Sample records for biology content instructional

  1. Instructional Quality Features in Videotaped Biology Lessons: Content-Independent Description of Characteristics (United States)

    Dorfner, Tobias; Förtsch, Christian; Boone, William; Neuhaus, Birgit J.


    A number of studies on single instructional quality features have been reported for mathematics and science instruction. For summarizing single instructional quality features, researchers have created a model of three basic dimensions (classroom management, supportive climate, and cognitive activation) of instructional quality mainly through observing mathematics instruction. Considering this model as valid for all subjects and as usable for describing instruction, we used it in this study which aimed to analyze characteristics of instructional quality in biology lessons of high-achieving and low-achieving classes, independently of content. Therefore, we used the data of three different previous video studies of biology instruction conducted in Germany. From each video study, we selected three high-achieving and three low-achieving classes (N = 18 teachers; 35 videos) for our multiple-case study, in which conspicuous characteristics of instructional quality features were qualitatively identified and qualitatively analyzed. The amount of these characteristics was counted in a quantitative way in all the videos. The characteristics we found could be categorized using the model of three basic dimensions of instructional quality despite some subject-specific differences for biology instruction. Our results revealed that many more characteristics were observable in high-achieving classes than in low-achieving classes. Thus, we believe that this model could be used to describe biology instruction independently of the content. We also make the claims about the qualities for biology instruction—working with concentration in a content-structured environment, getting challenged in higher order thinking, and getting praised for performance—that could have positive influence on students' achievement.

  2. Problem-Centered Supplemental Instruction in Biology: Influence on Content Recall, Content Understanding, and Problem Solving Ability (United States)

    Gardner, Joel; Belland, Brian R.


    To address the need for effective, efficient ways to apply active learning in undergraduate biology courses, in this paper, we propose a problem-centered approach that utilizes supplemental web-based instructional materials based on principles of active learning. We compared two supplementary web-based modules using active learning strategies: the first used Merrill's First Principles of Instruction as a framework for organizing multiple active learning strategies; the second used a traditional web-based approach. Results indicated that (a) the First Principles group gained significantly from pretest to posttest at the Remember level ( t(40) = -1.432, p = 0.08, ES = 0.4) and at the Problem Solving level ( U = 142.5, N1 = 21, N2 = 21, p = .02, ES = 0.7) and (b) the Traditional group gained significantly from pretest to posttest at the Remember level ( t(36) = 1.762, p = 0.043, ES = 0.6). Those in the First Principles group were significantly more likely than the traditional group to be confident in their ability to solve problems in the future (χ2 (2, N = 40) = 3.585, p = 0.09).

  3. Content Area Instructional Strategies (United States)

    Montgomery, Joel R.


    The aim of this working paper is to identify research-supported strategies for content that can be integrated effectively to promote the development of biliterate academic literacy by English language learners (ELLs) in middle-school bilingual classrooms. The paper provides a research-based summary of relevant learning needs of adolescent…

  4. Instruction of Multidisciplinary Content in Introductory Courses (United States)

    Shaibani, Saami J.


    There has been an ever-increasing emphasis on the integration of material in the areas of science, technology, engineering and mathematics during the past decade or so. However, there are two major requirements for accomplishing the effective delivery of such multidisciplinary content in the classroom: having high levels of expertise in all of the subjects; and, having the ability to combine the separate fields in a consistent manner without compromising academic purity. The research reported here involves a teacher with this skill set and it includes an example from kinematics, which is initially explored with standard treatment of concepts in mechanics and then developed with analysis employing algebra. As often happens, the non-trivial nature of the result in this case does not readily allow students to have a sense that the physics-based outcome is correct. This shortfall is remedied by adopting a complementary approach with geometry and calculus, which adds an independent perspective that reassures students by confirming the validity of the original answer. The enhanced quality of instruction achieved with the above methodology produces many benefits, including greater student understanding and more opportunities for active involvement by students in the learning process.

  5. EFL and Educational Reform: Content-Based Instruction in Argentina. (United States)

    Snow, Marguerite Ann; Cortes, Viviana; Pron, Alejandra V.


    Discusses initial experiences with content-based instruction in Argentina. The new approach was precipitated in part by educational reform. Suggests that the dramatic shift from a grammar-based approach to a communicative approach, and the use of language as a tool for instruction may become overwhelming for most teachers. (Author/VWL)

  6. Content-Based Instruction Approach in Instructional Multimedia for English Learning


    Farani, Rizki


    Content-based Instruction (CBI) is an approach in English learning that integrates certain topic and English learning objectives. This approach focuses on using English competencies as a “bridge” to comprehend certain topic or theme in English. Nowadays, this approach can be used in instructional multimedia to support English learning by using computer. Instructional multimedia with computer system refers to the sequential or simultaneous use of variety of media formats in a given presentatio...

  7. Positioning Genomics in Biology Education: Content Mapping of Undergraduate Biology Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi L. B. Wernick


    Full Text Available Biological thought increasingly recognizes the centrality of the genome in constituting and regulating processes ranging from cellular systems to ecology and evolution. In this paper, we ask whether genomics is similarly positioned as a core concept in the instructional sequence for undergraduate biology. Using quantitative methods, we analyzed the order in which core biological concepts were introduced in textbooks for first-year general and human biology. Statistical analysis was performed using self-organizing map algorithms and conventional methods to identify clusters of terms and their relative position in the books. General biology textbooks for both majors and nonmajors introduced genome-related content after text related to cell biology and biological chemistry, but before content describing higher-order biological processes. However, human biology textbooks most often introduced genomic content near the end of the books. These results suggest that genomics is not yet positioned as a core concept in commonly used textbooks for first-year biology and raises questions about whether such textbooks, or courses based on the outline of these textbooks, provide an appropriate foundation for understanding contemporary biological science.

  8. Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies Trial Edition, Set IV. (United States)

    Throgmorton, Larry, Ed.; And Others

    Eight games are included in the 24 activities in the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) Trial Edition Set IV. There are also simulations, crafts, biological techniques, and organism investigations focusing on animal and plant life in the forest, desert, and snow. Designed for small groups of children ages 10 to 15 from schools and…

  9. Inquiry-based Science Instruction in High School Biology Courses: A Multiple Case Study (United States)

    Aso, Eze

    A lack of research exists about how secondary school science teachers use inquiry-based instruction to improve student learning. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how science teachers used inquiry-based instruction to improve student learning in high school biology courses. The conceptual framework was based on Banchi and Bell's model of increasing levels of complexity for inquiry-based instruction. A multiple case study research design was conducted of biology programs at 3 high schools in an urban school district in the northeastern region of the United States. Participants included 2 biology teachers from each of the 3 high schools. Data were collected from individual interviews with biology teachers, observations of lessons in biology, and documents related to state standards, assessments, and professional development. The first level of data analysis involved coding and categorizing the interview and observation data. A content analysis was used for the documents. The second level of data analysis involved examining data across all sources and all cases for themes and discrepancies. According to study findings, biology teachers used confirmation, structure, and guided inquiry to improve student learning. However, they found open inquiry challenging and frustrating to implement because professional development about scaffolding of instruction over time was needed, and students' reading and writing skills needed to improve. This study contributes to positive social change by providing educators and researchers with a deeper understanding about how to scaffold levels of inquiry-based science instruction in order to help students become scientifically literate citizens.

  10. Content-Based Instruction and Content and Language Integrated Learning: The Same or Different? (United States)

    Cenoz, Jasone


    This article looks at the characteristics of Content-Based Instruction (CBI) and Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) in order to examine their similarities and differences. The analysis shows that CBI/CLIL programmes share the same essential properties and are not pedagogically different from each other. In fact, the use of an L2 as…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Nor Rizan Tengku Mohamad Maasum


    Full Text Available Abstract: Advocates of the content-based approach believed that a language can be learnt effectively when it is the medium of instruction rather than just a subject.  Integrating English and content as part of instruction has become one of the cornerstones of second language pedagogy. Researchers claimed that there are many benefits of integrating English and content instruction.  Among the benefits are the increase in students’ interest with content themes, meaningful input and understanding. In 2003, the Malaysian Ministry of Education introduced the teaching and learning of science and mathematics in English for Year One, Form One and Lower Six Form in all government public schools. This paper describes the challenges faced by teachers when they are required to teach content subjects such as science and mathematics in English.  The focus of the paper is on the teachers’ pedagogical skills  and content knowldge which comprises subject matter content, pedagogical approach, classroom management, use of resources, assessment, preparation of teaching materials, managing students, teachers’ compensatory communication strategies, use of first language and teachers’ perspectives of teaching content subjects in English. Data were obtained from a self-report questionnaire administered to 495 secondary school teachers in West Malaysia. Results from the study provide implications for school administrators in making decisions in assignment of  capable teachers to teach the various levels of classes. Suggestions for teacher self-development and life-long learning efforts are also provided.   Key words: Content-based instruction, ESL instruction, second language, first language and second language pedagogy


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Nor Rizan Tengku Mohamad Maasum


    Full Text Available Advocates of the content-based approach believed that a language can be learnt effectively when it is the medium of instruction rather than just a subject. Integrating English and content as part of instruction has become one of the cornerstones of second language pedagogy. Researchers claimed that there are many benefits of integrating English and content instruction. Among the benefits are the increase in students’ interest with content themes, meaningful input and understanding. In 2003, the Malaysian Ministry of Education introduced the teaching and learning of science and mathematics in English for Year One, Form One and Lower Six Form in all government public schools. This paper describes the challenges faced by teachers when they are required to teach content subjects such as science and mathematics in English. The focus of the paper is on the teachers’ pedagogical skills and content knowldge which comprises subject matter content, pedagogical approach, classroom management, use of resources, assessment, preparation of teaching materials, managing students, teachers’ compensatory communication strategies, use of first language and teachers’ perspectives of teaching content subjects in English. Data were obtained from a self-report questionnaire administered to 495 secondary school teachers in West Malaysia. Results from the study provide implications for school administrators in making decisions in assignment of capable teachers to teach the various levels of classes. Suggestions for teacher self-development and life-long learning efforts are also provided.

  13. A Standards-Based Content Analysis of Selected Biological Science Websites (United States)

    Stewart, Joy E.


    The purpose of this study was to analyze the biology content, instructional strategies, and assessment methods of 100 biological science websites that were appropriate for Grade 12 educational purposes. For the analysis of each website, an instrument, developed from the National Science Education Standards (NSES) for Grade 12 Life Science coupled…

  14. Developing Content and Form: Encouraging Evidence from Italian Content-Based Instruction (United States)

    Rodgers, Daryl M.


    Swain (1985) pointed out the need for increased modified output in the classroom in order to encourage learners to engage in more syntactic processing and, thus, make more form-meaning connections. Research in content-based instruction (CBI) ( Musumeci, 1996; Pica, 2002) has revealed few occasions of pushed modified output from learners.…

  15. Toward university modeling instruction--biology: adapting curricular frameworks from physics to biology. (United States)

    Manthey, Seth; Brewe, Eric


    University Modeling Instruction (UMI) is an approach to curriculum and pedagogy that focuses instruction on engaging students in building, validating, and deploying scientific models. Modeling Instruction has been successfully implemented in both high school and university physics courses. Studies within the physics education research (PER) community have identified UMI's positive impacts on learning gains, equity, attitudinal shifts, and self-efficacy. While the success of this pedagogical approach has been recognized within the physics community, the use of models and modeling practices is still being developed for biology. Drawing from the existing research on UMI in physics, we describe the theoretical foundations of UMI and how UMI can be adapted to include an emphasis on models and modeling for undergraduate introductory biology courses. In particular, we discuss our ongoing work to develop a framework for the first semester of a two-semester introductory biology course sequence by identifying the essential basic models for an introductory biology course sequence.

  16. A Content Analysis of Instructional Design and Web Design Books: Implications for Inclusion of Web Design in Instructional Design Textbooks (United States)

    Obilade, Titilola T.; Burton, John K.


    This textual content analysis set out to determine the extent to which the theories, principles, and guidelines in 4 standard books of instructional design and technology were also addressed in 4 popular books on web design. The standard books on instructional design and the popular books on web design were chosen by experts in the fields. The…

  17. Teaching Concepts of Natural Sciences to Foreigners through Content-Based Instruction: The Adjunct Model (United States)

    Satilmis, Yilmaz; Yakup, Doganay; Selim, Guvercin; Aybarsha, Islam


    This study investigates three models of content-based instruction in teaching concepts and terms of natural sciences in order to increase the efficiency of teaching these kinds of concepts in realization and to prove that the content-based instruction is a teaching strategy that helps students understand concepts of natural sciences. Content-based…

  18. Using WebQuests to Teach Content: Comparing Instructional Strategies (United States)

    Strickland, Janet


    The purpose of this study was to compare the use of WebQuests with traditional instruction. Specifically, the study examined the end-of-unit exam scores for students who completed a WebQuest on the Texas Revolution and those students completing a poster activity. Both of the instructional activities were implemented as additional enhancement to…

  19. A Study of the Literature on Lab-Based Instruction in Biology (United States)

    Puttick, Gillian; Drayton, Brian; Cohen, Eliza


    We analyzed the practitioner literature on lab-based instruction in biology in "The American Biology Teacher" between 2007 and 2012. We investigated what laboratory learning looks like in biology classrooms, what topics are addressed, what instructional methods and activities are described, and what is being learned about student…

  20. Invention Versus Direct Instruction: For Some Content, It's a Tie (United States)

    Chase, Catherine C.; Klahr, David


    An important, but as yet unresolved pedagogical question is whether discovery-oriented or direct instruction methods lead to greater learning and transfer. We address this issue in a study with 101 fourth and fifth grade students that contrasts two distinct instructional methods. One is a blend of discovery and direct instruction called Invent-then-Tell (IT), and the other is a version of direct instruction called Tell-then-Practice (TP). The relative effectiveness of these methods is compared in the context of learning a critical inquiry skill—the control-of-variables strategy. Previous research has demonstrated the success of IT over TP for teaching deep domain structures, while other research has demonstrated the superiority of direct instruction for teaching simple experimental design, a domain-general inquiry skill. In the present study, students in both conditions made equally large gains on an immediate assessment of their application and conceptual understanding of experimental design, and they also performed similarly on a test of far transfer. These results were fairly consistent across school populations with various levels of prior achievement and socioeconomic status. Findings suggest that broad claims about the relative effectiveness of these two distinct methods should be conditionalized by particular instructional contexts, such as the type of knowledge being taught.

  1. Captioned Instructional Video: Effects on Content Comprehension, Vocabulary Acquisition and Language Proficiency (United States)

    BavaHarji, Madhubala; Alavi, Zhinoos Kamal; Letchumanan, Krishnaveni


    This experimental design study examined the effects of viewing captioned instructional videos on EFL learners' content comprehension, vocabulary acquisition and language proficiency. It also examined the participants' perception of viewing the captioned instructional videos. The 92 EFL students in two classes, who were undertaking the "Tape…

  2. Content Analysis of Research Trends in Instructional Design Models: 1999-2014 (United States)

    Göksu, Idris; Özcan, Kursat Volkan; Çakir, Recep; Göktas, Yuksel


    This study examines studies on instructional design models by applying content analysis. It covers 113 papers published in 44 international Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) and Science Citation Index (SCI) journals. Studies on instructional design models are explored in terms of journal of publication, preferred model, country where the study…

  3. English for Content Instruction in a Japanese Higher Education Setting: Examining Challenges, Contradictions and Anomalies (United States)

    Toh, Glenn


    This article examines issues pertaining to content instruction in English in a Japanese higher education institution. It notes that Japan's economic success in the latter part of the twentieth century was achieved with Japanese as the medium of instruction and observes that in terms of ideology and cultural politics at least, there are inherent…

  4. Content-Based Instruction Understood in Terms of Connectionism and Constructivism (United States)

    Lain, Stephanie


    Despite the number of articles devoted to the topic of content-based instruction (CBI), little attempt has been made to link the claims for CBI to research in cognitive science. In this article, I review the CBI model of foreign language (FL) instruction in the context of its close alignment with two emergent frameworks in cognitive science:…

  5. Socioscientific Issues-Based Instruction: An Investigation of Agriscience Students' Content Knowledge Based on Student Variables (United States)

    Shoulders, Catherine W.; Myers, Brian E.


    Numerous researchers in science education have reported student improvement in areas of scientific literacy resulting from socioscientific issues (SSI)-based instruction. The purpose of this study was to describe student agriscience content knowledge following a six-week SSI-based instructional unit focusing on the introduction of cultured meat…

  6. Characteristics of Literacy Instruction That Support Reform in Content Area Classrooms (United States)

    Siebert, Daniel K.; Draper, Roni Jo; Barney, Daniel; Broomhead, Paul; Grierson, Sirpa; Jensen, Amy P.; Nielson, Jennifer; Nokes, Jeffery D.; Shumway, Steven; Wimmer, Jennifer


    Current reforms in content area education present new challenges for literacy educators. These reforms promote engaging students in the practices of the disciplines--teaching students how to participate in an activity in which disciplinary content is produced. Content area literacy (CAL) instruction that supports only the learning of general…

  7. Analysis of undergraduate cell biology contents in Brazilian public universities. (United States)

    Mermelstein, Claudia; Costa, Manoel Luis


    The enormous amount of information available in cell biology has created a challenge in selecting the core concepts we should be teaching our undergraduates. One way to define a set of essential core ideas in cell biology is to analyze what a specific cell biology community is teaching their students. Our main objective was to analyze the cell biology content currently being taught in Brazilian universities. We collected the syllabi of cell biology courses from public universities in Brazil and analyzed the frequency of cell biology topics in each course. We also compared the Brazilian data with the contents of a major cell biology textbook. Our analysis showed that while some cell biology topics such as plasma membrane and cytoskeleton was present in ∼100% of the Brazilian curricula analyzed others such as cell signaling and cell differentiation were present in only ∼35%. The average cell biology content taught in the Brazilian universities is quite different from what is presented in the textbook. We discuss several possible explanations for these observations. We also suggest a list with essential cell biology topics for any biological or biomedical undergraduate course. The comparative discussion of cell biology topics presented here could be valuable in other educational contexts. © 2017 The Authors. Cell Biology International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Cell Biology.

  8. YouTube™ as a Source of Instructional Videos on Bowel Preparation: a Content Analysis. (United States)

    Ajumobi, Adewale B; Malakouti, Mazyar; Bullen, Alexander; Ahaneku, Hycienth; Lunsford, Tisha N


    Instructional videos on bowel preparation have been shown to improve bowel preparation scores during colonoscopy. YouTube™ is one of the most frequently visited website on the internet and contains videos on bowel preparation. In an era where patients are increasingly turning to social media for guidance on their health, the content of these videos merits further investigation. We assessed the content of bowel preparation videos available on YouTube™ to determine the proportion of YouTube™ videos on bowel preparation that are high-content videos and the characteristics of these videos. YouTube™ videos were assessed for the following content: (1) definition of bowel preparation, (2) importance of bowel preparation, (3) instructions on home medications, (4) name of bowel cleansing agent (BCA), (5) instructions on when to start taking BCA, (6) instructions on volume and frequency of BCA intake, (7) diet instructions, (8) instructions on fluid intake, (9) adverse events associated with BCA, and (10) rectal effluent. Each content parameter was given 1 point for a total of 10 points. Videos with ≥5 points were considered by our group to be high-content videos. Videos with ≤4 points were considered low-content videos. Forty-nine (59 %) videos were low-content videos while 34 (41 %) were high-content videos. There was no association between number of views, number of comments, thumbs up, thumbs down or engagement score, and videos deemed high-content. Multiple regression analysis revealed bowel preparation videos on YouTube™ with length >4 minutes and non-patient authorship to be associated with high-content videos.

  9. Development and evaluation of an active instructional framework for undergraduate biology education (United States)

    Lysne, Steven John

    The practice of science education in American colleges and universities is changing and the role of faculty is changing as well. There is momentum in higher education to transform our instruction and do a better job at supporting more students' success in science and engineering programs. New teaching approaches are transforming undergraduate science instruction and new research demonstrates that these new approaches are more engaging for students, result in greater achievement, and create more positive attitudes toward science careers. Additionally, teaching scholars have described a paradigm shift toward placing the burden of content coverage on students which allows more time for in-class activities such as discussion and problem solving. Teaching faculty have been asked to redesign their courses and rebrand themselves as facilitators of student learning, rather than purveyors of information, to improve student engagement, achievement, and attitudes. This dissertation is a critical evaluation of both the assumption that active learning improves student achievement and knowledge retention and my own assumptions regarding science education research and my students' resiliency. This dissertation is a collection of research articles, published or in preparation, presenting the chronological development (Chapters 2 and 3) and evaluation (Chapters 4 and 5) of an active instructional model for undergraduate biology instruction. Chapters 1 and 6.provide a broad introduction and summary, respectively. Chapter 2 is an exploration of student engagement through interviews with a variety of students. From these interviews I identified several themes that students felt were important, and science instructors need to address, including the place where learning happens and strategies for better engaging students. Chapter 3 presents a review of the science education literature broadly and more focused review on the how students learn and how faculty teach. Consistent with what

  10. Deaf Children's Science Content Learning in Direct Instruction Versus Interpreted Instruction (United States)

    Kurz, Kim B.; Schick, Brenda; Hauser, Peter C.


    This research study compared learning of 6-9th grade deaf students under two modes of educational delivery--interpreted vs. direct instruction using science lessons. Nineteen deaf students participated in the study in which they were taught six science lessons in American Sign Language. In one condition, the lessons were taught by a hearing…

  11. Way Forward in the Twenty-First Century in Content-Based Instruction: Moving towards Integration (United States)

    Ruiz de Zarobe, Yolanda; Cenoz, Jasone


    The aim of this paper is to reflect on the theoretical and methodological underpinnings that provide the basis for an understanding of Content-Based Instruction/Content and Language Integrated Learning (CBI/CLIL) in the field and its relevance in education in the twenty-first century. It is argued that the agenda of CBI/CLIL needs to move towards…

  12. Surface, Deep, and Transfer? Considering the Role of Content Literacy Instructional Strategies (United States)

    Frey, Nancy; Fisher, Douglas; Hattie, John


    This article provides an organizational review of content literacy instructional strategies to forward a claim that some strategies work better for surface learning, whereas others are more effective for deep learning and still others for transfer learning. The authors argue that the failure to adopt content literacy strategies by disciplinary…

  13. The Grammar of History: Enhancing Content-Based Instruction through a Functional Focus on Language (United States)

    Schleppegrell, Mary J.; Achugar, Mariana; Oteiza, Teresa


    In K-12 contexts, the teaching of English language learners (ELLs) has been greatly influenced by the theory and practice of content-based instruction (CBI). A focus on content can help students achieve grade-level standards in school subjects while they develop English proficiency, but CBI practices have focused primarily on vocabulary and the…

  14. High and Low Implementers of Content Literacy Instruction: Portraits of Teacher Efficacy (United States)

    Cantrell, Susan Chambers; Callaway, Patricia


    This study used a teacher efficacy framework to describe the perceptions of high and low implementers of content literacy instruction in the context of a year-long professional development program. Interviews from middle and high school content teachers illustrated efficacy differences between teachers who demonstrated high and low levels of…

  15. The Data Literacy Advisory Team at Virginia Tech: Developing a Content Model for Data Literacy Instruction


    Ogier, Andrea; Lener, Edward F.; Miller, Rebecca K.


    In Spring 2013, the Center for Digital Research and Scholarship and the University Libraries at Virginia Tech formed a Data Literacy Advisory Team (DLAT) composed of reference, instruction, collections, data services and subject librarians and library specialists. Tasked with developing an instructional framework for delivering research and data-related content to faculty, staff and students (both graduate and undergraduate) in the univeristy-at-large, DLAT began by developing a skill-focuse...

  16. A Conceptual Framework for Organizing Active Learning Experiences in Biology Instruction (United States)

    Gardner, Joel; Belland, Brian R.


    Introductory biology courses form a cornerstone of undergraduate instruction. However, the predominantly used lecture approach fails to produce higher-order biology learning. Research shows that active learning strategies can increase student learning, yet few biology instructors use all identified active learning strategies. In this paper, we…

  17. High School Science Teachers' Perceptions of Teaching Content-Related Reading Comprehension Instruction (United States)

    Williams, Theresa

    In order to achieve academic success, students must be able to comprehend written material in content-area textbooks. However, a large number of high school students struggle to comprehend science content. Research findings have demonstrated that students make measurable gains in comprehending content-area textbooks when provided quality reading comprehension instruction. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of how high school science teachers perceived their responsibility to provide content-related comprehension instruction and 10 high school science teachers were interviewed for this study. Data analysis consisted of open, axial, and selective coding. The findings revealed that 8 out of the 10 participants believed that it is their responsibility to provide reading comprehension. However, the findings also revealed that the participants provided varying levels of reading comprehension instruction as an integral part of their science instruction. The potential for positive social change could be achieved by teachers and administrators. Teachers may use the findings to reflect upon their own personal feelings and beliefs about providing explicit reading comprehension. In addition to teachers' commitment to reading comprehension instruction, administrators could deliberate about professional development opportunities that might improve necessary skills, eventually leading to better comprehension skills for students and success in their education.

  18. Evolutionary Biology Instruction: What Students Gain from Learning through Inquiry. (United States)

    Dremock, Fae, Ed.


    This bulletin features articles on real world evolutionary biology, revolutionary classroom science, a review of new curricula in evolutionary biology, and the use of case studies to illustrate points in evolutionary biology. The articles are: (1) "'Real World' Evolutionary Biology: A Pragmatic Quest. Interview with BioQUEST's John Jungck" (Harvey…

  19. Teacher leadership in mathematics and science: Subject content knowledge and the improvement of instruction (United States)

    Manno, Christopher M.

    This study explores the role of teacher leader subject content knowledge in the promotion of professional development and instructional reform. Consistent with a distributed leadership perspective, many have asserted that the promotion of school effectiveness can be enhanced through the application of teacher leadership (Frost & Durrant, 2003; Harris, 2002a; Sherrill, 1999; Silva, Gimbert, & Nolan, 2000; York-Barr & Duke, 2004). There has been much discussion in the research about the significance of teachers' subject content knowledge in teaching and learning which has generally asserted a positive relationship with instructional practice and student achievement (Darling-Hammond, 2000; Newton & Newton, 2001; Parker & Heywood, 2000). The role of content knowledge in teacher leader work has been less researched. This study focused on deepening understanding of perceptions regarding teacher leaders' roles in improving instructional practice. Based on a framework of common teacher leader tasks, qualitative methods were used to investigate the relationship between teacher leader subject content knowledge and perceptions of effectiveness in promoting professional development and instructional reform. The study indicates that content experts behave differently than their non-expert counterparts. Content experts recognize deficiencies in colleagues' content knowledge as a primary problem in the implementation of math or science reform. Content experts view their work as advocacy for improved curriculum and instruction for all children, and work within a small set of task categories to promote discussions about teaching, learning, and content. Content experts develop trust and rapport with colleagues by demonstrating expertise, and are respected for their deep knowledge and efforts to help teachers learn the content. They also differ from non-content experts in the professional growth experiences in which they engage. The consideration of content expertise as an influence

  20. State of laboratory manual instruction in California community college introductory (non-majors) biology laboratory instruction (United States)

    Priest, Michelle

    College students must complete a life science course prior to graduation for a bachelor's degree. Generally, the course has lecture and laboratory components. It is in the laboratory where there are exceptional opportunities for exploration, challenge and application of the material learned. Optimally, this would utilize the best of inquiry based approaches. Most community colleges are using a home-grown or self written laboratory manual for the direction of work in the laboratory period. Little was known about the motivation, development and adaptation of use. It was also not known about the future of the laboratory manuals in light of the recent learning reform in California Community Colleges, Student Learning Outcomes. Extensive interviews were conducted with laboratory manual authors to determine the motivation, process of development, who was involved and learning framework used in the creation of the manuals. It was further asked of manual authors their ideas about the future of the manual, the development of staff and faculty and finally, the role Student Learning Outcomes would play in the manual. Science faculty currently teaching the non-majors biology laboratories for at least two semesters were surveyed on-line about actual practice of the manual, assessment, manual flexibility, faculty training and incorporation of Student Learning Outcomes. Finally, an evaluation of the laboratory manual was done using an established Laboratory Task Analysis Instrument. Laboratory manuals were evaluated on a variety of categories to determine the level of inquiry instruction done by students in the laboratory section. The results were that the development of homegrown laboratory manuals was done by community colleges in the Los Angeles and Orange Counties in an effort to minimize the cost of the manual to the students, to utilize all the exercises in a particular lab and to effectively utilize the materials already owned by the department. Further, schools wanted to

  1. Trends in Educational Research: A Content Analysis of the Studies Published in "International Journal of Instruction" (United States)

    Egmir, Eray; Erdem, Cahit; Koçyigit, Mehmet


    The aim of this study is to analyse the studies published in "International Journal of Instruction" ["IJI"] in the last ten years. This study is a qualitative, descriptive literature review study. The data was collected through document analysis, coded using constant comparison and analysed using content analysis. Frequencies…

  2. Exploring ESL/EFL Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge on Reading Strategy Instruction (United States)

    Xu, Wei


    Any instructional practice must be derived from a teacher's knowledge base for teaching, which can be acquired by training, study, or practice. While much attention has been paid to teachers' practical content knowledge in real educational settings, comprehensive syntheses of expert knowledge on a particular teaching task for a specific group of…

  3. Implementing an Instructional Framework and Content Literacy Strategies into Middle and High School Science Classes (United States)

    Nixon, Sarah B.; Saunders, Georgianna L.; Fishback, John E.


    The purpose of this research study was to examine the usage and perceived benefits of the ERR (Evocation, Realization of Meaning, and Reflection; Meredith & Steele, 2011) instructional framework and content literacy strategies with middle and high school science teachers. Former students who had participated in an undergraduate or graduate content…

  4. Government Websites for Children: How Useful Are They for Content Instruction? (United States)

    Bisland, Beverly Milner


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness for content instruction of the student pages in a group of websites sponsored by the United States government. The sites evaluated in this study can be accessed through the portal on the internet. Teachers and students classroom use of computers and the internet has increased…

  5. Integrating Curriculum through the Learning Cycle: Content-Based Reading and Vocabulary Instruction (United States)

    Spencer, Brenda H.; Guillaume, Andrea M.


    The content areas provide rich contexts for developing vocabulary. This article presents some principles and a lesson model--the learning cycle--that can be used to develop vocabulary while building understanding in science. Because science instruction and the learning cycle model promote learning in real-world contexts, they provide students with…

  6. Literacy Coaching: Middle School Academic Achievement and Teacher Perceptions Regarding Content Area Literacy Strategy Instruction (United States)

    Edwards, Anjell H.; Neill, Patricia; Faust, Phyllis B.


    This study examined differences in perceptions of content area teachers receiving literacy coaching and teachers receiving no literacy coaching regarding implementation of literacy instruction. It also examined student achievement on standardized tests relative to literacy coaching. A survey measured teachers' perceptions regarding their…

  7. Implementing Task-Oriented Content-Based Instruction for First- and Second-Generation Immigrant Students (United States)

    Santana-Williamson, Eliana


    This article discusses how the ESL program at an ethnically/linguistically diverse community college (between San Diego and the Mexican border) moved from a general, grammar-based ESL curriculum to a content-based instruction (CBI) curriculum. The move was designed to better prepare 1st- and 2nd-generation immigrant students for freshman…

  8. (Re)Imagining Content-Area Literacy Instruction. Language & Literacy Series (United States)

    Draper, Roni Jo, Ed.; Broomhead, Paul, Ed.; Jensen, Amy Petersen, Ed.; Nokes, Jeffery D., Ed.; Siebert, Daniel, Ed.


    Today's teachers need to prepare students for a world that places increasingly higher literacy demands on its citizens. In this timely book, the authors explore content-area literacy and instruction in English, music, science, mathematics, social studies, visual arts, technology, and theatre. Each of the chapters has been written by teacher…

  9. Thai EFL Learners' Attitudes and Motivation towards Learning English through Content-Based Instruction (United States)

    Lai Yuanxing; Aksornjarung, Prachamon


    This study examined EFL learners' attitudes and motivation towards learning English through content-based instruction (CBI) at a university in Thailand. Seventy-one (71) university students, the majority sophomores, answered a 6-point Likert scale questionnaire on attitudes and motivation together with six open-ended questions regarding learning…

  10. Impacts of Insufficient Instructional Materials on Teaching Biology: Higher Education Systems in Focus (United States)

    Edessa, Sutuma


    The purpose of this study was to assess and determine impacts of insufficient instructional materials and ineffective lesson delivery methods on teaching in biology higher education. The participants of this study were 60 trainees who graduated in Bachelor of Sciences from eight public universities in majoring biology. Data for the study was…

  11. Physics for Medicine and Biology: Determining Body Fat Content (United States)

    Aaron, Ronald; Altman, Albert


    Hydrostatic weighing is a technique for determining body fat content that is based on Archimedes principle and varied applications of the ideal gas law. We use this procedure as an example of the types of physics material which should be presented in an introductory course for students that are interested in careers in biology and medicine.

  12. Embedding Sustainability Instruction across Content Areas: best Classroom Practices from Informal Environmental Education (United States)

    Clary, R. M.; Walker, R. M.; Wissehr, C.


    Environmental education (EE) facilitates students' scientific and environmental literacy, and addresses content areas including sustainability, ecology, and civic responsibility. However, U.S. science content compartmentalization and EE's interdisciplinary nature historically made it a fragmented curriculum within U.S. schools. To gain a better understanding of effective EE instruction that can be transferred to traditional K-12 classrooms, we researched the interactions between a recognized environmental residential camp and students and teachers from six participating schools using grounded theory methodology. Our research identified the residential learning center's objectives, methods of instruction, and objectives' alignment to the delivered curricula. Data generated included lesson plans, survey responses, and interviews. Students (n = 215) identified wilderness and geology activities as the activities they wanted to experience more; they also identified developing curiosity and a sense of discovery as the most meaningful. Whereas most student-identified meaningful experiences aligned with the center's curricular objectives within the optional units, categories emerged that were not explicitly targeted in the unit activities but were embedded throughout the curriculum in sustainable practices, data collection, and reflections. We propose that embedded activities and implicit instruction can be included across content areas within K-12 classrooms. Teacher modeling and implicit instruction will require minimal classroom time, and facilitate students' scientific and environmental literacy in topics such as sustainability and citizen responsibility.

  13. The effects of academic literacy instruction on engagement and conceptual understanding of biology of ninth-grade students (United States)

    Larson, Susan C.

    Academic language, discourse, vocabulary, motivation, and comprehension of complex texts and concepts are keys to learning subject-area content. The need for a disciplinary literacy approach in high school classrooms accelerates as students become increasing disengaged in school and as content complexity increases. In the present quasi-experimental mixed-method study, a ninth-grade biology unit was designed with an emphasis on promoting academic literacy skills, discourse, meaningful constructivist learning, interest development, and positive learning experiences in order to learn science content. Quantitative and qualitative analyses on a variety of measures completed by 222 students in two high schools revealed that those who received academic literacy instruction in science class performed at significantly higher levels of conceptual understanding of biology content, academic language and vocabulary use, reasoned thought, engagement, and quality of learning experience than control-group students receiving traditionally-organized instruction. Academic literacy was embedded into biology instruction to engage students in meaning-making discourses of science to promote learning. Academic literacy activities were organized according the phases of interest development to trigger and sustain interest and goal-oriented engagement throughout the unit. Specific methods included the Generative Vocabulary Matrix (GVM), scenario-based writing, and involvement in a variety of strategically-placed discourse activities to sustain or "boost" engagement for learning. Traditional instruction for the control group included teacher lecture, whole-group discussion, a conceptual organizer, and textbook reading. Theoretical foundations include flow theory, sociocultural learning theory, and interest theory. Qualitative data were obtained from field notes and participants' journals. Quantitative survey data were collected and analyzed using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) to

  14. INSTRUCT - An integrated structural biology infrastructure for Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dohnálek, Jan


    Roč. 17, 1a (2010), b3 ISSN 1211-5894. [Discussions in Structural Molecular Biology /8./. 18.03.2010-20.03.2010, Nové Hrady] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/09/1407 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 31220 - SPINE2-COMPLEXES Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : structural biology * research infrastructure Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  15. Vocabulary Instruction on Sesame Street: A Content Analysis of the Word on the Street Initiative. (United States)

    Larson, Anne L; Rahn, Naomi L


    Authors of this content analysis examined how Sesame Street's Word on the Street initiative aligns with research-based practices for selecting and teaching vocabulary to young children and considered how speech-language pathologists can use educational media to supplement traditional vocabulary instruction. Study authors used a well-established vocabulary selection hierarchy to analyze 170 target words across 7 seasons of Word on the Street to judge appropriateness for preschool vocabulary instruction. The authors then coded vocabulary instruction across 96 episodes to determine frequency and types of teaching strategies used within this educational program. Target word selection was appropriate in 77% of episodes. Some instructional strategies were used frequently (e.g., exposure to a word, examples, and nonexamples), whereas others were used rarely (e.g., definitions, active learning). Across episodes, there was substantial variability in how many opportunities children had to learn words. Vocabulary instruction during Word on the Street could be improved by targeting only high-utility words, maximizing learning opportunities during all segments, and increasing strategies that promote deep processing. Although research is needed to examine word learning during Word on the Street, speech-language pathologists may find selected segments targeting Tier 2 words useful for augmenting traditional intervention approaches.

  16. Do Croatian open access journals support ethical research? Content analysis of instructions to authors. (United States)

    Stojanovski, Jadranka


    The aim of our study was to investigate the extent to which Instructions to authors of the Croatian open access (OA) journals are addressing ethical issues. Do biomedical journals differ from the journals from other disciplines in that respect? Our hypothesis was that biomedical journals maintain much higher publication ethics standards. This study looked at 197 Croatian OA journals Instructions to authors to address the following groups of ethical issues: general terms; guidelines and recommendations; research approval and registration; funding and conflict of interest; peer review; redundant publications, misconduct and retraction; copyright; timeliness; authorship; and data accessibility. We further compared a subset of 159 non-biomedical journals with a subset of 38 biomedical journals. Content analysis was used to discern the ethical issues representation in the instructions to authors. The groups of biomedical and non-biomedical journals were similar in terms of originality (χ2=2.183, P=0.140), peer review process (χ2=0.296, P=0.586), patent/grant statement (χ2=2.184, P=0.141), and timeliness of publication (χ2=0.369, P=0.544). We identified significant differences among categories including ethical issues typical for the field of biomedicine, like patients (χ2=47.111, Pauthor guidelines calls for more attention to the structure and the content of Instructions to authors in Croatian OA journals.

  17. Experienced biology teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) on photosynthesis (United States)

    Widodo, Ari


    Teacher certification program raises a question of whether certified teachers really more competence than non-certified teachers. However, since the notion of teachers' competence is measure in terms of content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge instead of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK). Teacher' PCK as the essence of teachers' competence is somehow ignored. The study presented here analyses experienced biology teachers' PCK. Subjects are experienced biology teachers who teach at the formerly called Pioneered Standardized Schools (RSBI). They are purposively chosen since they are certified teachers who have received very intensive training organized by the education authorities (national, province and district) as well as by the schools. Therefore, this group of teachers can be considered as experienced and well-prepared for teaching science.

  18. Enhancing Biology Instruction with the Human Genome Project (United States)

    Buxeda, Rosa J.; Moore-Russo, Deborah A.


    The Human Genome Project (HGP) is a recent scientific milestone that has received notable attention. This article shows how a biology course is using the HGP to enhance students' experiences by providing awareness of cutting edge research, with information on new emerging career options, and with opportunities to consider ethical questions raised…

  19. Impacts of insufficient instructional materials on teaching biology: Higher education systems in focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutuma Edessa


    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to assess and determine impacts of insufficient instructional materials and ineffective lesson delivery methods on teaching in biology higher education. The participants of this study were 60 trainees who graduated in Bachelor of Sciences from eight public universities in majoring biology. Data for the study was collected while these trainees were attending the course of Biology Teaching Methods in the Post Graduate Diploma in Teaching, both in the regular and summer 2015/2016 training programs at Addis Ababa University. The study employs a mixed method design of both qualitative and quantitative data evaluations. Data was collected through classroom observations and interviews with the trainees. The findings indicated that insufficient instructional materials and ineffective teaching methods in higher education had negative impacts; that have affected the skills of performing biological tasks of graduates 71%. In the course of the Post Graduate Diploma in Teaching training, trainees were unsuccessful to conduct essential biological tasks expected from graduates of biology upon the completion of their undergraduate study program. The study was concluded with emphasis on the need to integrate theory and practice through using adequate instructional materials and proper teaching methods in the higher education biology teaching.

  20. Revisiting the Content-Based Instruction in Language Teaching in relation with CLIL: Implementation and Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Karim


    Full Text Available The present article has reviewed literature on Content-Based Instruction (CBI along with the Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL in Language Teaching based on the recent development in the field. This includes the learning principle, factors responsible for the successful implementation of CBI/CLIL, their prospect and outcome. The paper is written based on secondary data from different articles providing exploratory account of contexts observed, paying attention to the views and practices of participants, and review papers on previous studies. The goal is to understand the aspects of CBI, its relation with CLIL, success and shortcoming resulted from the implementation in language teaching.

  1. Audio-Tutorial Versus Conventional Lecture-Laboratory Instruction in a University Animal Biology Course. (United States)

    Rowsey, Robert E.

    The purpose of this study was to analyze two methods of instruction used in an animal biology course. One group of students, the experimental group, was taught using an audio-tutorial program, and another group, the control group, was taught using the conventional lecture-laboratory method. Pretest and posttest data were collected from achievement…

  2. Effects of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) on Secondary School Students' Performance in Biology (United States)

    Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere; Afolabi, Adedeji Olufemi


    This study investigated the effects of computer assisted instruction (CAI) on secondary school students' performance in biology. Also, the influence of gender on the performance of students exposed to CAI in individualised or cooperative learning settings package was examined. The research was a quasi experimental involving a 3 x 2 factorial…

  3. Can a Diversified Instructional Approach Featuring Active Learning Improve Biology Students' Attitudes toward General Education? (United States)

    Rutledge, Michael L.; Lampley, Sandra A.


    In an effort to make our classes more engaging, we recently reorganized sections of our nonmajors biology course, using current issues in biology and society as a premise to promote coherence among course content and emphasize the relevance of biological concepts to everyday life. A key aspect of the reorganization included the development and…

  4. Examining the Content of Head Start Teachers' Literacy Instruction within Two Activity Contexts during Large-Group Circle Time (United States)

    Zhang, Chenyi; Diamond, Karen E.; Powell, Douglas R.


    Large-group circle time is an important component of many preschool classrooms' daily schedules. This study scrutinized the teaching content of Head Start teachers' literacy instruction (i.e., the types of literacy concept embedded within the instruction, lexical characteristics of teachers' talk, and elaborations on literacy knowledge) in two…

  5. Exploring Biology Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge in the Teaching of Genetics in Swaziland Science Classrooms (United States)

    Mthethwa-Kunene, Eunice; Oke Onwu, Gilbert; de Villiers, Rian


    This study explored the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and its development of four experienced biology teachers in the context of teaching school genetics. PCK was defined in terms of teacher content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and knowledge of students' preconceptions and learning difficulties. Data sources of teacher knowledge base included teacher-constructed concept maps, pre- and post-lesson teacher interviews, video-recorded genetics lessons, post-lesson teacher questionnaire and document analysis of teacher's reflective journals and students' work samples. The results showed that the teachers' individual PCK profiles consisted predominantly of declarative and procedural content knowledge in teaching basic genetics concepts. Conditional knowledge, which is a type of meta-knowledge for blending together declarative and procedural knowledge, was also demonstrated by some teachers. Furthermore, the teachers used topic-specific instructional strategies such as context-based teaching, illustrations, peer teaching, and analogies in diverse forms but failed to use physical models and individual or group student experimental activities to assist students' internalization of the concepts. The finding that all four teachers lacked knowledge of students' genetics-related preconceptions was equally significant. Formal university education, school context, journal reflection and professional development programmes were considered as contributing to the teachers' continuing PCK development. Implications of the findings for biology teacher education are briefly discussed.

  6. Ocular tracking of biological and nonbiological motion: the effect of instructed agency. (United States)

    Zwickel, Jan; Hegele, Mathias; Grosjean, Marc


    Recent findings suggest that visuomotor performance is modulated by people's beliefs about the agency (e.g., animate vs. inanimate) behind the events they perceive. This study investigated the effect of instructed agency on ocular tracking of point-light motions with biological and nonbiological velocity profiles. The motions followed either a relatively simple (ellipse) or a more complex (scribble) trajectory, and agency was manipulated by informing the participants that the motions they saw were either human or computer generated. In line with previous findings, tracking performance was better for biological than for nonbiological motions, and this effect was particularly pronounced for the simpler (elliptical) motions. The biological advantage was also larger for the human than for the computer instruction condition, but only for a measure that captured the predictive component of smooth pursuit. These results suggest that ocular tracking is influenced by the internal forward model people choose to adopt.

  7. A comparison of student reactions to biology instruction by interactive videodisc or conventional laboratory (United States)

    Leonard, William H.

    This study was designed to learn if students perceived an interactive computer/videodisc learning system to represent a viable alternative to (or extension of) the conventional laboratory for learning biology skills and concepts normally taught under classroom laboratory conditions. Data were collected by questionnaire for introductory biology classes at a large midwestern university where students were randomly assigned to two interactive videodisc/computer lessons titled Respiration and Climate and Life or traditional laboratory investigation with the same titles and concepts. The interactive videodisc system consisted of a TRS-80 Model III microcomputer interfaced to a Pioneer laser-disc player and a color TV monitor. Students indicated an overall level satisfaction with this strategy very similar to that of conventional laboratory instruction. Students frequently remarked that videodisc instruction gave them more experimental and procedural options and more efficient use of instructional time than did the conventional laboratory mode. These two results are consistent with past CAI research. Students also had a strong perception that the images on the videodisc were not real and this factor was perceived as having both advantages and disadvantages. Students found the two approaches to be equivalent to conventional laboratory instruction in the areas of general interest, understanding of basic principles, help on examinations, and attitude toward science. The student-opinion data in this study do not suggest that interactive videodisc technology serve as a substitute to the wet laboratory experience, but that this medium may enrich the spectrum of educational experiences usually not possible in typical classroom settings.

  8. A Case Study on Content Based Instruction for Primary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helda Alicia Hidalgo Dávila


    Full Text Available Teaching English at the primary school level is a challenge in countries such as Colombia where children study this language for only one hour a week in most institutions, and in the best of cases for 3 hours a week. Most of the public schools do not have enough and/or adequate English materials at their disposal for students to work with; therefore, the task of the English teacher is difficult. A case study with a group of children in public schools was developed at Universidad de Nariño (Pasto, Colombia to test some materials developed by a group of professors who considered CBI (Content-Based Instruction materials as an option to motivate children to learn English and as a tool for language acquisition through the subject matter contents.

  9. Teaching "Cross-Cultural Communication" through Content Based Instruction: Curriculum Design and Learning Outcome from EFL Learners' Perspectives (United States)

    Tseng, Chia-Ti Heather


    This study aims to investigate EFL learners' perspectives for the effectiveness of content-based instruction in a cross-cultural communication course. The main objectives of this study are three-folds: (1) to examine students' perspectives regarding the effectiveness of content learning; (2) to examine students' perspectives regarding the…

  10. Developing Content Knowledge in Struggling Readers: Differential Effects of Strategy Instruction for Younger and Older Elementary Students (United States)

    Elleman, Amy M.; Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Spencer, Jane Lawrence; Compton, Donald L.


    This study compared the effects of 2 strategy-based comprehension treatments intended to promote vocabulary and content knowledge for elementary students at risk for developing reading difficulties (N = 105) with a traditional content approach. The study examined the effectiveness of strategy versus nonstrategy instruction on reading…

  11. Use of Content Based Instruction and Socratic Discussion for ESL Undergraduate Biomedical Science Students to Develop Critical Thinking Skills (United States)

    Burder, Ronan L.; Tangalaki, Kathy; Hryciw, Deanne H.


    Content based language instruction can assist English as a second language (ESL) students to achieve better learning and teaching outcomes, however, it is primarily used to understand content, and may not help to develop critical analysis skills. Here we describe a pilot study that used a "Socratic" small-group discussion in addition to…

  12. A Comparison of the Personalized System of Instruction and a Conventional Biology Course on the Achievement of Junior College Freshmen. (United States)

    Gifford, Vernon D.; Vicks, Joann


    Compared conventional biology instruction to personalized system of instruction (PSI) and investigated relationship between achievement and selected variables (age, sex, family income/size, grade point average, motivational factors, treatment group, and California Achievement Test scores) of college students (N=80). Results, among others, indicate…

  13. Sampling and Analysis Instruction for the Demolition of the Masonry Block for the 108-F Biological Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrnes, M. E.


    This sampling and analysis instruction (SAI) has been prepared to clearly define the sampling and analysis activities to be performed in support of the demolition and disposition (or disposal) of the 108-F Biological Laboratory masonry block walls

  14. Online information seeking practices of biology teachers and the perceived influences on instructional planning (United States)

    Perrault, Anne Marie

    The purpose of this study was to examine biology teachers' perceptions of how their online information seeking practices influence their instructional planning. When teachers engage in activities to locate, evaluate, and use online information and resources, a myriad of inter-related and often inseparable consequences follows. These influences may be any combination of direct/indirect, desirable/undesirable, or anticipated/unanticipated (Rogers, 2003). This exploratory study collected baseline data regarding teachers' online practices and its influence on their practice. There were two phases of data collection in this study. Phase I was an online survey of more than seventy New York State biology teachers. The survey was intended to capture (1) a snapshot of the biology teachers' online information seeking practices during the summer and fall 2004, and (2) their perceptions regarding how their online practices influenced their instructional planning. In Phase II, ten study participants were interviewed in order to explore in greater detail the consequences of their online information seeking practices on their instructional planning. Four themes reflecting the consequences of teachers' information seeking practices emerged from the data analysis: Currency of Information; Sparking of Ideas and Gaining Personal Knowledge; Resource Management and the Role of Time; and Webs of Sharing. Each theme encompassed both the purposeful and the indirect actions by teachers to access knowledge and resources to refine and improve their instructional planning. This study's findings show that teachers are using a greater number and wider range of current and multi-modal resources than pre-Internet and they perceive this as an advantage in creating authentic, inquiry-based learning experiences. A notable discovery was of the under-use by teachers of educational online resources specifically designed to support teaching and learning activities (e.g., digital libraries, online

  15. Impact of social media as an instructional component on content knowledge, attitudes, and public engagement related to global climate change (United States)

    Greenberg, Sallie E.

    Social media (SM) are considered important avenues to reach citizens and engage them in social change. Given the widespread use of SM and their potential to enhance communication, they could also have significant influence when used as an educational tool. Educators are exploring whether classroom SM use has instructional benefits, such as enhancing interactivity and engagement. It is critical to understand the potential of SM for creating meaningful learning environments and public engagement pathways. Much work remains to understand the use of SM in this context and how to use them effectively. This study draws on active learning theory to examine the impact of SM as an instructional component with community college students learning to make connections among science, social responsibility, and global understanding in an environmental biology course (the Course). Using global climate change as a theme, the Course included a Facebook instructional component. A pretest--posttest, nonrandomized comparison group design was used to measure the impact of Facebook as an integrated component of the Course. The treatment and comparison groups were determined to be comparable based on demographics, access and ownership of digital devices, and SM use despite non-random assignment. No statistically significant differences were found between groups on these factors. The intervention consisted of semester-long required use of Facebook for the treatment group. The impact of the SM intervention was measured in three areas: (a) content knowledge, (b) attitudes toward climate change, and (c) public engagement actions and intentions to act. At the conclusion of the Course, no discernable difference was measured in content knowledge gains between the two groups. However, students who used Facebook experienced statistically significant differences in attitude, becoming increasingly concerned about global climate change. The comparison group demonstrated statistically significant


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dueñas


    Full Text Available As an instructional practice in second and foreign language education, content-based instruction is not a fully revolutionary paradigm, but a spin-off approach which derives from the evolution of Communicative Language Teaching. Sharing with CLT the same fundamental principies, CBI bases its idiosyncrasy on promoting the use of subject matter for secondlforeign language teaching purposes. This article aims at exploring the nature and scope of the content-based methodological framework -the whats-, the theoretical foundations that support it -the whys-, and the different prototype models for application in compliance with parameters such as institutional requirements, educational leve], and the particular nature and object of instruction -the hows. Additionally, it will also undertake a review of a copious nurnber of references selected from the existing literature, mostly contributed by researchers and experienced practitioners in the field -the whos.

  17. The Effect of Instructional Technology and Material Design Course to Teacher Candidates' Gaining of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Competencies (United States)

    Tozkoparam, Süleyman Burak; Kiliç, Muhammet Emre; Usta, Ertugrul


    The aim of this study is to determine Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Competencies of teacher candidates in Turkish Teaching department of Mevlana (Rumi) University and the effect of Instructional Technology and Material Design (ITMD) Course on TPACK. The study is a study of quantitative type and single-group pretest-posttest…

  18. Analysis of Taiwanese Elementary School English Teachers' Perceptions of, Designs of, and Knowledge Constructed about Differentiated Instruction in Content (United States)

    Chien, Chin-Wen


    This study analyzed Taiwanese elementary school English teachers' perceptions of, designs on, and knowledge constructed about, differentiated instruction in content in an intensive summer course. Based on the data analysis of surveys, the document, videos, and an interview, the study had the following findings. First, before the intensive summer…

  19. A Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Based Instructional Design Model: A Third Version Implementation Study in a Technology Integration Course (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Jung; Kim, ChanMin


    This paper presents the third version of a technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) based instructional design model that incorporates the distinctive, transformative, and integrative views of TPACK into a comprehensive actionable framework. Strategies of relating TPACK domains to real-life learning experiences, role-playing, and…

  20. A hybrid biology course: Implications of merging Internet-enhanced and campus-based instructional modes (United States)

    Clark, Sharron Ann

    This is possibly the first study of a hybrid online biology course where WebCT internet-enhanced modes of instruction replaced conventional face-to-face (F2F) lecture materials, merging with collaborative inquiry-based on-campus laboratory instructional modes. Although not a true experiment, the design of this study included three independent cohorts, a pretest and three posttests, as described by Gay and Airasian (2000). This study reported differences in age, gender, number of prior online courses and pretest scores. Over time, persistence, achievement and computer self-efficacy differed in one hybrid online section (N = 31) and two F2F cohorts (N = 29 and 30). One F2F cohort used written test materials and the other used intranet-delivered materials to examine possible differences in groups using electronic assessment modes. In this study, community college students self-selecting into online hybrid and traditional versions of the same biology course did not have the same number of prior online courses, achievement or persistence rates as those self-selecting into F2F sections of the same course with the same laboratories and instructor. This study includes twenty pretest items selected from Instructor's Manual and Test Item File to Accompany: Inquiry into Life, 9th Edition (Schrock, 2000). This study produced 63 tables, 13 figures and 173 references.

  1. Improving Secondary School Students' Achievement and Retention in Biology Through Video-based Multimedia Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amosa Isiaka Gambari, PhD


    Full Text Available The study examined the effects of video-based multimedia instruction on secondary school students' achievement and retention in biology. In Nigeria, 120 students (60 boys and 60 girls were randomly selected from four secondary schools assigned either into one of three experimental groups: Animation + Narration; Animation + On-screen Text; Animation + Narration + On-screen Text or a control group. The pretest, posttest experimental, and control group design was adopted. A 50-item multiple-choice objective test termed Biology Achievement Test (BAT was used for collecting data. The validated BAT was tested for reliability using Kuder Richardson (KR20, which yielded 0.89. T-test, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA, and Scheffe’s post-hoc analysis were used in determining the significant differences among the four groups. The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference among the experimental groups. Generally, students under multimedia instruction performed better than their colleagues in the conventional teaching method. However, students in conventional teaching method had better retention than other groups.

  2. Investigating How German Biology Teachers Use Three-Dimensional Physical Models in Classroom Instruction: a Video Study (United States)

    Werner, Sonja; Förtsch, Christian; Boone, William; von Kotzebue, Lena; Neuhaus, Birgit J.


    To obtain a general understanding of science, model use as part of National Education Standards is important for instruction. Model use can be characterized by three aspects: (1) the characteristics of the model, (2) the integration of the model into instruction, and (3) the use of models to foster scientific reasoning. However, there were no empirical results describing the implementation of National Education Standards in science instruction concerning the use of models. Therefore, the present study investigated the implementation of different aspects of model use in German biology instruction. Two biology lessons on the topic neurobiology in grade nine of 32 biology teachers were videotaped (N = 64 videos). These lessons were analysed using an event-based coding manual according to three aspects of model described above. Rasch analysis of the coded categories was conducted and showed reliable measurement. In the first analysis, we identified 68 lessons where a total of 112 different models were used. The in-depth analysis showed that special aspects of an elaborate model use according to several categories of scientific reasoning were rarely implemented in biology instruction. A critical reflection of the used model (N = 25 models; 22.3%) and models to demonstrate scientific reasoning (N = 26 models; 23.2%) were seldom observed. Our findings suggest that pre-service biology teacher education and professional development initiatives in Germany have to focus on both aspects.

  3. [Composition and content of biologically active substances in rose hips]. (United States)

    Dubtsova, G N; Negmatulloeva, R N; Bessonov, V V; Baĭkov, V G; Sheviakova, L V; Makhova, N N; Perederiaev, O I; Bogachuk, M N; Baĭgarin, E K


    The paper studies the chemical composition of the powders obtained from the pulp with the skins and seeds of fruits of wild rose hips. Research results have shown that the main fraction of the powder is dietary fiber, powder of seeds of insoluble fiber in 1,6 and 2,3 higher than in the powder of the fruit with a thin skin and pulp, respectively. The greatest amount of carbohydrates and protein found in powders and pulp of the fruit with a thin skin, and lipids predominate in the powder from the seeds. Found that the lipid powder rosehip richest in oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids, the share of oleic acid has 6,4-19,2%, linoleic and linolenic 19,7-45,8 and 23,3-33,9% of the amount of fatty acids. Lipids powders of hips and seeds of rose have higher levels of essential linoleic acid and powder from the pulp with the skins - linolenic acid. In the study established the presence of sterols 7 fractions, the predominant of which is the beta-sitosterol. In the powder from the pulp with the skins found the greatest amount of ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and the powder of seeds - vitamin E. Carotenoids in powders are beta-carotene and lycopene. The high content of ascorbic acid, vitamin E and carotenoids in powder from wild rose hips makes them a good source of antioxidants. Therefore, we studied the possibility of using vegetable powders obtained from hips of wild rose, to enrich biologically active substances such as vitamins C, E and carotenoids, food supply, particularly of health care use. Rosehip powder from the pulp with the skins had the highest antioxidant activity, antioxidant activity of hips powders was 74% of the activity of powder from the pulp with the skins, the lowest antioxidant activity was observed in the powder from the wild rose seeds. That's way, based on the analysis of the chemical composition of rose hip powder found high levels they ascorbic acid, carotenoids, flavonoids,found their high antioxidant activity. It allows to recommend powders

  4. Pragmatic turn in biology: From biological molecules to genetic content operators. (United States)

    Witzany, Guenther


    Erwin Schrödinger's question "What is life?" received the answer for decades of "physics + chemistry". The concepts of Alain Turing and John von Neumann introduced a third term: "information". This led to the understanding of nucleic acid sequences as a natural code. Manfred Eigen adapted the concept of Hammings "sequence space". Similar to Hilbert space, in which every ontological entity could be defined by an unequivocal point in a mathematical axiomatic system, in the abstract "sequence space" concept each point represents a unique syntactic structure and the value of their separation represents their dissimilarity. In this concept molecular features of the genetic code evolve by means of self-organisation of matter. Biological selection determines the fittest types among varieties of replication errors of quasi-species. The quasi-species concept dominated evolution theory for many decades. In contrast to this, recent empirical data on the evolution of DNA and its forerunners, the RNA-world and viruses indicate cooperative agent-based interactions. Group behaviour of quasi-species consortia constitute de novo and arrange available genetic content for adaptational purposes within real-life contexts that determine epigenetic markings. This review focuses on some fundamental changes in biology, discarding its traditional status as a subdiscipline of physics and chemistry.

  5. Ecology Content in Introductory Biology Courses: A Comparative Analysis (United States)

    Pool, Richard F.; Turner, Gregory D.; Böttger, S. Anne


    In recent years the need for ecological literacy and problem solving has increased, but there is no evidence that this need is reflected by increased ecology coverage at institutions of higher education (IHE) across the United States. Because introductory biology courses may serve to direct student interest toward particular biological categories…

  6. Acquiring Science and Social Studies Knowledge in Kindergarten through Fourth Grade: Conceptualization, Design, Implementation, and Efficacy Testing of Content-Area Literacy Instruction (CALI) (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Dombek, Jennifer; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Spencer, Mercedes; Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Coffinger, Sean; Zargar, Elham; Wood, Taffeta; Petscher, Yaacov


    With national focus on reading and math achievement, science and social studies have received less instructional time. Yet, accumulating evidence suggests that content knowledge is an important predictor of proficient reading. Starting with a design study, we developed content-area literacy instruction (CALI) as an individualized (or personalized)…

  7. What We Learned from a Tomato: Partnering with a Content Expert Plants New Ideas for Instruction (United States)

    Ermeling, Bradley A.


    The interactions described in this article represent an example of teachers expanding horizons of instructional plans as a direct result of outside expert contributions. After alerting teachers to oversimplified claims about the benefits of lycopene, the research fellow presented the team with a wider range of instructional options to consider…

  8. Upshot of the ripening time on biological activities, phenol content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 2, 2013 ... Total phenol content and the antioxidant activities of three cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. were evaluated. The results show that the ecotypes were significantly different according to their fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activity, as well as their polyphenol profiles. Rossa fruit.

  9. Upshot of the ripening time on biological activities, phenol content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total phenol content and the antioxidant activities of three cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. were evaluated. The results show that the ecotypes were significantly different according to their fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activity, as well as their polyphenol profiles. Rossa fruit collected in August ...

  10. The Impact of Different Instructional Strategies on Students' Understanding about the Cell Cycle in a General Education Biology Course (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Sanjana

    This study investigated the impact of different instructional strategies on students' understanding about the cell cycle in a general education biology course. Although several studies have documented gains in students' cell cycle understanding after instruction, these studies generally use only one instructional method, often without a comparison group. The goal of this study was to learn more about students' misconceptions about the cell cycle and how those ideas change after three different evidence-based learning experiences in undergraduate general education. Undergraduate students in six laboratory sections (n = 24; N = 144) in a large public institution in the western United States were surveyed pre- and post-instruction using a 14-item valid and reliable survey of cell cycle knowledge. Cronbach's alpha for the standard scoring convention was 0.264 and for the alternate scoring convention was 0.360, documenting serious problems with inconsistent validity and reliability of the survey. Operating as though the findings are at least a proxy for actual cell cycle knowledge, score comparisons by groups of interest were explored, including pre- and post-instruction differences among demographic groups of interest and three instructional settings: a bead modeling activity, a role-playing game, and 5E instructional strategy. No significant differences were found across groups of interest or by strategy, but some significant item-level differences were found. Implications and discussion of these shifts is noted in lieu of the literature.

  11. Teachers' Perceptions of the Impact of High Stakes Testing on Instructional Content, Instructional Strategies, Motivation and Morale, and Pressure to Improve Student Performance in Relation to Their Views on Accountability and Its Effect on Students with Learning Disabilities (United States)

    Carr, Chauncey


    The purpose of the study was to examine teachers' perceptions of the impact of high stakes testing on instructional content, instructional strategies, motivation and morale, and pressure to improve student performance in relation to their views on accountability. It also sought to identify teachers' perceptions of the effect of high stakes testing…

  12. Instructional Methods and Students' End of Term Achievement in Biology in Selected Secondary Schools in Sokoto Metropolis, Sokoto State Nigeria (United States)

    Shamsuddeen, Abdulrahman; Amina, Hassan


    This study investigated the Correlation between instructional methods and students end of term achievement in Biology in selected secondary schools in Sokoto Metropolis, Sokoto State Nigeria. The study addressed three Specific objectives. To examine the relationship between; Cooperative learning methods, guided discovery, Simulation Method and…





    SUMMARYIn this study, the petroleum ether, dichloromethane, methanol and hot water extracts were prepared from bilberry blooms. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of these extracts were determined as pyrocatechol and quercetin equivalents, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was investigated by using four methods including DPPH free radical and ABTS cation radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays. The methanol ext...

  14. Effects of socioscientific issues-based instruction on argumentation ability and biology concepts of upper secondary school students (United States)

    Faelt, Surasak; Samiphak, Sara; Pattaradilokrat, Sittiporn


    Argumentation skill is an essential skill needed in students, and one of the competencies in scientific literacy. Through arguing on socioscientific issues, students may gain deeper conceptual understanding. The purpose of this research is to examine the efficacy of a socioscientific issues-based instruction compared with an inquirybased instruction. This is to determine which one is better in promoting 10th grade students' argumentation ability and biology concepts of digestive system and cellular respiration. The forty 10th grade students included in this study were from two mathematics-science program classes in a medium-sized secondary school located in a suburb of Buriram province, Thailand. The research utilizes a quasi-experimental design; pre-test post-test control group design. We developed and implemented 4 lesson plans for both socioscientific issues-based instruction and inquiry-based instruction. Ten weeks were used to collect the data. A paper-based questionnaire and informal interviews were designed to test students' argumentation ability, and the two-tier multiple-choice test was designed to test their biology concepts. This research explore qualitatively and quantitatively students' argumentation abilities and biology concepts, using arithmetic mean, mean of percentage, standard deviation and t-test. Results show that there is no significant difference between the two group regarding mean scores of the argumentation ability. However, there is significant difference between the two groups regarding mean scores of the biology concepts. This suggests that socioscientific issues-based instruction could be used to improve students' biology concepts.

  15. Teaching the content in context: Preparing "highly qualified" and "high quality" teachers for instruction in underserved secondary science classrooms (United States)

    Tolbert, Sara E.


    This dissertation research project presents the results of a longitudinal study that investigates the knowledge, beliefs, and practices of 13 preservice secondary science teachers participating in a science teacher credentialing/Masters program designed to integrate issues of equity and diversity throughout coursework and seminars. Results are presented in the form of three papers: The first paper describes changes in preservice teacher knowledge about contextualization in science instruction, where contextualization is defined as facilitating authentic connections between science learning and relevant personal, social, cultural, ecological, and political contexts of students in diverse secondary classrooms; the second paper relates changes in the self-efficacy and content-specific beliefs about science, science teaching, diversity, and diversity in science instruction; and the final paper communicates the experiences and abilities of four "social justice advocates" learning to contextualize science instruction in underserved secondary placement classrooms. Results indicate that secondary student teachers developed more sophisticated understandings of how to contextualize science instruction with a focus on promoting community engagement and social/environmental activism in underserved classrooms and how to integrate science content and diversity instruction through student-centered inquiry activities. Although most of the science teacher candidates developed more positive beliefs about teaching science in underrepresented classrooms, many teacher candidates still attributed their minority students' underperformance and a (perceived) lack of interest in school to family and cultural values. The "social justice advocates" in this study were able to successfully contextualize science instruction to varying degrees in underserved placement classrooms, though the most significant limitations on their practice were the contextual factors of their student teaching

  16. The feasibility study based on e-commerce instructions-focuses on detection and deletion of illegal content (United States)

    Guo, Tianze; Bi, Siyu; Liu, Jiaming


    This essay legally restrains the illegal content based on the e-commerce directive and introduces that the European countries detect and notify illegal content through the instructions of competent authorities, notification of credible flaggers, user reports and technical tools. The illegal content should be deleted through the service terms and transparency report basing on prevent excessive deletions system. At the same time, use filters to detect and filter to against the recurrence of illegal content. By analyzing the advantages of China under the environment of cracking down on illegal content, this essay concludes that the success of China in cracking down on illegal content lies in all-round collaborative management model of countries, governments, enterprises and individuals. At the end of the essay, one is to build a training corpus that can automatically update the ability to identify the illegal content. And it proposes an optimization scheme that establish a complete set of address resolution procedures and classify IP address data according to big data analysis and DNS protection module to prevent hackers from spreading illegal content by tampering with DNS segments.

  17. A study to compare traditional and constructivism-based instruction of a high school biology unit on biosystematics (United States)

    Saigo, Barbara Woodworth

    The researcher collaborated with four high school biology teachers who had been involved for 2-1/2 years in a constructivism-based professional development experience that emphasized teaching for conceptual change and using classroom-based inquiry as a basis for making instructional decisions. The researcher and teachers designed a five-day instructional unit on biosystematics using two contrasting approaches, comprising the treatment variable. The "traditional" unit emphasized lecture, written materials, and some laboratory activities. The "constructivist" unit emphasized a specific, inquiry-based, conceptual change strategy and collaborative learning. The study used a quasi-experimental, factorial design to explore impact of instructional approach (the treatment variable) on student performance (the dependent variable) on repeated measures (three) of a biology concept test. Additional independent variables considered were gender, cumulative GPA, and the section in which students were enrolled. Scores on the biology concept test were compiled for the 3 constructivist sections (N = 44) and the 3 traditional sections (N = 42). Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was applied. The main findings in regard to the primary research question were that instructional approach did not have a significant relationship to immediate post test scores or gain, but that one month after instruction students in the constructivist group demonstrated less loss of gain than those in the traditional group; i.e., their longer-term retention was greater. Also, GPA*instructional approach effects were detected for post-post-test gain. GPA and gender were significantly associated with pre-test, post-test, and post-post scores; however, in terms of change (gain) from pre-test to post-test and pre-test to post-post-test, GPA and gender were not significant effects. Section was a significant effect for all three tests, in terms of both score and gain. Gender*section effects were detected for post

  18. Examining the Use of Video Study Groups for Developing Literacy Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Critical Elements of Strategy Instruction with Elementary Teachers (United States)

    Shanahan, Lynn E.; Tochelli, Andrea L.


    This collective case study explored what nine elementary teachers' video study group discussions revealed about their understanding of pedagogical content knowledge for an explicit reading strategy instruction framework, Critical Elements of Strategy Instruction (CESI). Qualitative methods were used to inductively and deductively analyze…

  19. A Comparative Analysis of Numbers and Biology Content Domains between Turkey and the USA (United States)

    Incikabi, Lutfi; Ozgelen, Sinan; Tjoe, Hartono


    This study aimed to compare Mathematics and Science programs focusing on TIMSS content domains of Numbers and Biology that produced the largest achievement gap among students from Turkey and the USA. Specifically, it utilized the content analysis method within Turkish and New York State (NYS) frameworks. The procedures of study included matching…

  20. Instructional Support System--Occupational Education II. ISSOE Automotive Mechanics Content Validation. (United States)

    Abramson, Theodore

    A study was conducted to validate the Instructional Support System-Occupational Education (ISSOE) automotive mechanics curriculum. The following four steps were undertaken: (1) review of the ISSOE materials in terms of their "validity" as task statements; (2) a comparison of the ISSOE tasks to the tasks included in the V-TECS Automotive…

  1. Integrated Language and Content Instruction in Qatar Independent Schools: Teachers' Perspectives (United States)

    Ellili-Cherif, Maha


    The aim of this study is to explore teachers' attitudes towards the shift to English as a medium of instruction in Qatari Independent schools. It focuses on the advantages and disadvantages of this approach for teachers and students, and the challenges they face in the process of its implementation. Data for the study were collected by means of a…

  2. The Effects of Case-Based Instruction on Undergraduate Biology Students' Understanding of the Nature of Science (United States)

    Burniston, Amy Lucinda

    Undergraduate science education is currently seeing a dramatic pedagogical push towards teaching the philosophies underpinning science as well as an increase in strategies that employ active learning. Many active learning strategies stem from constructivist ideals and have been shown to affect a student's understanding of how science operates and its impact on society- commonly referred to as the nature of science (NOS). One particular constructivist teaching strategy, case-based instruction (CBI), has been recommended by researchers and science education reformists as an effective instructional strategy for teaching NOS. Furthermore, when coupled with explicit-reflective instruction, CBI has been found to significantly increasing understanding of NOS in elementary and secondary students. However, few studies aimed their research on CBI and NOS towards higher education. Thus, this study uses a quasi-experimental, nonequivalent group design to study the effects of CBI on undergraduate science students understandings of NOS. Undergraduate biology student's understanding of NOS were assessed using the Views of Science Education (VOSE) instrument pre and post CBI intervention in Cellular and Molecular Biology and Human Anatomy and Physiology II. Data analysis indicated statistically significant differences between students NOS scores in experimental versus control sections for both courses, with experimental groups obtaining higher posttest scores. The results of this study indicate that undergraduate male and female students have similarly poor understandings of NOS and the use of historical case based instruction can be used as a means to increase undergraduate understanding of NOS.

  3. Optimization of instruction and training process through content, form and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozinek, P.


    The content orientation and development of forms and methods of nuclear power plant personnel training are described. The subject matter content consisted of two units: group and professional. Professional was divided into specialized sub-units: the primary circuit part, secondary circuit part, electric, chemistry, dosimetry. The system of final examinations is described. (J.P.)

  4. Approved Instructional Resources Series: A National Initiative to Identify Quality Emergency Medicine Blog and Podcast Content for Resident Education. (United States)

    Lin, Michelle; Joshi, Nikita; Grock, Andrew; Swaminathan, Anand; Morley, Eric J; Branzetti, Jeremy; Taira, Taku; Ankel, Felix; Yarris, Lalena M


    Background Emergency medicine (EM) residency programs can provide up to 20% of their planned didactic experiences asynchronously through the Individualized Interactive Instruction (III) initiative. Although blogs and podcasts provide potential material for III content, programs often struggle with identifying quality online content. Objective To develop and implement a process to curate quality EM content on blogs and podcasts for resident education and III credit. Methods We developed the Approved Instructional Resources (AIR) Series on the Academic Life in Emergency Medicine website. Monthly, an editorial board identifies, peer reviews, and writes assessment questions for high-quality blog/podcast content. Eight educators rate each post using a standardized scoring instrument. Posts scoring ≥ 30 of 35 points are awarded an AIR badge and featured in the series. Enrolled residents can complete an assessment quiz for III credit. After 12 months of implementation, we report on program feasibility, enrollment rate, web analytics, and resident satisfaction scores. Results As of June 2015, 65 EM residency programs are enrolled in the AIR Series, and 2140 AIR quizzes have been completed. A total of 96% (2064 of 2140) of participants agree or strongly agree that the activity would improve their clinical competency, 98% (2098 of 2140) plan to use the AIR Series for III credit, and 97% (2077 of 2140) plan to use it again in the future. Conclusions The AIR Series is a national asynchronous EM curriculum featuring quality blogs and podcasts. It uses a national expert panel and novel scoring instrument to peer review web-based educational resources.

  5. Female high school biology students' biofilm-focused learning: The contributions of three instructional strategies to patterns in understanding and motivation (United States)

    Ales, Jo Dale Hill


    This exploratory study examined three instructional strategies used with female high school biology students. The relative contributions of the strategies to student understanding of microbiology and motivation in science were analyzed. The science education community targeted underachievement in science by implementing changes in content and practices (NRC, 1996). Research suggested that teachers facilitate learnirig environments based on human constructivism (Mintzes, Wandersee, & Novak, 1997) that is rooted in meaningful learning theory (Ausubel, Novak & Hanesian, 1978). Teachers were advised to use both visual and verbal instructional strategies (Paivio, 1983) and encourage students to construct understandings by connecting new experiences to prior knowledge. The American Society for Microbiology supports the study of microorganisms because of their prominence in the biosphere (ASK 1997). In this study, two participating teachers taught selected microbiology concepts while focused on the cutting edge science of biofilms. Biology students accessed digitized biofilm images on an ASM web page and adapted them into products, communicated with biofilm researchers, and adapted a professional-quality instructional video for cross-age teaching. The study revealed improvements in understanding as evidenced on a written test; however, differences in learnirig outcomes were not significant. Other data, including student journal reflections, observations of student interactions, and student clinical interviews indicate that students were engaged in cutting edge science and adapted biofilm images in ways that increased understanding of microbiology (with respect to both science content and as a way of knowing) and motivation. An ASM CD-ROM of the images did not effectively enhance learning and this study provides insights into what could make it more successful. It also identifies why, in most cases, students' E-mail communication with biofilm researchers was unsuccessful

  6. Using Culture beyond Its Borders: The Use of Content-Enriched Instruction and the Effects of Input Enhancement on Learning in High School French Classes (United States)

    Grim, Frédérique


    The American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages Standards emphasizes the integration of Communication, Cultures, Connections, Comparisons, and Communities within teaching. "Content-enriched instruction" aims at teaching linguistic forms within content and eases the implementation of the five Cs. The focus is at beginning levels…

  7. A comparison of hands-on inquiry instruction to lectureinstruction with special needs high school biology students (United States)

    Jensen-Ruopp, Helga Spitko

    A comparison of hands-on inquiry instruction with lecture instruction was presented to 134 Patterns and Process Biology students. Students participated in seven biology lessons that were selected from Biology Survey of Living Things (1992). A pre and post paper and pencil assessment was used as the data collecting instrument. The treatment group was taught using hands-on inquiry strategies while the non-treatment group was taught in the lecture method of instruction. The team teaching model was used as the mode of presentation to the treatment group and the non-treatment group. Achievement levels using specific criterion; novice (0% to 50%), developing proficiency (51% to 69%), accomplished (70% to 84) and exceptional or mastery level (85% to 100%) were used as a guideline to tabulate the results of the pre and post assessment. Rubric tabulation was done to interpret the testing results. The raw data was plotted using percentage change in test score totals versus reading level score by gender as well as percentage change in test score totals versus auditory vocabulary score by gender. Box Whisker plot comparative descriptive of individual pre and post test scores for the treatment and non-treatment group was performed. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) using MINITAB Statistical Software version 14.11 was run on data of the seven lessons, as well as on gender (male results individual and combined, and female results individual and combined) results. Normal Probability Plots for total scores as well as individual test scores were performed. The results suggest that hands-on inquiry based instruction when presented to special needs students including; at-risk; English as a second language limited, English proficiency and special education inclusive students' learning may enhance individual student achievement.

  8. Evaluation of Teachers' Activities in the Use of Animated Instructional Resource Materials in Biology Teaching in Senior Secondary Schools in Bauchi State Nigeria (United States)

    Kwasu, I. A.; Abubakar; Ema, E.


    This paper presents a profile on how teachers in senior secondary schools in Bauchi state Nigeria utilise animated instructional resource (AIR) in the teaching of biology. A structured questionnaire used to generate data on the availability, accessibility and application of the AIR for classroom instruction by teachers. The instrument for data…

  9. Maximising Students' Progress and Engagement in Science through the Use of the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) 5E Instructional Model (United States)

    Hoskins, Peter


    The Biological Sciences Curriculum Studies (BSCS) 5E Instructional Model (often referred to as the 5Es) consists of five phases. Each phase has a specific function and contributes both to teachers' coherent instruction and to students' formulation of a better understanding of scientific knowledge, attitudes and skills. Evidence indicates that the…

  10. Determination of Amygdalin content in trade stone fruits and its biological activity in cultured cancer cells


    Janatová, Marie


    Janatová, M.: Determination of amygdalin content in trade stone fruits and its biological activity in cultured cancer cells. Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, Department of Pharmaceutical Botany and Ecology, Hradec Králové 2015, pp.74 Stone fruits from tribe Amygdaleae of Rosaceae family are known for their antioxidant activity and amount of nutrients and vitamins. Their seeds are connected with content of cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin and their possible ef...

  11. Direct ophthalmoscopy on YouTube: analysis of instructional YouTube videos' content and approach to visualization. (United States)

    Borgersen, Nanna Jo; Henriksen, Mikael Johannes Vuokko; Konge, Lars; Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Thomsen, Ann Sofia Skou; Subhi, Yousif


    Direct ophthalmoscopy is well-suited for video-based instruction, particularly if the videos enable the student to see what the examiner sees when performing direct ophthalmoscopy. We evaluated the pedagogical effectiveness of instructional YouTube videos on direct ophthalmoscopy by evaluating their content and approach to visualization. In order to synthesize main themes and points for direct ophthalmoscopy, we formed a broad panel consisting of a medical student, junior and senior physicians, and took into consideration book chapters targeting medical students and physicians in general. We then systematically searched YouTube. Two authors reviewed eligible videos to assess eligibility and extract data on video statistics, content, and approach to visualization. Correlations between video statistics and contents were investigated using two-tailed Spearman's correlation. We screened 7,640 videos, of which 27 were found eligible for this study. Overall, a median of 12 out of 18 points (interquartile range: 8-14 key points) were covered; no videos covered all of the 18 points assessed. We found the most difficulties in the approach to visualization of how to approach the patient and how to examine the fundus. Time spent on fundus examination correlated with the number of views per week (Spearman's ρ=0.53; P=0.029). Videos may help overcome the pedagogical issues in teaching direct ophthalmoscopy; however, the few available videos on YouTube fail to address this particular issue adequately. There is a need for high-quality videos that include relevant points, provide realistic visualization of the examiner's view, and give particular emphasis on fundus examination.

  12. Direct ophthalmoscopy on YouTube: analysis of instructional YouTube videos’ content and approach to visualization (United States)

    Borgersen, Nanna Jo; Henriksen, Mikael Johannes Vuokko; Konge, Lars; Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Thomsen, Ann Sofia Skou; Subhi, Yousif


    Background Direct ophthalmoscopy is well-suited for video-based instruction, particularly if the videos enable the student to see what the examiner sees when performing direct ophthalmoscopy. We evaluated the pedagogical effectiveness of instructional YouTube videos on direct ophthalmoscopy by evaluating their content and approach to visualization. Methods In order to synthesize main themes and points for direct ophthalmoscopy, we formed a broad panel consisting of a medical student, junior and senior physicians, and took into consideration book chapters targeting medical students and physicians in general. We then systematically searched YouTube. Two authors reviewed eligible videos to assess eligibility and extract data on video statistics, content, and approach to visualization. Correlations between video statistics and contents were investigated using two-tailed Spearman’s correlation. Results We screened 7,640 videos, of which 27 were found eligible for this study. Overall, a median of 12 out of 18 points (interquartile range: 8–14 key points) were covered; no videos covered all of the 18 points assessed. We found the most difficulties in the approach to visualization of how to approach the patient and how to examine the fundus. Time spent on fundus examination correlated with the number of views per week (Spearman’s ρ=0.53; P=0.029). Conclusion Videos may help overcome the pedagogical issues in teaching direct ophthalmoscopy; however, the few available videos on YouTube fail to address this particular issue adequately. There is a need for high-quality videos that include relevant points, provide realistic visualization of the examiner’s view, and give particular emphasis on fundus examination. PMID:27574393

  13. Evolution in the Caribbean Classroom: A Critical Analysis of the Role of Biology Teachers and Science Standards in Shaping Evolution Instruction in Belize (United States)

    Nunez, Elvis Enrique; Pringle, Rose M.; Showalter, Kevin Tyler


    A survey of the literature on evolution instruction provides evidence that teachers' personal views and understandings can shape instructional approaches and content delivered in science classrooms regardless of established science standards. This study is the first to quantify evolutionary worldviews of in-service teachers in the Caribbean,…

  14. Correlation between MCAT Biology Content Specifications and Topic Scope and Sequence of General Education College Biology Textbooks (United States)

    Rissing, Steven W.


    Most American colleges and universities offer gateway biology courses to meet the needs of three undergraduate audiences: biology and related science majors, many of whom will become biomedical researchers; premedical students meeting medical school requirements and preparing for the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT); and students completing general education (GE) graduation requirements. Biology textbooks for these three audiences present a topic scope and sequence that correlates with the topic scope and importance ratings of the biology content specifications for the MCAT regardless of the intended audience. Texts for “nonmajors,” GE courses appear derived directly from their publisher's majors text. Topic scope and sequence of GE texts reflect those of “their” majors text and, indirectly, the MCAT. MCAT term density of GE texts equals or exceeds that of their corresponding majors text. Most American universities require a GE curriculum to promote a core level of academic understanding among their graduates. This includes civic scientific literacy, recognized as an essential competence for the development of public policies in an increasingly scientific and technological world. Deriving GE biology and related science texts from majors texts designed to meet very different learning objectives may defeat the scientific literacy goals of most schools’ GE curricula. PMID:24006392

  15. Correlation between MCAT biology content specifications and topic scope and sequence of general education college biology textbooks. (United States)

    Rissing, Steven W


    Most American colleges and universities offer gateway biology courses to meet the needs of three undergraduate audiences: biology and related science majors, many of whom will become biomedical researchers; premedical students meeting medical school requirements and preparing for the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT); and students completing general education (GE) graduation requirements. Biology textbooks for these three audiences present a topic scope and sequence that correlates with the topic scope and importance ratings of the biology content specifications for the MCAT regardless of the intended audience. Texts for "nonmajors," GE courses appear derived directly from their publisher's majors text. Topic scope and sequence of GE texts reflect those of "their" majors text and, indirectly, the MCAT. MCAT term density of GE texts equals or exceeds that of their corresponding majors text. Most American universities require a GE curriculum to promote a core level of academic understanding among their graduates. This includes civic scientific literacy, recognized as an essential competence for the development of public policies in an increasingly scientific and technological world. Deriving GE biology and related science texts from majors texts designed to meet very different learning objectives may defeat the scientific literacy goals of most schools' GE curricula.

  16. Instrumental Music as Content Literacy Education: An Instructional Framework Based on the Continuous Improvement Process (United States)

    Neves, Victor Russell Tarbet


    Background: Educational guidelines and reforms focused on literacy, including No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), have contributed to a music education culture and climate focused on language literacy rather than on the core content literacies inherent in music itself. Purpose: The purpose of this…

  17. Teacher-Learner Negotiation in Content-Based Instruction: Communication at Cross-Purposes? (United States)

    Musumeci, Diane


    Examines teacher-student exchanges in three content-based language classrooms. Data reveal persistent archetypal patterns of classroom interaction; teachers speak most of the time, and they initiate the majority of the exchanges by asking display questions, whereas student-initiated requests are referential. (30 references) (Author/CK)

  18. Pre-Service Science Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge in the Physics, Chemistry, and Biology Topics (United States)

    Bektas, Oktay


    This study investigated pre-service science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge in the physics, chemistry, and biology topics. These topics were the light and sound, the physical and chemical changes, and reproduction, growth, and evolution. Qualitative research design was utilized. Data were collected from 33 pre-service science teachers…

  19. Capturing the complexity: Content, type, and amount of instruction and quality of the classroom learning environment synergistically predict third graders’ vocabulary and reading comprehension outcomes (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Spencer, Mercedes; Day, Stephanie L.; Giuliani, Sarah; Ingebrand, Sarah W.; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J.


    We examined classrooms as complex systems that affect students’ literacy learning through interacting effects of content and amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction along with the global quality of the classroom-learning environment. We observed 27 third grade classrooms serving 315 target students using two different observation systems. The first assessed instruction at a more micro-level; specifically, the amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction defined by the type of instruction, role of the teacher, and content. The second assessed the quality of the classroom-learning environment at a more macro level focusing on classroom organization, teacher responsiveness, and support for vocabulary and language. Results revealed that both global quality of the classroom learning environment and time individual students spent in specific types of literacy instruction covering specific content interacted to predict students’ comprehension and vocabulary gains whereas neither system alone did. These findings support a dynamic systems model of how individual children learn in the context of classroom literacy instruction and the classroom-learning environment, which can help to improve observations systems, advance research, elevate teacher evaluation and professional development, and enhance student achievement. PMID:25400293

  20. Capturing the complexity: Content, type, and amount of instruction and quality of the classroom learning environment synergistically predict third graders' vocabulary and reading comprehension outcomes. (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Spencer, Mercedes; Day, Stephanie L; Giuliani, Sarah; Ingebrand, Sarah W; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J


    We examined classrooms as complex systems that affect students' literacy learning through interacting effects of content and amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction along with the global quality of the classroom-learning environment. We observed 27 third grade classrooms serving 315 target students using two different observation systems. The first assessed instruction at a more micro-level; specifically, the amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction defined by the type of instruction, role of the teacher, and content. The second assessed the quality of the classroom-learning environment at a more macro level focusing on classroom organization, teacher responsiveness, and support for vocabulary and language. Results revealed that both global quality of the classroom learning environment and time individual students spent in specific types of literacy instruction covering specific content interacted to predict students' comprehension and vocabulary gains whereas neither system alone did. These findings support a dynamic systems model of how individual children learn in the context of classroom literacy instruction and the classroom-learning environment, which can help to improve observations systems, advance research, elevate teacher evaluation and professional development, and enhance student achievement.

  1. A Method for Determining the Content of Glycoproteins in Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Gao


    Full Text Available The glycoprotein purified from the mycelium extract of Tremella fuciformis was marked with iodine through the iodine substitution reaction. The content of iodine, which is indicative of the amount of the marked tremella glycoprotein (ITG, was detected with Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The method was found to be stable, sensitive, and accurate at detecting the content of iodine-substituted glycoprotein, and was used in the quantitative analysis of biological samples, including blood and organs. Different biological samples were collected from rats after oral administration of ITG, and were tested for iodine content by ICP-MS to calculate the amount of ITG in the samples. The results suggested that ICP-MS is a sensitive, stable, and accurate method for detection of iodinated glycoproteins in blood and organs.

  2. Using Content Analysis To Evaluate The Impact of Technological Development In Instructional Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P. Keiler


    Full Text Available Textbooks are widely used as a teaching tool, and are considered very important in severaleducational environments, from elementary to tertiary education levels. Since the firsttextbook arose in the seventeenth century, printed books are the most popular format oftextbooks published. New technologies developed over years such as paper, ink andprinting hardware. These have made it possible to present printed books in even moreattractive formats. Moreover, digital technologies allowed textbooks to providecomplementary content, such as software, audio and video. Aiming to understand hownew technologies has impacted both textbook presentation and content, we run anexternal representations (ER content analysis in a textbook chapter and on aneducational software (eBook, both about muscle contraction. The three editions ofBioquímica Básica textbook (1990, 1999 and 2007, written by Anita Marzzoco andBayardo B. Torres and the four versions of Contração Muscular software developed byEduardo Galembeck et al. were analyzed. The obtained results showed that the textbookhad changes in relation to typography (paper size, kind of paper and colors of printing,and to ERs presented (use of electronic micrograph and 3D models in the 3rd edition andthe exclusion of some images and graphs previously used. Regarding the ContraçãoMuscular software, there were several changes in relation to the visual aspect, such asimages and icons, and also code updates to make the software compatible with newtechnologies developed since the first version was released. Although technology hasdriven some updates in both cases, this happened in different aspects includingpossibilities to create a modern layout and cheaper printer services, in the case of thetextbook, and graphic design and software usability, in the case of the eBook. Thuschanging the way information is presented to the users.

  3. Possible relationships between literacy-based instructional coaching and effects on high school teachers' self-efficacy and attitudes toward teaching reading in the content areas (United States)

    Jacobs, Jessica Lynn

    Grounded in the Theory of Self-Efficacy and the Theory of Reasoned Action, this quantitative, correlational study examined if participation in literacy-based instructional coaching (one-on-one, small group) predicted both high school teachers' self-efficacy as measured by the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale and teachers' attitudes toward teaching reading in the content areas measured by the Scale to Measure Attitudes Toward Teaching Reading in Content Classrooms. This study utilized a convenience sample of content teachers from three high schools in Northeastern Pennsylvania participating in a literacy coaching initiative. The volunteer sample of teachers completed the Likert-type questionnaires. The study used hierarchical regression analysis to determine values for each block of the regression models. The study correlated instances of literacy-based instructional coaching (one-on-one, small group) with the scores on the SMATTRCC and the TSES to examine predictive validity. Gender, years of experience, and content area were control variables in this study. The results of the first model indicated that there was a significant relationship between the number of coaching instances and attitudes toward teaching reading in the content area with participation in instructional coaching accounting for 9.6% of the variance in scores on the SMATTRCC. The results of the second model indicated that there was a significant relationship between the number of coaching instances and teachers' self-efficacy with participation in instructional coaching accounting for 6.1% of the variance in scores on the TSES.

  4. Developing a model of pedagogical content knowledge for secondary and post-secondary mathematics instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shandy Hauk


    Full Text Available The accepted framing of mathematics pedagogical content knowledge (PCK as part of mathematical knowledge for teaching has centered on the question: What mathematical reasoning, insight, understanding, and skills are required for a person to teach elementary mathematics? Many have worked to address this question in K-8 teaching. Yet, there remains a call for examples and theory in the context of teachers with greater mathematical preparation and older students with varied and complex experiences in learning mathematics. In this theory development report we offer background and examples for an extended model of PCK – as the interplay among conceptually-rich mathematical understandings, experience in and of teaching, and multiple culturally-mediated classroom interactions.

  5. A Primer for Developing Measures of Science Content Knowledge for Small-Scale Research and Instructional Use. (United States)

    Bass, Kristin M; Drits-Esser, Dina; Stark, Louisa A


    The credibility of conclusions made about the effectiveness of educational interventions depends greatly on the quality of the assessments used to measure learning gains. This essay, intended for faculty involved in small-scale projects, courses, or educational research, provides a step-by-step guide to the process of developing, scoring, and validating high-quality content knowledge assessments. We illustrate our discussion with examples from our assessments of high school students' understanding of concepts in cell biology and epigenetics. Throughout, we emphasize the iterative nature of the development process, the importance of creating instruments aligned to the learning goals of an intervention or curricula, and the importance of collaborating with other content and measurement specialists along the way. © 2016 K. M. Bass et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (

  6. Supporting High School Student Accomplishment of Biology Content Using Interactive Computer-Based Curricular Case Studies (United States)

    Oliver, Joseph Steve; Hodges, Georgia W.; Moore, James N.; Cohen, Allan; Jang, Yoonsun; Brown, Scott A.; Kwon, Kyung A.; Jeong, Sophia; Raven, Sara P.; Jurkiewicz, Melissa; Robertson, Tom P.


    Research into the efficacy of modules featuring dynamic visualizations, case studies, and interactive learning environments is reported here. This quasi-experimental 2-year study examined the implementation of three interactive computer-based instructional modules within a curricular unit covering cellular biology concepts in an introductory high school biology course. The modules featured dynamic visualizations and focused on three processes that underlie much of cellular biology: diffusion, osmosis, and filtration. Pre-tests and post-tests were used to assess knowledge growth across the unit. A mixture Rasch model analysis of the post-test data revealed two groups of students. In both years of the study, a large proportion of the students were classified as low-achieving based on their pre-test scores. The use of the modules in the Cell Unit in year 2 was associated with a much larger proportion of the students having transitioned to the high-achieving group than in year 1. In year 2, the same teachers taught the same concepts as year 1 but incorporated the interactive computer-based modules into the cell biology unit of the curriculum. In year 2, 67% of students initially classified as low-achieving were classified as high-achieving at the end of the unit. Examination of responses to assessments embedded within the modules as well as post-test items linked transition to the high-achieving group with correct responses to items that both referenced the visualization and the contextualization of that visualization within the module. This study points to the importance of dynamic visualization within contextualized case studies as a means to support student knowledge acquisition in biology.

  7. Pre-Service Science Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge in The Physics, Chemistry, and Biology Topics


    Bektas, Oktay


    This study investigated pre-service science teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge in the physics, chemistry, and biology topics. These topics were the light and sound, the physical and chemical changes, and reproduction, growth, and evolution. Qualitative research design was utilized. Data were collected from 33 pre-service science teachers (PSTs) by using open-ended questions. Data analysis was performed using descriptive analysis. The results indicated that some PCTs have sufficient infor...



    Gorash E. Y.; Victorova E. P.; Kupin G. A.; Aleshin V. N.; Lisovoy V. V.


    The article presents results of research of quality, safety and content of biologically active substances of food red beet roots of Bordo 237 variety, grown in the Krasnodar region in 2014. On the basis of the research carried out it was established, that there are carbohydrates, proteins, organic acids and mineral substances in the food red beet roots of Bordo 237 variety. Food red beet roots are a source of dietary fibers (pectin, protopectin, hemicelluloses and cellulose), possessing antit...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunno Carvalho Gastaldo


    Full Text Available Trying to understand the knowledge base for teaching, the Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK was proposed as the main teacher’s knowledge. It amalgamates the specific knowledge and it is the difference between a teacher and a specialist. It can be both personal, deriving from practice, and canonical, which is cultural accumulation of what makes a good teacher. To acquire the last, preservice teachers (PSTE take university classes, where theoretically their apprenticeship could be facilitated by the university teacher. Thus, it is important to understand how the university teacher best exerts his influence on PSTEs. In this paper, we show the impact of the university teacher’s interventions in the development of PCK based on analysis of a course taught to chemistry PSTE. The research was conducted in a qualitative approach, in a case study strategy. The classes from a chemistry teacher’s course from a federal university in São Paulo, Brazil were recorded for four months, to follow the development of the PCK. Qualitative forms of assessing the PCK, as CoRe, were used, and the tasks given by the teacher were collected to support the analysis. Our results show that the students’ knowledge integration responds to teacher interventions, particularly when those were customised to each individual. When the intervention was made by means of written exercises the influence on PSTE was lower than orally and when made by peers even lower or null. Being so, teacher’s interventions could be considered an INUS condition for the development of PCK in those students.

  10. An Investigation of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Self-Confidence, and Perception of Pre-Service Middle School Mathematics Teachers towards Instructional Technologies (United States)

    Karatas, Ilhan; Tunc, Mutlu Piskin; Yilmaz, Nurbanu; Karaci, Gulzade


    Technology provides new methods and approaches for educational activities. Therefore, teachers should improve their ability and knowledge to integrate technology into instruction. The use of technology-based learning environment which is effectively used to improve the technological pedagogical content knowledge of pre-service teachers has a…

  11. Looking beyond the ELT Approach in China's Higher Education from the Perspective of Bilingual Education: Immersion, Content-Based Instruction or Something Else? (United States)

    Wang, Ping


    This article starts with definitions of bilingualism with a focus on the analysis of bilingual competence. Then the aims and types of bilingual education in developing bilingual competence are introduced with focus on analyses of immersion and content-based instruction. Subsequently, the contextual settings of the study are briefly presented.…

  12. Explicit Vocabulary Instruction in an English Content-Area Course with University Student Teachers: When Comprehensible Input Needs to Be Comprehended (United States)

    Dimas, Héctor Manuel Serna


    This action research study explores explicit vocabulary instruction in an L2 (English) content-area course with a group of university student teachers. The study reviews several positions on the treatment of vocabulary in L2 contexts. The researcher takes up the teaching of explicit vocabulary through class activities and the students' completion…

  13. Content-rich biological network constructed by mining PubMed abstracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharp Burt M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The integration of the rapidly expanding corpus of information about the genome, transcriptome, and proteome, engendered by powerful technological advances, such as microarrays, and the availability of genomic sequence from multiple species, challenges the grasp and comprehension of the scientific community. Despite the existence of text-mining methods that identify biological relationships based on the textual co-occurrence of gene/protein terms or similarities in abstract texts, knowledge of the underlying molecular connections on a large scale, which is prerequisite to understanding novel biological processes, lags far behind the accumulation of data. While computationally efficient, the co-occurrence-based approaches fail to characterize (e.g., inhibition or stimulation, directionality biological interactions. Programs with natural language processing (NLP capability have been created to address these limitations, however, they are in general not readily accessible to the public. Results We present a NLP-based text-mining approach, Chilibot, which constructs content-rich relationship networks among biological concepts, genes, proteins, or drugs. Amongst its features, suggestions for new hypotheses can be generated. Lastly, we provide evidence that the connectivity of molecular networks extracted from the biological literature follows the power-law distribution, indicating scale-free topologies consistent with the results of previous experimental analyses. Conclusions Chilibot distills scientific relationships from knowledge available throughout a wide range of biological domains and presents these in a content-rich graphical format, thus integrating general biomedical knowledge with the specialized knowledge and interests of the user. Chilibot can be accessed free of charge to academic users.

  14. Acquiring Science and Social Studies Knowledge in Kindergarten Through Fourth Grade: Conceptualization, Design, Implementation, and Efficacy Testing of Content-Area Literacy Instruction (CALI). (United States)

    Dombek, Jennifer; Crowe, Elizabeth C; Spencer, Mercedes; Tighe, Elizabeth L; Coffinger, Sean; Zargar, Elham; Wood, Taffeta; Petscher, Yaacov


    With national focus on reading and math achievement, science and social studies have received less instructional time. Yet, accumulating evidence suggests that content knowledge is an important predictor of proficient reading. Starting with a design study, we developed Content Area Literacy Instruction (CALI), as an individualized (or personalized) instructional program for kindergarteners through fourth graders to build science and social studies knowledge. We developed CALI to be implemented in general education classrooms, over multiple iterations (n=230 students), using principles of design-based implementation research. The aims were to develop CALI as a usable and feasible instructional program that would, potentially, improve science and social studies knowledge, and could be implemented during the literacy block without negatively affecting students' reading gains (i.e., no opportunity cost). We then evaluated the efficacy of CALI in a randomized controlled field trial with 418 students in kindergarten through fourth grade. Results reveal that CALI demonstrates promise as a useable and feasible instructional individualized general education program, and is efficacious in improving social studies ( d =2.2) and science ( d =2.1) knowledge, with some evidence of improving oral and reading comprehension skills ( d =.125).

  15. Desegregating undergraduate mathematics and biology--interdisciplinary instruction with emphasis on ongoing biomedical research. (United States)

    Robeva, Raina


    The remarkable advances in the field of biology in the last decade, specifically in the areas of biochemistry, genetics, genomics, proteomics, and systems biology, have demonstrated how critically important mathematical models and methods are in addressing questions of vital importance for these disciplines. There is little doubt that the need for utilizing and developing mathematical methods for biology research will only grow in the future. The rapidly increasing demand for scientists with appropriate interdisciplinary skills and knowledge, however, is not being reflected in the way undergraduate mathematics and biology courses are structured and taught in most colleges and universities nationwide. While a number of institutions have stepped forward and addressed this need by creating and offering interdisciplinary courses at the juncture of mathematics and biology, there are still many others at which there is little, if any, interdisciplinary interaction between the curricula. This chapter describes an interdisciplinary course and a textbook in mathematical biology developed collaboratively by faculty from Sweet Briar College and the University of Virginia School of Medicine. The course and textbook are designed to provide a bridge between the mathematical and biological sciences at the lower undergraduate level. The course is developed for and is being taught in a liberal arts setting at Sweet Briar College, Virginia, but some of the advanced modules are used in a course at the University of Virginia for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The individual modules are relatively independent and can be used as stand-alone projects in conventional mathematics and biology courses. Except for the introductory material, the course and textbook topics are based on current biomedical research.

  16. A Study Assessing the Potential of Negative Effects in Interdisciplinary Math–Biology Instruction (United States)

    Madlung, Andreas; Bremer, Martina; Himelblau, Edward; Tullis, Alexa


    There is increasing enthusiasm for teaching approaches that combine mathematics and biology. The call for integrating more quantitative work in biology education has led to new teaching tools that improve quantitative skills. Little is known, however, about whether increasing interdisciplinary work can lead to adverse effects, such as the development of broader but shallower skills or the possibility that math anxiety causes some students to disengage in the classroom, or, paradoxically, to focus so much on the mathematics that they lose sight of its application for the biological concepts in the center of the unit at hand. We have developed and assessed an integrative learning module and found disciplinary learning gains to be equally strong in first-year students who actively engaged in embedded quantitative calculations as in those students who were merely presented with quantitative data in the context of interpreting biological and biostatistical results. When presented to advanced biology students, our quantitative learning tool increased test performance significantly. We conclude from our study that the addition of mathematical calculations to the first year and advanced biology curricula did not hinder overall student learning, and may increase disciplinary learning and data interpretation skills in advanced students. PMID:21364099

  17. A study assessing the potential of negative effects in interdisciplinary math-biology instruction. (United States)

    Madlung, Andreas; Bremer, Martina; Himelblau, Edward; Tullis, Alexa


    There is increasing enthusiasm for teaching approaches that combine mathematics and biology. The call for integrating more quantitative work in biology education has led to new teaching tools that improve quantitative skills. Little is known, however, about whether increasing interdisciplinary work can lead to adverse effects, such as the development of broader but shallower skills or the possibility that math anxiety causes some students to disengage in the classroom, or, paradoxically, to focus so much on the mathematics that they lose sight of its application for the biological concepts in the center of the unit at hand. We have developed and assessed an integrative learning module and found disciplinary learning gains to be equally strong in first-year students who actively engaged in embedded quantitative calculations as in those students who were merely presented with quantitative data in the context of interpreting biological and biostatistical results. When presented to advanced biology students, our quantitative learning tool increased test performance significantly. We conclude from our study that the addition of mathematical calculations to the first year and advanced biology curricula did not hinder overall student learning, and may increase disciplinary learning and data interpretation skills in advanced students.

  18. The SGA-ER educational intervention in adolescent health care for Italian physicians: goals, content and instructional design. (United States)

    De Sanctis, V; Clemente, S; Gallotta, M; Filati, G; Fiscina, B; Marsciani, A; Piacentini, G; Timoncini, G; Reggiani, L; Zucchini, A; Zunelli, C


    Adolescent medicine is a field dedicated to helping young people grow and thrive, in relation to their particular stage of development. In Italy, adolescent medicine is not a distinct speciality, but it is practised in some services for adolescents in paediatric departments. Increasing educational opportunities in adolescent health may help to accelerate the development and dissemination of new and improved therapeutic approaches for serving youth and also attract a larger cadre of physicians. Other pediatric subspecialties, e.g. oncology, rheumatology and adolescent psychiatry, have developed successfully and may represent excellent models for adolescent medicine specialists to emulate. The Adolescent Health Study Group of the Emilia and Romagna Region (SGA-ER) was established in 2010 in an effort to generate strategies and possible solutions to improve the quality and quantity of knowledge in adolescent health care for pediatricians and GPs. Several methods and approaches have been implemented to improve physicians' skills in adolescent health care. The authors report the goals, content and instructional design of an educational course in adolescent medicine. Alliances with other adolescent health groups may provide an additional opportunity for networking, interaction and exchange of ideas amongst professionals.

  19. Instructive Biologic Scaffold for Functional Tissue Regeneration Following Trauma to the Extremities (United States)


    was to evaluate the effectiveness of a regenerative biologic scaffold, Biodesign ® 6-layer Plastic Surgery Matrix [Cook Biotech]; Premarket...planned to be enrolled and followed for a period of 1 year (12 months). This study had the intention to evaluate the effectiveness of Biodesign ®, a 6





    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Anwar


    Full Text Available Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memperoleh gambaran tahap perkembangan kemampuan PCK calon guru biologi yang mengikuti program konkuren. Perkembangan PCK diteliti selama  satu tahun setelah melalui semester ganjil dan praktik mengajar, dengan menggunakan metode Cross-sectional study. Data dikumpulkan dari CoRe dan PaP-eRs yang dibuat calon guru dan hasil wawancara. Sebagai data tambahan pelaksanaan pembelajaran oleh calon guru juga diobservasi. Data hasil penelitian dianalisis dengan teknik deskriptif kualitatif dan kuantitatif  menggunakan desain konkuren triangulasi (concurrent triangulation design. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan   Kemampuan PCK calon guru biologi yang mengikuti program pendidikan guru pada pendekatan konkuren mengalami peningkatan secara bertahap dari waktu ke waktu, mulai dari pra PCK menjadi growing PCK.  Dari hasil tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa perkembangan PCK calon guru ini bersifat kontinum, bertahap sesuai proses pada tiap tahapan.             Kata Kunci: Pendidikan Guru Biologi, Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK,      Pendidikan  Guru Konkuren, Calon Guru Biologi

  2. Re-Envisioning Instructional Technology Research in Higher Education Environments: A Content Analysis of a Grant Program (United States)

    Paulus, Trena M.; Phipps, Gina; Harrison, John; Varga, Mary Alice


    Within the field of instructional technology, scholars have long worked to define the scope and purpose of research and its role in informing practice. Increasingly, researchers outside of the instructional technology field are conducting studies to examine their use of technology in educational contexts. Few studies have been done on how…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putri Agustina


    Full Text Available Teacher is one of the critical success factors of the learning process. Therefore, teachers need to master several categories realm of knowledge in order to carry out the study with either one of them Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK. PCK is the knowledge of teaching for specific content.The purpose of this study is to analyze the role of simulation learning in student teachers develop PCK. PCK is important for student teachers of biology as a provision in order to conform to the characteristics of biology. The experiment was conducted in February until August 2015 at the Department of Biology Education FKIP UMS. This research is a measure that aims to determine the effectiveness of simulation in developing PCK student learning. The study population was all students who take a course in 4th semester Learning Strategy Biologi amounted to 140 students. Samples were taken by random sampling are two parallel classes totaling 75 students. PCK Data taken from the assessment of learning scenarios, learning simulations, and stuffing questionnaire adopted from Schmidt, et al. (2010. The questionnaire was given twice: before the pretest and posttest simulation after simulation. Data analysis was performed using analysis of normalized gain score average. The results showed that PCK scores of students have increased before and after the simulation study. Results of the analysis showed score gains normalized gain value by an average of 0.38 (medium so that it can be said that the simulated learning effective enough to develop PCK studentsGuru merupakan salah satu faktor penentu keberhasilan proses pembelajaran. Oleh karena itu, guru perlu menguasai beberapa kategori ranah pengetahuan agar dapat melaksanakan pembelajaran dengan baik salah satunya Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK. PCKmerupakan pengetahuan tentang pengajaran untuk konten yang spesifik. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis peran simulasi pembelajaran dalam mengembangkan PCK

  4. The use of double laser pulses for the atomic-emission spectral estimation of uranium content in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patapovich, M.P.; Umreiko, D.S.; Zajogin, A.P.; Buloichik, J.I.


    This paper is aimed at the development of the techniques for estimation of the uranium content in biological objects (hair) using the atomic-emission laser analysis with a sufficient accuracy and high processing rate. (authors)

  5. Integrating Facebook in Upper Secondary Biology Instruction: A Case Study of Students' Situational Interest and Participation in Learning Communication (United States)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup; Dohn, Nina Bonderup


    The sciences are often perceived by students as irrelevant as they do not see the content of science as related to their daily lives. Web 2.0-mediated activities are characterized by user-driven content production, collaboration, and multi-way communication. It has been proposed that employing Web 2.0 in educational activities will promote richer opportunities for making learning personally meaningful, collaborative, and socially relevant. Since Facebook is already in use among youths, it potentially provides a communicative link between educational content and students' lives. The present study was conducted as a case study to provide an inductive, explorative investigation of whether and how the integration of Facebook into upper secondary biology can affect interest in biology and participation in learning communication. The results indicate that the coupling of formal and informal communication practices on Facebook serves to maintain interest and open up new learning possibilities while at the same time creating barriers to communication. These barriers are due to distractions, ethical issues, and a certain depreciation of the activities ensuing from the everydayness of Facebook as a communication platform. In conclusion, use of Facebook as an educational platform is not clearly good or bad.

  6. International Trends in Biology Education Research from 1997 to 2014: A Content Analysis of Papers in Selected Journals (United States)

    Gul, Seyda; Sozbilir, Mustafa


    This paper provides a descriptive content analysis of biology education research papers published in eight major academic journals indexed in Social Science Citation Index [SSCI] of Thomson Reuters® from 1997 to 2014. Total of 1376 biology education research [BER] papers were examined. The findings indicated that most of the papers were published…

  7. Elemental analysis of samples of biological origin relative to their protein content by means of charged particle bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szoekefalvi-Nagy, Z.; Demeter, I.; Varga, L.; Hollos-Nagy, K.; Keszthelyi, L.


    The particle excited X-ray emission (PIXE) and the 14 N(d,p) 15 N nuclear reaction is combined for simultaneous elemental composition and nitrogen content determination in biological samples. Using the correlation between nitrogen and proton content the elemental composition is related to the protein content of the sample. The principles and main characteristics of the method are described and illustrative applications are also given. (author)

  8. A Community College Instructor's Reflective Journey Toward Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Nature of Science in a Non-majors Undergraduate Biology Course (United States)

    Krajewski, Sarah J.; Schwartz, Renee


    Research supports an explicit-reflective approach to teaching about nature of science (NOS), but little is reported on teachers' journeys as they attempt to integrate NOS into everyday lessons. This participatory action research paper reports the challenges and successes encountered by an in-service teacher, Sarah, implementing NOS for the first time throughout four units of a community college biology course (genetics, molecular biology, evolution, and ecology). Through the action research cycles of planning, implementing, and reflecting, Sarah identified areas of challenge and success. This paper reports emergent themes that assisted her in successfully embedding NOS within the science content. Data include weekly lesson plans and pre/post reflective journaling before and after each lesson of this lecture/lab combination class that met twice a week. This course was taught back to back semesters, and this study is based on the results of a year-long process. Developing pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for NOS involves coming to understand the overlaps and connections between NOS, other science subject matter, pedagogical strategies, and student learning. Sarah found that through action research she was able to grow and assimilate her understanding of NOS within the biology content she was teaching. A shift in orientation toward teaching products of science to teaching science processes was a necessary shift for NOS pedagogical success. This process enabled Sarah's development of PCK for NOS. As a practical example of putting research-based instructional recommendations into practice, this study may be very useful for other teachers who are learning to teach NOS.

  9. Mastery of Content Representation (CoRes) Related TPACK High School Biology Teacher (United States)

    Nasution, W. R.; Sriyati, S.; Riandi, R.; Safitri, M.


    The purpose of this study was to determine the mastery of Content Representation (CoRes) teachers related to the integration of technology and pedagogy in teaching Biology (TPACK). This research uses a descriptive method. The data were taken using instruments CoRes as the primary data and semi-structured interviews as supporting data. The subjects were biology teacher in class X MIA from four schools in Bandung. Teachers raised CoRes was analyzed using a scoring rubric CoRes with coding 1-3 then categorized into a group of upper, middle, or lower. The results showed that the two teachers in the lower category. This results means that the control of teachers in defining the essential concept in the CoRes has not been detailed and specific. Meanwhile, two other teachers were in the middle category. This means that the ability of teachers to determine the essential concepts in the CoRes are still inadequate so that still needs to be improved.

  10. Electrospun fibrous scaffolds with continuous gradations in mineral contents and biological cues for manipulating cellular behaviors. (United States)

    Zou, Bin; Liu, Yaowen; Luo, Xiaomin; Chen, Fang; Guo, Xueqin; Li, Xiaohong


    Challenges remain in the generation of heterogeneous tissues and the repairing of interfacial tissue between soft and hard tissues. The development of tissue engineering scaffolds with gradients in composition, structure, mechanical and chemical properties is essential to modulate cellular behaviors in a graded way and potentially support the growth of functionally graded tissues. Integrated with the three-dimensional (3-D) nanofibrous skeletal structure of native extracellular matrix, electrospun fibers with gradients in amino groups were generated in the current study through an aminolysis process by using a microinfusion pump. Gelatin grafts were constructed to create fibrous scaffolds with gradients in hydroxyapatite (HA) contents, crystal size and mechanical properties through in situ mineralization. Plasmid DNA (pDNA) was included during the mineralization process, and gradations in pDNA loading contents were created on fibrous scaffolds on the basis of HA gradients. Obvious gradients in cell density, osteoblastic differentiation and collagen deposition were demonstrated along the long axis of fibrous mats after cell seeding. Gradients in the amount of pDNA released and the expression of target proteins were indicated on the fibrous mats, which offered a temporally and spatially controlled delivery of growth factors in scaffolds. The creation of gradient futures on 3-D fibrous scaffolds may provide physical, chemical and biological cues and result in efficient regeneration of tissues with spatial distributions of the cell proliferation, differentiation, and matrix secretion. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Holistic Approach to Secondary Earth Science Teacher Professional Development: the Triad of Project-based Instruction, Earth Science Content, and GIS Technology (United States)

    Rubino-Hare, L.; Sample, J. C.; Fredrickson, K.; Claesgens, J.; Bloom, N.; Henderson-Dahms, C.; Manone, M.


    We have provided two years of professional development for secondary and middle school teachers with a focus on project-based instruction (PBI) using GIS. The EYE-POD project (funded by NSF-ITEST) involved pairs of teachers from Arizona and the surrounding region in two-week institutes during Summer, 2010, and an advanced institute in Summer, 2011. The NAz-POD project (funded by Arizona Department of Education and administered by Science Foundation Arizona) provided similar PD experiences, but the institutes occurred during weekends in the academic year. The institutes were led by a team with expertise in Earth science content, professional development and pedagogy, and GIS. The teachers developed learning modules using the project based learning instructional model. Pedagogy, content, and GIS skills were combined throughout the professional development activities. Academic year follow up by NAU personnel included classroom observations and technical support. For assessing student work we provided a rubric, but learned that teachers were not prepared to assess GIS products in order to determine the level of student understanding. In year two of the project we incorporated strategies for assessment of student products into the professional development. Teacher-participants and their students completed several pre- and post- assessments. Teacher assessments included a geospatial performance assessment, classroom observations, and content tests. Student data collection included attitude and efficacy questionnaires, content tests, and authentic assessments including products using GIS. Content tests were the same for teachers and students and included spatial reasoning, data analysis, and Earth science content. Data was also collected on teacher perception of professional development delivery and self-reported confidence in teaching with PBI and geospatial technology. Student assessments show that improvement occurred in all areas on the content test. Possible factors

  12. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007......, is subordinating content to methods as seen in modern didactics, hereby transforming content to a medium for achievement of learning-to-learn skills rather than something valuable in its own right. At the level of general didactics quite few attempts have been made to formulate criteria and categories...... secondary levels. In subject matter didactics, the question of content is more developed, but it is still mostly confined to teaching on lower levels. As for higher education didactics, discussions on selection of content are almost non-existent on the programmatic level. Nevertheless, teachers are forced...

  13. Genetic structure and diversity of a soybean germplasm considering biological nitrogen fixation and protein content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalgisa Ribeiro Torres


    Full Text Available Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF has global economic and environmental importance, but has often not been considered in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] breeding programs. Knowing the genetic diversity and structure of a population within a germoplasm represent a key step for breeding programs. This study aimed at determining the structure of the population and diversity of soybean with regard to BNF and protein content in grain. In total, 191 accessions were evaluated, including 171 commercial soybean cultivars, developed and released by public institutions and private companies in Brazil, and 20 ancestral lines. The genotypes were chosen to represent four genetic groups: 128 Brazilian public genotypes, 20 exotic, and 43 genotypes from private companies. Soybeans were genotyped with 22 SSR markers, previously described as associated with BNF and protein content. Genetic diversity was evaluated using the DARwin 5.0 software. Population structure was inferred by principal component analysis and by the STRUCTURE software. The accessions were distributed in two groups: one clustering approximately 50 % of the accessions, from Brazilian public and private companies; the other one clustering 45 % of the accessions, including Brazilian, exotic and private germoplasms. Some accessions (5 % were not grouped in any cluster. Principal component analysis explained 29 % of the total variance and there was a tendency to cluster the accessions into two groups. Similar results were obtained with the STRUCTURE, clearly showing two subpopulations. There is variability for BNF and protein content amongst both modern germoplasms cultivated in Brazil and ancestral lines. This variability could be better explored in soybean breeding programs to improve these traits.

  14. Variation of Phenolic Content in Globe Artichoke in Relation to Biological, Technical and Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Mauromicale


    Full Text Available In Italy, globe artichoke production is prevailingly concentrated in the South and islands, where it provides an important contribution to the agricultural economy. In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in this crop as a promising source of polyphenols, a heterogeneous class of secondary metabolites characterized by various healthy properties well-documented in literature. The phenolic fraction, present in the different artichoke plant parts, varies widely in relation to biotic and abiotic factors. Therefore, the present study aimed at evaluating the variation of phenolic content in globe artichoke in relation to biological, technical and environmental factors. Two field-experiments were carried out in Sicily (South Italy in two representative cultivation areas, in order to examine the effects of genotype, head fraction, season conditions, planting density and arrangement on the globe artichoke phenolic concentration. Both the total polyphenols and the individual phenolic compounds detected were notably genotype- dependent. Particularly, the high level of caffeoylquinic acids (chlorogenic acid, among others and apigenin 7- O-glucuronide, reported respectively by “Violetto di Sicilia” and “Romanesco clone C3”, could be used to encourage globe artichoke fresh consumption. Total polyphenols content also resulted more abundant in specific accumulation sites within the inflorescence, such as the floral stem and receptacle, and for most of genotypes it decreased during the second year in response to the different meteorological conditions. Additionally, total polyphenols content significantly and linearly increased as plant density increased from 1.0 to 1.8 plant m-2 and it significantly increased by 13% passing from single to twin rows plant arrangement.

  15. A qualitative study of the instructional behaviors and practices of a dyad of educators in self-contained and inclusive co-taught secondary biology classrooms during a nine-week science instruction grading period (United States)

    Hardy, Shanon D.

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (1997) mandates that students with disabilities have access to the general education curriculum. School districts have developed a variety of service delivery models to provide challenging educational experiences for all students. Co-teaching or collaborative teaching is the most widely used of the different service delivery models. While the philosophy of inclusion is widely accepted, the efficacy of the various inclusion models has recently been the focus of educational research. Researchers have questioned whether the presence of a special educator in the general education classroom has resulted in students with high incidence disabilities receiving specialized instruction. A qualitative study was designed to examine the instructional behaviors and practices exhibited and used by a dyad of educators in self-contained learning disabilities and inclusive co-taught secondary Biology classrooms during a nine-week science instruction grading period. In addition to utilizing interviews, observations, and classroom observation scales to answer the research questions, supporting student data (time-sampling measurement/opportunity to learn and student grades) were collected. The study concluded that the presence of a special educator in a co-taught classroom: (1) did contribute to the creation of a new learning environment, and notable changes in the instructional behaviors and practices of a general educator; (2) did contribute to limited specialized instruction for students with disabilities in the co-taught classrooms and embedded (not overt) special education practices related to the planning and decision-making of the educators; (3) did contribute to the creation of a successful co-teaching partnership including the use of effective teaching behaviors; and (4) did impact success for some of the students with disabilities in the co-taught classrooms; but (5) did not ensure the continuation of some of the new

  16. Journey to Medieval China: Using Technology-Enhanced Instruction to Develop Content Knowledge and Digital Literacy Skills (United States)

    Shand, Kristen; Winstead, Lisa; Kottler, Ellen


    Recent innovations in Web-based technology tools have made planning instruction with technology in mind far more doable than in years past. To aid teachers in planning with technology, tools are organized into five broad categories: communication, collaboration, presentation, organization and critical-thinking. The purpose and potential of each…

  17. The influence of antioxidant postharvest treatment on content of biologically active substances during storage of cucumbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Priss


    Full Text Available The influence of heat treatment with antioxidant compositions on the content of biologically active substances during storage of cucumbers is investigated. It was found that the use of the proposed treatment inhibits the activity of ascorbate oxidase by 15–18%, which allows to slow down the decomposition of ascorbic acid by 1.5 times. The content of ascorbic acid in the experimental fruit after storage for 28 days is 1.4 times higher than in the control after 21 days of storage. It was found that in the cucumbers 11–14 sm long, the synthesis of polyphenols continued in the period of storage.  The intensity of accumulation of phenolic substances proved to be different in the treated and control groups. It was shown that thermal treatment with antioxidants slowed the growth rate of total polyphenols by 20% relative to control, indicating inhibition of maturation processes. It was revealed that the activity o polyphenol oxidase during the storage of treated fruits was slowing down. It has been established that the application of said treatment substantially inhibits the degradation of chlorophylls. Rapid loss of chlorophyll caused yellowing and loss of consumer properties in the control groups after 2 weeks of storage. In processed cucumbers only 21 days of storage revealed a decrease in the concentration of chlorophyll in relation to the moment of laying. At day 28 the amount of chlorophylls in the experimental fruit is at the same level as in the control after a week of storage. It has been found that the use of the proposed treatment slows the degradation of carotenoids. The quantity of carotenoids in experimental cucumbers at the end of storage is 21–23% higher than in the control ones. The compensatory function of ascorbic acid, carotenoids and phenolic substances during storage of cucumber fruits is proved.

  18. Inter comparison of 90Sr and 137Cs contents in biologic samples and natural U in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianfen; Zeng Guangjian; Lu Xuequan


    The results of the 90 Sr and 137 Cs contents in biologic samples and the natural U in soil samples obtained in a joint effort by fourteen environmental radiation laboratories in the Chinese environmental protection system were analyzed and compared. Two kinds of biologic samples and one kind of soil samples were used for inter comparison. Of which, one kind of biologic samples (biologic powder samples) and the soil samples came from the IAEA samples were environmental and the reference values were known. The another kind of biologic samples were environmental tea-leaf that were taken from a tea garden near Hangzhou. The mean values obtained by all the joined laboratories was used as the reference. The inter comparison results were expressed in terms of the deviation from the reference value. It was found that the deviation of the 90 Sr and 137 Cs contents of biologic powder samples ranged from -15.4% to 26.5% and -15.0% to 0.4%, respectively. The deviation of the natural U content ranged from -25.5% to 7.3% for the soil samples. For the tea-leaf, the 90 Sr deviation was -22.7% to 19.1%, and the 137 Cs data had a relative large scatter with a ratio of the maximum and the minimum values being about 7. It was pointed out that the analysis results offered by different laboratories might have involved system errors

  19. Peer Mediated Instruction and Intervention (PMII type Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT and Academics Ability of Natural Science-Biology in Vocational High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamsiah Hamsiah


    Full Text Available Peer Mediated Instruction and Intervention (PMII tipe Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPTdan Kemampuan Akademik pada Pembelajaran IPA Biologi SMK Abstract: Learning science in SMK 1 Bontang still dominated by conventional learning strategy is a method of learning with lecture. This has an impact on learning outcomes of cognitive science that tends biology is still low because the students have not been trained become independent learners, thus learning innovation PMII CWPT types can be used as a breakthrough to develop the cognitive learning. This study was conducted to determine the application CWPT strategies and academic skills in science teaching vocational Biology. Quasi-experimental research with pretest-posttest design Nonequivalent Control Group. Results of the study, namely: (1 there CWPT effect on the cognitive learning, (2 no influence academic ability to cognitive learning outcomes, and (3 there is no interaction effect between learning strategy and the academic ability toward the cognitive learning. Key Words: peer-mediated instruction and intervention, classwide peer tutoring, academic skills, cognitive learning outcomes Abstrak: Pembelajaran IPA di SMKN 1 Bontang masih didominasi dengan strategi belajar konvensio-nal yaitu metode belajar dengan ceramah. Hal ini berdampak terhadap hasil belajar kognitif IPA biolo-gi yang cendrung masih rendah karena siswa belum terlatih menjadi pebelajar yang mandiri, sehingga inovasi pembelajaran PMII tipe CWPT dapat digunakan sebagai terobosan untuk mengembangkan  hasil belajar kognitif. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui penerapan strategi CWPT dan kemam-puan akademik pada pembelajaran IPA Biologi SMK. Penelitian eksperimen semu dengan rancangan pretest-posttest Nonequivalent Control Group. Hasil penelitian, yaitu: (1 ada pengaruh CWPT ter-hadap hasil belajar kognitif,  (2 ada  pengaruh  kemampuan akademik terhadap hasil belajar kognitif, dan (3 tidak ada  pengaruh interaksi antara

  20. Teacher Education that Works: Preparing Secondary-Level Math and Science Teachers for Success with English Language Learners Through Content-Based Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margo Elisabeth DelliCarpini


    Full Text Available Little research exists on effective ways to prepare secondary mathematics and science teachers to work with English language learners (ELLs in mainstream mathematics and science (subsequently referred to as STEM classrooms. Given the achievement gap that exists between ELLs and their native-speaking counterparts in STEM subjects, as well as the growing numbers of ELLs in US schools, this becomes a critical issue, as academic success for these students depends on the effectiveness of instruction they receive not only in English as a second language classes (ESL, but in mainstream classrooms as well. This article reports on the effects of a program restructuring that implemented coursework specifically designed to prepare pre-service and in-service mathematics, science, and ESL teachers to work with ELLs in their content and ESL classrooms through collaboration between mainstream STEM and ESL teachers, as well as effective content and language integration. We present findings on teachers’ attitudes and current practices related to the inclusion of ELLs in the secondary-level content classroom and their current level of knowledge and skills in collaborative practice. We further describe the rationale behind the development of the course, provide a description of the course and its requirements as they changed throughout its implementation during two semesters, and present findings from the participants enrolled. Additionally, we discuss the lessons learned; researchers’ innovative approaches to implementation of content-based instruction (CBI and teacher collaboration, which we term two-way CBI (DelliCarpini & Alonso, 2013; and implications for teacher education programs.

  1. Point-of-care ultrasound defines gastric content and changes the anesthetic management of elective surgical patients who have not followed fasting instructions: a prospective case series. (United States)

    Alakkad, Husni; Kruisselbrink, Richelle; Chin, Ki Jinn; Niazi, Ahtsham U; Abbas, Sherif; Chan, Vincent W S; Perlas, Anahi


    Pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents is a major cause of anesthesia morbidity and mortality. Point-of-care gastric ultrasound provides information regarding the type and volume of gastric content. The hypothesis of this prospective cohort study was that the addition of point-of-care gastric ultrasound to standard patient assessment results in changes in anesthetic management in at least 30% of elective surgical patients who do not follow fasting instructions. Following Research Ethics Board approval and informed consent, elective surgical patients who did not follow fasting instructions were included in this prospective study. Documentation included the type of food ingested, the timing of the ingestion relative to the planned surgical time, and the treating anesthesiologist's management plan based on history alone. Next, an independent anesthesiologist not involved in the medical decision-making performed a focused gastric ultrasound examination. The results of the ultrasound exam were documented in a standardized fashion and made available to the attending anesthesiologist who then confirmed or revised the initial management plan. The treating anesthesiologist's actual (post-test) patient management was documented in a standardized fashion and compared with the initial (pre-test) management plan. Thirty-eight patients were included in this case series. Following point-of-care gastric ultrasound, there was a change in either the timing of anesthesia or the anesthetic technique (or both) in 27 patients (71%), with a net change towards a lower incidence of surgical delays. This prospective case series suggests that a standardized point-of care gastric ultrasound examination informs anesthesiologists' perceived level of aspiration risk and leads to changes in anesthetic management in a significant proportion of elective patients who did not follow fasting instructions.

  2. Survey of Biology Capstone Courses in American and Canadian Higher Education: Requirement, Content, and Skills (United States)

    Haave, Neil C.


    Capstone experiences have high educational impact with various approaches available for biology. However, no information exists regarding the pervasiveness of capstone courses in Canadian and American biology programs. This study surveyed the prevalence and character of biology capstone courses in the USA and Canada. The survey included a majority…

  3. Matching Jobs, People, and Instructional Content: An Innovative Application of a Latent Semantic Analysis-Based Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laham, Darrell; Bennett, Winston, Jr; Landauer, Thomas K


    ..., pinpoint needed retraining content, and maximize training and retraining efficiency. The LSA-based technology extracts semantic information about people, occupations, and task-experience contained in a natural-text database...

  4. Cultural variances in composition of biological and supernatural concepts of death: a content analysis of children's literature. (United States)

    Lee, Ji Seong; Kim, Eun Young; Choi, Younyoung; Koo, Ja Hyouk


    Children's reasoning about the afterlife emerges naturally as a developmental regularity. Although a biological understanding of death increases in accordance with cognitive development, biological and supernatural explanations of death may coexist in a complementary manner, being deeply imbedded in cultural contexts. This study conducted a content analysis of 40 children's death-themed picture books in Western Europe and East Asia. It can be inferred that causality and non-functionality are highly integrated with the naturalistic and supernatural understanding of death in Western Europe, whereas the literature in East Asia seems to rely on naturalistic aspects of death and focuses on causal explanations.

  5. Improving Content Area Reading Comprehension with 4-6th Grade Spanish ELLs Using Web-Based Structure Strategy Instruction (United States)

    Wijekumar, Kausalai; Meyer, Bonnie J. F.; Lei, Puiwa


    Reading in the content areas of science, social studies, and current events is a difficult task that is even more elusive to Spanish speaking English language learners. There is a huge increase in children transitioning from their L1 (e.g., Spanish) to L2 (e.g., English) in classrooms across the US. These ELs face challenges due to a lack of…

  6. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED


    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  7. Exploring Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Biology Graduate Teaching Assistants through Their Participation in Lesson Study (United States)

    Lampley, Sandra A.; Gardner, Grant E.; Barlow, Angela T.


    Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) are responsible for teaching the majority of biology undergraduate laboratory sections, although many feel underprepared to do so. This study explored the impact of biology GTA participation in a professional development model known as lesson study. Using a case study methodology with multiple qualitative data…

  8. Uncovering biological soil crusts: carbon content and structure of intact Arctic, Antarctic and alpine biological soil crusts (United States)

    Jung, Patrick; Briegel-Williams, Laura; Simon, Anika; Thyssen, Anne; Büdel, Burkhard


    Arctic, Antarctic and alpine biological soil crusts (BSCs) are formed by adhesion of soil particles to exopolysaccharides (EPSs) excreted by cyanobacterial and green algal communities, the pioneers and main primary producers in these habitats. These BSCs provide and influence many ecosystem services such as soil erodibility, soil formation and nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) cycles. In cold environments degradation rates are low and BSCs continuously increase soil organic C; therefore, these soils are considered to be CO2 sinks. This work provides a novel, non-destructive and highly comparable method to investigate intact BSCs with a focus on cyanobacteria and green algae and their contribution to soil organic C. A new terminology arose, based on confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) 2-D biomaps, dividing BSCs into a photosynthetic active layer (PAL) made of active photoautotrophic organisms and a photosynthetic inactive layer (PIL) harbouring remnants of cyanobacteria and green algae glued together by their remaining EPSs. By the application of CLSM image analysis (CLSM-IA) to 3-D biomaps, C coming from photosynthetic active organisms could be visualized as depth profiles with C peaks at 0.5 to 2 mm depth. Additionally, the CO2 sink character of these cold soil habitats dominated by BSCs could be highlighted, demonstrating that the first cubic centimetre of soil consists of between 7 and 17 % total organic carbon, identified by loss on ignition.

  9. Effects of Readers Theatre on fluency, content mastery, motivation and gender with 9th grade biology students (United States)

    Purdy, Jill E.

    This study determined the effects of Readers Theatre when used with ninth grade biology students. The independent variable was the intervention of Readers Theatre and the dependent variables were fluency (reading rate and prosody), composite (vocabulary and content) science scores and student motivation, using both quantitative and qualitative research methods. This study also examined the outcomes by gender, but only in the outcome variable of science composite score. An exploratory analysis examined class type (college preparatory and general) and PSSA reading level (below basic, basic, proficient and advanced) for each dependent variable. Four ninth grade college preparatory biology classrooms and three general biology classes participated. The students involved are from a suburban school district located in the eastern portion of Pennsylvania. Outcomes were analyzed separately by using an ANCOVA. Posttest scores were the dependent variable and pretest scores were the covariate. Using qualitative methodology, participants' questionnaire responses were analyzed to supplement quantitative results and to explore trends in motivation. Significant increases were found in words per minute and prosody in the area of prosody, general classes benefited to a larger extent than college preparatory classes. No significance was found in science composite, vocabulary or content test scores. Indications from students and teachers questionnaires were that Readers Theatre is a motivational technique. In this study, Readers Theater was proven to increase both fluency and prosody, while being motivating to the biology students.

  10. Effectiveness of problem based learning as an instructional tool for acquisition of content knowledge and promotion of critical thinking among medical students. (United States)

    Tayyeb, Rakhshanda


    To assess effectiveness of PBL as an instructional tool in clinical years to improve learning of undergraduate students in terms of acquisition of content knowledge, critical thinking and problem solving skills through problem based learning and traditional way of teaching. Quasi-experimental study. Fatima Jinnah Medical College for Women, Lahore, from October 2009 to April 2010. Final year medical students attending Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Surgery rotations were inducted as participants in this study. Two batches of 50 students each attended Gynaecology rotation and two batches attended Surgery rotation, i.e. 100 students in each. Each batch was divided into two groups i.e. A and B of 25 students each. Group-A learnt through traditional teaching, involving bedside teaching and lectures in wards and Group-B learnt relevant clinical knowledge through a modified PBL process. Content knowledge was tested by MCQs testing recall while clinical reasoning and problem were assessed by MCQs testing analysis and critical thinking. Intra-group comparison of mean scores of pre and post-test scores was done using paired sample t-tests while for intergroup comparison of mean scores was done through independent sample t-test. Teaching through traditional method significantly improved content knowledge, (p = 0.001) but did not considerably improve clinical reasoning and problem solving skills (p = 0.093) whereas, content knowledge of students who studied through PBL remained the same (p = 0.202) but there was marked improvement in their clinical reasoning and problem solving skills (p = problem solving skills among medical students.

  11. Determination of carbon-14 content in biological materials and its application to vinegars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Martin-Casallo, M.T.; Chereguini, S.


    A radiometric method for the determination of synthetic acetic acid in the presence of biological vinegar has been developed. The activity of 1 4C is measured by liquid scintillation counting and the sensitivity is optimized by taking into account the composition of several liquid scintillation solutions and the concentration of their components. (author) [es

  12. Reducing capacity, chlorogenic acid content and biological activity in a collection of scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum) and Gboma (S. macrocarpon) eggplants. (United States)

    Plazas, Mariola; Prohens, Jaime; Cuñat, Amparo Noelia; Vilanova, Santiago; Gramazio, Pietro; Herraiz, Francisco Javier; Andújar, Isabel


    Scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum) and gboma (S. macrocarpon) eggplants are important vegetables in Sub-Saharan Africa. Few studies have been made on these crops regarding the diversity of phenolic content and their biological activity. We have studied the reducing activity, the chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acid contents in a collection of 56 accessions of scarlet eggplant, including the four cultivated groups (Aculeatum, Gilo, Kumba, Shum) and the weedy intermediate S. aethiopicum-S. anguivi types, as well as in eight accessions of gboma eggplant, including the cultivated S. macrocarpon and its wild ancestor, S. dasyphyllum. A sample of the accessions evaluated in this collection has been tested for inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) using macrophage cell cultures. The results show that there is a great diversity in both crops for reducing activity, chlorogenic acid content and chlorogenic acid peak area (% of total phenolic acids). Heritability (H2) for these traits was intermediate to high in both crops. In all samples, chlorogenic acid was the major phenolic acid and accounted for more than 50% of the chromatogram peak area. Considerable differences were found among and within groups for these traits, but the greatest values for total phenolics and chlorogenic acid content were found in S. dasyphyllum. In most groups, reducing activity was positively correlated (with values of up to 0.904 in the Aculeatum group) with chlorogenic acid content. Inhibition of NO was greatest in samples having a high chlorogenic acid content. The results show that both crops are a relevant source of chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acids. The high diversity found also indicates that there are good prospects for breeding new scarlet and gboma eggplant cultivars with improved content in phenolics and bioactive properties.

  13. Haplotype analysis of the germacrene A synthase gene and association with cynaropicrin content and biological activities in Cynara cardunculus. (United States)

    Ferro, Ana Margarida; Ramos, Patrícia; Guerra, Ângela; Parreira, Paula; Brás, Teresa; Guerreiro, Olinda; Jerónimo, Eliana; Capel, Carmen; Capel, Juan; Yuste-Lisbona, Fernando J; Duarte, Maria F; Lozano, Rafael; Oliveira, M Margarida; Gonçalves, Sónia


    Cynara cardunculus: L. represents a natural source of terpenic compounds, with the predominant molecule being cynaropicrin. Cynaropicrin is gaining interest since it has been correlated to anti-hyperlipidaemia, antispasmodic and cytotoxicity activity against leukocyte cancer cells. The objective of this work was to screen a collection of C. cardunculus, from different origins, for new allelic variants in germacrene A synthase (GAS) gene involved in the cynaropicrin biosynthesis and correlate them with improved cynaropicrin content and biological activities. Using high-resolution melting, nine haplotypes were identified. The putative impact of the identified allelic variants in GAS protein was evaluated by bioinformatic tools and polymorphisms that putatively lead to protein conformational changes were described. Additionally, cynaropicrin and main pentacyclic triterpenes contents, and antithrombin, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities were also determined in C. cardunculus leaf lipophilic-derived extracts. In this work we identified allelic variants with putative impact on GAS protein, which are significantly associated with cynaropicrin content and antiproliferative activity. The results obtained suggest that the identified polymorphisms should be explored as putative genetic markers correlated with biological properties in Cynara cardunculus.

  14. The integration of the contents of the subject Physics-Chemistry (I in Biology-Chemistry specialty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sc. Luis AZCUY LORENZ


    Full Text Available This work is the result of a research task developed in the Natural Sciences Education Department during 2013-2014 academic year, and it emerged from the necessity of solving some insufficiencies in the use of the real potentialities offered by the content of the subject Physics-Chemistry (I, that is part of the curriculum of the Biology-Chemistry career. Its main objective is to offer a set of exercises to contribute to achieve the integration of contents from the subject Physics-chemistry (I in the mentioned career at «Ignacio Agramonte Loynaz» University of Camaguey. The exercises proposed are characterized for being related to the real practice and to other subjects of the career. Their implementation through review lessons, partial tests and final evaluations during the formative experiment made possible a better academic result in the learners overall performance.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuț AVRĂMIA


    Full Text Available Isolated polysaccharides from different natural sources have gained a real interest from the scientific community due to biologically active effects on body functions such as: lipid metabolism correction, immune stimulating, glycemic control in type II diabetes, antitumor activity, etc. A category of these polysaccharides is β-glucans, β-D-glucose polymers produced by various organisms such as bacteria, yeasts, algae and plants. This paper presents the experimental results obtained from the analysis of four types of yeast available on the market in order to select the one with the highest content of β-glucan, which can be later exploited in various fields: medical, pharmaceutical, food or cosmetics. According to the experimental data, the highest level of β-glucans content is represented by beer yeast, 21.49% higher than bakery yeast and 36.36% higher than wine yeast.

  16. Phytochemical screening, total phenolic contents and biological evaluation of aerial parts of nepeta praetervisa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fareed, G.; Afza, N.; Mali, A.; Fareed, N.; Lateef, M.; Iqbal, L.; Mughal, U.R


    This study was designed to explore the phytochemical screening, total phenolic contents, radical scavenging potential and urease inhibitory activities in various fractions of the aerial parts of Nepeta praetervisa. Sub-fractions (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous) were prepared from the crude methanolic extract using partition chromatography. Phytochemical tests were performed and revealed the presence of various classes of secondary metabolites in various sub-fractions (Table-1). Total phenolic contents of all the fractions were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) reagent and the ethyl acetate sub-fraction was found to possess the highest level of phenolic contents (627.25 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g) as compared to the other fractions. The radical scavenging activity was determined at various concentrations ranging from 2.5 - 0.15 micro g /10 mu L by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) method. At the lowest concentration level, the ethyl acetate sub-fraction showed maximum level of antioxidant activity (78%) compared to BHA used as standard. The decreasing order of activity was ethyl acetate>chloroform>aqueous>n-butanol>methanol>n-hexane. On the other hand when all these fractions were screened for urease inhibition activity using indophenols method, the ethyl acetate sub-fraction showed significant urease inhibitory activity (68 %) compared with the standard thiourea at the concentration of 50 mu g /10 mu L. The decreasing order of activity of various sub-fractions was ethyl acetate>chloroform>hexane>aqueous, while n-butanol sub- fraction was inactive. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Alberto Navas Brenes


    Full Text Available El principal objetivo de este artículo es presentar una lección, la cual incorpora materiales auténticos, para el curso de inglés LM-1230 Comunicación Oral I con base en los principios pedagógicos de la metodología de aprendizaje basada en contenidos (Content-Based Instruction. Esta lección ayudará a docentes principiantes quienes eventualmente impartirán cursos originados de la metodología de aprendizaje basada en contenidos a un nivel intermedio de inglés. La población meta de esta lección consiste en estudiantes del primer curso oral de segundo año de la Carrera de Inglés en la Escuela de Lenguas Modernas de la Universidad de Costa Rica. A través de este curso, el estudiantado cubre dos temas principales: salud y problemas ambientales.

  18. High content screening as high quality assay for biological evaluation of photosensitizers in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela M F Vaz

    Full Text Available A novel single step assay approach to screen a library of photdynamic therapy (PDT compounds was developed. Utilizing high content analysis (HCA technologies several robust cellular parameters were identified, which can be used to determine the phototoxic effects of porphyrin compounds which have been developed as potential anticancer agents directed against esophageal carcinoma. To demonstrate the proof of principle of this approach a small detailed study on five porphyrin based compounds was performed utilizing two relevant esophageal cancer cell lines (OE21 and SKGT-4. The measurable outputs from these early studies were then evaluated by performing a pilot screen using a set of 22 compounds. These data were evaluated and validated by performing comparative studies using a traditional colorimetric assay (MTT. The studies demonstrated that the HCS assay offers significant advantages over and above the currently used methods (directly related to the intracellular presence of the compounds by analysis of their integrated intensity and area within the cells. A high correlation was found between the high content screening (HCS and MTT data. However, the HCS approach provides additional information that allows a better understanding of the behavior of these compounds when interacting at the cellular level. This is the first step towards an automated high-throughput screening of photosensitizer drug candidates and the beginnings of an integrated and comprehensive quantitative structure action relationship (QSAR study for photosensitizer libraries.

  19. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents and biological activities of Cachrys cristata DC. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matejić Jelena S.


    Full Text Available The total phenolic/flavonoid contents and antioxidant potential of the methanol, ethyl-acetate, acetone and water extracts obtained from the aerial parts and fruits of Cachrys cristata DC.(Apiaceae were compared. The total phenolic contents of the tested extracts were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu’s reagent. The amounts per g of dry plant extract of gallic acid (GA and quercetin (Qu ranged between 22.60-166.97 mg, and 8.91-46.02 mg, respectively. The antioxidant activity, expressed as IC50, ranged from 1.784-17.621 mg/mL and from 1.01-3.42 mg L(+-ascorbic acid (Vitamin C/g when tested with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and ABTS, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was investigated by the microwell dilution assay, for the most common human gastrointestinal pathogenic bacterial strains: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC15313, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and yeast Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The results indicate that C. cristata can be regarded as a potential source of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173029

  20. Biological activities and chemical content of Sung Yod rice bran oil extracted by expression and soxhlet extraction methods. (United States)

    Uttama, Sakuntala; Itharat, Arunpomrn; Rattarom, Rujiluk; Makchuchit, Sunita; Panthong, Sumalee; Sakpakdeejaroen, Intouch


    Sung Yod rice is a red-violet pigmented rice and grown in the southern part of Thailand. Its rice bran oil has attracted the attention ofscientists who have described anti-oxidant properties ofsome ingredients in Sung Yod rice bran oil. Normally, extraction methods ofcommercial product from rice bran oil are by expression or soxhlet extraction with hexane. Thus, biological activities of Sung Yod rice bran oil related to health and chemical content ofrice bran oilfrom the two methods should be studied. The objectives of this research were to investigate for biological activities and chemical content ofSung Yod rice bran oil obtainedfrom expression or soxhlet extraction method. Biological activities such as cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities were investigated. Sulphorhodamine (SRB) assay was used to test cytotoxic activity against four human cancer cell lines: lung (COR-L23), cervical (HeLa), prostate (PC-3) and breast (MCF-7) and normal human lung cells (MRC-5). The inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RA W264. 7 cell lines was usedfor the determination of anti-inflammatory effect. DPPH, TEAC and FRAP assay were carried outfor antioxidant activity. Total phenolic compound was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. y-oryzanol and vitamin E content were determined by HPLC. Sung Yod rice bran oil was produced by expression method (EX) or by soxhlet extraction method using hexane (SXH-I). The percentage ofyield ofSung Yod rice bran oil by EX and SXH were 2.16 and 15.23 %w/w, respectively. Only EX showed the selective cytotoxicity against prostate cancer cells (PC-3), (IC50 = 52.06±1.60 μg/ml). It also exhibited high inhibitory effects on NO production (IC50 = 30.09 μg/ml). In contrast, SXH had no anti-inflammatory effect and cytotoxic activity against any of the cancer cells. EXshowed higher antioxidant activity determined using DPPH compared to SXH. It also showed higher amount of yoryzanol and

  1. Non-Western Students' Causal Reasoning about Biologically Adaptive Changes in Humans, Other Animals and Plants: Instructional and Curricular Implications (United States)

    Mbajiorgu, Ngozika; Anidu, Innocent


    Senior secondary school students (N = 360), 14- to 18-year-olds, from the Igbo culture of eastern Nigeria responded to a questionnaire requiring them to give causal explanations of biologically adaptive changes in humans, other animals and plants. A student subsample (n = 36) was, subsequently, selected for in-depth interviews. Significant…

  2. Zirconia/Hydroxyapatite Composites Synthesized Via Sol-Gel: Influence of Hydroxyapatite Content and Heating on Their Biological Properties. (United States)

    Bollino, Flavia; Armenia, Emilia; Tranquillo, Elisabetta


    Zirconia (ZrO₂) and zirconia-based glasses and ceramics are materials proposed for use in the dental and orthopedic fields. In this work, ZrO₂ glass was modified by adding different amounts of bioactive and biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HAp). ZrO₂/HAp composites were synthesized via the sol-gel method and heated to different temperatures to induce modifications of their chemical structure, as ascertained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The aim was to investigate the effect of both HAp content and heating on the biological performances of ZrO₂. The materials' bioactivity was studied by soaking samples in a simulated body fluid (SBF). FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)) analyses carried out after exposure to SBF showed that all materials are bioactive, i.e., they are able to form a hydroxyapatite layer on their surface. Moreover, the samples were soaked in a solution containing bovine serum albumin (BSA). FTIR analysis proved that the synthesized materials are able to adsorb the blood protein, the first step of cell adhesion. WST-8 ([2-(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, monosodium salt]) assay showed that no cytotoxicity effects were induced by the materials' extract. However, the results proved that bioactivity increases with both the HAp content and the temperature used for the thermal treatment, whereas biocompatibility increases with heating but is not affected by the HAp content.

  3. Determination of the Fatty Acid Content of Biological Membranes: A Highly Versatile GC-MS Experiment (United States)

    Schultz, Emeric; Pugh, Michael Eugene


    The experiment involves the GC-MS of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) obtained from bacterial membranes. It takes about 2 h, from cell harvest to injection. This experiment is done in a lab course for non-science majors and in biochemistry. For non-science majors the focus is on GC-MS as a technique for fingerprinting and on the underlying basis of that fingerprinting. In biochemistry the focus is on the composition of membranes and how this changes with temperature--specifically how the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids changes to maintain constant cell fluidity. Combined with a parallel DNA experiment, the two major types of intermolecular forces important for the structure and function of biomolecules are compared. How this versatile experiment could be adapted in other chemistry courses is presented. The experiment has obvious appeal to biology majors, can be used to develop several important chemistry concepts, involves teamwork, and employs an important instrument. It could be used in the laboratory portion of a course other than biochemistry to fulfill the new ACS biochemistry requirement.

  4. Simultaneous AMS determination of {sup 14}C content and total carbon mass in biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoppi, U., E-mail: [Accium BioSciences, 550 17th Avenue, Suite 550, Seattle, WA 98122 (United States); Arjomand, A. [Accium BioSciences, 550 17th Avenue, Suite 550, Seattle, WA 98122 (United States)


    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is now recognized as one of the most powerful techniques available for conducting ultrasensitive clinical studies. However, since for biological applications the relevant quantity is the total {sup 14}C activity (i.e. dpm/mL sample), AMS {sup 14}C measurements must be combined with total carbon concentrations measured on a separate instrument using a different sample aliquot. This procedure is inherently a source of large inaccuracies, especially in non-homogeneous samples such as urine and fecal blends. To overcome this limitation we developed a new measurement technique whereby a small amount of {sup 13}C-enriched carbon carrier is added to each sample. Accurate measurement of the {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C and {sup 14}C/{sup 13}C ratios of the mix can be used to simultaneously calculate total carbon mass and {sup 14}C concentration of the original sample. In this paper we present our first test runs including a detailed error analysis demonstrating that sample mass and {sup 14}C concentration of the original sample can be determined with a precision and accuracy of better than 3%, thus significantly reducing the final uncertainty due to sample in-homogeneities.

  5. Measuring the Outcome of At-Risk Students on Biology Standardized Tests When Using Different Instructional Strategies (United States)

    Burns, Dana

    Over the last two decades, online education has become a popular concept in universities as well as K-12 education. This generation of students has grown up using technology and has shown interest in incorporating technology into their learning. The idea of using technology in the classroom to enhance student learning and create higher achievement has become necessary for administrators, teachers, and policymakers. Although online education is a popular topic, there has been minimal research on the effectiveness of online and blended learning strategies compared to the student learning in a traditional K-12 classroom setting. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in standardized test scores from the Biology End of Course exam when at-risk students completed the course using three different educational models: online format, blended learning, and traditional face-to-face learning. Data was collected from over 1,000 students over a five year time period. Correlation analyzed data from standardized tests scores of eighth grade students was used to define students as "at-risk" for failing high school courses. The results indicated a high correlation between eighth grade standardized test scores and Biology End of Course exam scores. These students were deemed "at-risk" for failing high school courses. Standardized test scores were measured for the at-risk students when those students completed Biology in the different models of learning. Results indicated significant differences existed among the learning models. Students had the highest test scores when completing Biology in the traditional face-to-face model. Further evaluation of subgroup populations indicated statistical differences in learning models for African-American populations, female students, and for male students.

  6. Biological Model Development as an Opportunity to Provide Content Auditing for the Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology. (United States)

    Wang, Lucy L; Grunblatt, Eli; Jung, Hyunggu; Kalet, Ira J; Whipple, Mark E


    Constructing a biological model using an established ontology provides a unique opportunity to perform content auditing on the ontology. We built a Markov chain model to study tumor metastasis in the regional lymphatics of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The model attempts to determine regions with high likelihood for metastasis, which guides surgeons and radiation oncologists in selecting the boundaries of treatment. To achieve consistent anatomical relationships, the nodes in our model are populated using lymphatic objects extracted from the Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA) ontology. During this process, we discovered several classes of inconsistencies in the lymphatic representations within the FMA. We were able to use this model building opportunity to audit the entities and connections in this region of interest (ROI). We found five subclasses of errors that are computationally detectable and resolvable, one subclass of errors that is computationally detectable but unresolvable, requiring the assistance of a content expert, and also errors of content, which cannot be detected through computational means. Mathematical descriptions of detectable errors along with expert review were used to discover inconsistencies and suggest concepts for addition and removal. Out of 106 organ and organ parts in the ROI, 8 unique entities were affected, leading to the suggestion of 30 concepts for addition and 4 for removal. Out of 27 lymphatic chain instances, 23 were found to have errors, with a total of 32 concepts suggested for addition and 15 concepts for removal. These content corrections are necessary for the accurate functioning of the FMA and provide benefits for future research and educational uses.

  7. Carbon exchange in biological soil crust communities under differential temperatures and soil water contents: implications for global change (United States)

    Grote, Edmund E.; Belnap, Jayne; Housman, David C.; Sparks, Jed P.


    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are an integral part of the soil system in arid regions worldwide, stabilizing soil surfaces, aiding vascular plant establishment, and are significant sources of ecosystem nitrogen and carbon. Hydration and temperature primarily control ecosystem CO2 flux in these systems. Using constructed mesocosms for incubations under controlled laboratory conditions, we examined the effect of temperature (5-35 1C) and water content (WC, 20-100%) on CO2 exchange in light cyanobacterially dominated) and dark cyanobacteria/lichen and moss dominated) biocrusts of the cool Colorado Plateau Desert in Utah and the hot Chihuahuan Desert in New Mexico. In light crusts from both Utah and New Mexico, net photosynthesis was highest at temperatures 430 1C. Net photosynthesis in light crusts from Utah was relatively insensitive to changes in soil moisture. In contrast, light crusts from New Mexico tended to exhibit higher rates of net photosynthesis at higher soil moisture. Dark crusts originating from both sites exhibited the greatest net photosynthesis at intermediate soil water content (40-60%). Declines in net photosynthesis were observed in dark crusts with crusts from Utah showing declines at temperatures 425 1C and those originating from New Mexico showing declines at temperatures 435 1C. Maximum net photosynthesis in all crust types from all locations were strongly influenced by offsets in the optimal temperature and water content for gross photosynthesis compared with dark respiration. Gross photosynthesis tended to be maximized at some intermediate value of temperature and water content and dark respiration tended to increase linearly. The results of this study suggest biocrusts are capable of CO2 exchange under a wide range of conditions. However, significant changes in the magnitude of this exchange should be expected for the temperature and precipitation changes suggested by current climate models.

  8. [The biological function of L-carnitine and its content in the particular food examples]. (United States)

    Rospond, Bartłomiej; Chłopicka, Joanna


    The aim of this article is to provide information about L-carnitine, its physiological role in the human body and its content in some foods. This chemical compound is mainly synthesized in the liver, kidney and brain and is composed of two aminoacids, lyzine and metionine. L-carnitine regulates the level of acylo-CoA and CoA in the mitochondium and cytozolum, and it provides acetyl moieties for the biosythesis of acetocholine. L-carnitine plays a vital function in the metabolism of lipids and it carries long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria for beta-oxidation. An increase of the amount of L-carnitine in the human body may lead to reduction and inhibition of production of fatty tissue. Despite the fact that human body can synthesise L-carnitine, about 80% of this chemical compound is delivered by food. It is crucial, especially for people who are on a slimming diet, to choose products rich in L-carnitine because this compound may potentially reduce the body weight. Animal by-products contain the highest amount of L-carnitine, and these are, e.g , kangaroo meat (637 mg), horse meat (423mg), beef (139 mg per 100 g of dry weight). The amount of L-carnitine in milk products may range from 1,4 to 42,8 mg per 100 g of dry matter. Vegetables and fruits are products which contain less than 5 mg of L-carnitine per 100 g of dry matter. Lipids are also very low in L-carnitine, e.g sunflower oil is free from this compound. It is worth mentioning that mushrooms are richer in L-carnitine than plants. The amount of L-carnitine (53 mg/100 g dry matter) in pleureotus ostreatus equals approximately 100 g of minced pork.

  9. Studies on Elemental Contents of Some Biological and Environmental Materials Using Nuclear And Atomic Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-El Aziz, W.M.M.


    study raises ethical and medical concerns about the implications of using eye-liners with high toxic elemental content in Egypt.

  10. An "elite hacker": breast tumors exploit the normal microenvironment program to instruct their progression and biological diversity. (United States)

    Boudreau, Aaron; van't Veer, Laura J; Bissell, Mina J


    The year 2011 marked the 40 year anniversary of Richard Nixon signing the National Cancer Act, thus declaring the beginning of the "War on Cancer" in the United States. Whereas we have made tremendous progress toward understanding the genetics of tumors in the past four decades, and in developing enabling technology to dissect the molecular underpinnings of cancer at unprecedented resolution, it is only recently that the important role of the stromal microenvironment has been studied in detail. Cancer is a tissue-specific disease, and it is becoming clear that much of what we know about breast cancer progression parallels the biology of the normal breast differentiation, of which there is still much to learn. In particular, the normal breast and breast tumors share molecular, cellular, systemic and microenvironmental influences necessary for their progression. It is therefore enticing to consider a tumor to be a "rogue hacker"--one who exploits the weaknesses of a normal program for personal benefit. Understanding normal mammary gland biology and its "security vulnerabilities" may thus leave us better equipped to target breast cancer. In this review, we will provide a brief overview of the heterotypic cellular and molecular interactions within the microenvironment of the developing mammary gland that are necessary for functional differentiation, provide evidence suggesting that similar biology--albeit imbalanced and exaggerated--is observed in breast cancer progression particularly during the transition from carcinoma in situ to invasive disease. Lastly we will present evidence suggesting that the multigene signatures currently used to model cancer heterogeneity and clinical outcome largely reflect signaling from a heterogeneous microenvironment-a recurring theme that could potentially be exploited therapeutically.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armansyah Putra


    Full Text Available This research is aimed to develop biology learning materials in Junior High School for plants movement topic to increase students’ achievement and self-directed through Science Process Skill approach. This is development research refers to Kemp’s development model. The learning kit is taught in SMPN 1 Blega Bangkalan Madura for 28 students grade VIII employing science process skill approach. The research design uses One Group Pretest-Posttest and data is analyzed with the qualitative descriptive method. This research reveals that the implementation of learning kit is 83%, dominant student’s activities in 1st and 2nd learning process are observing (22% - 24%, most of the students have positive responses which are indicated by 99% of students expressing their like, the result of students’ learning mastery satisfies the classical criteria for 86%, the rate of students self-directed varies from 55,56% to 83,32%. Based on the data analysis, it can be concluded that the Development of Biology Learning Kit is feasible.

  12. Using Multiple Lenses to Examine the Development of Beginning Biology Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Teaching Natural Selection Simulations (United States)

    Sickel, Aaron J.; Friedrichsen, Patricia


    Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has become a useful construct to examine science teacher learning. Yet, researchers conceptualize PCK development in different ways. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to use three analytic lenses to understand the development of three beginning biology teachers' PCK for teaching natural selection simulations. We observed three early-career biology teachers as they taught natural selection in their respective school contexts over two consecutive years. Data consisted of six interviews with each participant. Using the PCK model developed by Magnusson et al. (1999), we examined topic-specific PCK development utilizing three different lenses: (1) expansion of knowledge within an individual knowledge base, (2) integration of knowledge across knowledge bases, and (3) knowledge that explicitly addressed core concepts of natural selection. We found commonalities across the participants, yet each lens was also useful to understand the influence of different factors (e.g., orientation, subject matter preparation, and the idiosyncratic nature of teacher knowledge) on PCK development. This multi-angle approach provides implications for considering the quality of beginning science teachers' knowledge and future research on PCK development. We conclude with an argument that explicitly communicating lenses used to understand PCK development will help the research community compare analytic approaches and better understand the nature of science teacher learning.

  13. Learning significant critical of contents of health education in students of biology of the University Upel , Caracas, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Camejo


    Full Text Available Research conducted to address deficiencies of student’s conceptual course Health Education (EPS career training teachers of Biology UPEL-IPC. The aim was to encourage meaningful learning content critical of the semester students EpS in 2013-U. framed in the qualitative-interpretive paradigm that responds to a participatory action research (IAP where techniques and instruments (conceptual maps, interview scripts, validated questionnaires were used to record and interpret information at different times of application of the educational intervention research designed considering the principles of Meaningful Learning Critical Moreira. The content was adjusted to national and international trends Health and EPs. The analysis of results allowed to highlight the need to update the program EpS, following agreements in the field of scientific and teaching and training students in Health and EPs. In the educational intervention built from the IAP they participated teachers, students and experts. The results of its application evolution of meanings show differences in their conceptual progressivity and evidence of meaningful learning.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mega Elvianasti


    Full Text Available Content Knowledge (CK is an ability to reveal  a particular object based on the characteristics possessed by the object. The purpose of this research was to analyze the ability of Content Knowledge (CK of Pre-service Biology Teachers  to be viewed based on concept comprehension test. The study used qualitative methods, measured by giving a test in the form of a description of the genetics and ecology, the questions were compiled based on Bloom's taxonomy Revision from C2-C4 level. The research show that; in general prospective teachers have low mastery on the concept of gene regulation, Mendel's Law, and protein synthesis, but they have a good concepts on comprehension of Genes, DNA, and chromosomes, mutations, DNA relations, RNA, polypeptides, transcription and translation in the function of the formation of the nature of living things, and the relationship between sexual reproduction and gene inheritance. For the concept of ecology, in general they have a low mastery on the concept of interaction between organisms, biomass, community of organisms and global changes. While they have a good mastery on concept of the food chain system and the flow of energy, and the population.

  15. Using the mixed media according to internet-based on the instructional multimedia for developing students' learning achievements in biology course on foundational cell issue of secondary students at the 10th grade level in Rangsit University demonstration school (United States)

    Kangloan, Pichet; Chayaburakul, Kanokporn; Santiboon, Toansakul


    The aims of this research study were 1) to develop students' learning achievements in biology course on foundational cell issue, 2) to examine students' satisfactions of their learning activities through the mixed media according to internet-based multi-instruction in biology on foundational cell issue at the 10th grade level were used in the first semester in the academic year 2014, which a sample size of 17 students in Rangsit University Demonstration School with cluster random sampling was selected. Students' learning administrations were instructed with the 3-instructional lesson plans according to the 5-Step Ladder Learning Management Plan (LLMP) namely; the maintaining lesson plan on the equilibrium of cell issue, a lesson plan for learning how to communicate between cell and cell division. Students' learning achievements were assessed with the 30-item Assessment of Learning Biology Test (ALBT), students' perceptions of their satisfactions were satisfied with the 20-item Questionnaire on Students Satisfaction (QSS), and students' learning activities were assessed with the Mixed Media Internet-Based Instruction (MMIBI) on foundational cell issue was designed. The results of this research study have found that: statistically significant of students' post-learning achievements were higher than their pre-learning outcomes and indicated that the differences were significant at the .05 level. Students' performances of their satisfaction to their perceptions toward biology class with the mixed media according to internet-based multi instruction in biology on foundational cell issue were the highest level and evidence of average mean score as 4.59.

  16. Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I am particularly happy that the Academy is bringing out this document by Professor M S. Valiathan on Ayurvedic Biology. It is an effort to place before the scientific community, especially that of India, the unique scientific opportunities that arise out of viewing Ayurveda from the perspective of contemporary science, its tools ...

  17. Influence of tillage practices on soil biologically active organic matter content over a growing season under semiarid Mediterranean climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martín-Lammerding


    Full Text Available In semiarid areas, traditional, intensive tillage has led to the depletion of soil organic matter, which has resulted in reduced soil fertility. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of different soil management systems, practised over 12 years, on soil organic carbon (SOC, nitrogen (SN and biologically active organic matter (particulate organic matter [POM]; potentially mineralisable nitrogen [PMN]; microbial biomass [MB]. A Mediterranean Alfisol, located in central Spain, was managed using combinations of conventional tillage (CT, minimum tillage (MT or no-tillage (NT, plus a cropping background of either continuous wheat (WW or a fallow/wheat/pea/barley rotation (FW. Soil was sampled at two depths on four occasions during 2006-2007. The results showed the sampling date and the cropping background to significantly affect the SOC (p<0.0057 and p<0.0001 respectively. Tillage practice, however, had no effect on SOC or SN. The C-and N-POM contents were significantly influenced by the date, tillage and rotation. These variables were significantly higher under NT than CT and under WW than FW. The PMN was influenced by date, tillage and rotation, while C-MB was significantly affected by tillage (p< 0.0063, but not by rotation. The NT plots accumulated 66% C-POM, 60% N-POM, 39% PMN and 84% C-MB more than the CT plots. After more than 12 years, the benefits of conservation practices were found in the considered soil properties, mainly under no tillage. In order to obtain a consistent data set to predict soil biological status, it is necessary further study over time.

  18. A rapid neutron activation method for the determination of traces of mercury. The mercury content of biological material of differing geographical and chronological origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohde, H.


    A rapid method based on activation analysis has been developed for the determination of mercury in biological material. The method employs the delayed gamma rays as prompt gamma rays have been shown to display insufficient sensitivity. The mercury content of 182 fish derived from the waters of the region of South Western Germany has been determined. Relatively high concentrations (> 1 ppm) have been measured in the muscle of Rhine fish. Similar mercury contents have been observed in aged biological material (birds feathers and human hair) and contemporary living organisms. (orig.) [de

  19. Evaluation of antioxidant properties, total phenolic content, and biological activities of new tomato hybrids of industrial interest. (United States)

    Tommonaro, Giuseppina; de Prisco, Rocco; Abbamondi, Gennaro Roberto; Marzocco, Stefania; Saturnino, Carmela; Poli, Annarita; Nicolaus, Barbara


    The objective of the present work was to establish the antioxidative ability linked to lipophilic, hydrophilic, and polyphenolic fractions of new tomato hybrids of industrial interest, grown in an outdoor field, named "Medugno", situated in the Agro-Nocerino Sarnese area (Province of Salerno, Campania Region, Italy). Antioxidant activities of lipophilic, hydrophilic, and polyphenolic extracts of tomato hybrids determined by the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl methods, respectively, showed the best results in hybrids obtained between the pure San Marzano and Black Tomato lines. Antioxidant activity tests, performed also on the San Marzano × Black Tomato hybrid (pulped tomatoes), indicated that the industrial transformation process of this new tomato hybrid did not cause a significant loss of antioxidant activity. The in vitro production of nitrite by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages J774A.1 performed on lipophilic extracts showed that only two hybrids (San Marzano × Black Tomato and Marmande × Black Tomato) inhibited, in a concentration-related manner, nitric oxide release. Results suggested that genotypic factors could determine the nutritional quality of tomato because of the content of biologically active compounds and their biosynthesis. Moreover, the new tomato hybrid achieved could have a potential for the agri-food industry because of its nutritional quality and because it lends itself in processes of industrial transformation.

  20. The instruction and assessment of expository text: A content analysis of fifth grade reading and science Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills, state adopted text teacher's manuals, and Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (United States)

    Jones, Alison Adair

    The purpose of this content analysis study was to examine how and with what frequency explicit directions for the instruction or assessment of expository text were presented in six fifth grade reading and science data sources. The study analyzed the science and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS), conforming state adopted basal readers and science textbooks, and the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) for fifth grade. Additionally, a determination was made concerning whether and alignment existed between the data sources. An inter coder examined 10% of the entries from each data source to ensure reliability. Data collection included recording message units that referred to the explicit directions for the instruction and assessment of expository text were from each of the six data sources. Next, the message units were organized into categories and recorded in an Excel spreadsheet. Due to the differences in the length, format, and content of each data source, a matrix was designed in order to determine if any alignment was present between data sources. The study resulted in 5 major findings: First, the science teacher's editions presented more message units related to the explicit directions for instruction or assessment of reading in expository text. Second, formatting in the basal reader teacher's editions has remained much the same as in the past, in that they are still scripted and many of the activities continue to be presented without directions to teachers. Third, the instruction of word attack skills is still included in the fifth grade science and reading teacher's editions. Fourth, there was no clear definition for the meaning of the terms skills and strategies in order for teachers to become more effective when teaching students. Finally, an alignment did exist between the TEKS and teacher's editions, with the exception of word analysis in all but one of the science series. The only categories assessed in either the reading or

  1. A Comparative Study of Two Methods of Instruction in a University Animal Biology Course: Audio-Tutorial with Conventional Lecture-Laboratory. (United States)

    Rowsey, Robert Ellis

    In this comparative study of instructional methods involving university students, pre- and posttest data were collected from achievement and attitude instruments as well as from opinion questionnaires. The major findings included: (1) students taught via audio-tutorial instruction demonstrated significantly greater achievement gain; (2) the number…

  2. Using Multiple Lenses to Examine the Development of Beginning Biology Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Teaching Natural Selection Simulations (United States)

    Sickel, Aaron J.; Friedrichsen, Patricia


    Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has become a useful construct to examine science teacher learning. Yet, researchers conceptualize PCK development in different ways. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to use three analytic lenses to understand the development of three beginning biology teachers' PCK for teaching natural selection…

  3. Integration of a Zebrafish Research Project into a Molecular Biology Course to Support Critical Thinking and Course Content Goals (United States)

    Felzien, Lisa K.


    Engaging undergraduates in research is essential for teaching them to think like scientists, and it has become a desired component of classroom and laboratory instruction. Research projects that span an entire semester expose students to a variety of concepts and techniques and allow students to use experiments to learn scientific principles,…

  4. Instruction Design System of Allama Iqbal Open University: A Vehicle for Improvement or Mere a Salogon (United States)

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Chaudry, Muhammad Ajmal; Iqbal, Muhammad Javed


    The main objective of this study was to ensure instructional quality, effectiveness, efficiency and enjoyment. Instructional design maximizes the value of the instructions for the learners. Instructional design include identifying instructional out-comes, developing instructional contents and established how instructional effectiveness will be…

  5. How to Build a Course in Mathematical-Biological Modeling: Content and Processes for Knowledge and Skill (United States)

    Hoskinson, Anne-Marie


    Biological problems in the twenty-first century are complex and require mathematical insight, often resulting in mathematical models of biological systems. Building mathematical-biological models requires cooperation among biologists and mathematicians, and mastery of building models. A new course in mathematical modeling presented the opportunity…

  6. Handbook for Instruction on Aging in California Public Schools. Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve. (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This handbook is designed to assist teachers at the elementary and secondary level in the development of curricula on aging which can integrate the concepts of aging into ongoing lesson plans. The five content areas of instruction include chronological aging, physiological and biological aging, sociocultural aspects of aging, psychological aging,…

  7. Teachers' instructional goals for science practice: Identifying knowledge gaps using cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) (United States)

    Farrar, Cynthia Hamen

    In AP Biology, the course goal, with respect to scientific acts and reasoning, has recently shifted toward a reform goal of science practice, where the goal is for students to have a scientific perspective that views science as a practice of a community rather than a body of knowledge. Given this recent shift, this study is interested in the gaps that may exist between an individual teacher's instructional goal and the goals of the AP Biology course. A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) methodology and perspective is used to analyze four teachers' knowledge, practice, and learning. Teachers have content knowledge for teaching, a form of knowledge that is unique for teaching called specialized content knowledge. This specialized content knowledge (SCK) defines their instructional goals, the student outcomes they ultimately aim to achieve with their students. The study employs a cultural-historical continuum of scientific acts and reasoning, which represents the development of the AP Biology goal over time, to study gaps in their instructional goal. The study also analyzes the contradictions within their teaching practice and how teachers address those contradictions to shift their instructional practice and learn. The findings suggest that teachers have different interpretations of the AP Biology goals of science practice, placing their instructional goal at different points along the continuum. Based on the location of their instructional goal, different micro-communities of teachers exist along the continuum, comprised of teachers with a shared goal, language, and culture of their AP Biology teaching. The in-depth study of one teacher's AP Biology teaching, using a CHAT perspective, provides a means for studying the mechanisms that connect SCK to classroom actions and ultimately to instructional practice. CHAT also reveals the nature and importance of contradictions or cognitive dissonance in teacher learning and the types of support teachers need to

  8. Accelerator mass spectrometry analysis of 14C-oxaliplatin concentrations in biological samples and 14C contents in biological samples and antineoplastic agents (United States)

    Toyoguchi, Teiko; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Konno, Noboru; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Kato, Kazuhiro; Tokanai, Fuyuki


    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is expected to play an important role in microdose trials. In this study, we measured the 14C concentration in 14C-oxaliplatin-spiked serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate samples in our Yamagata University (YU) - AMS system. The calibration curves of 14C concentration in serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate were linear (the correlation coefficients were ⩾0.9893), and the precision and accuracy was within the acceptance criteria. To examine a 14C content of water in three vacuum blood collection tubes and a syringe were measured. 14C was not detected from water in these devices. The mean 14C content in urine samples of 6 healthy Japanese volunteers was 0.144 dpm/mL, and the intra-day fluctuation of 14C content in urine from a volunteer was little. The antineoplastic agents are administered to the patients in combination. Then, 14C contents of the antineoplastic agents were quantitated. 14C contents were different among 10 antineoplastic agents; 14C contents of paclitaxel injection and docetaxel hydrate injection were higher than those of the other injections. These results indicate that our quantitation method using YU-AMS system is suited for microdosing studies and that measurement of baseline and co-administered drugs might be necessary for the studies in low concentrations.

  9. Accelerator mass spectrometry analysis of {sup 14}C-oxaliplatin concentrations in biological samples and {sup 14}C contents in biological samples and antineoplastic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoguchi, Teiko, E-mail: [Department of Pharmacy, Yamagata University Hospital, 2-2-2 Iida-Nishi, Yamagata-shi, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Kobayashi, Takeshi; Konno, Noboru; Shiraishi, Tadashi [Department of Pharmacy, Yamagata University Hospital, 2-2-2 Iida-Nishi, Yamagata-shi, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Kato, Kazuhiro; Tokanai, Fuyuki [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa-machi, Yamagata-shi, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan)


    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is expected to play an important role in microdose trials. In this study, we measured the {sup 14}C concentration in {sup 14}C-oxaliplatin-spiked serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate samples in our Yamagata University (YU) – AMS system. The calibration curves of {sup 14}C concentration in serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate were linear (the correlation coefficients were ⩾0.9893), and the precision and accuracy was within the acceptance criteria. To examine a {sup 14}C content of water in three vacuum blood collection tubes and a syringe were measured. {sup 14}C was not detected from water in these devices. The mean {sup 14}C content in urine samples of 6 healthy Japanese volunteers was 0.144 dpm/mL, and the intra-day fluctuation of {sup 14}C content in urine from a volunteer was little. The antineoplastic agents are administered to the patients in combination. Then, {sup 14}C contents of the antineoplastic agents were quantitated. {sup 14}C contents were different among 10 antineoplastic agents; {sup 14}C contents of paclitaxel injection and docetaxel hydrate injection were higher than those of the other injections. These results indicate that our quantitation method using YU-AMS system is suited for microdosing studies and that measurement of baseline and co-administered drugs might be necessary for the studies in low concentrations.

  10. Grammar Instruction and Technology (United States)

    Lacina, Jan


    Much of the research literature from the past 25 years has supported the importance of teaching grammar in the context of writing instruction (Calkins, 1980; DiStefano & Killion, 1984; Weaver, 1996,1998). Unlike other content areas, practice does not make perfect when learning grammar. While isolated drill and practice of grammatical concepts may…

  11. Interdisciplinary Lessons for the Teaching of Biology from the Practice of Evo-Devo (United States)

    Love, Alan C.


    Evolutionary developmental biology (Evo-devo) is a vibrant area of contemporary life science that should be (and is) increasingly incorporated into teaching curricula. Although the inclusion of this content is important for biological pedagogy at multiple levels of instruction, there are also philosophical lessons that can be drawn from the…

  12. "I Forgot I Wasn't Saving the World": the Use of Formative and Summative Assessment in Instructional Video Games for Undergraduate Biology (United States)

    Lookadoo, Kathryn L.; Bostwick, Eryn N.; Ralston, Ryan; Elizondo, Francisco Javier; Wilson, Scott; Shaw, Tarren J.; Jensen, Matthew L.


    This study examined the role of formative and summative assessment in instructional video games on student learning and engagement. A 2 (formative feedback: present vs absent) × 2 (summative feedback: present vs absent) factorial design with an offset control (recorded lecture) was conducted to explore the impacts of assessment in video games. A total of 172 undergraduates were randomly assigned to one of four instructional video game conditions or the control. Results found that knowledge significantly increased from the pretest for players in all game conditions. Participants in summative assessment conditions learned more than players without summative assessment. In terms of engagement outcomes, formative assessment conditions did not significantly produce better learning engagement outcomes than conditions without formative assessment. However, summative assessment conditions were associated with higher temporal disassociation than non-summative conditions. Implications for future instructional video game development and testing are discussed in the paper.

  13. A Case Study of Online Instructional Collaborative Discussion Activities for Problem-Solving Using Situated Scenarios: An Examination of Content and Behavior Cluster Analysis (United States)

    Hou, Huei-Tse


    In some higher education courses that focus on case studies, teachers can provide situated scenarios (such as business bottlenecks and medical cases) and problem-solving discussion tasks for students to promote their cognitive skills. There is limited research on the content, performance, and behavioral patterns of teaching using online…

  14. An Evaluation of Pronunciation Teaching Content of "English for Palestine 10" and Related Teachers' Competency Level in Light of Current Instructional Perspectives (United States)

    Al-Najjar, Rana Abdel-Rahman


    Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate pronunciation teaching with regard to an EFL multi-skills textbook ("English for Palestine 10"). The evaluation was intended to identify the extent to which pronunciation teaching content incorporated in" English for Palestine 10," in addition to the related teachers' competency level match…

  15. Determination of biological activities and total phenolic contents of flowers of jasminum humile and roots of dorema aucheri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Farooq, U.; Ullah, F.; Iqbal, J.


    The present study was designed to investigate in vitro antioxidant, NO scavenging, and antibacterial activities as well as total phenolic contents of different extracts of flowers of Jasminum humile and roots of Dorema aucheri. The plant extracts showed significant antioxidant activity, having IC50 values comparable to those of references used in each assay and also inhibited accumulation of nitrite in vitro. The plant extracts yielded phenolic contents and showed significant antibacterial activity. The observed antioxidant potential and phenolic contents of the extracts showed that flowers of J. humile and roots of D. aucheri are potential source of natural antioxidants that may help to retard oxidative degradation and microbial growth in food industry. (author)

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on phenol content, antioxidant activity and biological activity of black maca and red maca extracts (Lepidium meyenii walp). (United States)

    Zevallos-Concha, A; Nuñez, D; Gasco, M; Vasquez, C; Quispe, M; Gonzales, G F


    This study was performed to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on UV spectrum on maca, total content of polyphenols, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities and in vivo biological activities of red and black maca extracts (Lepidium meyenii). Adult mice of the strain Swiss aged 3 months and weighing 30-35 g in average were used to determine biological activities. Daily sperm production, effect on testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia and forced swimming test were used to determine the effect of irradiation on biological activities of maca extracts. Irradiation did not show differences in UV spectrum but improves the amount of total polyphenols in red maca as well as in black maca extracts. In both cases, black maca extract has more content of polyphenols than red maca extract (p  0.05). Black maca extract but not red maca extract has more swimming endurance capacity in the forced swimming test. Irradiation of black maca extract increased the swimming time to exhaustion (p  0.05). Testosterone enanthate (TE) increased significantly the ventral prostate weight. Administration of red maca extract in animals treated with TE prevented the increase in prostate weight. Irradiation did not modify effect of red maca extract on prostate weight (p > 0.05). In conclusion, irradiation does not alter the biological activities of both black maca and red maca extracts. It prevents the presence of microorganisms in the extracts of black or red maca, but the biological activities were maintained.

  17. Two Methods of Determining Total Phenolic Content of Foods and Juices in a General, Organic, and Biological (GOB) Chemistry Lab (United States)

    Shaver, Lee Alan; Leung, Sam H.; Puderbaugh, Amy; Angel, Stephen A.


    The determination of total phenolics in foods and fruit juices was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry course. Two different colorimetric methods were used over three years and comparative student results indicate that a ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) indicator…

  18. The impact of instructional strategy based on the triplet model of content representation on elimination of students’ misconceptions regarding inorganic reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Dušica D.


    Full Text Available Recently we reported on the efficient teaching instruction based on integration of macroscopic, submicroscopic and symbolic levels of knowledge representation, from the standpoints of performance and mental effort. Based on obtained results a goal of this study was set - to identify misconceptions in the group of students trained in traditional manner and to determine whether the same misconceptions occur among students in the treatment group in the field of inorganic reactions. A two-tier test was used in the research, administered by 189 second grade high school students. Analysis was performed by calculating the frequencies of choosing distractors in the tasks. Results revealed a total of nine misconceptions in the group of students trained in traditional manner, while only one misconception remained in the treatment group, after implementing the intervention program. It can be concluded that the applied intervention strategy proved to be very efficient in elimination of majority of misconceptions in the examined group of students. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179010

  19. The Effects of an Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Human Biology Program on Socioscientific Reasoning, Content Learning, and Understanding of Inquiry (United States)

    Eastwood, Jennifer L.


    Preparing students to take informed positions on complex problems through critical evaluation is a primary goal of university education. Socioscientific issues (SSI) have been established as effective contexts for students to develop this competency, as well as reasoning skills and content knowledge. This mixed-methods study investigates the…

  20. Food contents and biological activity of 25-hydroxyvitamin D: A vitamin D metabolite to be reckoned with?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Lars; Brot, C.; Jakobsen, Jette


    Only a limited number of foods naturally contain vitamin D such as fish, meat and offal, and eggs, and milk and dairy products. However, all these foods in addition contain the metabolite 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD). From the few systematic studies which have been performed the food contents of 2...

  1. Investigating Greek Biology Teachers' Attitudes towards Evolution Teaching with Respect to Their Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Suggestions for Their Professional Development (United States)

    Stasinakis, Panagiotis K.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos


    Evolution Teaching (ET) among in-service teachers in Greece was examined in an attempt to evaluate their Pedagogical Content Knowledge. Evolution teaching is a problematic issue. For this purpose, we constructed a questionnaire that was distributed to the target population and to which 181 teachers responded. We used quantitative method to…

  2. A cholesterol-enriched diet enhances egg production and egg viability without altering cholesterol Content of biological membranes in the copepod Acartia hudsonica. (United States)

    Crockett, Elizabeth L; Hassett, R Patrick


    Copepods may lack the capacity for de novo synthesis of cholesterol, while at the same time their dietary levels of sterol vary. We tested the hypothesis that copepods maintain the cholesterol contents of their biological membranes despite varying dietary levels of cholesterol. Acartia hudsonica were acclimated for 5 d to phytoplankton alone or phytoplankton supplemented with cholesterol, at a level sufficient to induce a maximal response on egg production rates. Biological membranes were prepared from the copepods and cholesterol contents assayed. Egg production and hatch rates were measured (the former to confirm that supplemented cholesterol was being assimilated). Analyses of marker enzymes indicate that the majority of membrane-associated cholesterol in the copepod resides in the plasma membrane. In membranes fractions, cholesterol normalized to protein or activity of Na+/K+-ATPase is not significantly different for supplemented and unsupplemented groups (29 and 33 mu g cholesterol mg(-1) protein, respectively; 0.24 and 0.25 mg cholesterol U(-1) Na+/K+-ATPase, respectively). At the same time, acclimating animals to a diet enriched with cholesterol enhances egg production by up to 1.8-fold and egg viability by 1.5-fold. We conclude that a cholesterol-enriched diet stimulates both egg production and hatching rates without altering cholesterol contents of plasma membranes in the copepod A. hudsonica.

  3. Phytoremediation of Phosphate Content In Liquid Laundry Waste by Using Echinodorus paleafolius and Equisetum hyemale Used as Biology Learning Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Maharani Siswandari


    Full Text Available Laundry liquid waste is the remain water of clothes washing process which causes toxic effects to the biotic area in the water in case of the liquid waste without proper processing. Phytoremediation is a system which is conducted by plants to break a contaminant compound into the non-hazard materials. This research aimed to analyze the mechanism to reduce phosphate content in laundry liquid waste by through phytoremediation process which had been done by using Echinodorus paleafolius and Equisetum hyemale. The research is quantitative descriptive in which the data analysis method was descriptive. The research was conducted in 17 May to 10 June 2016 in the Laboratory of Water Quality of Perum Jasa Tirta Jl. Surabaya No. 2A Malang. The research results showed that the phosphate content in laundry liquid waste exceed of threshold limit value of liquid waste standard which has been issued as PP No. 82 Year 2001. Therefore, this over limit of phosphate content is hazardous to be released to the environment. Echinodorus paleafolius is able to reduce the phosphate content as much as 3.451 mg within the high-density-phosphate waste and as much as 2.271 mg within the lower one. However Equisetum hyemale could not be used to reduce the phosphate content even though it could reduce acidity degree (pH as much as 3.7 unit within this liquid waste through phytoremediation process. The implementation of the research results was the contextual handout which is completed with colored pictures.

  4. The use of writing assignments to help students synthesize content in upper-level undergraduate biology courses. (United States)

    Sparks-Thissen, Rebecca L


    Biology education is undergoing a transformation toward a more student-centered, inquiry-driven classroom. Many educators have designed engaging assignments that are designed to help undergraduate students gain exposure to the scientific process and data analysis. One of these types of assignments is use of a grant proposal assignment. Many instructors have used these assignments in lecture-based courses to help students process information in the literature and apply that information to a novel problem such as design of an antiviral drug or a vaccine. These assignments have been helpful in engaging students in the scientific process in the absence of an inquiry-driven laboratory. This commentary discusses the application of these grant proposal writing assignments to undergraduate biology courses. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  5. Interactions between physical, chemical and biological processes in aquatic systems - impacts on receiving waters with different contents of treated wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreuzinger, N.


    Two scenarios have be chosen within this PhD Thesis to describe the integrative key-significance of interactions between most relevant physical, chemical and biological processes in aquatic systems. These two case studies are used to illustrate and describe the importance of a detailed synthesis of biological, physical and chemical interactions in aquatic systems in order to provide relevant protection of water resources and to perform a sound water management. Methods are described to allow a detailed assessment of particular aspects within the complexity of the overall integration and therefore serve as a basis to determine the eventual necessity of proposed water management measures. Regarding the anthropogenic influence of treated wastewater on aquatic systems, one case study focuses on the interactions between emitted waters from a wastewater treatment plant and the resulting immission situation of its receiving water (The receiving water is quantitatively influenced by the treated wastewater by 95 %). This thesis proves that the effluent of wastewater treatment plants operated by best available technology meets the quality standards of running waters for the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus, carbon-parameters, oxygen-regime and ecotoxicology. Within the second case study the focus is put on interactions between immissions and water usage. The general importance of biological phosphorus precipitation on the trophic situation of aquatic systems is described. Nevertheless, this generally known but within the field of applied limnology so far unrespected process of immobilization of phosphorus could be shown to represent a significant and major impact on phytoplannctotic development and eutrification. (author)

  6. Instructional scientific humor in the secondary classroom (United States)

    Wizner, Francine

    This study is an examination of the manner in which educators employ scientific content humor and how that humor is perceived by their students. Content humor is a useful strategy in drawing the attention of students and improving their receptivity toward scientific information. It is also a useful tool in combating the growing distractions of the electronic classroom. Previous studies have found that humor has a positive effect on knowledge, memory, and understanding. However, few studies have been conducted below the undergraduate level and mainly quantitative measures of student recall have been used to measure learning. This study employed multiple data sources to determine how two secondary biology teachers used humor in order to explain scientific concepts and how their students perceived their teachers' use of scientific instructional humor. Evidence of student humor reception was collected from four students in each of the two classes. All of the scientific instructional humor used in the studied classrooms was cognitive in nature, varying among factual, procedural, conceptual, and metacognitive knowledge. Teachers tended to use dialogic forms of humor. Their scientific humor reflected everyday experiences, presented queries, poked fun at authority, and asked students to search out new perspectives and perform thought experiments. Teachers were the primary actors in performing the humorous events. The events were sometimes physical exaggerations of words or drawings, and they occurred for the purpose of establishing rapport or having students make connections between scientific concepts and prior knowledge. Student perceptions were that teachers did employ humor toward instructional objectives that helped their learning. Helping students become critical thinkers is a trademark of science teachers. Science teachers who take the risk of adopting some attributes of comedians may earn the reward of imparting behaviors on their students like critical thinking

  7. Effect of nicotinamide on amino acids content in bone collagen depending on biological availability of vitamins in diabetic rats. (United States)

    Guzyk, M M; Sergiichuk, Iu T; Dyakun, K O; Yanitska, L V; Kuchmerovska, T M


    Connective tissue is highly susceptible to imbalances induced by diabetes. Diabetes-related osteopenia, decreased bone strength etc. may be associated with altered metabolism of various collagens: Although it is assumed that alterations in collagen amino acids (AA) may strongly affect protein properties andphysiological functions, however, very limited evidences are present at the moment regarding AA composition of bone type I collagen and its relevance to abnormal availability of vitamins which are necessary for collagen synthesis in diabetes. We have tested whether nicotinamide (NAm) can influence type Icollagen formation and AA composition as well as vitamins availability in diabetes. After 4 weeks of STZ-induced diabetes (60 mg/ kg) male Wistar rats were injected for 2 weeks with/without NAm (200 mg/kg b. w). Acid extraction of type I collagen from the bones was performed with following stepwise salting out. The content of type I collagen after its acid extraction from the bones was estimated by the amounts of hydroxyproline. Amino acids were assayed by cation exchange chromatography Diabetes-associated changes in AA composition of type I collagen mainly affect those amino acids which are known to be involved in helix formation and cross-linking of the molecules. Diabetes was found to significantly reduce bone collagen contents of o-Pro, Gly, Ala, o-Lys and Pro, whereas Lys, His, Arg, Glu, Thr, Leu, Phe contents were elevated (P vitamin C and B3 contents were shown to be significantly lowered, whereas a-tocopherol was slightly increased compared with control (P vitamin C and B3 was observed. The data demonstrate the close relationship between the diabetes-associated decrease in type I collagen deposition, altered amino acids metabolism and impaired availability of vitamins, which are necessary for collagen synthesis. Thus, NAm might be a useful agent for treatment of bone failures related to diabetes.

  8. Old hydrofracture facility tanks contents removal action operations plan at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Text. Volume 2: Checklists and work instructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This Operations Plan summarizes the operating activities for transferring contents of five low-level (radioactive) liquid waste storage tanks associated with the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) for secure storage. The transfer will be accomplished through sluicing and pumping operations which are designed to pump the slurry in a closed circuit system using a sluicing nozzle to resuspend the sludge. Once resuspended, the slurry will be transferred to the MVST. The report documenting the material transfer will be prepared after transfer of the tank materials has been completed. The OBF tanks contain approximately 52,600 gal (199,000 L) of low-level radioactive waste consisting of both sludge and supernatant. This material is residual from the now-abandoned grout injection operations conducted from 1964 to 1980. Total curie content is approximately 30,000 Ci. A sluicing and pumping system has been specifically designed for the OHF tanks contents transfer operations. This system is remotely operated and incorporates a sluicing nozzle and arm (Borehole Miner) originally designed for use in the mining industry. The Borehole Miner is an in-tank device designed to deliver a high pressure jet spray via an extendable nozzle. In addition to removing the waste from the tanks, the use of this equipment will demonstrate applicability for additional underground storage tank cleaning throughout the U.S. Department of Energy complex. Additional components of the complete sluicing and pumping system consist of a high pressure pumping system for transfer to the MVST, a low pressure pumping system for transfer to the recycle tank, a ventilation system for providing negative pressure on tanks, and instrumentation and control systems for remote operation and monitoring.

  9. Unpacking Instructional Alignment: The Influence of Teachers' Use of Assessment Data on Instruction (United States)

    Abrams, Lisa; Varier, Divya; Jackson, Lisa


    The use of assessment data to inform instruction is an important component of a comprehensive standards-based assessment programme. Examining teachers' data use for instruction can reveal the extent to which instruction is aligned with established content standards and assessment. This paper describes results of a qualitative study of teachers'…

  10. "Cancer Cell Biology:" A Student-Centered Instructional Module Exploring the Use of Multimedia to Enrich Interactive, Constructivist Learning of Science (United States)

    Bockholt, Susanne M.; West, J. Paige; Bollenbacher, Walter E.


    Multimedia has the potential of providing bioscience education novel learning environments and pedagogy applications to foster student interest, involve students in the research process, advance critical thinking/problem-solving skills, and develop conceptual understanding of biological topics. "Cancer Cell Biology," an interactive, multimedia,…

  11. Biological treatment of waste waters of high salt content; Depuracion biologica de efluentes con alto contenido salino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, A.I.; Goytia, M.; Muguruza, I.; Blanco, F. [GAIKER, Zamudio (Spain)


    The fish canning industry, a national industrial sector of economical significance, generates high volumes of wastewater containing a high organic load and salt concentration. In addition to other problems presented for the aerobic biological treatment of these effluents, the presence of a high chloride concentration produces an inhibitory effect on the growth of aerobic microorganisms. In this work the inhibitory effect of chloride has been analyzed by means of a biokinetic study carried out using the electrolytic respirometry techniques and tuna boiling water as wastewater. This kind of study is highly appropriated for the search of solutions to specific problems created during the treatment of different industrial sectors wastewater. (Author) 10 refs.

  12. On making nursing undergraduate human reproductive physiology content meaningful and relevant: discussion of human pleasure in its biological context. (United States)

    McClusky, Leon Mendel


    The traditional presentation of the Reproductive Physiology component in an Anatomy and Physiology course to nursing undergraduates focuses on the broad aspects of hormonal regulation of reproduction and gonadal anatomy, with the role of the higher centres of the brain omitted. An introductory discussion is proposed which could precede the lectures on the reproductive organs. The discussion gives an overview of the biological significance of human pleasure, the involvement of the neurotransmitter dopamine, and the role of pleasure in the survival of the individual and even species. Pleasure stimuli (positive and negative) and the biological significance of naturally-induced pleasurable experiences are briefly discussed in the context of reproduction and the preservation of genetic material with an aim to foster relevancy between subject material and human behaviour in any type of society. The tenderness of this aspect of the human existence is well-understood because of its invariable association with soul-revealing human expressions such as love, infatuation, sexual flirtations, all of which are underpinned by arousal, desire and/or pleasure. Assuming that increased knowledge correlates with increased confidence, the proposed approach may provide the nurse with an adequate knowledge base to overcome well-known barriers in communicating with their patients about matters of sexual health and intimacy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Integrating Facebook in Upper Secondary Biology Instruction: A Case Study of Students' Situational Interest and Participation in Learning Communication (United States)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup; Dohn, Nina Bonderup


    The sciences are often perceived by students as irrelevant as they do not see the content of science as related to their daily lives. Web 2.0-mediated activities are characterized by user-driven content production, collaboration, and multi-way communication. It has been proposed that employing Web 2.0 in educational activities will promote richer…

  14. Editorial - Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter; Grinsted, Annelise


    Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions.......Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions....

  15. Science-Technology-Society literacy in college non-majors biology: Comparing problem/case studies based learning and traditional expository methods of instruction (United States)

    Peters, John S.

    This study used a multiple response model (MRM) on selected items from the Views on Science-Technology-Society (VOSTS) survey to examine science-technology-society (STS) literacy among college non-science majors' taught using Problem/Case Studies Based Learning (PBL/CSBL) and traditional expository methods of instruction. An initial pilot investigation of 15 VOSTS items produced a valid and reliable scoring model which can be used to quantitatively assess student literacy on a variety of STS topics deemed important for informed civic engagement in science related social and environmental issues. The new scoring model allows for the use of parametric inferential statistics to test hypotheses about factors influencing STS literacy. The follow-up cross-institutional study comparing teaching methods employed Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) to model the efficiency and equitability of instructional methods on STS literacy. A cluster analysis was also used to compare pre and post course patterns of student views on the set of positions expressed within VOSTS items. HLM analysis revealed significantly higher instructional efficiency in the PBL/CSBL study group for 4 of the 35 STS attitude indices (characterization of media vs. school science; tentativeness of scientific models; cultural influences on scientific research), and more equitable effects of traditional instruction on one attitude index (interdependence of science and technology). Cluster analysis revealed generally stable patterns of pre to post course views across study groups, but also revealed possible teaching method effects on the relationship between the views expressed within VOSTS items with respect to (1) interdependency of science and technology; (2) anti-technology; (3) socioscientific decision-making; (4) scientific/technological solutions to environmental problems; (5) usefulness of school vs. media characterizations of science; (6) social constructivist vs. objectivist views of theories; (7

  16. Effects of organic, biological and chemical fertilizers on vegetative indices and essential oil content of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Aghhavani Shajari


    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study the effects of single and combined application of organic, biological and chemical fertilizers on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of vegetative part of coriander, (Coriandrum sativum L.. The experiment was carried out as split plot in time based on Complete Randomized Block Design with three replications and 12 treatments at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during growing season of 2010-2011. Treatments included: (1 mycorrhiza (Glomus mosseae, (2 biosulfur (Thiobacillus sp., (3 chemical fertilizer (NPK, (4 cow manure, (5 vermicompost, (6 mycorrhiza + chemical fertilizer, (7 mycorrhiza + cow manure, (8 mycorrhiza + vermicompost, (9 biosulfur + chemical fertilizer, (10 biosulfur + cow manure, (11 biosulfur + vermicompost and (12 control. Vegetative parts of coriander were cut at 5% of flowering stage in two dates (19 May and 5 June. Results showed that the highest plant height (28 cm and lateral branches (5.2 were obtained in combined application of biosulfur with cow manure treatment. The highest fresh and dry leaf weight, fresh and dry matter yield and stem dry matter weight were obtained in single application of chemical fertilizer. Single application of biosulfur increased leaf/stem ratio. The highest essential oil percentage and essential oil yield were observed in cow manure treatment (0.2% and 1753 g.ha-1, respectively. The maximum leaf/stem ratio were observed in the first cutting, while the highest lateral branches, stem fresh and dry matter yield, essential oil percentage and essential oil yield were obtained in second cut. Overall, results of this study showed that the plant vegetative yield increased by using chemical fertilizer, while essential oil percentage and essential oil yield of coriander were improved by using organic and biological fertilizers.

  17. Inclusive differentiated instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerković Ljiljana S.


    Full Text Available Inclusive differentiated instruction is a new model of didactic instruction, theoretically described and established in this paper for the first time, after being experimentally verified through teaching of the mother tongue (instruction in reading and literature. Inclusive individually planned instruction is based on a phenomenological and constructivist didactic instructional paradigm. This type of teaching is essentially developmental and person-oriented. The key stages of inclusive differentiated instruction of literature are: 1 recognition of individual students' potential and educational needs regarding reading and work on literary texts; 2 planning and preparation of inclusive individually planned instruction in reading and literature; 3 actual class teaching of lessons thus prepared; and 4 evaluation of the student achievement following inclusive differentiated instruction in reading and literature. A highly important element of the planning and preparation of inclusive differentiated instruction is the creation of student profiles and inclusive individualized syllabi. Individualized syllabi specify the following: 1. a brief student profile; 2. the student position on the continuum of the learning outcomes of instruction in the Serbian language; 3. reverse-engineered macro-plan stages of instruction in the Serbian language (3.1. identifying expected outcomes and fundamental qualities of learners' work, 3.2. defining acceptable proofs of their realisation, 3.3. planning learning and teaching experiences, and 3.4. providing material and technical requisites for teaching; 4 the contents and procedure of individualized lessons targeting the student; 5 a plan of syllabus implementation monitoring and evaluation. The continuum of the learning outcomes of inclusive differentiated instruction in literature exists at three main levels, A, B and C. The three levels are: A reading techniques and learning about the main literary theory concepts; B

  18. Colour Evaluation, Bioactive Compound Content, Phenolic Acid Profiles and in Vitro Biological Activity of Passerina del Frusinate White Wines: Influence of Pre-Fermentative Skin Contact Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Carbone


    Full Text Available Passerina del Frusinate is an autochthonous wine grape variety, which grows in the Lazio region that is currently being evaluated by local wine producers. In this study, colour properties (CIELab coordinates, bioactive compounds (total polyphenols and flavan-3-ols, HPLC-DAD phenolic acid profiles and in vitro biological activity of monovarietal Passerina del Frusinate white wines and the effect of different maceration times (0, 18 and 24 h were evaluated based on these parameters. Results highlighted statistically significant differences for almost all analysed parameters due to a strong influence of the pre-fermentative skin contact time. The flavan content of macerated wines was six times higher than that of the control, while total polyphenols were 1.5 times higher. According to their phytochemical content, macerated wines showed the highest antiradical capacity tested by means of DPPH• and ABTS+• assays. Besides, prolonged maceration resulted in a reduction of CIELab coordinates as well as of the content of phenolic substances and antiradical capacity. Among the phenolic acids analysed, the most abundant were vanillic acid and caffeic acid; the latter proved to be the most susceptible to degradation as a result of prolonged maceration. Passerina del Frusinate appears as a phenol-rich white wine with a strong antioxidant potential similar to that of red wines.

  19. Scaffolding in Assisted Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available On-The-Job Training, developed as direct instruction, is one of the earliest forms of training. This method is still widely in use today because it requires only a person who knows how to do the task, and the tools the person uses to do the task. This paper is intended to be a study of the methods used in education in Knowledge Society, with more specific aspects in training the trainers; as a result of this approach, it promotes scaffolding in assisted instruction as a reflection of the digital age for the learning process. Training the trainers in old environment with default techniques and designing the learning process in assisted instruction, as an application of the Vygotskian concept of the zone of proximal development (ZPD to the area of computer literacy for the younger users, generate diversity in educational communities and requires standards for technology infrastructure, standards for the content, developed as a concepts map, and applications for personalized in-struction, based on ZPD theory.

  20. A qualitative characterization of an introductory college nonmajors biology laboratory (United States)

    Lee, Cherin Ann

    The nature of an undergraduate, nonmajors biology laboratory was investigated in this study. Student participants were enrolled in a general education biology laboratory course at the University of Northern Iowa. The researcher's purpose was to gain a characterization of the instructional format and laboratory activities experienced by students. Interpretation of student and instructor responses enabled an insider's view of the biology laboratory. The laboratory period was consistently described by both students and instructors as having three parts, Beginning, Middle, and End, with the End being of special importance for conceptual development. The instructional format of the three instructors differed within the three portions of the laboratory period, ranging from an inquiry-oriented, partial learning cycle to a fairly expository model labeled inform/verify/practice. There was striking similarity in intrasectional student and teacher descriptions of instructional format. Additionally, students experiencing the alternate instructor provided the same characterizations of instructional format as those provided by the instructor's usual students. There were no discernible patterns of instructional format based on sex or reasoning level. In addition to the central role of instructional format, three areas of importance emerged: the social aspects of learning, the collaborative and cooperative nature of laboratory work and learning, and the role of self-efficacy. Theory developed from and grounded in the data showed six factors important in the introductory college biology laboratory: collaborative and cooperative learning, student-student and teacher-student interactions, attitude and self-efficacy, learning process and learning style, effective instructional format, and science content. These factors were found to be similar to factors identified in the literature as important in K-12 science education. These factors were set in the context of schooling and learning

  1. Comparing Biology Grades Based on Instructional Delivery and Instructor at a Community College: Face-to-Face Course Versus Online Course (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Amanda H.

    Through distance learning, the community college system has been able to serve more students by providing educational opportunities to students who would otherwise be unable to attend college. The community college of focus in the study increased its online enrollments and online course offerings due to the growth of overall enrollment. The need and purpose of the study is to address if there is a difference in students' grades between face-to-face and online biology related courses and if there are differences in grades between face-to-face and online biology courses taught by different instructors and the same instructor. The study also addresses if online course delivery is a viable method to educate students in biology-related fields. The study spanned 14 semesters between spring 2006 and summer 2011. Data were collected for 6,619 students. For each student, demographic information, cumulative grade point average, ACT, and data on course performance were gathered. Student data were gathered from General Biology I, Microbiology of Human Pathogens, Human Anatomy and Physiology I, and Human Anatomy and Physiology II courses. Univariate analysis of variance, linear regression, and descriptive analysis were used to analyze the data and determine which variables significantly impacted grade achievement for face-to-face and online students in biology classes. The findings from the study showed that course type, face-to-face or online, was significant for Microbiology of Human Pathogens and Human Anatomy and Physiology I, both upper level courses. Teachers were significant for General Biology I, a lower level course, Human Anatomy and Physiology I, and Human Anatomy and Physiology II. However, in every class, there were teachers who had significant differences within their courses between their face-to-face and online courses. This study will allow information to be concluded about the relationship between the students' final grades and class type, face-to-face or

  2. An investigation of the relationships between junior high school students' (8th and 9th grades) background variables and structure of knowledge recall of biological content (United States)

    Demetrius, Olive Joyce

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between Junior High School students' (8th and 9th grades) background variables (e.g. cognitive factors, prior knowledge, preference for science versus non-science activities, formal and informal activities) and structure of information recall of biological content. In addition, this study will illustrate how flow maps, a graphic display, designed to represent the sequential flow and cross linkage of ideas in information recalled by the learner can be used as a tool for analyzing science learning data. The participants (46 junior high school students) were taught a lesson on the human digestive system during which they were shown a model of the human torso. Their pattern of information recall was determined by using an interview technique to elicit their understanding of the functional anatomy of the human digestive system. The taped responses were later transcribed for construction of the flow map. The interview was also used to assess knowledge recall of biological content. The flow map, science interest questionnaire and the cognitive operations (based on content analysis of student's narrative) were used to analyze data from each respondent. This is a case study using individual subjects and interview techniques. The findings of this study are: (1) Based on flow map data higher academic ability students have more networking of ideas than low ability students. (2) A large percentage of 9th grade low ability students intend to pursue science/applied science course work after leaving school but they lack well organized ways of representing science knowledge in memory. (3) Content analysis of the narratives shows that students with more complex ideational networks use higher order cognitive thought processes compared to those with less networking of ideas. If students are to make a successful transition from low academic performance to high academic performance it seems that more emphasis should be placed on

  3. Authorized Course of Instruction for the Quinmester Program. Science: Introduction to Marine Science; Recreation and the Sea; Oceanography; Marine Ecology of South Florida, and Invertebrate Marine Biology. (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    All five units, developed for the Dade County Florida Quinmester Program, included in this collection concern some aspect of marine studies. Except for "Recreation and the Sea," intended to give students basic seamanship skills and experience of other marine recreation, all units are designed for students with a background in biology or…

  4. Influence of radiation on the content of biologically active substances in herbal raw materials. Pharmacological activity of herbal drugs after microbiological decontamination by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.


    Several thousand tons of medical herbs are produced annually by pharmaceutical industry in Poland. This product should be of highest quality and microbial purity. Recently chemical methods of decontamination are recognized as less safe, thus irradiation technique was chosen to replace them in use. In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology research work on microbiological decontamination of herbal raw materials and herbal drugs by irradiation has been carried out since 1996. It was shown that using ionizing radiation (a dose 10 kGy) can obtain satisfactory results of microbiological decontamination of these products. The content of biologically substances such a essential oils, flavonoids, glycosides, anthocyans, antra-compounds, poliphenoloacids, triterpene saponins, oleanosides and plants mucus did not change significantly after irradiation. Pharmacological activity of herbal drugs has been found satisfactory after microbiological decontamination by irradiation. (author)

  5. Assessing of organic content in surface sediments of Suez Gulf, Egypt depending on normal alkanes, terpanes and steranes biological markers indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedel Aziz Elfadly


    Full Text Available The Semi-enclosed Suez Gulf records various signals of high anthropic pressures from surrounding regions and the industrialized Suez countries. The sedimentary hydrocarbons have been studied in 6 coastal stations located in the Gulf of Suez. Non-aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS to assess organic content in surface sediments of Suez Gulf, Egypt depending on alkanes, terpanes and steranes biological markers indicators. The results showed that the hydrocarbons are originated from multiple terrestrial inputs, biogenic, pyrolytic. Several ratios of hydrocarbons indicated the predominance of petrogenic in combination with biogenic hydrocarbons. Al-Attaqa harbor, Suez oil processing company, Al-Nasr Oil Company, AL-Kabanon and EL-Sukhna of Loloha Beach are the main sources of petroleum contamination.

  6. Math: Basic Skills Content Standards (United States)

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2008


    This document presents content standards tables for math. [CASAS content standards tables are designed for educators at national, state and local levels to inform the alignment of content standards, instruction and assessment. The Content Standards along with the CASAS Competencies form the basis of the CASAS integrated assessment and curriculum…

  7. Development and Evaluation of the Tigriopus Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience: Impacts on Students' Content Knowledge, Attitudes, and Motivation in a Majors Introductory Biology Course. (United States)

    Olimpo, Jeffrey T; Fisher, Ginger R; DeChenne-Peters, Sue Ellen


    Within the past decade, course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) have emerged as a viable mechanism to enhance novices' development of scientific reasoning and process skills in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines. Recent evidence within the bioeducation literature suggests that student engagement in such experiences not only increases their appreciation for and interest in scientific research but also enhances their ability to "think like a scientist." Despite these critical outcomes, few studies have objectively explored CURE versus non-CURE students' development of content knowledge, attitudes, and motivation in the discipline, particularly among nonvolunteer samples. To address these concerns, we adopted a mixed-methods approach to evaluate the aforementioned outcomes following implementation of a novel CURE in an introductory cell/molecular biology course. Results indicate that CURE participants exhibited more expert-like outcomes on these constructs relative to their non-CURE counterparts, including in those areas related to self-efficacy, self-determination, and problem-solving strategies. Furthermore, analysis of end-of-term survey data suggests that select features of the CURE, such as increased student autonomy and collaboration, mediate student learning and enjoyment. Collectively, this research provides novel insights into the benefits achieved as a result of CURE participation and can be used to guide future development and evaluation of authentic research opportunities. © 2016 J. T. Olimpo et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (

  8. Instructional Metacommunication and Self-Directed Learning. (United States)

    Alexander, Gustav O.

    Greater student satisfaction, trust, and self-directed learning may result if the teacher uses questioning, clarifying and accepting behaviors for both student feedback about the effectiveness of the teacher's communication behavior (instructional metacommunication) and about the content presented; instructional metacommunication will enable…

  9. Classroom Instruction: The Influences of Marie Clay (United States)

    McNaughton, Stuart


    Marie Clay's body of work has influenced classroom instruction in direct and indirect ways, through large overarching themes in our pedagogical content knowledge as well as specific smart practices. This paper focuses on her the contributions to our thinking about instruction which come from two broad theoretical concepts; emergent literacy…

  10. Instructional Coaching and Emotional Intelligence (United States)

    Avant, Rue Celia


    School site-based instructional coaching is a form of job-embedded professional development for teachers and an element of school reform. Coaches are hired based upon their pedagogical knowledge, content expertise, prior teaching experience, and "people skills." They are adept at handling a variety of social interactions at school sites,…

  11. Fostering Students' Conceptual Knowledge in Biology in the Context of German National Education Standards (United States)

    Förtsch, Christian; Dorfner, Tobias; Baumgartner, Julia; Werner, Sonja; von Kotzebue, Lena; Neuhaus, Birgit J.


    The German National Education Standards (NES) for biology were introduced in 2005. The content part of the NES emphasizes fostering conceptual knowledge. However, there are hardly any indications of what such an instructional implementation could look like. We introduce a theoretical framework of an instructional approach to foster students' conceptual knowledge as demanded in the NES (Fostering Conceptual Knowledge) including instructional practices derived from research on single core ideas, general psychological theories, and biology-specific features of instructional quality. First, we aimed to develop a rating manual, which is based on this theoretical framework. Second, we wanted to describe current German biology instruction according to this approach and to quantitatively analyze its effectiveness. And third, we aimed to provide qualitative examples of this approach to triangulate our findings. In a first step, we developed a theoretically devised rating manual to measure Fostering Conceptual Knowledge in videotaped lessons. Data for quantitative analysis included 81 videotaped biology lessons of 28 biology teachers from different German secondary schools. Six hundred forty students completed a questionnaire on their situational interest after each lesson and an achievement test. Results from multilevel modeling showed significant positive effects of Fostering Conceptual Knowledge on students' achievement and situational interest. For qualitative analysis, we contrasted instruction of four teachers, two with high and two with low student achievement and situational interest using the qualitative method of thematic analysis. Qualitative analysis revealed five main characteristics describing Fostering Conceptual Knowledge. Therefore, implementing Fostering Conceptual Knowledge in biology instruction seems promising. Examples of how to implement Fostering Conceptual Knowledge in instruction are shown and discussed.

  12. Biological Pathways (United States)

    Skip to main content Biological Pathways Fact Sheet Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features ...

  13. Introducing the Postsecondary Instructional Practices Survey (PIPS): A Concise, Interdisciplinary, and Easy-to-Score Survey. (United States)

    Walter, Emily M; Henderson, Charles R; Beach, Andrea L; Williams, Cody T

    Researchers, administrators, and policy makers need valid and reliable information about teaching practices. The Postsecondary Instructional Practices Survey (PIPS) is designed to measure the instructional practices of postsecondary instructors from any discipline. The PIPS has 24 instructional practice statements and nine demographic questions. Users calculate PIPS scores by an intuitive proportion-based scoring convention. Factor analyses from 72 departments at four institutions (N = 891) support a 2- or 5-factor solution for the PIPS; both models include all 24 instructional practice items and have good model fit statistics. Factors in the 2-factor model include (a) instructor-centered practices, nine items; and (b) student-centered practices, 13 items. Factors in the 5-factor model include (a) student-student interactions, six items; (b) content delivery, four items; (c) formative assessment, five items; (d) student-content engagement, five items; and (e) summative assessment, four items. In this article, we describe our development and validation processes, provide scoring conventions and outputs for results, and describe wider applications of the instrument. © 2016 E. M. Walter et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (

  14. Flow Injection Analysis Coupled with Carbon Electrodes as the Tool for Analysis of Naphthoquinones with Respect to Their Content and Functions in Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek


    Full Text Available Naphthoquinones are one of the groups of secondary metabolites widespread innature, where they mostly appear as chromatic pigments. They embody broad-range ofbiological actions from phytotoxic to fungicidal. An anticancer effect of naphthoquinonesstimulates an interest in determination and characterization of single derivatives of 1,2- and1,4-quinones in biological samples. The main aim of this work was to suggest a techniquesuitable to determine lawsone, juglone and/or plumbagin in biological samples and to studyof their influence on BY-2 tobacco cells. The BY-2 tobacco cells were cultivated in thepresence of the naphthoquinones of interest (500 μg.l-1 for 24 h and then the morphologicalchanges were observed. We found out that naphthoquinones triggered the programmed celldeath at BY-2 cells, which can be confirmed by the apoptotic bodies in nucleus. After thatwe suggested and optimized different electrochemical techniques such differential pulsevoltammetry (DPV coupled with hanging mercury drop (HMDE and carbon pasteelectrode, micro flow device coupled with carbon screen printed electrodes and flowinjection analysis coupled with Coulochem III detector to determine them. The detectionlimits of naphthoquinones of interest were expressed as 3S/N and varied from units tohundreds of ng per millilitres according to methods used. Moreover, we utilized DPVcoupled with HMDE and micro flow device to determine content of juglone in leavesPersian walnut (Juglans regia. We determined that the leaves contained juglone tenths of gper 100 g of fresh weight. The results obtained show the convincing possibilities of using ofthese methods in analysis of plant secondary metabolites.

  15. Chemical characterization and biological activity in young sesame leaves (Sesamum indicum L.) and changes in iridoid and polyphenol content at different growth stages (United States)

    Fuji, Yushiro; Uchida, Ayumi; Fukahori, Katsunori; Chino, Makoto; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Matsufuji, Hiroshi


    Three iridoids (lamalbid (I1), sesamoside (I2) and shanzhiside methyl ester (I3)) and seven polyphenols (cistanoside F (P1), chlorogenic acid (P2), pedalitin-6-O-laminaribioside (P3), pedaliin (P4), isoacteoside (P6), pedalitin (P7) and martynoside (P8)) were identified in young sesame leaves (Sesamum indicum L.) other than the acteoside (P5) reported previously. P3 was a new compound, and I1, I3, P2 and P8 were found in a species of Sesamum for the first time. HPLC analyses revealed that the compounds I1 (0.29–1.75% of dry leaves), I2 (0.38–0.87%), I3 (0.04–1.07%), P4 (0.01–2.05%) and P5 (0.13–4.86%) were present primarily in young sesame leaves and were found in plants cultivated on different farms (plant height, 30–70 cm). Of the identified compounds, P5 and P6 showed high 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and in vitro antiglycation activities. Given its content, P5 makes a major contribution to the biological activities of young sesame leaves. The compounds were examined at six different growth stages of plants cultured in a greenhouse to determine the optimum harvest stage and for end-use assessment. P5 accumulated in the leaves during growth, and the content reached a maximum of 12.9% of dry leaves in the 4th stage (plant height, 74.5±9.7 cm), which is one of the highest percentages reported in plants from nature. PMID:29584748

  16. Computers and Instructional Design: Component Display Theory in Transition. (United States)

    Wilson, Brent G.

    Component display theory (CDT) is used as a working example in this examination of the relationship between instructional design theory and computer assisted instruction (CAI) models. Two basic approaches to instructional design--the analytic and the holistic methods--are reviewed, and four elements of CDT are described: (1) content types,…

  17. How does a high school biology teacher interact with his 10th grade students?: Examining science talk in evolution and human genetics instruction from a sociolinguistics perspective (United States)

    Avsar Erumit, Banu

    This qualitative study employed a case study design (Creswell, 2014) with a high school biology teacher to examine a) the types of discourse patterns that a high school teacher was using in evolution and human genetics units, b) the purposes and cognitive features of the teacher's questions, their impact on students' subsequent responses, and the types of teacher follow ups occurred in these two units, and c) the factors that I thought might be somehow influencing the teaching and learning of these two topics in this classroom. The findings showed that lecture and recitation were the two most frequently used discourse types in the two units. Guided discussion and guided small group work in which students' ideas and questions were more welcomed than in lecture and recitation, were used only in the evolution unit, which was also unit in which the teacher used hands-on activities. In the human genetics unit, he only used worksheet-based activities, which he called paper and pencil labs. Teacher questions were posed mainly to assess the correctness of students' factual knowledge, remind them of previously covered information, and check with students to clarify the meaning of their utterances or their progress on a task. The two primary types of cognitive processes associated with students' responses were recall information and evaluate teacher's questions, mostly with a short response. The most frequently heard voice in the classroom was teacher's. Whole class interactions did not feature equal participation as some much more engaged students dominated. The results of the teacher questionnaires. teacher interviews, teacher debriefings, and lesson observations showed that Evan had an informed understanding of NOS, a high level of acceptance of evolution, and adequate understanding of evolution. The factors that seemed to negatively influence his teaching and students' engagement in that classroom included but not limited to the teacher's lack of experience in teaching

  18. Best practices in writing instruction

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzgerald, Jill; MacArthur, Charles A


    An indispensable teacher resource and course text, this book presents evidence-based practices for helping all K-12 students develop their skills as writers. Every chapter draws clear connections to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Leading authorities describe how to teach the skills and strategies that students need to plan, draft, evaluate, and revise multiple types of texts. Also addressed are ways for teachers to integrate technology into the writing program, use assessment to inform instruction, teach writing in the content areas, and tailor instruction for English language learner

  19. Development and Evaluation of the Tigriopus Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience: Impacts on Students’ Content Knowledge, Attitudes, and Motivation in a Majors Introductory Biology Course (United States)

    Olimpo, Jeffrey T.; Fisher, Ginger R.; DeChenne-Peters, Sue Ellen


    Within the past decade, course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) have emerged as a viable mechanism to enhance novices’ development of scientific reasoning and process skills in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines. Recent evidence within the bioeducation literature suggests that student engagement in such experiences not only increases their appreciation for and interest in scientific research but also enhances their ability to “think like a scientist.” Despite these critical outcomes, few studies have objectively explored CURE versus non-CURE students’ development of content knowledge, attitudes, and motivation in the discipline, particularly among nonvolunteer samples. To address these concerns, we adopted a mixed-methods approach to evaluate the aforementioned outcomes following implementation of a novel CURE in an introductory cell/molecular biology course. Results indicate that CURE participants exhibited more expert-like outcomes on these constructs relative to their non-CURE counterparts, including in those areas related to self-efficacy, self-determination, and problem-solving strategies. Furthermore, analysis of end-of-term survey data suggests that select features of the CURE, such as increased student autonomy and collaboration, mediate student learning and enjoyment. Collectively, this research provides novel insights into the benefits achieved as a result of CURE participation and can be used to guide future development and evaluation of authentic research opportunities. PMID:27909022

  20. Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Instructions to Authors The Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology (Cameroon J. Exp. Biol.) welcomes contributions in all fields of experimental biology including biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, toxicology, pathology, environmental biology, microbiology, parasitology, phytochemistry, food ...

  1. Designing Preclinical Instruction of Psychomotor Skills (IV)--Instructional Engineering: Evaluation Phase. (United States)

    Guenzel, Pamela J.; And Others


    The fourth article in a four-part series on instructional design discusses evaluation of a psychomotor skills unit taught in preclinical dental education. Issues examined include piloting of instructional materials, analysis and revision of materials based on student performance, syllabus design and content, influence of faculty characteristics,…

  2. The effect of biological fertilizers on yield, yield components and seed oil contents of three cultivars of canola (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki


    Full Text Available Introduction Canola is the world third oil crop with 25 to 55 percent oil content (Hezbavi & Minaei, 2008. In recent years, tendency towards expansion of the acreage of canola in Iran has been increasing and for the years 2010-2011 an area of 93000 ha with a total production of 190000 tons has been reported (Ministry of Jihad of Agriculture, 2013. Application of biological fertilizers which are environmentally friendly agents have been reported to enhance yield and quality of different crops (Shoghi Kalkhoran et al., 2012; Afrasiabi et al., 2011. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of biological fertilizers on quantitative and quality criteria of canola. Material and methods For this study, a factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design and three replicates was used. The experimental treatments were three canola cultivars namely Okapi, Zarfam and Modena which was combined with four levels of biological fertilizers: Nitroxin, Phosphat solubilizing bacteria (PSB, Nitroxin+PSB and a control. Seeds were planted in plots of 2×3 m2. All field managements were carried out based on conventional practices. The measured criteria were plant height, number of pods per plant, 1000- seed weight, biomass yield, harvest index, oil content and yield. Results and discussion The results showed that in all studied criteria except 1000- seed weight there were significant differences between cultivars. Different fertilizer treatments had a significant effect on all criteria except 1000- seed weight and HI. Modena cultivar had the highest oil yield and quantitative characteristics. Composition of phosphate solubilizing bacteria+nitroxin also had the highest oil yield and quantitative characteristics. The interactions between biofertilizer treatments and cultivars in all criteria were not significant. The result of this experiment indicated the effectiveness of use of biofertilizers. References Afrasiabi, M., Amini

  3. Advancing Climate Literacy through Investment in Science Education Faculty, and Future and Current Science Teachers: Providing Professional Learning, Instructional Materials, and a Model for Locally-Relevant and Culturally-Responsive Content (United States)

    Halversen, C.; Apple, J. K.; McDonnell, J. D.; Weiss, E.


    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) call for 5th grade students to "obtain and combine information about ways individual communities use science ideas to protect Earth's resources and environment". Achieving this, and other objectives in NGSS, will require changes in the educational system for both students and teachers. Teachers need access to high quality instructional materials and continuous professional learning opportunities starting in pre-service education. Students need highly engaging and authentic learning experiences focused on content that is strategically interwoven with science practices. Pre-service and early career teachers, even at the secondary level, often have relatively weak understandings of the complex Earth systems science required for understanding climate change and hold alternative ideas and naïve beliefs about the nature of science. These naïve understandings cause difficulties in portraying and teaching science, especially considering what is being called for in NGSS. The ACLIPSE program focuses on middle school pre-service science teachers and education faculty because: (1) the concepts that underlie climate change align well with the disciplinary core ideas and practices in NGSS for middle grades; and (2) middle school is a critical time for capturing students interest in science as student engagement by eighth grade is the most effective predictor of student pursuit of science in high school and college. Capturing student attention at this age is critical for recruitment to STEM careers and lifelong climate literacy. THE ACLIPSE program uses cutting edge research and technology in ocean observing systems to provide educators with new tools to engage students that will lead to deeper understanding of the interactions between the ocean and climate systems. Establishing authentic, meaningful connections between indigenous and place-based, and technological climate observations will help generate a more holistic perspective

  4. A Comparative Analysis of Method Books for Class Jazz Instruction (United States)

    Watson, Kevin E.


    The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare instructional topics and teaching approaches included in selected class method books for jazz pedagogy through content analysis methodology. Frequency counts for the number of pages devoted to each defined instructional content category were compiled and percentages of pages allotted to each…

  5. An instructional design process based on expert knowledge for teaching students how mechanisms are explained. (United States)

    Trujillo, Caleb M; Anderson, Trevor R; Pelaez, Nancy J


    In biology and physiology courses, students face many difficulties when learning to explain mechanisms, a topic that is demanding due to the immense complexity and abstract nature of molecular and cellular mechanisms. To overcome these difficulties, we asked the following question: how does an instructor transform their understanding of biological mechanisms and other difficult-to-learn topics so that students can comprehend them? To address this question, we first reviewed a model of the components used by biologists to explain molecular and cellular mechanisms: the MACH model, with the components of methods (M), analogies (A), context (C), and how (H). Next, instructional materials were developed and the teaching activities were piloted with a physical MACH model. Students who used the MACH model to guide their explanations of mechanisms exhibited both improvements and some new difficulties. Third, a series of design-based research cycles was applied to bring the activities with an improved physical MACH model into biology and biochemistry courses. Finally, a useful rubric was developed to address prevalent student difficulties. Here, we present, for physiology and biology instructors, the knowledge and resources for explaining molecular and cellular mechanisms in undergraduate courses with an instructional design process aimed at realizing pedagogical content knowledge for teaching. Our four-stage process could be adapted to advance instruction with a range of models in the life sciences. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  6. On algorithmic equivalence of instruction sequences for computing bit string functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.


    Every partial function from bit strings of a given length to bit strings of a possibly different given length can be computed by a finite instruction sequence that contains only instructions to set and get the content of Boolean registers, forward jump instructions, and a termination instruction. We

  7. On algorithmic equivalence of instruction sequences for computing bit string functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.


    Every partial function from bit strings of a given length to bit strings of a possibly different given length can be computed by a finite instruction sequence that contains only instructions to set and get the content of Boolean registers, forward jump instructions, and a termination instruction. We

  8. Developing Early Literacy Skills: A Meta-Analysis of Alphabet Learning and Instruction. (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B; Wagner, Richard K


    Alphabet knowledge is a hallmark of early literacy and facilitating its development has become a primary objective of pre-school instruction and intervention. However, little agreement exists about how to promote the development of alphabet knowledge effectively. A meta-analysis of the effects of instruction on alphabet outcomes demonstrated that instructional impacts differed by type of alphabet outcome examined and content of instruction provided. School-based instruction yielded larger effects than home-based instruction; small-group instruction yielded larger effects than individual tutoring programs. We found minimal evidence of transfer of alphabet instruction to early phonological, reading, or spelling skills. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  9. Curriculum and instruction in nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, M.; Lugaski, T.; Pankratius, B.


    Curriculum and instruction in nuclear waste disposal is part of the larger problem of curriculum and instruction in science. At a time when science and technological literacy is crucial to the nation's economic future fewer students are electing to take needed courses in science that might promote such literacy. The problem is directly related to what science teachers teach and how they teach it. Science content that is more relevant and interesting to students must be a part of the curriculum. Science instruction must allow students to be actively involved in investigating or playing the game of science

  10. The STEM Lecture Hall: A Study of Effective Instructional Practices for Diverse Learners (United States)

    Reimer, Lynn Christine

    First-generation, low-income, underrepresented minority (URM) and female undergraduates are matriculating into science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) majors at unprecedented levels. However, a disproportionate number of these students end up graduating in non-STEM disciplines. Attrition rates have been observed to spike in conjunction with introductory STEM courses in chemistry, biology, and physics. These "gateway" courses tend to be housed in large, impersonal lecture halls. First-generation and URM students struggle in this environment, possibly because of instructors' reliance on lecture-based content delivery and rote memorization. Recent social psychological studies suggest the problem may be related to cultural mismatch, or misalignment between independent learning norms typical of American universities and interdependent learning expectancies for first-generation and URM students. Value-affirming and utility-value interventions yield impressive academic achievement gains for these students. These findings overlap with a second body of literature on culturally responsive instruction. Active gateway learning practices that emphasize interactive instruction, frequent assessment, and epistemological instruction can be successful because of their propensity to incorporate values affirming and utility-value techniques. The present study observed instruction for gateway STEM courses over a three-year period at the University of California, Irvine (N = 13,856 undergraduates in 168 courses). Exploratory polychoric factor analysis was used to identify latent variables for observational data on gateway STEM instructional practices. Variables were regressed on institutional student data. Practices implemented in large lecture halls fall into three general categories: Faculty-Student Interaction, Epistemological Instruction, and Peer Interaction . The present study found that Faculty-Student Interaction was negatively associated with student outcomes for

  11. Student Teachers' Approaches to Teaching Biological Evolution (United States)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Klein, Vanessa A.; Ghosh, Rajlakshmi; Eibel, Albert


    Evolution is fundamental to biology and scientific literacy, but teaching high school evolution is often difficult. Evolution teachers face several challenges including limited content knowledge, personal conflicts with evolution, expectations of resistance, concerns about students' conflicts with religion, and curricular constraints. Evolution teaching can be particularly challenging for student teachers who are just beginning to gain pedagogical knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge related to evolution teaching and who seek approval from university supervisors and cooperating teachers. Science teacher educators need to know how to best support student teachers as they broach the sometimes daunting task of teaching evolution within student teaching placements. This multiple case study report documents how three student teachers approached evolution instruction and what influenced their approaches. Data sources included student teacher interviews, field note observations for 4-5 days of evolution instruction, and evolution instructional artifacts. Data were analyzed using grounded theory approaches to develop individual cases and a cross-case analysis. Seven influences (state exams and standards, cooperating teacher, ideas about teaching and learning, concerns about evolution controversy, personal commitment to evolution, knowledge and preparation for teaching evolution, and own evolution learning experiences) were identified and compared across cases. Implications for science teacher preparation and future research are provided.

  12. Student Identity Considerations and Implications Associated with Socioscientific Issues Instruction (United States)

    Ruzek, Mitchel James

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore how aspects of identity, perceived levels of controversy, and the strength of a student's attachment to their controversial identity relate to conceptual understanding and knowledge acquisition during socioscientific issues (SSI) based instruction in a biology classroom. The knowledge gained from this study will have the capacity to enhance our understanding of the role that attachment to identity plays during SSI negotiation. Additionally, insight was gained into the role played by aspects of identity in conceptual understanding of scientifically controversial topics during SSI based instruction. This study contributed to the existing knowledge base in science education by illuminating processes involved in socioscientific issue navigation among students of differing perceptions of controversy as well as students who held aspects of controversial identity that may or may not interact with the specific issues chosen. Students demonstrated evidence of variations of reasoning, justification, perception of controversy, and aspects of knowledge gain as they negotiated the issues of marijuana safety and fast food legality. Additionally, evidence was provided that showed general knowledge gain throughout the group during socioscientific issues instruction. It has been said that one of the appeals of the SSI instructional model is that is serves not only as a context for the delivery of content, but acts as a catalyst for various forms of epistemological beliefs and research into the development of conceptual and psychological knowledge structures (Zeidler, 2013). This investigation supports the deeper understanding of the contribution of controversy perception to epistemology as well as conceptual and psychological knowledge structures during SSI navigation.

  13. The Instructional Capacitor (United States)

    Walton, Elizabeth


    Many administrators are so overwhelmed by the basic responsibilities of their daily work that there seems to be little or no time left for providing quality leadership in instruction. Instead, schools employ department chairs, instructional specialists, and coordinators to provide instructional leadership. How can administrators find time in the…

  14. Developing Early Literacy Skills: A Meta-Analysis of Alphabet Learning and Instruction


    Piasta, Shayne B.; Wagner, Richard K.


    Alphabet knowledge is a hallmark of early literacy and facilitating its development has become a primary objective of pre-school instruction and intervention. However, little agreement exists about how to promote the development of alphabet knowledge effectively. A meta-analysis of the effects of instruction on alphabet outcomes demonstrated that instructional impacts differed by type of alphabet outcome examined and content of instruction provided. School-based instruction yielded larger eff...

  15. Profiles of free and bound phenolics extracted from Citrus fruits and their roles in biological systems: content, and antioxidant, anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive properties. (United States)

    Alu'datt, Muhammad H; Rababah, Taha; Alhamad, Mohammad N; Al-Mahasneh, Majdi A; Ereifej, Khalil; Al-Karaki, Ghazi; Al-Duais, Mohammed; Andrade, Juan E; Tranchant, Carole C; Kubow, Stan; Ghozlan, Kawther A


    This study of selected plants of the Rutaceae family was carried out to investigate their phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and the in vitro inhibitory potential of extracted phenolics towards enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity and phenolic extract-mediated inhibitory activities for α-glucosidase and α-amylase were evaluated by spectrophotometry. The content of individual phenolics and the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of the phenolic extracts were evaluated by LC/MS-MS and RP-HPLC methods, respectively. A higher percentage of free phenolic content was seen for all the selected plants of the Rutaceae family (85.43-92.82% of the total phenolic content) than of the bound form (7.18-14.57% of total phenolic content). The major predominant bound phenolic in lemon and red blood orange was hesperidin. The major predominant bound phenolic in pummelo, shamouti and clementine was ferulic acid. The highest ACE and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the extracted phenolics from lemon was associated with free phenolic extracts obtained at 30 °C with values of 100% inhibition. Red blood orange free phenolic extract (30 °C) elicited the highest α-amylase inhibition activity (32.3%). In contrast, extracted bound phenolics after acid and base hydrolysis from all selected plants from the Citrus species were shown to induce activation of the ACE and α-amylase enzymes.

  16. A formative evaluation of a high school blended learning biology course (United States)

    Nellman, Stephen William

    As growing student populations continue to tax the resources of public high schools, administrators are constantly looking for ways to address the needs of all students. One option for increasing the number of students in a classroom without sacrificing quality of instruction is to use "blended learning". Blended learning is defined by Marsh et al. (2003, p.2) as a situation where "face-to-face and distance education delivery methods and resources are merged". In such a course, students receive the benefits of classroom-based instruction, while also benefiting from several aspects of distance learning. This is especially true for science courses that rely heavily on both hands-on labs and various multimedia. The purpose of this study was a formative evaluation of a high school blended learning biology course, focusing on a genetics unit. The research question addressed by the study was "Will participants increase their domain knowledge and problem-solving skills after instruction in a high school level blended distance learning biology course? Also investigated was if higher levels of self-regulation skills were correlated to higher levels of content-understanding and problem-solving. The study was composed of a pilot study and a main study. Participants were students in an urban Southern California public high school biology course. Classroom instruction was from a single instructor, and online content was managed using the "Moodle" course management system. Participants were assessed for their gains in genetics content-understanding, genetics problem-solving skills (Punnett squares), and self-regulation. Additionally, participant reactions to the blended instruction model were surveyed. Results indicated that significant increases (pself-regulation skills were not shown to be significantly correlated to increased content-understanding, or problem-solving skills. Participants reacted positively to the blended model, suggesting that it be used more often in their

  17. Teaching about teaching and instruction on instruction: a challenge for health sciences library education. (United States)

    Detlefsen, Ellen Gay


    This is a review of the master's-level curricula of the fifty-eight America Library Association-accredited library and information science programs and iSchools for evidence of coursework and content related to library instruction. Special emphasis is placed on the schools and programs that also offer coursework in medical or health sciences librarianship. Fifty-eight school and program websites were reviewed. Course titles and course descriptions for seventy-three separate classes were analyzed. Twenty-three syllabi were examined. All North American library education programs offer at least one course in the general area of library instruction; some programs offer multiple courses. No courses on instruction, however, are focused directly on the specialized area of health sciences librarianship. Master's degree students can take appropriate classes on library instruction, but the medical library profession needs to offer continuing education opportunities for practitioners who want to have specific instruction for the specialized world of the health sciences.

  18. Effective instruction for English learners. (United States)

    Calderón, Margarita; Slavin, Robert; Sánchez, Marta


    The fastest-growing student population in U.S. schools today is children of immigrants, half of whom do not speak English fluently and are thus labeled English learners. Although the federal government requires school districts to provide services to English learners, it offers states no policies to follow in identifying, assessing, placing, or instructing them. Margarita Calderón, Robert Slavin, and Marta Sánchez identify the elements of effective instruction and review a variety of successful program models. During 2007-08, more than 5.3 million English learners made up 10.6 percent of the nation's K-12 public school enrollment. Wide and persistent achievement disparities between these English learners and English-proficient students show clearly, say the authors, that schools must address the language, literacy, and academic needs of English learners more effectively. Researchers have fiercely debated the merits of bilingual and English-only reading instruction. In elementary schools, English learners commonly receive thirty minutes of English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction but attend general education classes for the rest of the day, usually with teachers who are unprepared to teach them. Though English learners have strikingly diverse levels of skills, in high school they are typically lumped together, with one teacher to address their widely varying needs. These in-school factors contribute to the achievement disparities. Based on the studies presented here, Calderón, Slavin, and Sánchez assert that the quality of instruction is what matters most in educating English learners. They highlight comprehensive reform models, as well as individual components of these models: school structures and leadership; language and literacy instruction; integration of language, literacy, and content instruction in secondary schools; cooperative learning; professional development; parent and family support teams; tutoring; and monitoring implementation and outcomes

  19. High school and college biology: A multi-level model of the effects of high school biology courses on student academic performance in introductory college biology courses (United States)

    Loehr, John Francis

    The issue of student preparation for college study in science has been an ongoing concern for both college-bound students and educators of various levels. This study uses a national sample of college students enrolled in introductory biology courses to address the relationship between high school biology preparation and subsequent introductory college biology performance. Multi-Level Modeling was used to investigate the relationship between students' high school science and mathematics experiences and college biology performance. This analysis controls for student demographic and educational background factors along with factors associated with the college or university attended. The results indicated that high school course-taking and science instructional experiences have the largest impact on student achievement in the first introductory college biology course. In particular, enrollment in courses, such as high school Calculus and Advanced Placement (AP) Biology, along with biology course content that focuses on developing a deep understanding of the topics is found to be positively associated with student achievement in introductory college biology. On the other hand, experiencing high numbers of laboratory activities, demonstrations, and independent projects along with higher levels of laboratory freedom are associated with negative achievement. These findings are relevant to high school biology teachers, college students, their parents, and educators looking beyond the goal of high school graduation.

  20. Crossing Boundaries in Undergraduate Biology Education (United States)

    Vanderklein, Dirk; Munakata, Mika; McManus, Jason


    In an effort to make mathematics relevant to biology students, the authors developed two modules that sought to integrate mathematics and ecology instruction to differing degrees. The modules were developed by a team of biology and mathematics educators and were implemented in an ecology course using three different instructional methods for three…

  1. A Place for Content Literacy: Incorporating Vocabulary and Comprehension Strategies in the High School Science Classroom (United States)

    Misulis, Katherine E.


    To help students learn and apply science content, teachers can embed content literacy instruction within science instruction. This involves teaching the content and the literacy skills students need to learn that content, such as vocabulary and comprehension. In this article, the author provides tips on how to incorporate content literacy…

  2. Development, Evaluation, and Validation of a Paper-and-Pencil Test for Measuring Two Components of Biology Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge Concerning the "Cardiovascular System" (United States)

    Schmelzing, Stephan; van Driel, Jan H.; Jüttner, Melanie; Brandenbusch, Stefanie; Sandmann, Angela; Neuhaus, Birgit J.


    One main focus of teacher education research concentrates on teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). It has been shown that teachers' PCK correlates with teaching effectiveness as well as with students' achievement gains. Teachers' PCK should be analyzed as one of the main important components to evaluate professional…

  3. Technical guide management of waste materials with radioactive contents in biological research centers; Guia tecnica de gestion de materiales residuales con contenido radiactivo en centro de investigacion biologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias, M. T.; Pulido, J.; Sastre, G.; Sanchez, A.; Usera, F.


    The guide presented offers significant improvements in the management procedures of waste materials with radioactive contents, in addition to unifying modes of action on radioactive facilities for research and teaching. The guide has been developed within the activities of the SEPR in collaboration with ENRESA. (Author)

  4. Tapping Geography's Potential for Synergy with Creative Instructional Approaches (United States)

    Conway-Gomez, Kristen; Williams, Nikki; Atkinson-Palombo, Carol; Ahlqvist, Ola; Kim, Eje; Morgan, Miranda


    We define synergy, explain its importance within the context of rapidly changing academia, and provide examples of how geographic educators have used creative instructional approaches to create synergies. Both the content of geography and some of the instructional approaches used by geographic educators support the discipline's ability to deliver…

  5. A first mathematics curriculum : Stevin’s Instruction for engineers .

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krüger, Jenneke


    The oldest known plan for a mathematics course, written in Dutch, is the Instruction by Simon Stevin, dating from 9 January 1600. It is remarkable because of the detailed specification of aims, content, teaching methods, learning activities, materials and teaching language. The Instruction was

  6. Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP). WWC Intervention Report (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009


    The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) is a framework for planning and delivering instruction in content areas such as science, history, and mathematics to limited-English proficient students. The goal of SIOP is to help teachers integrate academic language development into their lessons, allowing students to learn and practice…

  7. The Basic Instructional Media Course for Teacher Education. (United States)

    Newren, Edward F.; Lasher, Edward B.


    A survey of teacher education programs in Ohio examined the content and methods of instructional media and technology courses. Discusses topics that should be included in a basic instructional media course: production techniques, technology integration, use and maintenance of audiovisual equipment, selection and evaluation of media materials,…

  8. Biology Professors' and Teachers' Positions Regarding Biological Evolution and Evolution Education in a Middle Eastern Society (United States)

    BouJaoude, Saouma; Asghar, Anila; Wiles, Jason R.; Jaber, Lama; Sarieddine, Diana; Alters, Brian


    This study investigated three questions: (1) What are Lebanese secondary school (Grade 9-12) biology teachers' and university biology professors' positions regarding biological evolution?, (2) How do participants' religious affiliations relate to their positions about evolutionary science?, and (3) What are participants' positions regarding evolution education? Participants were 20 secondary school biology teachers and seven university biology professors. Seventy percent of the teachers and 60% of the professors were Muslim. Data came from semi-structured interviews with participants. Results showed that nine (Christian or Muslim Druze) teachers accepted the theory, five (four Muslim) rejected it because it contradicted religious beliefs, and three (Muslim) reinterpreted it because evolution did not include humans. Teachers who rejected or reinterpreted the evolutionary theory said that it should not be taught (three), evolution and creationism should be given equal time (two), or students should be allowed to take their own stand. Two professors indicated that they taught evolution explicitly and five said that they integrated it in other biology content. One Muslim professor said that she stressed 'the role of God in creation during instruction on evolution'. It seems that years of studying and teaching biology have not had a transformative effect on how a number of teachers and professors think about evolution.

  9. The Common Core Learning Standards and Elementary Teachers' Math Instructional Practices, Receptivity to Change, Instructional Leadership and Academic Optimism (United States)

    Sullivan, Dennis D.


    This study sought to identify the relationships among elementary teachers instructional practices in mathematics pre- and post-CCLS implementation in relation to technological and pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK), formative assessment, reflective practice, receptivity to change, academic optimism, and instructional leadership across age,…

  10. English Medium of Instruction: A Situation Analysis (United States)

    Uys, Mandie; van der Walt, Johann; van den Berg, Ria; Botha, Sue


    The majority of learners in southern Africa receive their education through the medium of a second language, English. Although teachers of English play a crucial role in helping learners to acquire language skills in the medium of instruction, we argue that subject content teachers' lack of attention to the teaching of the four language skills may…

  11. Guiding instructional decisions through diagnostic assessment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnostic assessment is an integral component of instructional decision making process. Hence, this study was aimed at comparing sub-scores of a diagnostic test thereby exploring the content area the students are having difficulty for designing remediation interventions. The population comprised all SS3 students in Aba ...

  12. Exploring Flipped Classroom Instruction in Calculus III (United States)

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.; Quint, Christa; Norris, Scott A.; Carr, Thomas


    In an undergraduate Calculus III class, we explore the effect of "flipping" the instructional delivery of content on both student performance and student perceptions. Two instructors collaborated to determine daily lecture notes, assigned the same homework problems, and gave identical exams; however, compared to a more traditional…

  13. The Effectiveness of an Online Curriculum on High School Students' Understanding of Biological Evolution (United States)

    Marsteller, Robert B.; Bodzin, Alec M.


    An online curriculum about biological evolution was designed to promote increased student content knowledge and evidentiary reasoning. A feasibility study was conducted with 77 rural high school biology students who learned with the online biological evolution unit. Data sources included the Biological Evolution Assessment Measure (BEAM), an analysis of discussion forum posts, and a post-implementation perceptions and attitudes questionnaire. BEAM posttest scores were significantly higher than the pretest scores. However, the findings revealed that the students required additional support to develop evidentiary reasoning. Many students perceived that the Web-based curriculum would have been enhanced by increased immediate interaction and feedback. Students required greater scaffolding to support complex, process-oriented tasks. Implications for designing Web-based science instruction with curriculum materials to support students' acquisition of content knowledge and science process skills in a Web-based setting are discussed.

  14. 國中生物教師教學歷程與資訊行為之探討 | The Study of Instructional Process and Information Behavior of Biology Teachers in Junior High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    藍治平、張永達 Chih-Ping Lan、Yung-Ta Chang


    -fareast-theme-font: minor-fareast; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">(如學校圖書館或教學網站應當考量到教師使用資訊的方式,讓教師在搜尋、轉形及使用上更能符合實際教學。

    This study aims to explore the information seeking behavior of junior high school teachers of biology in their teaching context Semi-structured interview data of five teachers was collected and analyzed using the qualitative approach. Research results show that the teaching process of biology teachers exhibits the following ten behavioral characteristics, namely, (1 defining, (2 understanding, (3 collecting, (4 selecting, (5 organizing, (6 transforming, (7 instructing, (8 evaluating, (9 reflecting and (10 modifying. It was also found that biology teachers' pedagogical

  15. Development of a Univariate Membrane-Based Mid-Infrared Method for Protein Quantitation and Total Lipid Content Analysis of Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Strug


    Full Text Available Biological samples present a range of complexities from homogeneous purified protein to multicomponent mixtures. Accurate qualification of such samples is paramount to downstream applications. We describe the development of an MIR spectroscopy-based analytical method offering simultaneous protein quantitation (0.25–5 mg/mL and analysis of total lipid or detergent species, as well as the identification of other biomolecules present in biological samples. The method utilizes a hydrophilic PTFE membrane engineered for presentation of aqueous samples in a dried format compatible with fast infrared analysis. Unlike classical quantification techniques, the reported method is amino acid sequence independent and thus applicable to complex samples of unknown composition. By comparison to existing platforms, this MIR-based method enables direct quantification using minimal sample volume (2 µL; it is well-suited where repeat access and limited sample size are critical parameters. Further, accurate results can be derived without specialized training or knowledge of IR spectroscopy. Overall, the simplified application and analysis system provides a more cost-effective alternative to high-throughput IR systems for research laboratories with minimal throughput demands. In summary, the MIR-based system provides a viable alternative to current protein quantitation methods; it also uniquely offers simultaneous qualification of other components, notably lipids and detergents.

  16. Influence of using challenging tasks in biology classrooms on students' cognitive knowledge structure: an empirical video study (United States)

    Nawani, Jigna; Rixius, Julia; Neuhaus, Birgit J.


    Empirical analysis of secondary biology classrooms revealed that, on average, 68% of teaching time in Germany revolved around processing tasks. Quality of instruction can thus be assessed by analyzing the quality of tasks used in classroom discourse. This quasi-experimental study analyzed how teachers used tasks in 38 videotaped biology lessons pertaining to the topic 'blood and circulatory system'. Two fundamental characteristics used to analyze tasks include: (1) required cognitive level of processing (e.g. low level information processing: repetiition, summary, define, classify and high level information processing: interpret-analyze data, formulate hypothesis, etc.) and (2) complexity of task content (e.g. if tasks require use of factual, linking or concept level content). Additionally, students' cognitive knowledge structure about the topic 'blood and circulatory system' was measured using student-drawn concept maps (N = 970 students). Finally, linear multilevel models were created with high-level cognitive processing tasks and higher content complexity tasks as class-level predictors and students' prior knowledge, students' interest in biology, and students' interest in biology activities as control covariates. Results showed a positive influence of high-level cognitive processing tasks (β = 0.07; p < .01) on students' cognitive knowledge structure. However, there was no observed effect of higher content complexity tasks on students' cognitive knowledge structure. Presented findings encourage the use of high-level cognitive processing tasks in biology instruction.

  17. Effects of multimedia vocabulary instruction on adolescents with learning disabilities. (United States)

    Kennedy, Michael J; Deshler, Donald D; Lloyd, John Wills


    The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of using content acquisition podcasts (CAPs), an example of instructional technology, to provide vocabulary instruction to adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD). A total of 279 urban high school students, including 30 with LD in an area related to reading, were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions with instruction occurring at individual computer terminals over a 3-week period. Each of the four conditions contained different configurations of multimedia-based instruction and evidence-based vocabulary instruction. Dependent measures of vocabulary knowledge indicated that students with LD who received vocabulary instruction using CAPs through an explicit instructional methodology and the keyword mnemonic strategy significantly outperformed other students with LD who were taught using the same content, but with multimedia instruction that did not adhere to a specific theoretical design framework. Results for general education students mirrored those for students with LD. Students also completed a satisfaction measure following instruction with multimedia and expressed overall agreement that CAPs are useful for learning vocabulary terms. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.




  19. The Effects of Segmentation and Personalization on Superficial and Comprehensive Strategy Instruction in Multimedia Learning Environments (United States)

    Doolittle, Peter


    Short, cause-and-effect instructional multimedia tutorials that provide learner control of instructional pace (segmentation) and verbal representations of content in a conversational tone (personalization) have been demonstrated to benefit problem solving transfer. How might a more comprehensive multimedia instructional environment focused on…

  20. Teaching and Reaching All Students: An Instructional Model for Closing the Gap (United States)

    Powell, Rebecca; Cantrell, Susan Chambers; Rightmyer, Elizabeth


    This article presents a model for culturally responsive instruction (CRI) that represents a synthesis of research on effective literacy and content instruction for diverse middle grades learners.The article discusses the various elements of the Culturally Responsive Instruction Observation Protocol (CRIOP) model. It then examines these elements by…

  1. Improving Access to Elementary School Social Studies Instruction: Strategies to Support Students with Learning Disabilities (United States)

    Ciullo, Stephen


    Social studies instruction in upper elementary school (Grades 3-5) is important for building foundational content knowledge to equip students for the secondary school curriculum. Due to numerous school initiatives and demands on the time of teachers, social studies instruction can play second fiddle to reading and mathematics instruction, which…

  2. How does high stakes testing influence teachers' classroom instruction?: Institutional pressures and classroom instruction (United States)

    Yamashita, Mika Yoder


    This study examined how a total of eight math and science elementary school teachers changed their classroom instruction in response to high stakes and low stakes testing in one school district. The district introduced new assessment in the school year of 2005--06 to meet the requirement set forth by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)---that the assessment should be aligned with the state academic standards. I conducted interviews with teachers and school administrators at two elementary schools, district officials, and a representative of a non-profit organization during the school year 2007--08 to examine how the new assessment introduced in 2005--06 had shaped classroom instruction. Concepts from New Institutional Theory and cognitive approaches to policy implementation guided the design of this study. This study focused on how materials and activities associated with high stakes testing promoted ideas about good instruction, and how these ideas were carried to teachers. The study examined how teachers received messages about instruction and how they responded to the messages. The study found that high stakes testing influenced teachers' classroom instruction more than low stakes testing; however, the instructional changes teachers made in response to state testing was at the content level. The teachers' instructional strategies did not change. The teachers' instructional changes varied with the degree of implementation of existing math curriculum and with the degree of support they received in understanding the meaning of assessment results. The study concluded that, among the six teachers I studied, high stakes testing was not a sufficient intervention for changing teachers' instructional strategies. The study also addressed the challenges of aligning instructional messages across assessment, standards, and curriculum.

  3. How College-Level Introductory Instruction Can Impact Student Epistemological Beliefs (United States)

    Ding, Lin; Mollohan, Katherine N.


    This article describes a survey study of college students' epistemologies about biology and learning biology. Specifically, the authors examined the differences between science and nonscience majors and their changes in epistemologies over the course of a semester of instruction.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asda Laining


    Full Text Available In order to determine the effect of dietary calcium (Ca, inorganic phosphorus (IP, and phytase (P supplementation in marine fish, a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design was arranged to observe the interrelationship between dietary Ca and IP with the presence of dietary phytase. Two levels of dietary Ca at 0% and 0.2% combined with either 0% or 0.25% of dietary IP and either with 0 and 2,000 FTU phytase/kg diet, respectively to formulate eight experimental diets. SPI-based diet was used as basal diet and the sources of Ca, IP, and phytase were similar to those used in the previous experiment. Juvenile Japanese flounder with initial body weight around 0.6 g was fed the test diets. After 30 days of feeding trial, the results showed that both dietary IP and phytase, but not dietary Ca significantly enhanced the growth and feed intake. The highest growth was achieved in fish fed a diet containing the Ca, IP, and phytase supplement among groups. Fish fed diet without the three dietary supplements had the lowest SGR and did not significantly improve by supplementing dietary Ca. Feed intake (FI and was significantly influenced by dietary IP and phytase, not dietary Ca while feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly affected by all dietary treatments. Interaction effect was detected between dietary Ca and IP, between dietary IP and P on FCR. Total phosphorus content in whole body was significantly increased by supplementing all dietary treatments which was highest in fish fed 0.25 IP/0.2 Ca/P. Significant interaction was observed between dietary IP and P on this parameter. Whole body Ca content was significantly improved by either dietary IP or Ca and not dietary P. As conclusion even without inorganic Ca supplement, dietary IP at level of 0.25% or 2,000 FTU phytase/kg diet could enhance growth and FI of fish as well as whole body phosphorus content of juvenile Japanese flounder when diet basal contained organic Ca around 1.2%.

  5. Egyptian Journal of Biology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Address for manuscripts via email: via post: Professor Samy Zalat, Egyptian-British Biological Society, Department of Zoology, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt. Instructions for authors. Manuscripts for the Egyptian Journal of Biology should normally not exceed 15 typed ...

  6. Grammar instruction in the Hispanic area : the case of Spain with attention to empirical studies on metalinguistic activity


    Fontich Vicens, Xavier


    Grammar instruction is an unresolved issue in the Hispanic area, having long been approached from within the disjunction between rhetoric (teaching how to use language, especially writing) and grammar (teaching the grammar content). Over time grammar instruction has generated an intense debate around two positions: direct instruction on grammar content, versus instruction devoted to prompting reflection on grammar and language use. There has been an insistent and recurring tendency towards th...

  7. Assessing a mixture of biosurfactant and enzyme pools in the anaerobic biological treatment of wastewater with a high-fat content. (United States)

    Damasceno, F R C; Freire, D M G; Cammarota, M C


    The use of rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was evaluated for solubilization of fat present in effluent from a poultry processing plant, followed by anaerobic biological treatment. The rhamnolipid was used in combination with enzyme pools produced by solid medium fermentation of the fungi Penicillium simplicissimum and Penicillium brevicompactum. In experiments with raw effluent, the accumulation of fat caused the specific methane production (SMP) to be much less than with pretreated effluent (0.074 vs. 0.167 L CH4/g chemical oxygen demand (COD) removed). In experiments with pretreated effluent, the SMP ranged from 0.105 to 0.207 L CH4/g CODremoved. A statistical analysis of the results of four sequential batches found that all variables had a significant effect on the SMP in the fourth batch. A fifth batch was initiated for three conditions, and it led to the highest SMP when compared with the control, which showed similar behaviour for the SMP over time, ending up with values three times greater than the SMP in the control conditions. The residual oil and grease analysis revealed removals from 51% to 90% with pretreated effluent and only 1% in the control conditions with raw effluent. Thus, the best synergistic effect of fat release/hydrolysis of effluent components from a poultry processing plant was found with a 0.5% P. brevicompactum pool and rhamnolipid at half the critical micelle concentration (24 mg/L).

  8. Flipped Instruction in a High School Science Classroom (United States)

    Leo, Jonathan; Puzio, Kelly


    This paper reports on a quasi-experimental study examining the effectiveness of flipped instruction in a 9th grade biology classroom. This study included four sections of freshmen-level biology taught by the first author at a private secondary school in the Pacific Northwest. Using a block randomized design, two sections were flipped and two…

  9. Instructional Design and the Importance of Instructional Alignment (United States)

    Martin, Florence


    This paper highlights the instructional design process followed by the Maricopa Community College faculty in the creation of instructional modules in Digital Visual Literacy. The paper categorizes 10 tasks that an instructional designer, a teacher, or a trainer performs during the design phase of the instructional design process. The importance of…

  10. Factors related to the retention of biology knowledge in non-science college students (United States)

    Carroll, William Thomas

    The primary purpose of this study was the identification of factors that contribute to the long-term retention of biology knowledge. Long-term retention is defined here as knowledge retained one, two, or three years following the completion of a two-semester college biology course. The factors examined for their influence on retention were primarily learner-centered in that they compared the qualities of the students rather than the nature of the instruction used. The variables examined for their relationship to long-term retention were: the student's learning approach (meaningful or rote), the student's perception of the relevance of the course content to his or her life, the student's interest in biology, the student's biology course grade, and the time between the completion of instruction and the retention measure. This study also examined how the impact of these variables on retention was related to the factual or conceptual nature of the biology content learned. The results of the regression analysis have revealed several interesting interactions among the variables examined. A student's tendency to utilize either a rote or more meaningful approach to learning interacts with his or her perception of course relevance in predicting biology knowledge retention. When the retention of higher-level biology concepts was examined, an interaction was observed between students' approaches to learning and the time between the course and the retention measure. Students with higher performance in the biology course demonstrated greater retention after one or two years but showed the greatest relative loss of retention following a three-year interval. Students' interest in biology, as measured by the frequency of biology related behaviors, showed a small positive correlation to long-term retention.

  11. What's More Important--Literacy or Content? Confronting the Literacy-Content Dualism (United States)

    Draper, Roni Jo; Smith, Leigh K.; Hall, Kendra M.; Siebert, Daniel


    The literacy-content dualism, which suggests that teachers must decide whether to provide literacy or content instruction, is a false dualism and adherence to it is detrimental to student participation in content-area reasoning, learning, and communicating. This article describes the experiences that prompted the teacher educators who authored…

  12. Technology-Assisted Sheltered Instruction: Instructional Streaming Video in an EFL Multi-Purpose Computer Course (United States)

    Huang, Yun-Hsuan; Chuang, Tsung-Yen


    Content-based instruction (CBI) has been widely adopted for decades. However, existing CBI models cannot always be effectively put into practice, especially for learners of lower English proficiency in English as a foreign language (EFL) context. This study examined an animation design course adopting CBI to promote reading abilities of English…

  13. Forum: Interpersonal Communication in Instructional Settings. The Interplay between Interpersonal Communication and Instructional Communication (United States)

    Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra Maria; Arias, V. Santiago


    In this brief forum article, the authors suggest that in order to truly understand communication education, both interpersonal and instructional variables must be analyzed. Instructors, researchers, and scholars need to find balance between content and relationship aspects while being aware of context boundaries to truly assist in maximizing…

  14. Computer Assisted Instruction (United States)

    Higgins, Paul


    Methodology for developing a computer assisted instruction (CAI) lesson (scripting, programing, and testing) is reviewed. A project done by Informatics Education Ltd. (IEL) for the Department of National Defense (DND) is used as an example. (JT)

  15. Bibliographic Instruction : A Webliography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available A Webliography about the Bibliographic Instruction, it collects a variety of internet resources divided to main categories; directories, articles, bibliographies, organization, mailing lists, and interest groups.

  16. The Effectiveness of Web-Based Instruction: An Initial Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatana M. Olson


    Full Text Available As the use of Web-based instruction increases in the educational and training domains, many people have recognized the importance of evaluating its effects on student outcomes such as learning, performance, and satisfaction. Often, these results are compared to those of conventional classroom instruction in order to determine which method is “better.” However, major differences in technology and presentation rather than instructional content can obscure the true relationship between Web-based instruction and these outcomes. Computer-based instruction (CBI, with more features similar to Web-based instruction, may be a more appropriate benchmark than conventional classroom instruction. Furthermore, there is little consensus as to what variables should be examined or what measures of learning are the most appropriate, making comparisons between studies difficult and inconclusive. In this article, we review the historical findings of CBI as an appropriate benchmark to Web-based instruction. In addition, we review 47 reports of evaluations of Web-based courses in higher education published between 1996 and 2002. A tabulation of the documented findings into eight characteristics is offered, along with our assessments of the experimental designs, effect sizes, and the degree to which the evaluations incorporated features unique to Web-based instruction.

  17. Learning from Narrated Instruction Videos. (United States)

    Alayrac, Jean-Baptiste; Bojanowski, Piotr; Agrawal, Nishant; Sivic, Josef; Laptev, Ivan; Lacoste-Julien, Simon


    Automatic assistants could guide a person or a robot in performing new tasks, such as changing a car tire or repotting a plant. Creating such assistants, however, is non-trivial and requires understanding of visual and verbal content of a video. Towards this goal, we here address the problem of automatically learning the main steps of a task from a set of narrated instruction videos. We develop a new unsupervised learning approach that takes advantage of the complementary nature of the input video and the associated narration. The method sequentially clusters textual and visual representations of a task, where the two clustering problems are linked by joint constraints to obtain a single coherent sequence of steps in both modalities. To evaluate our method, we collect and annotate a new challenging dataset of real-world instruction videos from the Internet. The dataset contains videos for five different tasks with complex interactions between people and objects, captured in a variety of indoor and outdoor settings. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed method can automatically discover, learn and localize the main steps of a task input videos.

  18. Empowering Teachers with Low-Intensity Strategies to Support Academic Engagement: Implementation and Effects of Instructional Choice for Elementary Students in Inclusive Settings (United States)

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Royer, David J.; Messenger, Mallory L.; Common, Eric Alan; Ennis, Robin Parks; Swogger, Emily D.


    Instructional choice is a low-intensity strategy that requires little preparation, is easy to implement, and supports content instruction in the classroom. In this study we explored the effectiveness of two types of instructional choice--across-task and within-task choices--implemented classwide during writing instruction by classroom teachers…

  19. Biologic Scaffolds. (United States)

    Costa, Alessandra; Naranjo, Juan Diego; Londono, Ricardo; Badylak, Stephen F


    Biologic scaffold materials composed of allogeneic or xenogeneic extracellular matrix are commonly used for the repair and functional reconstruction of injured and missing tissues. These naturally occurring bioscaffolds are manufactured by the removal of the cellular content from source tissues while preserving the structural and functional molecular units of the remaining extracellular matrix (ECM). The mechanisms by which these bioscaffolds facilitate constructive remodeling and favorable clinical outcomes include release or creation of effector molecules that recruit endogenous stem/progenitor cells to the site of scaffold placement and modulation of the innate immune response, specifically the activation of an anti-inflammatory macrophage phenotype. The methods by which ECM biologic scaffolds are prepared, the current understanding of in vivo scaffold remodeling, and the associated clinical outcomes are discussed in this article. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  20. Cross Cultural Instruction: An Instructional Design Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica W. Tracey


    Full Text Available In an authentic example of linking design and development with learning and performance, an international real estate development firm defined a problem; implementing a cleaning system in the largest mall in the world with a cross-cultural unskilled work force in Dubai, UAE. Partnering with a university instructional design team employing a rapid prototyping methodology and the constructivist ID approach, Layers of Negotiation Model, a comprehensive curriculum was designed. This article describes the project background, initial design, the ID team's work in Dubai, illustrates the product, and summarizes the design experience.

  1. CLIL Teacher Professional Development for Content Teachers in Thailand (United States)

    Kewara, Punwalai; Prabjandee, Denchai


    In Thailand, the new educational policy is mandated to encourage content teachers to integrate English in content classrooms. The policy has created tensions and misconceptions among content teachers, who must change the medium of instruction from Thai to English. This paper presents an attempt to foster teacher knowledge about the Content and…

  2. The Learning of Biology: A Structural Basis for Future Research (United States)

    Murray, Darrel L.


    This article reviews recent research studies and experiences relating the learning theories of Ausubel to biology instruction. Also some suggestions are made for future research on the learning of biology. (MR)

  3. Guidelines for Setting Up an Extended Field Trip to Florida and the Florida Keys: An Interactive Experiential Training Field Biology Program Consisting of Pretrip Instruction, Search Image Training, Field Exercises, and Observations of Tropical Habitats and Coral Reefs. (United States)

    Baker, Claude D.; And Others

    The importance of experiential aspects of biological study is addressed using multi-dimensional classroom and field classroom approaches to student learning. This document includes a guide to setting up this style of field experience. Several teaching innovations are employed to introduce undergraduate students to the literature, techniques, and…

  4. Exploring science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge in the teaching of genetics in Swaziland (United States)

    Mthethwa-Kunene, Khetsiwe Eunice Faith

    Recent trends show that learners' enrolment and performance in science at secondary school level is dwindling. Some science topics including genetics in biology are said to be difficult for learners to learn and thus they perform poorly in examinations. Teacher knowledge base, particularly topic-specific pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), has been identified by many researchers as an important factor that is linked with learner understanding and achievement in science. This qualitative study was an attempt to explore the PCK of four successful biology teachers and how they developed it in the context of teaching genetics. The purposive sampling technique was employed to select the participating teachers based on their schools' performance in biology public examinations and recommendations by science specialists and school principals. Pedagogical content knowledge was used as a theoretical framework for the study, which guided the inquiry in data collection, analysis and discussion of the research findings. The study adopted the case study method and various sources of evidence including concept maps, lesson plans, pre-lesson interviews, lesson observations, post-teaching teacher questionnaire, post-lesson interviews and document analysis were used to collect data on teachers' PCK as well as how PCK was assumed to have developed. The data were analysed in an attempt to determine the individual teachers' school genetics' content knowledge, related knowledge of instructional strategies and knowledge of learners' preconceptions and learning difficulties. The analysis involved an iterative process of coding data into PCK categories of content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and knowledge of learners' preconceptions and learning difficulties. The findings of the study indicate that the four successful biology teachers generally have the necessary content knowledge of school genetics, used certain topic-specific instructional strategies, but lacked knowledge of

  5. Instructions for authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editors Editorial Board


    Full Text Available

    Author Guidelines
    Authors must submit their papers via email to (please! or they can create an account and submit their papers online, at Submited papers must be written in DOC format (Microsoft Word document, in as clear and as simple as possible English. Preferred maximum paper length for the papers is 20 pages, including figures.
    The template for the paper is at this address: vol. 3, issue 3, Instructions for authors

  6. Instructional Challenges in Developing Young Children's Science Concepts: Using Informational Text Read-Alouds (United States)

    Hoffman, Jessica L.; Collins, Molly F.; Schickedanz, Judith A.


    Early childhood instruction tends to focus heavily on literacy development, sometimes at the expense of rich concept development (CEP, 2007; Neuman, 2006; NRC, 2012; NSTA, 2014). Because of the emphasis on literacy instruction, many early childhood teachers integrate content areas, such as science, in literacy instruction through read alouds of…

  7. Teachers' Enactment of Content Literacy Strategies in Secondary Science and Mathematics Classes (United States)

    Adams, Anne E.; Pegg, Jerine


    The incorporation of literacy strategies into content area instruction has been proposed as an effective way of improving student learning in the content areas. However, few studies have examined how teachers incorporate content literacy strategies into their instruction and the specific nature of implementation. As part of an ongoing professional…

  8. Experiences of Judeo-Christian Students in Undergraduate Biology (United States)

    Barnes, M. Elizabeth; Truong, Jasmine M.; Brownell, Sara E.


    A major research thrust in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education is focused on how to retain students as STEM majors. The accumulation of seemingly insignificant negative experiences in STEM classes can, over time, lead STEM students to have a low sense of belonging in their disciplines, and this can lead to lower retention. In this paper, we explore how Judeo-Christian students in biology have experiences related to their religious identities that could impact their retention in biology. In 28 interviews with Judeo-Christian students taking undergraduate biology classes, students reported a religious identity that can conflict with the secular culture and content of biology. Some students felt that, because they are religious, they fall within a minority in their classes and would not be seen as credible within the biology community. Students reported adverse experiences when instructors had negative dispositions toward religion and when instructors were rigid in their instructional practices when teaching evolution. These data suggest that this may be a population susceptible to experiences of cultural conflict between their religious identities and their STEM identities, which could have implications for retention. We argue that more research should explore how Judeo-Christian students’ experiences in biology classes influence their sense of belonging and retention. PMID:28232586

  9. Applying Learning Theories and Instructional Design Models for Effective Instruction (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K.; Elkhider, Ihsan A.


    Faculty members in higher education are involved in many instructional design activities without formal training in learning theories and the science of instruction. Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of instructional strategies and allow for reliable prediction of their effectiveness. To achieve effective learning…

  10. Inquiry-Oriented Instruction: A Conceptualization of the Instructional Principles (United States)

    Kuster, George; Johnson, Estrella; Keene, Karen; Andrews-Larson, Christine


    Research has highlighted that inquiry-based learning (IBL) instruction leads to many positive student outcomes in undergraduate mathematics. Although this research points to the value of IBL instruction, the practices of IBL instructors are not well-understood. Here, we offer a characterization of a particular form of IBL instruction:…

  11. Enhancing Instructional Design Efficiency: Methodologies Employed by Instructional Designers (United States)

    Roytek, Margaret A.


    Instructional systems design (ISD) has been frequently criticised as taking too long to implement, calling for a reduction in cycle time--the time that elapses between project initiation and delivery. While instructional design research has historically focused on increasing "learner" efficiencies, the study of what instructional designers do to…

  12. Wind Power. Instructional Materials. (United States)

    Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan

    This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas (see note). The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…

  13. Facility transition instruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, M.R.


    The Bechtel Hanford, Inc. facility transition instruction was initiated in response to the need for a common, streamlined process for facility transitions and to capture the knowledge and experience that has accumulated over the last few years. The instruction serves as an educational resource and defines the process for transitioning facilities to long-term surveillance and maintenance (S and M). Generally, these facilities do not have identified operations missions and must be transitioned from operational status to a safe and stable configuration for long-term S and M. The instruction can be applied to a wide range of facilities--from process canyon complexes like the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Facility or B Plant, to stand-alone, lower hazard facilities like the 242B/BL facility. The facility transition process is implemented (under the direction of the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office [RL] Assistant Manager-Environmental) by Bechtel Hanford, Inc. management, with input and interaction with the appropriate RL division and Hanford site contractors as noted in the instruction. The application of the steps identified herein and the early participation of all organizations involved are expected to provide a cost-effective, safe, and smooth transition from operational status to deactivation and S and M for a wide range of Hanford Site facilities

  14. Writing for Instructional Television. (United States)

    O'Bryan, Kenneth G.

    Writing considerations specific to instructional television (ITV) situations are discussed in this handbook written for the beginner, but designed to be of use to anyone creating an ITV script. Advice included in the handbook is based on information obtained from ITV wirters, literature reviews, and the author's personal experience. The ITV…

  15. Instructional Guidelines. Welding. (United States)

    Fordyce, H. L.; Doshier, Dale

    Using the standards of the American Welding Society and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, this welding instructional guidelines manual presents a course of study in accordance with the current practices in industry. Intended for use in welding programs now practiced within the Federal Prison System, the phases of the program are…

  16. Principals as Instructional Leaders (United States)

    Finkel, Ed


    At some level, principals always have been instructional leaders--but never before has their role been more prominent. First, the accountability movement--No Child Left Behind (NCLB) in particular--thrust principals into the spotlight on academic achievement. Then budget cuts peeled away capacity at both the district and school levels, thinning…

  17. Computer-assisted instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, J.; Fisser, P.; Wright, J.D.


    Since the early days of computer technology in education in the 1960s, it was claimed that computers can assist instructional practice and hence improve student learning. Since then computer technology has developed, and its potential for education has increased. In this article, we first discuss

  18. Characteristics of Instructional Videos (United States)

    Beheshti, Mobina; Taspolat, Ata; Kaya, Omer Sami; Sapanca, Hamza Fatih


    Nowadays, video plays a significant role in education in terms of its integration into traditional classes, the principal delivery system of information in classes particularly in online courses as well as serving as a foundation of many blended classes. Hence, education is adopting a modern approach of instruction with the target of moving away…

  19. Instructional Guide for Cosmetology. (United States)

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Dept. of Education.

    Intended as a tool for cosmetology teachers in Virginia public and private schools, the document is an instructional guide which offers 12 units of study, arranged in a three year course. Materials covered help prepare students for licensure in the State of Virginia and the guide is designed to cover the 1,500 hours required to be spent in the…

  20. Job Instruction Training. (United States)

    Pfau, Richard H.

    Job Instruction Training (JIT) is a step-by-step, relatively simple technique used to train employees on the job. It is especially suitable for teaching manual skills or procedures; the trainer is usually an employee's supervisor but can be a co-worker. The JIT technique consists of a series of steps that a supervisor or other instructor follows…

  1. Alcohol Fuels. Instructional Materials. (United States)

    Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan

    This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy developed as part of the descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas (see note). The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…

  2. Planning Instructional Media (United States)

    Clark, Richard E.


    Reviews the developments in communications and educational psychology that have influenced present educational media strategies and shows how recent breakthroughs in learning theory and media research offer a new direction in the design and use of instructional media. (Author/JM)


    Ohio Vocational Agriculture Instructional Materials Service, Columbus.


  4. Nuclear Energy. Instructional Materials. (United States)

    Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan

    This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy (see note) developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas. The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…

  5. Windows into Instructional Practice (United States)

    Steinbacher-Reed, Christina; Rotella, Sam A.


    Administrators are often removed from the daily instructional realities in classrooms, while teachers aren't given enough opportunities to lead in their schools, write Christina Steinbacher-Reed and Sam A. Rotella Jr. The result is a wall that prevents the two parties from collaborating in a way that improves school culture, teaching practices,…

  6. Psychologism and Instructional Technology (United States)

    Gur, Bekir S.; Wiley, David A.


    Little of the work in critical and hermeneutical psychology has been linked to instructional technology (IT). This article provides a discussion in order to fill the gap in this direction. The article presents a brief genealogy of American IT in relation to the influence of psychology. It also provides a critical and hermeneutical framework for…

  7. Listening strategies instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueroles López, Marta


    , who presented similar level of Spanish, needs, educational and cultural background, but did not receive such a training. The listening strategies instruction consisted in integrating the development of listening strategies into a regular course of Spanish as a foreign language. Data referring...

  8. Safety Instruction No 43

    CERN Document Server


    Please note that the Safety Instruction No 43 (IS 43) entitled "ASBESTOS - DANGERS AND PRECAUTIONS" is available on the web at the following URL: Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC secretariat, e-mail: SC Secretariat

  9. Gaze Interactive Building Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; Ahmed, Zaheer; Mardanbeigi, Diako

    We combine eye tracking technology and mobile tablets to support hands-free interaction with digital building instructions. As a proof-of-concept we have developed a small interactive 3D environment where one can interact with digital blocks by gaze, keystroke and head gestures. Blocks may be moved...

  10. Revisiting "Beyond Instructional Design" (United States)

    Sims, Rod


    Since the article "Beyond Instructional Design: Making Learning Design a Reality" (Sims, 2006) was published, much has changed in the opportunities we have for learning, and Professor Rod Sims's thinking has evolved. In this article, Professor Rod Sims reflects upon his original article, and he offers an evolved model of learning design,…

  11. Individualistic Instructional Design (United States)

    Sahin, Mehmet Can


    This study proposes a new approach to the Instructional Design field. By the constructivism, education systems are moving from a massive structure to the more learner centered and more individualist structure. So far, ID field has adopted and digested the individualism notion partly. This paper proposes an individualistic approach to the…

  12. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.


    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  13. Teacher spatial skills are linked to differences in geometry instruction. (United States)

    Otumfuor, Beryl Ann; Carr, Martha


    Spatial skills have been linked to better performance in mathematics. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between teacher spatial skills and their instruction, including teacher content and pedagogical knowledge, use of pictorial representations, and use of gestures during geometry instruction. Fifty-six middle school teachers participated in the study. The teachers were administered spatial measures of mental rotations and spatial visualization. Next, a single geometry class was videotaped. Correlational analyses revealed that spatial skills significantly correlate with teacher's use of representational gestures and content and pedagogical knowledge during instruction of geometry. Spatial skills did not independently correlate with the use of pointing gestures or the use of pictorial representations. However, an interaction term between spatial skills and content and pedagogical knowledge did correlate significantly with the use of pictorial representations. Teacher experience as measured by the number of years of teaching and highest degree did not appear to affect the relationships among the variables with the exception of the relationship between spatial skills and teacher content and pedagogical knowledge. Teachers with better spatial skills are also likely to use representational gestures and to show better content and pedagogical knowledge during instruction. Spatial skills predict pictorial representation use only as a function of content and pedagogical knowledge. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Metacognitive instruction in middle school science (United States)

    Bonney, Dianna

    The purpose of this action research project was to determine the extent to which metacognitive instruction affected students' performance in the middle-grade science classroom. Conducted with four seventh grade science classes over a three-month time period, 105 students were engaged in 21 metacognitively enhanced lessons. Both quantitative and qualitative data sources were collected for this study and analyzed according to grounded theory methodology. Quantitative data came from the Jr. Metacognitive Awareness Inventory, administered as a pre-post test. Qualitative teacher-generated data was collected in a metacognitive observation protocol containing observations and reflections while student-generated data was gathered from reflective journal entries, modified rubrics, and checklists. Analysis of the data led to the assertions that metacognitive development occurred over time through systematic and varied implementation of explicit instruction. In addition, students perceived they learned best both when working collaboratively and when making multiple connections with content material. Implications for middle-grade teachers include the need for explicit instruction of metacognitive strategies, providing for instructional variation and student collaboration, and guiding students in making connections to prior learning.

  15. Using stereoscopy to teach complex biological concepts. (United States)

    Ferdig, Richard; Blank, James; Kratcoski, Annette; Clements, Robert


    Used effectively, stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) technologies can engage students with complex disciplinary content as they are presented with informative representations of abstract concepts. In addition, preliminary evidence suggests that stereoscopy may enhance learning and retention in some educational settings. Biological concepts particularly benefit from this type of presentation since complex spatially oriented structures frequently define function within these systems. Viewing biological phenomena in 3D as they are in real life allows the user to relate these spatial relationships and easily grasp concepts making the key connection between structure and function. In addition, viewing these concepts interactively in 3D and in a manner that leads to increased engagement for young prospective scientists can further increase the impact. We conducted two studies evaluating the use of this technology as an instructional tool to teach high school students complex biological concepts. The first study tested the use of stereoscopic materials for teaching brain function and human anatomy to four classes. The second study evaluated stereoscopic images to support the learning of cell structure and DNA in four different high school classes. Most important, students who used stereoscopic 3D had significantly higher test scores than those who did not. In addition, students reported enjoying 3D presentations, and it was among their top choices for learning about these complex concepts. In summary, our evidence adds further support for the benefits of 3D images to students' learning of science concepts. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  16. Intelligent Frameworks for Instructional Design. (United States)

    Spector, J. Michael; And Others


    Presents a taxonomy describing various uses of artificial intelligence techniques in automated instructional development systems. Instructional systems development is discussed in relation to the design of computer-based instructional courseware; two systems being developed at the Air Force Armstrong Laboratory are reviewed; and further research…

  17. Very Long Instruction Word Processors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing (EPIC) is an instruction processing paradigm that has been in the spot- light due to its adoption by the next generation of Intel. Processors starting with the IA-64. The EPIC processing paradigm is an evolution of the Very Long Instruction. Word (VLIW) paradigm. This article gives an ...

  18. Research-Based Instructional Strategies (United States)

    Hoover, Clara


    School library media specialists have four primary responsibilities: teacher, instructional partner, information specialist, and program administrator. As instructional partners, school library media specialists collaborate in designing instruction and learning activities that "reflect the best in current research and practice." Researchers at the…

  19. Motivational elements in user instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loorbach, N.R.


    Concerning the design of user instructions, two view can be distinguished. The traditional view considers instructions as purely instrumental documents. The more and more emerging affective view still assumes that above all, instructions should enable readers to perform tasks. But in order to

  20. Instructional Leadership Practices in Singapore (United States)

    Ng, Foo Seong David; Nguyen, Thanh Dong; Wong, Koon Siak Benjamin; Choy, Kim Weng William


    This paper presents a review of the literature on principal instructional leadership in Singapore. The authors investigated the dimensions of instructional leadership in the practices of Singapore principals and highlighted the strategies these leaders adopt to enact their instructional roles. Singapore principals were found to play an active role…

  1. Putting instruction sequences into effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.


    An attempt is made to define the concept of execution of an instruction sequence. It is found to be a special case of directly putting into effect of an instruction sequence. Directly putting into effect of an instruction sequences comprises interpretation as well as execution. Directly putting into

  2. Very Long Instruction Word Processors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    memory stage. The fetch stage fetches instructions from the cache. In this stage, current day processors (like the IA-64) also incorporate a branch prediction unit. The branch prediction unit predicts the direction of branch instructions and speculatively fetches instructions from the predicted path. This is necessary to keep the ...

  3. Biological radioprotector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ioan; Titescu, Gheorghe; Tamaian, Radu; Haulica, Ion; Bild, Walther


    According to the patent description, the biological radioprotector is deuterium depleted water, DDW, produced by vacuum distillation with an isotopic content lower than natural value. It appears as such or in a mixture with natural water and carbon dioxide. It can be used for preventing and reducing the ionizing radiation effects upon humans or animal organisms, exposed therapeutically, professionally or accidentally to radiation. The most significant advantage of using DDW as biological radioprotector results from its way of administration. Indeed no one of the radioprotectors currently used today can be orally administrated, what reduces the patients' compliance to prophylactic administrations. The biological radioprotector is an unnoxious product obtained from natural water, which can be administrated as food additive instead of drinking water. Dose modification factor is according to initial estimates around 1.9, what is a remarkable feature when one takes into account that the product is toxicity-free and side effect-free and can be administrated prophylactically as a food additive. A net radioprotective action of the deuterium depletion was evidenced experimentally in laboratory animals (rats) hydrated with DDW of 30 ppm D/(D+H) concentration as compared with normally hydrated control animals. Knowing the effects of irradiation and mechanisms of the acute radiation disease as well as the effects of administration of radiomimetic chemicals upon cellular lines of fast cell division, it appears that the effects of administrating DDW result from stimulation of the immunity system. In conclusion, the biological radioprotector DDW presents the following advantages: - it is obtained from natural products without toxicity; - it is easy to be administrated as a food additive, replacing the drinking water; - besides radioprotective effects, the product has also immunostimulative and antitumoral effects

  4. Interactive radio instruction: developing instructional methods. (United States)

    Friend, J


    The USAID has, since 1972, funded the development of a new methodology for educational radio for young children through 3 projects: the Radio Mathematics PRoject of Nicaragua, the Radio Language Arts Project of Kenya, and the Radio Science PRoject of Papua New Guinea. These projects developed math programs for grades 1-4 and English as a second language for grades 1-3; programs to teach science in grades 4-6 are now being developed. Appropriate techniques were developed to engage young children actively in the learning process. Lessons are planned as a "conversation" between the children and the radio; scripts are written as 1/2 of a dialogue, with pauses carefully timed so that written as 12 of a dialogue, with pauses carefully timed so that students can contribute their 1/2. Teaching techniques used in all 3 projects include choral responses, simultaneous individual seatwork, and activities using simple materials such as pebbles and rulers. Certain techniques were specific to the subject being taught, or to the circumstances in which the lessons were to be used. Patterned oral drill was used frequently in the English lessons, including sound-cued drills. "Deferred" oral responses were used often in the math lessons. In this method, the children are instructed to solve a problem silently, not giving the answer aloud until requested, thus allowing time for even the slower children to participate. "One-child" questions were used in both English and science: the radio asks a question to be answered by a single child, who is selected on the spot by the classroom teacher. This allows for open-ended questions, but also requires constant supervision of the classroom teacher. Songs and games were used in all programs, and extensively for didactic purposes in the teaching of English. Instructions for science activities are often more complex than in other courses, particularly when the children are using science apparatus, especially when they work in pairs to share scarce

  5. Providing Students with Foundational Field Instruction within a 50 Minute Class Period: A Practical Example (United States)

    Percy, M.


    There is a growing recognition among secondary educators and administrators that students need to have a science education that provides connections between familiar classes like biology, chemistry, and physics. Because of this waxing interest in an integrative approach to the sciences, there is a broader push for school districts to offer classes geared towards the earth sciences, a field that incorporates knowledge and skills gleaned from the three core science subjects. Within the contexts of a regular secondary school day on a traditional schedule (45- to 50-minute long classes), it is challenging to engage students in rigorous field-based learning, critical for students to develop a deeper understanding of geosciences content, without requiring extra time outside of the regular schedule. We suggest instruction using common, manmade features like drainage retention ponds to model good field practices and provide students with the opportunity to calculate basic hydrologic budgets, take pH readings, and, if in an area with seasonal rainfall, make observations regarding soils by way of trenching, and near-surface processes, including mass wasting and the effects of vegetation on geomorphology. Gains in student understanding are discussed by analyzing the difference in test scores between exams provided to the students after they had received only in-class instruction, and after they had received field instruction in addition to the in-class lectures. In an advanced setting, students made measurements regarding ion contents and pollution that allowed the classes to practice lab skills while developing a data set that was analyzed after field work was completed. It is posited that similar fieldwork could be an effective approach at an introductory level in post-secondary institutions.

  6. Influence of Content Knowledge on Pedagogical Content Knowledge: The Case of Teaching Photosynthesis and Plant Growth (United States)

    Kapyla, Markku; Heikkinen, Jussi-Pekka; Asunta, Tuula


    The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of the amount and quality of content knowledge on pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). The biological content photosynthesis and plant growth was used as an example. The research sample consisted of 10 primary and 10 secondary (biology) teacher students. Questionnaires, lesson preparation task…

  7. Safety instruction No. 36

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Secretariat


    Please note that a revised version of Safety Instruction No. 36 (IS 36), entitled "Safety rules for the use of static magnetic fields at CERN" is available on the Web at the following url: Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC unit secretariat (e-mail : SC Secretariat

  8. Instructional Methods Tool (United States)


    Clark (2006). Educational Psychologist , 42, 99-107. Hockey, G. R. J., Sauer, J., & Wastell, D. G. (2007). Adaptability of training in simulated...failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educational Psychologist , 41, 75-86. Kalaian, S. A...Kester, L. (2003). Taking the load off a learner’s mind: Instructional design for complex learning. Educational Psychologist , 38, 5-13. Vogler, K

  9. A case study of secondary teachers facilitating a historical problem-based learning instructional unit (United States)

    Pecore, John L.

    Current curriculum trends promote inquiry-based student-centered strategies as a way to foster critical thinking and learning. Problem-based learning (PBL), a type of inquiry focusing on an issue or "problem," is an instructional approach taught on the basis that science reform efforts increase scientific literacy. PBL is a constructivist approach to learning real life problems where understanding is a function of content, context, experiences, and learner goals; historical PBL situates the lesson in a historical context and provides opportunities for teaching NOS concepts. While much research exists on the benefits of historical PBL to student learning in general, more research is warranted on how teachers implement PBL in the secondary science curriculum. The purpose of this study was to examine the classroom-learning environment of four science teachers implementing a historical PBL instructional unit to identify the teachers' understandings, successes and obstacles. By identifying teachers' possible achievements and barriers with implementing a constructivist philosophy when executing historical PBL, educators and curriculum designers may improve alignment of the learning environment to constructivist principles. A qualitative interpretive case study guided this research study. The four participants of this study were purposefully and conveniently selected from biology teachers with at least three years of teaching experience, degrees in education, State Licensure, and completion of a PBL workshop. Data collection consisted of pre and post questionnaires, structured interviews, a card sort activity in which participants categorized instructional outcomes, and participant observations. Results indicated that the four teachers assimilated reform-based constructivist practices to fit within their preexisting routines and highlighted the importance of incorporating teachers' current systems into reform-based teacher instruction. While participating teachers

  10. Teaching Molecular Biology with Microcomputers. (United States)

    Reiss, Rebecca; Jameson, David


    Describes a series of computer programs that use simulation and gaming techniques to present the basic principles of the central dogma of molecular genetics, mutation, and the genetic code. A history of discoveries in molecular biology is presented and the evolution of these computer assisted instructional programs is described. (MBR)

  11. Towards Logical Designs In Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    This article highlights an emerging field known as syn- thetic biology that envisions integrating designed circuits into living organisms in order to instruct them to make logical decisions based on the prevailing intracellular and extracellular conditions and produce a reliable behavior. The attempt is to design cells capable of ...

  12. An Instructional and Collaborative Learning System with Content Recommendation (United States)

    Zheng, Xiang-wei; Ma, Hong-wei; Li, Yan


    With the rapid development of Internet, e-learning has become a new teaching and learning mode. However, lots of e-learning systems deployed on Internet are just electronic learning materials with very limited interactivity and diagnostic capability. This paper presents an integrated e-learning environment named iCLSR. Firstly, iCLSR provides an…

  13. Integrating Pragmatics Instruction in a Content-Based Classroom (United States)

    Krulatz, Anna


    The issue of teaching pragmatics in foreign and second language classrooms has received a lot of attention in the recent years. Its origins can be dated back to the Cross-Cultural Speech Act Realization Project (CCSRAP) led by Blum-Kulka, House and Kasper (1989) and the research on interlanguage speech acts that followed (for a comprehensive…

  14. Effective Multicultural Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin T. Thompson


    Full Text Available The reason why the Trayvon Martin murder trial and similar court cases create a philosophical rift in our nation is due in part to flaws in the delivery of multicultural education. Traditional multicultural instruction does not prepare citizens for the subtleties and complexities of race relations. This study investigates critical strategies and practices that address multicultural missing gaps. I also seek to fill a void in the literature created by a lack of student input regarding teaching strategies that encourage lifelong learning. Students (N = 337 enrolled at a Midwestern university were asked to rate the efficacy of selected instructional strategies. Utilizing a 9-point Likert-type scale, students gave themselves a personal growth rating of 7.15 (SD = 1.47. Variables important to predicting that growth (R2 = .56, p < .0005 were a six-factor variable known as a non-color-blind instructional approach (t = 10.509, p ≤ .0005, allowing students an opportunity to form their own opinions apart from the instructor (t = 4.797, p ≤ .0005, and a state law that mandated multicultural training (t = 3.234, p = .001. Results demonstrated that utilizing a 35% traditional and 65% critical pedagogy mixture when teaching multicultural education helped promote win/win scenarios for education candidates hoping to become difference makers.

  15. Content Marketing


    Le, Duc


    The purpose of this thesis was to introduce the new trend in today’s marketing world: content marketing. It has been employed by many companies and organizations in the world and has been proven success even when it is still a fairly new topic. Five carefully selected theories of content marketing proposed by experts in the field has been collected, compared and displayed as originally and scientifically as possible in this thesis. The chosen theories provide a diversified perspectives of...

  16. Teaching memorized spelling with a microcomputer: time delay and computer-assisted instruction.


    Stevens, K B; Blackhurst, A E; Slaton, D B


    A computer-assisted instruction program was evaluated that used a constant time-delay procedure to teach 5 students 18 spelling words. In addition to delivering the instructional procedure, the program managed the presentation of training content based on individual student responding and collected instructional data on individual student performance. The procedure was effective at teaching 4 of the 5 students the words, and generalization occurred from the computer-delivered keyboard respons...

  17. Bibliometry of Costa Rica biodiversity studies published in the Revista de Biología Tropical/International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation (2000-2010: the content and importance of a leading tropical biology journal in its 60th Anniversary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Nielsen-Muñoz


    Full Text Available Central America is recognized as a mega diverse “hot-spot” and one of its smaller countries, Costa Rica, as one of the world’s leaders in the study and conservation of tropical biodiversity. For this study, inspired by the 60th anniversary of the journal Revista de Biología Tropical, we tabulated all the scientific production on Costa Rican biodiversity published in Revista de Biología Tropical between 2000 and 2010. Most articles are zoological (62% and 67% of authors had only one publication in the jounal within that period. A 54% of articles were published in English and 46% in Spanish. A 41% of articles were written in collaboration among Costa Rican institutions and 36% in collaboration with foreign institutions. The Collaboration Index was 2.53 signatures per article. Visibility in American sources was 56% in Google Scholar and 42.66% in the Web of Science, but the real visibility and impact are unknown because these sources exclude the majority of tropical journals. Revista de Biología Tropical is the main output channel for Costa Rican biology and despite its small size, Costa Rica occupies the 10th. place in productivity among Latin American countries, with productivity and impact levels that compare favorably with larger countries such as Brazil, Mexico, Argentina and Chile.

  18. Bibliometry of Costa Rica biodiversity studies published in the Revista de Biología Tropical/International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation (2000-2010): the content and importance of a leading tropical biology journal in its 60th anniversary. (United States)

    Nielsen-Muñoz, Vanessa; Azofeifa-Mora, Ana Beatriz; Monge-Nájera, Julián


    Central America is recognized as a mega diverse "hot-spot" and one of its smaller countries, Costa Rica, as one of the world's leaders in the study and conservation of tropical biodiversity. For this study, inspired by the 60th anniversary of the journal Revista de Biología Tropical, we tabulated all the scientific production on Costa Rican biodiversity published in Revista de Biología Tropical between 2000 and 2010. Most articles are zoological (62%) and 67% of authors had only one publication in the jounal within that period. A 54% of articles were published in English and 46% in Spanish. A 41% of articles were written in collaboration among Costa Rican institutions and 36% in collaboration with foreign institutions. The Collaboration Index was 2.53 signatures per article. Visibility in American sources was 56% in Google Scholar and 42.66% in the Web of Science, but the real visibility and impact are unknown because these sources exclude the majority of tropical journals. Revista de Biología Tropical is the main output channel for Costa Rican biology and despite its small size, Costa Rica occupies the 10th. place in productivity among Latin American countries, with productivity and impact levels that compare favorably with larger countries such as Brazil, Mexico, Argentina and Chile.

  19. Effect of Self-generated Concept-Mapping Instructional Strategy on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a report of the outcome of a study that was carried out in Manicaland, Mashonaland and Matebeleland provinces in Zimbabwe, to assess the impact of self-generated Concept-mapping instructional strategies on the achievement of senior secondary school students in Biology instruction. The research design ...

  20. Instructional Model of Natural Science in Junior High Schools, Batu-Malang (United States)

    Pantiwati, Yuni; Wahyuni, Sri; Permana, Fendy Hardian


    The instruction of Natural Science subject in junior high schools, as regulated by 2013 Curriculum, is to be taught in an integrated way, combining Biology, Physics, and Chemistry subjects. The assessment of which is called authentic assessment. This current study described the instructional system especially the assessment system of Natural…

  1. Science Instruction for Students with Visual Impairments. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Kumar, David D.; Ramasamy, Rangasamy; Stefanich, Greg P.

    This digest presents instructional strategies to accommodate visually impaired students in science classrooms and provides classroom examples for physical science, chemistry, and biology courses. The article concludes that prospective science teachers must become skilled in using resource materials and adaptive technologies that facilitate the…

  2. An investigation of mathematics and science instruction in English and Spanish for English language learners (United States)

    Rodriguez-Esquivel, Marina

    The contextual demands of language in content area are difficult for ELLS. Content in the native language furthers students' academic development and native language skills, while they are learning English. Content in English integrates pedagogical strategies for English acquisition with subject area instruction. The following models of curriculum content are provided in most Miami Dade County Public Schools: (a) mathematics instruction in the native language with science instruction in English or (b) science instruction in the native language with mathematics instruction in English. The purpose of this study was to investigate which model of instruction is more contextually supportive for mathematics and science achievement. A pretest and posttest, nonequivalent group design was used with 94 fifth grade ELLs who received instruction in curriculum model (a) or (b). This allowed for statistical analysis that detected a difference in the means of .5 standard deviations with a power of .80 at the .05 level of significance. Pretreatment and post-treatment assessments of mathematics, reading, and science achievement were obtained through the administration of Aprenda-Segunda Edicion and the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test. The results indicated that students receiving mathematics in English and Science in Spanish scored higher on achievement tests in both Mathematics and Science than the students who received Mathematics in Spanish and Science in English. In addition, the mean score of students on the FCAT mathematics examination was higher than their mean score on the FCAT science examination regardless of the language of instruction.

  3. Examining the Anatomy of a Screencast: Uncovering Common Elements and Instructional Strategies (United States)

    Sugar, William; Brown, Abbie; Luterbach, Kenneth


    The researchers engaged in cooperative inquiry in order to explore screencasts as online instructional tools. In total, each researcher analyzed 37 screencasts, which provided over two hours of instruction. The content area of these screencasts concentrated on teaching specific computing procedures (e.g., how to install web server software or how…

  4. Shifting Attention Back to Students within the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (United States)

    Daniel, Shannon M.; Conlin, Luke


    The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) is increasingly used as an instructional framework to help elementary and secondary teachers support English language learners (ELLs). This useful tool has helped teachers gain the knowledge, skills, and dispositions they need to support ELLs learn subject-area content and skills while learning…




  6. Maryland Middle School Teachers' Perceptions of Instructional Time Allotted to Social Studies (United States)

    Eaton, James W., Jr.


    As part of the 2001 No Child Left Behind federal statute, U.S. lawmakers reduced the amount of time that teachers could spend on social studies instruction in favor of devoting more instructional time to other core content areas. The Middle Years Program (MYP) is present in many local middle schools in Maryland, where MYP teachers spend equal…

  7. Using Web-based Bookmarks in K-8 Settings: Linking the Internet to Instruction (United States)

    Forbes, Leighann S.


    This article (a) explains why teachers should use the Internet as a component of instruction, (b) identifies difficulties that at-risk learners have using Internet resources, and (c) recommends use of Web-based bookmarks as a strategy for linking Internet content to instruction. Through concrete examples, it describes how Web-based bookmarks can…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin YEE

    Full Text Available Introduced in July, 2011 in a beta test of invited users only, the new social media service Google+ (or G+ quickly spread by word of mouth, and Google leader Larry Page (2011 blogged that within sixteen days it had 10 million users. By August, it had 25 million users (Cashmore, 2011. Even with slower growth ahead (still with no marketing budget, the service looks likely to crest 100 million users perhaps as early as ten months, a feat that took Facebook three years. Other social networks, most notably Facebook and Twitter, have been used increasingly as instructional tools, since they are platforms with which students are already familiar (Maloney, 2007; McLoughlin & Lee, 2007. Selwyn (2009 found that students often eschew official channels for communication in favor of less formal community-based formats such as Facebook, implying a growing need for instructional communication tools that will be used willingly by students. The question is whether Google+ can be used like Twitter or Facebook to augment instruction, or even, perhaps, to improve upon those predecessors for academic purposes. Google+ is like Twitter in that anyone can follow a given user’s posts. There is no direct “friend” relationship required to read the posts written by others. However, it also approximates some features of Facebook. Rather than friends sorted into “lists” like in Facebook, Google+ allows users to place feeds into one or more “circles,” the better to monitor (or control the flow of information to and from different audiences. Circles are more intuitive, and more central to the experience, than the Facebook lists. They provide an explicit organizational structure, compared to the less-obvious listing functionality, which feels like an afterthought, found in Facebook.

  9. EST Vocabulary Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia D.S. Bell


    Full Text Available This study aims at contributing to the investigation on the instruction of EST (English for Science and Technology vocabulary, in terms of receptive use of the language. It evaluates the effectiveness of two teaching approaches to the acquisition of vocabulary. The first approach consisted of teaching vocabulary through the use of dictionaries, where the words were merely translated into the learners’ L1 or defined in the target language thus promoting superficial level of word processing. The second approach employed activities promoting deep level of word processing. Data were analysed quantitatively. Results indicated that the two approaches seem to have some equipotentiality, as far as EST vocabulary is concerned.

  10. contents TIB

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    St. Louis: Mosby Year Book,. 1995: 668. 8. Pedrosa I, Saiz A, Azzarzalo J, Ferreiros J, Pedrosa. CS. Hydatid disease: radiological and pathologic features and complications. Radiographics 2000;. 20: 795-817. 9. Lewall DB. Hydatid disease: biology, pathology, imaging and classification. Clin Radiol 1998; 53: 863-874. 10.

  11. Bibliometry of Costa Rica biodiversity studies published in the Revista de Biología Tropical/International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation (2000-2010: the content and importance of a leading tropical biology journal in its 60th Anniversary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Nielsen-Muñoz


    Full Text Available Central America is recognized as a mega diverse “hot-spot” and one of its smaller countries, Costa Rica, as one of the world’s leaders in the study and conservation of tropical biodiversity. For this study, inspired by the 60th anniversary of the journal Revista de Biología Tropical, we tabulated all the scientific production on Costa Rican biodiversity published in Revista de Biología Tropical between 2000 and 2010. Most articles are zoological (62% and 67% of authors had only one publication in the jounal within that period. A 54% of articles were published in English and 46% in Spanish. A 41% of articles were written in collaboration among Costa Rican institutions and 36% in collaboration with foreign institutions. The Collaboration Index was 2.53 signatures per article. Visibility in American sources was 56% in Google Scholar and 42.66% in the Web of Science, but the real visibility and impact are unknown because these sources exclude the majority of tropical journals. Revista de Biología Tropical is the main output channel for Costa Rican biology and despite its small size, Costa Rica occupies the 10th. place in productivity among Latin American countries, with productivity and impact levels that compare favorably with larger countries such as Brazil, Mexico, Argentina and Chile.América Central es reconocida como región mega- diversa y uno de sus países más pequeños, Costa Rica, se encuentra entre los líderes mundiales en el estudio y conservación de la biodiversidad tropical. Este estudio, inspirado por el 60 aniversario de la Revista de Biología Tropical, actualiza nuestro conocimiento bibliométrico sobre la materia. Hicimos un listado de toda la producción científica sobre la biodiversidad de Costa Rica en la Revista entre 2000 y 2010. La mayoría de los artículos son zoológicos (62% y el 67% de los autores sólo tuvo una publicación en la revista durante ese periodo. Un 54% de los artículos fueron publicados en

  12. Collaborative Instruction over Interactive Television: The Agony and the Ecstasy. (United States)

    Artesani, James; Smith, Valerie; Goessling, Deborah


    Examines the use of collaborative instruction and its effectiveness for delivering two courses in special education to rural graduate students over interactive television. Emphasizes three innovative practices: collaborative planning and coteaching; combining two courses with similar content into one timeslot; and incorporating on-campus meetings…

  13. The Association of State Policy Attributes with Teachers' Instructional Alignment (United States)

    Polikoff, Morgan S.


    States vary greatly in their implementation of standards-based accountability under No Child Left Behind, yet little evidence is available to guide policymakers on what attributes of state policy advance more tightly aligned instruction. This study uses survey data and content analyses from the Surveys of Enacted Curriculum to describe elements of…

  14. A Waterfall Design Strategy for Using Social Media for Instruction (United States)

    Ahern, Terence C.


    Using social media can create a rich learning environment that crosses all content areas. The key to creating this environment is for instructors and designers to match appropriate social media software with the intended learning outcome. This article describes an instructional design strategy that helps educators create learning activities that…

  15. A Systematic Review of English Medium Instruction in Higher Education (United States)

    Macaro, Ernesto; Curle, Samantha; Pun, Jack; An, Jiangshan; Dearden, Julie


    After outlining why a systematic review of research in English medium instruction (EMI) in higher education (HE) is urgently required, we briefly situate the rapidly growing EMI phenomenon in the broader field of research in which content and language have been considered and compare HE research outputs with those from other phases of education.…

  16. The Web as a Delivery Medium To Enhance Instruction. (United States)

    Gillani, Bijan


    Discusses how to design and develop an effective Web site to enhance instruction based on a graduate course at California State University at Hayward. Topics include the analysis phase, content organization, site architecture, interface design, testing, and the evaluation process. (LRW)

  17. The Personalized System of Instruction in Fitness Education (United States)

    Colquitt, Gavin; Pritchard, Tony; McCollum, Starla


    Fitness education is an important component in the promotion of health-enhancing behaviors that lead to physically active lifestyles. However, using a teacher-centered approach to teach fitness may be boring and may limit the application of the content to the individual student. The personalized system of instruction (PSI) is an instructional…

  18. Student-Generated Instructional Videos Facilitate Learning through Positive Emotions (United States)

    Pirhonen, Juhani; Rasi, Päivi


    The central focus of this study is a learning method in which university students produce instructional videos about the content matter as part of their learning process, combined with other learning assignments. The rationale for this is to promote a more multimodal pedagogy, and to provide students opportunities for a more learner-centred,…

  19. An Interactive Multimedia Based Instruction in Experimental Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten; Nielsen, J.N.; Østergaard, J.


    A CD-ROM based interactive multimedia instruction in experimental modelling for Danish Engineering School teachers is described. The content is based on a new sensitivity approach for direct estimation of physical parameters in linear and nonlinear dynamic systems. The presentation is inspired...

  20. Teacher Training: Music Methods for an Internationalized Approach to Instruction (United States)

    VanAlstine, Sharri


    How can music teachers and students connect with music and cultures in an honest and meaningful manner? Can music instruction increase intercultural skills and international-mindedness? If these initiatives are important, pre-service teachers need to know how to address these issues in their classroom content and pedagogy. In an effort to assist…

  1. Twentieth Century Art and Architecture: Instructional Guide and Resource. (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    The curriculum guide is designed to help high school art teachers develop a course of instruction to enhance student understanding and knowledge of 20th century art and architecture. A major objective of the course is to develop student ability to recognize, compare, and analyze style, form, and expressive content as a means of achieving greater…

  2. English medium of instruction: A situation analysis | Uys | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majority of learners in southern Africa receive their education through the medium of a second language, English. Although teachers of English play a crucial role in helping learners to acquire language skills in the medium of instruction, we argue that subject content teachers' lack of attention to the teaching of the four ...

  3. OER Use in Intermediate Language Instruction: A Case Study (United States)

    Godwin-Jones, Robert


    This paper reports on a case study in the experimental use of Open Educational Resources (OERs) in intermediate level language instruction. The resources come from three sources: the instructor, the students, and open content repositories. The objective of this action research project was to provide student-centered learning materials, enhance…

  4. The Effectiveness of Schoolyards as Sites for Elementary Science Instruction. (United States)

    Cronin-Jones, Linda L.


    Compares impacts of traditional classroom and outdoor schoolyard instruction on the environmental science content knowledge and attitudes of 285 third- and fourth-grade students. Indicates that elementary students learned significantly more about selected environmental science topics through outdoor schoolyard experiences than through traditional…

  5. Effects of Problem Based Economics on High School Economics Instruction (United States)

    Finkelstein, Neal; Hanson, Thomas


    The primary purpose of this study is to assess student-level impacts of a problem-based instructional approach to high school economics. The curriculum approach examined here was designed to increase class participation and content knowledge for high school students who are learning economics. This study tests the effectiveness of Problem Based…

  6. Integrating Mathematics, Science, and Language Arts Instruction Using the World Wide Web. (United States)

    Clark, Kenneth; Hosticka, Alice; Kent, Judi; Browne, Ron


    Addresses issues of access to World Wide Web sites, mathematics and science content-resources available on the Web, and methods for integrating mathematics, science, and language arts instruction. (Author/ASK)

  7. Local Content

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy


    Full Text Available , 1997; Qiu & Tao, 2001; Corkin, 2012; Warner, 2011; Stephenson, 2013). Local content is also seen a way of improving national sustainability performance and developing greener buildings (Olivier et al, 2016; van Reneen, 2014; Gibberd, 2002). As a result...

  8. Analysis of the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol Model on Academic Performance of English Language Learners (United States)

    Ingram, Sandra W.

    This quantitative comparative descriptive study involved analyzing archival data from end-of-course (EOC) test scores in biology of English language learners (ELLs) taught or not taught using the sheltered instruction observation protocol (SIOP) model. The study includes descriptions and explanations of the benefits of the SIOP model to ELLs, especially in content area subjects such as biology. Researchers have shown that ELLs in high school lag behind their peers in academic achievement in content area subjects. Much of the research on the SIOP model took place in elementary and middle school, and more research was necessary at the high school level. This study involved analyzing student records from archival data to describe and explain if the SIOP model had an effect on the EOC test scores of ELLs taught or not taught using it. The sample consisted of 527 Hispanic students (283 females and 244 males) from Grades 9-12. An independent sample t-test determined if a significant difference existed in the mean EOC test scores of ELLs taught using the SIOP model as opposed to ELLs not taught using the SIOP model. The results indicated that a significant difference existed between EOC test scores of ELLs taught using the SIOP model and ELLs not taught using the SIOP model (p = .02). A regression analysis indicated a significant difference existed in the academic performance of ELLs taught using the SIOP model in high school science, controlling for free and reduced-price lunch (p = .001) in predicting passing scores on the EOC test in biology at the school level. The data analyzed for free and reduced-price lunch together with SIOP data indicated that both together were not significant (p = .175) for predicting passing scores on the EOC test in high school biology. Future researchers should repeat the study with student-level data as opposed to school-level data, and data should span at least three years.

  9. The Instructional Network: Using Facebook to Enhance Undergraduate Mathematics Instruction (United States)

    Gregory, Peter; Gregory, Karen; Eddy, Erik


    Facebook is a website with over one billion users worldwide that is synonymous with social-networking. However, in this study, Facebook is used as an "instructional network". Two sections of an undergraduate calculus course were used to study the effects of participating in a Facebook group devoted solely to instruction. One section was…

  10. Direct Instruction Revisited: A Key Model for Instructional Technology (United States)

    Magliaro, Susan G.; Lockee, Barbara B.; Burton, John K.


    Rooted in behavioral theory, particularly the radical or selectivist behaviorism of B.F. Skinner (1953, 1954, 1966, 1968, 1974), the direct instruction (DI) approach to teaching is now well into its third decade of influencing curriculum, instruction, and research. It is also in its third decade of controversy. Our purpose is to present the DI…

  11. Evaluation of Instructional Design Capabilities of Asynchronous and Synchronous Instruction (United States)

    Garrett, Kristi N.; Benson, Angela D.


    From a quantitative perspective, this study examined the instructional design knowledge of higher education instructors and others within the instructional design/technology arena who are members of a global educational based Internet forum. Results showed significant difference in opinions between genders, where males were more inclined to…

  12. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom (United States)

    Gordon, Dan


    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  13. English Institute Content-Based Program Manual. (United States)

    Canada Coll., Redwood City, CA.

    Instructional materials designed for the content-based English as a Second Language program at Canada College's English Institute (EI) are presented in this manual. First, an introduction provides background information on the college, its student body, and the program. Drawing on relevant second language theory, this section offers a definition…

  14. Content-Focused Coaching: Five Key Practices (United States)

    Gibbons, Lynsey K.; Cobb, Paul


    Many districts are using content-focused coaching as a strategy to provide job-embedded support to teachers. However, the current coaching literature provides little guidance on what coaches need to know and be able to do to engage teachers in activities that will support their development of ambitious instructional practices. Furthermore, little…

  15. Survey of handwriting instruction practices of elementary teachers and educational programs: implications for occupational therapy. (United States)

    Donica, Denise K; Larson, Michelle H; Zinn, Abbey A


    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to investigate perceptions of elementary school teachers on training in handwriting instruction received during their education, as well as their current classroom practices. The quantity and quality of training in handwriting instruction provided by baccalaureate degree-granting teacher education programs in North Carolina was also examined. An online survey was administered to each population identified to inquire about handwriting instruction practices. Results from 505 teachers and 16 professors indicated that while handwriting instruction content is valued by both teachers and professors, varied levels of training were provided to the teachers. Implications for occupational therapy practice are discussed including strategies for school-based therapists.

  16. An overview and guide: planning instructional radio. (United States)

    Imhoof, M


    Successful instructional radio projects require both comprehensive and complex planning. The instructional radio planning team needs to have knowledge and capabilities in several technical, social, and educational areas. Among other skills, the team must understand radio, curriculum design, the subject matter being taught, research and evaluation, and the environment in which the project operates. Once a basic approach to educational planning has been selected and broad educational goals set, radio may be selected as a cost effective means of achieving some of the goals. Assuming radio is a wise choice, there are still several factors which must be analyzed by a team member who is a radio specialist. The most obvious consideration is the inventory and evaluation of the facilities: studios; broadcast, recording, and transmission equipment; classroom radios; and so on. Capabilities of broadcast personnel are another consideration. Initial radio lessons need to teach the learners how to listen to the radio if they have no previous experience with institutional radio broadcasts. A captive, inschool audience ready to listen to radio instructions requires a different use of the medium than a noncaptive audience. With the noncaptive audience, the educational broadcaster must compete with entertaining choices from other media and popular activities and pastimes of the community. The most complex knowledge and analysis required in planning instructional radio concerns the relationship of the content to the medium. Environmental factors are important in planning educational programs. The physical environment may present several constraints on the learning experience and the use of radio. The most obvious is the effect of climate and terrain on the quality of radio reception. The physical environment is easily studied through experience in the target area, but this knowledge plays a significant role in designing effective learning materials for specific learners. Social

  17. Internet-based instruction in college teaching (United States)

    Flickinger, Kathleen Anne

    Distance education and Internet instruction are increasingly being used in college science teaching. In an effort to reach more students, Iowa State University's Human Anatomy and Physiology course was offered via Internet as well as via traditional lecture format. To assess the educational ramifications of this offering, three studies were conducted. In the first study, a collective case study approach was utilized to describe the learning environment created by an Internet-based college science course. In this study, three students were followed as they worked their way through the course. Collective case study methodologies were used to provide a rich description of the learning environment experienced by these students. Motivation, computer savvy, and academic and personal self-confidence appeared to impact the satisfaction level of the students enrolled in the class. To evaluate the effectiveness of the learning environment offered through the Internet-based science course, a quantitative comparison study was undertaken. In this study a comparison of achievement scores and study habits between students enrolled in the Internet-based class and those enrolled in the traditional section was made. Results from this study indicated that content understanding and retention did not appear to be effected by the type of instruction. Desirable study habits were reportedly used more frequently in the Internet section of the class than in the traditional class. To complete the description of the Internet course experience, a qualitative examination of Internet instructors' time commitment and level of teaching satisfaction was conducted. Data for this study consisted of interviews and researcher observations. Instructor time-on-task was initially quite high, and remained above the average spent on average face-to-face instruction in subsequent semesters. Additionally the role of the faculty member changed dramatically, causing some lessening of job satisfaction. Taken as

  18. Moving Toward SCORM Compliant Content Production at Educational Software Company: Technical and Administrative Challenges (United States)

    Kultur, Can; Oytun, Erden; Cagiltay, Kursat; Ozden, M. Yasar; Kucuk, Mehmet Emin


    The Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) aims to standardize electronic course content, its packaging and delivery. Instructional designers and e-learning material producer organizations accept SCORM?s significant impact on instructional design/delivery process, however not much known about how such standards will be implemented to…

  19. A Study of Two Instructional Sequences Informed by Alternative Learning Progressions in Genetics (United States)

    Duncan, Ravit Golan; Choi, Jinnie; Castro-Faix, Moraima; Cavera, Veronica L.


    Learning progressions (LPs) are hypothetical models of how learning in a domain develops over time with appropriate instruction. In the domain of genetics, there are two independently developed alternative LPs. The main difference between the two progressions hinges on their assumptions regarding the accessibility of classical (Mendelian) versus molecular genetics and the order in which they should be taught. In order to determine the relative difficulty of the different genetic ideas included in the two progressions, and to test which one is a better fit with students' actual learning, we developed two modules in classical and molecular genetics and alternated their sequence in an implementation study with 11th grade students studying biology. We developed a set of 56 ordered multiple-choice items that collectively assessed both molecular and classical genetic ideas. We found significant gains in students' learning in both molecular and classical genetics, with the largest gain relating to understanding the informational content of genes and the smallest gain in understanding modes of inheritance. Using multidimensional item response modeling, we found no statistically significant differences between the two instructional sequences. However, there was a trend of slightly higher gains for the molecular-first sequence for all genetic ideas.

  20. Cognitive Approaches to Automated Instruction. (United States)

    Regian, J. Wesley, Ed.; Shute, Valerie J., Ed.

    This book contains a snapshot of state-of-the-art research on the design of automated instructional systems. Selected cognitive psychologists were asked to describe their approach to instruction and cognitive diagnosis, the theoretical basis of the approach, its utility and applicability, and the knowledge engineering or task analysis methods…

  1. Methods of Writing Instruction Evaluation. (United States)

    Lamb, Bill H.

    The Writing Program Director at Johnson County Community College (Kansas) developed quantitative measures for writing instruction evaluation which can support that institution's growing interest in and support for peer collaboration as a means to improving instructional quality. The first process (Interaction Analysis) has an observer measure…

  2. Instructional Time Trends. Education Trends (United States)

    Woods, Julie Rowland


    For more than 30 years, Education Commission of the States has tracked instructional time and frequently receives requests for information about policies and trends. In this Education Trends report, Education Commission of the States addresses some of the more frequent questions, including the impact of instructional time on achievement, variation…

  3. Professional Cosmetology Practices. Instructional Units. (United States)

    Hopcus, Sharron; Armstrong, Ivan J.

    This publication is designed to assist the instructor and students in understanding the latest concepts and techniques of the instructional phase of cosmetology programs. The instructional units are in five areas: (1) orientation, (2) professional practices: hair, (3) professional practices: skin and nails, (4) cosmetology science, and (5)…

  4. Instructional Model for Concept Acquisition. (United States)

    Tennyson, Robert D.

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of applying research variables for concept acquisition into a generalized instructional model for teaching concepts. This paper does not present the methodology for the decision/selection stages in designing the actual instruction task, but offers references to other sources which give…

  5. Adaptive instruction and pupil achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtveen, A.A M; Booy, N; de Jong, Robert (Rob); van de Grift, W.J C M

    In this article the results are reported of a quasi-experiment on effects of adaptive instruction on reading results of children in the first year of reading instruction in Dutch primary schools. The research involved 456 pupils from 23 schools (12 experimental and 11 control group schools).

  6. Instructional Theory for Teaching Statistics. (United States)

    Atwood, Jan R.; Dinham, Sarah M.

    Metatheoretical analysis of Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Verbal Learning and Gagne's Theory of Instruction using the Dickoff and James paradigm produced two instructional systems for basic statistics. The systems were tested with a pretest-posttest control group design utilizing students enrolled in an introductory-level graduate statistics…

  7. The Effect of Using Three Types of Instructional Media on Comprehension and Motivation of Korean College Students in an Online Course (United States)

    Heo, JeongChul


    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of three types of instructional media to deliver online lectures for motivation and content-related comprehension in the online course of Health Counseling Psychology. This study examined whether one instructional media (e.g., video-based instruction) was better than another (e.g.,…

  8. Unaligned instruction relocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolli, Carlo; O' Brien, John K.; Sallenave, Olivier H.; Sura, Zehra N.


    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes receiving source code to be compiled into an executable file for an unaligned instruction set architecture (ISA). Aligned assembled code is generated, by a computer processor. The aligned assembled code complies with an aligned ISA and includes aligned processor code for a processor and aligned accelerator code for an accelerator. A first linking pass is performed on the aligned assembled code, including relocating a first relocation target in the aligned accelerator code that refers to a first object outside the aligned accelerator code. Unaligned assembled code is generated in accordance with the unaligned ISA and includes unaligned accelerator code for the accelerator and unaligned processor code for the processor. A second linking pass is performed on the unaligned assembled code, including relocating a second relocation target outside the unaligned accelerator code that refers to an object in the unaligned accelerator code.

  9. Unaligned instruction relocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolli, Carlo; O' Brien, John K.; Sallenave, Olivier H.; Sura, Zehra N.


    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes receiving source code to be compiled into an executable file for an unaligned instruction set architecture (ISA). Aligned assembled code is generated, by a computer processor. The aligned assembled code complies with an aligned ISA and includes aligned processor code for a processor and aligned accelerator code for an accelerator. A first linking pass is performed on the aligned assembled code, including relocating a first relocation target in the aligned accelerator code that refers to a first object outside the aligned accelerator code. Unaligned assembled code is generated in accordance with the unaligned ISA and includes unaligned accelerator code for the accelerator and unaligned processor code for the processor. A second linking pass is performed on the unaligned assembled code, including relocating a second relocation target outside the unaligned accelerator code that refers to an object in the unaligned accelerator code.

  10. Epilogue: Reading Comprehension Is Not a Single Ability-Implications for Assessment and Instruction. (United States)

    Kamhi, Alan G; Catts, Hugh W


    In this epilogue, we review the 4 response articles and highlight the implications of a multidimensional view of reading for the assessment and instruction of reading comprehension. We reiterate the problems with standardized tests of reading comprehension and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of recently developed authentic tests of reading comprehension. In the "Instruction" section, we review the benefits and limitations of strategy instruction and highlight suggestions from the response articles to improve content and language knowledge. We argue that the only compelling reason to administer a standardized test of reading comprehension is when these tests are necessary to qualify students for special education services. Instruction should be focused on content knowledge, language knowledge, and specific task and learning requirements. This instruction may entail the use of comprehension strategies, particularly those that are specific to the task and focus on integrating new knowledge with prior knowledge.

  11. Flute Teachers’ One-to-One Instructional Strategies at Individual Teaching Stages in Music School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kavčič Pucihar


    Full Text Available This article focuses on one-to-one studio based instrumental instruction in music schools. Some novelties in the music school woodwind curricula are presented within various contexts. Teacher – student relationship, their interactions, and knowledge transfer are essential in individual instrumental instruction. The learning process is systematically structured within six teaching stages, ranging from new content presentation to learning reviews. We examined music school flute teachers’ beliefs (N=78 about teaching stages in individual studio based instruction. We researched their new content teaching strategies, guided practice and reinforcement, feedback, homework monitoring strategies, formative review and assessment within music studio academic year.

  12. Teaching Evolution: Narratives with a View from Three Southern Biology Teachers in the USA (United States)

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Kyzer, Peggy


    This case study explored sociocultural forces that influenced three 10th grade public high school biology teachers' instructional goals, instructional acts, and identity narratives related to the teaching of evolution. Primary data included field observations of classroom instruction and teacher interviews. Secondary data included informal…

  13. Unpacking Corrections in Mobile Instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Lena; Cromdal, Jakob; Broth, Mathias


    This article deals with the organisation of correction in mobile instructional settings. Five sets of video data (>250 h) documenting how learners were instructed to fly aeroplanes, drive cars and ride bicycles in real life traffic were examined to reveal some common features of correction exchan...... and mobility, as well as to ongoing work in ethnomethodology and conversation analysis on teaching and learning as members’ phenomena.......This article deals with the organisation of correction in mobile instructional settings. Five sets of video data (>250 h) documenting how learners were instructed to fly aeroplanes, drive cars and ride bicycles in real life traffic were examined to reveal some common features of correction...... that the practice of unpacking the local particulars of corrections (i) provides for the instructional character of the interaction, and (ii) is highly sensitive to the relevant physical and mobile contingencies. These findings contribute to the existing literature on the interactional organisation of correction...

  14. Providing instructional support for AAC service delivery in low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries. (United States)

    Muttiah, Nimisha A; McNaughton, David; Drager, Kathryn D R


    The majority of individuals with disabilities live in low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries; typically these individuals receive limited, if any, communication rehabilitation services. The present study investigated the experiences of eight augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) professionals who had provided instructional support for AAC service delivery in LAMI countries. An online focus group was used to explore the training experiences of eight AAC professionals. A thematic analysis of the focus group discussion resulted in four major recommendations when providing training for AAC service delivery in LAMI countries: (a) investigate learner needs, (b) provide contextually relevant instructional content, (c) use engaging instructional activities and (d) assess the impacts of instructional activities. The instructional recommendations of the focus group participants are discussed within a theoretical framework of recommended best practices in supporting adult learning. The information shared by the focus group participants will benefit others providing instructional support for AAC service delivery in LAMI countries.

  15. Systems Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Systems biology seeks to study biological systems as a whole, contrary to the reductionist approach that has dominated biology. Such a view of biological systems emanating from strong foundations of molecular level understanding of the individual components in terms of their form, function and interactions is promising to ...

  16. Teaching High School Biology Students to Coordinate Text and Diagrams: Relations with Transfer, Effort, and Spatial Skill (United States)

    Bergey, Bradley W.; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Newcombe, Nora S.


    There is growing evidence that targeted instruction can improve diagram comprehension, yet one of the skills identified in the diagram comprehension literature-coordinating multiple representations-has rarely been directly taught to students and tested as a classroom intervention. We created a Coordinating Multiple Representation (CMR) intervention that was an addition to an intervention focused on Conventions of Diagrams (COD) and tested their joint effects on diagram comprehension for near transfer (uninstructed biology diagrams), far transfer (uninstructed geology diagrams), and content learning (biology knowledge). The comparison group received instruction using a previously validated intervention that focused exclusively on COD. Participants were 9th-10th grade biology students (N = 158 from two schools), whose classes were randomly assigned to COD alone or COD + CMR conditions and studied with a pretest-posttest experimental design. Both groups showed significant growth in biology knowledge (d = .30-.53, for COD and COD + CMR, respectively) and biology diagram comprehension (d = .28-.57). Neither group showed far transfer. Analyses of student work products during the interventions suggest that gains were not simply due to the passage of time, because student effort was correlated with gains in both treatment groups. Directions for improving future CMR interventions are discussed.

  17. ARS-Media for excel instruction manual (United States)

    ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is the instruction manual that explains how to use the Excel spreadsheet ARS-Media for Excel application. ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is provided as a pdf file....

  18. Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Bedinelli Rossi


    Full Text Available This study introduces the various definitions and types of content analysis. This type of analysis historically presents itself as a quantitative approach to data analysis and currently shows up as a qualitative approach. The most common types are the conceptual and relational analysis. The latter receives influences of linguistic, cognitive and mental models and it is subdivided in affective extraction, analysis of proximity and cognitive mapping. Regarding the importance of this type of analysis, we have quantitative and qualitative character and the latter approach can be used to identify hypotheses, theoretical constructs or even models that can be tested by multivariate statistical techniques or even by experiments. 

  19. Development and validation of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) based instructional material (United States)

    Gustiani, Ineu; Widodo, Ari; Suwarma, Irma Rahma


    This study is intended to examine the development and validation of simple machines instructional material that developed based on Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) framework that provides guidance to help students learn and practice for real life and enable individuals to use knowledge and skills they need to be an informed citizen. Sample of this study consist of one class of 8th grader at a junior secondary school in Bandung, Indonesia. To measure student learning, a pre-test and post-test were given before and after implementation of the STEM based instructional material. In addition, a questionnaire of readability was given to examine the clarity and difficulty level of each page of instructional material. A questionnaire of students' response towards instructional material given to students and teachers at the end of instructional material reading session to measure layout aspects, content aspects and utility aspects of instructional material for being used in the junior secondary school classroom setting. The results show that readability aspect and students' response towards STEM based instructional material of STEM based instructional material is categorized as very high. Pretest and posttest responses revealed that students retained significant amounts information upon completion of the STEM instructional material. Student overall learning gain is 0.67 which is categorized as moderate. In summary, STEM based instructional material that was developed is valid enough to be used as educational materials necessary for conducting effective STEM education.

  20. Toward University Modeling Instruction—Biology: Adapting Curricular Frameworks from Physics to Biology (United States)

    Manthey, Seth; Brewe, Eric


    University Modeling Instruction (UMI) is an approach to curriculum and pedagogy that focuses instruction on engaging students in building, validating, and deploying scientific models. Modeling Instruction has been successfully implemented in both high school and university physics courses. Studies within the physics education research (PER) community have identified UMI's positive impacts on learning gains, equity, attitudinal shifts, and self-efficacy. While the success of this pedagogical approach has been recognized within the physics community, the use of models and modeling practices is still being developed for biology. Drawing from the existing research on UMI in physics, we describe the theoretical foundations of UMI and how UMI can be adapted to include an emphasis on models and modeling for undergraduate introductory biology courses. In particular, we discuss our ongoing work to develop a framework for the first semester of a two-semester introductory biology course sequence by identifying the essential basic models for an introductory biology course sequence. PMID:23737628

  1. A Comparison of General and Content-Specific Literacy Strategies for Learning Science Content (United States)

    Reed, Deborah K.; Whalon, Kelly; Lynn, Devon; Miller, Nicole; Smith, Keely


    This study employed an adapted alternating treatments single-case design to explore students' learning of biology content when using a general note-taking (GNT) strategy and a content-specific graphic organizer (CGO) to support reading high school biology texts. The 4 focal participants were 15-18-year-olds committed to a moderate risk juvenile…

  2. Multimedia computer-assisted instruction for carers on exercise for older people: development and testing. (United States)

    Ponpaipan, Muthita; Srisuphan, Wichit; Jitapunkul, Sutthichai; Panuthai, Sirirat; Tonmukayakul, Ouyporn; While, Alison


    This paper is a report of a study conducted to develop a multimedia computer-assisted instruction for informal carers and test its content validity, user difficulty and user satisfaction. Healthy ageing is an increasingly important public health target globally. Changes in technology offer the opportunity for e-health promotion as a means of educating populations and healthcare staff to meet public health targets. Computer-assisted instruction was developed and tested systematically in four phases during 2008, and these are outlined. Phase 1 consisted of topic and content identification using a literature review. Phase 2 comprised refinement of the content using an academic panel of experts. Phase 3 was the production of computer-assisted instruction comprising problem clarification, algorithm designing with reference to a cognitive theory of multimedia learning and program coding. Phase 4 consisted of testing for content validity, and writing a computer-assisted instruction manual and testing it for user difficulty and satisfaction. The data from each phase informed the development and refinement of the computer-assisted instruction. Content validity was confirmed and 'test' users reported few difficulties in its use and high satisfaction. This e-health promotion initiative is an example of how computer-assisted instruction may be developed to teach carers of older people. © 2010 Thailand Research Fund. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Using the Gaia Hypothesis to Synthesize an Introductory Biology Course. (United States)

    Baker, Gail A.


    The Gaia Hypothesis emphasizes the interactions and feedback mechanisms between the living and nonliving process that take place on Earth. Employing this concept in instruction can emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of science and give a planetary perspective of biology. (PR)

  4. Instructed officers Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This law contains instructions on the prevention of radiological and contains 4 articles Article I: describe the responsibilities of the institutions that operate within the scope of radiological protection in terms of the number of radiation protection officers and personal Supervisors who available in the practices radiation field. Article II: talking about the conditions of radiation protection officers that must be available in the main officers and working field in larg institutions and thecondition of specific requirements for large enterprises of work permits in the field of radiological work that issued by the Council. Article III: the functions and duties of officers in the prevention of radiological oversee the development of radiation protection programmes in the planning stages, construction and preparing the rules of local labour and what it lead of such tasks.Article IV: radiation protection officers powers: to modify and approve the programme of prevention and radiation safety at the company, stop any unsafe steps, amend the steps of the usage, operation of materials, devices and so on

  5. General Academic or Domain-Specific Vocabulary?: The Impact of Word Selection in High School Biology (United States)

    Birmingham, Elizabeth A.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of learning various types of words in biology on students' reading comprehension, vocabulary performance, and science content knowledge. The study involved 315 ninth grade biology students who were placed in one of four groups and spent two weeks for ten minutes per day working on independent vocabulary packets in which they practiced a set of 15 words. Group one's list was a combination of domain-specific and general academic words, group two's list was a set of general academic words, and group three's list was a set of domain-specific words. The fourth group, the control group, did no formal vocabulary work but instead completed lessons involving the ecology content. In this quasi-experiment, the independent variable was the instructional group assignment, and the dependent variables were the students' performances on the reading comprehension, vocabulary (broken into various categories), and content assessments. Descriptive statistics for the majority of the vocabulary items and for the comprehension and content post-test measures revealed that the third group had the highest overall achievement. Throughout the two weeks of treatment, the third group worked only with domain-specific words related to ecology. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) found the differences to be statistically significant. The individual dependent variables were analyzed and found two question types on the vocabulary test, the domainspecific and general academic, to be significant in the test of between-subjects effects. Further, instructional group assignment did not have an effect on reading comprehension and content Descriptive statistics for the majority of the vocabulary items and for the comprehension and content post-test measures revealed that the third group had the highest overall achievement. Throughout the two weeks of treatment, the third group worked only with domain-specific words related to ecology. A

  6. Biological computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lamm, Ehud


    Introduction and Biological BackgroundBiological ComputationThe Influence of Biology on Mathematics-Historical ExamplesBiological IntroductionModels and Simulations Cellular Automata Biological BackgroundThe Game of Life General Definition of Cellular Automata One-Dimensional AutomataExamples of Cellular AutomataComparison with a Continuous Mathematical Model Computational UniversalitySelf-Replication Pseudo Code Evolutionary ComputationEvolutionary Biology and Evolutionary ComputationGenetic AlgorithmsExample ApplicationsAnalysis of the Behavior of Genetic AlgorithmsLamarckian Evolution Genet

  7. 10 Content-Area Literacy Strategies for Art, Mathematics, Music, and Physical Education (United States)

    Ming, Kavin


    Content-area literacy involves the use of research-based learning strategies that help students effectively and efficiently gain content knowledge. Its use is fundamental to all content areas, not just to those that rely heavily on printed materials. One of the major goals of content-area instruction is to produce critical thinkers and problem…

  8. Tuition vs. Intuition: Effects of Instruction on Naive Theories of Evolution (United States)

    Shtulman, Andrew; Calabi, Prassede


    Recent research suggests that a major obstacle to evolution understanding is an essentialist view of the biological world. The present study investigated the effects of formal biology instruction on such misconceptions. Participants (N = 291) completed an assessment of their understanding of six aspects of evolution (variation, inheritance,…

  9. How can we improve problem solving in undergraduate biology? Applying lessons from 30 years of physics education research. (United States)

    Hoskinson, A-M; Caballero, M D; Knight, J K


    If students are to successfully grapple with authentic, complex biological problems as scientists and citizens, they need practice solving such problems during their undergraduate years. Physics education researchers have investigated student problem solving for the past three decades. Although physics and biology problems differ in structure and content, the instructional purposes align closely: explaining patterns and processes in the natural world and making predictions about physical and biological systems. In this paper, we discuss how research-supported approaches developed by physics education researchers can be adopted by biologists to enhance student problem-solving skills. First, we compare the problems that biology students are typically asked to solve with authentic, complex problems. We then describe the development of research-validated physics curricula emphasizing process skills in problem solving. We show that solving authentic, complex biology problems requires many of the same skills that practicing physicists and biologists use in representing problems, seeking relationships, making predictions, and verifying or checking solutions. We assert that acquiring these skills can help biology students become competent problem solvers. Finally, we propose how biology scholars can apply lessons from physics education in their classrooms and inspire new studies in biology education research.

  10. Measurement control workshop instructional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Crawford, Cary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGinnis, Brent [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Insolves LLC, Piketon, OH (United States)


    A workshop to teach the essential elements of an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) programs are outlined, along with the modes of Instruction, and the roles and responsibilities of participants in the workshop.

  11. Zoology by Self-Instruction (United States)

    Roach, Keith; Hammond, Roger


    A historical account is given of how a conventional university first-year undergraduate course in zoology has been replaced by a self-instructional one. Advantages and problems are weighed, and successful student achievement and interest are described. (LBH)

  12. Intelligent Tools and Instructional Simulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murray, William R; Sams, Michelle; Belleville, Michael


    This intelligent tools and instructional simulations project was an investigation into the utility of a knowledge-based performance support system to support learning and on-task performance for using...

  13. Adaptive Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Talla, Surendranath


    .... With in this context, we ask ourselves the following questions. 1. Can application performance be improved if the compiler had the freedom to pick the instruction set on a per application basis? 2...

  14. Designing Instruction for Distance Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Main, Robert


    .... While distance learning has been demonstrated to be an effective and efficient tool for increased access it also requires greater emphasis on instructional design and instructor training to obtain satisfactory results...

  15. PLE-based instruction concept (United States)

    Javorcik, Tomas


    The paper is aimed at the description of a PLE (Personal Learning Environment)-based teaching model suitable for implementation in the instruction of upper primary school students. The paper describes the individual stages of the model and its use of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) tools. The Personal Learning Environment is a form of instruction which allows for the meaningful use of information and communication technologies (including mobile technologies) in their entirety.

  16. Tritium control and accountability instructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, W.R.


    This instruction describes the tritium accountability procedures practiced by the Tritium Research Laboratory, Building 968 at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore. The accountability procedures are based upon the Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Nuclear Materials Operations Manual, SAND78-8018. The Nuclear Materials Operations Manual describes accountability techniques which are in compliance with the Department of Energy Manual, Code of Federal Regulations, and Sandia National Laboratories Instructions

  17. Tritium control and accountability instructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, W.R.; Cruz, S.L.


    This instruction describes the tritium accountability procedures practiced by the Tritium Research Laboratory, at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore. The accountability procedures are based upon the Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Nuclear Materials Operations Manual, SAND83-8036. The Nuclear Materials Operations Manual describes accountability techniques which are in compliance with the Department of Energy 5630 series Orders, Code of Federal Regulations, and Sandia National Laboratories Instructions

  18. Computer assisted instruction on "learning nutrition flags for deaf 5th grade and 6th grad students": effectiveness of instruction. (United States)

    Srisorachatr, Suwat; Huadong, Yotsinee; Hudthagosol, Chatrapa; Danthanavanich, Suksiri


    Deaf students are of a number of under privilege group for whom there are limited resources for their use, related to health including nutrition. The purpose of this research was to create computer-assisted instruction for "nutrition flags" for 5 and 6th grade students. The content of nutrition included the concept of a healthy balance diets and portion sizes of each food group. The content and pictures for computer-assisted instruction came from existing curriculum, and focused on nutritional content. The contents in this instruction were divided into three units according to students' learning capacity. The story boards were developed by staff including nutritionists, Thai sign language interpreters, and deaf students. Then, the contents and nutrition vocabulary were translated into Thai sign language. After recording the sign language on video, this material was merged with the contents and converted into a computer program. The computer assisted instruction was tested with students from Nakon Pathom School for the Deaf The first trial was conducted with three students, the second with five students, and the third with 15 students during the academic year 2009. The computer- assisted instruction was revised until it met the standard criteria of 80/80. Effectiveness testing was carried out with 36 students for five consecutive days. On the first day, the pre-test was completed, and on days 2-4, the students performed self-study and completed the exercises for units 1-3, with 50 minutes spent on each unit. The post-test was completed on the last day. The study was conducted during the 2010 academic year Data analysis was performed using the t-test. The results showed an effectiveness of 81.85/82.22, which was higher than the standard criteria of 80/80. The post-test average score was higher than the pre-test average score with a statistical significance level at p deaf are that the length of the instruction in each unit should be no longer than 30 minutes and the

  19. Flipped Instruction in a High School Science Classroom (United States)

    Leo, Jonathan; Puzio, Kelly


    This paper reports on a quasi-experimental study examining the effectiveness of flipped instruction in a 9th grade biology classroom. This study included four sections of freshmen-level biology taught by the first author at a private secondary school in the Pacific Northwest. Using a block randomized design, two sections were flipped and two remained traditional. The quiz and posttest data were adjusted for pretest differences using ANCOVA. The results suggest that flipped instruction had a positive effect student achievement, with effect sizes ranging from +0.16 to +0.44. In addition, some students reported that they preferred watching video lectures outside of class and appreciated more active approaches to learning.

  20. Instructional Technology Must Contribute to Productivity (United States)

    Molenda, Michael


    Those involved in instructional technology in higher education are urged to view instructional technology as a means of improving academic productivity. Instructional technology has been used for over forty years to analyze instructional problems and design solutions that reduce costs and improve learning outcomes. The Pew Program in Course…

  1. Instructional Development: Themata, Archetypes, Paradigms and Models. (United States)

    Davies, Ivor

    This chapter discusses the foundations of instructional development and analyzes the development of various models, paradigms, archetypes, and themata used to describe instructional development. Two key strands in the literature of instructional development--instructional efficiency ("doing the right things") and instructional…

  2. Motivation in computer-assisted instruction. (United States)

    Hu, Amanda; Shewokis, Patricia A; Ting, Kimberly; Fung, Kevin


    Computer-aided instruction (CAI) is defined as instruction in which computers play a central role as the means of information delivery and direct interaction with learners. Computer-aided instruction has become mainstream in medical school curricula. For example, a three-dimensional (3D) computer module of the larynx has been created to teach laryngeal anatomy. Although the novelty and educational potential of CAI has garnered much attention, these new technologies have been plagued with low utilization rates. Several experts attribute this problem to lack of motivation in students. Motivation is defined as the desire and action toward goal-oriented behavior. Psychologist Dr. John Keller developed the ARCS theory of motivational learning, which proposed four components: attention (A), relevance (R), concentration (C), and satisfaction (S). Keller believed that motivation is not only an innate characteristic of the pupil; it can also be influenced by external factors, such as the instructional design of the curriculum. Thus, understanding motivation is an important step to designing CAI appropriately. Keller also developed a 36-item validated instrument called the Instructional Materials Motivation Survey (IMMS) to measure motivation. The objective of this study was to study motivation in CAI. Medical students learning anatomy with the 3D computer module will have higher laryngeal anatomy test scores and higher IMMS motivation scores. Higher anatomy test scores will be positively associated with higher IMMS scores. Prospective, randomized, controlled trial. After obtaining institutional review board approval, 100 medical students (mean age 25.5 ± 2.5, 49% male) were randomized to either the 3D computer module (n = 49) or written text (n = 51). Information content was identical in both arms. Students were given 30 minutes to study laryngeal anatomy and then completed the laryngeal anatomy test and IMMS. Students were categorized as either junior (year 1


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Azzalis


    Full Text Available Basic biological disciplines as biochemistry, genetic and molecular biology have grown faster than any of other sciences. Moreover, those disciplines contribute to the understanding and treatment of an elevated number of illnesses. On the other hand, teachers cannot assure the graduating students that each particular discipline  is essential.  Furthermore,  those disciplines are often studied separately without any interdisciplinary integration between them.  The new curriculum proposed at Anhembi Morumbi University  - a private institution placed at São Paulo city  - incorporates learning blocks that  have been designed to integrate basic biological disciplines and clinical contents from the beginning in order to provide the stimulation and motivation to guide the  student through his learning.  The educational trend has concentrated on the following steps: 1 Biochemistry, genetic, cellular and molecular biology teachers´ from that institution have elaborated a new discipline  that was named Biologic Process. The aim of this new discipline was integrate basic biological sciences in a single content;  2  Selecting problems that could be discussed in the light of biochemistry, genetic and molecular contents; e.g. sickle cell anemia; 3 Developing  an innovative instructional method that challenges students “learn to learn” different from problem-based learning , economically unavailable at any particular university,  and  4 Assessments that measure knowledge, skills, attitudes and beliefs.  We believe that the future pedagogical system in  private health university will be a combination of “classical”  presentation of contents combined with actively involved students in the educational process and instruction based on either hypothetical  or real clinical cases in order to create  the stimulus for  the student continues to  integrate basic and clinical investigation.

  4. The potential of standards-based agriculture biology as an alternative to traditional biology in California (United States)

    Sellu, George Sahr

    Over the past five decades, several waves of educational reform have influenced K-12 science course offerings and classroom instruction in public education. The effectiveness of educational policies has been increasingly measured by standardized tests. The focus on test scores, content standards, and performance standards (which is a product of recent educational policies) has influenced course offerings and the depth and breadth of curriculum coverage (Linn, 2000). For the better part of the last hundred years, vocational education and traditional education have followed two separate tracks in terms of objectives, policies, and values (Hillison, 1996). Educational reform policies have had varying influences on school programs. For example, elective courses such as Career Technical Education (CTE) courses---which are not considered core academic courses---have been negatively influenced by current educational reform. In the past three decades, there has been gradual movement toward merging vocational and traditional education. It has been difficult for policies from both sides to merge because of differences in objectives for both tracks. Traditional courses have been guided by federal policies, such as No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and Common Core State Standards (CCSS) while the Carl D. Perkins Act (Perkins Act) has shaped CTE courses. It appears that several of the requirements of the Perkins Act meet expectations of traditional education policies. However, there is no direct metric for measuring the contribution of CTE courses toward increased achievement in science as measured by standardized tests. As such, CTE courses will continue to lose resources in order to support courses that prepare students for standardized tests. In order to address some of these challenges over the last three decades, agriculture educators have developed integrated science courses as a means for increasing science achievement scores for agriculture education students in K-12 public

  5. Supports for Vocabulary Instruction in Early Language and Literacy Methods Textbooks (United States)

    Wright, Tanya S.; Peltier, Marliese R.


    The goal of this study was to examine the extent to which the content and recommendations in recently published early language and literacy methods textbooks may support early childhood teachers in learning to provide vocabulary instruction for young children. We completed a content analysis of 9 textbooks with coding at the sentence level.…

  6. Enhancing Academic Instruction for Adolescent English Language Learners with or at Risk for Learning Disabilities (United States)

    Haager, Diane; Osipova, Anna V.


    An increasing number of children worldwide attend schools where the language of instruction does not match their native language, presenting significant challenges with learning the content and vocabulary of academic content areas (e.g., social studies, science). In the U.S., these students are designated as English language learners…

  7. Instructional technology: A tool or a panacea? (United States)

    Kimmel, Howard; Deek, Fadi


    It is time to recognize that educational technology cannot be considered a panacea for educational reform. Technology, when properly used, can be a very effective tool for improving and enhancing instruction and learning experiences in the content areas. However, incorporation of electronic tools, such as computers and videodiscs, into classrooms must be accompanied by systemic change in the educational process. Successful utilization of technology depends on how we provide teachers with the necessary environment for training, tools for instruction, and technology evaluation skills. This paper examines some of the misuses of technology and then explores the appropriate use of technology in the context of current educational reform. The focus is on the integration of technology in the educational process that provides a learning environment allowing discovery and creativity through the use of computer visualizations. The teacher is seen as the essential element, requiring a solid foundation in the general applications of technology, and the ability to evaluate and select systems that are effective and efficient for specific applications.

  8. Relationship between teacher preparedness and inquiry-based instructional practices to students' science achievement: Evidence from TIMSS 2007 (United States)

    Martin, Lynn A.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between teachers' self-reported preparedness for teaching science content and their instructional practices to the science achievement of eighth grade science students in the United States as demonstrated by TIMSS 2007. Six hundred eighty-seven eighth grade science teachers in the United States representing 7,377 students responded to the TIMSS 2007 questionnaire about their instructional preparedness and their instructional practices. Quantitative data were reported. Through correlation analysis, the researcher found statistically significant positive relationships emerge between eighth grade science teachers' main area of study and their self-reported beliefs about their preparedness to teach that same content area. Another correlation analysis found a statistically significant negative relationship existed between teachers' self-reported use of inquiry-based instruction and preparedness to teach chemistry, physics and earth science. Another correlation analysis discovered a statistically significant positive relationship existed between physics preparedness and student science achievement. Finally, a correlation analysis found a statistically significant positive relationship existed between science teachers' self-reported implementation of inquiry-based instructional practices and student achievement. The data findings support the conclusion that teachers who have feelings of preparedness to teach science content and implement more inquiry-based instruction and less didactic instruction produce high achieving science students. As science teachers obtain the appropriate knowledge in science content and pedagogy, science teachers will feel prepared and will implement inquiry-based instruction in science classrooms.

  9. Toward a Typology of Implementation Challenges Facing English-Medium Instruction in Higher Education: Evidence from Japan (United States)

    Bradford, Annette


    Higher education is becoming increasingly internationalized, and the use of English as a medium of instruction for academic content has become commonplace in countries where English is not the native language. However, concerns are growing that the trend toward English-medium instruction (EMI) has accelerated without sufficient thought to the…

  10. Effects of an Instructional Gaming Characteristic on Learning Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Engagement: Using a Storyline for Teaching Basic Statistical Skills (United States)

    Novak, Elena; Johnson, Tristan E.; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Shute, Valerie J.


    The study explored instructional benefits of a storyline gaming characteristic (GC) on learning effectiveness, efficiency, and engagement with the use of an online instructional simulation for graduate students in an introductory statistics course. A storyline is a game-design element that connects scenes with the educational content. In order to…

  11. The Effect of Instructional Strategies on Math Anxiety and Achievement: A Mixed Methods Study of Preservice Elementary Teachers (United States)

    Lorenzen, Janelle K.


    This study addressed how different instructional strategies affected preservice elementary teachers' levels of math anxiety and their achievement in a math content course while considering descriptions of their experiences in the course in relation to their math anxiety and achievement. The instructional strategies used were traditional teaching…

  12. Graphic Organizers: Toward Organization and Complexity of Student Content Knowledge


    Watson, Carol Elizabeth


    ABSTRACT Within the current national atmosphere of accountability and high-stakes testing, many teachers are changing their instruction to return to more traditional strategies that emphasize rote memorization. As a result, classroom curriculum and student learning are narrowing. This study sought to explore the potential of graphic organizers as an instructional strategy to expand student content knowledge beyond rote memorization to include more organized, complex, meaningful learning. ...

  13. Instructional video for teaching venepuncture. (United States)

    Pan, Michael; Harcharik, Sara; Moskalenko, Marina; Luber, Adam; Bernardo, Sebastian; Levitt, Jacob


    Safe venepuncture technique is a critical skill for health care professionals, to avoid accidental occupational injury. This study investigates whether watching an instructional video improves medical students' ability to perform venepuncture safely. This was a randomised, controlled, assessor-blinded trial that evaluated the utility of an instructional video, with the primary outcome of the ability to perform venepuncture safely. Forty-two second-year medical students were recruited and randomised to receive either video instruction (group A, n = 20) or no intervention (group B, n = 22). Prior to the study, all students attended an instructor-led workshop on venepuncture. During the study, students were paired and instructed to perform venepuncture on a partner. Performance was assessed using a points-based checklist. Pre- and post-study surveys were conducted to assess confidence with technique. The mean total checklist score was higher in group A than in group B, with values of 14.15 and 9.18, respectively (p video performed venepuncture more effectively and reported greater confidence with the technique. Medical students can benefit from having access to an instructional video on venepuncture as an adjunct to the standard curriculum. Safe venepuncture technique is a critical skill for health care professionals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Interactive whiteboards in third grade science instruction (United States)

    Rivers, Grier

    Strategies have been put into place to affect improvement in science achievement, including the use of Interactive Whiteboards (IWBs) in science instruction. IWBs enable rich resources, appropriate pacing, and multimodal presentation of content deemed as best practices. Professional development experiences, use of resources, instructional practices, and changes in professional behavior in science teachers were recorded. Also recorded were differences in the engagement and motivation of students in IWB classrooms versus IWB-free classrooms and observed differences in students' problem solving, critical thinking, and collaboration. Using a mixed-method research design quantitative data were collected to identify achievement levels of the target population on the assumption that all students, regardless of ability, will achieve greater mastery of science content in IWB classrooms. Qualitative data were collected through observations, interviews, videotapes, and a survey to identify how IWBs lead to increased achievement in third grade classrooms and to develop a record of teachers' professional practices, and students' measures of engagement and motivation. Comparative techniques determined whether science instruction is more effective in IWB classroom than in IWB-free classrooms. The qualitative findings concluded that, compared to science teachers who work in IWB-free settings, elementary science teachers who used IWBs incorporated more resources to accommodate learning objectives and the varied abilities and learning styles of their students. They assessed student understanding more frequently and perceived their classrooms as more collaborative and interactive. Furthermore, they displayed willingness to pursue professional development and employed different engagement strategies. Finally, teachers who used IWBs supported more instances of critical thinking and problem-solving. Quantitative findings concluded that students of all ability levels were more motivated

  15. Systems Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H S.


    The biology revolution over the last 50 years has been driven by the ascendancy of molecular biology. This was enthusiastically embraced by most biologists because it took us into increasingly familiar territory. It took mysterious processes, such as the replication of genetic material and assigned them parts that could be readily understood by the human mind. When we think of ''molecular machines'' as being the underlying basis of life, we are using a paradigm derived from everyday experience. However, the price that we paid was a relentless drive towards reductionism and the attendant balkanization of biology. Now along comes ''systems biology'' that promises us a solution to the problem of ''knowing more and more about less and less''. Unlike molecular biology, systems biology appears to be taking us into unfamiliar intellectual territory, such as statistics, mathematics and computer modeling. Not surprisingly, systems biology has met with widespread skepticism and resistance. Why do we need systems biology anyway and how does this new area of research promise to change the face of biology in the next couple of decades?

  16. Biological therapeutics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenstein, Ben; Brook, Daniel A


    This introductory textbook covers all the main categories of biological medicines, including vaccines, hormonal preparations, drugs for rheumatoid arthritis and other connective tissue diseases, drugs...

  17. Redesigning Introductory Biology: A Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Gregory


    Full Text Available With the increasing complexity and expansion of the biological sciences, there has been a corresponding increase in content in the first-year introductory biology course sequence for majors. In general this has resulted in courses that introduce students to large amounts of material and leave little time for practicing investigative science or skill development. Based on our analysis of data compiled from 742 biology faculty at a variety of institutions across the United States, we verified that there is strong agreement on the content appropriate for introductory biology courses for majors. Therefore, we propose that faculty teaching these courses focus primarily on the topics identified in this study, and redesign their courses to incorporate active learning strategies that emphasize the investigative nature of biology and provide opportunities for skill development.



    Chothibul Umam


    The role of knowledge on English Morphology for the students of English Language Education (henceforth ELE) cannot be neglected. However, the preliminary observations done by the researcher during the instructional process of English Morphology at the State College for Islamic Studies (STAIN) Kediri Indonesia, for three academic years shows that most of the students still get difficulty in understanding the course content.  The researcher, therefore, is of the opinion that the instructional m...

  19. The Effects of Differentiated Instruction on Grade 7 Math and Science Scores (United States)

    Shaffer, Donna

    There has been a decline of math and science assessment scores consecutively over the past 2 years at a local middle school. This mixed method study incorporated a sequential qualitative-quantitative explanatory strategy with the intent of enhancing and altering the instructional process to increase student achievement. The qualitative portion of the study explored the process of differentiated instruction and perceptions of those who were involved within the development of a nontraditional approach to instruction in the 7th grade content areas of math and science. For the quantitative portion of the study, assessment data were collected for 2010 and 2011 for the 7th grade math and science content areas. Constructivism served as the theoretical foundation for the study. The results of the qualitative analysis suggested that the majority of the participants believed that differentiated instruction positively impacts student scores for the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP). The result of an independent t test indicated that students receiving differentiated instruction had higher math and science TCAP test scores for Grade 7 One recommendation is for future research to be conducted regarding differentiated instruction's impact on student achievement so that the gap in scientific research in this area may be bridged. Implications for social change include the potential for enhancing the instructional process that could result in improved student achievement.

  20. Combining content and elements of communication into an upper-level biochemistry course. (United States)

    Whittington, Carli P; Pellock, Samuel J; Cunningham, Rebecca L; Cox, James R


    This report describes how a science communication module was incorporated into an advanced biochemistry course. Elements of communication were taught synergistically with biochemistry content in this course in an effort to expose students to a variety of effective oral communication strategies. Students were trained to use these established techniques and incorporated them into various presentations throughout the course. Three students describe their use of specific resources and how the skills learned relate to their future career. The importance and relevance of science communication are receiving unprecedented national attention. The academic scientific community must respond by incorporating more communication-centered instruction and opportunities in the classroom and laboratory. © 2013 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  1. Content identification: binary content fingerprinting versus binary content encoding (United States)

    Ferdowsi, Sohrab; Voloshynovskiy, Svyatoslav; Kostadinov, Dimche


    In this work, we address the problem of content identification. We consider content identification as a special case of multiclass classification. The conventional approach towards identification is based on content fingerprinting where a short binary content description known as a fingerprint is extracted from the content. We propose an alternative solution based on elements of machine learning theory and digital communications. Similar to binary content fingerprinting, binary content representation is generated based on a set of trained binary classifiers. We consider several training/encoding strategies and demonstrate that the proposed system can achieve the upper theoretical performance limits of content identification. The experimental results were carried out both on a synthetic dataset with different parameters and the FAMOS dataset of microstructures from consumer packages.

  2. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology? (United States)

    Holm, Sune


    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  3. Interdisciplinary Lessons for the Teaching of Biology from the Practice of Evo-Devo (United States)

    Love, Alan C.


    Evolutionary developmental biology (Evo-devo) is a vibrant area of contemporary life science that should be (and is) increasingly incorporated into teaching curricula. Although the inclusion of this content is important for biological pedagogy at multiple levels of instruction, there are also philosophical lessons that can be drawn from the scientific practices found in Evo-devo. One feature of particular significance is the interdisciplinary nature of Evo-devo investigations and their resulting explanations. Instead of a single disciplinary approach being the most explanatory or fundamental, different methodologies from biological disciplines must be synthesized to generate empirically adequate explanations. Thus, Evo-devo points toward a non-reductionist epistemology in biology. I review three areas where these synthetic efforts become manifest as a result of Evo-devo's practices (form versus function reasoning styles; problem-structured investigations; idealizations related to studying model organisms), and then sketch some possible applications to teaching biology. These philosophical considerations provide resources for life science educators to address (and challenge) key aspects of the National Science Education Standards and Benchmarks for Scientific Literacy.

  4. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. ... National Center for Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, UAS-GKVK Campus, Bangalore 560 065, India ...

  5. Computational biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue


    Computation via biological devices has been the subject of close scrutiny since von Neumann’s early work some 60 years ago. In spite of the many relevant works in this field, the notion of programming biological devices seems to be, at best, ill-defined. While many devices are claimed or proved t...

  6. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological ...

  7. How do the high school biology textbooks introduce the nature of science? (United States)

    Lee, Young H.


    Although helping students to achieve an adequate understanding of the nature of science has been a consistent goal for science education for over half a century, current research reveals that the majority of students and teachers have naive views of the nature of science (Abd-El-khalick & Akerson, 2004; Bianchini & Colburn, 2000). This problem could be attributed not only to the complex nature of science, but also to the way the nature of science is presented to students during instruction. Thus, research must be conducted to examine how the science is taught, especially in science textbooks, which are a major instructional resource for teaching science. The aim of this study was to conduct a content analysis of the first chapter of four high school biology textbooks, which typically discusses "What is science?" and "What is biology?" This research used a content analysis technique to analyze the four high school biology textbooks, using a conceptual framework that has been used often for science textbook analysis. This conceptual framework consists of four themes of the nature of science: (a) science as a body of knowledge, (b) science as a way of thinking, (c) science as a way of investigating, and (d) the interaction of science, technology, and society. For this study, the four-theme-framework was modified to incorporate descriptors from national-level documents, such as Science for All Americans (AAAS, 1990) Benchmarks for Science Literacy (AAAS, 1993) and the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996), as well as science education research reports. A scoring procedure was used that resulted in good to excellent intercoder agreement with Cohen's kappa (k) ranging from .63 to .96. The findings show that the patterns of presentation of the four themes of the nature of science in the four high school biology textbooks are similar across the different locations of data, text, figures, and assessments. On the other hand, the pattern of presentation of the four

  8. Pre-Service Teachers: An Analysis of Reading Instruction in High Needs Districts Dual Language Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Whitacre


    Full Text Available Pre-service teachers need opportunities to apply theory and connect to best practices as they teach in classroom settings be it, whole or small group. For many pre-service teachers often times their experience is limited to simply watching instruction or working with small groups of students (Pryor & Kuhn, 2004. The student teaching experience is a critical component of the teacher preparation program. Through the use of the English Language Learner Classroom Observation Instrument (ELLCOI, and researcher observation the hope is that these will aid in bringing to light the instructional activities used by pre-service teachers during reading instruction with ELLs. This study explores how pre-service bilingual teachers connect theory into practice by examining their instruction in the following categories: Instructional Practices, Interactive Teaching, English-Language Development, and Content Specific to Reading as listed in The English Language Learner Classroom Observation Instrument (ELLCOI developed by Haager, Gersten, Baker, and Graves (2003. To capture these instructional events video tape recordings of eight South Texas pre-service teachers were taken during a reading language arts lesson in order to observe instruction in high need districts’ dual language/bilingual classrooms. Data were compiled to capture the nature and quality of instruction on key essential elements, as well as reading instructional practices specific to the teaching/learning process in the dual language classroom. The findings portray the results of the ELLCOI with bilingual/ESL pre- service teachers and how they make sense of their instructional practices as a means to instruction in one-way dual language public school classrooms.

  9. Surveying Libraries to Identify Best Practices for a Menu Approach for Library Instruction Requests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Benjes-Small


    Full Text Available A challenging situation has developed in regards to library instruction. With increases in both the quantity of information and the variety of information technologies being made available to researchers, the information literacy landscape is getting more complex. Simultaneously, the time allotted for library instruction is remaining essentially the same. In order to market the breadth of content available for library instruction sessions and to promote collaboration between librarians and teaching faculty in order to create optimal instruction sessions an 'a la carte menu' approach to library instruction requests was adopted by Radford University in 2004. Since the late 1990s a number of community colleges and universities have included some type of menu in their instruction request forms or documentation and the authors desired to understand what approach these institutions had taken and whether they were effective in marketing instruction and improving communication between library instructors and teaching faculty. They analyzed forty-seven adaptations of the menu available on the web and surveyed the librarians who created them. In this article the authors present the findings of the web analysis and the survey, and recommendations are given for using the menu approach to library instruction requests.

  10. An Analysis of Predictors of History Content Knowledge: Implications for Policy and Practice (United States)

    Fitchett, Paul G.; Heafner, Tina L.; Lambert, Richard G.


    How and to what extent students learn history content is a complicated process, drawing from the instructional opportunities they experience; the policy prioritization of history/social studies instruction in schools; and their own cultural perspectives toward the past. In an attempt to better understand the complex inter-play among these…

  11. Imitating Podcasts by Providing Audio Content to Support and Enhance Language Learning (United States)

    Thomas, Simon; Toland, Sean H.


    The provision of supplemental educational and instructional content in podcast form is becoming increasingly widespread in first language education. However, amongst second language students in Japan the lack of literature illustrates podcast use has been limited. Imitating podcasts, educational and instructional materials in audio form were…

  12. Describing Instrumental Music Teachers' Thinking: Implications for Understanding Pedagogical Content Knowledge (United States)

    Millican, J. Si


    Pedagogical content knowledge, the particular ways that teachers understand their subjects in order to instruct others, has been described and explored in the math and science education fields in some depth, yet little research exists illustrating this concept in music instruction. I used a descriptive approach to explore expert beginning band…

  13. Health Instruction Packages: Cardiac Anatomy. (United States)

    Phillips, Gwen; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these five learning modules to instruct nurses, students, and other health care professionals in cardiac anatomy and functions and in fundamental electrocardiographic techniques. The first module, "Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology: A Review" by Gwen Phillips, teaches the learner to draw…

  14. Succession Planning for Library Instruction (United States)

    Sobel, Karen; Drewry, Josiah


    Detailed succession planning helps libraries pass information from one employee to the next. This is crucial in preparing for hiring, turnover, retirements, training of graduate teaching assistants in academic libraries, and other common situations. The authors of this article discuss succession planning for instruction programs in academic…

  15. Instructional Materials Centers; Annotated Bibliography. (United States)

    Poli, Rosario, Comp.

    An annotated bibliography lists 74 articles and reports on instructional materials centers (IMC) which appeared from 1967-70. The articles deal with such topics as the purposes of an IMC, guidelines for setting up an IMC, and the relationship of an IMC to technology. Most articles deal with use of an IMC on an elementary or secondary level, but…

  16. Preparing Instructional Leaders: A Model (United States)

    Brazer, S. David; Bauer, Scott C.


    Purpose: This article proposes a model that provides one means of making instructional leadership the central focus of leadership preparation. It draws from conceptualizations of teaching and learning as well as organizational and leadership theory to advocate for greater coherence in education leadership programs. Conceptual Argument: We begin…

  17. Three Logics of Instructional Leadership (United States)

    Rigby, Jessica G.


    Purpose: This study examines conceptions of instructional leadership in the institutional environment. We know that principals' practices affect student learning and that principals are influenced by ideas in the broader environment. This article examines and defines the multiple conceptions of what it means for principals to be instructional…

  18. Curriculum Development. Instructional Leadership Series. (United States)

    Glatthorn, Allan A.

    Practical strategies for administrative education faculty involved in principal preparation programs are compiled in this guidebook. This unit in an instructional leadership series focuses on curriculum development and implementation, with a secondary focus on curriculum evaluation. Stages of the process include evaluation, planning, development,…

  19. Learning Strategy Instruction Innovation Configuration (United States)

    Schumaker, Jean B.


    One way of helping students with learning disabilities and other struggling students to be independent life-long learners is to teach them how to use learning strategies in efficient ways. Learning strategy instruction can provide students the opportunity to succeed in today's schools and meet rigorous standards, transforming ineffective learners…

  20. Programmed Instruction in Library Science (United States)

    Batty, C. D.


    This article describes the pioneering application of programmed instruction to classification and indexing and other established areas of library education tested at the College of Librarianship Wales from 1965 onwards. Details of the program design are given. (11 references) (Author/SJ)