethical practices have yet to be established and consolidated.

  13. Business Ethics and Military Ethics : A Study in Comparative Applied Ethics


    Shaw, William H.


    In the past three decades, philosophers have delved into applied ethics, pursuing a surprisingly wide range of practically oriented normative questions, and a number of fields of applied ethical research and teaching are flourishing. There have, however, been few comparative studies of different fields in applied ethics, but such studies can, I believe, teach us something. Accordingly, this essay compares and contrasts business ethics and military ethics as distinct disciplinar...

  14. Biology-Inspired Autonomous Control (United States)


    of, and perhaps will not be tolerated in, manmade critical systems. Although this paper does not directly address questions of ethics associated...political, ethical , and moral issues associated with the use of autonomous systems in warfare will be debated long after the technology hurdles to...accessible discussion on the interplay of biochemistry, genetics and embryology in animal evolution; Wagner, 2005 describes biological concepts of

  15. A Situational Military Ethic (United States)


    in which he must act as an ethical tabula rasa , lacking any guiding ethical precepts. 4 Chapter three will address Gabriel’s arguments in "totalist," covering the full range of human moral activity. For example, the explanation for professional role differentiation, such as the...the-spot clash in the name of honor. How much would it have mattered if the thief was innocent? What was the role of reason in this case? Assumptions

  16. Fernando Savater, Ethics Urgency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Tovar Torres


    Full Text Available The Ethics of Urgency Book Society presents author's dialogue with high school students and teachers. In the three parts of the book, Savater debate on current issues that give answers to questions that arise, such as what are the ethical and political issues that concern young people and teenagers today? How moral alternatives they reason? What new challenges posed by the Internet and social networks? among others...

  17. Ethics in marketing communication



    As well as the entire business world, marketing has its own ethics problems. Numerous marketing specialists or their representatives have consciously declared and adopted different engagements, declarations or codes of rules regarding the necessity that marketing people consider ethics regulations and values, so that they become much more responsible towards the members of society. These declarations or rules concern marketing practices in their ensemble or are guided towards certain specific...

  18. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun


    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  19. Ethics in Animal Experimentation


    Yusuf Ergun


    Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000): 220-235

  20. [Public health ethics and reproduction]. (United States)

    Alexandrova-Yankulovska, S; Bozhinov, P; Bojinova, S


    Medical progress has enabled achievements that were not even thinkable earlier but at the same time society and public health have had to face new challenges. What are we ready to accept in the area of human reproduction? This paper aims at ethical analysis of Bulgarian laws on reproduction. The abortion debate nowadays has got new dimiension focusing not that much on its moral acceptability but rather on the acceptable indications for its performance. Is it ethical to perform abortion in case of undesired gender of the embryo or genetic malformations? Lots of moral issues mark the area of assisted reproduction which is due to the separation of the reproductive functions (ova, sperm and embryo donation, surrogacy), fragmentation of motherhood and fatherhood, differentiation of biological and social parenthood. Defining limits of acceptable interference or non-interference in human reproduction will never be easy, but dynamics of moral judgment shouldn't bother us. The rigidity of moral norms is what should be alarming because it threatens procreative autonomy.

  1. Ethical issues in infertility. (United States)

    Serour, Gamal I; Serour, Ahmed G


    Infertility is a global medico-socio-cultural problem with gender-based suffering particularly in developing countries. Conventional methods of treatment for infertility do not usually raise ethical concerns. However, assisted reproductive technology (ART) has initiated considerable ethical debate, disagreement, and controversy. There are three ethical principles that provide an ethical basis for ART: the principle of liberty, principle of utility, and principle of justice. Medical ethics are based on the moral, religious, and philosophical ideas and principles of the society and are influenced by economics, policies, and law. This creates tension between the principles of justice and utility, which can result in disparity in the availability of and access to ART services between the rich and the poor. The moral status of the embryo is the key for all the ethical considerations and law regarding ART in different societies. This has resulted in cross-border ART. Conscientious objection of healthcare providers should not deprive couples from having access to a required ART service.

  2. Ethical Ambiguity in Science. (United States)

    Johnson, David R; Ecklund, Elaine Howard


    Drawing on 171 in-depth interviews with physicists at universities in the United States and the UK, this study examines the narratives of 48 physicists to explain the concept of ethical ambiguity: the border where legitimate and illegitimate conduct is blurred. Researchers generally assume that scientists agree on what constitutes both egregious and more routine forms of misconduct in science. The results of this study show that scientists perceive many scenarios as ethically gray, rather than black and white. Three orientations to ethical ambiguity are considered-altruism, inconsequential outcomes, and preserving the status quo-that allow possibly questionable behavior to persist unchallenged. Each discursive strategy is rationalized as promoting the collective interest of science rather than addressing what is ethically correct or incorrect. The results of this study suggest that ethics training in science should focus not only on fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism and more routine forms of misconduct, but also on strategies for resolving ethically ambiguous scenarios where appropriate action may not be clear.

  3. Professional Ethics for Astronomers (United States)

    Marvel, K. B.


    There is a growing recognition that professional ethics is an important topic for all professional scientists, especially physical scientists. Situations at the National Laboratories have dramatically proven this point. Professional ethics is usually only considered important for the health sciences and the legal and medical professions. However, certain aspects of the day to day work of professional astronomers can be impacted by ethical issues. Examples include refereeing scientific papers, serving on grant panels or telescope allocation committees, submitting grant proposals, providing proper references in publications, proposals or talks and even writing recommendation letters for job candidates or serving on search committees. This session will feature several speakers on a variety of topics and provide time for questions and answers from the audience. Confirmed speakers include: Kate Kirby, Director Institute for Theoretical Atomic and Molecular Physics - Professional Ethics in the Physical Sciences: An Overview Rob Kennicutt, Astrophysical Journal Editor - Ethical Issues for Publishing Astronomers Peggy Fischer, Office of the NSF Inspector General - Professional Ethics from the NSF Inspector General's Point of View

  4. Dolphin natures, human virtues: MacIntyre and ethical naturalism. (United States)

    Glackin, Shane Nicholas


    Can biological facts explain human morality? Aristotelian 'virtue' ethics has traditionally assumed so. In recent years Alasdair MacIntyre has reintroduced a form of Aristotle's 'metaphysical biology' into his ethics. He argues that the ethological study of dependence and rationality in other species--dolphins in particular--sheds light on how those same traits in the typical lives of humans give rise to the moral virtues. However, some goal-oriented dolphin behaviour appears both dependent and rational in the precise manner which impresses MacIntyre, yet anything but ethically 'virtuous'. More damningly, dolphin ethologists consistently refuse to evaluate such behaviour in the manner MacIntyre claims is appropriate to moral judgement. In light of this, I argue that virtues--insofar as they name a biological or ethological category--do not name a morally significant one.

  5. Creativity and Ethics: The Relationship of Creative and Ethical Problem-Solving. (United States)

    Mumford, Michael D; Waples, Ethan P; Antes, Alison L; Brown, Ryan P; Connelly, Shane; Murphy, Stephen T; Devenport, Lynn D


    Students of creativity have long been interested in the relationship between creativity and deviant behaviors such as criminality, mental disease, and unethical behavior. In the present study we wished to examine the relationship between creative thinking skills and ethical decision-making among scientists. Accordingly, 258 doctoral students in the health, biological, and social sciences were asked to complete a measure of creative processing skills (e.g., problem definition, conceptual combination, idea generation) and a measure of ethical decision-making examining four domains, data management, study conduct, professional practices, and business practices. It was found that ethical decision-making in all four of these areas was related to creative problem-solving processes with late cycle processes (e.g., idea generation and solution monitoring) proving particularly important. The implications of these findings for understanding the relationship between creative and deviant thought are discussed.

  6. Ethics Management: How to Achieve Ethical Organizations and Management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carita Lilian Snellman


    Full Text Available The last decades’ serious organizational scandals that mainly stem from corruption and conflicting interests but also from bribery, favoritism and other wrongdoings have ac-centuated the need for finding instruments for achieving more ethical organizations and management. Ethics management is particularly important in the public sector because public employees and holders of public office are responsible for increasing wellbeing and providing common good for all citizens. Only accountable management striving for integrity through ethical practices and decision making will guarantee ethical organiza-tional behavior. In spite of increasing research on ethics in general and ethics manage-ment in particular, increase in organizational scandals indicates that there is knowledge gap concerning ethical instruments that help to solve ethical problems. The aim of this paper is to shed light on ethical theories and instruments, and wrongdoings in public sec-tor organizations. The main questions are; why is there so much wrongdoing; how can it be reduced; and how can more ethical organization and management be achieved. This is a review paper aiming to provide a review of ethical theories and instruments and dis-cuss serious wrongdoings and the role of ethics in the public sector. The paper contrib-utes to the fields of management and organization, ethics, and public management.

  7. Ethical problems in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, Lars


    In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards.

  8. Scepticism about the virtue ethics approach to nursing ethics. (United States)

    Holland, Stephen


    Nursing ethics centres on how nurses ought to respond to the moral situations that arise in their professional contexts. Nursing ethicists invoke normative approaches from moral philosophy. Specifically, it is increasingly common for nursing ethicists to apply virtue ethics to moral problems encountered by nurses. The point of this article is to argue for scepticism about this approach. First, the research question is motivated by showing that requirements on nurses such as to be kind, do not suffice to establish virtue ethics in nursing because normative rivals (such as utilitarians) can say as much; and the teleology distinctive of virtue ethics does not transpose to a professional context, such as nursing. Next, scepticism is argued for by responding to various attempts to secure a role for virtue ethics in nursing. The upshot is that virtue ethics is best left where it belongs - in personal moral life, not professional ethics - and nursing ethics is best done by taking other approaches.

  9. A 'good' ethical review: audit and professionalism in research ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas-Jones, Rachel


    How does one conduct, measure and record a ‘good’ ethical review of biomedical research? To what extent do ethics committees invoke professionalism in researchers and in themselves, and to what extent do they see competence as adherence to a set of standard operating procedures for ethical review......? Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork with the Forum of Ethics Review Committees of Asia and the Pacific (FERCAP), a capacity-building NGO that runs ethics committee trainings and reviews in the Asia Pacific region, I develop an analysis of ethical review and its effects. I focus on a ‘second-order audit’ run...... readings of ‘ethics’. I begin and end with a reflection on the ethical effects of a measurement practice that takes ethics itself as its object....

  10. [Ethics in articles published in medical journals]. (United States)

    Reyes, Humberto; Palma, Joaquín; Andresen, Max


    Authors of clinical articles have similar motivations and rules than authors in other scientific fields. In addition, medical research must obey specific ethical rules that apply to studies involving human subjects, including biological samples, tissues, cellular or sub cellular samples obtained from them. When submitting their reports for publication, authors must declare that they have followed such ethical rules and also should declare any possible conflict of interest that may have arisen. External peer reviewers and the editors should also conform to limitations by eventual conflicts of interest. Authors should respect specific ethical norms that apply to the process of submitting, publishing and reproducing their manuscripts. In recent years, the editors of Revista Médica de Chile have become aware of five instances of misconduct committed by authors of articles submitted or already published. Four correspond to redundant publications and one exhibits overt plagiarism in the text and syntax. Appropriate actions have been taken following recommendations published by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the World Association of Medical Editors and other groups. The present article stresses that authors and their sponsoring institutions must be aware of the importance of following ethical rules when reporting scientific work.

  11. Global and regional ramifications of climate change. Consequences for Norway; Globale og regionale foelger av klimaendringer. Konsekvenser for Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buan, Inga Fritzen; Inderberg, Tor Haakon; Rottem, Svein Vigeland


    There is a need for more knowledge on how climate change will affect the international society and what consequences this in turn will have for Norway. This report seeks to answer the questions of, first, how global and regional climate changes can come to affect the Norwegian society, and second, what the relevant arenas for meeting these challenges are. The report is part of a larger body of scientific analyses aimed at assessing the vulnerability of the Norwegian society to the adverse effects of climate change and the consequent needs for adaptive measures. Topics covered include increased activity in the Arctic; climate change as non-traditional security threat; migration and refugees; foreign aid and development cooperation; implications for food and water supply; the roles of international agencies and non-governmental actors, and more. It also covers internal challenges in terms of critical infrastructure (in transport, power supply, and telecommunications) and in regard to health concerns. The report also differentiates between ethical obligations and instrumental challenges. (Author)

  12. Improving Ethical Decision-Making in Organizations through Ethical Competencies


    Rafael Morales; Carmen Cabello


    This research conceptualizes ethical competencies as a factor that can help to improve the understanding of ethical decision-making process in organizations. The authors discuss some limitations of existing models that describe the components of the ethical decision-making process as well as the main factors influencing on it. To overcoming these limitations, the authors propose the concept of ethical competencies as the set of knowledge, skills, and abilities acquired by experience which fac...

  13. The development of computer ethics: contributions from business ethics and medical ethics. (United States)

    Wong, K; Steinke, G


    In this essay, we demonstrate that the field of computer ethics shares many core similarities with two other areas of applied ethics. Academicians writing and teaching in the area of computer ethics, along with practitioners, must address ethical issues that are qualitatively similar in nature to those raised in medicine and business. In addition, as academic disciplines, these three fields also share some similar concerns. For example, all face the difficult challenge of maintaining a credible dialogue with diverse constituents such as academicians of various disciplines, professionals, policymakers, and the general public. Given these similarities, the fields of bioethics and business ethics can serve as useful models for the development of computer ethics.

  14. Ethics in education supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma ÖZMEN


    Full Text Available Supervision in education plays a crucial role in attaining educational goals. In addition to determining the present situation, it has a theoretical and practical function regarding the actions to be taken in general and the achievement of teacher development in particular to meet the educational goals in the most effective way. For the education supervisors to act ethically in their tasks while achieving this vital mission shall facilitate them to build up trust, to enhance the level of collaboration and sharing, thus it shall contribute to organizational effectiveness. Ethics is an essential component of educational supervision. Yet, it demonstrates rather vague quality due to the conditions, persons, and situations. Therefore, it is a difficult process to develop the ethical standards in institutions. This study aims to clarify the concept of ethics, to bring up its importance, and to make recommendations for more effective supervisions from the aspect of ethics, based on the literature review, some research results, and sample cases reported by teachers and supervisors.

  15. Ethical Becoming: Adult Ethical Development in Christian Congregations (United States)

    Carr-Chellman, Davin J.


    This is a study of adult ethical development in Christian congregations. Using an empirical hermeneutic phenomenological methodology, this study examined how five pastors understand and encourage ethical development, developing an in-depth analysis and interpretation of their perceptions of the phenomenon of adult ethical development. Two primary…

  16. [The ethics of principles and ethics of responsibility]. (United States)

    Cembrani, Fabio


    In his brief comment, the author speculates if ethics in health-care relationship it still has a practical sense.The essay points out the difference between principles ethics and ethics of responsibility, supporting the latter and try to highlight its constitutive dimensions.

  17. (The Ethics of Teaching Science and Ethics: A Collaborative Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Kabasenche


    Full Text Available I offer a normative argument for a collaborative approach to teaching ethical issues in the sciences. Teaching science ethics requires expertise in at least two knowledge domains—the relevant science(s and philosophical ethics. Accomplishing the aims of ethics education, while ensuring that science ethics discussions remain grounded in the best empirical science, can generally best be done through collaboration between a scientist and an ethicist. Ethics as a discipline is in danger of being misrepresented or distorted if presented by someone who lacks appropriate disciplinary training and experience. While there are exceptions, I take philosophy to be the most appropriate disciplinary domain in which to gain training in ethics teaching. Science students, who must be prepared to engage with many science ethics issues, are poorly served if their education includes a misrepresentation of ethics or specific issues. Students are less well prepared to engage specific issues in science ethics if they lack an appreciation of the resources the discipline of ethics provides. My collaborative proposal looks at a variety of ways scientists and ethicists might collaborate in the classroom to foster good science ethics education.

  18. The foundations and the development of modern medical ethics. (United States)

    Steinberg, A


    Modern bioethics is based on a pluralistic and multidisciplinary approach, deriving its sources from medicine, biology, philosophy, law, theology, social and behavioral sciences, and history. The moral foundation of modern biomedical ethics is based upon four prima facie principles: respect of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice. This approach, however, has been seriously criticized and challenged. A wide range of issues is discussed and debated in biomedical ethics. Several causes have intensified the recent flourishing of medical ethics: The enormous advancements in scientific and technological knowledge; the intense and widespread interest in bioethics by professionals as well as by the public at large; and the wide sociocultural and economic changes in western society, and in the conduct of medicine. The objectives of clinical medical ethics is outlined in the article.

  19. Teaching Business Ethics through Literature. (United States)

    Shepard, Jon M.; Goldsby, Michael G.; Gerde, Virginia W.


    Business students need a vocabulary of ethics consistent with the ideology of capitalism. An approach using business-related classic literature (such as "Babbitt") is a way to develop vocabulary and explore ethical issues. (SK)

  20. Teaching Ethics to Nursing Students. (United States)

    Thompson, Joyce E.; Thompson, Henry O.


    The authors discuss the ethics content to be taught in nursing education and the goals of ethics education for both undergraduate and graduate students. Teacher qualifications and evaluation of learning are also considered. (CH)

  1. Ethics and Transcultural Nursing Care. (United States)

    Eliason, Michele J.


    Argues that nursing practice and theory cannot be ethical unless cultural factors are taken into consideration and that ethical/transcultural nursing is central to the philosophy and practice of nursing. (Author)

  2. Solo doctors and ethical isolation. (United States)

    Cooper, R J


    This paper uses the case of solo doctors to explore whether working in relative isolation from one's peers may be detrimental to ethical decision-making. Drawing upon the relevance of communication and interaction for ethical decision-making in the ethical theories of Habermas, Mead and Gadamer, it is argued that doctors benefit from ethical discussion with their peers and that solo practice may make this more difficult. The paper identifies a paucity of empirical research related to solo practice and ethics but draws upon more general medical ethics research and a study that identified ethical isolation among community pharmacists to support the theoretical claims made. The paper concludes by using the literary analogy of Soderberg's Doctor Glas to illustrate the issues raised and how ethical decision-making in relative isolation may be problematical.

  3. Virtue ethics and social psychology


    Lunt, P.


    Virtue ethics has emerged as an alternative to deontological and utilitarian theory in recent moral philosophy. The basic notion of virtue ethics is to reassert the importance of virtuous character in ethical judgement in contrast to the emphasis on principles and consequences. Since questions of virtue have been largely neglected in modern moral theory, there has been a return to Aristotle’s account of virtue as character. This in turn has been questioned as the basis of virtue ethics and t...

  4. Linking Ethics and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul


    Hunt (2012) builds on his work concerning ethics and resource-advantage theory to link personal ethical standards, societal norms, and economic growth but offers few details concerning the precise mechanisms that link ethics and growth. This comment suggests a number of such mechanisms...... – for example, the influence of prevailing ethical norms on the aggregate elasticity of substitution and, therefore, total factor productivity and growth....

  5. Business Ethics: Some Theoretical Issues


    Lluka, Valon


    Ethics can be defined as a process of evaluating actions according to moral principal of values. Throughout the centuries people were trying to choose between profit and moral. Perhaps, some of them obtain both, but every time it could have roused ethical issues. Those issues concern fairness, justice, rightness or wrongness; as a result it can only be resolved according to ethical standards. Setting the ethical standards for the way of doing business in corporation is primarily task of m...

  6. Game, Player, Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vila, Miguel Angel Sicart


    As the contemporary heirs of popular music or cinema, computer games are gradually taking over the markets of entertainment. Much like cinema and music, computer games are taking the spotlight in another front – that which blames them for encouraging unethical behaviors. Apparently, computer games...... turn their users into blood thirsty zombies with a computer game learnt ability of aiming with deadly precision. The goal of this paper is to pay attention to the ethical nature of computer games, in order to understand better the ways we can evaluate their morality in western cultures providing...... a framework to understand some of these concerns. This paper poses questions about the ontology of games and their ethical meaning, in an attempt to give ethical theory a word in the analysis of computer games....

  7. Health branding ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen; Sandøe, Peter; Kamin, Tanja


    Commercial food health branding is a challenging branch of marketing because it might, at the same time, promote healthy living and be commercially viable. However, the power to influence individuals’ health behavior and overall health status makes it crucial for marketing professionals to take...... into account the ethical dimensions of health branding: this article presents a conceptual analysis of potential ethical problems in health branding. The analysis focuses on ethical concerns related to the application of three health brand elements (functional claims, process claims, and health symbols......) as well as a number of general concerns that apply to health branding as such. Being a pioneering analysis, this article advances the academic understanding of health branding and provides practitioners with knowledge of important concerns to take into account when marketing health brands....

  8. Ethical Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauesen, Linne Marie


    Purpose: For the last three decades, Stakeholder management has been concerned either with strategic business management or business ethics, values and quality. Many models have been developed, but recently the literature asks for more dynamic models that can explain the complexities...... by the inclusion of multiple stakeholders. The conceptualization of the model enhances business ethics in decision making by managing and balancing stakeholder concerns with the same concerns as the traditional risk management models does – for the sake of the wider social responsibilities of the businesses...... of the interaction between a corporation and its stakeholders. Methodology/approach: This paper offers a theoretical 'Organic Stakeholder Model' based on decision making theory, risk assessment and adaption to a rapidly changing world combined with appropriate stakeholder theory for ethical purposes in decision...

  9. Loophole ethics in sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Kvalnes


    Full Text Available Ethical challenges in sports occur when the practitioners are caught between the will to win and the overall task of staying within the realm of acceptable values and virtues. One way to prepare for these challenges is to formulate comprehensive and specific rules of acceptable conduct. In this paper we will draw attention to one serious problem with such a rule-based approach. It may inadvertently encourage what we will call loophole ethics, an attitude where every action that is not explicitly defined as wrong, will be seen as a viable option. Detailed codes of conduct leave little room for personal judgement, and instead promote a loophole mentality. We argue that loophole ethics can be avoided by operating with only a limited set of general principles, thus leaving more space for personal judgement and wisdom.

  10. Ethical issues in immunisation. (United States)

    Isaacs, David; Kilham, Henry; Leask, Julie; Tobin, Bernadette


    Discussions about current and future immunisation programmes raise novel questions about familiar ethical issues. Two sets of ethical issues dominate these discussions. The first is the issue of compulsory immunisation: what should be done about parents who fail to immunise their children? The second is: given competing demands on health care budgets, how should principles of justice in access and distribution inform vaccination programmes? This paper considers these two issues in the light of traditional ethical principles. With respect to the first, we argue that compulsion is justified only in cases in which we know with practical certainty that parental failure to immunise puts their own child or other children at high risk of severe illness. We also argue that the state should compensate those who suffer vaccine-related injury. With respect to the second, we claim that allocating resources according to health care need requires establishing priorities between public health programmes such as immunisation and other treatment programmes.

  11. Medicine saved ethics: Has ethics harmed medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini


    Full Text Available In an article in The Boston Globe, Steven Pinker holds that the primary moral good of bioethics should be to "get out of the way". The accusation that bioethics is an obstacle to research because it calls attention to basic principles such as personal dignity and justice is clearly contradicted by the facts. There are, nonetheless, other ways in which bioethics can stand in the way of science, two of which, bureaucratisation and the loss of cultural vivacity, are worth addressing. Ethics committees provide a framework for evaluating problems and determining an appropriate course of action.

  12. Ethics in Science. (United States)

    Sharma, Om P


    Ethics are a set of moral principles and values a civilized society follows. Doing science with principles of ethics is the bedrock of scientific activity. The society trusts that the results and the projected outcome of any scientific activity is based on an honest and conscientious attempt by the scientific community. However, during the last few decades, there has been an explosion of knowledge and the advent of digital age. We can access the publications of competitors with just a "click". The evaluation parameters have evolved a lot and are based on impact factors, h-index and citations. There is a general feeling that the scientific community is under a lot of pressure for fulfilling the criteria for upward growth and even retention of the positions held. The noble profession of scientific research and academics has been marred by the temptation to falsify and fabricate data, plagiarism and other unethical practices. Broadly speaking, the breach of ethics involves: plagiarism, falsification of data, redundant (duplicate) publication, drawing far-fetched conclusions without hard data, for early publicity, gift authorship (receiving as well as giving), not giving sufficient attention and consideration to scholars and post-docs as per the norms, self promotion at the cost of team-members, treating colleagues (overall all juniors) in a feudal way and Machiavellianism (cunningness and duplicity in general conduct and push to positions of power and pelf). Misconduct in Indian academics and science is also under a lot of focus. It is important and urgent that science, engineering, and health departments and institutions in our country have in place systems for education and training in pursuit of science with ethics by sound and professional courses in Responsible Conduct of Research. All research and academic institution must have the Office of Ethics for information, guidelines, training and professional oversight of conduct of research with the ethos and ethics

  13. Neonatal ethics in ELBW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Messner


    Full Text Available The delivery of extremely low gestational age newborns and extremely low birth weight infants presents challenging ethical issues for caregivers and parents. Major concerns regard the high mortality and morbidity resulting in long term sequelae, the limit of viability as well as the conflict and difficulty in judgement involving “quality of life” and “sanctity of life” issues. Other paramount ethical concepts include the newborn’s best interest, the decision to initiate or withhold treatment at birth and the decision to withdraw treatment with the consequence that the infant will die. On the basis of the ethical principles of beneficence, autonomy, justice and nonmaleficence we will discuss the best interest standards, the standard for the decision making process and treatment decisions, which should always be governed by the prospect for the individual infant. In this paper we propose that ethical questions should not be regulated by law and the legal system should not interfere in the patient-physician relationship. Continuous improvement in medicine over the last decades led to increased treatment possibilities, which on the other hand also resulted in more ethical dilemmas. Therefore, today more than ever, it is essential that the neonatologist becomes familiar with basic ethical concepts and their application to clinical reality.  Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  14. Evolutionary ethics from Darwin to Moore. (United States)

    Allhoff, Fritz


    Evolutionary ethics has a long history, dating all the way back to Charles Darwin. Almost immediately after the publication of the Origin, an immense interest arose in the moral implications of Darwinism and whether the truth of Darwinism would undermine traditional ethics. Though the biological thesis was certainly exciting, nobody suspected that the impact of the Origin would be confined to the scientific arena. As one historian wrote, 'whether or not ancient populations of armadillos were transformed into the species that currently inhabit the new world was certainly a topic about which zoologists could disagree. But it was in discussing the broader implications of the theory...that tempers flared and statements were made which could transform what otherwise would have been a quiet scholarly meeting into a social scandal' (Farber 1994, 22). Some resistance to the biological thesis of Darwinism sprung from the thought that it was incompatible with traditional morality and, since one of them had to go, many thought that Darwinism should be rejected. However, some people did realize that a secular ethics was possible so, even if Darwinism did undermine traditional religious beliefs, it need not have any effects on moral thought. Before I begin my discussion of evolutionary ethics from Darwin to Moore, I would like to make some more general remarks about its development. There are three key events during this history of evolutionary ethics. First, Charles Darwin published On the Origin of the Species (Darwin 1859). Since one did not have a fully developed theory of evolution until 1859, there exists little work on evolutionary ethics until then. Shortly thereafter, Herbert Spencer (1898) penned the first systematic theory of evolutionary ethics, which was promptly attacked by T.H. Huxley (Huxley 1894). Second, at about the turn of the century, moral philosophers entered the fray and attempted to demonstrate logical errors in Spencer's work; such errors were alluded

  15. Emotions, narratives, and ethical mindfulness. (United States)

    Guillemin, Marilys; Gillam, Lynn


    Clinical care is laden with emotions, from the perspectives of both clinicians and patients. It is important that emotions are addressed in health professions curricula to ensure that clinicians are humane healers as well as technical experts. Emotions have a valuable and generative role in health professional ethics education.The authors have previously described a narrative ethics pedagogy, the aim of which is to develop ethical mindfulness. Ethical mindfulness is a state of being that acknowledges everyday ethics and ethically important moments as significant in clinical care, with the aim of enabling ethical clinical practice. Using a sample narrative, the authors extend this concept to examine five features of ethical mindfulness as they relate to emotions: (1) being sensitized to emotions in everyday practice, (2) acknowledging and understanding the ways in which emotions are significant in practice, (3) being able to articulate the emotions at play during ethically important moments, (4) being reflexive and acknowledging both the generative aspects and the limitations of emotions, and (5) being courageous.The process of writing and engaging with narratives can lead to ethical mindfulness, including the capacity to understand and work with emotions. Strategies for productively incorporating emotions in narrative ethics teaching are described. This can be a challenging domain within medical education for both educators and health care students and thus needs to be addressed sensitively and responsibly. The potential benefit of educating health professionals in a way which addresses emotionality in an ethical framework makes the challenges worthwhile.

  16. Teaching Engineering Ethics for Freshmen (United States)

    Kurata, Nobuo

    In Japan, most of the classes for engineering ethics are held for JABEE. But I think to hold the class of engineering ethics, as an optional class is also useful. In this article, showing the content of my class, I argued the importance of the class of engineering ethics as an optional class.

  17. Daily Practice: Ethics in Leadership (United States)

    DePree, Chauncey M., Jr.; Jude, Rebecca K.


    The classic question, "Should business schools teach ethics?" is not often asked anymore given the drip, drip, drip of business corruption reported in the news. Even skeptics allow that business ethics education could not hurt and might improve the ethics of business leaders. Furthermore, universities, colleges, and business accrediting…

  18. The Centrality of Ethical Leadership (United States)

    Ehrich, Lisa C.; Harris, Jessica; Klenowski, Val; Smeed, Judy; Spina, Nerida


    Purpose: The central argument in this paper is that ethical school leadership is imperative in a context of increasing performance-driven accountability. The purpose of this paper is to focus on school principals' perceptions of how they understand ethical leadership and how they lead the ethical use of data. Design/Methodology/Approach: This…

  19. Everyday Ethics: Reflections on Practice (United States)

    Rossman, Gretchen B.; Rallis, Sharon F.


    This introductory article frames the contributions for this issue on everyday ethics--moments that demand moral considerations and ethical choices that researchers encounter. We discuss concerns raised within the research community about the tendency to observe merely obligatory ethical procedures as outlined in Human Subjects Review regulations.…

  20. The Ethics of Archival Research (United States)

    McKee, Heidi A.; Porter, James E.


    What are the key ethical issues involved in conducting archival research? Based on examination of cases and interviews with leading archival researchers in composition, this article discusses several ethical questions and offers a heuristic to guide ethical decision making. Key to this process is recognizing the person-ness of archival materials.…

  1. Empirical ethics as dialogical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widdershoven, G.A.M.; Abma, T.A.; Molewijk, A.C.


    In this article, we present a dialogical approach to empirical ethics, based upon hermeneutic ethics and responsive evaluation. Hermeneutic ethics regards experience as the concrete source of moral wisdom. In order to gain a good understanding of moral issues, concrete detailed experiences and persp

  2. Ethical Issues in Media Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Journalists are always confronted by ethical definitions on the daily basis during their media practice.In this article,some ethical issues happened in media practice are analyzed,and aspects of both news reporters and public opinion are deeply studied,and the balance between both professional and ethics is probed seriously as well.

  3. Exploring Ethics with Contemporary Communications (United States)

    Webb, Joyce G.


    This paper addresses the way in which we should go about introducing ethics into the study of our interpersonal relations in the hope of formulating a foundation upon which to base our theories and analyze our behavior. We should ask ourselves whether there should be different criteria for interpersonal ethics than for ethics in other areas of…

  4. Environmental Studies and Utilitarian Ethics (United States)

    Wolff, Brian G.


    Environmental ethicists have focused much attention on the limits of utilitarianism and have generally defined "environmental ethics" in a manner that treats utilitarian environmental ethics as an oxymoron. This is unfortunate because utilitarian ethics can support strong environmental policies, and environmental ethicists have not yet produced a…

  5. [Crisis in medical ethics]. (United States)

    Stellamor, K


    There is a disproportion between diagnostic and therapeutic medical achievements and the doctor/patient relationship. Are we allowed to do everything we are able to do in medicine? People are concerned and worried (genetic technology, invasive medicine, embryos in test tubes etc.). The crisis of ethics in medicine is evident. The analysis of the situation shows one of the causes in the shift of the paradigma-modern times to postmodern following scientific positivism-but also a loss of ethics in medicine due to an extreme secularism and to modern philosophical trends (Hans Jonas and the responsibility for the future and on the other hand modern utilitarism).

  6. Drugs and medical ethics. (United States)

    Somogyi, E


    Naturopathy has received considerable interest all over the world recently. The use of its methods and its consequences have raised legal and ethical problems. This article reports on the use of two 'oncolytic' drugs. Neither of them was produced by cancer researchers and neither passed the analytic examination required in pharmaceutical research. During their use--they were prescribed and applied by physicians--conventional treatment was withdrawn. The ethical responsibility of doctors using fringe medicine drugs is dealt with. Naturopathy may, however, have a role in official medicine in certain cases.

  7. Digital media ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Ess, Charles


    This is the first textbook on the central ethical issues of digitalmedia, ranging from computers and the Internet to mobile phones. Itis also the first book of its kind to consider these issues from aglobal perspective, introducing ethical theories from multiplecultures. It further utilizes examples from around the world, suchas the publication of ""the Mohammed Cartoons""; diverseunderstandings of what ""privacy"" means in Facebook or MySpace; whypirating CDs and DVDs may be justified in developing countries; andculturally-variable perspectives on sexuality and what counts as""pornography.""

  8. Social Media Ethics


    Christoffersen, Mette Buhl; Boukaouit, Dounia; Weeke Hervit, Benjamin Helmer; Winther Brødreskift, Ditte; Makilä, Riia Marette; Pingel Vogel, Klara Elisa; Wolter Strate, Simon


    With the opportunities for anonymity and free expression on the Internet it is it is not inconceivable that moral and ethical dilemmas occur. To give examples of this, we have chosen to analyse two case studies that are concerned with ethical dilemmas. The first case concerns the hacker group “Anonymous” which revealed personal information and accused two men of being paedophiles. The second case deals with the violation of privacy based on the famous meme “Scumbag Steve”. The two dimensions ...

  9. Ethical advertising in dentistry. (United States)

    Graskemper, Joseph P


    Advertising in dentistry has steadily increased since the 1970s to become a leading choice of many dentists to promote their practices. The manner in which advertising progresses within the profession affects all dentists and how patients perceive dentistry as a profession. This paper presents ethical concepts that should be followed when dentists are pursuing practice promotion through advertising. It also raises questions that, hopefully, will increase attention and discussion on dental advertising. The paper concludes that ethical advertising is easily achieved by promoting patient education while not placing the dentist's self-interests ahead of the patient's. With this approach, dentistry may continue to be one of the most trusted professions.

  10. Agricultural science and ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Vaarst, Mette


    , about 20 % of the world's coral reefs and 35 % of the mangrove areas were lost (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). In the following, the development of agricultural science will be sketched out and the role of ethics in agricultural science will be discussed. Then different views of nature that have...... shaped agriculture and the role of science in agriculture will be discussed by analyzing some of the presumptions behind the concept of ecosystem services and the way animals are viewed. Finally, the concepts of animal welfare and sustainability will be explored to show how they make vivid the connection...... between agricultural science and ethics....

  11. Ethics in biomedical engineering. (United States)

    Morsy, Ahmed; Flexman, Jennifer


    This session focuses on a number of aspects of the subject of Ethics in Biomedical Engineering. The session starts by providing a case study of a company that manufactures artificial heart valves where the valves were failing at an unexpected rate. The case study focuses on Biomedical Engineers working at the company and how their education and training did not prepare them to deal properly with such situation. The second part of the session highlights the need to learn about various ethics rules and policies regulating research involving human or animal subjects.

  12. Neuroethics: the pursuit of transforming medical ethics in scientific ethics. (United States)

    Figueroa, Gustavo


    Ethical problems resulting from brain research have given rise to a new discipline termed neuroethics, representing a new kind of knowledge capable of discovering the neural basis for universal ethics. The article (1) tries to evaluate the contributions of neuroethics to medical ethics and its suitability to outline the foundations of universal ethics, (2) critically analyses the process of founding this universal ethic. The potential benefits of applying neuroimaging, psychopharmacology and neurotechnology have to be carefully weighed against their potential harm. In view of these questions, an intensive dialogue between neuroscience and the humanities is more necessary than ever.

  13. Ethical limitations in patenting biotechnological inventions. (United States)

    Lugagnani, V


    In order to connect ethical considerations with practical limits to patentability, the moral judgement should possibly move from the exploitation of the invention to the nature and/or objectives of Research and Development (R&D) projects which have produced it: in other words, it appears quite reasonable and logical that Society is not rewarding unethical R&D activities by granting intellectual property rights. As far as biotechnology R&D is concerned, ethical guidance can be derived from the 1996 Council of EuropeOs OConvention for the protection of human rights and dignity of the human being with regard to the application of biology and medicineO, whose Chapter V - Scientific research - provides guidelines on: i. protection of persons undergoing research (e.g. informed consent); ii. protection of persons not able to consent to research; iii. research on embryos in vitro. As far as the specific point of patenting biotechnology inventions is concerned, the four exclusions prescribed by Directive 98/44/EC (i.e. human cloning, human germ-line gene therapy, use of human embryos for commercial purposes, unjustified animal suffering for medical purposes) are all we have in Europe in terms of ethical guidance to patentability. In Italy, in particular, we certainly need far more comprehensive legislation, expressing SocietyOs demand to provide ethical control of modern biotechnology. However it is quite difficult to claim that ethical concerns are being raised by currently awarded biotechnology patents related to living organisms and material thereof; they largely deal with the results of genomic R&D, purposely and usefully oriented toward improving health-care and agri-food processes, products and services. ONo patents on lifeOO can be an appealing slogan of militants against modern biotechnology, but it is far too much of an over-simplified abstraction to become the Eleventh Commandment our Society.

  14. An ethical approach to planetary protection (United States)

    Arnould, Jacques; Debus, André


    What hazards might biological contamination pose to planets, comets and other celestial bodies visited by probes launched from Earth? What hazards might returning probes pose to Earth and its inhabitants? What should be considered an acceptable level of risk? What technologies, procedures and constraints should be applied? What sort of attitude has to be chosen concerning human crews, who themselves could become both contaminated victims and contaminating agents? The vast issue of planetary protection must, more than ever, spark ethical debate. Space treaty, COSPAR recommendations offer borders and context for this reflection, which has to be introduced in the actual humanist: never has been anthropocentrism so practical and concerned, in the same time, by the next generations, because of the historical character of life. At least an ethics of risk is necessary (far from the myth of zero-risk) for all the three types of contamination: other celestial bodies (forward contamination), Earth (backward contamination) and astronauts.

  15. Biomedical engineering and society: policy and ethics. (United States)

    Flexman, J A; Lazareck, L


    Biomedical engineering impacts health care and contributes to fundamental knowledge in medicine and biology. Policy, such as through regulation and research funding, has the potential to dramatically affect biomedical engineering research and commercialization. New developments, in turn, may affect society in new ways. The intersection of biomedical engineering and society and related policy issues must be discussed between scientists and engineers, policy-makers and the public. As a student, there are many ways to become engaged in the issues surrounding science and technology policy. At the University of Washington in Seattle, the Forum on Science Ethics and Policy (FOSEP, was started by graduate students and post-doctoral fellows interested in improving the dialogue between scientists, policymakers and the public and has received support from upper-level administration. This is just one example of how students can start thinking about science policy and ethics early in their careers.

  16. What is the Business of Ethics in Business Ethics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    addresses these “movements” or approaches to business ethics. It argues that business ethics is caught between two conceptions of what it is for. The first movement promotes the idea that it can be a reassuring and satisfying set of ideas that reminds us how to do the right thing in order to manage......For the last decades, business ethics have spread from a new brand of a few socially and environmentally benevolent companies to the corporate mainstream. Thus, today, business ethics have become a central concern for both business managers and researchers in order to manage the cultural value base...... of the organization, stakeholder relations, etc.. Throughout the history of business ethics, though, and especially in the last decade, a series of studies have criticized the dominant view of business ethics for being instrumental and reductive. This critique often dismisses business ethics altogether. This paper...

  17. Furthering the sceptical case against virtue ethics in nursing ethics. (United States)

    Holland, Stephen


    In a recent article in this journal I presented a sceptical argument about the current prominence of virtue ethics in nursing ethics. Daniel Putman has responded with a defence of the relevance of virtue in nursing. The present article continues this discussion by clarifying, defending, and expanding the sceptical argument. I start by emphasizing some features of the sceptical case, including assumptions about the nature of sceptical arguments, and about the character of both virtue ethics and nursing ethics. Then I respond to objections of Putman's such as that, according to virtue ethics, virtue is relevant to the whole of a human life, including one's behaviour in a professional context; and that eudaimonia should be central in explaining and motivating a nurse's decision to enter the profession. Having argued that these objections are not compelling, I go on to discuss an interesting recent attempt to reassert the role of virtue ethics in the ethics of professions, including nursing. This centres on whether role-specific obligations - e.g. the obligations that arise for a moral agent qua lawyer or mother - can be accommodated in a virtue ethics approach. Sean Cordell has argued that the difficulty of accommodating role-specific obligations results in an 'institution-shaped gap' in virtue ethics. He suggests a way of meeting this difficulty that appeals to the ergon of institutions. I endorse the negative point that role-specific obligations elude virtue ethics, but argue that the appeal to the ergon of institutions is unsuccessful. The upshot is further support for scepticism about the virtue ethics approach to nursing ethics. I end by gesturing to some of the advantages of a sceptical view of virtue ethics in nursing ethics.

  18. Imaginative ethics--bringing ethical praxis into sharper relief. (United States)

    Hansson, Mats G


    The empirical basis for this article is three years of experience with ethical rounds at Uppsala University Hospital. Three standard approaches of ethical reasoning are examined as potential explanations of what actually occurs during the ethical rounds. For reasons given, these are not found to be satisfying explanations. An approach called "imaginative ethics", is suggested as a more satisfactory account of this kind of ethical reasoning. The participants in the ethical rounds seem to draw on a kind of moral competence based on personal life experience and professional competence and experience. By listening to other perspectives and other experiences related to one particular patient story, the participants imagine alternative horizons of moral experience and explore a multitude of values related to clinical practice that might be at stake. In his systematic treatment of aesthetics in the Critique of Judgement, Kant made use of an operation of thought that, if applied to ethics, will enable us to be more sensitive to the particulars of each moral situation. Based on this reading of Kant, an account of imaginative ethics is developed in order to bring the ethical praxis of doctors and nurses into sharper relief. The Hebraic and the Hellenic traditions of imagination are used in order to illuminate some of the experiences of ethical rounds. In conclusion, it is argued that imaginative ethics and principle-based ethics should be seen as complementary in order to endow a moral discourse with ethical authority. Kantian ethics will do the job if it is remembered that Kant suggested only a modest, negative role of principle-based deliberation.

  19. The Ethical and Non Ethical Mutual Funds Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Adamo


    Full Text Available Problem statement: One of the astonishing new developments in the financial community is the rise of ethical investments during the last decade. Particularly, the recent financial crisis has determined a major attention towards an ethically oriented finance based on social investments and environmental benefits that can create greater corporate crisis prevention. Because of the sheer size and importance of the ethical mutual funds, we thought to compare the ethical and non ethical mutual funds. Approach: The aim of this study was to describe the ethical and non ethical mutual funds under Italian and foreign law highlighting how some factors, such as performance, typology (equity, balanced, fixed income, geographic location, management fees, characterize these funds in different way. Results: The analysis has been carried out collecting a data set of 219 mutual funds published on The data set is subdivided in 109 ethical mutual funds and 110 non ethical mutual funds. The study uses a multi-disciplinary approach and it is led by a Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA which puts in evidence the principal characteristics of the mutual funds by their projection on a factorial plane. Later the multivariate analysis carries out typologies of mutual funds clusters with particular characteristics by a Cluster Analysis. The study confirmed the existence of different characteristics with reference to the ethical and non ethical mutual funds. Particularly, it puts in evidence three groups of funds which are inside homogeneous but heterogeneous between them by the characteristics considered. The first groups, defined “negative ethical performance”, is composed of 152 funds. The second groups, named “positive non ethical performance”, is characterized by non ethical fund (50.23% of them is present in this group. The third cluster is called “young funds” and it is composed of funds born in the period 2005

  20. Ethics in biotechnology and biosecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Jameel


    Full Text Available Great advances in technology produce unique challenges. Every technology also has a dual use, which needs to be understood and managed to extract maximum benefits for mankind and the development of civilization. The achievements of physicists in the mid-20th century resulted in the nuclear technology, which gave us the destructive power of the atomic bomb as also a source of energy. Towards the later part of the 20th century, information technology empowered us with fast, easy and cheap access to information, but also led to intrusions into our privacy. Today, biotechnology is yielding life- saving and life-enhancing advances at a fast pace. But, the same tools can also give rise to fiercely destructive forces. How do we construct a security regime for biology? What have we learnt from the management of earlier technological advances? How much information should be in the public domain? Should biology, or more broadly science, be regulated? Who should regulate it? These and many other ethical questions need to be addressed.

  1. Ethics and Scientific Publication (United States)

    Benos, Dale J.; Fabres, Jorge; Farmer, John; Gutierrez, Jessica P.; Hennessy, Kristin; Kosek, David; Lee, Joo Hyoung; Olteanu, Dragos; Russell, Tara; Wang, Kai


    This article summarizes the major categories of ethical violations encountered during submission, review, and publication of scientific articles. We discuss data fabrication and falsification, plagiarism, redundant and duplicate publication, conflict of interest, authorship, animal and human welfare, and reviewer responsibility. In each section,…

  2. The Ethics of Change (United States)

    Wegner, Scott; Moseman, Gerald; Watson, Robert


    This case is designed for use in courses that explore ethics or issues related to the change process. The superintendent in this case is faced with a decision that could facilitate the adoption of much needed reform in the district. This decision would not only assure better learning and brighter futures for thousands of students but avert his own…

  3. UNESCO's activities in ethics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, H.A.M.J. ten


    UNESCO is an intergovernmental organization with 193 Member States. It is concerned with a broad range of issues regarding education, science and culture. It is the only UN organisation with a mandate in science. Since 1993 it is addressing ethics of science and technology, with special emphasis on

  4. Proactively Teaching Technology Ethics (United States)

    Johnson, Doug


    This article presents certain advice to librarians on online ethical conduct. It is very important for librarians to talk to their students and clear the permissible limit of what is allowed and what is not. Librarians should teach some strategies about using clues in search results to discriminate between relevant and non-relevant Web sites.…

  5. Software engineering ethics (United States)

    Bown, Rodney L.


    Software engineering ethics is reviewed. The following subject areas are covered: lack of a system viewpoint; arrogance of PC DOS software vendors; violation od upward compatibility; internet worm; internet worm revisited; student cheating and company hiring interviews; computing practitioners and the commodity market; new projects and old programming languages; schedule and budget; and recent public domain comments.

  6. Ethics without Indoctrination. (United States)

    Paul, Richard W.


    To bring ethics into the curriculum without indoctrinating students with adults' moral incapacities, distortions, and closed-mindedness, educators need to integrate eithics with critical thinking, literature, science, history, and civics instruction. Implementation requires excellent supplemental resources, good leadership, and inservice redesign.…

  7. The Ethic of Hospitality


    Christopher Muller


    The idea of hospitality is evident in several types of human behavior including obligatory duties, commercial activity, and prosocial action. These are intertwined and revolve around the commitment to caring for others whether they are relatives, guests, or strangers. This article explores the ethic of hospitality in its various forms.

  8. The Ethic of Hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Muller


    Full Text Available The idea of hospitality is evident in several types of human behavior including obligatory duties, commercial activity, and prosocial action. These are intertwined and revolve around the commitment to caring for others whether they are relatives, guests, or strangers. This article explores the ethic of hospitality in its various forms.

  9. Food policy an ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde; Kemp, Peter


    This entry gives an overview of food policy and major ethical principles that in the last decades have been proposed and advocated for in debates on food policy. Food policies touch upon a vast area of interrelated policies (like health, transport, environment, poverty, animal welfare etc.) which...

  10. Ethics on Exhibit (United States)

    Vick, Randy M.


    This article discusses ethical questions raised by an exhibition of work by an artist with a history of mental illness and the exhibition's relevance to art therapy and “outsider art” discourse on the subject. Considerations for how such an exhibit could be handled had the circumstances included an art therapist and art therapy client are…

  11. Big Data ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitter, Andrej


    The speed of development in Big Data and associated phenomena, such as social media, has surpassed the capacity of the average consumer to understand his or her actions and their knock-on effects. We are moving towards changes in how ethics has to be perceived: away from individual decisions with sp



    Khadartseva, L.; Agnaeva, L.


    It is assumed that local conditions of markets may be different, but some global markets, ethics and social responsibility principles should be applicable to all markets. As markets globalize and an increasing proportion of business activity transcends national borders, institutions need to help manage, regulate, and police the global marketplace, and to promote the establishment of multinational treaties to govern the global business system

  13. Ethics of esthetic dentistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebler, Michael; Devigus, Alessandro; Randall, Ros C


    Patient demand for esthetics has increased globally, and often for reasons of patient self-esteem. However, important ethical issues encompass treatment for purely esthetic reasons. Also, perceptions of what is esthetic differ among patients and clinicians. Therefore, the aim of this article...

  14. Understanding behavioural ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Skelton (Tim)


    textabstractBehaving in an ethical manner, whether at work or socially, is something that ought to be second nature to everyone. Yet, this isn’t always the reality. When it comes to business in particular, employees at all levels can make morally questionable decisions they wouldn’t dream of making

  15. Ethics and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)


    markdownabstractThe field of development ethics explores questions and debates concerning what is good development of societies and of the world, and good development for individual persons. Generations of experience suggest the inadequacy of the assumption that societal-, world- or personal- develo

  16. Ethics and Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)


    markdownabstract__Intro__ The field of development ethics explores questions and debates concerning what is good development of societies and of the world, and good development for individual persons. Generations of experience suggest the inadequacy of the assumption that societal-, world- or pers

  17. Suicide and Ethics. (United States)

    Battin, Margaret P., Ed.; Maris, Ronald W., Ed.


    Presents five articles by philosophers and a psychiatrist on the ethics of suicide, as well as comments and a literature review. Discusses the rationality and morality of suicide from several philosophical viewpoints including self-ownership, Kant's theories, and a libertarian perspective. (JAC)

  18. Ethics without Intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    . This distinction, which, according to the doctrine of double effect, makes a difference to the moral justification of actions, is widely applied to some of the most controversial ethical and political questions of our time: collateral damages in wars and acts of terrorism; palliative care, euthanasia, abortion...

  19. Enterprise, Entrepreneurship and Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Daniel; Holt, Robin

    In the wake of calls for enterprise-led recovery amid Western economies, we critically investigate the enterprise discourse. Specifically, we challenge the association of enterprise and entrepreneurial activity. Using Foucault’s concept of parrrhesia - an ethical condition of brave speech - we...

  20. Ethical issues in genetics. (United States)

    Shannon, T A


    The first section of the Notes on Moral Theology reviews ethical issues in genetics through the lenses of privacy-confidentiality; risk-benefit analysis in relation to prenatal diagnosis and gene therapy; and freedom-determinism/human dignity in the context of cloning. The author provides an overview of developments in genetics and highlights thematic issues common to these developments.

  1. Ethics in publication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallace, M.B.; Siersema, P.D.


    Publication of scientific manuscripts remains our core method of sharing knowledge and advanced scientific inquiry. Pressures to publish for reasons other than pure discovery have the potential to corrupt this process. The core principles of scientific ethics outlined above provide guidance on how t

  2. Ethics, Morality, and Mores. (United States)

    Purcell, Royal

    It is possible to approach, but not to achieve, the goal of perfection. To the three traditional philosophical values of truth, goodness, and beauty it is appropriate to append the important values of wisdom, humanness, and grace. Among the resources available toward the perfection of behavior are ethics, morality, and mores. The first chapter of…

  3. Interleukin-4, interleukin-10, and interleukin-1-receptor antagonist but not transforming growth factor-beta induce ramification and reduce adhesion molecule expression of rat microglial cells. (United States)

    Wirjatijasa, Florentina; Dehghani, Faramarz; Blaheta, Roman A; Korf, Horst-Werner; Hailer, Nils P


    The activity of microglial cells is strictly controlled in order to maintain central nervous system (CNS) immune privilege. We hypothesized that several immunomodulatory factors present in the CNS parenchyma, i.e., the Th2-derived cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10, interleukin-1-receptor-antagonist (IL-1-ra), or transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta can modulate microglial morphology and functions. Microglial cells were incubated with IL-4, IL-10, IL-1-ra, TGF-beta, or with astrocyte conditioned media (ACM) and were analyzed for morphological changes, expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, and secretion of IL-1beta or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. Whereas untreated controls showed an amoeboid morphology both Th2-derived cytokines, IL-1-ra, and ACM induced a morphological transformation to the ramified phenotype. In contrast, TGF-beta-treated microglial cells showed an amoeboid morphology. Even combined with the neutralizing antibodies against IL-4, IL-10, or TGF-beta ACM induced microglial ramification. Furthermore, ACM did not contain relevant amounts of IL-4 and IL-10, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Flow cytometry showed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ICAM-1-expression on microglial cells was strongly suppressed by ACM, significantly modulated by IL-4, IL-10, or IL-1-ra, but not influenced by TGF-beta. The LPS-induced secretion of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha was only reduced after application of ACM, whereas IL-4 or IL-10 did not inhibit IL-1beta- or TNF-alpha secretion. TGF-beta enhanced IL-1beta- but not TNF-alpha secretion. In summary, we demonstrate that IL-4, IL-10, and IL-1-ra induce microglial ramification and reduce ICAM-1-expression, whereas the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines is not prevented. TGF-beta has no modulating effects. Importantly, unidentified astrocytic factors that are not identical with IL-4, IL-10, or TGF-beta possess strong immunomodulatory properties.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Professional accountants are ordered in some point in their life to take certain decisions that are ethical or not. Accounting ethics is an important aspect of an accountant's work. In the last decades has increased so much interest in accounting ethics so that the financial statements should be prepared to come to include a descriptive report of accounting professionals who have created and filled these situations. This report should include any information considered relevant about factors that influence ethical behaviour. The present research aims to show what is accounting ethics, what is the purpose of the National Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants of Romania, what is creative accounting and ethical behaviour that depends on an accountant, what are the reasons for the use of creative accounting and also what are its main practices.

  5. Impact of Ethics on Leadership Standards


    Shazil Turab; Fawad Kashan; Muhammad Asif


    Abstract: In this article, the researchers are trying to figure out how important is ethics in leadership and what ethical factors makes a leader more effective and effective. People still believe that ethics, communication, and skills collectively work together to be an effective and efficient leadership. In this article effectiveness and efficiency of leader is measured based on five factors: ethical communication, ethical quality, ethical collaboration, ethical succession planning, and eth...

  6. Evidence and Ethics (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Brettle


    Full Text Available Welcome to the December issue of EBLIP, the final issue of my first year as Editor-in-Chief. A year which I have thoroughly enjoyed and one where the fears over what to write in my editorials haven’t materialised. This quarter, ethics has featured quite heavily in my working life so I decided to make this the topic of the editorial, sharing some of my thoughts regarding evidence, ethics and how ethical principles are implemented within the EBLIP journal.Ethics are “principles of conduct or standards of behaviour governing an individual or profession” (Library and Information Science Editorial Committee, 2010, and as individuals or professionals we may be governed by various ethical codes. As I'm sure you know, EBLIP originated in the health domain, where ethical values and ethical research feature strongly. Indeed, by its formal definition, research cannot take place unless “ethical approval” from an appropriate committee has been granted. The practicalities of taking research through the ethical approval process can often be time consuming, and those involved in research need to bear this in mind when planning a project. Each committee will have a slightly different form and process (which can add to the frustration of the researcher, but basically will make their decision to approve on the basis that the research includes obtaining informed consent from participants (i.e., participants know what the research is about and what their involvement will mean; that the research will not cause harm to participants; that confidentiality will be maintained; and that the research undertaken is methodologically rigorous and worthwhile. Preparing a proposal for ethical approval, whilst time consuming, makes the researcher think about all aspects of the research and how it is going to be operationalized, which can save lots of time and effort in the long run and may well also improve the research design. These principles are the same whatever

  7. Biosecurity and Open-Source Biology: The Promise and Peril of Distributed Synthetic Biological Technologies. (United States)

    Evans, Nicholas G; Selgelid, Michael J


    In this article, we raise ethical concerns about the potential misuse of open-source biology (OSB): biological research and development that progresses through an organisational model of radical openness, deskilling, and innovation. We compare this organisational structure to that of the open-source software model, and detail salient ethical implications of this model. We demonstrate that OSB, in virtue of its commitment to openness, may be resistant to governance attempts.

  8. Ethical issues related to biomonitoring studies on children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Merlo, Domenico Franco; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.


    -off and the recruitments. In the initial phase of planning a biomonitoring study consideration of communication of results including risk and means of risk prevention should be made. Ethical considerations regarding the study protocol should take into account (a) justification of biological sampling related...

  9. Student-Centered Deliberations of Ethical Care & Use of Animals (United States)

    Pecore, John; Demetrikopoulos, Melissa; Frantz, Kyle


    Most biology teachers implement animal dissection (real or virtual) and often lead discussions on research involving animal subjects. Such activities provide excellent opportunities to explore ideas about ethical conduct in the care and use of animals. The challenge for teachers is to present information about animal care and use that enables…

  10. Code of ethics and ethical dilemmas' management in health professions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Triadafyllidou


    Full Text Available As the main interest of health professionals is for the well-being of patients/clients, ethical decision making is one of the prominent elements of his/her professionalism. Aim: The present study aims to illustrate the role of ethical judgment and the so-called "moral imagination" in health professions. Method and material: Review of theoretical and research literature, including both classic and recent sources about ethical dilemmas that health professionals may anticipate, as well as the suggested ways to manage these dilemmas. Results: Health professionals often have to act in complicated situations. Review of relevant literature indicates that the professionals' ethical decisions are structured not only through the codes of ethics, but also through other collective practices, such as organizational culture and cultural schemas about the role of health professional. Resorting to schematic thinking may temporarily release the professional from his/her concerns, but in the long run, it may devoid him/her of the sense of satisfaction from work and of the ability to offer clients the optimal care. The development of the so-called "moral imagination" permits the professional to advance from the typical application of the rules to actual ethical judgment. Conclusions: Ethical decision making presupposes not only a thorough knowledge of ethical guidelines, but also the development of the ability to openly reflect upon the ethical dimensions of an issue (moral imagination that allows health professionals to overcome schematic thinking and investigate comprehensive solutions to ethical dilemmas.

  11. Media debates and 'ethical publicity' on social sex selection through preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) technology in Australia. (United States)

    Whittaker, Andrea


    This paper offers a critical discourse analysis of media debate over social sex selection in the Australian media from 2008 to 2014. This period coincides with a review of the National Health and Medical Research Council's Ethical Guidelines on the Use of Assisted Reproductive Technology in Clinical Practice and Research (2007), which underlie the regulation of assisted reproductive clinics and practice in Australia. I examine the discussion of the ethics of pre-implatation genetic diagnosis (PGD) within the media as 'ethical publicity' to the lay public. Sex selection through PGD is both exemplary of and interconnected with a range of debates in Australia about the legitimacy of certain reproductive choices and the extent to which procreative liberties should be restricted. Major themes emerging from media reports on PGD sex selection in Australia are described. These include: the spectre of science out of control; ramifications for the contestation over the public funding of abortion in Australia; private choices versus public authorities regulating reproduction; and the ethics of travelling overseas for the technology. It is concluded that within Australia, the issue of PGD sex selection is framed in terms of questions of individual freedom against the principle of sex discrimination - a principle enshrined in legislation - and a commitment to publically-funded medical care.

  12. An ethics model to develop an ethical organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik R. Lloyd


    Full Text Available Orientation: As background to the study it can be stated that the ethical conduct of employees in an organisation is of paramount importance to the successful operations of an organisation, both real and perceived. In recent times the ethical conduct of employees has received extensive publicity and, as such, has emphasised the impact of organisational ethics on the global competitiveness of organisations.Research purpose: The main aim of the paper is to analyse the impact of business ethics in the Eastern Cape Motor Industry Cluster (ECMIC and the different perceptions regarding such ethics. This is based on the main research question, namely, whether a business ethics model should be developed to assist in creating an ethical organisation.Motivation of the study: The motivation for this study is based on the question of whether there is a dedicated drive within the motor industry to establish an ethical organisation and, if such is the case, what benefits would accrue to the organisations in ECMIC.Research design, approach and method: An empirical study was conducted within ECMIC to test the proposed ethics intervention model. A questionnaire, as the main measuring instrument, was developed and 150 questionnaires were distributed. Statistical hypothesis testing was used, with a significance level set at 5%. The aim of the hypothesis testing was to test whether the percentage responses in certain categories were significantly higher than a pre-determined test-value.Main findings: The research results substantiate the fact that the majority of the surveyed organisations do not implement specific ethics interventions. Nevertheless, the majority of respondents acknowledge the importance of ethical behaviour in the organisation, especially with regard to their financial positions.Practical/managerial implications: From this study it became clear that the implementation of a code of ethics would create a platform for ethical behaviour in

  13. Impact of Ethics on Leadership Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazil Turab


    Full Text Available Abstract: In this article, the researchers are trying to figure out how important is ethics in leadership and what ethical factors makes a leader more effective and effective. People still believe that ethics, communication, and skills collectively work together to be an effective and efficient leadership. In this article effectiveness and efficiency of leader is measured based on five factors: ethical communication, ethical quality, ethical collaboration, ethical succession planning, and ethical tenure. Researchers believe that through practice of factors mentioned above can result into an effective and efficient ethical leadership.

  14. Ethics, standards, and procedures of animal and human chronobiology research. (United States)

    Touitou, Yvan; Smolensky, Michael H; Portaluppi, Francesco


    The majority of research papers published in Chronobiology International report the findings of investigations conducted on laboratory animals and human beings. The editors and the readers of the journal expect the authors of submitted manuscripts to have made an important contribution to biological rhythm and related research through the ethical conduct of investigations and unbiased and accurate reporting of findings. Authors of scientific papers are required to disclose any potential conflict of interest. The journal accepts only papers that are original work, no part of which has been submitted for publication elsewhere, except as brief abstracts. The journal and its editors endorse the compliance of investigators to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, which relate to the conduct of ethical research on human beings, and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council, which relate to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals. The peer review of manuscripts by Chronobiology International thus includes judgment as to whether or not the investigative methods conform to the standards of good research practice. This article updates the ethical policies, standards, and procedures for manuscripts submitted to Chronobiology International that involve human and animal biological rhythm research, both from the perspective of the criteria of quality chronobiology investigation and from the perspective of humane and ethical research on human beings and animals.

  15. A 'good' ethical review: audit and professionalism in research ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas-Jones, Rachel


    How does one conduct, measure and record a ‘good’ ethical review of biomedical research? To what extent do ethics committees invoke professionalism in researchers and in themselves, and to what extent do they see competence as adherence to a set of standard operating procedures for ethical review......? Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork with the Forum of Ethics Review Committees of Asia and the Pacific (FERCAP), a capacity-building NGO that runs ethics committee trainings and reviews in the Asia Pacific region, I develop an analysis of ethical review and its effects. I focus on a ‘second-order audit’ run...... by FERCAP, which recognises committees according to a set of standards that are designed to render ‘local’ committees internationally legible. The article adds to a growing comparative literature that expands studies of audit-like measuring and disciplining activities beyond western contexts and enriches...

  16. 合成生物学:工程伦理的实践悖论——从合成生物学对生命、自然及进化的挑战谈起%Synthetic Biology: the Practice Paradox of Engineering Ethics Starting from Challenges Which Synthetic Biology Brings to Life, Nature and Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晨; 徐飞


    Synthetic biology aims at the design and construction of biological systems not found in nature, and being applied to human practice. However, this new branch challenges life, nature and evolution, which makes itself face the dilemma of paradox in practice. Actually, synthetic biology challenges the traditional conception of life, destroys the natural and uses human selection and purpose-oriented evolution to replace the natural evolution. All these rational technical operations lead to the irrationality of its existence, but we can see the rationality of its application in science and technology from the irrationality, There is no doubt that to investigate the practice paradox of synthetic biology has significant philosophical enlightenment to the understanding of the practice value of engineering ethics.%合成生物学致力于设计和建构自然界不存在的生物系统并将其运用于人类实践,这一新学科正对生命、自然及进化发起了挑战,也导致其在实践中面临悖论发展的困境。合成生物学挑战了传统的生命概念,摧毁了自然性,利用人为选择和有目的的进化取代了自然进化。所有这些合理的技术操作都导致了其存在的不合理性;而从其不合理性中,又能看到其科技应用的合理性。考察合成生物学的这种实践悖论特性,对于深入理解工程伦理的实践价值无疑具有重要的哲学启迪。

  17. 5 CFR 2635.107 - Ethics advice. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ethics advice. 2635.107 Section 2635.107 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH General Provisions § 2635.107 Ethics advice. (a) As required by §§...

  18. 43 CFR 20.201 - Ethics officials. (United States)


    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethics officials. 20.201 Section 20.201... Department Ethics Program § 20.201 Ethics officials. (a) Designated Agency Ethics Official refers to the official designated under 5 CFR 2638.201 to coordinate and manage the Department's ethics program. (b)...

  19. Report of the Ethics Committee, 2008 (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009


    In accordance with the bylaws of the American Psychological Association (APA), the Ethics Committee reports regularly to the membership regarding the number and types of ethics complaints investigated and the major programs undertaken. In 2008, ethics adjudication, ethics education and consultation, convention programs, ethics publications,…

  20. Ethics and Ethical Theories from an Islamic Perspective




    With the collapse of many organizations, many researchers are increasingly paying attention to such phenomenon. But ethical issues are not always clear cut; there are many grey areas that need to be threaded with care by organizations. To determine whether an action or decision is ethically carried out, ethical theories, developed mainly by Western scholars, are the current theoretical framework organizations have at their disposal. Theories such as relativism, utilitarianism, egoism, deontol...

  1. Ethics and technology design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders


    This article offers a discussion of the connection between technology and values and, specifically, I take a closer look at ethically sound design. In order to bring the discussion into a concrete context, the theory of Value Sensitive Design (VSD) will be the focus point. To illustrate my argument...... concerning design ethics, the discussion involves a case study of an augmented window, designed by the VSD Research Lab, which has turned out to be a potentially surveillance-enabling technology. I call attention to a "positivist problem" that has to do with the connection between the design context......, a design theory must accept that foresight is limited to anticipation rather than prediction. To overcome the positivist problem, I suggest a phenomenological approach to technology inspired by Don Ihde's concept of multistability. This argument, which is general in nature and thus applies to any theory...

  2. [Ethics and ritual circumcision]. (United States)

    Castagnola, C; Faix, A


    Circumcision dates back to ancient times, nowadays, this ritual is practiced mainly in the context of Jewish and Muslim religions. The purpose of this article is to give urologists elements of reflection on the act according to the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. According to a Kantian vision, priority should be given to the respect and wishes of the individuals. In contrast, for the utilitarian theory, circumcision can be justified by a contribution to the happiness of the majority of community members at the expense of a given few. In the event of a request for ritual circumcision, urologists find themselves in the middle, uncomfortable for some, questioning the ethics of its meaning. The main pitfall for the surgeon remains in respecting the child's autonomy.

  3. Ethics and Ethical Theories from an Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available With the collapse of many organizations, many researchers are increasingly paying attention to such phenomenon. But ethical issues are not always clear cut; there are many grey areas that need to be threaded with care by organizations. To determine whether an action or decision is ethically carried out, ethical theories, developed mainly by Western scholars, are the current theoretical framework organizations have at their disposal. Theories such as relativism, utilitarianism, egoism, deontology, the divine command theory, and the virtue ethics, are all products of Western understanding of what ethics are and how they are applicable to help one’s decision making process. Despite their utility, this paper intends to argue that the Western concepts and understanding of what ethics are limited and incomprehensive in explaining what is right and what is wrong. In its place, this paper argues that to understand the concepts of ethics that can extend beyond time and space. It has to be analysed from an Islamic perspective. Toward this purpose, this paper will compare and contrast between Islamic and Western perspectives of ethics, and highlight the main weaknesses and limitations of the former. Then, an argument on why Islam can provide the best understanding of ethics will be made.

  4. [Ethics, medical ethics, and occupational medicine: is their dialogue possible?]. (United States)

    Buzzi, Elisa


    Today's medicine faces some critical moral challenges, yet the medical class suffers from an increasingly evident malaise: a growing dissatisfaction with an ethical demand often perceived as a cumbersome burden of rules and prohibitions, which risk to erode the fiduciary relations with patients. Such a negative appraisal is partly due to a narrow interpretation of the meaning of ethics, a misconception whose roots are in the positivistic stance that permeates our culture, and in its almost exclusively technological bent. This radical orientation of our culture shows itself in the vanishing of the idea of an intrinsic ethical dimension of medicine and consequent eclipse of traditional medical ethics, currently all but assimilated by bioethics. Maintaining a clear distinction between medical ethics and bioethics is a fundamental condition for guaranteeing an original ethical reflection in medicine, thereby fostering a constructive dialogue between philosophical and medical ethics. In this sense, occupational medicine holds a very propitious position, at the cross-roads to some of the most important dimensions in human life and society: health, work, environment. In a milieu which is too often inclined to efface the living human being and the deepest needs of humanity, the moral commitment of medical profession to the care of the integral reality of the embodied human person is one of the most important ethical challenges facing occupational medicine and a most valuable contribution to the current ethical debate.

  5. Justice and medical ethics. (United States)

    Gillon, R


    Justice, in the sense of fair adjudication between conflicting claims, is held to be relevant to a wide range of issues in medical ethics. Several differing concepts of justice are briefly described, including Aristotle's formal principle of justice, libertarian theories, utilitarian theories, Marxist theories, the theory of John Rawls, and the view--held, for example, by W.D. Ross--that justice is essentially a matter of reward for individual merit.




    13 pages; International audience; In the first part, we will define the main properties of a democratic election, providing a typology of electronic devices and give a view on some legal documents pertaining to the matter. In the second part, the ethics of voting will be evaluated: our methodology is detailed, followed by an examination of pure paper-based elections, paperless electronic voting and verifiable electronic voting. The new concept of legally operative transparency is defined and ...

  7. Ethics in Organizational Leadership (United States)


    individual and crew tasks, and in the development of espirit and cohesion in units. Competition can become dysfunctional to ethical behavior when...the degree that it was said that the sun never set on the British Empire, went to war on several occasions when its European neighbors embarked on...of our overlooking the aims of communism in the Soviet Union was the loss of half of Europe, first in occupation, then in satellite countries. The

  8. [Ethical issues in nursing leadership]. (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Fang; Hung, Chich-Hsiu


    Social transition causes shifts and changes in the relationship between health professionals and their patients. In their professional capacity, it is important today for nurses to handle ethical dilemmas properly, in a manner that fosters an ethical environment. This article investigates the ethical concerns and decision processes of nurses from a knowledge construction perspective, and examines such issues as patient needs, staff perceptions, organizational benefits, and professional image. The decision making methods commonly used when facing ethical dilemma explored in this study include the traditional problem solving, nursing process, MORAL model, and Murphy's methods. Although decision making for ethical dilemmas is governed by no universal rule, nurses are responsible to try to foster a trusting relationship between employee and employer, health care providers and patients, and the organization and colleagues. When decision making on ethical dilemmas is properly executed quality care will be delivered and malpractice can be reduced.

  9. Ethics: the evidence of leadership. (United States)

    Piper, Llewellyn E


    Today's leaders in health care are being challenged by many demands and issues. To confront these many demands, health care leaders must have the ability to make decisions based on ethics. To ensure the survivability of an organization, the leadership must have values grounded on ethical principles. The problem in today's health care organizations is that not enough emphasis is being placed on a culture of ethics within the organization and within the behavior of the leadership. This article addresses the ethical issues facing today's health care leaders. In this article, an overview of the history and philosophy of ethics is provided along with definitions, guidelines, and a model to assist the leadership in health care organization to pursue and to adhere to a more ethical course.

  10. Ethics of compassion in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available One of the main challenges currently facing education is the incorporation of the ethics of compassion at the theoretical level as well as in educational practice. This article outlines the main arguments that permit us to introduce a sentiment of compassion in the pedagogical proposals for moral education. Emphasis is placed on the complementary nature of ethics and moral development which, under various denominations, consider similar aspects: ethics of moral sentiments; ethics of care and responsibility; ethics of otherness; and ethics of hospitality among others. Finally, we arrive at two features that should be considered when implementing the teaching of compassion in the moral realm: the relationship between students and teachers, and the narrative focus in moral development.

  11. Work ethics: An Islamic prospective

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    Muhammad Shakil Ahmad


    Full Text Available Islamic principles completely cover all aspects of life including working in an organization. Current study explore the job related variables an their connection with Islamic Work Ethics. Current study explores the literature relevant to Islamic Work Ethics. Previous study results show that there is significant impact of Islamic work ethics on organizational commitment, job satisfaction and rewards while Islamic work ethics has no significant relation with intention to quit job. Different studies results shows that Islamic work ethics can help build a better morale amongst employees which in turn can result in greater employee job satisfaction. Furthermore adopting Islamic work ethics improves organizational commitment, level of motivation and thus is likely to reduce the number of staff wanting to leave the organization i.e. quitting the job.

  12. Ethics in Crimes and Misdemeanors

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    Róbert Haraldsson


    Full Text Available In this paper I employ Goodenough´s distinction between films that illustrate, are about and do philosophy to answer the question how we can identify the ethical content of movies. Crimes and Misdemeanors by Woody Allen is taken as an example but Mary L. Litch has argued that this movie illustrates ethical problems and is about ethics. On Litch´s reading the film reveals inherent flaws in utilitarianism and illustrates a Kantian insight as well as other ethical and religious theses. I argue, however, that Litch has relied on a too narrow method when identifying the ethics of Crimes and Misdemeanors. She focuses almost exclusively on dialogue and the general storyline. If we broaden our method to include sensitivity to filming, editing, camera angulation etc., we will not only realize a rather different ethical content in Crimes and Misdemeanors but also see how the movie stirkes close to home for most viewers of Hollywood movies.

  13. Ethics in neonatal pain research. (United States)

    Axelin, Anna; Salanterä, Sanna


    A literature review of 98 articles concerning clinical pain research in newborn infants was conducted to evaluate how researchers report the ethical issues related to their studies and how journals guide this reporting. The articles were published in 49 different scientific journals. The ethical issues most often mentioned were parental informed consent (94%) and ethical review approval (87%). In 75% of the studies the infants suffered pain during the research when placebo, no treatment or otherwise inadequate pain management was applied. Discussion about benefits versus harm to research participants was lacking. A quarter of the journals did not have any ethical guidelines for submitted manuscripts. We conclude that ethical considerations did not play a significant role in the articles studied. Missing and superficial guidelines enable authors to offer studies with fragile research ethics.

  14. Understanding Engineering Ethics

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    Abdi O. Shuriye


    Full Text Available Engineering ethics aims to enhance engineer’s ability to confront moral issues raised by engineering activities. It covers engineering as social experimentation, the engineer’s responsibility for safety, and the rights of engineers. What constitutes engineering ethics is the underlining question of this research. Hence, the objective of the research is to systematically provide answers to the aforementioned question. The research also studies the scope and the origin of the subject matter. At the same time, the research highlights the significance of the subject from diverse perspectives; including Western and Islamic perspectives. ABSTRAK: Etika kejuruteraan bertujuan meningkatkan keupayaan juruera menghadapi isu-isu moralyang timbul dari aktiviti-aktiviti kejuruteraan. Ia merangkumi kejuruteraan sebagai eksperimentasi sosial, tanggungjawab jurutera terhadap keselamatan dan hak-hak jurutera. Persoalan utama penyelidikan ini adalah apa yang merangkumi etika kejuruteraan. Penyelidikan ini juga mengkaji skop dan asal usul etika kejuruteraan. Kajian ini turut membincangkan subjek kajian dari pelbagai perspektif, Barat dan Islam.KEYWORDS: engineering ethics; engineer; akhlaq; values; confidentiality; corruption; conflict of interest; whistle-blowing

  15. Ethics and clinical trials. (United States)

    Chassany, O; Duracinský, M


    The current reference guideline about ethics in clinical trials is the Declaration of Helsinki of human rights in medical research. Three major principles are emphasised: respect of the patient to accept or not to participate in a trial, the constraints and the presumed risks must be acceptable for patients included in a study, and vulnerable subjects should not participate in studies. The investigator is responsible for obtaining a free and well-informed consent from patients before their inclusion in a study. Where possible, a new drug should always first be compared to placebo in order to prove its superiority. Else, a small-sized trial comparing a new drug versus a reference treatment can lead to an erroneous conclusion of absence of difference. Moreover, good results or improvement are obtained in at least 30% of cases with placebo, whatever the disease. The use of placebo is unethical in life-threatening diseases and when an effective proved drug exists. The use of placebo is ethical in severe diseases with no efficient drug, in some severe diseases even when an active reference treatment is available, and in all moderate and functional diseases. In order to detect flawed studies, most journals now ask for any manuscript submitted and reporting results of a randomised clinical trial to join a checklist in order to verify the quality of the trial. Finally, it remains the responsibility of the doctor to decide whether or not a protocol is ethical, to participate or not and to include patients or not.

  16. Jocasta's Fatalistic Ethic

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    Brane Senegačnik


    Full Text Available The structure of Oedipus Tyrannus is the most perfect, the most successful and at the same time the simplest of the dramatic types used by Sophocles (Kirkwood. Although the structural focus is on the single figure of Oedipus, the minor characters - first and foremost Jocasta - are also allowed to utter ethical ideas of the utmost importance to the main theme of the tragedy. While the role of Jocasta itself is a secondary one, her passive attitude and fatalistic credo, set in striking contrast to Oedipus' firm determination to act and thus bring relief to the plague-stricken Thebes, express one of the most important ideas of the play. There are some striking similarities between her words and the ethical principles of the most prominent Hellenistic philosophies, i. e. (late Stoicism and Epicureanism, as well as those of Martin Heidegger's and his followers' thought. All these systems of ethics, each in its own way, are based on a reduced concept of' humanity, and the same is true of Jocasta's reasoning. This paper attempts to show that all the above-mentioned fatalistic attitudes are to be attributed to an inability to face the tragic reality of life.

  17. Accounting Ethics - Responsibility Versus Creativity



    Professional accountants are ordered in some point in their life to take certain decisions that are ethical or not. Accounting ethics is an important aspect of an accountant's work. In the last decades has increased so much interest in accounting ethics so that the financial statements should be prepared to come to include a descriptive report of accounting professionals who have created and filled these situations. This report should include any information considered relevant about factors ...

  18. Medical ethics in the Neurosciences

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    Pandya S


    Full Text Available Doctors in India are heirs to a long tradition of ethics from their own forebears and from those from the West. This paper discusses ethical aspects of topics of relevance to neurological scientists such as brain death, neural transplant and whole brain transplant. Many other topics such as ethics in research, patients with AIDS, patients in a persistent vegetative state and euthanasia deserve similar consideration and debate.

  19. Towards a Multidimensional, Environmentalist Ethic


    Alan Carter


    There has been a process of moral extensionism within environmental ethics from anthropocentrism, through zoocentrism, to ecocentrism. This article maps key elements of that process, and concludes that each of these ethical positions fails as a fully adequate, environmentalist ethic, and does so because of an implicit assumption that is common within normative theory. This notwithstanding, each position may well contribute a value. The problem that then arises is how to trade off those values...

  20. [IPS an ethical paradigm for biomedical research]. (United States)

    Gámez Escalona, José Antonio


    One of the greatest advances in molecular and cell biology was the discovery of the Induced Pluripotent Stem cells (iPS) in mice, by Shinya Yamanka and his team in 2006. The possibility that these cells can be generated also in humans opens up unexpected ways of development for biomedicine. Its main contribution is the creation of a strong protocol that takes into account three major advances in biology such as; nuclear transfer techniques, the discovery of transcription factors associated with pluripotency and the isolation of mouse embryonic stem cells. A protocol that can be easily replicated in other laboratories to have the oportunity to design tests that allow modeling of many incurable diseases, drug testing for human cells or explore the possibilities of autologous transplants of tissues or organs. Yamanaka ethical motivation to find an alternative to embryonic stem cells (ES) and prevent the destruction of embryos produced by In Vitro Fertilization techniques (IVF), has proved to be a research model, in which the intuition of the ethical principles and its application in advanced biotechnology projects, has meant the opening of a whole new way of understanding the biology of embryonic development. It is clear that development, biologically understood (puede ser también ″treated″; tratado), is not a one-way street. The possibilities to deepen into the foundations of molecular biology and genetics, along with the expectations of its clinical applications have earned Yamanka the Nobel Prize in Medicine 2012, along with another great scholar Sir John Gurdon, discoverer of nuclear transfer techniques.

  1. Ethical issues in neuroprosthetics (United States)

    Glannon, Walter


    Objective. Neuroprosthetics are artificial devices or systems designed to generate, restore or modulate a range of neurally mediated functions. These include sensorimotor, visual, auditory, cognitive affective and volitional functions that have been impaired or lost from congenital anomalies, traumatic brain injury, infection, amputation or neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Cochlear implants, visual prosthetics, deep brain stimulation, brain-computer interfaces, brain-to-brain interfaces and hippocampal prosthetics can bypass, replace or compensate for dysfunctional neural circuits, brain injury and limb loss. They can enable people with these conditions to gain or regain varying degrees of control of thought and behavior. These direct and indirect interventions in the brain raise general ethical questions about weighing the potential benefit of altering neural circuits against the potential harm from neurophysiological and psychological sequelae. Other ethical questions are more specific to the therapeutic goals of particular neuroprosthetics and the conditions for which they are indicated. These include informed consent, agency, autonomy (free will) and identity. Approach. This review is an analysis and discussion of these questions. It also includes consideration of social justice issues such as how to establish and implement fair selection criteria in providing access to neuroprosthetic research and balancing technological innovation with patients’ best interests. Main results. Neuroprosthetics can restore or improve motor and mental functions in bypassing areas of injury or modulating dysregulation in neural circuits. As enabling devices that integrate with these circuits, neuroprosthetics can restore varying degrees of autonomous agency for people affected by neurological and psychiatric disorders. They can also re-establish the connectedness and continuity of the psychological properties they had before injury or disease onset and thereby

  2. Toward an horizon in design ethics. (United States)

    d'Anjou, Philippe


    This paper suggests that design ethics can be enriched by considering ethics beyond the traditional approaches of deontology, teleology, and virtue ethics. Design practice and design ethics literature tend to frame ethics in design according to these approaches. The paper argues that a fundamental and concrete ethical understanding of design ethics can also be found in Sartrean Existentialism, a philosophy centered on the individual and his/her absolute freedom. Through the analysis of four core concepts of Sartrean Existentialism that define a specific ethics, the paper illustrates why such philosophical approach is relevant to design ethics. The paper also shows how Sartrean Existentialism and its ethics apply to critical issues of professional practice in design such as professional engagement and design decision-making. The paper finally argues that Sartre's philosophy and ethics is a perspective that offers the designer in design practice a solid ground to engage his/her ethical dilemma.

  3. Ethical Inspection about laboratory animals. (United States)

    Yang, Nai-bin; Pan, Xiao-jun; Cheng, Jing-jing; Lin, Jia-qiang; Zhu, Jia-yin


    Laboratory animals and animal experiments are foundations and important support conditions for life sciences, especially for medical research. The animal experiments have drawn extensive attention from the society because of the ethical issue. This paper takes Wenzhou Medical University as an example to give a brief introduction to the ethical review about laboratory animals in the university so as to further draw attention and concerns from the public about the ethical issue of laboratory animals. We successively introduce its scientific projects, nurturing environment and ethical review of laboratory animals.

  4. Teaching medical ethics and law. (United States)

    Parker, Malcolm


    The teaching of medical ethics is not yet characterised by recognised, standard requirements for formal qualifications, training and experience; this is not surprising as the field is still relatively young and maturing. Under the broad issue of the requirements for teaching medical ethics are numerous more specific questions, one of which concerns whether medical ethics can be taught in isolation from considerations of the law, and vice versa. Ethics and law are cognate, though distinguishable, disciplines. In a practical, professional enterprise such as medicine, they cannot and should not be taught as separate subjects. One way of introducing students to the links and tensions between medical ethics and law is to consider the history of law via its natural and positive traditions. This encourages understanding of how medical practice is placed within the contexts of ethics and law in the pluralist societies in which most students will practise. Four examples of topics from medical ethics teaching are described to support this claim. Australasian medical ethics teachers have paid less attention to the role of law in their curricula than their United Kingdom counterparts. Questions like the one addressed here will help inform future deliberations concerning minimal requirements for teaching medical ethics.

  5. 'Wicked' ethics: Compliance work and the practice of ethics in HIV research. (United States)

    Heimer, Carol A


    Using ethnographic material collected between 2003 and 2007 in five HIV clinics in the US, South Africa, Uganda, and Thailand, this article examines "official ethics" and "ethics on the ground." It compares the ethical conundrums clinic staff and researchers confront in their daily work as HIV researchers with the dilemmas officially identified as ethical issues by bioethicists and people responsible for ethics reviews and compliance with ethics regulations. The tangled relation between ethical problems and solutions invites a comparison to Rittel and Webber's "wicked problems." Official ethics' attempts to produce universal solutions often make ethics problems even more wickedly intractable. Ethics on the ground is in part a reaction to this intractability.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Gordova


    Full Text Available In given article economic ethics are considered as set of norms of behavior of the businessman, the requirements shown by a cultural society to its style of work, to character of dialogue between participants of business, to their social shape. The conclusion becomes that economic ethics have applied character in relation to theoretical, to obschenormativnoy ethics, hence, represent section of applied ethics. On the other hand, the specific standard maintenance characterizes economic ethics as ethics professional.

  7. Documentary ethics in contemporary practices. Alternative participation, alternative ethics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, W.


    Documentary scholars have presupposed a certain documentary practice, and have ethically evaluated this practice, with a focus on the need for protection for a vulnerable and ignorant participant. But times have changed. By researching the experience of ethical challenges by both documentary filmmak

  8. Ethics Training and Workplace Ethical Decisions of MBA Professionals (United States)

    Romious, Tamar S.; Thompson, Randall; Thompson, Elizabeth


    We recruited 15 MBA professionals in the St. Louis, Missouri metropolitan area to explore experiences and perceptions of classroom ethics training and ethical experiences in the workplace. Telephone interviews were conducted using open-ended questions to collect data that were uploaded to NVivo 10 for qualitative analysis. As a result of the data…

  9. Journalism Ethics: There Is a Difference between Law and Ethics. (United States)

    Hossom, Kathy


    Covers a session from the recent meetings of the Indiana High School Press Association (IHSPA). States that students discussed ethical decisions they face in their yearbooks and newspapers, such as handling death. Finds the biggest concern is "really covering the good and bad things in the school." Gives IHSPA's 10-point Code of Ethics. Mentions…

  10. It Takes More Than Ethics

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    Chris Simpson


    Full Text Available Recent positive developments in ethical outlook are explored, initially within the Information and Communication Technology (ICT profession, and then broadened into other disciplines and the community in general. To understand why there has been a growing ethical problem in the first place, ethical attitudes of university students, ICT exponents and people in other disciplines have been observed and noted. The search for practical ethical guidelines continues by questioning why, if professionalism indicates an adherence to a code of ethics that seeks high standards, do we still have trouble with the concept of ethics? Ethics differ from one group to another. Furthermore, ethics keep changing, as is evident in the latest codes, in which 'public good' now comes before the more inward-looking 'good of the profession'. So, how could an ethical code be more than an isolated, somewhat ineffective and temporary set of guidelines? How can it be freed of boundaries, of context and of time? How effective or relevant is the education of university students in practical ethics? How effective are the professional and ethical bodies? Some answers are proposed and along the way, together with some simple but powerful notions and tools, that facilitate ethical understanding in university education and in professional practice. It is then argued that as work is a part of life, then a similar range of ethical options would be available in every context of life, be it as a private individual, a society, an employee, a small business, a corporation or in whatever discipline or role. In each situation, a similar range of lifestyle choices exist, for example, wasteful (careless, indulgent (selfish, sustainable (prudent, long-term view (responsible or a perpetual view (meaningful and truly progressive. In other words, by agreeing to adopt 'the community ethics', one has taken on a dutiful role. For it to be more meaningful and more fruitful, life further demands such

  11. An African ethic for nursing? (United States)

    Haegert, S


    This article derives from a doctoral thesis in which a particular discourse was used as a 'paradigm case'. From this discourse an ethic set within a South African culture arose. Using many cultural 'voices' to aid the understanding of this narrative, the ethic shows that one can build on both a 'justice' and a 'care' ethic. With further development based on African culture one can take the ethic of care deeper and reveal 'layers of understanding'. Care, together with compassion, forms the foundation of morality. Nursing ethics has followed particular western moral philosophers. Often nursing ethics has been taught along the lines of Kohlberg's theory of morality, with its emphasis on rules, rights, duties and general obligations. These principles were universalistic, masculine and noncontextual. However, there is a new ethical movement among Thomist philosophers along the lines to be expounded in this article. Nurses such as Benner, Bevis, Dunlop, Fry and Gadow--to name but a few--have welcomed the concept of an 'ethic of care'. Gilligan's work gave a feminist view and situated ethics in the everyday aspects of responsiveness, responsibility, context and concern. Shutte's search for a 'philosophy for Africa' has resulted in finding similarities in Setiloane and in Senghor with those of Thomist philosophers. Using this African philosophy and a research participant's narrative, an African ethic evolves out of the African proverb: 'A person is a person through other persons', or its alternative rendering: 'I am because we are: we are because I am.' This hermeneutic narrative reveals 'the way affect imbues activity with ethical meaning' within the context of a black nursing sister in a rural South African hospital. It expands upon the above proverb and incorporates the South African constitutional idea of 'Ubuntu' (compassion and justice or humanness).

  12. Overview on business ethics and human resources management ethics

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    Prof. Ph.D. Cãtãlina Bonciu


    Full Text Available In the contemporary business world ethics represents one of the most exciting challenges,precisely because there is still no universally valid modality for solving a problem of this kind. Adopting anethic personal behavior does not always ensure winning in the problems regarding the actual business, norin the organizational behavior itself. The personal values, either native or gained by an individual throughouthis socializing do not represent a support or advantage in the attitude towards the economic life. What is it that actually concerns the managers:to succeed in their activity or to have an ethic activity? A successful business is necessarily an ethic one, or one lacking ethics? In particular, should the human resources manager choose the human factor of solid moral and ethic grounds, or the one exclusively focused on money quantifiable performance?

  13. On using ethical theories to teach engineering ethics. (United States)

    Bouville, Mathieu


    Many engineering ethics classes and textbooks introduce theories such as utilitarianism and Kantianism (and most others draw from these theories without mentioning them explicitly). Yet using ethical theories to teach engineering ethics is not devoid of difficulty. First, their status is unclear (should one pick a single theory or use them all? does it make a difference?) Also, textbooks generally assume or fallaciously 'prove' that egoism (or even simply accounting for one's interests) is wrong. Further, the drawbacks of ethical theories are underestimated and the theories are also otherwise misrepresented to make them more suitable for engineering ethics as the authors construe it, viz. the 'moral reasoning' process. Stating in what various theories disagree would allow the students to frame the problem more productively in terms of motive-consequence or society-individual dichotomies rather than in terms of Kant-utilitarian.

  14. Systematization and description of the internal carotid arteries and their main ramifications at the brain base in turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans). (United States)

    Voll, Juliana; Campos, Rui


    Thirty turtle brains (Trachemys scripta elegans) were injected with latex to systematize and describe the internal carotid arteries and their main ramifications at the brain base. The internal carotid arteries had one intercarotid anastomosis. At the level of the tuber cinereum, the internal carotid artery bifurcated into its terminal branches, the rostral and the caudal branches. The rostral branch emitted the rostral choroid artery, the orbital artery, and a series of middle cerebral arteries. After giving off the last middle cerebral artery, the rostral branch continued as the rostral cerebral artery in the cerebral longitudinal fissure, and had one anastomosis with its contralateral homologous artery, the rostral communicating artery, making the first rostral closure of the cerebral arterial circle. Next, the rostral cerebral arteries anastomosed forming a rostral interhemispheric artery, making the second rostral closure of the cerebral arterial circle. The internal carotid artery, after emitting its rostral branch, continued caudally as the caudal branch. The caudal branch ran caudally along the ventral surface of the mesencephalic tegmentum, emitted the caudal cerebral artery and the mesencephalic artery, and continued caudomedially while progressively narrowing, and anastomosed with its contralateral homologous artery, forming the basilar artery. The narrower portion also emitted the trigeminal artery. The anastomosis of the caudal branches closed the cerebral arterial circle caudally. The internal carotid arteries exclusively supplied the cerebral arterial circle of the turtle. Anat Rec, 299:1090-1098, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Ethics of technology introduction (United States)

    Abele, John E.


    In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration has been charged with the job of determining the safety and effectiveness of new drugs and devices. It is a thankless task because there is no reward for taking a balanced risk approach, only criticism for taking too long or approving a product that subsequently has a problem. And making decisions in Washington D.C. that influence the physician's ability to 'do the right thing' for his or her patient regardless of local circumstances doesn't seem to be the socially responsible or ethical thing to do. Devices, of course, are very different from drugs. Their performance is strongly influenced by physician level of skill. A great deal of learning can be accomplished with models. Their mode-of-action can generally be tested before, during and after use. Imaging and accessory tools can significantly reduce risk and trauma as well as enhance their function. Advances in design and performance occur much more rapidly than with drugs. These and other factors suggest that a very different approach is warranted to evaluate their safety and efficacy, as well as to determine when it is ethical to use them on patients. There are many different categories of devices: complex or simple; high inherent risk or low; procedure specific or generic function; etc. Guidelines exist for regulatory approvals in these categories, but the 'bar has been raised' for approval to such an extent that physician, industry and patients groups are questioning the ethics of withholding or delaying the availability of technology and/or adding significantly to its cost without correspondingly significant benefits in reduction of risk.

  16. Ethical issues in nanotechnology. (United States)

    Florczyk, Stephen J; Saha, Subrata


    Nanotechnology is a rapidly developing area in science involved with manipulating matter at the atomic or molecular level. Nanotechnology is typically defined at a scale on the order of less than approximately 100 nm. Matter possesses unique properties at these size levels that are neither Newtonian nor quantum, but between the two regimes.These unique properties have created significant interest and excitement, sparking numerous research investigations. Nanotechnology is a very broad field with many current and potential applications. Some important examples of applications include battlefield activated dynamic armor clothing for soldiers, additives to sunscreens, and diagnostic laboratories on a chip to monitor general personal health. Groundbreaking capabilities often raise new questions. Any new scientific or technological development has the usual concomitant associated ethical issues, specifically regarding containment and regulation. These ethical issues are more pronounced with nanotechnology due to the sharp divide between those who see its great potential and opponents who express fears. Nanotechnology supporters believe that it has the potential to transform our lives dramatically, while opponents of nanotechnology fear that self-replicating "nanobots" could escape from laboratories and reduce all life on earth to "gray goo. "These fears have swayed generally uninformed public opinions via the media and sensational entertainment. A critical discussion of ethical issues surrounding nanotechnology, including the interaction of nanotechnology with the body and the environment--nanobiotechnology--and regulation of nanotechnology, is presented. We advocate strong, uniform regulations for nanotechnology, but only the use of regulations as needed. The limited use of regulations prevents the regulations from becoming burdensome and inhibiting research in the field.

  17. Religion and medical ethics. (United States)

    Green, Ronald M


    Religious traditions of medical ethics tend to differ from more secular approaches by stressing limitations on autonomous decision-making, by more positively valuing the experience of suffering, and by drawing on beliefs and values that go beyond empiric verification. I trace the impact of these differences for some of the world's great religious traditions with respect to four issues: (1) religious conscientious objection to medical treatments; (2) end-of life decision-making, including euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, and the withholding or withdrawing of life-sustaining treatments; (3) definitions of moral personhood (defining life's beginning and end); and (4) human sexuality.

  18. [Ethics, empiricism and uncertainty]. (United States)

    Porz, R; Zimmermann, H; Exadaktylos, A K


    Accidents can lead to difficult boundary situations. Such situations often take place in the emergency units. The medical team thus often and inevitably faces professional uncertainty in their decision-making. It is essential to communicate these uncertainties within the medical team, instead of downplaying or overriding existential hurdles in decision-making. Acknowledging uncertainties might lead to alert and prudent decisions. Thus uncertainty can have ethical value in treatment or withdrawal of treatment. It does not need to be covered in evidence-based arguments, especially as some singular situations of individual tragedies cannot be grasped in terms of evidence-based medicine.

  19. Ethical Communication in Radiology

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    Laleh Mirzaei


    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at reviewing medical literature to"nfind an appropriate, ethical and honest communication"nmethod, which is a critical component of diagnostic"nimaging. Quality patient care can only be achieved"nwhen we interpret images and diagnose disease"nand transmit reports in an appropriate fashion with"ntimely sending of the report to those responsible for treatment decisions. Body and components of the"nreport are very similar; demographics of the institute"nand the patient, clinical status and history, imaging"nmodality and techniques, reference to the referring"nphysician as a colleague without flattery but with"nsome differences depending on the policy of institutes."nEthical communication has several aspects to respect"nautonomy of the patient and avoiding to harm him,"nthe referring care giver and the professional dignity"nof colleagues and imaging science, by embrace in"ndirect communication by referring to the caregiver"nfor seeking comprehensive details, using readable and"ndefinite phrases instead of nonspecific, imprecise and"nuncertain or coded sentences in the report and on"nthe other hand not to mention unnecessary details"nsuch as "to lose forest for the trees", avoiding needless"ncomments for further imaging studies and follow-ups"nwithout medical indications such as self referral or"nfor preventing law-suits and medico-legal complaints"nin the future, avoiding advertising and unjustified"ncompetition via communication (written or paperless"nto prevent interruption of patient care by vilifying"nthe referring physician or advising the patient to use"nsome medications, not considering the pressure of"nthe referring physician to word the report to suit him"nand not to pressure the physician to do something"nunwanted, to make an ethical balance between patient's"nmoral and legal rights to know and on the other hand,"nthe physician's rights to perform ethical practice when"ndisclosing the imaging results to the

  20. The New Immigrant Ethic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwame; Dougan


    AMY Chua’s parenting is grounded in a fear of failure,but her authoritarian style is no more exclusively Chinese than rice is:it can be found operating, to varying degrees of rigor,in most homes of recently arrived - and relatively poor - immigrants. I call this take-no-prisoners type of parenting the "new immigrant ethic." And as a black African immigrant to the West,I overcame significant odds,odds that don’t factor in Chua’s life and her Chinese-mother parenting model.

  1. Protestantism, Piety and Ethics


    Amestoy, Norman Rubén; Instituto Universitario ISEDET Argentina


    In this article, it is considered the need to understand protestantism in terms of piety, since this is from which derives its ideology, its ethics, and its comprehension of society. When analizing the relation of the theological thought regarding contextual derivations, it is shown that the “protestant principle” that emerged from the Reformation in the XVI Century in the period known as “the Long Middle Ages,” it meant a form of protest that questioned, in an incisive way, the European chri...

  2. Whistleblowing: an ethical dilemma

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    Joan K. Pierson


    Full Text Available Because most organizations depend on computer systems that electronically store important data to perform crucial business functions, the integrity of these information systems is paramount. Securing company systems, however, is not always an easy task. More sophisticated systems often provide widespread access to computer resources and increased user knowledge, which may lead to added difficulties in maintaining security. This paper explores whistleblowing employees' exposing illegal or unethical computer practices taking place in the organization as a method of computer security and the support for whistleblowing found in codes of ethical conduct formulated by professional societies.

  3. Paternalism and medical ethics. (United States)

    Gillon, R


    In one of a series of articles on philosophical medical ethics, Gillon considers various moral arguments in support of medical paternalism. He maintains that the utilitarian principle of maximizing happiness by improving health, minimizing suffering, and prolonging life is not promoted by granting physicians the authority to deceive patients or to make decisions for them in areas of moral and subjective choice. If one wants to do good for a patient, one generally needs to find out what the patient wants one to do. Gillon concludes that many utilitarians agree with deontologists that respect for autonomy is required if human welfare really is to be maximized.

  4. The Ethics of Robotics



    The three laws of Robotics first appeared together in Isaac Asimov's story 'Runaround' after being mentioned in some form or the other in previous works by Asimov. These three laws commonly known as the three laws of robotics are the earliest forms of depiction for the needs of ethics in Robotics. In simplistic language Isaac Asimov is able to explain what rules a robot must confine itself to in order to maintain societal sanctity. However, even though they are outdated they still represent s...

  5. Resolving Ethical Issues at School (United States)

    Benninga, Jacques S.


    Although ethical dilemmas are a constant in teachers' lives, the profession has offered little in the way of training to help teachers address such issues. This paper presents a framework, based on developmental theory, for resolving professional ethical dilemmas. The Four-Component Model of Moral Maturity, when used in conjunction with a…

  6. Hill & Knowlton's Two Ethical Dilemmas. (United States)

    Pratt, Cornelius B.


    Presents arguments for and against the acceptance, in 1990, of two controversial client accounts by the public relations agency Hill & Knowlton. Examines the ethical implications of both accounts and concludes that whatever ethical infractions may have occurred reflect the agency's dominant public relations practices, not necessarily the "greedy…

  7. Ethical Concerns in School Counseling. (United States)

    Huey, Wayne C.


    Discusses ethical dilemmas inherent in the school setting that result from conflicts in counselor responsibilities to pupils, parents, and school. An ethical dilemma involving a pregnant student who is considering an abortion is described, and some possible counselor responses are discussed. (Author)

  8. Teaching Ethics Informed by Neuroscience (United States)

    Sayre, Molly Malany


    New findings about the brain are explicating how we make moral and ethical decisions. The neuroscience of morality is relevant to ethical decision making in social work because of a shared biopsychosocial perspective and the field's explanatory power to understand possible origins of universally accepted morals and personal attitudes at play in…

  9. Dental ethics and emotional intelligence. (United States)

    Rosenblum, Alvin B; Wolf, Steve


    Dental ethics is often taught, viewed, and conducted as an intell enterprise, uninformed by other noncognitive factors. Emotional intelligence (EQ) is defined distinguished from the cognitive intelligence measured by Intelligence Quotient (IQ). This essay recommends more inclusion of emotional, noncognitive input to the ethical decision process in dental education and dental practice.

  10. Ethics Issues Snare School Leaders (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.


    This article reports on ethics issues involving school leaders. Some superintendents have landed in murky ethical waters for their ties to for-profit companies, highlighting the temptations administrators face as industry and education increasingly intersect. Some questionable judgments by superintendents--from accepting company-paid trips to…

  11. A Culture of Ethical Leadership (United States)

    Dufresne, Peter; McKenzie, Anne S.


    Becoming an ethical leader requires a personal journey toward integrity and a public commitment to a common good. This begins with claiming one's core values, finding a personal voice, developing a vision, and consciously aligning one's attitudes and beliefs with one's actions and behaviors. In the process, ethical leaders create spaces where…

  12. The Decline of Presidential Ethics (United States)

    Diggins, John Patrick


    Is ethical leadership possible in the politics of this era? Had the question no specific time frame, the answer might be yes, or at least yes and no. In the 21st century, the idea that people can expect ethical leadership in American politics is to believe that hope triumphs over experience. The purpose of politics is no longer to do what is right…

  13. Ethics in Rehabilitation Counselor Supervision. (United States)

    Blackwell, Terry L.; Strohmer, Douglas C.; Belcas, Eva M.; Burton, Kathryn A.


    Article is an exploration of some of the ethical issues facing rehabilitation counselors who provide clinical supervision. Ethical issues related to competence, evaluation and due process, dual relationships, confidentiality, and informed consent are discussed. (Contains 28references, 2 tables, and 1 appendix.) (Author)

  14. Academic Freedom: The Ethical Imperative (United States)

    Slattery, Patrick


    In this article, the author takes his cue for discussions of academic freedom from Simone de Beauvoir as found in her classic text, "The Ethics of Ambiguity." Like other existentialists, de Beauvoir emphasizes that freedom and responsibility are intimately linked. Academic freedom is an ethical responsibility that compels the author to teach and…

  15. Ethical Dilemmas in Multicultural Counseling. (United States)

    Sadeghi, Maria; Fischer, Jerome M.; House, Sean G.


    In a random survey of counselors working with socioracial minority clients (N=256), multicultural ethical dilemmas were rated according to frequency encountered and significance. Comparisons of counselors' ratings of multicultural ethical dilemmas determined specific dilemmas relevant to counselors in various professional settings. (Contains 33…

  16. Ethical Considerations in Technology Transfer. (United States)

    Froehlich, Thomas J.


    Examines ethical considerations involved in the transfer of appropriate information technology to less developed countries. Approaches to technology are considered; two philosophical frameworks for studying ethical considerations are discussed, i.e., the Kantian approach and the utilitarian perspective by John Stuart Mill; and integration of the…

  17. Situating Ethics in Games Education (United States)

    Butler, Joy


    This paper posits that Inventing Games (IG), an aspect of the games curriculum based on principles of Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU), opens up important spaces for teaching social and ethical understanding. Games have long been regarded as a site for moral development. For most teachers, however, ethical principles have been seen as…

  18. Teaching Ethically: Challenges and Opportunities (United States)

    Landrum, R. Eric, Ed.; McCarthy, Maureen A., Ed.


    Educators work within a fluid academic and social landscape that requires frequent examination and re-examination of what constitutes ethical practice. In this book, editors R. Eric Landrum and Maureen McCarthy identify four broad areas of concern in the ethical teaching of undergraduate psychology: pedagogy, student behavior, faculty behavior…

  19. Ethics in Higher Education Research (United States)

    Parsell, Mitch; Ambler, Trudy; Jacenyik-Trawoger, Christa


    Many educational researchers have experienced challenges in obtaining ethics approval. This article explores some of the reasons why this is the case, looking specifically at the participatory action research methodology. The authors' experience of seeking ethics approval for a project intended to introduce peer review as an enhancement…

  20. Ethics in Higher Education Research (United States)

    Parsell, Mitch; Ambler, Trudy; Jacenyik-Trawoger, Christa


    Many educational researchers have experienced challenges in obtaining ethics approval. This article explores some of the reasons why this is the case, looking specifically at the participatory action research methodology. The authors' experience of seeking ethics approval for a project intended to introduce peer review as an enhancement process is…

  1. The Language of Care Ethics (United States)

    Noddings, Nel


    From its inception in the early 1980s, interest in care ethics has grown rapidly. The language of care ethics has arisen largely from women's experience, but that is not to say that it is inaccessible to men. It does suggest, however, some beneficial changes in male experience and education, just as women's participation in mathematics--long…

  2. Looking back, looking beyond: revisiting the ethics of genome generation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Minakshi Bhardwaj


    This paper will explore some of the ethical imperatives that have shaped strategic and policy frameworks for the use of new genetic technologies and how these play a role in shaping the nature of research and changing attitudes; with an attempt to conceptualize some theories of genetic determinism. I analyse why there is a need to put bioethical principles within a theoretical framework in the context of new technologies, and how, by doing so, their practical applications for agriculture, environment medicine and health care can be legitimized. There are several theories in favour of and against the use of genetic technologies that focus on genes and their role in our existence. In particular the theory of geneticisation is commonly debated. It highlights the conflicting interests of science, society and industry in harnessing genetic knowledge when the use of such knowledge could challenge ethical principles. Critics call it a `reductionist’ approach, based on arguments that are narrowed down to genes, often ignoring other factors including biological, social and moral ones. A parallel theory is that there is something special about genes, and it is this ``genetic exceptionalism” that creates hopes and myths. Either way, the challenging task is to develop a common ground for understanding the importance of ethical sensitivities. As research agendas become more complex, ethical paradigms will need to be more influential. New principles are needed to answer the complexities of ethical issues as complex technologies develop. This paper reflects on global ethical principles and the tensions between ethical principles in legitimizing genetic technologies at the social and governance level.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The article analyzes the ethic characteristics of indirect speech acts in official discourses. The social-ethic conception of A. Giddens is attracted for analysis. The concepts “act“, “reflexive consciousness“, “motivation“, “implication“ are connected. The intention for rational act is showed as support of whole representation about the motives of person acts. This conception is connected with traditional opinions about man as social phenomenon oriented for categories of kindness and evil, justice and injustice, biological and social. The man as a participant of speech act has all such characteristics. Ethic of social life, ethical relations and obligations, social context of deontology, of possibilities are relevant in this aspect. Specific relevance is a condition for interrelation between direct and indirect substance of speech act. In particular, strict direct presentation unites with imperative, this usage is systematic and effective, because it determined with speech variety, which naturally includes soft pragmatics, “indirect directness”. The attributes of imperative and indirect expressive strengthens organic essence of interrelation. The imperative is indirect, but it is fixed in these pragmatic subsystems. The ethical motivated unite of different devices serves to indirectness. The ethical base of official document get emotional sense and rejects the indirect character of expressive. The postulate of many-sided connections between speech act and ethic characteristics is founded by tendencies of official sphere. It is adequate modern field for interactions of direct and indirect pragmatic intentions. The socialethic specific explains these peculiarities. Such communicative sphere is possible to create corresponding image for social institutes and processes on base of relevant discourses.

  4. Empathy and alteration: the ethical relevance of a phenomenological species concept. (United States)

    Meacham, Darian


    The debate over the ethics of radically, technologically altering the capacities and traditional form of the human body is rife with appeals to and dismissals of the importance of the integrity of the human species. Species-integrist arguments can be found in authors as varied as Annas, Fukuyama, Habermas, and Agar. However, the ethical salience of species integrity is widely contested by authors such as Buchanan, Daniels, Fenton, and Juengst. This article proposes a Phenomenological approach to the question of species-integrity, arguing in favor of a phenomenon of species-recognition that carries an ethical pull. Building on Husserl's Phenomenological account of empathy and the lived-body, as well as Schopenhauer's concept of compassion as an ethical urphenomenon, I develop a "Phenomenological species concept" (PSC), which I argue has the ethical significance that biological species concepts do not. The PSC reorients the debate over human alteration and species integrity.

  5. [A framework for evaluating ethical issues of public health initiatives: practical aspects and theoretical implications]. (United States)

    Petrini, Carlo


    The "Framework for the Ethical Conduct of Public Health Initiatives", developed by Public Health Ontario, is a practical guide for assessing the ethical implications of evidence-generating public health initiatives, whether research or non-research activities, involving people, their biological materials or their personal information. The Framework is useful not only to those responsible for determining the ethical acceptability of an initiative, but also to investigators planning new public health initiatives. It is informed by a theoretical approach that draws on widely shared bioethical principles. Two considerations emerge from both the theoretical framework and its practical application: the line between practice and research is often blurred; public health ethics and biomedical research ethics are based on the same common heritage of values.

  6. Ethical issues and Huntington's disease. (United States)

    Kromberg, Jennifer G R; Wessels, Tina-Marié


    The practice of genetic counselling gives rise to many ethical dilemmas, and counsellors need to be familiar with the principles of biomedical ethics. The primary principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. A case of identical twins at 50% risk for Huntington's disease, in which only one twin sought predictive testing for this dominantly inherited disease, created several ethical dilemmas. Another case where predictive testing was carried out on two young children, at high risk, by a laboratory at the request of an adoption agency and a doctor, with a view to giving information to the foster parents, also posed many ethical conundrums for the counsellor. The ethical issues that arose in these cases are discussed in this paper. 

  7. International Conference on Robot Ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Sequeira, Joao; Tokhi, Mohammad; Kadar, Endre; Virk, Gurvinder


    This book contains the Proceedings of the International Conference on Robot Ethics, held in Lisbon on October 23 and 24, 2015. The conference provided a multidisciplinary forum for discussing central and evolving issues concerning safety and ethics that have arisen in various contexts where robotic technologies are being applied. The papers are intended to promote the formulation of more precise safety standards and ethical frameworks for the rapidly changing field of robotic applications. The conference was held at Pavilhão do Conhecimento/Ciência Viva in Lisbon and brought together leading researchers and industry representatives, promoting a dialogue that combines different perspectives and experiences to arrive at viable solutions for ethical problems in the context of robotics. The conference topics included but were not limited to emerging ethical, safety, legal and societal problems in the following domains: • Service/Social Robots: Robots performing tasks in human environments and involving close ...

  8. The Challenge of Social Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind

    Modern global society has seen dramatic changes that throw us into impenetrable ethical problems of a kind never before witnessed in history. By this means, ethical problems constitute the locus of our confrontation with our own life situation. It is this condition that I take to be of fundamental...... importance when one undertakes to reflect upon the meaning of ethics today. If we approach the issue from the point of view of the history of ideas, we find that throughout the whole of the history of philosophy there have been a series of different attempts to articulate an ethics. Most of them address our...... concerns about how a human being ought to act in order to realise his or her life in the best or most correct way. I will return to the array of suggestions that have been offered in this regard. What is important for my purposes, meanwhile, is that there is some-thing that precedes ethical considerations...

  9. Engineering innovation in healthcare: technology, ethics and persons. (United States)

    Bowen, W Richard


    Engineering makes profound contributions to our health. Many of these contributions benefit whole populations, such as clean water and sewage treatment, buildings, dependable sources of energy, efficient harvesting and storage of food, and pharmaceutical manufacture. Thus, ethical assessment of these and other engineering activities has often emphasized benefits to communities. This is in contrast to medical ethics, which has tended to emphasize the individual patient affected by a doctor's actions. However technological innovation is leading to an entanglement of the activities, and hence ethical responsibilities, of healthcare professionals and engineering professionals. The article outlines three categories of innovation: assistive technologies, telehealthcare and quasi-autonomous systems. Approaches to engineering ethics are described and applied to these innovations. Such innovations raise a number of ethical opportunities and challenges, especially as the complexity of the technology increases. In particular the design and operation of the technologies require engineers to seek closer involvement with the persons benefiting from their work. Future innovation will require engineers to have a good knowledge of human biology and psychology. More particularly, healthcare engineers will need to prioritize each person's wellbeing, agency, human relationships and ecological self rather than technology, in the same way that doctors prioritize the treatment of persons rather than their diseases.

  10. Ethics commentary: subjects of knowledge and control in field primatology. (United States)

    Malone, N M; Fuentes, A; White, F J


    Our primate kin are routinely displaced from their habitats, hunted for meat, captured for trade, housed in zoos, made to perform for our entertainment, and used as subjects in biomedical testing. They are also the subjects of research inquiries by field primatologists. In this article, we place primate field studies on a continuum of human and alloprimate relationships as a heuristic device to explore the unifying ethical implications of such inter-relationships, as well as address specific ethical challenges arising from common research protocols "in the field" (e.g. risks associated with habituation, disease transmission, invasive collection of biological samples, etc.). Additionally, we question the widespread deployment of conservation- and/or local economic development-based justifications for field-based primatological pursuits. Informed by decades of combined fieldwork experience in Indonesia and the Democratic Republic of Congo, we demonstrate the process by which the adherence to a particular ethical calculus can lead to unregulated and ethically problematic research agendas. In conclusion, we offer several suggestions to consider in the establishment of a formalized code of ethics for field primatology.

  11. Robotics, Ethics, and Nanotechnology (United States)

    Ganascia, Jean-Gabriel

    It may seem out of character to find a chapter on robotics in a book about nanotechnology, and even more so a chapter on the application of ethics to robots. Indeed, as we shall see, the questions look quite different in these two fields, i.e., in robotics and nanoscience. In short, in the case of robots, we are dealing with artificial beings endowed with higher cognitive faculties, such as language, reasoning, action, and perception, whereas in the case of nano-objects, we are talking about invisible macromolecules which act, move, and duplicate unseen to us. In one case, we find ourselves confronted by a possibly evil double of ourselves, and in the other, a creeping and intangible nebula assails us from all sides. In one case, we are faced with an alter ego which, although unknown, is clearly perceptible, while in the other, an unspeakable ooze, the notorious grey goo, whose properties are both mysterious and sinister, enters and immerses us. This leads to a shift in the ethical problem situation: the notion of responsibility can no longer be worded in the same terms because, despite its otherness, the robot can always be located somewhere, while in the case of nanotechnologies, myriad nanometric objects permeate everywhere, disseminating uncontrollably.

  12. Council Adopts New AERA Code of Ethics: Ethics Committee to Emphasize Ethics Education (United States)

    Herrington, Carolyn D.


    At its February 2011 meeting, the AERA Council adopted unanimously a new Code of Ethics. The Code articulates a set of standards for education researchers in education and provides principles and guidance by which they can build ethical practices in professional, scholarly, and scientific activities. The Code reflects the Association's strong…

  13. Developments in Communication Ethics: The Ethics Commission, Code of Professional Responsibilities, Credo for Ethical Communication. (United States)

    Andersen, Kenneth E.


    Traces aspects of the evolution of interest in ethical issues by the National Communication Association (NCA), the effort to develop a Professional Code, and the development of the Credo for Ethical Communication adopted by the NCA Legislative Council November 6, 1999. Includes a copy of the Credo. (NH)

  14. Bioethics and Health Education: Some Issues of the Biological Revolution (United States)

    Fulton, Gere B.


    With the development of sophisticated techniques in the biology of conception, fetal research, sustaining life after functional death, and abortion, legal and ethical questions face the medical community. (JD)

  15. Professional Ethics in Astronomy: The AAS Ethics Statement (United States)

    Marvel, Kevin B.


    It is fundamental to the advancement of science that practicing scientists adhere to a consistent set of professional ethical principles. Recent violations of these principles have led a decreased trust in the process of science and scientific results. Although astronomy is less in the spotlight on these issues than medical science or climate change research, it is still incumbent on the field to follow sound scientific process guided by basic ethical guidelines. The American Astronomical Society, developed a set of such guidelines in 2010. This contribution summarizes the motivation and process by which the AAS Ethics Statement was produced.

  16. Ethics of caring and the institutional ethics committee. (United States)

    Sichel, B A


    Institutional ethics committees (IECs) in health care facilities now create moral policy, provide moral education, and consult with physicians and other health care workers. After sketching reasons for the development of IECs, this paper first examines the predominant moral standards it is often assumed IECs are now using, these standards being neo-Kantian principles of justice and utilitarian principles of the greatest good. Then, it is argued that a feminine ethics of care, as posited by Carol Gilligan and Nel Noddings, is an unacknowledged basis for IEC discussions and decisions. Further, it is suggested that feminine ethics of care can and should provide underlying theoretical tools and standards for IECs.

  17. Translational ethics? The theory-practice gap in medical ethics. (United States)

    Cribb, Alan


    Translational research is now a critically important current in academic medicine. Researchers in all health-related fields are being encouraged not only to demonstrate the potential benefits of their research but also to help identify the steps through which their research might be 'made practical'. This paper considers the prospects of a corresponding movement of 'translational ethics'. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of focusing upon the translation of ethical scholarship are reviewed. While emphasising the difficulties of crossing the gap between scholarship and practice, the paper concludes that a debate about the business of translation would be useful for medical ethics.

  18. Balancing Ethics and Quality in Educational Research--The Ethical Matrix Method (United States)

    Tangen, Reidun


    This paper addresses ethical issues in educational research with a focus on the interplay between research ethics and both internal and external quality of research. Research ethics is divided into three domains: (1) ethics "within" the research community; (2) ethics concerning relationships with "individuals and groups directly…

  19. Report of the Ethics Committee, 2009 (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2010


    In accordance with the bylaws of the American Psychological Association (APA), the Ethics Committee reports regularly to the membership regarding the number and types of ethics complaints investigated and the major programs undertaken. This article is a summary of the talks and workshops of 2009, ethics adjudication, ethics education and…

  20. Ethical Issues within the Gerontological Nursing Curriculum. (United States)

    Bahr, Rose Therese

    This presentation focuses on ethical issues that need to be addressed within the gerontological nursing curriculum for preparing nurses to become change agents and catalysts in the health care of the older population. Ethics and ethical principles are defined, and three ethical principles are discussed: justice; beneficence; and autonomy.…

  1. Ethical challenges when reading aesthetic rape scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Koopman (Emy)


    textabstractBoth the issue of the ethics of representation and the issue of the ethics of reading are particularly important when it comes to representations of suffering and violence. This chapter addresses the ethics of representing and the ethics of reading rape, with a focus on the latter. Depic

  2. The Need to Ethics on Archive Profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hind Ulwy


    Full Text Available An article about ethics in archive profession, it states the concept of the profession and professional ethics, then the relation between the ethical responsibility and legal responsibility. Finally, it discuss the need for ethical rules in archive profession

  3. Ethics Perception: Does Teaching Make a Difference? (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhung T.; Basuray, M. Tom; Smith, William P.; Kopka, Donald; McCulloh, Donald N.


    The present study examined student learning in business ethics, particularly ethical judgment, using R. E. Reidenbach and D. P. Robin's (1990) Multidimensional Ethics Scale (MES). The authors asked 262 undergraduate students to provide ethical judgment rating, first at the beginning of the semester and again at the end of the semester. Students…

  4. Online Ethics: What's a Teacher to Do? (United States)

    Carpenter, Cal


    Considers ethics issues involved with using online resources like the Internet in elementary and secondary education and suggests that educators initiate and model a standardized role of ethical behavior for Internet users. Topics include hackers; privacy, piracy, and security; screening electronic sites; ethics education; and an ethics model.…

  5. Ethical leadership: through the eyes of employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalshoven, K.


    Ethical leaders in organizations are important for putting formal ethics programs into practice as they are role models of appropriate behaviors. The four empirical studies included in this dissertation examined the antecedents and outcomes of ethical leader behavior. In the studies ethical leadersh

  6. 32 CFR 776.84 - Ethics investigation. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethics investigation. 776.84 Section 776.84... Complaint Processing Procedures § 776.84 Ethics investigation. (a) Whenever an ethics investigation is... ethics investigation: (1) To request a hearing before the investigating officer (IO); (2) To inspect...

  7. Report of the Ethics Committee, 2010 (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011


    In accordance with the bylaws of the American Psychological Association (APA), the Ethics Committee reports regularly to the membership regarding the number and types of ethics matters investigated and the major programs undertaken. In 2010, ethics adjudication, ethics education and consultation, and special projects were activities of the Ethics…

  8. An Analysis of Ethics Laws, Compliance with Ethical Standards, and Ethical Core Competency within the Department of the Army (United States)


    requirements failed to create, motivate, and sustain a command climate that encourages ethical decision-making. An ethical culture is a reflection of...creeds, oaths, ethos, and shared beliefs embedded within Army culture ” (Center for the Army Profession and Ethic [CAPE], 2014, p. 11). The following are...application of the material taught. The project also examines ethical dilemmas that occur when ethical regulations are ambiguous or absent. The

  9. Scientific Ethics in Chemical Education (United States)

    Kovac, Jeffrey


    Scientific ethics is a subset of professional ethics, the special rules of conduct adhered to by people engaged in those pursuits called professions. It is distinct from, but consistent with, both ordinary morality and moral theory. The codes of professional ethics derive from the two bargains that define a profession: the internal code of practice and the external bargain between the profession and society. While the informal code of professional conduct is well understood by working scientists, it is rarely explicitly included in the chemistry curriculum. Instead, we have relied on informal methods to teach students scientific ethics, a strategy that is haphazard at best. In this paper I argue that scientific ethics can and must be taught as part of the chemistry curriculum and that this is the best done through the case-study method. Many decisions made by working scientists have both a technical and an ethical component. Students need to learn how to make good decisions in professional ethics. The alternative is, at best, sloppy science and, at worst, scientific misconduct.

  10. Ecological ethics and creation faith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Körtner


    Full Text Available Over past decades a concept of ecological ethics has taken root, which is often equated with environmental ethics. Church and theology have also responded to the environmental crisis. In the last third of the past century an intense discourse about the concerns and extent of a so called creation ethics was conducted. In connection with the question of a creation ethics, and the global responsibility of humans for the biosphere of our planet, the topic of creation has also gained new attention in dogmatics. In this way, ecology has also become a topic of systematic theology. The article focuses on the debate in the German speaking context. Occasionally, a quasi-religious elevation of ecology to the status of a doctrine of salvation is observable. Because theology always also has a function of critique of religion, it must also critically engage the sometimes open and sometimes hidden religious contents and claims of eco-ethical concepts. For this purpose, the first step of the present contribution is to more precisely determine the concepts of creation and nature. Thereafter, the problem of anthropocentrism is analysed. In a further step, the concept of sustainability is analysed. In conclusion, the main features of a responsibility-ethics model of ecological ethics are outlined.

  11. [Ethical issue in animal experimentation]. (United States)

    Parodi, André-Laurent


    In the 1970s, under pressure from certain sections of society and thanks to initiatives by several scientific research teams, committees charged with improving the conditions of laboratory animals started to be created, first in the United States and subsequently in Europe. This led to the development of an ethical approach to animal experimentation, taking into account new scientific advances. In addition to the legislation designed to provide a legal framework for animal experimentation and to avoid abuses, this ethical approach, based on the concept that animals are sentient beings, encourages greater respect of laboratory animals and the implementation of measures designed to reduce their suffering. Now, all animal experiments must first receive ethical approval--from in-house committees in the private sector and from regional committees for public institutions. Very recently, under the impetus of the French ministries of research and agriculture, the National committee for ethical animal experimentation published a national ethical charter on animal experimentation, setting the basis for responsible use of animals for scientific research and providing guidelines for the composition and functioning of ethics committees. Inspired by the scientific community itself this ethical standardization should help to assuage--but not eliminate--the reticence and hostility expressed by several sections of society.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREESCU Nicoleta Alina


    Full Text Available In this paper, we have studied the evolution of the business ethics concept through the prism of definitions from some renowned authors in the field and through the approach model of the business ethics and by implementing it in the company level. We have found out that in the last 40 years this concept has evolved from a theoretical aspect, as well as a practical one. Companies are motivated to implement ethics and compliance programs in business so that they can manage the changes that come from society. If, until recently, all that mattered for a company was profit, in the last decades, the situation changed. In order to develop a durable business, it is essential to have a good reputation. Owning and implementing an ethics and compliance program in business has become an imperative for companies, regardless of their activity sector. The role of the compliance department becomes more pregnant in each company: the employees need safety, the existence of communication lines provides comfort. From the partners in business’ point of view, owning such a program is a necessity, a condition, and not conforming to the principles of business ethics can lead to the isolation of the company. The ethics and compliance programs in business are instruments that protect the company by implementing certain proactive identification mechanisms that ensure the development of an ethical organizational culture.

  13. Inclusion of policies on ethical standards in animal experiments in biomedical science journals. (United States)

    Rands, Sean A


    Most published biomedical research involving animal models is evaluated carefully to ensure that appropriate ethical standards are met. In the current study, 500 journals randomly selected from MedLine were assessed for whether they presented animal research. Of the 138 journals that did, the instructions to authors of 85 (61.6%) included a requirement for author assurance of adherence to ethical standards during experiments involving animals. In comparison to a wider range of biologic journals, biomedical science journals were more likely to have some sort of ethical policy concerning the reporting and presentation of animal experiments.

  14. Professional Ethics for Climate Scientists (United States)

    Peacock, K.; Mann, M. E.


    Several authors have warned that climate scientists sometimes exhibit a tendency to "err on the side of least drama" in reporting the risks associated with fossil fuel emissions. Scientists are often reluctant to comment on the implications of their work for public policy, despite the fact that because of their expertise they may be among those best placed to make recommendations about such matters as mitigation and preparedness. Scientists often have little or no training in ethics or philosophy, and consequently they may feel that they lack clear guidelines for balancing the imperative to avoid error against the need to speak out when it may be ethically required to do so. This dilemma becomes acute in cases such as abrupt ice sheet collapse where it is easier to identify a risk than to assess its probability. We will argue that long-established codes of ethics in the learned professions such as medicine and engineering offer a model that can guide research scientists in cases like this, and we suggest that ethical training could be regularly incorporated into graduate curricula in fields such as climate science and geology. We recognize that there are disanalogies between professional and scientific ethics, the most important of which is that codes of ethics are typically written into the laws that govern licensed professions such as engineering. Presently, no one can legally compel a research scientist to be ethical, although legal precedent may evolve such that scientists are increasingly expected to communicate their knowledge of risks. We will show that the principles of professional ethics can be readily adapted to define an ethical code that could be voluntarily adopted by scientists who seek clearer guidelines in an era of rapid climate change.

  15. Ethical issues in optometric practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Sithole


    Full Text Available Ethics as a discipline is the study and analysis of values and standards related to duty, responsibility, and right and wrong behavior. The ethical obligations of optometry toward patients are similar to those of other health professionals. These obligations generally require optometrists to recognize, respect, and protect the rights of their patients. This approach encourages patients to participate actively in their care and allows them to develop arelationship with their optometrist based on trust. The ethical codes which contain guiding principles serve to help practitioners in their decisions and in practicing in accordance with a set of standards that are expected of a health care practitioner. There are four major ethical principles in health care, namely; beneficence, non-maleficence, and respect for autonomy and justice. Because these principles are easily recognized as being among the primary ethical goals of health care, using them as the basis for ethical analysis may help to explain the moral justification for certain professional actions as well as to identify unethical behavior. However, in clinical practice, the specific demands and rationales of these broad principles may be difficult to apply. This illustrates the paradox that whilst these principles are essential tools for ethical practice, if applied too rigidly, they can be problematic. How-ever, the goal of ethical decision making in optometry should be to identify one or more courses of action that will honor the profession’s essential values while minimizing conflict with other values and professional standards. Every profession, every practice and every practitioner is governed by not only legal constraints, but also by the ethical concerns of ensuring that the patient is properly served. Considering our practices from a patient’s perspective can help optometrists understand the multiple responsibilities of clinical practice. (S Afr Optom 2010 69(2 93-99

  16. Ethical decision-making in forensic psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Swanepoel


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to develop a comprehensive process for identifying and addressing primarily ethical issues related to the psychology profession in South Africa. In fulfilling this purpose, research was conducted of relevant ethical and to a lesser extent, legal aspects pertaining to the psychology profession. In an attempt to prevent unprofessional conduct claims against psychologists from succeeding and to alert psychologists to the concurrent ethical problems that may lead to malpractice suits, this article offers material on some important issues – in the context of forensic psychology – such as ethical decision-making and principles, professional ethics, the regulation of psychology as a profession, the Ethical Code of Professional Conduct to which a psychologist should adhere, ethical aspects and issues pertaining to forensic psychology in general, some ethical issues pertaining to child forensic psychology, summary guidelines for ethical decision-making and some steps to follow to ensure sound ethical decisionmaking.

  17. Healthcare ethics: a pedagogical goldmine. (United States)

    Bennett-Woods, Deb


    The author explores how a well designed and delivered course in healthcare ethics can meet multiple curricular goals in a health administration program. The basic philosophy, content, and methods of instruction are presented along with discussion of the effectiveness of using ethics as a platform for development of critical analysis and decision-making skills. The author illustrates how the course meets specific curricular criteria for program accreditation by the Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Management Education (CAHME). Finally, a number of specific challenges related to the design and delivery of an effective course in healthcare ethics are addressed including course design, materials of instruction, and faculty.

  18. Administrative Ramifications of Student Cheating. (United States)

    Stearns, Susan A.


    Explains the problems associated with the current ways cheating situations are handled. Offers suggestions to administrators to assist in lowering the likelihood of these events occurring. Feels that knowledge of academic misconduct rules and due process is essential for faculty. (PA)

  19. Philosophical Foundations of Business Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl


    This article gives an overview of my book French Philosophy and Social Theory. A Perspective for Ethics and Philosophy of Management, published by Springer 2014. As an extension of my earlier work on French philosophy, this book provides an application of important concepts from contemporary French...... philosophy to business ethics and the ethics of organizations. Although the book covers a wide range of philosophers and philosophical movements, there is a core and deep unity of the book. This is the demonstration of how the conceptual resources of contemporary French philosophy from the early 20th Century...

  20. The mediatization of ethical consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Fugl Eskjær


    Full Text Available Over the years, mediatization studies have investigated the influence of media in numerous sections of contemporary society. One area that has received limited attention is the mediatization of consumption, particularly issues concerning ethical consumption. This article presents a study of how mediatization is transforming modern consumption and contributing to the mainstreaming of ethical consumption. Based on a study of a Danish online eco-store, the article argues that modern ethical consumption increasingly depends on new media practices to present sustainable consumption as practical and fashionable while effacing underlying processes of rationalisation and commercialisation.

  1. Ethics and mental illness research. (United States)

    Roberts, Laura Weiss


    There are many tasks ahead in the area of ethics and mental illness research. We face unknown challenges in psychiatric genetics projects, studies of psychopharmacological interventions in children, controversial scientific designs (e.g., symptom challenge, medication-free interval), and cross-disciplinary research incorporating goals and methods of health services, epidemiology, and social and behavioral science endeavors. Boundaries between innovative clinical practices and research-related experimentation will become increasingly difficult to distinguish, as will the roles between clinicians, clinical researchers, and basic scientists. Moreover, the institutions and systems in which research occurs are being rapidly and radically revised, raising new questions about oversight responsibilities and standards. Our ability to identify and respond to the ethical questions arising in this uncharted territory will depend on our willingness to self-reflect, to integrate the observations and insights of the past century, to think with great clarity, and to anticipate novel ethical problems that keep company with scientific advancements. It will also depend on data. Empirical study of ethical dimensions of human research is essential to anchor and attune the intuitions and theoretical constructs that we develop. Science and ethics have changed over the past 100 years, as they will over the next century. It is ironic that the ethical acceptability of psychiatric research is so much in question at this time, when it holds so much promise for advancing our understanding of mental illness and its treatment. The tension between the duty to protect vulnerable individuals and the duty to perform human science will continue to grow, as long as ethics and science are seen as separable, opposing forces with different aims championed by different heroes. The profession of psychiatry is poised to move toward a new, more coherent research ethics paradigm in which scientific and

  2. Health and Wellness Policy Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. Cavico


    Full Text Available This perspective is an ethical brief overview and examination of “wellness” policies in the modern workplace using practical examples and a general application of utilitarianism. Many employers are implementing policies that provide incentives to employees who lead a “healthy” lifestyle. The authors address how these policies could adversely affect “non-healthy” employees. There are a wide variety of ethical issues that impact wellness policies and practices in the workplace. The authors conclude that wellness programs can be ethical, while also providing a general reflective analysis of healthcare challenges in order to reflect on the externalities associated with such policies in the workplace.

  3. The Ethical Dimension of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Leticia Antunes; Nogueira, Tadeu Fernando


    The view of innovation as a positive concept has been deeply rooted in business and academic cultures ever since Schumpeter coined the concept of creative destruction. Even though there is a large body of literature on innovation studies, limited attention has been given to its ethical dimension....... In this chapter, the ethical implications of innovations are illustrated with a case study of “destructive creation” in the food industry, and upon which an argumentative analysis is conducted. The main message of this chapter is that innovations have inherent ethical dimensions and that quality innovations...

  4. The mediatization of ethical consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl


    Over the years, mediatization studies have investigated the influence of media in numerous sections of contemporary society. One area that has received limited attention is the mediatization of consumption, particularly issues concerning ethical consumption. This article presents a study of how...... mediatization is transforming modern consumption and contributing to the mainstreaming of ethical consumption. Based on a study of a Danish online eco-store, the article argues that modern ethical consumption increasingly depends on new media practices to present sustainable consumption as practical...

  5. Disciplinary supervision following ethics complaints: goals, tasks, and ethical dimensions. (United States)

    Thomas, Janet T


    Clinical supervision is considered an integral component of the training of psychologists, and most of the professional literature is focused on this type of supervision. But psychologists also may supervise fully credentialed colleagues in other circumstances. One such context occurs when licensing boards mandate supervision as part of a disciplinary order. When supervision is provided in disciplinary cases, there are significant implications for the ethical dimensions of the supervisory relationship and concomitant ethical challenges for supervisors. Not only are the goals, objectives, and supervisory tasks of disciplinary supervision distinct from other types of supervision, but the supervisor's ethical responsibilities also encompass unique dimensions. Competence, informed consent, boundaries, confidentiality, and documentation are examined. Recommendations for reports to licensing boards include a statement of the clinical or ethical problems instigating discipline, description of how these problems have been addressed, and an assessment of the supervisee's current practices and ability to perform competently.

  6. Nanoethics: Ethics For, From, or With Nanotechnologies?



    The concern for ethics is a leitmotiv when dealing with nanotechnologies. However, the target of this concern is far from being obvious, and the word 'nanoethics' itself has no clear-cut definition. Indeed, nanoethics is usually said to be 'the ethics of nanotechnologies', but it is never specified whether this 'ethics of nanotechnologies' is 'an ethics for nanotechnologies' or 'an ethics from nanotechnologies'. This paper aims to show that these two characterizations of nanoethics (for/from)...

  7. Business ethics in E-commerce


    Nguyen, Khanh


    The thesis studies about business ethics generally and business ethics implementation in E-commerce particularly. The main objective of the thesis is to explore how ethics is implemented in electronic business, hence research problems are those following: which kinds of ethical issues organizations have to deal with when doing online commerce; what are opportunities and challenges regards to ethics they have and how they manage them. The thesis is inclined to exploit aspects from organization...

  8. Ethical leadership: through the eyes of employees


    Kalshoven, K.


    Ethical leaders in organizations are important for putting formal ethics programs into practice as they are role models of appropriate behaviors. The four empirical studies included in this dissertation examined the antecedents and outcomes of ethical leader behavior. In the studies ethical leadership is measured through the eyes of employees. One of the main findings is that ethical leadership may be seen and measured as seven separate distinguishable behaviors or combined into an overall co...

  9. Ethics, standards, and TQM. (United States)

    Botticelli, M G


    The most important ethical issue for our profession is the responsibility to assure the care delivered by our colleagues and ourselves meets a self-imposed standard of excellence. There is anecdotal and experimental evidence that we have not fulfilled this obligation. Peer review has proven, for a number of reasons, to be ineffective; however, improvements in the epidemiologic sciences should provide better standards and total quality management (TQM) might prove to be of value in monitoring, comparing and improving the decisions made by physicians. Its promise lies in its emphasis on statistical analysis, its focus on systematic rather than human error, and its use of outcomes as standards. These methods, however, should not diminish our other professional responsibilities: Altruism, peer review, and in Hippocrates' words "to prescribe regimens for the good of our patients-and never do harm to anyone."

  10. Ethics and European security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paskins, B.


    The alliance between the United States and her NATO partners has been strained severely in the last few years. American perceptions of European disloyalty and European impressions of American assertiveness and lack of judgment have played a large part in generating tensions between the allies and emphasising the new peace movements. This book is an attempt to develop a broader understanding of the problem of European security based on Christian ethics. There are disagreements and differences of emphasis among the contributors but they have in common the view that an exclusive preoccupation with the military dimension is damagingly one-sided. Instead the contributors argue that moral and theological concerns are a vital part of the politics and mechanics of European security and must be incorporated in any effort to devise new policies for security in Europe and the West.

  11. Ethics and Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Del Re


    Full Text Available Consideration of possible bearing of ethics on scientific activity as such - i.e. beside moral or legal conditions on applications of science and avoidance of frauds or superficiality - lead to the conclusion that scientists, particularly chemists, ought to ponder the choiceworthiness of every free action they undertake in the pursuit of scientific knowledge, for it may involve tampering with the harmonious evolution of nature and society, indeed with human beings themselves. It seems unavoidable that a decision should be based on the fundamental values of the tradition of mankind, expressed by the three Platonic values. Such a foundation, unfortunately, cannot show a way to eliminate all risks of wrong choices. Since, nevertheless, to contribute to the increase of knowledge is a professional and moral duty of a scientist; the latter is usually obliged to take a decision. He must be aware that his personal responsibility may be engaged.

  12. An ethics of forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Vorster


    Full Text Available This article investigates the argument that the Christian idea of forgiveness can and should be translated into a socio-political context, from a Reformed perspective. It furthermore endeavours to provide guidelines that can be applied in the sphere of a political transition of the basis of an ethics of forgiveness. The new post-Apartheid society of South Africa is a good example of such a political transition. The central theoretical argument of this investigation is that the Christian theological perspective of forgiveness can indeed be translated into a socio-political praxis. Seen within the context of major biblical themes, this can provide a valuable, if not indispensable, contribution to the quest for reconciliation and nation-building in countries troubled by histories of colonialism, ethnocentrism, tribalism, racism and xenophobia.

  13. Ethical Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Lennart Ravn

    So-called ‘ethical’ food products have spread across the industrialised world. These are products that are produced under labelling schemes with extraordinary attentiveness to issues such as farm animal welfare and environmental protection. Political decision-makers and other stakeholders in food...... of achieving improved animal welfare and environmental protection through ethical food consumption. In Denmark, dairy cows are more and more likely to be stabled on an all-year basis but the considerable demand for grass milk ensures that a number of animals are still put to grass. Successful cases...... production increasingly express the belief that improvements regarding issues such as animal welfare and environmental impact may be achieved by stimulating markets for these products. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the prospect of market-driven improvements in animal welfare and environmental...

  14. Ethics in science: ecotoxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns Jr.


    Full Text Available Predictive ecotoxicology emphasizes the probable environmental outcome of exposure to toxics, rather than the mere appraisal of existing damage, and in so doing raises some complex but interesting ethical issues. Awareness of endocrine-disrupting chemicals is blurring the line between humankind and other life forms in toxicity testing by providing evidence that both humans and wildlife suffer adverse reproductive and developmental effect. There is a wide variety of chemicals that have been reported as potential endocrine disruptors. Finally, with the increasing loss of wildlife habitat, protecting the quality and ultimate fate of the remaining habitat from the effects of toxis substances becomes increasingly important to the moral quest for sustainable use of the planet.

  15. Access, ethics and piracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Lawson


    Full Text Available Ownership of intellectual property rights for a large proportion of the scholarly record is held by publishers, so a majority of journal articles are behind paywalls and unavailable to most people. As a result some readers are encouraged to use pirate websites such as Sci-Hub to access them, a practice that is alternately regarded as criminal and unethical or as a justified act of civil disobedience. This article considers both the efficacy and ethics of piracy, placing ‘guerrilla open access’ within a longer history of piracy and access to knowledge. By doing so, it is shown that piracy is an inevitable part of the intellectual landscape that can render the current intellectual property regime irrelevant. If we wish to actively construct a true scholarly commons, open access emerges as a contender for moving beyond proprietary forms of commodifying scholarly knowledge towards the creation of an open scholarly communication system that is fit for purpose.

  16. The hacker ethic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granger, S. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)


    The hacker ethic can be a peculiar concept to those unfamiliar with hacking and what really is. In fact, the entire definition of hacking is somewhat obscure. Hacking originated as a challenge between programmers. Programmers at MIT are known for coining the term. Individuals would hack at code meaning that they would work at programming problems until they could maniuplate their computers into doing exactly what they wanted. The MIT hackers began with simple programs and moved on to fidding with UNIX machines, especially those on the Arpanet. Hackers started freely distributing their code to their friends and eventually to their friends across the network. This gave rise to a notion that software should be free. Eventually this was taken to the extreme information and network access should also be free.

  17. The Ethics of Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul McLaughlin


    Full Text Available Philosophical inquiry into exploitation has two major deficiencies to date: it assumes that exploitation is wrong by definition; and it pays too much attention to the Marxian account of exploitation. Two senses of exploitation should be distinguished: the ‘moral’ or pejorative sense and the ‘non-moral’ or ‘non-prejudicial’ sense. By demonstrating the conceptual inadequacy of exploitation as defined in the first sense, and by defining exploitation adequately in the latter sense, we seek to demonstrate the moral complexity of exploitation. We contend, moreover, that moral evaluation of exploitation is only possible once we abandon a strictly Marxian framework and attempt, in the long run, to develop an integral ethic along Godwinian lines.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin SASU


    Full Text Available Advertising is often critiqued for not respecting rules of ethics both in the process of advertisement design and in the way it influences society. The main concern of advertisers as representatives of companies that seek profit making is to increase sales, win new clients, increase the demand for the product they want to be presented in as nice and colorful advertisement as possible. They pretend that their product is the best, has unique qualities, better than their competitor´s, it has a better cost and brings much more benefits. That is the reason why the great challenge in advertising is to create sales efficient and at the same time moral and true advertising messages.

  19. Social Media Ethics in English Language Teaching (United States)

    Blyth, Andrew


    Many teachers are increasingly using Social Networking Services (SNS) in their classrooms, which allows for the first time the outside world to peer into students' private learning spaces (Blyth, 2011). However, the adoption of social media has mostly been done without careful consideration of possible ramifications students may suffer.…

  20. [Establishing and operating a human biobank. Ethical aspects]. (United States)

    Jahns, Roland


    Particularly in the past decade which has been marked by efforts to foster individualized/personalized medicine the need for well-characterized high-quality collections of human biological material has significantly increased. When establishing and operating a human biobank the interests and the "freedom" of biomedical research must always be weighed against the interests and rights of patients and/or donors; in this process ethical aspects should be considered systematically. In addition, the importance of quality control and quality assurance has largely increased in human biobanking, both from a scientific and even more from an ethical point of view, because donated biological materials are potentially stored for decades and (on request) might serve for currently not foreseeable biomedical research purposes. In addition, the compatibility of national human biobanks with international biobank networks becomes increasingly important.

  1. A Snap Shot on Business Ethic and Ethic in Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Danaee Fard


    Full Text Available An ethical issue in business is increasing and it is being focused on by the business markets,customers and communities. It was important from the beginning and is important also now as well. Andevery company or organization for being survival and comparative should pay much more attention to thisimportant. This paper aims to study the ethic and some of related issues around it.

  2. Ethics Management: How to Achieve Ethical Organizations and Management?


    Carita Lilian Snellman


    The last decades’ serious organizational scandals that mainly stem from corruption and conflicting interests but also from bribery, favoritism and other wrongdoings have ac-centuated the need for finding instruments for achieving more ethical organizations and management. Ethics management is particularly important in the public sector because public employees and holders of public office are responsible for increasing wellbeing and providing common good for all citizens. Only accountable man...

  3. Someone to Look Up To : Executive-Follower Ethical Reasoning and Perceptions of Ethical Leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordan, Jennifer; Brown, Michael E.; Trevino, Linda K.; Finkelstein, Sydney; Brown, M.K.


    Despite a business environment that highlights the importance of executives' ethical leadership, the individual antecedents of ethical leadership remain largely unknown. In this study, the authors propose that follower perceptions of ethical leadership depend on the executive leader's cognitive mora

  4. Medical and nursing ethics: never the twain? (United States)

    Gallagher, A


    Since the publication of Carol Gilligan's In a different voice in 1982, there has been much discussion about masculine and feminine approaches to ethics. It has been suggested that an ethics of care, or a feminine ethics, is more appropriate for nursing practice, which contrasts with the 'traditional, masculine' ethics of medicine. It has been suggested that Nel Noddings' version of an 'ethics of care' (or feminine ethics) is an appropriate model for nursing ethics. The 'four principles' approach has become a popular model for medical or health care ethics. It will be suggested in this article that, whilst Noddings presents an interesting analysis of caring and the caring relationship, this has limitations. Rather than acting as an alternative to the 'four principles' approach, the latter is necessary to provide a framework to structure thinking and decision-making in health care. Further, it will be suggested that ethical separatism (that is, one ethics for nurses and one for doctors) in health care is not a progressive step for nurses or doctors. Three recommendations are made: that we promote a health care ethics that incorporates what is valuable in a 'traditional, masculine ethics', the why (four principles approach) and an 'ethics of care', the 'how' (aspects of Noddings' work and that of Urban Walker); that we encourage nurses and doctors to participate in the 'shared learning' and discussion of ethics; and that our ethical language and concerns are common to all, not split into unhelpful dichotomies.

  5. Research ethics consultation: ethical and professional practice challenges and recommendations. (United States)

    Sharp, Richard R; Taylor, Holly A; Brinich, Margaret A; Boyle, Mary M; Cho, Mildred; Coors, Marilyn; Danis, Marion; Havard, Molly; Magnus, David; Wilfond, Benjamin


    The complexity of biomedical research has increased considerably in the last decade, as has the pace of translational research. This complexity has generated a number of novel ethical issues for clinical investigators, institutional review boards (IRBs), and other oversight committees. In response, many academic medical centers have created formal research ethics consultation (REC) services to help clinical investigators and IRBs navigate ethical issues in biomedical research. Key functions of a REC service include assisting with research design and implementation, providing a forum for deliberative exploration of ethical issues, and supplementing regulatory oversight. As increasing numbers of academic research institutions establish REC services, there is a pressing need for consensus about the primary aims and policies that should guide these activities. Establishing clear expectations about the aims and policies of REC services is important if REC programs are to achieve their full potential. Drawing on the experiences of a Clinical and Translational Science Award Research Ethics Consultation Working Group, this article describes three major ethical and professional practice challenges associated with the provision of REC: (1) managing multiple institutional roles and responsibilities, (2) managing sensitive information, and (3) communicating with consultation requestors about how these issues are managed. The paper also presents several practical strategies for addressing these challenges and enhancing the quality of REC services.

  6. Robot companions and ethics a pragmatic approach of ethical design. (United States)

    Cornet, Gérard


    From his experience as ethical expert for two Robot Companion prototype projects aiming at empowering older MCI persons to remain at home and to support their family carers, Gerard Cornet, Gerontologist, review the ethical rules, principles and pragmatic approaches in different cultures. The ethical process of these two funded projects, one European, Companionable (FP7 e-inclusion call1), the other French, Quo vadis (ANR tecsan) are described from the inclusion of the targeted end users in the process, to the assessment and ranking of their main needs and whishes to design the specifications, test the performance expected. Obstacles to turn round and limits for risks evaluation (directs or implicit), acceptability, utility, respect of intimacy and dignity, and balance with freedom and security and frontiers to artificial intelligence are discussed As quoted in the discussion with the French and Japanese experts attending the Toulouse Robotics and medicine symposium (March 26th 2011), the need of a new ethical approach, going further the present ethical rules is needed for the design and social status of ethical robots, having capacity cas factor of progress and global quality of innovation design in an ageing society.

  7. On the Origin of Ethics: is Ethics Dependent on Religion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Briedis


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the historical and intellectual linkage between two fundamental spheres of culture – religion and ethics. The theistic ethical perspective and its most radical “supranaturalistic” form are explored. On the other hand, the atheistic position is also revised and the notion of anti-theism is introduced. After that critical analysis is presented on a substantial question concerning the kind of relation between religion and ethics: subordination, assimilation, complementarity or opposition. This question, in turn, demands a careful observance of various religious and secular perspectives, concerning the sources of morality, and poses the problem of faith and knowledge in a new light. Ethical norms constitute crucial part of various religious doctrines and to a certain degree correlate with major shifts in the history of secular culture. However, are these historical and theoretical testimonies sufficient for maintaining that ethics depends on religion and if so, what kind of dependence is it? In the last part of the paper the author formulates a sketch of an answer to a major theoretical concern on the way of reconciling religion and ethics beyond subordination or assimilation. 

  8. Research Ethics, Governance, Oversight And Public Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Suleiman


    Full Text Available A better educated public has started to challengethe way decisions are made in medical research activities.Although Institutional and National Guidelines onResearch are in place, there are fears that InstitutionalReview Boards (IRBs and funding agencies are only fairlyactive in scientific and ethical reviews of research proposalsbut not on oversight of projects after their initiation. Theseissues are integral to good research governance andresearchers and custodians of research ethics must ensurethat public interest is not compromised. Medical progress is based on research including humanexperimentation carried out according to guidingprinciples as enunciated in the Declaration of Helsinki(2000, but the quality of compliance with theDeclaration is an important issue. Better choice and appropriate training of members of IRBsto improve the quality of decision making and governanceprocesses are urgently needed. Competency in evaluationof proposals requires not only the appropriate scientificknowledge but also access to relevant preclinical andother data. Unfortunately, the completeness and quality ofsuch data may not be adequate. Public interest demands that injury to trial subjects inclinical trials is minimized if not avoided completely.Unfortunately this is not always possible with trialswhere novel biological modes of action are tested.A more robust evaluation mechanism for projectapproval may minimize but not completely avoid injuryto subjects; thus insurance cover to provide care andcompensation to subjects must be compulsory.The decision to approve or reject a project must bebased on the balance of potential risks and benefits,taking into consideration justifiable distributive risks totarget communities and populations. Economicconsiderations should never be the primary focus,especially when there are real concerns that themigration of early phase clinical trials including vaccinetrials to developing countries is based on the perceivedless

  9. Ethical Consideration on the Researches Using Human Biological Specimen-Revision Suggestion and Enlightenment of "Common Rule" for Subject Protection in the United States%利用人体生物标本进行研究的伦理思考--美国受试者保护“通用法则”的修改建议及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海涛; 熊宁宁


    The use of human biological specimen has great significance to the development of biomedicine. Meanwhile, the powerful electronic data set with sophisticated analytic techniques creates challenge to the protec-tion of private information. As for the research with human biological specimen, how to facilitate the research con-duct on the basis of ethical principles is one of the key considerations when the US Department of Health and Hu-man Service initiated the revision of Code of Federal Regulations ( CFR) -the"Common Rule" for subject protec-tion. The Notice of Proposed Rulemaking ( NPRM) proposed:Respect for autonomy will be enforced by broad con-sent to enforce and waiver of consent intend to be rare;If the research risks only involve privacy protection, review process will be simplified under the premise of ensuring the implementation of privacy laws and other protective measures. The paper introduced the revisions related to the researches using human biological specimen in NPRM, analyzed the terms of broad consent, exemption and exclusion, and explored the elicitation to ethical review prac-tice in China.%人体生物标本的利用对推动生物医学的进展有重大意义,与此同时,强大的电子数据库信息处理能力给个人信息的保密带来了挑战。对于利用人体生物标本的研究,如何在确保遵循伦理原则的基础上促进研究的顺利开展,是美国卫生与人类服务部在修改美国联邦法规———人体研究受试者保护“通用法则”过程中的重要考虑因素之一。其公布的“建议规则制定通知”提出:通过泛知情同意,强化对受试者自主权的尊重,几乎不再有免除知情同意的情况;对于研究风险仅仅涉及隐私保护,将在明确保证执行隐私法等保护措施的前提下,简化审查程序。围绕NPRM中提出的有关利用人体生物标本的研究的修改情况进行介绍,对NPRM中关于知情同意、豁免审查和

  10. Incorporating ethical principles into clinical research protocols: a tool for protocol writers and ethics committees


    Li, Rebecca H.; Wacholtz, Mary C; Barnes, Mark; Boggs, Liam; Callery-D'Amico, Susan; Davis, Amy; Digilova, Alla; Forster, David; Heffernan, Kate; Luthin, Maeve; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; McNair, Lindsay; Miller, Jennifer E; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Van Campen, Luann


    A novel Protocol Ethics Tool Kit (‘Ethics Tool Kit’) has been developed by a multi-stakeholder group of the Multi-Regional Clinical Trials Center of Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard. The purpose of the Ethics Tool Kit is to facilitate effective recognition, consideration and deliberation of critical ethical issues in clinical trial protocols. The Ethics Tool Kit may be used by investigators and sponsors to develop a dedicated Ethics Section within a protocol to improve the consistency...

  11. Virtue ethics and an ethics of care: complementary or in conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Thomas


    Full Text Available This paper compares and contrasts virtue ethics and care ethics to determine their mutual relation. It is argued that there is one tradition within virtue ethics that emphasises that virtue is knowledge and also focuses on direct altruism. There is no opposition between that form of virtue ethics and ethics of care. Furthermore, there are principled objections to generalising the necessarily asymmetric relations of an ethic of care to the case of justice as reciprocal fairness.

  12. Evidence, Ethics & Social Policy Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven I. Miller


    Full Text Available Within the philosophy of the social sciences, the relationship between evidence, ethics, and social policy is in need of further analysis. The present paper is an attempt to argue that while important social policies can, and perhaps ought to be, grounded in ethical theory, they are seldom articulated in this fashion due to the ambiguity surrounding the "evidence condition." Using a consequentialist-utilitarian framework, and a case study of a policy dilemma, the authors analyze the difficulties associated with resolving policy-based dilemmas which must appeal to evidential support as a justification for an ethical stand. Implication for the relevance of ethics to social policy formulation are discussed in detail.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor DOBBIN


    Full Text Available Military communities differ in how they implement ethics training.Some have well developed programmes while others have only a few stand-alone presentations. For this reason it is difficult to produce a template to suit every situation.Leadership training within the Military is generally of a very high standard and it is particularly important in relation to the development of high moral standards, whereas the training in ethics various considerably throughout the military world.Therefore, even though we regard our ethics programme to be of a very high standard there is always the need to review what we have in place and update it. Codes of Ethics need to be revised from time to time and we can gain valuable insight from sharing and comparing our training programmes with other militaries.

  14. Legal briefing: Healthcare ethics committees. (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason


    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers recent legal developments involving institutional healthcare ethics committees. This topic has been the subject of recent articles in JCE. Healthcare ethics committees have also recently been the subject of significant public policy attention. Disturbingly, Bobby Schindler and others have described ethics committees as "death panels." But most of the recent attention has been positive. Over the past several months, legislatures and courts have expanded the use of ethics committees and clarified their roles concerning both end-of-life treatment and other issues. These developments are usefully grouped into the following eight categories: 1. Existence and availability. 2. Membership and composition. 3. Operating procedures. 4. Advisory roles. 5. Decision-making and gate-keeping roles. 6. Confidentiality. 7. Immunity. 8. Litigation and court cases.

  15. Organizational ethics: a literature review. (United States)

    Suhonen, Riitta; Stolt, Minna; Virtanen, Heli; Leino-Kilpi, Helena


    The aim of the study was to report the results of a systematically conducted literature review of empirical studies about healthcare organizations' ethics and management or leadership issues. Electronic databases MEDLINE and CINAHL yielded 909 citations. After a two stage application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria 56 full-text articles were included in the review. No large research programs were identified. Most of the studies were in acute hospital settings from the 1990s onwards. The studies focused on ethical challenges, dilemmas in practice, employee moral distress and ethical climates or environments. Study samples typically consisted of healthcare practitioners, operational, executive and strategic managers. Data collection was mainly by questionnaires or interviews and most of the studies were descriptive, correlational and cross-sectional. There is need to develop conceptual clarity and a theoretical framework around the subject of organizational ethics and the breadth of the contexts and scope of the research needs to be increased.

  16. Work Ethics and General Morality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    "The Starving Sudan" is a photographic work awarded with South Africa Pulitzer Prize, which also arouses the warm discussion about work ethics and general morality. This paper aims to give comments from an objective perspective.

  17. Should engineering ethics be taught? (United States)

    Abaté, Charles J


    Should engineering ethics be taught? Despite the obvious truism that we all want our students to be moral engineers who practice virtuous professional behavior, I argue, in this article that the question itself obscures several ambiguities that prompt preliminary resolution. Upon clarification of these ambiguities, and an attempt to delineate key issues that make the question a philosophically interesting one, I conclude that engineering ethics not only should not, but cannot, be taught if we understand "teaching engineering ethics" to mean training engineers to be moral individuals (as some advocates seem to have proposed). However, I also conclude that there is a justification to teaching engineering ethics, insofar as we are able to clearly identify the most desirable and efficacious pedagogical approach to the subject area, which I propose to be a case study-based format that utilizes the principle of human cognitive pattern recognition.

  18. Teaching Ethics by Case Analysis. (United States)

    Fromer, Margot Joan


    Starting with basic philosophic positions and principles, nursing students can be helped to analyze ethical dilemmas of increasing complexity. A hypothetical situation is presented and discussed as an example of a case study used to teach these principles. (CT)

  19. Managed Care, Ethics, and Counseling. (United States)

    Daniels, Jeffrey A.


    Addresses issues of managed care and ethics and how they relate to counseling. Specifically reviews a recent article published in "The Counseling Psychologist" (2000). Explores implications for counselors and counselor educators. (Author/GCP)

  20. Ethics in the Nursing Curriculum (United States)

    Aroskar, Mila Ann


    In theory, most educators in this survey supported teaching ethics; in practice, few baccalaureate programs provide planned curricular offerings dealing with this subject. Suggestions are offered for implementing curriculum changes. (Editor/TA)

  1. Ethical issues in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Lars (ed.)


    Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report.

  2. The educational aspects of ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Probucka Dorota


    Full Text Available The purpose of my article is to show the importance of normative ethics for the education of young people in three areas: individual, social and natural. In the first case, ethics answers the question how we should treat ourselves. Thus, it teaches responsibility for oneself, for one’s life and individual development. In the second case, ethics answers the question how we should treat other people in order to minimize the risk of harming them. Thus, it teaches responsibility to other members of society. In the third case, normative ethics reminds us of moral obligations towards non-human beings, stressing that suffering has an interspecies character, and doesn’t pertain only to representatives of Homo sapiens.

  3. Teacher’s Professional Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Teachers play an important role in society, whose career is considered to be the most glorious one under the sun. They have deep and lifelong influence on students and the prosperity of a country and even the bright future of the whole world. Teacher should be a person with great virtue that sets good examples for the students. However, nowadays, there exist various problems about teacher’s ethics due to complex social, economical, cultural or personal issues. It’s urgent and imperative for teachers to learn and improve professional ethics to be a better mentor. This paper begins with the definition of ethics, emphasizes the importance of teachers’professional ethics, talks about current situation in this area, analyzes the reasons why there are im-moral problems about teachers and suggests some practical strategies on how to improve it.

  4. Antibiotic resistance: An ethical challenge. (United States)

    Littmann, Jasper; Buyx, Alena; Cars, Otto


    In this paper, we argue that antibiotic resistance (ABR) raises a number of ethical problems that have not yet been sufficiently addressed. We outline four areas in which ethical issues that arise in relation to ABR are particularly pressing. First, the emergence of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant infections exacerbates traditional ethical challenges of infectious disease control, such as the restriction of individual liberty for the protection of the public's health. Second, ABR raises issues of global distributive justice, both with regard to the overuse and lack of access to antibiotics. Third, the use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine raises serious concerns for animal welfare and sustainable farming practices. Finally, the diminishing effectiveness of antibiotics leads to questions about intergenerational justice and our responsibility for the wellbeing of future generations. We suggest that current policy discussions should take ethical conflicts into account and engage openly with the challenges that we outline in this paper.

  5. Ethics of Managing Organisational Change. (United States)

    Mason, Robb; Randell, Shirley


    Because public organizations have multiple stakeholders, any change decisions must consider impact on each group. Because most organizations respond to rather than initiate change, proactive methods are not enough. Situational ethics come into play. (SK)

  6. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Nussbaum


    Full Text Available Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient Greek ethics, there is little unity to this group. Although there is a thin common ground that links all the group's members - a focus on the formation of character, on the nature of the passions, and on choice over the whole course of life - there are also crucial differences among them.

  7. Universalist ethics in extraterrestrial encounter (United States)

    Baum, Seth D.


    If humanity encounters an extraterrestrial civilization, or if two extraterrestrial civilizations encounter each other, then the outcome may depend not only on the civilizations' relative strength to destroy each other but also on what ethics are held by one or both civilizations. This paper explores outcomes of encounter scenarios in which one or both civilizations hold a universalist ethical framework. Several outcomes are possible in such scenarios, ranging from one civilization destroying the other to both civilizations racing to be the first to commit suicide. Thus, attention to the ethics of both humanity and extraterrestrials is warranted in human planning for such an encounter. Additionally, the possibility of such an encounter raises profound questions for contemporary human ethics, even if such an encounter never occurs.

  8. Mitochondrial Replacement: Ethics And Identity


    Wrigley, Anthony; Wilkinson, Stephen; Appleby, John B


    Mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRTs) have the potential to allow prospective parents who are at risk of passing on debilitating or even life-threatening mitochondrial disorders to have healthy children to whom they are genetically related. Ethical concerns have however been raised about these techniques. This article focuses on one aspect of the ethical debate, the question of whether there is any moral difference between the two types of MRT proposed: Pronuclear Transfer (PNT) and Mat...

  9. The Ethics of Workplace Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans Jørgen


    A discussion of the ethical dilemmas confronting occupational health and safety professionals when they are involved in workplace interventions. Case stories from the Danish occupational health service are used as the emperical point of departure for paper.......A discussion of the ethical dilemmas confronting occupational health and safety professionals when they are involved in workplace interventions. Case stories from the Danish occupational health service are used as the emperical point of departure for paper....

  10. Macroenvironmental factors affecting ethical behavior


    Önsel Ekici, Şule; Ekici, Ahmet


    The purpose of this study is to take a macroethical perspective and study the relationships between various structural factors and ethical behavior of firms. Using the data obtained from the Global Competitiveness Network of the World Economic Forum-WEF, and through the Bayesian Causal Map (BCM) methodology, we study how ethical behaviors of firms in a given country group are shaped by how managers perceive the political, legislative, and protective environment of business in these countries....

  11. Summary of Code of Ethics. (United States)

    Eklund, Kerri


    The Guide to the Code of Ethics for Nurses is an excellent guideline for all nurses regardless of their area of practice. I greatly enjoyed reading the revisions in place within the 2015 edition and refreshing my nursing conscience. I plan to always keep my Guide to the Code of Ethics for Nurses near in order to keep my moral compass from veering off the path of quality care.

  12. Vulnerability Assessments in Ethical Hacking



    Ethical hackers use the same methods and techniques to test and bypass a system's defenses as their less-principled counterparts, but rather than taking advantage of any vulnerabilities found, they document them and provide actionable advice on how to fix them so the organization can improve its overall security. The purpose of ethical hacking is to evaluate the security of a network or system's infrastructure. It entails finding and attempting to exploit any vulnerabilities to de...

  13. [Neuroethics: Ethical Endowments of Human Brain]. (United States)

    López Moratalla, Natalia


    The neurobiological processes underlying moral judgement have been the focus of Neuroethics. Neurosciences demonstrate which cerebral areas are active and inactive whilst people decide how to act when facing a moral dilemma; in this way we know the correlation between determined cerebral areas and our human acts. We can explain how the ″ethical endowments″ of each person, common to all human beings, is ″embedded″ in the dynamic of cerebral flows. Of central interest is whether emotions play a causal role in moral judgement, and, in parallel, how emotion related areas of the brain contribute to moral judgement. The outcome of man's natural inclinations is on one hand linked to instinctive systems of animal survival and to basic emotions, and on the other, to the life of each individual human uninhibited by automatism of the biological laws, because he is governed by the laws of freedom. The capacity to formulate an ethical judgement is an innate asset of the human mind.

  14. [Spirituality and ethics in psychosomatic medicine]. (United States)

    Irmiš, Felix


    A patient has to cope with an illness on a physical, mental and spiritual level. There exists a difference between religiousness and spirituality even though the approach has a common foundation. Nonreligious spirituality relates to an inner experience, transcendent states of consciousness, meaningfulness, responsibility, sympathy, ethics, humanisation, faith. We encounter the spiritual point of view in humanistic psychotherapy, pastoral medicine, work of hospital chaplains, New Age, psychotherapies with religious and alternative aspects, transpersonal psychotherapy, psycho-spiritual crises, unusual states of consciousness, in meditation, Yoga, relaxation, kinesiology, ethicotherapy, reincarnation therapy, positive motivation, holotropic breathing, etc. There is description of different degrees of spiritual development, rational and irrational feeling of spirituality, Quantum Physics, spiritual intelligence, neuro-theology, physiological change, effects on improving adaptation during stress, drugs addiction, etc. Spirituality in relation with ethics is discussed in terms of socio-biology, evolution, emotions, aggressivity, genetics and social influence. The work analyses the effect of stressful situations on the deterioration of moral attitudes: during lack of time, obedience to authority and order. It is described how temperament and personality disorders can affect perception of spirituality, guilt feeling and conscience. Stressful situations, lack of time, relying only on the auxiliary objective methods leads to alienation of physician with a patient. Spirituality can partially improve the doctor-patient relationship, communication and sense of responsibility.

  15. Mission and ethics in Galatians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus Kok


    Full Text Available In this article, it is investigated how the concepts identity, ethics and ethos interrelate, and how the ethics of the Pauline communities in Galatians functioned against the background of the missionary context of the early church. The author argued that the missionary dimension originated in the context of the missio Dei, and that God called Paul as a missionary to be taken up in the latter. The missionary process did not end with Paul, but was designed to be carried further by believers who should be, by their very nature, missionary. In the process, the author investigated how the transformation of identity (the understanding of self, God and others leads to the creation of ethical values and how it is particularised in different socioreligious and cultural contexts in the development of the early church. The author argued that there is an implicit missionary dimension in the ethics of Paul in Galatians. In the process, it is argued that those who want to speak of ethics should make something of mission, and those who speak of mission in Galatians, should speak about the role of identity, ethics and ethos in the letter.

  16. Fiscal ethics, policies, and theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Blanco


    Full Text Available The connections between ethics, policies and economic theories regarding fiscal matters need a more thorough analysis than the one carried out so far. On one hand, even though there are some ethical proposals on taxation, in general such proposals have not been grounded on explanatory theories of the economy. On the other hand, schools of thought about economy usually fail to ethically justify their political proposals. However, such distinctions cannot be sustained rationally: any ethical proposal concerning fiscal matters involves an explanation of economy, and conversely any proposal related to fiscal policies does not only involve a theory but also an ethical understanding. This article will review such connections, and general conclusions will be applied to two specific cases: first, Rawls’s proposal concerning taxation will be reviewed, having previously studied its descriptive assumptions, and then the lack of an ethical connection between the post Keynesian theory on the monetary circuit and its fiscal proposal will be examined. Finally, a possible “taxation compliance ethic” of tax-payers will be likewise analysed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rıza ERDEM


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the responsibilities of the teacher in terms of professional ethics by examining related literature, encountered problems and possible sources. In this study, some inferences are made by cross-examining teacher professional ethics and encountered problems. Ethics refers to the norms of a society, a culture or a group behavior that is accepted by various influences. Professional ethics comprises of rules and regulations restricting profession members' actions and telling what to do and what not to do. Teaching profession necessitates intense human interactions and requires high moral responsibilities. Ethics in teaching profession is a set of rules and guidelines that must be followed while interacting with students, society and colleagues. Teaching “professional ethics” is getting more important and elements of teaching (students, parents, administrators, education experts and teachers are more sensitive towards the challenges faced in this regard. The cause of problems encountered in teacher professional ethics may vary. While performing its duty teacher who is the strategic member of educational system is assuming important responsibilities in terms of “professional ethics”.

  18. Medical ethics in the media. (United States)

    Raman, Usha


    The mass media function both as reflector and a shaper of a society's attitudes and values and as such represent a forum within which one may understand and influence public opinion. While questions of medical ethics may be largely confined to academic and scientific spaces, their importance to society at large cannot be denied, and how issues of medical ethics play out--if at all--in the media could tell us how society understands and processes these questions. This paper uses the techniques of framing analysis and textual analysis to examine how the print media, represented by two major Indian newspapers, cover medical ethics. The study looked at all articles related to medical research over a three-month period (January-March 2007) and considered how the story was framed, what were the key threads followed, and the dominant themes focused on. The ethical frame is notable by its absence, even in articles related to controversial themes such as drug research and genetics. Discussion of ethics appears to be problematic given the adherence to traditional "news values" when covering science and medicine. The research community and the media need to pay more attention to explicitly focusing on ethics in their interactions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Some problems like rapidly developing industrialization, irregular population growth, environmental pollution and to feel the impact of global warming as seriously, has been giving significant damage to the earth. People has realized that, after polluting to clean is harder than polluting of the measures to be taken before. And again people showed the sensitivity to the environment through different reactions and sanctions, took measures and created the new concepts about the enviroment. "Ethical Fashion" concept was created by the conscious and responsible individuals in the last two decades. However, that are being implemented as a concept is noticeable. Textile and fashion industry cover "Ethical Fashion"; ecological product, working conditions, fair trade and sustainable product are all in that concept. "Ethical Fashion" appeared and developed especially in United Kingdom, the USA and the other European countries. Nowadays, we may see a lot of textile and fashion designers, fabric and clothing collections, fairs and some specific courses at the universities about "Ethical Fashion". In this research contains "Ethical Fashion" concept, it's development processes and fashion designers who is working for this concept at the present time, also the main target is in this research, semtinizing "Ethical Fashion" concept.

  20. Ethical-Economic Dilemmas in Business Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Remišová


    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to support the idea of institutionalizing business ethics education at all business schools. Further, the article stresses the importance of using ethical-economic dilemmas in business ethics education. It argues that business students should learn that managerial work is too complex to make do with expertise and experience and help them to acquire the skill of ethical reflection of economic activity. Solving ethical-economic dilemmas in business ethics courses helps to develop cognitive skills in considering economic or managerial problems on the basis of ethical and economic interaction. In order to support the main purpose stated above, we aimed at getting a picture of how respondents assess and solve an ethical-economic dilemma. Hence, this article presents results of an empirical investigation of the ethical decision-making (EDM process on a sample of Slovak students of Management.