WorldWideScience

Sample records for biology chemistry geology

  1. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Mixed-Valence Compounds : Theory and Applications in Chemistry, Physics, Geology, and Biology

    CERN Document Server

    1980-01-01

    It has been a decade since two seminal reviews demonstrated that mixed-valence compounds share many unique and fascinating features. The insight pro­ vided by those early works has promoted a great deal of both experimental and theoretical study. As a result of extensive efforts, our understanding of the bonding and properties of mixed-valence compounds has advanced substantially. There has been no compre­ hensive treatment of mixed-valence compounds since 1967, and the meeting convened at Oxford in September, 1979, provided a unique opportunity to examine the subject and its many ramifications. Mixed-valence compounds play an important role in many fields. Although the major impact of the subject has been in chemistry, its importance has become increasingly clear in solid state physics, geology, and biology. Extensive interest and effort in the field of molecular metals has demonstrated that mixed-valency is a prerequisite for high elec­ trical conductivity. The intense colors of many minerals have been s...

  2. Digital biology and chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witters, Daan; Sun, Bing; Begolo, Stefano; Rodriguez-Manzano, Jesus; Robles, Whitney; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2014-09-07

    This account examines developments in "digital" biology and chemistry within the context of microfluidics, from a personal perspective. Using microfluidics as a frame of reference, we identify two areas of research within digital biology and chemistry that are of special interest: (i) the study of systems that switch between discrete states in response to changes in chemical concentration of signals, and (ii) the study of single biological entities such as molecules or cells. In particular, microfluidics accelerates analysis of switching systems (i.e., those that exhibit a sharp change in output over a narrow range of input) by enabling monitoring of multiple reactions in parallel over a range of concentrations of signals. Conversely, such switching systems can be used to create new kinds of microfluidic detection systems that provide "analog-to-digital" signal conversion and logic. Microfluidic compartmentalization technologies for studying and isolating single entities can be used to reconstruct and understand cellular processes, study interactions between single biological entities, and examine the intrinsic heterogeneity of populations of molecules, cells, or organisms. Furthermore, compartmentalization of single cells or molecules in "digital" microfluidic experiments can induce switching in a range of reaction systems to enable sensitive detection of cells or biomolecules, such as with digital ELISA or digital PCR. This "digitizing" offers advantages in terms of robustness, assay design, and simplicity because quantitative information can be obtained with qualitative measurements. While digital formats have been shown to improve the robustness of existing chemistries, we anticipate that in the future they will enable new chemistries to be used for quantitative measurements, and that digital biology and chemistry will continue to provide further opportunities for measuring biomolecules, understanding natural systems more deeply, and advancing molecular and

  3. Theoretical chemistry periodicities in chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Henry

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical Chemistry: Periodicities in Chemistry and Biology, Volume 4 covers the aspects of theoretical chemistry. The book discusses the stably rotating patterns of reaction and diffusion; the chemistry of inorganic systems exhibiting nonmonotonic behavior; and population cycles. The text also describes the mathematical modeling of excitable media in neurobiology and chemistry; oscillating enzyme reactions; and oscillatory properties and excitability of the heart cell membrane. Selected topics from the theory of physico-chemical instabilities are also encompassed. Chemists, mechanical engin

  4. Global Bedrock Geology and River Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Miller, M. W.

    2002-12-01

    The lack of modern quantitative estimates of the Earth`s surface geology, one of the key parameters influencing river (and ocean) chemistry, is striking. Most published estimates of area-age relationships of sedimentary bedrock, for instance, were published before the 1980s, were based on less detailed geologic maps often decades older, and used techniques such as cutting and weighting age correlative map units or point counting at fairly coarse resolution (Higgs, 1949; Gilluly, 1969; Blatt and Jones, 1975; Ronov, 1980). Even more recent estimates (e.g., Berry and Wilkinson, 1994) are based on data predating the 1980s (Cook and Bally, 1975; Ronov, 1980). In an attempt to gain quantitative understanding of the link between surface geology (bedrock chemistry and weatherability) and river (and ocean) chemistry we have initiated a global assessment of the Earth`s surface geology that is based on the latest digital geologic maps using modern geographic information system technology (Environmental Systems Research Institute`s ArcInfo software). To date we have completed analysis of three digital data sets: 1) the geologic map of the conterminous United States of America by King and Beikman (1974; 1:2,500,000; spatial resolution ~600 km2 per polygon), made available in digital format by the USGS, 2) the geologic map of Alaska by Beikman (1980; 1:2,5000,000; ~300 km2 per polygon), also available in digital form through the USGS, and 3) the geologic map of Canada that is based on a revised and updated version of the geologic map by Douglas (1969; 1:5,000,000; ~780 km2 per polygon), made available in digital form by the Geologic Survey of Canada. The data reveal, among others, the area-age relationship of sedimentary, volcanic, intrusive and metamorphic rocks at unprecedented temporal and spatial resolution. The data also provide quantitative estimates of the abundance of major rock types: sedimentary rocks make up 83% (US; 69.7% stratified, mostly marine and 13

  5. Combining supramolecular chemistry with biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenheuer, Dana A; Petkau, Katja; Brunsveld, Luc

    2010-08-01

    Supramolecular chemistry has primarily found its inspiration in biological molecules, such as proteins and lipids, and their interactions. Currently the supramolecular assembly of designed compounds can be controlled to great extent. This provides the opportunity to combine these synthetic supramolecular elements with biomolecules for the study of biological phenomena. This tutorial review focuses on the possibilities of the marriage of synthetic supramolecular architectures and biological systems. It highlights that synthetic supramolecular elements are for example ideal platforms for the recognition and modulation of proteins and cells. The unique features of synthetic supramolecular systems with control over size, shape, valency, and interaction strength allow the generation of structures fitting the demands to approach the biological problems at hand. Supramolecular chemistry has come full circle, studying the biology and its molecules which initially inspired its conception.

  6. Student Scientific Conference, 2008. Collection of contributions. Vol. 2 - Sections of geography, geology, environment, chemistry and didactics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-04-01

    The conference included the following sections: (i) Biology (114 contributions); (ii) Geography (37 contributions); (iii) Geology (24 contributions); (iv) Environment (16 contributions); (v) Chemistry (11 contributions); (vi) Didactics (8 contributions). Contributions relevant to INIS interest have been inputted to INIS.

  7. Allicin: Chemistry and Biological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Borlinghaus

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Allicin (diallylthiosulfinate is a defence molecule from garlic (Allium sativum L. with a broad range of biological activities. Allicin is produced upon tissue damage from the non-proteinogenic amino acid alliin (S-allylcysteine sulfoxide in a reaction that is catalyzed by the enzyme alliinase. Current understanding of the allicin biosynthetic pathway will be presented in this review. Being a thiosulfinate, allicin is a reactive sulfur species (RSS and undergoes a redox-reaction with thiol groups in glutathione and proteins that is thought to be essential for its biological activity. Allicin is physiologically active in microbial, plant and mammalian cells. In a dose-dependent manner allicin can inhibit the proliferation of both bacteria and fungi or kill cells outright, including antibiotic-resistant strains like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Furthermore, in mammalian cell lines, including cancer cells, allicin induces cell-death and inhibits cell proliferation. In plants allicin inhibits seed germination and attenuates root-development. The majority of allicin’s effects are believed to be mediated via redox-dependent mechanisms. In sub-lethal concentrations, allicin has a variety of health-promoting properties, for example cholesterol- and blood pressure-lowering effects that are advantageous for the cardio-vascular system. Clearly, allicin has wide-ranging and interesting applications in medicine and (green agriculture, hence the detailed discussion of its enormous potential in this review. Taken together, allicin is a fascinating biologically active compound whose properties are a direct consequence of the molecule’s chemistry.

  8. Molecular biology: Self-sustaining chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrede Paul

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molecular biology is an established interdisciplinary field within biology that deals fundamentally with the function of any nucleic acid in the cellular context. The molecular biology section in Chemistry Central Journal focusses on the genetically determined chemistry and biochemistry occuring in the cell. How can thousands of chemical reactions interact smoothly to maintain the life of cells, even in a variable environment? How is this self-sustaining system achieved? These are questions that should be answered in the light of molecular biology and evolution, but with the application of biophysical, physico-chemical, analytical and preparative technologies. As the Section Editor for the molecular biology section in Chemistry Central Journal, I hope to receive manuscripts that present new approaches aimed at better answering and shedding light upon these fascinating questions related to the chemistry of livings cells.

  9. Radiation chemistry comes before radiation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Peter; Wardman, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This article seeks to illustrate some contributions of radiation chemistry to radiobiology and related science, and to draw attention to examples where radiation chemistry is central to our knowledge of specific aspects. Radiation chemistry is a mature branch of radiation science which is continually evolving and finding wider applications. This is particularly apparent in the study of the roles of free radicals in biology generally, and radiation biology specifically. The chemical viewpoint helps unite the spatial and temporal insight coming from radiation physics with the diversity of biological responses. While historically, the main application of radiation chemistry of relevance to radiation biology has been investigations of the free-radical processes leading to radiation-induced DNA damage and its chemical characterization, two features of radiation chemistry point to its wider importance. First, its emphasis on quantification and characterization at the molecular level helps provide links between DNA damage, biochemical repair processes, and mutagenicity and radiosensitivity. Second, its central pillar of chemical kinetics aids understanding of the roles of 'reactive oxygen species' in cell signalling and diverse biological effects more generally, and application of radiation chemistry in the development of drugs to enhance radiotherapy and as hypoxia-specific cytotoxins or diagnostic agents. The illustrations of the broader applications of radiation chemistry in this article focus on their relevance to radiation biology and demonstrate the importance of synergy in the radiation sciences. The past contributions of radiation chemistry to radiation biology are evident, but there remains considerable potential to help advance future biological understanding using the knowledge and techniques of radiation chemistry.

  10. Are Biology and Chemistry Out of Order?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Felix A.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses advantages and disadvantages of standard high school biology and chemistry course sequences. Relates these sequences to Piagetian developmental levels as well as to David Ausubel's cognitive theory. Suggests that the sequences be reexamined in light of issues considered. (JM)

  11. Chemistry and biology by new multiple choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Hyeong Seok; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2003-02-01

    This book is divided into two parts, the first part is about chemistry, which deals with science of material, atom structure and periodic law, chemical combination and power between molecule, state of material and solution, chemical reaction and an organic compound. The second part give description of biology with molecule and cell, energy in cells and chemical synthesis, molecular biology and heredity, function on animal, function on plant and evolution and ecology. This book has explanation of chemistry and biology with new multiple choice.

  12. Biological nitric oxide signalling: chemistry and terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Tassiele A; da Silva, Roberto S; Miranda, Katrina M; Switzer, Christopher H; Wink, David A; Fukuto, Jon M

    2013-01-01

    Biological nitrogen oxide signalling and stress is an area of extreme clinical, pharmacological, toxicological, biochemical and chemical research interest. The utility of nitric oxide and derived species as signalling agents is due to their novel and vast chemical interactions with a variety of biological targets. Herein, the chemistry associated with the interaction of the biologically relevant nitrogen oxide species with fundamental biochemical targets is discussed. Specifically, the chemical interactions of nitrogen oxides with nucleophiles (e.g. thiols), metals (e.g. hemeproteins) and paramagnetic species (e.g. dioxygen and superoxide) are addressed. Importantly, the terms associated with the mechanisms by which NO (and derived species) react with their respective biological targets have been defined by numerous past chemical studies. Thus, in order to assist researchers in referring to chemical processes associated with nitrogen oxide biology, the vernacular associated with these chemical interactions is addressed. PMID:23617570

  13. Mars Field Geology, Biology, and Paleontology Workshop: Summary and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budden, Nancy Ann (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    Current NASA planning envisions human missions to Mars as early as 2013, on a mission that would send six crew members for a 500-day stay on the surface of Mars. While our understanding of how we would get there and back is fairly mature, the planning for what the crew would do to explore while on the surface for 500 days is less detailed. Mission objectives are to understand the composition and geo- morphology of the martian surface, and to continue to investigate and sample the geologic history of Mars. Special emphasis will focus on exploring for possible biogenic signatures, past or present, and on analyzing pre-biotic chemistry. The purpose of this workshop was to explore the strategies, desired capabilities, skills, and operational realities required to lend success to the first human missions to Mars. Current mission planning dictates that there will be considerable mobility, sampling and analytical capability available to human crews, at a site warranting long-term geologic and possibly biological interest. However, the details of specific capabilities are not yet clearly defined.

  14. Genus Pouteria: chemistry and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia A. M. Silva

    Full Text Available The genus Pouteria belongs to the family Sapotaceae and can be widely found around the World. These plants have been used as building material, as food, because the eatable fruits, as well as remedies in folk medicine. Some biological activities have been reported to species of this genus such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal. However, the real potential of this genus as source of new drugs or phytomedicines remains unknown. Therefore, a review of the so far known chemical composition and biological activities of this genus is presented to stimulate new studies about the species already reported moreover that species have no reference about chemistry or biological activities could be found until now.

  15. Practical approaches to biological inorganic chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Louro, Ricardo O

    2012-01-01

    The book reviews the use of spectroscopic and related methods to investigate the complex structures and mechanisms of biological inorganic systems that contain metals. Each chapter presents an overview of the technique including relevant theory, clearly explains what it is and how it works and then presents how the technique is actually used to evaluate biological structures. Practical examples and problems are included to illustrate each technique and to aid understanding. Designed for students and researchers who want to learn both the basics, and more advanced aspects of bioinorganic chemistry. It includes many colour illustrations enable easier visualization of molecular mechanisms and structures. It provides worked examples and problems that are included to illustrate and test the reader's understanding of each technique. It is written by a multi-author team who use and teach the most important techniques used today to analyse complex biological structures.

  16. The biological inorganic chemistry of zinc ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krężel, Artur; Maret, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    The solution and complexation chemistry of zinc ions is the basis for zinc biology. In living organisms, zinc is redox-inert and has only one valence state: Zn(II). Its coordination environment in proteins is limited by oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur donors from the side chains of a few amino acids. In an estimated 10% of all human proteins, zinc has a catalytic or structural function and remains bound during the lifetime of the protein. However, in other proteins zinc ions bind reversibly with dissociation and association rates commensurate with the requirements in regulation, transport, transfer, sensing, signalling, and storage. In contrast to the extensive knowledge about zinc proteins, the coordination chemistry of the "mobile" zinc ions in these processes, i.e. when not bound to proteins, is virtually unexplored and the mechanisms of ligand exchange are poorly understood. Knowledge of the biological inorganic chemistry of zinc ions is essential for understanding its cellular biology and for designing complexes that deliver zinc to proteins and chelating agents that remove zinc from proteins, for detecting zinc ion species by qualitative and quantitative analysis, and for proper planning and execution of experiments involving zinc ions and nanoparticles such as zinc oxide (ZnO). In most investigations, reference is made to zinc or Zn 2+ without full appreciation of how biological zinc ions are buffered and how the d-block cation Zn 2+ differs from s-block cations such as Ca 2+ with regard to significantly higher affinity for ligands, preference for the donor atoms of ligands, and coordination dynamics. Zinc needs to be tightly controlled. The interaction with low molecular weight ligands such as water and inorganic and organic anions is highly relevant to its biology but in contrast to its coordination in proteins has not been discussed in the biochemical literature. From the discussion in this article, it is becoming evident that zinc ion speciation is

  17. Russian science readings (chemistry, physics, biology)

    CERN Document Server

    Light, L

    1949-01-01

    Some years' experience in teaching Russian to working scientists who had already acquired the rudiments of the grammar convinced me of the need for a reader of the present type that would smooth the path of those wishing to study Russian scientific literature in the original. Although the subject matter comprises what I have described for convenience as chemistry, physics and biology, it could be read with equal profit by those engaged in any branch of pure or applied science. All the passages are taken from school textbooks, and acknowledgements are due to the authors of the works listed at the foot of the contents page.

  18. Chemistry and biology of insect bioluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colepicolo Neto, P.; Bechara, E.J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Basic aspects on the Chemistry and Biology of bioluminescence are reviewed, with emphasis on insects. Data from the investigation of Lampyridae (fireflies) are collected from literature. With regard to Elateridae (click beetles) and Phengodidae (rail road worms), the least explored families of luminescent insects, new data are presented on the following aspects: (i) 'in vivo' emission spectra, (ii) chemical nature of the luciferin, (iii) conection between bioluminescence and 'oxygen toxicity' as a result of molecular oxygen storage and (iv) the role of light emission by larvae and pupae. (Author) [pt

  19. Radiation chemistry in development and research of radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Rui

    2010-01-01

    During the establishment and development of radiation biology, radiation chemistry acts like bridge which units the spatial and temporal insight coming from radiation physics with radiation biology. The theory, model, and methodology of radiation chemistry play an important role in promoting research and development of radiation biology. Following research development of radiation biology effects towards systems radiation biology the illustration and exploration both diversity of biological responses and complex process of biological effect occurring remain to need the theory, model, and methodology come from radiation chemistry. (authors)

  20. From coordination chemistry to biological chemistry of aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Tamas

    2013-11-01

    The paper gives a review on the importance of distribution of Al in biological fluids, primarily in the lights of the works of the author in Al chemistry. It starts with studies of interactions of Al(III) with small biomolecules, such as aliphatic and aromatic hydroxycarboxylic acids, and inorganic and organic phosphates. A significant part of this review deals with the problems of description of the biospeciation of Al(III) in serum, where besides the thermodynamic conditions the role of time is also considered in the case of this sluggish metal ion. The Al(III) complexes of the other large group of biomolecules, proteins and their building blocks (oligo)peptides and amino acids are also discussed, where the role of the type of the side chain donors and the extent of preorganisation are considered in the efficiency of metal ion binding. The application of low molecular mass chelator molecules in restoring the dysfunctioning metal ion (including Al(III)) homeostasis in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease is also discussed in the paper. © 2013.

  1. Exploration of fluorine chemistry at the multidisciplinary interface of chemistry and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Iwao

    2013-07-05

    Over the last three decades, my engagement in "fluorine chemistry" has evolved substantially because of the multidisciplinary nature of the research programs. I began my research career as a synthetic chemist in organometallic chemistry and homogeneous catalysis directed toward organic synthesis. Then, I was brought into a very unique world of "fluorine chemistry" in the end of 1970s. I started exploring the interface of fluorine chemistry and transition metal homogeneous catalysis first, which was followed by amino acids, peptides, and peptidomimetics for medicinal chemistry. Since then, I have been exploring the interfaces of fluorine chemistry and multidisciplinary fields of research involving medicinal chemistry, chemical biology, cancer biology, and molecular imaging. This perspective intends to cover my fruitful endeavor in the exploration of fluorine chemistry at the multidisciplinary interface of chemistry and biology in a chronological order to show the evolution of my research interest and strategy.

  2. Nonlinear Oscillations in Biology and Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of a meeting entitled 'Nonlinear Oscillations in Biology and Chemistry', which was held at the University of Utah May 9-11,1985. The papers fall into four major categories: (i) those that deal with biological problems, particularly problems arising in cell biology, (ii) those that deal with chemical systems, (iii) those that treat problems which arise in neurophysiology, and (iv), those whose primary emphasis is on more general models and the mathematical techniques involved in their analysis. Except for the paper by Auchmuty, all are based on talks given at the meeting. The diversity of papers gives some indication of the scope of the meeting, but the printed word conveys neither the degree of interaction between the participants nor the intellectual sparks generated by that interaction. The meeting was made possible by the financial support of the Department of Mathe­ matics of the University of Utah. I am indebted to Ms. Toni Bunker of the Department of Mathematics for...

  3. Integrated Chemistry and Biology for First-Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdella, Beth R. J.; Walczak, Mary M.; Kandl, Kim A.; Schwinefus, Jeffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    A three-course sequence for first-year students that integrates beginning concepts in biology and chemistry has been designed. The first two courses that emphasize chemistry and its capacity to inform biological applications are described here. The content of the first course moves from small to large particles with an emphasis on membrane…

  4. Medicinal plants from Mali: Chemistry and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Helle; Diallo, Drissa; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2015-12-24

    Mali is one of the countries in West Africa where the health system rely the most on traditional medicine. The healers are mainly using medicinal plants for their treatments. The studies performed being the basis for this review is of importance as they will contribute to sustaining the traditional knowledge. They contribute to evaluate and improve locally produced herbal remedies, and the review gives also an overview of the plant preparations that will have the most potential to be evaluated for new Improved Traditional Medicines. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the studies performed related to medicinal plants from Mali in the period 1995-2015. These studies include ethnopharmacology, chemistry and biological studies of the plants that were chosen based on our interviews with the healers in different regions of Mali, and contribute to sustainable knowledge on the medicinal plants. The Department of Traditional Medicine, Bamako, Mali, is responsible for registering the knowledge of the traditional healers on their use of medicinal plants and also identifying compounds in the plants responsible for the bioactivities claimed. The studies reported aimed at getting information from the healers on the use of medicinal plants, and study the biology and chemistry of selected plants for the purpose of verifying the traditional use of the plants. These studies should form the basis for necessary knowledge for the development of registered Improved Traditional Medicines in Mali. The healers were the ethnopharmacological informants. Questions asked initially were related to wound healing. This was because the immune system is involved when wounds are healed, and additionally the immune system is involved in the majority of the illnesses common in Mali. Based on the results of the interviews the plant material for studies was selected. Studies were performed on the plant parts the healers were using when treating their patients. Conventional chromatographic

  5. The Eighth Central European Conference "Chemistry towards Biology": Snapshot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perczel, András; Atanasov, Atanas G; Sklenář, Vladimír; Nováček, Jiří; Papoušková, Veronika; Kadeřávek, Pavel; Žídek, Lukáš; Kozłowski, Henryk; Wątły, Joanna; Hecel, Aleksandra; Kołkowska, Paulina; Koča, Jaroslav; Svobodová-Vařeková, Radka; Pravda, Lukáš; Sehnal, David; Horský, Vladimír; Geidl, Stanislav; Enriz, Ricardo D; Matějka, Pavel; Jeništová, Adéla; Dendisová, Marcela; Kokaislová, Alžběta; Weissig, Volkmar; Olsen, Mark; Coffey, Aidan; Ajuebor, Jude; Keary, Ruth; Sanz-Gaitero, Marta; van Raaij, Mark J; McAuliffe, Olivia; Waltenberger, Birgit; Mocan, Andrei; Šmejkal, Karel; Heiss, Elke H; Diederich, Marc; Musioł, Robert; Košmrlj, Janez; Polański, Jarosław; Jampílek, Josef

    2016-10-17

    The Eighth Central European Conference "Chemistry towards Biology" was held in Brno, Czech Republic, on August 28-September 1, 2016 to bring together experts in biology, chemistry and design of bioactive compounds; promote the exchange of scientific results, methods and ideas; and encourage cooperation between researchers from all over the world. The topics of the conference covered "Chemistry towards Biology", meaning that the event welcomed chemists working on biology-related problems, biologists using chemical methods, and students and other researchers of the respective areas that fall within the common scope of chemistry and biology. The authors of this manuscript are plenary speakers and other participants of the symposium and members of their research teams. The following summary highlights the major points/topics of the meeting.

  6. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Chemical Instabilities : Applications in Chemistry, Engineering, Geology, and Materials Science

    CERN Document Server

    Baras, F

    1984-01-01

    On March 14-18, 1983 a workshop on "Chemical Instabilities: Applications in Chemistry, Engineering, Geology, and Materials Science" was held in Austin, Texas, U.S.A. It was organized jointly by the University of Texas at Austin and the Universite Libre de Bruxelles and sponsored qy NATO, NSF, the University of Texas at Austin, the International Solvay Institutes and the Ex­ xon Corporation. The present Volume includes most of the material of the in­ vited lectures delivered in the workshop as well as material from some posters, whose content was directly related to the themes of the invited lectures. In ,recent years, problems related to the stability and the nonlinear dynamics of nonequilibrium systems invaded a great num­ ber of fields ranging from abstract mathematics to biology. One of the most striking aspects of this development is that subjects reputed to be "classical" and "well-established" like chemistry, turned out to give rise to a rich variety of phenomena leading to multiple steady states and...

  7. Impact of Theoretical Chemistry on Chemical and Biological Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 4. Impact of Theoretical Chemistry on Chemical and Biological Sciences: Chemistry Nobel Prize – 2013. Saraswathi Vishveshwara. General Article Volume 19 Issue 4 April 2014 pp 347-367 ...

  8. Emerging trends at the interface of Chemistry and Biology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Emerging trends at the interface of Chemistry and. Biology: Applications to the design of human therapeutics. SANTANU BHATTACHARYA. 1 and RAGHAVAN VARADARAJAN. 2. 1. Department of Organic Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. e-mail: sb@orgchem.iisc.ernet.in. 2. Molecular ...

  9. AINSE conference on radiation biology and chemistry. Conference handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The conference handbook contains 60 oral and poster presentations dealing with recent advances in radiation chemistry applied to biological studies, radiopharmaceuticals, radiosensitizers as well as to solid state chemical physics.

  10. AINSE conference on radiation biology and chemistry. Conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The conference handbook contains 60 oral and poster presentations dealing with recent advances in radiation chemistry applied to biological studies, radiopharmaceuticals, radiosensitizers as well as to solid state chemical physics

  11. Sex Education Representations in Spanish Combined Biology and Geology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cabeza, Belén; Sánchez-Bello, Ana

    2013-07-01

    Sex education is principally dealt with as part of the combined subject of Biology and Geology in the Spanish school curriculum. Teachers of this subject are not specifically trained to teach sex education, and thus the contents of their assigned textbooks are the main source of information available to them in this field. The main goal of this study was to determine what information Biology and Geology textbooks provide with regard to sex education and the vision of sexuality they give, but above all to reveal which perspectives of sex education they legitimise and which they silence. We analysed the textbooks in question by interpreting both visual and text representations, as a means of enabling us to investigate the nature of the discourse on sex education. With this aim, we have used a qualitative methodology, based on the content analysis. The main analytical tool was an in-house grid constructed to allow us to analyse the visual and textual representations. Our analysis of the combined Biology and Geology textbooks for Secondary Year 3 revealed that there is a tendency to reproduce models of sex education that take place within a framework of the more traditional discourses. Besides, the results suggested that the most of the sample chosen for this study makes a superficial, incomplete, incorrect or biased approach to sex education.

  12. Synthetic biology: lessons from the history of synthetic organic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Brian J; Lim, Wendell A

    2007-09-01

    The mid-nineteenth century saw the development of a radical new direction in chemistry: instead of simply analyzing existing molecules, chemists began to synthesize them--including molecules that did not exist in nature. The combination of this new synthetic approach with more traditional analytical approaches revolutionized chemistry, leading to a deep understanding of the fundamental principles of chemical structure and reactivity and to the emergence of the modern pharmaceutical and chemical industries. The history of synthetic chemistry offers a possible roadmap for the development and impact of synthetic biology, a nascent field in which the goal is to build novel biological systems.

  13. Electron Transfer in Chemistry and Biology - The Primary Events in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    electron transfer. (PET) is a very important process, with considerable chemical and biological relevance. GENERAL I ARTICLE of electrons, respectively. This has entirely changed the earlier framework of interpreting reactions in chemistry and biology. This shift in emphasis enables one to understand the elementary.

  14. Electron Transfer in Chemistry and Biology - The Primary Events in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electron Transfer in Chemistry and Biology -. The Primary Events in Photosynthesis. V Krishnan. One of the most important chemical reactions is electron transfer from one atomic/molecular unit to another. This reaction, accompanied by proton and hydrogen atom transfers, occurs in a cascade in many biological processes,.

  15. Impact of Theoretical Chemistry on Chemical and Biological Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    molecular dynamics simulations and graph theory as applied to biological systems. Her group has developed network approaches to investigate functionally important amino acids in protein structures. Keywords. Quantum Chemistry, molecular mechanics, force fields, QM/MM hybrid method, systems biology, molecular ...

  16. Geological and Chemical Factors that Impacted the Biological Utilization of Cobalt in the Archean Eon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Eli K.; Hao, Jihua; Prabhu, Anirudh; Zhong, Hao; Jelen, Ben I.; Meyer, Mike; Hazen, Robert M.; Falkowski, Paul G.

    2018-03-01

    The geosphere and biosphere coevolved and influenced Earth's biological and mineralogical diversity. Changing redox conditions influenced the availability of different transition metals, which are essential components in the active sites of oxidoreductases, proteins that catalyze electron transfer reactions across the tree of life. Despite its relatively low abundance in the environment, cobalt (Co) is a unique metal in biology due to its importance to a wide range of organisms as the metal center of vitamin B12 (aka cobalamin, Cbl). Cbl is vital to multiple methyltransferase enzymes involved in energetically favorable metabolic pathways. It is unclear how Co availability is linked to mineral evolution and weathering processes. Here we examine important biological functions of Co, as well as chemical and geological factors that may have influenced the utilization of Co early in the evolution of life. Only 66 natural minerals are known to contain Co as an essential element. However, Co is incorporated as a minor element in abundant rock-forming minerals, potentially representing a reliable source of Co as a trace element in marine systems due to weathering processes. We developed a mineral weathering model that indicates that dissolved Co was potentially more bioavailable in the Archean ocean under low S conditions than it is today. Mineral weathering, redox chemistry, Co complexation with nitrogen-containing organics, and hydrothermal environments were crucial in the incorporation of Co in primitive metabolic pathways. These chemical and geological characteristics of Co can inform the biological utilization of other trace metals in early forms of life.

  17. Analytical Chemistry at the Interface Between Materials Science and Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Janese C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2000-09-21

    Likedlessentid sciences, anal~cd chetis~continues toreinvent itself. Moving beyond its traditional roles of identification and quantification, analytical chemistry is now expanding its frontiers into areas previously reserved to other disciplines. This work describes several research efforts that lie at the new interfaces between analytical chemistry and two of these disciplines, namely materials science and biology. In the materials science realm, the search for new materials that may have useful or unique chromatographic properties motivated the synthesis and characterization of electrically conductive sol-gels. In the biology realm, the search for new surface fabrication schemes that would permit or even improve the detection of specific biological reactions motivated the design of miniaturized biological arrays. Collectively, this work represents some of analytical chemistry’s newest forays into these disciplines. The introduction section to this dissertation provides a literature review on several of the key aspects of this work. In advance of the materials science discussion, a brief introduction into electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC) and sol-gel chemistry is provided. In advance of the biological discussions, brief overviews of scanning force microscopy (SFM) and the oxidative chemistry used to construct our biological arrays are provided. This section is followed by four chapters, each of which is presented as a separate manuscript, and focuses on work that describes some of our cross-disciplinary efforts within materials science and biology. This dissertation concludes with a general summary and future prospectus.

  18. Recent advances in the chemistry and biology of pyridopyrimidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buron, F; Mérour, J Y; Akssira, M; Guillaumet, G; Routier, S

    2015-05-05

    The interest in pyridopyrimidine cores for pharmaceutical products makes this scaffold a highly useful building block for organic chemistry. These derivatives have found applications in various areas of medicine such as anticancer, CNS, fungicidal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antibacterial therapies. This review mainly focuses on the progress achieved since 2004 in the chemistry and biological activity of pyridopyrimidines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Cell-free biology: exploiting the interface between synthetic biology and synthetic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D Calvin; Jewett, Michael C

    2012-10-01

    Just as synthetic organic chemistry once revolutionized the ability of chemists to build molecules (including those that did not exist in nature) following a basic set of design rules, cell-free synthetic biology is beginning to provide an improved toolbox and faster process for not only harnessing but also expanding the chemistry of life. At the interface between chemistry and biology, research in cell-free synthetic systems is proceeding in two different directions: using synthetic biology for synthetic chemistry and using synthetic chemistry to reprogram or mimic biology. In the coming years, the impact of advances inspired by these approaches will make possible the synthesis of nonbiological polymers having new backbone compositions, new chemical properties, new structures, and new functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Notions of radiation chemistry in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastro, N.L. del.

    1989-10-01

    The present paper examines some aspects of the direct and indirect biological radiation effects: pair formation, free radicals, superoxide ion, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, oxygen singlet together with the endogen radioprotector mechanisms of organisms and the ways in which an improved radioresistance of biochemical systems can be achieved. (author) [pt

  1. Chemistry and Biology of Orexin Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Kodadek, Thomas; Cai, Di

    2010-01-01

    The orexins are neurohormones that, in concert with their cognate receptors, regulate a number of important physiological processes, including feeding, sleep, reward seeking and energy homeostasis. The orexin receptors have recently emerged as important drug targets. This review provides an overview of recent development in deciphering the biology of orexin signaling as well as efforts to manipulate orexin signaling pharmacologically.

  2. Uranium geology and chemistry, programme and book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrice Bruneton; Cathelineau, Michel; Richard, Antonin; Mercadier, Julien; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Cuney, Michel; Beaufort, D.; Patrier, P.; Goncalves, Philippe; Trap, Pierre; Van Lichtervelde, Marieke; Jeanneret, Pauline; Marquer, Didier; Feybesse, Jean-Louis; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Mercadier, Julien; Annesley, Irvine R.; Austmann, Christine L.; Creighton, Steve; Eglinger, Aurelien; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; Andre-Mayer, Anne-Sylvie; Cuney, Michel; Goncalves, Philippe; Durand, Cyril; Feybesse, Jean-Louis; Zeyen, Hermann; Beres, Jan; Pessel, Marc; Gaffet, Stephane; Rousset, Dominique; Senechal, Guy; Dargent, Maxime; Dubessy, Jean; Caumon, Marie-Camille; Trung, Chinh-Nguyen; Richard, Antonin; Montel, Jean-Marc; Peiffert, Chantal; Leborgne, Romain; Seydoux-Guillaume, Anne-Magali; Montel, J.M.; Bingen, B.; Bosse, V.; De Parseval, Ph.; Janots, Emilie; Wirth, Richard; Reiller, Pascal E.; Marang, Laura; Jouvin, Delphine; Benedetti, Marc F.; Clavier, N.; Costin, D.T.; Mesbah, A.; Dacheux, N.; Poinssot, C.; Raimbault, Louis; Mercadier, Julien; Cuney, Michel; Moncoffre, Nathalie; Marchand, Benoit; Perrat-Mabillon, Angela; Gine, A.; Saint-Bezar, B.; Benedicto, A.; Wattinne, A.; Andre, G.; Bonnetti, Christophe; Bourlange, Sylvain; Malartre, Fabrice; Benedicto, Antonio; Liu, Xiaodong; Cretaz, F.; Szenknect, S.; Descostes, M.; Dacheux, N.; Othmane, Guillaume; Allard, Thierry; Menguy, Nicolas; Vercouter, Thomas; Morin, Guillaume; Esteve, Imene; Calas, Georges; Fayek, Mostafa; Barbarand, Jocelyn; Drot, Romuald; Grare, Alexis; Reyx, Jean; Pagel, Maurice; Brouand, Marc; Zakari, Aziz; Bidaud, Adrien; Toe, Wilfried; Milesi, Jean-Pierre; Carrouee, Simon; Moyen, Jean-Francois; Schmitt, Jean-Michel; Brouand, Marc; Bouzid, Majda; Langlais, Valerie; Hocquet, Sebastien; Munara, A.; Boulvais, P.; Carpentier, C.; Ajjabou, Leila; Ledru, Patrick; Fiet, Nicolas; Hocquet, Sebastien; Royer, Jean-Jacques; Fiet, N.; Oppeneau, T.; Berestnev, N.; Merembayev, T.; Parize, Olivier; Aouami, I.; Nedjari, A.; Mahaman, T.; Sanguinetti, H.; Uri, Freddy; Beaufort, Daniel; Riegler, Thomas; Lescuyer, Jean-Luc; Wollenberg, Peter; Dardel, Jacques; Bourgeois, Damien; Maynadie, Jerome; Meyer, Daniel; Courtaud, B.; Auger, F.; Thiry, J.; Fakhi, S.; Fait, E.; Outayad, R.; Mouflih, M.; Voque Romero, I.; Manjon, Guillermo; Ben Mansour, M.; Bouih, A.; Nourreddine, A.; El Hadi, H.; Mokhtari, Hamid; Gourgiotis, Alkiviadis; Bassot, Sylvain; Simonucci, Caroline; Diez, Olivier; Mifsud, Aurelie; Martin-Garin, Arnaud; Coppin, Frederic; Dejeant, Adrien; Galoisy, Laurence; Calas, Georges; Phrommavanh, Vannapha; Descostes, Michael; Wattine-Morice, Aurelia; Belieres, Michel; Ben Simon, Rose; Schmitt, Jean-Michel; Thiry, Medard; Megneng, Melissa; Orberger, Beate; Hofmann, Axel; Wirth, Richard; Dumas, Paule; Sandt, Christophe; Hicks, Nigel; Tudryn, Alina; Tartese, Romain; Boulvais, Philippe; Poujol, Marc

    2011-11-01

    This meeting of the French Geological Society (SGF) was organized with the joint contribution of Areva, CNRS-INSU, PACEN, GUTEC, IDES, and Paris-Sud University. This document gathers the abstracts of the following 40 presentations: 1 - Uranium deposits of 'Intrusive'-type; 2 - U deposits beneath discordance: analogy with F-Ba-Pb-Zn(Ag) 'Basin Hosted'-type deposits?; 3 - Clays and related minerals as guides for uranium deposits prospecting: status of recent advances; 4 - Hudsonian Uranium mineralizations in the Western part of the Trans-Hudsonian orogen (Saskatchewan, Canada): a source for the formation of discordance-type deposits?; 5 - U-Th elements mobilization during the Panafrican metamorphism: implication on the formation of Cu-Co-(U) deposits, Solwezi dome, NW Zambia; 6 - Fractures network characterization by seismic and electrical anisotropy; 7 - study of uranyl speciation by Raman spectroscopy in chlorinated solutions (LiCl = 0.5 to 15 M) up to 350 deg. C. Metallogenic consequences and perspectives; 8 - Experimental weathering of natural monazite in the conditions of formation of Oklo and discordance-type uranium deposits; 9 - Disturbance of the U-Th-Pb chronometers during the low temperature weathering of monazite: synergy between irradiation damages and dissolution-precipitation; 10 - U(VI) interaction with humic substances: speciation and application to independent data; 11 - Preparation and characterization of Th 1-x U x SiO 4 solid solutions: towards the understanding of coffinite formation?; 12 - A new geochemical tool for the study of U deposits: the anions in uraninite; 13 - Tectonics in the Unegt basin (E-Gobi, Mongolia): deformation stripes, hydrocarbons migration and U mineralizations; 14 - Study of U sources in the Erlian Basin (China); 15 Thermodynamic data acquisition for uranyl phosphates and vanadates: from synthetic analogues to natural samples; 16 - U speciation in Nopal I opals: geochemical consequences for the end of the deposit genesis

  3. Organic chemistry and biology of the interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, C.

    1973-01-01

    Interstellar organic chemistry is discussed as the field of study emerging from the discovery of microwave lines of formaldehyde and of hydrogen cyanide in the interstellar medium. The reliability of molecular identifications and comparisons of interstellar and cometary compounds are considered, along with the degradational origin of simple organics. It is pointed out that the contribution of interstellar organic chemistry to problems in biology is not substantive but analogical. The interstellar medium reveals the operation of chemical processes which, on earth and perhaps on vast numbers of planets throughout the universe, led to the origin of life, but the actual molecules of the interstellar medium are unlikely to play any significant biological role.

  4. At the Intersection of Chemistry, Biology, and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christopher T

    2017-06-20

    After an undergraduate degree in biology at Harvard, I started graduate school at The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in New York City in July 1965. I was attracted to the chemical side of biochemistry and joined Fritz Lipmann's large, hierarchical laboratory to study enzyme mechanisms. That work led to postdoctoral research with Robert Abeles at Brandeis, then a center of what, 30 years later, would be called chemical biology. I spent 15 years on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology faculty, in both the Chemistry and Biology Departments, and then 26 years on the Harvard Medical School Faculty. My research interests have been at the intersection of chemistry, biology, and medicine. One unanticipated major focus has been investigating the chemical logic and enzymatic machinery of natural product biosynthesis, including antibiotics and antitumor agents. In this postgenomic era it is now recognized that there may be from 10 5 to 10 6 biosynthetic gene clusters as yet uncharacterized for potential new therapeutic agents.

  5. Mass spectrometry. Environment, biology, oenology, medicine, geology, chemistry, archaeology, mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the papers (communications and posters) presented at the 16. French days of mass spectrometry, held September 6-9, 1999 in Nancy, France. 5 papers are interesting for the INIS database and are analyzed separately. (O.M.)

  6. Emerging trends at the interface of chemistry and biology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This article describes recent developments in the design and implementation of various strategies towards the development of novel therapeutics using first principles from biology and chemistry. Strategies for multi-target therapeutics and network analysis with a focus on cancer and HIV are discussed. Methods for gene ...

  7. Emerging trends at the interface of Chemistry and Biology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This article describes recent developments in the design and implementation of various strategies towards the development of novel therapeutics using first principles from biology and chemistry. Strategies for multi-target therapeutics and network analysis with a focus on cancer and HIV are discussed. Methods for gene ...

  8. The chemistry and biology of guanidine natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinck, Roberto G S; Bertonha, Ariane F; Takaki, Mirelle; Rodriguez, Julie P G

    2017-11-15

    Covering: 2015 and 2016The chemistry and biology of natural guanidines isolated from microbial culture media, from marine invertebrates, as well as from terrestrial plants and animals, are reviewed. Emphasis is directed to the biosynthesis, total synthesis, ecological roles as well as on the evolution of guanidines isolated from natural sources.

  9. The chemistry and biology of mycolactones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Gehringer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mycolactones are a group of macrolides excreted by the human pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans, which exhibit cytotoxic, immunosuppressive and analgesic properties. As the virulence factor of M. ulcerans, mycolactones are central to the pathogenesis of the neglected disease Buruli ulcer, a chronic and debilitating medical condition characterized by necrotic skin ulcers. Due to their complex structure and fascinating biology, mycolactones have inspired various total synthesis endeavors and structure–activity relationship studies. Although this review intends to cover all synthesis efforts in the field, special emphasis is given to the comparison of conceptually different approaches and to the discussion of more recent contributions. Furthermore, a detailed discussion of molecular targets and structure–activity relationships is provided.

  10. Areas of research in radiation chemistry fundamental to radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    Among all the environmental hazards to which man is exposed, ionizing radiation is the most thoroughly investigated and the most responsibly monitored and controlled. Nevertheless, because of the importance of radiation in modern society from both the hazard as well as the utilitarian standpoints, much more information concerning the biological effects induced and their modification and reversal is required. Together with radiation physics, an understanding of radiation chemistry is necessary for full appreciation of biological effects of high and low energy radiations, and for the development of prophylactic, therapeutic and potentiating methods and techniques in biological organisms. The necessity of understanding the chemistry of any system, biological or not, that is to be manipulated and controlled, is so obvious as to make trivial a statement to that effect. If any natural phenomenon is to be put to our use, surely the elements of it must be studied and appreciated fully. In the preliminary statements of the various panels of this general group, the need for additional information on the basic radiation chemistry concerned in radiation-induced biological effects pervades throughout

  11. Joining Forces: The Chemical Biology-Medicinal Chemistry Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowright, Alleyn T; Ottmann, Christian; Arkin, Michelle; Auberson, Yves P; Timmerman, Henk; Waldmann, Herbert

    2017-09-21

    The scientific advances being made across all disciplines are creating ever-increasing opportunities to enhance our knowledge of biological systems and how they relate to human disease. One of the central driving forces in discovering new medicines is medicinal chemistry, where the design and synthesis of novel compounds has led to multiple drugs. Chemical biology, sitting at the interface of many disciplines, has now emerged as a major contributor to the understanding of biological systems and is becoming an integral part of drug discovery. Bringing chemistry and biology much closer and blurring the boundaries between disciplines is creating new opportunities to probe and understand biology; both disciplines play key roles and need to join forces and work together effectively to synergize their impact. The power of chemical biology will then reach its full potential and drive innovation, leading to the discovery of transformative medicines to treat patients. Advances in cancer biology and drug discovery highlight this potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Meeting of the French geological society - Uranium: geology, geophysics, chemistry. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakari, A.A.; Mima, S.; Bidaud, A.; Criqui, P.; Menanteau, P.; David, S.; Pagel, M.; Chagnes, A.; Cote, G.; Courtaud, B.; Thiry, J.; Miehe, J.M.; Gilbert, F.; Cuney, M.; Bruneton, P.; Ewington, D.; Vautrin-Ul, C.; Cannizzo, C.; Betelu, S.; Chausse, A.; Ly, J.; Bourgeois, D.; Maynadie, J.; Meyer, D.; Clavier, N.; Costin, D.T.; Cretaz, F.; Szenknect, S.; Ravaux, J.; Poinssot, C.; Dacheux, N.; Durupt, N.; Blanvillain, J.J.; Geffroy, F.; Aparicio, B.; Dubessy, J.; Nguyen-Trung, C.; Robert, P.; Uri, F.; Beaufort, D.; Lescuyer, J.L.; Morichon, E.; Allard, T.; Milesi, J.P.; Richard, A.; Rozsypal, C.; Mercadier, J.; Banks, D.A.; Boiron, M.C.; Cathelineau, M.; Dardel, J.; Billon, S.; Patrier, P.; Wattinne, A.; Vanderhaeghe, O.; Fabre, C.; Castillo, M.; Salvi, S.; Beziat, D.; Williams-Jones, A.E.; Trap, P.; Durand, C.; Goncalves, P.; Marquer, D.; Feybesse, J.L.; Richard, Y.; Orberger, B.; Hofmann, A.; Megneng, M.; Orberger, B.; Bouttemy, M.; Vigneron, J.; Etcheberry, A.; Perdicakis, M.; Prignon, N.; Toe, W.; Andre-Mayer, A.S.; Eglinger, A.; Jordaan, T.; Hocquet, S.; Ledru, P.; Selezneva, V.; Vendryes, G.; Lach, P.; Cuney, M.; Mercadier, J.; Brouand, M.; Duran, C.; Seydoux-Guillaume, A.M.; Bingen, B.; Parseval, P. de; Guillaume, D.; Bosse, V.; Paquette, J.L.; Ingrin, J.; Montel, J.M.; Giot, R.; Maucotel, F.; Hubert, S.; Gautheron, C.; Tassan-Got, L.; Pagel, M.; Barbarand, J.; Cuney, M.; Lach, P.; Bonhoure, J.; Leisen, M.; Kister, P.; Salaun, A.; Villemant, B.; Gerard, M.; Komorowski, J.C.; Michel, A.; Riegler, T.; Tartese, R.; Boulvais, P.; Poujols, M.; Gloaguen, E.; Mazzanti, M.; Mougel, V.; Nocton, G.; Biswas, B.; Pecaut, J.; Othmane, G.; Menguy, N.; Vercouter, T.; Morin, G.; Galoisy, L.; Calas, G.; Fayek, M.

    2010-11-01

    This document brings together the abstracts of the 39 presentations given at this meeting days on uranium, organized by the French geological society, and dealing with: 1 - Prospective study of the electronuclear technological transition; 2 - The front-end of the nuclear cycle: from the molecule to the process; 3 - Geophysics: recent changes; 4 - Use of well logging in uranium exploration; 5 - Genetical classification of thorium deposits; 6 - Genetical nomenclature of uranium sources; 7 - Uranium deposits linked to a Proterozoic discordance - retrospective; 8 - The use of spectral analysis techniques in uranium exploration: real-time mapping of clay alteration features; 9 - Development of functionalized silk-screened carbon electrodes for the analysis of uranium trace amounts; 10 - Study of the actinides solvation sphere in organic environment; 11 - Thermodynamic of uraniferous phases of interest for the nuclear cycle; 12 - Heap leaching of marginal minerals at Somair: from lab studies to the production of 700 t of uranium/year; 13 - Agglomeration phenomenology and role of iron in uranium heap leaching; 14 - Chloride uranyl complexes up to 300 deg. C along the saturation vapour curve: Raman spectroscopy analysis and metallogenic consequences; 15 - Weathering systems in the Shea Creek deposit (Athabasca, Canada): vertical variability of argillaceous weathering; 16 - Weathering systems in the Shea Creek deposit (Athabasca, Canada): contribution of irradiation defects in clays to the tracing of past uranium migrations; 17 - Uranium concentrations in mineralizing fluids of the Athabasca basin: analytical and experimental approach; 18 - Paleo-surfaces and metallic rooting: the autochthonous uranium of pre-Athabasca paleo-alterites, Canada; 19 - Distribution of argillaceous parageneses in the Imouraren deposit - Niger; 20 - Heat flux and radioelements concentration (U, Th, K) of precambrian basements: implications in terms of crust growth mechanisms, paleo

  13. Stochasticity in processes fundamentals and applications to chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Schuster, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This book has developed over the past fifteen years from a modern course on stochastic chemical kinetics for graduate students in physics, chemistry and biology. The first part presents a systematic collection of the mathematical background material needed to understand probability, statistics, and stochastic processes as a prerequisite for the increasingly challenging practical applications in chemistry and the life sciences examined in the second part. Recent advances in the development of new techniques and in the resolution of conventional experiments at nano-scales have been tremendous: today molecular spectroscopy can provide insights into processes down to scales at which current theories at the interface of physics, chemistry and the life sciences cannot be successful without a firm grasp of randomness and its sources. Routinely measured data is now sufficiently accurate to allow the direct recording of fluctuations. As a result, the sampling of data and the modeling of relevant processes are doomed t...

  14. Chemistry and Biology of the Caged Garcinia Xanthones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarasriwong, Oraphin; Batova, Ayse; Chavasiri, Warinthorn

    2011-01-01

    Natural products have been a great source of many small molecule drugs for various diseases. In spite of recent advances in biochemical engineering and fermentation technologies that allow us to explore microorganisms and the marine environment as alternative sources of drugs, more than 70% of the current small molecule therapeutics derive their structures from plants used in traditional medicine. Natural-product-based drug discovery relies heavily on advances made in the sciences of biology and chemistry. Whereas biology aims to investigate the mode of action of a natural product, chemistry aims to overcome challenges related to its supply, bioactivity, and target selectivity. This review summarizes the explorations of the caged Garcinia xanthones, a family of plant metabolites that possess a unique chemical structure, potent bioactivities, and a promising pharmacology for drug design and development. PMID:20648491

  15. Evaluation of stream chemistry trends in US Geological Survey reference watersheds, 1970-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, M Alisa

    2013-11-01

    The Hydrologic Benchmark Network (HBN) is a long-term monitoring program established by the US Geological Survey in the 1960s to track changes in the streamflow and stream chemistry in undeveloped watersheds across the USA. Trends in stream chemistry were tested at 15 HBN stations over two periods (1970-2010 and 1990-2010) using the parametric Load Estimator (LOADEST) model and the nonparametric seasonal Kendall test. Trends in annual streamflow and precipitation chemistry also were tested to help identify likely drivers of changes in stream chemistry. At stations in the northeastern USA, there were significant declines in stream sulfate, which were consistent with declines in sulfate deposition resulting from the reductions in SO₂ emissions mandated under the Clean Air Act Amendments. Sulfate declines in stream water were smaller than declines in deposition suggesting sulfate may be accumulating in watershed soils and thereby delaying the stream response to improvements in deposition. Trends in stream chemistry at stations in other part of the country generally were attributed to climate variability or land disturbance. Despite declines in sulfate deposition, increasing stream sulfate was observed at several stations and appeared to be linked to periods of drought or declining streamflow. Falling water tables might have enhanced oxidation of organic matter in wetlands or pyrite in mineralized bedrock thereby increasing sulfate export in surface water. Increasing sulfate and nitrate at a station in the western USA were attributed to release of soluble salts and nutrients from soils following a large wildfire in the watershed.

  16. Contextualization and technologies in the Biology and Chemistry textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozana Gomes de Abreu

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyze Biology and Chemistry school textbooks to understand how conceptions of contextualization and technologies are overtaken and hybridized. We consider that textbooks produce meanings (senses and signifieds in curricular policies. These are cultural productions that were hybridized and recontextualized according to Basil Bernstein and Stephen Ball. We argue that the focus on contextualization and technologies expressed in those textbooks are hybridized from several influences and they do not represent a consensus about those conceptions.

  17. Determination of total mercury in biological and geological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crock, James G.

    2005-01-01

    The analytical chemist is faced with several challenges when determining mercury in biological and geological materials. These challenges include widespread mercury contamination, both in the laboratory and the environment, possible losses of mercury during sample preparation and digestion, the wide range of mercury values commonly observed, ranging from the low nanogram per gram or per liter for background areas to hundreds of milligrams per kilogram in contaminated or ore-bearing areas, great matrix diversity, and sample heterogeneity1. These factors can be naturally occurring or anthropogenic, but must be addressed to provide a precise and accurate analysis. Although there are many instrumental methods available for the successful determination of mercury, no one technique will address all problems or all samples all of the time. The approach for the determination of mercury used at the U.S. Geological Survey, Crustal Imaging and Characterization Team, Denver Laboratories, utilizes a suite of complementary instrumental methods when approaching a study requiring mercury analyses. Typically, a study could require the analysis of waters, leachates or selective digestions of solids, vegetation, and biological materials such as tissue, bone, or shell, soils, rocks, sediments, coals, sludges, and(or) ashes. No one digestion or sample preparation method will be suitable for all of these matrices. The digestions typically employed at our laboratories include: (i) a closed-vessel microwave method using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide, followed by digestion/dilution with a nitric acid/sodium dichromate solution, (ii) a robotic open test-tube digestion with nitric acid and sodium dichromate, (iii) a sealed Teflon? vessel with nitric acid and sodium dichromate, (iv) a sealed glass bottle with nitric acid and sodium dichromate, or (v) open test tube digestion with nitric and sulfuric acids and vanadium pentoxide. The common factor in all these digestions is that they are

  18. Bilingual encyclopedic dictionary English-Spanish in sciences: mining, chemistry, geology, metallurgic and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Maradona, M.; Bellini, R.; Busleiman, M.

    2007-01-01

    This dictionary has been designed to satisfy scientists, researchers, technicians, interpreters, translators and students needs in the areas of chemistry, geology, mining, metallurgy and environment if they find it necessary to have an English-Spanish encyclopedia for their sciences. It is a reliable book when looking for words that are normally not included in everyday dictionaries. It is now reaching the final revision stage with more than 15,000 entries. It includes scientific terms, chemical formulas of minerals and other elements, noticeable scientists biographies, tables, graphics, and images so as to help readers understanding. It is divided into three columns: the first one presents the English term and its area of concern; the second, the corresponding Spanish equivalent, and in the third, a suitable explanation In this work has been stablished a relation betwwen geological units and mineralizations related with the aim to understand the hydrochemistry in this area for future environmental impact

  19. Geological Time, Biological Events and the Learning Transfer Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Claudia C.; Middendorf, Joan; Rehrey, George; Dalkilic, Mehmet M.; Cassidy, Keely

    2014-01-01

    Comprehension of geologic time does not come easily, especially for students who are studying the earth sciences for the first time. This project investigated the potential success of two teaching interventions that were designed to help non-science majors enrolled in an introductory geology class gain a richer conceptual understanding of the…

  20. The biology and chemistry of the zoanthamine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behenna, Douglas C; Stockdill, Jennifer L; Stoltz, Brian M

    2008-01-01

    Marine natural products have long played an important role in natural products chemistry and drug discovery. Mirroring the rich variety and complicated interactions of the marine environment, the substances isolated from sea creatures tend to be incredibly diverse in both molecular structure and biological activity. The natural products isolated from the polyps of marine zoanthids are no exception. The zoanthamine alkaloids, the first of which were isolated over 20 years ago, are of particular interest to the synthetic community because they feature a novel structural framework and exhibit a broad range of biological activities. In this Review, we summarize the major contributions to understanding the zoanthamine natural products with regard to their isolation and structure determination, as well as studies on their biological activity and total synthesis.

  1. Charge Migration in DNA Perspectives from Physics, Chemistry, and Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Tapash

    2007-01-01

    Charge migration through DNA has been the focus of considerable interest in recent years. A deeper understanding of the nature of charge transfer and transport along the double helix is important in fields as diverse as physics, chemistry and nanotechnology. It has also important implications in biology, in particular in DNA damage and repair. This book presents contributions from an international team of researchers active in this field. It contains a wide range of topics that includes the mathematical background of the quantum processes involved, the role of charge transfer in DNA radiation damage, a new approach to DNA sequencing, DNA photonics, and many others. This book should be of value to researchers in condensed matter physics, chemical physics, physical chemistry, and nanoscale sciences.

  2. Organic chemistry and biology: chemical biology through the eyes of collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Victor J

    2009-12-18

    From a scientific perspective, efforts to understand biology including what constitutes health and disease has become a chemical problem. However, chemists and biologists "see" the problems of understanding biology from different perspectives, and this has retarded progress in solving the problems especially as they relate to health and disease. This suggests that close collaboration between chemists and biologists is not only necessary but essential for progress in both the biology and chemistry that will provide solutions to the global questions of biology. This perspective has directed my scientific efforts for the past 45 years, and in this overview I provide my perspective of how the applications of synthetic chemistry, structural design, and numerous other chemical principles have intersected in my collaborations with biologists to provide new tools, new science, and new insights that were only made possible and fruitful by these collaborations.

  3. 2010 Tetrapyrroles, Chemistry & Biology of Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angela Wilks

    2010-07-30

    The objective of the Chemistry & Biology of Tetrapyrroles Gordon Conference is to bring together researchers from diverse disciplines that otherwise would not interact. By bringing biologists, chemists, engineers and clinicians with a common interest in tetrapyrroles the conference provides a forum for cross-disciplinary ideas and collaboration. The perspective provided by biologists, chemists, and clinicians working in fields such as newly discovered defects in human porphyrin metabolism, the myriad of strategies for light harvesting in photosynthetic organisms, novel tetrapyrroles that serve as auxiliary chromophores or enzyme cofactors, synthetic strategies in the design of novel tetrapyrrole scaffolds, and tetrapyrrole based cell signaling and regulatory systems, makes this conference unique in the field. Over the years the growing evidence for the role of tetrapyrroles and their reactive intermediates in cell signaling and regulation has been of increasing importance at this conference. The 2010 conference on Chemistry & Biology of Tetrapyrroles will focus on many of these new frontiers as outlined in the preliminary program listed. Speakers will emphasize unpublished results and new findings in the field. The oral sessions will be followed by the highly interactive afternoon poster sessions. The poster sessions provide all conferees with the opportunity to present their latest research and to exchange ideas in a more informal setting. As in the past, this opportunity will continue during the nightly social gathering that takes place in the poster hall following the evening lectures. All conferees are encouraged to submit and present posters. At the conference the best poster in the areas of biology, chemistry and medicine will be selected by a panel of previous conference chairs.

  4. Dynamic light scattering with applications to chemistry, biology, and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Berne, Bruce J

    2000-01-01

    Lasers play an increasingly important role in a variety of detection techniques, making inelastic light scattering a tool of growing value in the investigation of dynamic and structural problems in chemistry, biology, and physics. Until the initial publication of this work, however, no monograph treated the principles behind current developments in the field.This volume presents a comprehensive introduction to the principles underlying laser light scattering, focusing on the time dependence of fluctuations in fluid systems; it also serves as an introduction to the theory of time correlation f

  5. Some conceptual issues in the transition from chemistry to biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Alvaro

    2016-12-01

    The transition from chemistry to biology is an extremely complex issue because of the huge phenomenological differences between the two domains and because this transition has many different aspects and dimensions. In this paper, I will try to analyze how chemical systems have developed a cohesive, self-maintaining and functionally differentiated system that recruits its organization to stay far from equilibrium. This organization cannot exist but in an individualized form, and yet, it unfolds both a diachronic-historical and a synchronic collective dimension. I will argue that, far from being a problem, these different dimensions of the phenomenon of life, appear as a consequence of the nature of this individualized organization.

  6. Viewpoint of defining the groundwater chemistry for the performance assessment on geological disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yui, Mikazu

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the viewpoint of defining the groundwater chemistry for performance assessment of the second progress report for research and development on geological disposal. Based on the results of statistical analysis (binary scatter plots) of the measured data in addition to the consideration of the first progress report, we defined the five hypothetically modeled groundwaters considering the general geological conditions and importance for performance assessment. In order to evaluate the priority of groundwater chemistries, we have analyzed the above five hypothetical groundwaters by considering the results of multivariate statistical analyses, data reliability, evidence for geochemical controls on groundwater chemistry and exclusion criteria for potential repository sites in Japan. As a result, the fresh reducing high pH (FRHP) type groundwater has been selected for the Reference Case analysis, and the saline reducing high pH (SRHP) type groundwater has been selected for the Alternative Geological Environmental Case analysis, respectively. (author)

  7. Recent Advances in the Chemistry and Biology of Podophyllotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang; Che, Zhiping; Xu, Hui

    2017-04-03

    Podophyllotoxin and its related aryltetralin cyclolignans belong to a family of important products that exhibit various biological properties (e.g., cytotoxic, insecticidal, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, neurotoxic, immunosuppressive, antirheumatic, antioxidative, antispasmogenic, and hypolipidemic activities). This Review provides a survey of podophyllotoxin and its analogues isolated from plants. In particular, recent developments in the elegant total chemical synthesis, structural modifications, biosynthesis, and biotransformation of podophyllotoxin and its analogues are summarized. Moreover, a deoxypodophyllotoxin-based chemosensor for selective detection of mercury ion is described. In addition to the most active podophyllotoxin derivatives in each series against human cancer cell lines and insect pests listed in the tables, the structure-activity relationships of podophyllotoxin derivatives as cytotoxic and insecticidal agents are also outlined. Future prospects and further developments in this area are covered at the end of the Review. We believe that this Review will provide necessary information for synthetic, medicinal, and pesticidal chemistry researchers who are interested in the chemistry and biology of podophyllotoxins. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Platensimycin and platencin: Inspirations for chemistry, biology, enzymology, and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Jeffrey D; Dong, Liao-Bin; Shen, Ben

    2017-06-01

    Natural products have served as the main source of drugs and drug leads, and natural products produced by microorganisms are one of the most prevalent sources of clinical antibiotics. Their unparalleled structural and chemical diversities provide a basis to investigate fundamental biological processes while providing access to a tremendous amount of chemical space. There is a pressing need for novel antibiotics with new mode of actions to combat the growing challenge of multidrug resistant pathogens. This review begins with the pioneering discovery and biological activities of platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN), two antibacterial natural products isolated from Streptomyces platensis. The elucidation of their unique biochemical mode of action, structure-activity relationships, and pharmacokinetics is presented to highlight key aspects of their biological activities. It then presents an overview of how microbial genomics has impacted the field of PTM and PTN and revealed paradigm-shifting discoveries in terpenoid biosynthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and antibiotic and antidiabetic therapies. It concludes with a discussion covering the future perspectives of PTM and PTN in regard to natural products discovery, bacterial diterpenoid biosynthesis, and the pharmaceutical promise of PTM and PTN as antibiotics and for the treatment of metabolic disorders. PTM and PTN have inspired new discoveries in chemistry, biology, enzymology, and medicine and will undoubtedly continue to do so. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Roles of radiation chemistry in development and research of radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Rui

    2009-01-01

    Radiation chemistry acts as a bridge connecting radiation physics with radiation biology in spatial and temporal insight. The theory, model, and methodology coming from radiation chemistry play an important role in the research and development of radiation biology. The chemical changes induced by ionizing radiation are involved not only in early event of biological effects caused by ionizing radiation but in function radiation biology, such as DNA damage and repair, sensitive modification, metabolism and function of active oxygen and so on. Following the research development of radiation biology, systems radiation biology, accurate quality and quantity of radiation biology effects need more methods and perfect tools from radiation chemistry. (authors)

  10. Investigation of silicate surface chemistry and reaction mechanisms associated with mass transport in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.F.; Perry, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    The concentration and rate of transport of radionuclides through geologic media can be strongly influenced by the extent of sorption on aquifer surfaces. Over time intervals relevant to such transport processes, rock and mineral surfaces cannot be considered as inert, unreactive substrates but rather as groundwater/solidphase interfaces which are commonly in a state of natural or artificially induced disequilibrium. The goal of the present research is to define experimentally the type of water/rock interactions that will influence surface chemistry and hence sorption characteristics and capacities of natural aquifers. As wide a range of silicate minerals as possible was selected for study to represent rock-forming minerals in basalt, tuff, and granite. The minerals include K-feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, olivine, hornblende, biotite, and volcanic glass

  11. Encyclopedic dictionary bilingual English-Spanish of sciences: mining, chemistry, geology, metallurgy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Maradona, M.; Bellini, M.; Busleiman, M.

    2007-01-01

    This dictionary has been designed to satisfy scientists, researchers, technicians, interpreters, translators and students' needs in the areas of chemistry, geology, mining, metallurgy and environment for they find it necessary to have an English- Spanish encyclopedia on their sciences. It is a reliable book when looking for words that are normally not included in everyday dictionaries. It is now reaching the final revision stage with more than 15,000 entries. It includes scientific terms, chemical formulas of minerals and other elements, noticeable scientists' biographies, tables, graphics, and images so as to help readers' understanding. It is divided into three columns: the first one presents the English term and its area of concern; the second, the corresponding Spanish equivalent, and in the third, a suitable explanation.(author)

  12. Advances in the Biology and Chemistry of Sialic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Varki, Ajit

    2010-01-01

    Sialic acids are a subset of nonulosonic acids, which are nine-carbon alpha-keto aldonic acids. Natural existing sialic acid-containing structures are presented in different sialic acid forms, various sialyl linkages, and on diverse underlying glycans. They play important roles in biological, pathological, and immunological processes. Sialobiology has been a challenging and yet attractive research area. Recent advances in chemical and chemoenzymatic synthesis as well as large-scale E. coli cell-based production have provided a large library of sialoside standards and derivatives in amounts sufficient for structure-activity relationship studies. Sialoglycan microarrays provide an efficient platform for quick identification of preferred ligands for sialic acid-binding proteins. Future research on sialic acid will continue to be at the interface of chemistry and biology. Research efforts will not only lead to a better understanding of the biological and pathological importance of sialic acids and their diversity, but could also lead to the development of therapeutics. PMID:20020717

  13. Ethnobotany, chemistry, and biological activities of the genus Tithonia (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Paula, Daniela A; Oliveira, Rejane B; Rocha, Bruno A; Da Costa, Fernando B

    2012-02-01

    The genus Tithonia is an important source of diverse natural products, particularly sesquiterpene lactones, diterpenes, and flavonoids. The collected information in this review attempts to summarize the recent developments in the ethnobotany, biological activities, and secondary metabolite chemistry of this genus. More than 100 structures of natural products from Tithonia are reported in this review. The species that has been most investigated in this genus is T. diversifolia, from which ca. 150 compounds were isolated. Biological studies are described to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimalarial, antiviral, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, vasorelaxant, cancer-chemopreventive, cytotoxic, toxicological, bioinsecticide, and repellent activities. A few of these studies have been carried out with isolated compounds from Tithonia species, but the majority has been conducted with different extracts. The relationship between the biological activity and the toxicity of compounds isolated from the plants of this genus as well as T. diversifolia extracts still remains unclear, and mechanisms of action remain to be determined. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  14. Planetary biology--paleontological, geological, and molecular histories of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Steven A; Caraco, M Daniel; Thomson, J Michael; Gaucher, Eric A

    2002-05-03

    The history of life on Earth is chronicled in the geological strata, the fossil record, and the genomes of contemporary organisms. When examined together, these records help identify metabolic and regulatory pathways, annotate protein sequences, and identify animal models to develop new drugs, among other features of scientific and biomedical interest. Together, planetary analysis of genome and proteome databases is providing an enhanced understanding of how life interacts with the biosphere and adapts to global change.

  15. Micro-segmented flow applications in chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Cahill, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The book is dedicated to the method and application potential of micro segmented flow. The recent state of development of this powerful technique is presented in 12 chapters by leading researchers from different countries. In the first section, the principles of generation and manipulation of micro-fluidic segments are explained. In the second section, the micro continuous-flow synthesis of different types of nanomaterials is shown as a typical example for the use of advantages of the technique in chemistry. In the third part, the particular importance of the technique in biotechnical applications is presented demonstrating the progress for miniaturized cell-free processes, for molecular biology and DNA-based diagnostis and sequencing as well as for the development of antibiotics and the evaluation of toxic effects in medicine and environment.

  16. Natural product synthesis at the interface of chemistry and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jiyong

    2014-08-11

    Nature has evolved to produce unique and diverse natural products that possess high target affinity and specificity. Natural products have been the richest sources for novel modulators of biomolecular function. Since the chemical synthesis of urea by Wöhler, organic chemists have been intrigued by natural products, leading to the evolution of the field of natural product synthesis over the past two centuries. Natural product synthesis has enabled natural products to play an essential role in drug discovery and chemical biology. With the introduction of novel, innovative concepts and strategies for synthetic efficiency, natural product synthesis in the 21st century is well poised to address the challenges and complexities faced by natural product chemistry and will remain essential to progress in biomedical sciences. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database is an Arc/Info implementation of the 1:500,000 scale Geology Map of Kansas, M­23, 1991. This work wasperformed by the Automated Cartography section of...

  18. Analyzing Students' Understanding of Models and Modeling Referring to the Disciplines Biology, Chemistry, and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krell, Moritz; Reinisch, Bianca; Krüger, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    In this study, secondary school students' (N?=?617; grades 7 to 10) understanding of models and modeling was assessed using tasks which explicitly refer to the scientific disciplines of biology, chemistry, and physics and, as a control, to no scientific discipline. The students' responses are interpreted as their biology-, chemistry-, and…

  19. Alcohol Pharmacology Education Partnership: Using Chemistry and Biology Concepts to Educate High School Students about Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Elizabeth A.; Kwiek, Nicole; Sikes, Suzanne S.; Halpin, Myra J.; Weinbaum, Carolyn A.; Burgette, Lane F.; Reiter, Jerome P.; Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle D.

    2014-01-01

    We developed the Alcohol Pharmacology Education Partnership (APEP), a set of modules designed to integrate a topic of interest (alcohol) with concepts in chemistry and biology for high school students. Chemistry and biology teachers (n = 156) were recruited nationally to field-test APEP in a controlled study. Teachers obtained professional…

  20. 8. International Conference on Pulse Investigations in Chemistry, Biology and Physics - PULS'2008. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Report comprises abstracts of 68 communications (oral and posters) presented during the 8. International Conference on Pulse Investigations in Chemistry, Biology and Physics - PULS'2008, held on September 6 - 12, 2008 in Cracow. Presentations cover a variety of research fields representing different fields of pulse radiolysis in chemistry, biology and physics

  1. Students’ experienced coherence between chemistry and biology in context-based secondary science education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.J.; Prins, Gjalt; Goedhart, M.J.; Boersma, Kerst

    2014-01-01

    In current biology and chemistry secondary school practice, coherence between the subjects chemistry and biology is underexposed or even ignored. This is incongruent with the current scientific practice, in which the emphasis is shifting towards inter- and multidisciplinarity. These problems have

  2. Geology, hydrology, chemistry, and microbiology of the in situ bioremediation demonstration site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcomer, D.R.; Doremus, L.A.; Hall, S.H.; Truex, M.J.; Vermeul, V.R.; Engelman, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes characterization information on the geology, hydrology, microbiology, contaminant distribution, and ground-water chemistry to support demonstration of in situ bioremediation at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this information is to provide baseline conditions, including a conceptual model of the aquifer being utilized for in situ bioremediation. Data were collected from sampling and other characterization activities associated with three wells drilled in the upper part of the suprabasalt aquifer. Results of point-dilution tracer tests, conducted in the upper 9 m (30 ft) of the aquifer, showed that most ground-water flow occurs in the upper part of this zone, which is consistent with hydraulic test results and geologic and geophysical data. Other tracer test results indicated that natural ground-water flow velocity is equal to or less than about 0.03 m/d (0.1 ft/d). Laboratory hydraulic conductivity measurements, which represent the local distribution of vertical hydraulic conductivity, varied up to three orders of magnitude. Based on concentration data from both the vadose and saturated zone, it is suggested that most, if not all, of the carbon tetrachloride detected is representative of the aqueous phase. Concentrations of carbon tetrachloride, associated with a contaminant plume in the 200-West Area, ranged from approximately 500 to 3,800 μg/L in the aqueous phase and from approximately 10 to 290 μg/L in the solid phase at the demonstration site. Carbon tetrachloride gas was detected in the vadose zone, suggesting volatilization and subsequent upward migration from the saturated zone

  3. Geology, hydrology, chemistry, and microbiology of the in situ bioremediation demonstration site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newcomer, D.R.; Doremus, L.A.; Hall, S.H.; Truex, M.J.; Vermeul, V.R.; Engelman, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes characterization information on the geology, hydrology, microbiology, contaminant distribution, and ground-water chemistry to support demonstration of in situ bioremediation at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this information is to provide baseline conditions, including a conceptual model of the aquifer being utilized for in situ bioremediation. Data were collected from sampling and other characterization activities associated with three wells drilled in the upper part of the suprabasalt aquifer. Results of point-dilution tracer tests, conducted in the upper 9 m (30 ft) of the aquifer, showed that most ground-water flow occurs in the upper part of this zone, which is consistent with hydraulic test results and geologic and geophysical data. Other tracer test results indicated that natural ground-water flow velocity is equal to or less than about 0.03 m/d (0.1 ft/d). Laboratory hydraulic conductivity measurements, which represent the local distribution of vertical hydraulic conductivity, varied up to three orders of magnitude. Based on concentration data from both the vadose and saturated zone, it is suggested that most, if not all, of the carbon tetrachloride detected is representative of the aqueous phase. Concentrations of carbon tetrachloride, associated with a contaminant plume in the 200-West Area, ranged from approximately 500 to 3,800 {mu}g/L in the aqueous phase and from approximately 10 to 290 {mu}g/L in the solid phase at the demonstration site. Carbon tetrachloride gas was detected in the vadose zone, suggesting volatilization and subsequent upward migration from the saturated zone.

  4. Biomaterials — where biology, physics, chemistry, engineering and medicine meet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, K. A.

    2008-03-01

    The success or failure of an implant material in the body depends on a complex interaction between a synthetic 'foreign body' and the 'host tissue'. These interactions occur at many levels from the sub-microscopic level, where subtle changes in the surface physio-chemistry can substantially alter the nature of the biomaterial-host tissue interface, through the microscopical level (e.g. sensitivity to surface topography) to the macrostructural level (e.g. dependence on scaffold porosity). Thus the factors that control these responses are not only biologically determined but also mechanically, physically and chemically mediated, although identifying where one starts and the other finishes can be difficult. Design of a successful medical device has therefore to call on expertise within a wide range of disciplines. In terms of both investigating the basic science behind the factors which orchestrate a biological response and developing research tools that enable study of these responses. However, a medical device must also meet the economic and practical demands of health care professionals who will ultimately be using it in the clinic. Bone graft substitute materials are used in orthopaedics as an alternative or adjunct to autografting, a practice where the patient 'donates' bone from a healthy site to aid bone repair at a damaged or diseased site. These materials are used in a wide range of procedures from total hip revision to spinal fusion and their evolution over the last 10 years illustrates how an interdisciplinary approach has benefited their development and may lead to further innovation in the future.

  5. Students' Energy Understanding Across Biology, Chemistry, and Physics Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, S. T.; Neumann, K.; Bernholt, S.; Harms, U.

    2017-07-01

    Energy is considered both as a disciplinary core idea and as a concept cutting across science disciplines. Most previous approaches studied progressing energy understanding in specific disciplinary contexts, while disregarding the relation of understanding across them. Hence, this study provides a systematic analysis of cross-disciplinary energy learning. On the basis of a cross-sectional study with n = 742 students from grades 6, 8, and 10, we analyze students' progression in understanding energy across biology, chemistry, and physics contexts. The study is guided by three hypothetical scenarios that describe how the connection between energy understanding in the three disciplinary contexts changes across grade levels. These scenarios are compared using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The results suggest that, from grade 6 to grade 10, energy understanding in the three disciplinary contexts is highly interrelated, thus indicating a parallel progression of energy understanding in the three disciplinary contexts. In our study, students from grade 6 onwards appeared to have few problems to apply one energy understanding across the three disciplinary contexts. These findings were unexpected, as previous research concluded that students likely face difficulties in connecting energy learning across disciplinary boundaries. Potential reasons for these results and the characteristics of the observed cross-disciplinary energy understanding are discussed in the light of earlier findings and implications for future research, and the teaching of energy as a core idea and a crosscutting concept are addressed.

  6. Topological data analysis: A promising big data exploration tool in biology, analytical chemistry and physical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offroy, Marc; Duponchel, Ludovic

    2016-03-03

    An important feature of experimental science is that data of various kinds is being produced at an unprecedented rate. This is mainly due to the development of new instrumental concepts and experimental methodologies. It is also clear that the nature of acquired data is significantly different. Indeed in every areas of science, data take the form of always bigger tables, where all but a few of the columns (i.e. variables) turn out to be irrelevant to the questions of interest, and further that we do not necessary know which coordinates are the interesting ones. Big data in our lab of biology, analytical chemistry or physical chemistry is a future that might be closer than any of us suppose. It is in this sense that new tools have to be developed in order to explore and valorize such data sets. Topological data analysis (TDA) is one of these. It was developed recently by topologists who discovered that topological concept could be useful for data analysis. The main objective of this paper is to answer the question why topology is well suited for the analysis of big data set in many areas and even more efficient than conventional data analysis methods. Raman analysis of single bacteria should be providing a good opportunity to demonstrate the potential of TDA for the exploration of various spectroscopic data sets considering different experimental conditions (with high noise level, with/without spectral preprocessing, with wavelength shift, with different spectral resolution, with missing data). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An x-ray tomography facility for quantitative prediction of mechanical and transport properties in geological, biological, and synthetic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, Arthur; Senden, Tim J.; Sawkins, Tim J.; Knackstedt, Mark A.; Turner, Michael L.; Jones, Anthony C.; Saadatfar, Mohammad; Roberts, Ray J.; Limaye, Ajay; Arns, Christoph H.; Sheppard, Adrian P.; Sok, Rob M.

    2004-10-01

    A fully integrated X-ray tomography facility with the ability to generate tomograms with 20483 voxels at 2 micron spatial resolution was built to satisfy the requirements of a virtual materials testing laboratory. The instrument comprises of a continuously pumped micro-focus X-ray gun, a milli-degree rotation stage and a high resolution and large field X-ray camera, configured in a cone beam geometry with a circular trajectory. The purpose of this facility is to routinely analyse and investigate real world biological, geological and synthetic materials at a scale in which the traditional domains of physics, chemistry, biology and geology merge. During the first 2 years of operation, approximately 4 Terabytes of data have been collected, processed and analysed, both as static and in some cases as composite dynamic data sets. This incorporates over 300 tomograms with 10243 voxels and 50 tomograms with 20483 voxels for a wide range of research fields. Specimens analysed include sedimentary rocks, soils, bone, soft tissue, ceramics, fibre-reinforced composites, foams, wood, paper, fossils, sphere packs, bio-morphs and small animals. In this paper, the exibility of the facility is highlighted with some prime examples.

  8. The Impact of Nanoparticle Surface Chemistry on Biological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Angie Sue Morris

    The unique properties of nanomaterials, such as their small size and large surface area-to-volume ratios, have attracted tremendous interest in the scientific community over the last few decades. Thus, the synthesis and characterization of many different types of nanoparticles has been well defined and reported on in the literature. Current research efforts have redirected from the basic study of nanomaterial synthesis and their properties to more application-based studies where the development of functionally active materials is necessary. Today such nanoparticle-based systems exist for a range of biomedical applications including imaging, drug delivery and sensors. The inherent properties of the nanomaterial, although important, aren't always ideal for specific applications. In order to optimize nanoparticles for biomedical applications it is often desirable to tune their surface properties. Researchers have shown that these surface properties (such as charge, hydrophobicity, or reactivity) play a direct role in the interactions between nanoparticles and biological systems can be altered by attaching molecules to the surface of nanoparticles. In this work, the effects of physicochemical properties of a wide variety of nanoparticles was investigated using in vitro and in vivo models. For example, copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles were of interest due to their instability in biological media. These nanoparticles undergo dissolution when in an aqueous environment and tend to aggregate. Therefore, the cytotoxicity of two sizes of CuO NPs was evaluated in cultured cells to develop a better understanding of how these propertied effect toxicity outcomes in biological systems. From these studies, it was determined that CuO NPs are cytotoxic to lung cells in a size-dependent manner and that dissolved copper ions contribute to the cytotoxicity however it is not solely responsible for cell death. Moreover, silica nanoparticles are one of the most commonly used nanomaterials

  9. Felix Cornu (1882-1909): Staggering Career of a Mineralogist, the Founder of Colloidal Chemistry in Geology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ulrych, Jaromír

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2003), s. 199 ISSN 1210-9606. [Hibsch 2002 Symposium. Teplá near Třebenice, Ústí nad Labem, Mariánské Lázně, 03.06.2002-08.06.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : Cornu, Felix * mineralogist * colloidal chemistry Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://geolines.gli.cas.cz/fileadmin/volumes/volume15/G15-199.pdf

  10. Biological and Geological Characteristics of the Gakkel Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, T. M.; Bailey, J.; Edmonds, H.; Forte, P.; Helmke, E.; Humphris, S.; Kemp, J.; Nakamura, K.; Reves-Sohn, R.; Singh, H.; Willis, C.

    2007-12-01

    `pebbly' material that may represent older microbial byproducts or inorganic material remnant of past microbial activity. The microbial mats were often associated with weak temperature (e.g., 0.07°C) and Eh anomalies (up to 80 mV) less than 3 meters above the mats, suggesting that they live in regions where reducing and slightly warm fluids are seeping through cracks in the fresh volcanic terrain. The rock margins adjacent to the microbial mats were orange-brown suggesting bio-chemical alteration. The microbial mat material may be sustained by weak fluid discharge from cracks in the young volcanic surfaces. Biological samples, including mat material, sponges, and amphipods were preserved for shore-based taxonomic, phylogenetic, and biogeographic analyses.

  11. Exploration of the central dogma at the interface of chemistry and biology: 2010 Yale Chemical Biology Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Alice Qinhua

    2010-09-01

    Ever since the term "central dogma" was coined in 1958, researchers have sought to control information flow from nucleic acids to proteins. Talks delivered by Drs. Anna Pyle and Hiroaki Suga at this year's Chemical Biology Symposium at Yale in May 2010 applauded recent advances in this area, at the interface between chemistry and biology.

  12. Single Molecule Spectroscopy in Chemistry, Physics and Biology Nobel Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Gräslund, Astrid; Widengren, Jerker

    2010-01-01

    Written by the leading experts in the field, this book describes the development and current state-of-the-art in single molecule spectroscopy. The application of this technique, which started 1989, in physics, chemistry and biosciences is displayed.

  13. Getting the chemistry right: protonation, tautomers and the importance of H atoms in biological chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, Ben; Chung, Chun Wa; Edge, Colin

    2017-02-01

    There are more H atoms than any other type of atom in an X-ray crystal structure of a protein-ligand complex, but as H atoms only have one electron they diffract X-rays weakly and are `hard to see'. The positions of many H atoms can be inferred by our chemical knowledge, and such H atoms can be added with confidence in `riding positions'. For some chemical groups, however, there is more ambiguity over the possible hydrogen placements, for example hydroxyls and groups that can exist in multiple protonation states or tautomeric forms. This ambiguity is far from rare, since about 25% of drugs have more than one tautomeric form. This paper focuses on the most common, `prototropic', tautomers, which are isomers that readily interconvert by the exchange of an H atom accompanied by the switch of a single and an adjacent double bond. Hydrogen-exchange rates and different protonation states of compounds (e.g. buffers) are also briefly discussed. The difference in heavy (non-H) atom positions between two tautomers can be small, and careful refinement of all possible tautomers may single out the likely bound ligand tautomer. Experimental methods to determine H-atom positions, such as neutron crystallography, are often technically challenging. Therefore, chemical knowledge and computational approaches are frequently used in conjugation with experimental data to deduce the bound tautomer state. Proton movement is a key feature of many enzymatic reactions, so understanding the orchestration of hydrogen/proton motion is of critical importance to biological chemistry. For example, structural studies have suggested that, just as a chemist may use heat, some enzymes use directional movement to protonate specific O atoms on phosphates to catalyse phosphotransferase reactions. To inhibit `wriggly' enzymes that use movement to effect catalysis, it may be advantageous to have inhibitors that can maintain favourable contacts by adopting different tautomers as the enzyme `wriggles'.

  14. Integrative Biological Chemistry Program Includes the Use of Informatics Tools, GIS and SAS Software Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Malcolm J.; Kashmar, Richard J.; Hurst, Kent; Fiedler, Frank; Gross, Catherine E.; Deol, Jasbir K.; Wilson, Alora

    2015-01-01

    Wesley College is a private, primarily undergraduate minority-serving institution located in the historic district of Dover, Delaware (DE). The College recently revised its baccalaureate biological chemistry program requirements to include a one-semester Physical Chemistry for the Life Sciences course and project-based experiential learning…

  15. Linking soil biology and chemistry in biological soil crust using isolate exometabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Tami L; Karaoz, Ulas; Swenson, Joel M; Bowen, Benjamin P; Northen, Trent R

    2018-01-02

    Metagenomic sequencing provides a window into microbial community structure and metabolic potential; however, linking these data to exogenous metabolites that microorganisms process and produce (the exometabolome) remains challenging. Previously, we observed strong exometabolite niche partitioning among bacterial isolates from biological soil crust (biocrust). Here we examine native biocrust to determine if these patterns are reproduced in the environment. Overall, most soil metabolites display the expected relationship (positive or negative correlation) with four dominant bacteria following a wetting event and across biocrust developmental stages. For metabolites that were previously found to be consumed by an isolate, 70% are negatively correlated with the abundance of the isolate's closest matching environmental relative in situ, whereas for released metabolites, 67% were positively correlated. Our results demonstrate that metabolite profiling, shotgun sequencing and exometabolomics may be successfully integrated to functionally link microbial community structure with environmental chemistry in biocrust.

  16. Coordination Compounds in Biology-The Chemistry of Vitamin B12 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Coordination Compounds in Biology - The Chemistry of Vitamin B12 and Model Compounds. K Hussian Reddy. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1273-1283 ...

  17. Coordination chemistry and biological activity of 5'-OH modified quinoline-B12 derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenka, Karel; Brandl, Helmut; Spingler, Bernhard; Zelder, Felix

    2011-10-14

    The consequences of structural modifications at the 5'-OH ribofuranotide moiety of quinoline modified B12 derivatives are discussed in regard of the coordination chemistry, the electrochemical properties and the biological behaviour of the compound.

  18. Determination of Rate Constants for Ouabain Inhibition of Adenosine Triphosphatase: An Undergraduate Biological Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sall, Eri; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate biological chemistry laboratory experiment which provides students with an example of pseudo-first-order kinetics with the cardiac glycoside inhibition of mammalism sodium and potassium transport. (SL)

  19. The influence of the biological pump on ocean chemistry: implications for long-term trends in marine redox chemistry, the global carbon cycle, and marine animal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K M; Ridgwell, A; Payne, J L

    2016-05-01

    The net export of organic matter from the surface ocean and its respiration at depth create vertical gradients in nutrient and oxygen availability that play a primary role in structuring marine ecosystems. Changes in the properties of this 'biological pump' have been hypothesized to account for important shifts in marine ecosystem structure, including the Cambrian explosion. However, the influence of variation in the behavior of the biological pump on ocean biogeochemistry remains poorly quantified, preventing any detailed exploration of how changes in the biological pump over geological time may have shaped long-term shifts in ocean chemistry, biogeochemical cycling, and ecosystem structure. Here, we use a 3-dimensional Earth system model of intermediate complexity to quantitatively explore the effects of the biological pump on marine chemistry. We find that when respiration of sinking organic matter is efficient, due to slower sinking or higher respiration rates, anoxia tends to be more prevalent and to occur in shallower waters. Consequently, the Phanerozoic trend toward less bottom-water anoxia in continental shelf settings can potentially be explained by a change in the spatial dynamics of nutrient cycling rather than by any change in the ocean phosphate inventory. The model results further suggest that the Phanerozoic decline in the prevalence ocean anoxia is, in part, a consequence of the evolution of larger phytoplankton, many of which produce mineralized tests. We hypothesize that the Phanerozoic trend toward greater animal abundance and metabolic demand was driven more by increased oxygen concentrations in shelf environments than by greater food (nutrient) availability. In fact, a lower-than-modern ocean phosphate inventory in our closed system model is unable to account for the Paleozoic prevalence of bottom-water anoxia. Overall, these model simulations suggest that the changing spatial distribution of photosynthesis and respiration in the oceans has

  20. Electron spin interactions in chemistry and biology fundamentals, methods, reactions mechanisms, magnetic phenomena, structure investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the versatile and pivotal role of electron spin interactions in nature. It provides the background, methodologies and tools for basic areas related to spin interactions, such as spin chemistry and biology, electron transfer, light energy conversion, photochemistry, radical reactions, magneto-chemistry and magneto-biology. The book also includes an overview of designing advanced magnetic materials, optical and spintronic devices and photo catalysts. This monograph appeals to scientists and graduate students working in the areas related to spin interactions physics, biophysics, chemistry and chemical engineering.

  1. The integration of the contents of the subject Physics-Chemistry (I in Biology-Chemistry specialty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sc. Luis AZCUY LORENZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is the result of a research task developed in the Natural Sciences Education Department during 2013-2014 academic year, and it emerged from the necessity of solving some insufficiencies in the use of the real potentialities offered by the content of the subject Physics-Chemistry (I, that is part of the curriculum of the Biology-Chemistry career. Its main objective is to offer a set of exercises to contribute to achieve the integration of contents from the subject Physics-chemistry (I in the mentioned career at «Ignacio Agramonte Loynaz» University of Camaguey. The exercises proposed are characterized for being related to the real practice and to other subjects of the career. Their implementation through review lessons, partial tests and final evaluations during the formative experiment made possible a better academic result in the learners overall performance.

  2. EFFECTS OF 5E LEARNING CYCLE ON STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENT IN BIOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Osawaru Ajaja,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The major purpose of this study was to determine the effects of learning cycle as an instructional strategy on biology andchemistry students achievement. To guide this study, six research hypotheses were stated and tested at 0.05 level ofsignificance. The design of this study was 2x2x3x6 Pre-test Post-test non-equivalent control group quasi experimental design.These included two instructional groups (experimental and control groups, sex (male and female, repeated testing (Pre,Post and follow-up tests, and six weeks of experience. The samples of the study included six senior secondary schools, 112science students, and 12 biology and chemistry teachers. The instruments used for this study were: teacher’s questionnaireon knowledge and use of learning cycle (KULC; and Biology and Chemistry Achievement Test (BCAT. The data collected wereanalyzed with simple percentage, Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA and student t-test statistics. The major findings of thestudy included that only 30.43% and 26.31% of biology and chemistry teachers have the knowledge that learning cycle is aninstructional method; all the biology and chemistry teachers sampled have never used learning cycle as an instructionalmethod; learning cycle had a significant effect on students achievement in biology and chemistry; students taught withlearning cycle significantly achieved better in biology/chemistry Post-test than those taught with lecture method; the posttestscores of students in the learning cycle group increased over the period of experience; non-significant difference in Posttestscores between males and females taught with learning cycle; non-significant interaction effect between method andsex on achievement; and a significant higher retention of biology and chemistry knowledge by students taught with learningcycle than those taught with lecture method. It was concluded that the method seems an appropriate instructional modelthat could be used to solve the problems of

  3. Ethnopharmacology, Chemistry and Biological Properties of Four Malian Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Egil Malterud

    2017-01-01

    The ethnopharmacology, chemistry and pharmacology of four Malian medicinal plants, Biophytum umbraculum, Burkea africana, Lannea velutina and Terminalia macroptera are reviewed. These plants are used by traditional healers against numerous ailments: malaria, gastrointestinal diseases, wounds, sexually transmitted diseases, insect bites and snake bites, etc. The scientific evidence for these uses is, however, limited. From the chemical and pharmacological evidence presented here, it seems poss...

  4. A tracer aided study on silicon chemistry in biological systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasser, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Silicon (Si) is omnipresent in nature, and it is involved in important but diverse roles in a broad range of organisms, including diatoms, higher plants and humans. Some organisms, like the diatoms, need high amounts of silicon, and master silicon chemistry to a high extend using several enzymes.

  5. How chemistry supports cell biology: the chemical toolbox at your service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijdeven, Ruud H; Neefjes, Jacques; Ovaa, Huib

    2014-12-01

    Chemical biology is a young and rapidly developing scientific field. In this field, chemistry is inspired by biology to create various tools to monitor and modulate biochemical and cell biological processes. Chemical contributions such as small-molecule inhibitors and activity-based probes (ABPs) can provide new and unique insights into previously unexplored cellular processes. This review provides an overview of recent breakthroughs in chemical biology that are likely to have a significant impact on cell biology. We also discuss the application of several chemical tools in cell biology research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Exploration of the Central Dogma at the Interface of Chemistry and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Alice Qinhua

    2010-01-01

    Ever since the term “central dogma” was coined in 1958, researchers have sought to control information flow from nucleic acids to proteins. Talks delivered by Drs. Anna Pyle and Hiroaki Suga at this year’s Chemical Biology Symposium at Yale in May 2010 applauded recent advances in this area, at the interface between chemistry and biology. PMID:20885900

  7. Exploration of the Central Dogma at the Interface of Chemistry and Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Alice Qinhua

    2010-01-01

    Ever since the term ?central dogma? was coined in 1958, researchers have sought to control information flow from nucleic acids to proteins. Talks delivered by Drs. Anna Pyle and Hiroaki Suga at this year?s Chemical Biology Symposium at Yale in May 2010 applauded recent advances in this area, at the interface between chemistry and biology.

  8. Introduction to the Thematic Minireview Series: Green biological chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jez, Joseph M

    2018-04-06

    Plants and their green cousins cyanobacteria and algae use sunlight to drive the chemistry that lets them grow, survive, and perform an amazing range of biochemical reactions. The ability of these organisms to use a freely available energy source makes them attractive as sustainable and renewable platforms for more than just food production. They are also a source of metabolic tools for engineering microbes for "green" chemistry. This Thematic Minireview Series discusses how green organisms capture light and protect their photosynthetic machinery from too much light; new structural snapshots of the clock complex that orchestrates signaling during the light/dark cycle; challenges for improving stress responses in crops; harnessing cyanobacteria as biofactories; and efforts to engineer microbes for "green" biopolymer production. © 2018 Jez.

  9. Seeking the chemical roots of darwinism: bridging between chemistry and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pross, Addy

    2009-08-24

    Chemistry and biology are intimately connected sciences yet the chemistry-biology interface remains problematic and central issues regarding the very essence of living systems remain unresolved. In this essay we build on a kinetic theory of replicating systems that encompasses the idea that there are two distinct kinds of stability in nature-thermodynamic stability, associated with "regular" chemical systems, and dynamic kinetic stability, associated with replicating systems. That fundamental distinction is utilized to bridge between chemistry and biology by demonstrating that within the parallel world of replicating systems there is a second law analogue to the second law of thermodynamics, and that Darwinian theory may, through scientific reductionism, be related to that second law analogue. Possible implications of these ideas to the origin of life problem and the relationship between chemical emergence and biological evolution are discussed.

  10. Alcohol Pharmacology Education Partnership: Using Chemistry and Biology Concepts To Educate High School Students about Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Elizabeth A; Kwiek, Nicole; Sikes, Suzanne S; Halpin, Myra J; Weinbaum, Carolyn A; Burgette, Lane F; Reiter, Jerome P; Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle D

    2014-02-11

    We developed the Alcohol Pharmacology Education Partnership (APEP), a set of modules designed to integrate a topic of interest (alcohol) with concepts in chemistry and biology for high school students. Chemistry and biology teachers ( n = 156) were recruited nationally to field-test APEP in a controlled study. Teachers obtained professional development either at a conference-based workshop (NSTA or NCSTA) or via distance learning to learn how to incorporate the APEP modules into their teaching. They field-tested the modules in their classes during the following year. Teacher knowledge of chemistry and biology concepts increased significantly following professional development, and was maintained for at least a year. Their students ( n = 14 014) demonstrated significantly higher scores when assessed for knowledge of both basic and advanced chemistry and biology concepts compared to students not using APEP modules in their classes the previous year. Higher scores were achieved as the number of modules used increased. These findings are consistent with our previous studies, demonstrating higher scores in chemistry and biology after students use modules that integrate topics interesting to them, such as drugs (the Pharmacology Education Partnership).

  11. Integrating pharmacology topics in high school biology and chemistry classes improves performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle D.; Halpin, Myra J.

    2003-11-01

    Although numerous programs have been developed for Grade Kindergarten through 12 science education, evaluation has been difficult owing to the inherent problems conducting controlled experiments in the typical classroom. Using a rigorous experimental design, we developed and tested a novel program containing a series of pharmacology modules (e.g., drug abuse) to help high school students learn basic principles in biology and chemistry. High school biology and chemistry teachers were recruited for the study and they attended a 1-week workshop to learn how to integrate pharmacology into their teaching. Working with university pharmacology faculty, they also developed classroom activities. The following year, teachers field-tested the pharmacology modules in their classrooms. Students in classrooms using the pharmacology topics scored significantly higher on a multiple choice test of basic biology and chemistry concepts compared with controls. Very large effect sizes (up to 1.27 standard deviations) were obtained when teachers used as many as four modules. In addition, biology students increased performance on chemistry questions and chemistry students increased performance on biology questions. Substantial gains in achievement may be made when high school students are taught science using topics that are interesting and relevant to their own lives.

  12. Alcohol Pharmacology Education Partnership: Using Chemistry and Biology Concepts To Educate High School Students about Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We developed the Alcohol Pharmacology Education Partnership (APEP), a set of modules designed to integrate a topic of interest (alcohol) with concepts in chemistry and biology for high school students. Chemistry and biology teachers (n = 156) were recruited nationally to field-test APEP in a controlled study. Teachers obtained professional development either at a conference-based workshop (NSTA or NCSTA) or via distance learning to learn how to incorporate the APEP modules into their teaching. They field-tested the modules in their classes during the following year. Teacher knowledge of chemistry and biology concepts increased significantly following professional development, and was maintained for at least a year. Their students (n = 14 014) demonstrated significantly higher scores when assessed for knowledge of both basic and advanced chemistry and biology concepts compared to students not using APEP modules in their classes the previous year. Higher scores were achieved as the number of modules used increased. These findings are consistent with our previous studies, demonstrating higher scores in chemistry and biology after students use modules that integrate topics interesting to them, such as drugs (the Pharmacology Education Partnership). PMID:24803686

  13. Ethnopharmacology, Chemistry and Biological Properties of Four Malian Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malterud, Karl Egil

    2017-02-21

    The ethnopharmacology, chemistry and pharmacology of four Malian medicinal plants, Biophytum umbraculum , Burkea africana , Lannea velutina and Terminalia macroptera are reviewed. These plants are used by traditional healers against numerous ailments: malaria, gastrointestinal diseases, wounds, sexually transmitted diseases, insect bites and snake bites, etc. The scientific evidence for these uses is, however, limited. From the chemical and pharmacological evidence presented here, it seems possible that the use in traditional medicine of these plants may have a rational basis, although more clinical studies are needed.

  14. Ethnopharmacology, Chemistry and Biological Properties of Four Malian Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Egil Malterud

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The ethnopharmacology, chemistry and pharmacology of four Malian medicinal plants, Biophytum umbraculum, Burkea africana, Lannea velutina and Terminalia macroptera are reviewed. These plants are used by traditional healers against numerous ailments: malaria, gastrointestinal diseases, wounds, sexually transmitted diseases, insect bites and snake bites, etc. The scientific evidence for these uses is, however, limited. From the chemical and pharmacological evidence presented here, it seems possible that the use in traditional medicine of these plants may have a rational basis, although more clinical studies are needed.

  15. Applying combinatorial chemistry and biology to food research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dominic; Robertson, George

    2004-12-01

    In the past decade combinatorial chemistry has become a major focus of research activity in the pharmaceutical industry for accelerating the development of novel therapeutic compounds. The same combinatorial strategies could be applied to a broad spectrum of areas in agricultural and food research, including food safety and nutrition, development of product ingredients, and processing and conversion of natural products. In contrast to "rational design", the combinatorial approach relies on molecular diversity and high-throughput screening. The capability of exploring the structural and functional limits of a vast population of diverse chemical and biochemical molecules makes it possible to expedite the creation and isolation of compounds of desirable and useful properties. Several studies in recent years have demonstrated the utility of combinatorial methods for food research. These include the discovery of synthetic antimicrobial, antioxidative, and aflatoxin-binding peptides, the identification and analysis of unique flavor compounds, the generation of new enzyme inhibitors, the development of therapeutic antibodies for botulinum neurotoxins, the synthesis of unnatural polyketides and carotenoids, and the modification of food enzymes with novel properties. The results of such activities could open a large area of applications with potential benefits to the food industry. This review describes the current techniques of combinatorial chemistry and their applications, with emphasis on examples in food science research.

  16. ZINC: a free tool to discover chemistry for biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, John J; Sterling, Teague; Mysinger, Michael M; Bolstad, Erin S; Coleman, Ryan G

    2012-07-23

    ZINC is a free public resource for ligand discovery. The database contains over twenty million commercially available molecules in biologically relevant representations that may be downloaded in popular ready-to-dock formats and subsets. The Web site also enables searches by structure, biological activity, physical property, vendor, catalog number, name, and CAS number. Small custom subsets may be created, edited, shared, docked, downloaded, and conveyed to a vendor for purchase. The database is maintained and curated for a high purchasing success rate and is freely available at zinc.docking.org.

  17. Biological Actions of Artemisinin: Insights from Medicinal Chemistry Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinins have become essential antimalarial drugs for increasingly widespread drug-resistant malaria strains. Although tremendous efforts have been devoted to decipher how this class of molecules works, their exact antimalarial mechanism is still an enigma. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain their actions, including alkylation of heme by carbon-centered free radicals, interference with proteins such as the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic calcium ATPase (SERCA, as well as damaging of normal mitochondrial functions. Besides artemisinins, other endoperoxides with various backbones have also been synthesized, some of which showed comparable or even higher antimalarial effects. It is noteworthy that among these artemisinin derivatives, some enantiomers displayed similar in vitro malaria killing efficacy. In this article, the proposed mechanisms of action of artemisinins are reviewed in light of medicinal chemistry findings characterized by efficacy-structure studies, with the hope of gaining more insight into how these potent drugs work.

  18. Click chemistry mediated functionalization of vertical nanowires for biological applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vutti, Surendra; Schoffelen, Sanne; Bolinsson, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    is of general interest for biological studies. The attachment of a peptide substrate provided NW arrays for the detection of protease activity. In addition, green fluorescent protein was immobilized in a site-specific manner and recognized by antibody binding to demonstrate the proof-of-concept for the use...

  19. Connecting biology and organic chemistry introductory laboratory courses through a collaborative research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltax, Ariana L; Armanious, Stephanie; Kosinski-Collins, Melissa S; Pontrello, Jason K

    2015-01-01

    Modern research often requires collaboration of experts in fields, such as math, chemistry, biology, physics, and computer science to develop unique solutions to common problems. Traditional introductory undergraduate laboratory curricula in the sciences often do not emphasize connections possible between the various disciplines. We designed an interdisciplinary, medically relevant, project intended to help students see connections between chemistry and biology. Second term organic chemistry laboratory students designed and synthesized potential polymer inhibitors or inducers of polyglutamine protein aggregation. The use of novel target compounds added the uncertainty of scientific research to the project. Biology laboratory students then tested the novel potential pharmaceuticals in Huntington's disease model assays, using in vitro polyglutamine peptide aggregation and in vivo lethality studies in Drosophila. Students read articles from the primary literature describing the system from both chemical and biological perspectives. Assessment revealed that students emerged from both courses with a deeper understanding of the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry and a heightened interest in basic research. The design of this collaborative project for introductory biology and organic chemistry labs demonstrated how the local interests and expertise at a university can be drawn from to create an effective way to integrate these introductory courses. Rather than simply presenting a series of experiments to be replicated, we hope that our efforts will inspire other scientists to think about how some aspect of authentic work can be brought into their own courses, and we also welcome additional collaborations to extend the scope of the scientific exploration. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  20. Essential concepts and underlying theories from physics, chemistry, and mathematics for "biochemistry and molecular biology" majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ann; Provost, Joseph; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members from around the country. The workshops have focused on developing lists of Core Principles or Foundational Concepts in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, a list of foundational skills, and foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics that all Biochemistry or Molecular Biology majors must understand to complete their major coursework. The allied fields working group created a survey to validate foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics identified from participant feedback at various workshops. One-hundred twenty participants responded to the survey and 68% of the respondents answered yes to the question: "We have identified the following as the core concepts and underlying theories from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics that Biochemistry majors or Molecular Biology majors need to understand after they complete their major courses: 1) mechanical concepts from Physics, 2) energy and thermodynamic concepts from Physics, 3) critical concepts of structure from chemistry, 4) critical concepts of reactions from Chemistry, and 5) essential Mathematics. In your opinion, is the above list complete?" Respondents also delineated subcategories they felt should be included in these broad categories. From the results of the survey and this analysis the allied fields working group constructed a consensus list of allied fields concepts, which will help inform Biochemistry and Molecular Biology educators when considering the ASBMB recommended curriculum for Biochemistry or Molecular Biology majors and in the development of appropriate assessment tools to gauge student understanding of how these concepts relate to biochemistry and molecular biology. © 2013 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  1. Simple glycolipids of microbes: Chemistry, biological activity and metabolic engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mohammad Abdel-Mawgoud

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylated lipids (GLs are added-value lipid derivatives of great potential. Besides their interesting surface activities that qualify many of them to act as excellent ecological detergents, they have diverse biological activities with promising biomedical and cosmeceutical applications. Glycolipids, especially those of microbial origin, have interesting antimicrobial, anticancer, antiparasitic as well as immunomodulatory activities. Nonetheless, GLs are hardly accessing the market because of their high cost of production. We believe that experience of metabolic engineering (ME of microbial lipids for biofuel production can now be harnessed towards a successful synthesis of microbial GLs for biomedical and other applications. This review presents chemical groups of bacterial and fungal GLs, their biological activities, their general biosynthetic pathways and an insight on ME strategies for their production.

  2. Recent advances in the chemistry and biology of benzothiazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Rupinder K; Rawal, Ravindra K; Bariwal, Jitender

    2015-03-01

    Benzothiazole is a privileged heterocyclic scaffold having a benzene ring fused with a five-membered thiazole ring. This moiety has attracted considerable attention because of its wide range of pharmacological activities such as antitubercular, antimicrobial, antimalarial, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antitumor activity, etc. In the last few years, some novel benzothiazoles have been developed with varied biological activities. To access this scaffold in high yield and to introduce diversity, a variety of new synthetic methods have been invented. In this review, we highlight the development of novel benzothiazoles for various biological activities along with the best synthetic protocols for their synthesis. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. The Gravity of Regenerative Medicine; Physics, Chemistry & Biology behind it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedeepiya V

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The in-vitro expansion of cells of the organs/tissues and their re-implantation into the affected region/ tissue for treating cell/organ failure have been in practice for long, but in limited specialties. The in-vitro cell culture protocols use variety of biological reagents derived from animal sources and recombinant technologies. However, the optimal quantity of such biological components such as growth factors, cytokines etc.,needed for such cells to be grown in a non-physiological environment is still unknown. The use of such biological components have started to stir a controversy of late, due to the recognition of its potential hazards such as spread of prion diseases and contamination with non-human sialic acid proteins. Therefore synthetic reproducible biomaterials are gaining popularity in cell culture and tissue engineering. The biomaterials made of several chemical components based on physical parameters are starting to change certain concepts about the niche of cell culture and that of stem cell expansion and differentiation to specific lineages. Engler et al have already proven that a simple change in the matrix elasticity alone could change the lineage of the cells. Spencer et al have reported that a change in bioelectricity could change the morphogenesis during development. NCRM has been involved in cell culture and tissue engineering using approximately 240 different materials ranging from polymer hydrogel, gel with adherent inserts, nano composite materials, nano-coating technologies, nano-sheets and nano-films. These materials are used in cell culture in different hybrid combinations such as Floating 3D cell culture without adherent components in a homogenous hydrogel. Floating 3D cell culture with anchorage inserts. Flat surface- 2D adherent cell culture. Combined flat surface 2D cell culture (for differentiating cells and floating 3D culture (for undifferentiated cells. These combinations have started yielding several

  4. ROSics: chemistry and proteomics of cysteine modifications in redox biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Jung; Ha, Sura; Lee, Hee Yoon; Lee, Kong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) occurring in proteins determine their functions and regulations. Proteomic tools are available to identify PTMs and have proved invaluable to expanding the inventory of these tools of nature that hold the keys to biological processes. Cysteine (Cys), the least abundant (1-2%) of amino acid residues, are unique in that they play key roles in maintaining stability of protein structure, participating in active sites of enzymes, regulating protein function and binding to metals, among others. Cys residues are major targets of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are important mediators and modulators of various biological processes. It is therefore necessary to identify the Cys-containing ROS target proteins, as well as the sites and species of their PTMs. Cutting edge proteomic tools which have helped identify the PTMs at reactive Cys residues, have also revealed that Cys residues are modified in numerous ways. These modifications include formation of disulfide, thiosulfinate and thiosulfonate, oxidation to sulfenic, sulfinic, sulfonic acids and thiosulfonic acid, transformation to dehydroalanine (DHA) and serine, palmitoylation and farnesylation, formation of chemical adducts with glutathione, 4-hydroxynonenal and 15-deoxy PGJ2, and various other chemicals. We present here, a review of relevant ROS biology, possible chemical reactions of Cys residues and details of the proteomic strategies employed for rapid, efficient and sensitive identification of diverse and novel PTMs involving reactive Cys residues of redox-sensitive proteins. We propose a new name, "ROSics," for the science which describes the principles of mode of action of ROS at molecular levels. © 2014 The Authors. Mass Spectrometry Reviews Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Synthesis at the interface of chemistry and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xu; Schultz, Peter G

    2009-09-09

    As the focus of synthesis increasingly shifts from its historical emphasis on molecular structure to function, improved strategies are clearly required for the generation of molecules with defined physical, chemical, and biological properties. In contrast, living organisms are remarkably adept at producing molecules and molecular assemblies with an impressive array of functions - from enzymes and antibodies to the photosynthetic center. Thus, the marriage of Nature's synthetic strategies, molecules, and biosynthetic machinery with more traditional synthetic approaches might enable the generation of molecules with properties difficult to achieve by chemical strategies alone. Here we illustrate the potential of this approach and overview some opportunities and challenges in the coming years.

  6. The Indian Ocean nodule field: Geology and resource potential

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Ghosh, A.K.; Iyer, S.D.

    This book briefly accounts for the physiography, geology, biology, physics and chemistry of the nodule field, and discusses in detail the aspects of structure, tectonic and volcanism in the field. The role of the ocean floor sediment that hosts...

  7. Adenine Synthesis in a Model Prebiotic Reaction: Connecting Origin of Life Chemistry with Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Anumukonda, Lakshmi N.; Young, Avery; Lynn, David G.; Buckley, Ragan; Warrayat, Amena; Graves, Christina L.; Bean, Heather D.; Hud, Nicholas V.

    2011-01-01

    Many high school laboratory experiments demonstrate concepts related to biological evolution, but few exist that allow students to investigate life?s chemical origins. This series of laboratory experiments has been developed to allow students to explore and appreciate the deep connection that exists between prebiotic chemistry, chemical evolution, and contemporary biological systems. In the first experiment of the series, students synthesize adenine, one of the purine nucleobases of DNA and R...

  8. Advances in metabolome information retrieval: turning chemistry into biology. Part I: analytical chemistry of the metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebani, Abdellah; Afonso, Carlos; Bekri, Soumeya

    2017-08-24

    Metabolites are small molecules produced by enzymatic reactions in a given organism. Metabolomics or metabolic phenotyping is a well-established omics aimed at comprehensively assessing metabolites in biological systems. These comprehensive analyses use analytical platforms, mainly nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, along with associated separation methods to gather qualitative and quantitative data. Metabolomics holistically evaluates biological systems in an unbiased, data-driven approach that may ultimately support generation of hypotheses. The approach inherently allows the molecular characterization of a biological sample with regard to both internal (genetics) and environmental (exosome, microbiome) influences. Metabolomics workflows are based on whether the investigator knows a priori what kind of metabolites to assess. Thus, a targeted metabolomics approach is defined as a quantitative analysis (absolute concentrations are determined) or a semiquantitative analysis (relative intensities are determined) of a set of metabolites that are possibly linked to common chemical classes or a selected metabolic pathway. An untargeted metabolomics approach is a semiquantitative analysis of the largest possible number of metabolites contained in a biological sample. This is part I of a review intending to give an overview of the state of the art of major metabolic phenotyping technologies. Furthermore, their inherent analytical advantages and limits regarding experimental design, sample handling, standardization and workflow challenges are discussed.

  9. Click Chemistry Mediated Functionalization of Vertical Nanowires for Biological Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vutti, Surendra; Schoffelen, Sanne; Bolinsson, Jessica; Buch-Månson, Nina; Bovet, Nicolas; Nygård, Jesper; Martinez, Karen L; Meldal, Morten

    2016-01-11

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) are gaining significant importance in various biological applications, such as biosensing and drug delivery. Efficient and controlled immobilization of biomolecules on the NW surface is crucial for many of these applications. Here, we present for the first time the use of the Cu(I) -catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition and its strain-promoted variant for the covalent functionalization of vertical NWs with peptides and proteins. The potential of the approach was demonstrated in two complementary applications of measuring enzyme activity and protein binding, which is of general interest for biological studies. The attachment of a peptide substrate provided NW arrays for the detection of protease activity. In addition, green fluorescent protein was immobilized in a site-specific manner and recognized by antibody binding to demonstrate the proof-of-concept for the use of covalently modified NWs for diagnostic purposes using minute amounts of material. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Pre-Service Science Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge in the Physics, Chemistry, and Biology Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas, Oktay

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated pre-service science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge in the physics, chemistry, and biology topics. These topics were the light and sound, the physical and chemical changes, and reproduction, growth, and evolution. Qualitative research design was utilized. Data were collected from 33 pre-service science teachers…

  11. Science Grade 7, Chemistry, Physics, Earth Science, Biology. Curriculum Bulletin, 1968-69 Series, No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    This publication is a teacher's guide for teaching seventh grade science in New York City Schools. Activities for four areas -- physics, chemistry, earth science, and biology -- are included. This particular edition is a reprint of Science: Grade 7, Curriculum Bulletin Nos 9a--9d, 1962-1963 Series, which were originally produced in four separate…

  12. Minimum Learning Essentials: Science. Chemistry, Earth Science, Biology, Physics, General Science. Experimental Edition 0/4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This guide presents the "minimum teaching essentials" published by the New York City Board of Education, for science education in grades 9-12. Covered are: biology, physics, earth science, and chemistry. Work study skills for all subjects are given with content areas, performance objectives, and suggested classroom activities. (APM)

  13. Do Advanced Mathematics Skills Predict Success in Biology and Chemistry Degrees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Michael; Noyes, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    The mathematical preparedness of science undergraduates has been a subject of debate for some time. This paper investigates the relationship between school mathematics attainment and degree outcomes in biology and chemistry across England, a much larger scale of analysis than has hitherto been reported in the literature. A unique dataset which…

  14. Using Biocatalysis to Integrate Organic Chemistry into a Molecular Biology Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Mande; Archer, Crystal; Feske, Brent D.; Mateer, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    Current cutting-edge biomedical investigation requires that the researcher have an operational understanding of several diverse disciplines. Biocatalysis is a field of science that operates at the crossroads of organic chemistry, biochemistry, microbiology, and molecular biology, and provides an excellent model for interdisciplinary research. We…

  15. Essential Concepts and Underlying Theories from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics for "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology" Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ann; Provost, Joseph; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members from around the country. The workshops have focused on developing lists of Core Principles or Foundational Concepts in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, a list of foundational skills, and foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry,…

  16. Biodiesel and Integrated STEM: Vertical Alignment of High School Biology/Biochemistry and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Andrea C.; Breiner, Jonathan M.; Keiner, Jennifer; Behm, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the vertical alignment of two high school classes, biology and chemistry, around the core concept of biodiesel fuel production. High school teachers and university faculty members investigated biodiesel as it relates to societal impact through a National Science Foundation Research Experience for Teachers. Using an action…

  17. Connecting Biology and Organic Chemistry Introductory Laboratory Courses through a Collaborative Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltax, Ariana L.; Armanious, Stephanie; Kosinski-Collins, Melissa S.; Pontrello, Jason K.

    2015-01-01

    Modern research often requires collaboration of experts in fields, such as math, chemistry, biology, physics, and computer science to develop unique solutions to common problems. Traditional introductory undergraduate laboratory curricula in the sciences often do not emphasize connections possible between the various disciplines. We designed an…

  18. Electron Transfer in Chemistry and Biology-The Primary Events in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 12. Electron Transfer in Chemistry and Biology – The Primary Events in Photosynthesis. V Krishnan. General Article Volume 2 Issue 12 December 1997 pp 77-86. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. Where Is Earth Science? Mining for Opportunities in Chemistry, Physics, and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Julie; Ivey, Toni; Puckette, Jim

    2013-01-01

    The Earth sciences are newly marginalized in K-12 classrooms. With few high schools offering Earth science courses, students' exposure to the Earth sciences relies on the teacher's ability to incorporate Earth science material into a biology, chemistry, or physics course. ''G.E.T. (Geoscience Experiences for Teachers) in the Field'' is an…

  20. Design, Development, and Psychometric Analysis of a General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Topic Inventory Based on the Identified Main Chemistry Topics Relevant to Nursing Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Corina E.

    2013-01-01

    This two-stage study focused on the undergraduate nursing course that covers topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry. In the first stage, the central objective was to identify the main concepts of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was based on open-ended interviews of both nursing…

  1. Nonlinear optical polarization analysis in chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Garth J

    2017-01-01

    This rigorous yet accessible guide presents a molecular-based description of nonlinear optical polarization analysis of chemical and biological assemblies. It includes discussion of the most common nonlinear optical microscopy and interfacial measurements used for quantitative analysis, specifically second harmonic generation (SHG), two-photon excited fluorescence (2PEF), vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG), and coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy/stimulated Raman spectroscopy (CARS/SRS). A linear algebra mathematical framework is developed, allowing step-wise systematic connections to be made between the observable measurements and the molecular response. Effects considered include local field corrections, the molecular orientation distribution, rotations between the molecular frame, the local frame and the laboratory frame, and simplifications from molecular and macromolecular symmetry. Specific examples are provided throughout the book, working from the common and relatively simple case studies ...

  2. Chemistry and biology of terpene trilactones from Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strømgaard, Kristian; Nakanishi, Koji

    2004-03-19

    Ginkgo biloba, the ginkgo tree, is the oldest living tree, with a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine. In recent years, the leaf extracts have been widely sold as phytomedicine in Europe and as a dietary supplement worldwide. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extracts have been postulated to include improvement of memory, increased blood circulation, as well as beneficial effects to sufferers of Alzheimer's disease. The most unique components of the extracts are the terpene trilactones, that is, ginkgolides and bilobalide. These structurally complex molecules have been attractive targets for total synthesis. Terpene trilactones are believed to be partly responsible for the neuromodulatory properties of Ginkgo biloba extracts, and several biological effects of the terpene trilactones have been discovered in recent years, making them attractive pharmacological tools that could provide insight into the effects of Ginkgo biloba extracts.

  3. Biological regulation of atmospheric chemistry en route to planetary oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izon, Gareth; Zerkle, Aubrey L; Williford, Kenneth H; Farquhar, James; Poulton, Simon W; Claire, Mark W

    2017-03-28

    Emerging evidence suggests that atmospheric oxygen may have varied before rising irreversibly ∼2.4 billion years ago, during the Great Oxidation Event (GOE). Significantly, however, pre-GOE atmospheric aberrations toward more reducing conditions-featuring a methane-derived organic-haze-have recently been suggested, yet their occurrence, causes, and significance remain underexplored. To examine the role of haze formation in Earth's history, we targeted an episode of inferred haze development. Our redox-controlled (Fe-speciation) carbon- and sulfur-isotope record reveals sustained systematic stratigraphic covariance, precluding nonatmospheric explanations. Photochemical models corroborate this inference, showing Δ 36 S/Δ 33 S ratios are sensitive to the presence of haze. Exploiting existing age constraints, we estimate that organic haze developed rapidly, stabilizing within ∼0.3 ± 0.1 million years (Myr), and persisted for upward of ∼1.4 ± 0.4 Myr. Given these temporal constraints, and the elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations in the Archean, the sustained methane fluxes necessary for haze formation can only be reconciled with a biological source. Correlative δ 13 C Org and total organic carbon measurements support the interpretation that atmospheric haze was a transient response of the biosphere to increased nutrient availability, with methane fluxes controlled by the relative availability of organic carbon and sulfate. Elevated atmospheric methane concentrations during haze episodes would have expedited planetary hydrogen loss, with a single episode of haze development providing up to 2.6-18 × 10 18 moles of O 2 equivalents to the Earth system. Our findings suggest the Neoarchean likely represented a unique state of the Earth system where haze development played a pivotal role in planetary oxidation, hastening the contingent biological innovations that followed.

  4. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shashank; Pandey, Abhay K.

    2013-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the research on flavonoids from plant sources because of their versatile health benefits reported in various epidemiological studies. Since flavonoids are directly associated with human dietary ingredients and health, there is need to evaluate structure and function relationship. The bioavailability, metabolism, and biological activity of flavonoids depend upon the configuration, total number of hydroxyl groups, and substitution of functional groups about their nuclear structure. Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary sources of flavonoids for humans, along with tea and wine. Most recent researches have focused on the health aspects of flavonoids for humans. Many flavonoids are shown to have antioxidative activity, free radical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease prevention, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, while some flavonoids exhibit potential antiviral activities. In plant systems, flavonoids help in combating oxidative stress and act as growth regulators. For pharmaceutical purposes cost-effective bulk production of different types of flavonoids has been made possible with the help of microbial biotechnology. This review highlights the structural features of flavonoids, their beneficial roles in human health, and significance in plants as well as their microbial production. PMID:24470791

  5. Life as physics and chemistry: A system view of biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baverstock, Keith

    2013-04-01

    Cellular life can be viewed as one of many physical natural systems that extract free energy from their environments in the most efficient way, according to fundamental physical laws, and grow until limited by inherent physical constraints. Thus, it can be inferred that it is the efficiency of this process that natural selection acts upon. The consequent emphasis on metabolism, rather than replication, points to a metabolism-first origin of life with the adoption of DNA template replication as a second stage development. This order of events implies a cellular regulatory system that pre-dates the involvement of DNA and might, therefore, be based on the information acquired as peptides fold into proteins, rather than on genetic regulatory networks. Such an epigenetic cell regulatory model, the independent attractor model, has already been proposed to explain the phenomenon of radiation induced genomic instability. Here it is extended to provide an epigenetic basis for the morphological and functional diversity that evolution has yielded, based on natural selection of the most efficient free energy transduction. Empirical evidence which challenges the current genetic basis of cell and molecular biology and which supports the above proposal is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing interest in the research on flavonoids from plant sources because of their versatile health benefits reported in various epidemiological studies. Since flavonoids are directly associated with human dietary ingredients and health, there is need to evaluate structure and function relationship. The bioavailability, metabolism, and biological activity of flavonoids depend upon the configuration, total number of hydroxyl groups, and substitution of functional groups about their nuclear structure. Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary sources of flavonoids for humans, along with tea and wine. Most recent researches have focused on the health aspects of flavonoids for humans. Many flavonoids are shown to have antioxidative activity, free radical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease prevention, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, while some flavonoids exhibit potential antiviral activities. In plant systems, flavonoids help in combating oxidative stress and act as growth regulators. For pharmaceutical purposes cost-effective bulk production of different types of flavonoids has been made possible with the help of microbial biotechnology. This review highlights the structural features of flavonoids, their beneficial roles in human health, and significance in plants as well as their microbial production.

  7. Geological and biological heterogeneity of the Aleutian margin (1965-4822 m)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathburn, A. E.; Levin, L. A.; Tryon, M.; Gieskes, J. M.; Martin, J. B.; Pérez, M. E.; Fodrie, F. J.; Neira, C.; Fryer, G. J.; Mendoza, G.; McMillan, P. A.; Kluesner, J.; Adamic, J.; Ziebis, W.

    2009-01-01

    Geological, biological and biogeochemical characterization of the previously unexplored margin off Unimak Island, Alaska between 1965 and 4822 m water depth was conducted to examine: (1) the geological processes that shaped the margin, (2) the linkages between depth, geomorphology and environmental disturbance in structuring benthic communities of varying size classes and (3) the existence, composition and nutritional sources of methane seep biota on this margin. The study area was mapped and sampled using multibeam sonar, a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and a towed camera system. Our results provide the first characterization of the Aleutian margin mid and lower slope benthic communities (microbiota, foraminifera, macrofauna and megafauna), recognizing diverse habitats in a variety of settings. Our investigations also revealed that the geologic feature known as the “Ugamak Slide” is not a slide at all, and could not have resulted from a large 1946 earthquake. However, sediment disturbance appears to be a pervasive feature of this margin. We speculate that the deep-sea occurrence of high densities of Elphidium, typically a shallow-water foraminiferan, results from the influence of sediment redeposition from shallower habitats. Strong representation of cumacean, amphipod and tanaid crustaceans among the Unimak macrofauna may also reflect sediment instability. Although some faunal abundances decline with depth, habitat heterogeneity and disturbance generated by canyons and methane seepage appear to influence abundances of biota in ways that supercede any clear depth gradient in organic matter input. Measures of sediment organic matter and pigment content as well as C and N isotopic signatures were highly heterogeneous, although the availability of organic matter and the abundance of microorganisms in the upper sediment (1-5 cm) were positively correlated. We report the first methane seep on the Aleutian slope in the Unimak region (3263-3285 m), comprised of

  8. Bridging the gap between cell biology and organic chemistry: chemical synthesis and biological application of lipidated peptides and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Carsten; Wagner, Melanie; Völkert, Martin; Waldmann, Herbert

    2002-09-01

    We have developed a basic concept for studying cell biological phenomena using an interdisciplinary approach starting from organic chemistry. Based on structural information available for a given biological phenomenon, unsolved chemical problems are identified. For their solution, new synthetic pathways and methods are developed, which reflect the state of the art in synthesising lipidated peptide conjugates. These compounds are used as molecular probes for the investigation of biological phenomena that involve both the determination of biophysical properties and cell biological studies. The interplay between organic synthesis, biophysics and cell biology in the study of protein lipidation may open up new and alternative opportunities to gain knowledge about the biological phenomenon that could not be obtained by employing biological techniques alone. This fruitful combination is highlighted using the Ras protein as an outstanding example. Included herein is: the development of methods for the synthesis of Ras-derived peptides and fully functional Ras proteins, the determination of the biophysical properties, in particular the ability to bind to model membranes, and finally the use of synthetic Ras peptides and proteins in cell biological experiments.

  9. 2013 Gordon Research Conference on metals in biology and seminar on bioinorganic chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenzweig, Amy C. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2013-01-25

    Typical topics for lectures and posters include: biochemical and biophysical characterization of new metal containing proteins, enzymes, nucleic acids, factors, and chelators from all forms of life; synthesis, detailed characterization, and reaction chemistry of biomimetic compounds; novel crystal and solution structures of biological molecules and synthetic metal-chelates; discussions of the roles that metals play in medicine, maintenance of the environment, and biogeochemical processes; metal homeostasis; application of theory and computations to the structure and mechanism of metal-containing biological systems; and novel applications of spectroscopy to metals in biological systems.

  10. PSL Chemical Biology Symposia First 2016 Edition: When Chemistry and Biology Share the Language of Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Arnaud; Rodriguez, Raphaël

    2017-05-18

    Chemical biology, the science of understanding biological processes at the molecular level, has grown exponentially with the development of chemical strategies to manipulate and quantify biology with unprecedented precision. Recent advances presented at the Université Paris Sciences et Lettres symposium are discussed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Contextualizing Technology in the Classroom via Remote Access: Using Space Exploration Themes and Scanning Electron Microscopy as Tools to Promote Engagement in Geology/Chemistry Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Brandon; Jaramillo, Veronica; Wolf, Vanessa; Bautista, Esteban; Portillo, Jennifer; Brouke, Alexandra; Min, Ashley; Melendez, Andrea; Amann, Joseph; Pena-Francesch, Abdon; Ashcroft, Jared

    2018-01-01

    A multidisciplinary science experiment was performed in K-12 classrooms focusing on the interconnection between technology with geology and chemistry. The engagement and passion for science of over eight hundred students across twenty-one classrooms, utilizing a combination of hands-on activities using relationships between Earth and space rock…

  12. Recent developments and applications of clickable photoprobes in medicinal chemistry and chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinsky, David J; Johnson, Douglas S

    2015-01-01

    Photoaffinity labeling is a well-known biochemical technique that has grown significantly since the turn of the century, principally due to its combination with bioorthogonal/click chemistry reactions. This review highlights new developments and applications of clickable photoprobes in medicinal chemistry and chemical biology. In particular, recent examples of clickable photoprobes for target identification, activity- or affinity-based protein profiling (ABPP or AfBPP), characterization of sterol- or lipid-protein interactions and characterization of ligand-binding sites are presented.

  13. General Chemistry and Cellular and Molecular Biology: An Experiment in Curricular Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truman Schwartz, A.; Serie, Jan

    2001-11-01

    During the 1998-99 academic year, with the support of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, we co-taught integrated courses in general chemistry and cell biology to 23 first-year students. The double course was organized around six units: I. Energetics: Harvesting (Bio)Chemical Energy; II. The Regulation of Biological Processes: Chemical Kinetics and Equilibrium; III. Membranes and Electrochemical Gradients; IV. Acids and Bases and the Regulation of pH; V. Intracellular Compartments and Transport; and VI. Cellular Communication. The chemistry and biology were both taught in a manner meant to enhance understanding of these major themes and to emphasize the relationships between the two disciplines. Both of us were present for all class sessions and shared teaching responsibilities. The examinations, which corresponded to the units, also stressed the interdependence of biology and chemistry. The laboratory components were not integrated; rather the students were dispersed among laboratory sections shared with students from more traditional lecture sections. The paper reports on this experiment in curricular symbiosis, which proved to be a challenging and rewarding learning experience for both the students and us.

  14. Understanding recognition and self-assembly in biology using the chemist's toolbox. Insight into medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirolo, Z B; Benedini, L A; Sequeira, M A; Herrera, M G; Veuthey, T V; Dodero, V I

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal chemistry is intimately connected with basic science such as organic synthesis, chemical biology and biophysical chemistry among other disciplines. The reason of such connections is due to the power of organic synthesis to provide designed molecules; chemical biology to give tools to discover biological and/or pathological pathways and biophysical chemistry which provides the techniques to characterize and the theoretical background to understand molecular behaviour. The present review provides some selective examples of these research areas. Initially, template dsDNA organic synthesis and the spatio-temporal control of transcription are presenting following by the supramolecular entities used in drug delivery, such as liposomes and liquid crystal among others. Finally, peptides and protein self-assembly is connected with biomaterials and as an important event in the balance between health and disease. The final aim of the present review is to show the power of chemical tools not only for the synthesis of new molecules but also to improve our understanding of recognition and self-assembly in the biological context.

  15. Chemistry and biological activity of steroidal glycosides from the Lilium genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munafo, John P; Gianfagna, Thomas J

    2015-03-01

    Plants from the Lilium genus are a rich source of chemical diversity and have been the focus of natural products chemistry research for over twenty years. This manuscript provides a background on the chemistry and nomenclature of steroidal glycosides, as well as a chronological account of the progress between the years of 1989 up to 2014, with respect to their isolation and characterization from the genus. This review highlights the traditional use of lilies, as both food and medicine, and brings attention to the fact that the genus contains 110 accepted species of which the chemistry and biological activity of the steroidal glycosides from the majority have not been investigated to date. Thus, making the genus a relatively untapped resource that contains a potential treasure trove of chemical diversity waiting to be discovered.

  16. A Decade of Click Chemistry in Protein Palmitoylation: Impact on Discovery and New Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xinxin; Hannoush, Rami N

    2018-03-15

    Protein palmitoylation plays diverse roles in regulating the trafficking, stability, and activity of cellular proteins. The advent of click chemistry has propelled the field of protein palmitoylation forward by providing specific, sensitive, rapid, and easy-to-handle methods for studying protein palmitoylation. This year marks the 10th anniversary since the first click chemistry-based fatty acid probes for detecting protein lipid modifications were reported. The goal of this review is to highlight key biological advancements in the field of protein palmitoylation during the past 10 years. In particular, we discuss the impact of click chemistry on enabling protein palmitoylation proteomics methods, uncovering novel lipid modifications on proteins and elucidating their functions, as well as the development of non-radioactive biochemical and enzymatic assays. In addition, this review provides context for building and exploring new research avenues in protein palmitoylation through the use of clickable fatty acid probes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Geology, mineralization, mineral chemistry, and ore-fluid conditions of Irankuh Pb-Zn mining district, south of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Karimpour

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Irankuh mining district area located at the southern part of the Malayer-Isfahan metallogenic belt, south of Isfahan, consists of several Zn-Pb deposits and occurrences such as Tappehsorkh, Rowmarmar 5, Kolahdarvazeh, Blind ore, and Gushfil deposits as well as Rowmarmar 1-4 and Gushfil 1 prospects. Based on geology, alteration, form and texture of mineralization, and paragenesis assemblages, Pb-Zn mineralization is Mississippi-type deposit (Rastad, 1981; Ghazban et al., 1994; Ghasemi, 1995; Reichert, 2007; Timoori-Asl (2010; Ayati et al., 2013; Hosseini-Dinani et al., 2015. Geology of the area consists of Jurassic siltstone and shale and different types of Cretaceous dolostone and limestone. The aim of this research is new geological studies such as revision of old geologic map, study of different types of textures and mineral assemblages within carbonate and clastic host rocks, and chemistry of galena, sphalerite, and dolomite. Finally, we combined these results with isotopic and fluid inclusion data and discussed on ore-fluid conditions. Materials and Methods In order to achieve the aims of this work, at first field surveying and sampling were done. Then, 200 thin and 70 polished thin sections were prepared. Some of the samples were selected for microprobe analysis and galena and sphalerite minerals were analyzed by using JEOL- JAX-8230 analyzer at Colorado University, USA. The chemistry of dolomite and fluid inclusion data are used after Boveiri Konari and Rastad (2016 and stable isotope is used after Ghazban et al. (1994. Discussion The Irankuh mineralization is hosted by carbonate rocks (dolostone and limestone and minor clastic rocks as epigenetic. Mineralization has occurred as breccia, veinlet, open space filling, spoted, dessiminated, and replacement (carbonate hosted rock. The mineral assemblages are Fe-rich sphalerite, galena, minor pyrite, Fe- and Mn-rich dolomite, bituminous, ankrite, calcite ± quartz ± barite

  18. Recent Advances in the Chemistry and Biology of Naturally Occurring Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jason S.; Edmonds, David J.; Estrada, Anthony A.

    2009-01-01

    Lead-in Ever since the world-shaping discovery of penicillin, nature’s molecular diversity has been extensively screened for new medications and lead compounds in drug discovery. The search for anti-infective agents intended to combat infectious diseases has been of particular interest and has enjoyed a high degree of success. Indeed, the history of antibiotics is marked with impressive discoveries and drug development stories, the overwhelming majority of which have their origins in nature. Chemistry, and in particular chemical synthesis, has played a major role in bringing naturally occurring antibiotics and their derivatives to the clinic, and no doubt these disciplines will continue to be key enabling technologies for future developments in the field. In this review article, we highlight a number of recent discoveries and advances in the chemistry, biology, and medicine of naturally occurring antibiotics, with particular emphasis on the total synthesis, analog design, and biological evaluation of molecules with novel mechanisms of action. PMID:19130444

  19. History, biology and chemistry of Mycobacterium ulcerans infections (Buruli ulcer disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chany, Anne-Caroline; Tresse, Cédric; Casarotto, Virginie; Blanchard, Nicolas

    2013-12-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans infections (Buruli ulcer disease) have a long history that can be traced back 150 years. The successive discoveries of the mycobacteria in 1948 and of mycolactone A/B in 1999, the toxin responsible for this dramatic necrotic skin disease, resulted in a paradigm shift concerning the disease itself and in a broader sense, delineated an entirely new role for bioactive polyketides as virulence factors. The fascinating history, biology and chemistry of M. ulcerans infections are discussed in this review.

  20. Interest in STEM is contagious for students in biology, chemistry, and physics classes

    OpenAIRE

    Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Cribbs, Jennifer D.; Godwin, Allison; Scott, Tyler D.; Klotz, Leidy

    2017-01-01

    We report on a study of the effect of peers? interest in high school biology, chemistry, and physics classes on students? STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics)?related career intentions and course achievement. We define an interest quorum as a science class where students perceive a high level of interest for the subject matter from their classmates. We hypothesized that students who experience such an interest quorum are more likely to choose STEM careers. Using data from ...

  1. Pre-Service Science Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge in The Physics, Chemistry, and Biology Topics

    OpenAIRE

    Bektas, Oktay

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated pre-service science teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge in the physics, chemistry, and biology topics. These topics were the light and sound, the physical and chemical changes, and reproduction, growth, and evolution. Qualitative research design was utilized. Data were collected from 33 pre-service science teachers (PSTs) by using open-ended questions. Data analysis was performed using descriptive analysis. The results indicated that some PCTs have sufficient infor...

  2. An Unprecedented Revolution in Medicinal Chemistry Driven by the Progress of Biological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2017-01-01

    The eternal or ultimate goal of medicinal chemistry is to find most effective ways to treat various diseases and extend human beings' life as long as possible. Human being is a biological entity. To realize such an ultimate goal, the inputs or breakthroughs from the advances in biological science are no doubt most important that may even drive medicinal science into a revolution. In this review article, we are to address this from several different angles. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Designing a 'neotissue' using the principles of biology, chemistry and engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannaparaju, Madhusudhan; Oragui, Emeka; Khan, Wasim S

    2012-01-01

    The traditional methods of treating musculoskeletal injuries and disorders are not completely effective and have several limitations. Tissue engineering involves using the principles of biology, chemistry and engineering to design a 'neotissue' that augments a malfunctioning in vivo tissue. The main requirements for functional engineered tissue include reparative cellular components that proliferate on a scaffold grown within a bioreactor that provides specific biochemical and physical signals to regulate cell differentiation and tissue assembly. In this review we provide an overview of the biology of common musculoskeletal tissue and discuss their common pathologies. We also describe the commonly used stem cells, scaffolds and bioreactors and evaluate their role in issue engineering.

  4. Adenine Synthesis in a Model Prebiotic Reaction: Connecting Origin of Life Chemistry with Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumukonda, Lakshmi N; Young, Avery; Lynn, David G; Buckley, Ragan; Warrayat, Amena; Graves, Christina L; Bean, Heather D; Hud, Nicholas V

    2011-12-01

    Many high school laboratory experiments demonstrate concepts related to biological evolution, but few exist that allow students to investigate life's chemical origins. This series of laboratory experiments has been developed to allow students to explore and appreciate the deep connection that exists between prebiotic chemistry, chemical evolution, and contemporary biological systems. In the first experiment of the series, students synthesize adenine, one of the purine nucleobases of DNA and RNA, from plausibly prebiotic precursor molecules. Students compare their product to authentic standards using thin-layer chromatography. The second and third experiments of the series allow students to extract DNA from a familiar organism, the strawberry, and hydrolyze it, releasing adenine, which they can then compare to the previously chemically-synthesized adenine. A fourth, optional experiment is included where the technique of thin-layer chromatography is introduced and chromatographic skills are developed for use in the other three experiments that comprise this series. Concepts relating to organic and analytical chemistry, as well as biochemistry and DNA structure, are incorporated throughout, allowing this series of laboratory experiments to be easily inserted into existing laboratory courses and to reinforce concepts already included in any high school chemistry or biology curriculum.

  5. Synthetic biology and biomimetic chemistry as converging technologies fostering a new generation of smart biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, Viviana; Antonacci, Amina; Lambreva, Maya D; Litescu, Simona C; Rea, Giuseppina

    2015-12-15

    Biosensors are powerful tunable systems able to switch between an ON/OFF status in response to an external stimulus. This extraordinary property could be engineered by adopting synthetic biology or biomimetic chemistry to obtain tailor-made biosensors having the desired requirements of robustness, sensitivity and detection range. Recent advances in both disciplines, in fact, allow to re-design the configuration of the sensing elements - either by modifying toggle switches and gene networks, or by producing synthetic entities mimicking key properties of natural molecules. The present review considered the role of synthetic biology in sustaining biosensor technology, reporting examples from the literature and reflecting on the features that make it a useful tool for designing and constructing engineered biological systems for sensing application. Besides, a section dedicated to bioinspired synthetic molecules as powerful tools to enhance biosensor potential is reported, and treated as an extension of the concept of biomimetic chemistry, where organic synthesis is used to generate artificial molecules that mimic natural molecules. Thus, the design of synthetic molecules, such as aptamers, biomimetics, molecular imprinting polymers, peptide nucleic acids, and ribozymes were encompassed as "products" of biomimetic chemistry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Inorganic sulfur-nitrogen compounds: from gunpowder chemistry to the forefront of biological signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese-Krott, Miriam M; Butler, Anthony R; Woollins, J Derek; Feelisch, Martin

    2016-04-14

    The reactions between inorganic sulfur and nitrogen-bearing compounds to form S-N containing species have a long history and, besides assuming importance in industrial synthetic processes, are of relevance to microbial metabolism; waste water treatment; aquatic, soil and atmospheric chemistry; and combustion processes. The recent discovery that hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide exert often similar, sometimes mutually dependent effects in a variety of biological systems, and that the chemical interaction of these two species leads to formation of S-N compounds brought this chemistry to the attention of physiologists, biochemists and physicians. We here provide a perspective about the potential role of S-N compounds in biological signaling and briefly review their chemical properties and bioactivities in the context of the chronology of their discovery. Studies of the biological role of NO revealed why its chemistry is ideally suited for the tasks Nature has chosen for it; realising how the distinctive properties of sulfur can enrich this bioactivity does much to revive 'die Freude am experimentellen Spiel' of the pioneers in this field.

  7. Living GenoChemetics by hyphenating synthetic biology and synthetic chemistry in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunil V; Tong, Xiaoxue; Pubill-Ulldemolins, Cristina; Cartmell, Christopher; Bogosyan, Emma J A; Rackham, Emma J; Marelli, Enrico; Hamed, Refaat B; Goss, Rebecca J M

    2017-08-09

    Marrying synthetic biology with synthetic chemistry provides a powerful approach toward natural product diversification, combining the best of both worlds: expediency and synthetic capability of biogenic pathways and chemical diversity enabled by organic synthesis. Biosynthetic pathway engineering can be employed to insert a chemically orthogonal tag into a complex natural scaffold affording the possibility of site-selective modification without employing protecting group strategies. Here we show that, by installing a sufficiently reactive handle (e.g., a C-Br bond) and developing compatible mild aqueous chemistries, synchronous biosynthesis of the tagged metabolite and its subsequent chemical modification in living culture can be achieved. This approach can potentially enable many new applications: for example, assay of directed evolution of enzymes catalyzing halo-metabolite biosynthesis in living cells or generating and following the fate of tagged metabolites and biomolecules in living systems. We report synthetic biological access to new-to-nature bromo-metabolites and the concomitant biorthogonal cross-coupling of halo-metabolites in living cultures.Coupling synthetic biology and chemical reactions in cells is a challenging task. The authors engineer bacteria capable of generating bromo-metabolites, develop a mild Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction compatible with cell growth and carry out the cross-coupling chemistry in live cell cultures.

  8. Potential biological chemistry of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with the nitrogen oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce King, S

    2013-02-01

    Hydrogen sulfide, an important gaseous signaling agent generated in numerous biological tissues, influences many physiological processes. This biological profile seems reminiscent of nitric oxide, another important endogenously synthesized gaseous signaling molecule. Hydrogen sulfide reacts with nitric oxide or oxidized forms of nitric oxide and nitric oxide donors in vitro to form species that display distinct biology compared to both hydrogen sulfide and NO. The products of these interesting reactions may include small-molecule S-nitrosothiols or nitroxyl, the one-electron-reduced form of nitric oxide. In addition, thionitrous acid or thionitrite, compounds structurally analogous to nitrous acid and nitrite, may constitute a portion of the reaction products. Both the chemistry and the biology of thionitrous acid and thionitrite, compared to nitric oxide or hydrogen sulfide, remain poorly defined. General mechanisms for the formation of S-nitrosothiols, nitroxyl, and thionitrous acid based upon the ability of hydrogen sulfide to act as a nucleophile and a reducing agent with reactive nitric oxide-based intermediates are proposed. Hydrogen sulfide reactivity seems extensive and could have an impact on numerous areas of redox-controlled biology and chemistry, warranting more work in this exciting and developing area. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez G, H.

    1989-01-01

    A brief description about the development and activities executed in chemistry, in the Instituto de Asuntos Nucleares, during the last years is presented. The plans and feasibility of nuclear techniques in Colombia are also described

  10. Wavelength feature mapping as a proxy to mineral chemistry for investigating geologic systems: An example from the Rodalquilar epithermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Freek; Kopačková, Veronika; Koucká, Lucie; van der Werff, Harald M. A.; van Ruitenbeek, Frank J. A.; Bakker, Wim H.

    2018-02-01

    The final product of a geologic remote sensing data analysis using multi spectral and hyperspectral images is a mineral (abundance) map. Multispectral data, such as ASTER, Landsat, SPOT, Sentinel-2, typically allow to determine qualitative estimates of what minerals are in a pixel, while hyperspectral data allow to quantify this. As input to most image classification or spectral processing approach, endmembers are required. An alternative approach to classification is to derive absorption feature characteristics such as the wavelength position of the deepest absorption, depth of the absorption and symmetry of the absorption feature from hyperspectral data. Two approaches are presented, tested and compared in this paper: the 'Wavelength Mapper' and the 'QuanTools'. Although these algorithms use a different mathematical solution to derive absorption feature wavelength and depth, and use different image post-processing, the results are consistent, comparable and reproducible. The wavelength images can be directly linked to mineral type and abundance, but more importantly also to mineral chemical composition and subtle changes thereof. This in turn allows to interpret hyperspectral data in terms of mineral chemistry changes which is a proxy to pressure-temperature of formation of minerals. We show the case of the Rodalquilar epithermal system of the southern Spanish Gabo de Gata volcanic area using HyMAP airborne hyperspectral images.

  11. The geology, botany and chemistry of selected peat-forming environments from temperate and tropical latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, C.C.; Esterle, J.S.; Palmer, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    Peat has been studied in several geologic settings: (1) glaciated terrain in cold temperate Maine and Minnesota, U.S.A.; (2) an island in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Maine, where sea level is rising; (3) the warm temperate U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains, where sea level has changed often; and (4) the tropical coast of Sarawak, Malaysia, and the tropical delta of the Batang Hari River, Sumatra, Indonesia. Most of these deposits are domed (ombrotrophic or partly ombrotrophic) bogs in which peat accumulation continued above the surface of the surrounding soil. However, the bogs of the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains are comparatively not as domed, and many have almost level surfaces. In some bogs, aquatic or semi-aquatic plant materials accumulated, replaced water in the depressions, and formed a surface on which marsh or swamp vegetation could subsequently live, die, and accumulate. In others, the plant materials accumulated initially on level silt or sand surfaces supporting marshes or swamps. As the peat dome formed, plants growing on it changed from luxuriant ones near the base of the dome, where nutrients were brought into the bog by surface and ground water, to stunted ones at the top of the dome, where the raised bogs are fed by nutrient-poor precipitation. The physical and chemical changes that take place in the sequence of environments from the pond stage of deposit development, through the grassy marsh stage, through the forested swamp stage, and finally through the heath dome stage can be measured in terms of acidity and ash, volatile matter, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen contents, as well as in the kind and distribution of trace elements. The organic and inorganic contents of the deposits relate to geomorphology, and geomorphology relates to their settings. As models of coal formation, some domed peat deposits may help in solving problems of distribution and character of ancient coal beds. But clearly not all peat

  12. K1-95-HW, cruise report 1995: preliminary results. Phase III: sediment chemistry and biological sampling survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torresan, M.E.; Hampton, M.A.; Barber, J.H.; Wong, F.L.

    1995-01-01

    Mamala Bay, off the south shore of the island of Oahu, has been used as a repository of dredged material primarily from Pearl and Honolulu Harbors for over a century. The U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are conducting an integrated study on the distribution and character of dredged materials as well as the effects of dredged material on the marine environment. A three phase study is providing information to evaluate the effects on seafloor substrate and the benthic fauna. The studies include geophysical profiling and imaging, bottom photography, sampling, chemical and physical analyses of sediment, and evaluations of the benthic population, population density, and adverse impacts to the benthic fauna. Phase 1, conducted in 1993, inventoried the seafloor via remote sensing. Sidescan sonar and subbottom profilers characterized the seafloor in and around the disposal sites, and the resulting products reveal the character and extent of the dredged material. These data were used to plan Phase 2 in 1994, a sampling program that employed subbottom profilers, video and still photography, and seafloor sampling to ground truth the sonar mosaic and identify the seafloor substrates responsible for the various acoustic signatures on the sonar images and subbottom profiles. Box coring provided the samples necessary to distinguish dredged material from native sediment, and for the chemical analyses used to determine contaminant concentrations. Phase 3 studies conducted in June of 1995 consisted of box core sampling for chemical and biological analyses. Specific studies include: infaunal taxonomy and population density, bioassay/bioaccumulation, sediment chemistry, and post-disposal resuspension and transport. The 1995 survey, conducted June 14 through 17, resulted in the collection of 39 box cores from 20 different stations. Multiple box cores were composited at 7 different locations occupied in 1994, to provide

  13. Isoprostanes, neuroprostanes and phytoprostanes: An overview of 25years of research in chemistry and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galano, Jean-Marie; Lee, Yiu Yiu; Oger, Camille; Vigor, Claire; Vercauteren, Joseph; Durand, Thierry; Giera, Martin; Lee, Jetty Chung-Yung

    2017-10-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990's diverse types of metabolites originating from polyunsaturated fatty acids, formed under autooxidative conditions were discovered. Known as prostaglandin isomers (or isoprostanoids) originating from arachidonic acid, neuroprostanes from docosahexaenoic acid, and phytoprostanes from α-linolenic acid proved to be prevalent in biology. The syntheses of these compounds by organic chemists and the development of sophisticated mass spectrometry methods has boosted our understanding of the isoprostanoid biology. In recent years, it has become accepted that these molecules not only serve as markers of oxidative damage but also exhibit a wide range of bioactivities. In addition, isoprostanoids have emerged as indicators of oxidative stress in humans and their environment. This review explores in detail the isoprostanoid chemistry and biology that has been achieved in the past three decades. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantification of layered patterns with structural anisotropy: a comparison of biological and geological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolyar, I; Bromage, T; Wikelski, M

    2016-03-01

    Large-scale patterns evident from satellite images of aeolian landforms on Earth and other planets; those of intermediate scale in marine and terrestrial sand ripples and sediment profiles; and small-scale patterns such as lamellae in the bones of vertebrates and annuli in fish scales are each represented by layers of different thicknesses and lengths. Layered patterns are important because they form a record of the state of internal and external factors that regulate pattern formation in these geological and biological systems. It is therefore potentially possible to recognize trends, periodicities, and events in the history of the formation of these systems among the incremental sequences. Though the structures and sizes of these 2-D patterns are typically scale-free, they are also characteristically anisotropic; that is, the number of layers and their absolute thicknesses vary significantly during formation. The aim of the present work is to quantify the structure of layered patterns and to reveal similarities and differences in the processing and interpretation of layered landforms and biological systems. To reach this goal we used N-partite graph and Boolean functions to quantify the structure of layers and plot charts for "layer thickness vs. layer number" and "layer area vs. layer number". These charts serve as a source of information about events in the history of formation of layered systems. The concept of synchronization of layer formation across a 2-D plane is introduced to develop the procedure for plotting "layer thickness vs. layer number" and "layer area vs. layer number", which takes into account the structural anisotropy of layered patterns and increase signal-to-noise ratio in charts. Examples include landforms on Mars and Earth and incremental layers in human and iguana bones.

  15. Quantification of layered patterns with structural anisotropy: a comparison of biological and geological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Smolyar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale patterns evident from satellite images of aeolian landforms on Earth and other planets; those of intermediate scale in marine and terrestrial sand ripples and sediment profiles; and small-scale patterns such as lamellae in the bones of vertebrates and annuli in fish scales are each represented by layers of different thicknesses and lengths. Layered patterns are important because they form a record of the state of internal and external factors that regulate pattern formation in these geological and biological systems. It is therefore potentially possible to recognize trends, periodicities, and events in the history of the formation of these systems among the incremental sequences. Though the structures and sizes of these 2-D patterns are typically scale-free, they are also characteristically anisotropic; that is, the number of layers and their absolute thicknesses vary significantly during formation. The aim of the present work is to quantify the structure of layered patterns and to reveal similarities and differences in the processing and interpretation of layered landforms and biological systems. To reach this goal we used N-partite graph and Boolean functions to quantify the structure of layers and plot charts for “layer thickness vs. layer number” and “layer area vs. layer number”. These charts serve as a source of information about events in the history of formation of layered systems. The concept of synchronization of layer formation across a 2-D plane is introduced to develop the procedure for plotting “layer thickness vs. layer number” and “layer area vs. layer number”, which takes into account the structural anisotropy of layered patterns and increase signal-to-noise ratio in charts. Examples include landforms on Mars and Earth and incremental layers in human and iguana bones.

  16. Medicinal and Biological Chemistry (MBC) Library: An Efficient Source of New Hits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián-Pérez, Víctor; Roca, Carlos; Awale, Mahendra; Reymond, Jean-Louis; Martinez, Ana; Gil, Carmen; Campillo, Nuria E

    2017-09-25

    Identification of new hits is one of the biggest challenges in drug discovery. Creating a library of well-characterized drug-like compounds is a key step in this process. Our group has developed an in-house chemical library called the Medicinal and Biological Chemistry (MBC) library. This collection has been successfully used to start several medicinal chemistry programs and developed in an accumulation of more than 30 years of experience in drug design and discovery of new drugs for unmet diseases. It contains over 1000 compounds, mainly heterocyclic scaffolds. In this work, analysis of drug-like properties and comparative study with well-known libraries by using different computer software are presented here.

  17. Taming sulfur dioxide: a breakthrough for its wide utilization in chemistry and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisseret, Philippe; Blanchard, Nicolas

    2013-09-07

    Although sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been used as a reagent for organic chemistry for more than one hundred years, being endowed with quite a distinct and varied reactivity profile, which allows the synthesis of a large range of compounds, its notorious toxicity as well as its gaseous state have impeded its frequent utilization by chemists. We summarize recent studies in this emerging area aimed at stimulating its utilization in organic (including organometallic) chemistry thanks to the development of innocuous, bench-stable reliable SO2 donors. Proof-of-concept experiments have also been recently performed in biology with the design of organic SO2 donors having controlled release profiles under physiological conditions, either active against mycobacteria or used for clarifying the role of endogenously produced SO2 in living cells.

  18. Dovetailing biology and chemistry: integrating the Gene Ontology with the ChEBI chemical ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Gene Ontology (GO) facilitates the description of the action of gene products in a biological context. Many GO terms refer to chemical entities that participate in biological processes. To facilitate accurate and consistent systems-wide biological representation, it is necessary to integrate the chemical view of these entities with the biological view of GO functions and processes. We describe a collaborative effort between the GO and the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) ontology developers to ensure that the representation of chemicals in the GO is both internally consistent and in alignment with the chemical expertise captured in ChEBI. Results We have examined and integrated the ChEBI structural hierarchy into the GO resource through computationally-assisted manual curation of both GO and ChEBI. Our work has resulted in the creation of computable definitions of GO terms that contain fully defined semantic relationships to corresponding chemical terms in ChEBI. Conclusions The set of logical definitions using both the GO and ChEBI has already been used to automate aspects of GO development and has the potential to allow the integration of data across the domains of biology and chemistry. These logical definitions are available as an extended version of the ontology from http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/go/extensions/go-plus.owl. PMID:23895341

  19. Dovetailing biology and chemistry: integrating the Gene Ontology with the ChEBI chemical ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P; Adams, Nico; Bada, Mike; Batchelor, Colin; Berardini, Tanya Z; Dietze, Heiko; Drabkin, Harold J; Ennis, Marcus; Foulger, Rebecca E; Harris, Midori A; Hastings, Janna; Kale, Namrata S; de Matos, Paula; Mungall, Christopher J; Owen, Gareth; Roncaglia, Paola; Steinbeck, Christoph; Turner, Steve; Lomax, Jane

    2013-07-29

    The Gene Ontology (GO) facilitates the description of the action of gene products in a biological context. Many GO terms refer to chemical entities that participate in biological processes. To facilitate accurate and consistent systems-wide biological representation, it is necessary to integrate the chemical view of these entities with the biological view of GO functions and processes. We describe a collaborative effort between the GO and the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) ontology developers to ensure that the representation of chemicals in the GO is both internally consistent and in alignment with the chemical expertise captured in ChEBI. We have examined and integrated the ChEBI structural hierarchy into the GO resource through computationally-assisted manual curation of both GO and ChEBI. Our work has resulted in the creation of computable definitions of GO terms that contain fully defined semantic relationships to corresponding chemical terms in ChEBI. The set of logical definitions using both the GO and ChEBI has already been used to automate aspects of GO development and has the potential to allow the integration of data across the domains of biology and chemistry. These logical definitions are available as an extended version of the ontology from http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/go/extensions/go-plus.owl.

  20. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    The chemical research and development efforts related to the design and ultimate operation of molten-salt breeder reactor systems are concentrated on fuel- and coolant-salt chemistry, including the development of analytical methods for use in these systems. The chemistry of tellurium in fuel salt is being studied to help elucidate the role of this element in the intergranular cracking of Hastelloy N. Studies were continued of the effect of oxygen-containing species on the equilibrium between dissolved UF 3 and dissolved UF 4 , and, in some cases, between the dissolved uranium fluorides and graphite, and the UC 2 . Several aspects of coolant-salt chemistry are under investigation. Hydroxy and oxy compounds that could be formed in molten NaBF 4 are being synthesized and characterized. Studies of the chemistry of chromium (III) compounds in fluoroborate melts were continued as part of a systematic investigation of the corrosion of structural alloys by coolant salt. An in-line voltammetric method for determining U 4+ /U 3+ ratios in fuel salt was tested in a forced-convection loop over a six-month period. (LK)

  1. 2-Aminothiophene scaffolds: Diverse biological and pharmacological attributes in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorov, Khurshed; Nie, Li Fei; Zhao, Jiangyu; Aisa, Haji A

    2017-11-10

    2-Aminothiophenes are important five-membered heterocyclic building blocks in organic synthesis, and the chemistry of these small molecules is still developing based on the discovery of cyclization by Gewald. Another attractive feature of 2-aminothiophene scaffolds is their ability to act as synthons for the synthesis of biological active thiophene-containing heterocycles, conjugates and hybrids. Currently, the biological actions of 2-aminothiophenes or their 2-N-substituted analogues are still being investigated because of their various mechanisms of action (e.g., pharmacophore and pharmacokinetic properties). Likewise, the 2-aminothiophene family is used as diverse promising selective inhibitors, receptors, and modulators in medicinal chemistry, and these compounds even exhibit effective pharmacological properties in the various clinical phases of appropriate diseases. In this review, major biological and pharmacological reports on 2-aminothiophenes and related compounds have been highlighted; most perspective drug-candidate hits were selected for discussion and described, along with additional synthetic pathways. In addition, we focused on the literature dedicated to 2-aminothiophenes and 2-N-substituted derivatives, which have been published from 2010 to 2017. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemistry and Biology of HPAs: A Family of Ceramide Trafficking Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkeš, Dušan; Daïch, Adam; Santos, Cécile; Ballereau, Stéphanie; Génisson, Yves

    2016-12-05

    In 2001, two years before the disclosure of the CERT-associated Cer transfer machinery, N-(3-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-3-phenylpropyl)alkanamides (HPAs) were described as the first, and to date unique, family of intracellular Cer trafficking inhibitors. The dodecanamide derivative, HPA-12, turned out to be a benchmark as a cellular inhibitor of CERT-mediated de novo sphingomyelin biosynthesis. In only 15 years after its first disclosure, this compound has prompted a growing number of biological and chemical studies. Its initial chemical development closely paralleled the study of the CERT protein. It was only after its structural revision in 2011 that HPA-12 received broad attention from the synthetic chemistry community, leading to novel analogues with enhanced protein binding. This Minireview aims at presenting an exhaustive report of the syntheses of HPA-12 and analogues. Biological activities of this CERT inhibitor and structure-activity relationships are also presented to afford a comprehensive overview of the chemistry and biology of the HPA series. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Connecting synthetic chemistry decisions to cell and genome biology using small-molecule phenotypic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Bridget K; Clemons, Paul A

    2009-12-01

    Discovering small-molecule modulators for thousands of gene products requires multiple stages of biological testing, specificity evaluation, and chemical optimization. Many cellular profiling methods, including cellular sensitivity, gene expression, and cellular imaging, have emerged as methods to assess the functional consequences of biological perturbations. Cellular profiling methods applied to small-molecule science provide opportunities to use complex phenotypic information to prioritize and optimize small-molecule structures simultaneously against multiple biological endpoints. As throughput increases and cost decreases for such technologies, we see an emerging paradigm of using more information earlier in probe-discovery and drug-discovery efforts. Moreover, increasing access to public datasets makes possible the construction of 'virtual' profiles of small-molecule performance, even when multiplexed measurements were not performed or when multidimensional profiling was not the original intent. We review some key conceptual advances in small-molecule phenotypic profiling, emphasizing connections to other information, such as protein-binding measurements, genetic perturbations, and cell states. We argue that to maximally leverage these measurements in probe-discovery and drug-discovery requires a fundamental connection to synthetic chemistry, allowing the consequences of synthetic decisions to be described in terms of changes in small-molecule profiles. Mining such data in the context of chemical structure and synthesis strategies can inform decisions about chemistry procurement and library development, leading to optimal small-molecule screening collections.

  4. N-acylsulfonamides: Synthetic routes and biological potential in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammazzalorso, Alessandra; De Filippis, Barbara; Giampietro, Letizia; Amoroso, Rosa

    2017-12-01

    Sulfonamide is a common structural motif in naturally occurring and synthetic medicinal compounds. The rising interest in sulfonamides and N-acyl derivatives is attested by the large number of drugs and lead compounds identified in last years, explored in different fields of medicinal chemistry and showing biological activity. Many acylsulfonamide derivatives were designed and synthesized as isosteres of carboxylic acids, being the characteristics of these functional groups very close. Starting from chemical routes to N-acylsulfonamides, this review explores compounds of pharmaceutical interest, developed as enzymatic inhibitors or targeting receptors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. The chemistry-biology-medicine continuum and the drug discovery and development process in academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, K C

    2014-09-18

    Admirable as it is, the drug discovery and development process is continuously undergoing changes and adjustments in search of further improvements in efficiency, productivity, and profitability. Recent trends in academic-industrial partnerships promise to provide new opportunities for advancements of this process through transdisciplinary collaborations along the entire spectrum of activities involved in this complex process. This perspective discusses ways to promote the emerging academic paradigm of the chemistry-biology-medicine continuum as a means to advance the drug discovery and development process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Advances in metabolome information retrieval: turning chemistry into biology. Part II: biological information recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebani, Abdellah; Afonso, Carlos; Bekri, Soumeya

    2017-08-25

    This work reports the second part of a review intending to give the state of the art of major metabolic phenotyping strategies. It particularly deals with inherent advantages and limits regarding data analysis issues and biological information retrieval tools along with translational challenges. This Part starts with introducing the main data preprocessing strategies of the different metabolomics data. Then, it describes the main data analysis techniques including univariate and multivariate aspects. It also addresses the challenges related to metabolite annotation and characterization. Finally, functional analysis including pathway and network strategies are discussed. The last section of this review is devoted to practical considerations and current challenges and pathways to bring metabolomics into clinical environments.

  7. Variability in stream chemistry in relation to urban development and biological condition in seven metropolitan areas of the United States, 1999-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Karen M.; Bell, Amanda H.; Coles, James F.

    2012-01-01

    Beginning in 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program investigated the effects of urban development on stream ecosystems in nine metropolitan study areas across the United States. In seven of these study areas, stream-chemistry samples were collected every other month for 1 year at 6 to 10 sites. Within a study area, the sites collectively represented a gradient of urban development from minimally to highly developed watersheds, based on the percentage of urban land cover; depending on study area, the land cover before urban development was either forested or agricultural. The stream-chemistry factors measured in the samples were total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chloride, and pesticide toxicity. These data were used to characterize the stream-chemistry factors in four ways (hereafter referred to as characterizations)—seasonal high-flow value, seasonal low-flow value, the median value (representing a single integrated value of the factor over the year), and the standard deviation of values (representing the variation of the factor over the year). Aquatic macroinvertebrate communities were sampled at each site to infer the biological condition of the stream based on the relative sensitivity of the community to environmental stressors. A Spearman correlation analysis was used to evaluate relations between (1) urban development and each characterization of the stream-chemistry factors and (2) the biological condition of a stream and the different characterizations of chloride and pesticide toxicity. Overall, the study areas where the land cover before urban development was primarily forested had a greater number of moderate and strong relations compared with the study areas where the land cover before urban development was primarily agriculture; this was true when urban development was correlated with the stream-chemistry factors (except chloride) and when chloride and pesticide toxicity was correlated with the biological condition

  8. Review of the genus Ipomoea: traditional uses, chemistry and biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Meira

    Full Text Available Approximately 600-700 species of Ipomoea, Convolvulaceae, are found throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Several of those species have been used as ornamental plants, food, medicines or in religious ritual. The present work reviews the traditional uses, chemistry and biological activities of Ipomoea species and illustrates the potential of the genus as a source of therapeutic agents. These species are used in different parts of the world for the treatment of several diseases, such as, diabetes, hypertension, dysentery, constipation, fatigue, arthritis, rheumatism, hydrocephaly, meningitis, kidney ailments and inflammations. Some of these species showed antimicrobial, analgesic, spasmolitic, spasmogenic, hypoglycemic, hypotensive, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, psychotomimetic and anticancer activities. Alkaloids, phenolics compounds and glycolipids are the most common biologically active constituents from these plant extracts.

  9. [Research progress and trend analysis of biology and chemistry of Taxus medicinal resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da-Cheng; Xiao, Pei-Gen; Peng, Yong; Liu, Ming; Huo, Li

    2012-07-01

    Taxus is the source plant of anti-cancer drug paclitaxel and its biosynthetic precursor, analogs and derivatives, which has been studying for decades. There are many endemic Taxus species in China, which have been studied in the field of multiple disciplines. Based on the recent studies of the researchers, this review comments on the study of Taxus biology and chemistry. The bibliometric method is used to quantify the global scientific production of Taxus-related research, and identify patterns and tendencies of Taxus-related articles. Gaps are present in knowledge about the genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and bioinformatics of Taxus and their endophytic fungi. Systems biology and various omics technologies will play an increasingly important role in the coming decades.

  10. Research Data in Core Journals in Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics, and Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Ryan P

    2015-01-01

    This study takes a stratified random sample of articles published in 2014 from the top 10 journals in the disciplines of biology, chemistry, mathematics, and physics, as ranked by impact factor. Sampled articles were examined for their reporting of original data or reuse of prior data, and were coded for whether the data was publicly shared or otherwise made available to readers. Other characteristics such as the sharing of software code used for analysis and use of data citation and DOIs for data were examined. The study finds that data sharing practices are still relatively rare in these disciplines' top journals, but that the disciplines have markedly different practices. Biology top journals share original data at the highest rate, and physics top journals share at the lowest rate. Overall, the study finds that within the top journals, only 13% of articles with original data published in 2014 make the data available to others.

  11. Review and needs in actinide chemistry in relation with biological purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansoborlo, E.; Moulin, V.; Bion, L.; Doizi, D.; Moulin, C.; Cote, G.; Madic, C.; Van der Lee, J

    2004-07-01

    In case of accidental release of radionuclides in the environment, actinides could occur and may present an healthy risk for human beings. In order to study their behavior in human organism (metabolism, retention, excretion), it is of prime importance to know solution actinide chemistry, and more particularly thermodynamic constants, which will allow to determine their speciation: speciation governs biological availability and toxicity of elements and is also of great interest for decorporation purposes. In this framework, a CEA working group on speciation has been created in order to share data both on thermodynamic constants and on speciation analytical methods, interesting chemists, environmentalists and biologists. It has been focused, in a first time, on actinides. The purpose of this paper is to present the state of the art on actinide speciation within biological media and to focus on the lack of information in order to orientate future research. (authors)

  12. Secondary metabolites from the South China Sea invertebrates: chemistry and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Guo, Yue-Wei; Gu, Yucheng

    2006-01-01

    The increasing demand for new lead compounds in the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries has driven scientists to search for new sources of bioactive natural products. Marine invertebrates are a rich source of novel, bioactive secondary metabolites and they have attracted a great deal of attention from scientists in the fields of chemistry, pharmacology, ecology, and molecular biology. During the past 25 years, many complex and structurally unique secondary metabolites have been isolated from the invertebrates inhabiting the South China Sea. These metabolites are responsible for various bioactivities such as anti-tumor, anti-inflammation and antioxidant activities, and/or they act on the cardiovascular system. This review will focus on the marine natural product chemistry of invertebrates from the South China Sea, aiming to give the reader a brief view of the compounds isolated from these invertebrates, as well as their biological activities. The article covers the literature published during the period from the beginning of 1980 to the end of 2005, with 340 citations and 811 compounds from invertebrates from the South China Sea, including sponges, coelenterates, molluscs and echinoderms.

  13. Interest in STEM is contagious for students in biology, chemistry, and physics classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Cribbs, Jennifer D.; Godwin, Allison; Scott, Tyler D.; Klotz, Leidy

    2017-01-01

    We report on a study of the effect of peers’ interest in high school biology, chemistry, and physics classes on students’ STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics)–related career intentions and course achievement. We define an interest quorum as a science class where students perceive a high level of interest for the subject matter from their classmates. We hypothesized that students who experience such an interest quorum are more likely to choose STEM careers. Using data from a national survey study of students‘ experiences in high school science, we compared the effect of five levels of peer interest reported in biology, chemistry, and physics courses on students‘ STEM career intentions. The results support our hypothesis, showing a strong, positive effect of an interest quorum even after controlling for differences between students that pose competing hypotheses such as previous STEM career interest, academic achievement, family support for mathematics and science, and gender. Smaller positive effects of interest quorums were observed for course performance in some cases, with no detrimental effects observed across the study. Last, significant effects persisted even after controlling for differences in teaching quality. This work emphasizes the likely importance of interest quorums for creating classroom environments that increase students’ intentions toward STEM careers while enhancing or maintaining course performance. PMID:28808678

  14. Interest in STEM is contagious for students in biology, chemistry, and physics classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Cribbs, Jennifer D; Godwin, Allison; Scott, Tyler D; Klotz, Leidy

    2017-08-01

    We report on a study of the effect of peers' interest in high school biology, chemistry, and physics classes on students' STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics)-related career intentions and course achievement. We define an interest quorum as a science class where students perceive a high level of interest for the subject matter from their classmates. We hypothesized that students who experience such an interest quorum are more likely to choose STEM careers. Using data from a national survey study of students' experiences in high school science, we compared the effect of five levels of peer interest reported in biology, chemistry, and physics courses on students' STEM career intentions. The results support our hypothesis, showing a strong, positive effect of an interest quorum even after controlling for differences between students that pose competing hypotheses such as previous STEM career interest, academic achievement, family support for mathematics and science, and gender. Smaller positive effects of interest quorums were observed for course performance in some cases, with no detrimental effects observed across the study. Last, significant effects persisted even after controlling for differences in teaching quality. This work emphasizes the likely importance of interest quorums for creating classroom environments that increase students' intentions toward STEM careers while enhancing or maintaining course performance.

  15. Developing and Evaluating an Eighth Grade Curriculum Unit That Links Foundational Chemistry to Biological Growth: Using Student Measures to Evaluate the Promise of the Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; Flanagan, Jean C.; Roseman, Jo Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Students often have trouble understanding key biology ideas, in part because they lack an understanding of foundational chemistry ideas. AAAS [American Association for the Advancement of Science] is collaborating with BSCS [Biological Sciences Curriculum Study] in the development of a curriculum unit that connects core chemistry and biology ideas…

  16. Integrated perspectives on geological and biological dynamics in ancient Lake Ohrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Bernd; Wilke, Thomas; Krastel, Sebastian; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Leng, Melanie; Wonik, Thomas; Francke, Alexander; Leicher, Niklas; Just, Janna; Lacey, Jack; Baumgarten, Henrike; Levkov, Zlatko; Reed, Jane; Cvetkoska, Aleksandra; Vogel, Hendrik; Sadori, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Lake Ohrid on the Balkan Peninsula is one of the very few lakes in the world that provides a continuous and high-resolution record of environmental change of >1.2 Ma. The outstanding number of endemic taxa (>300 endemic taxa) in Lake Ohrid in combination with its long existence makes Lake Ohrid a unique target to study the drivers of speciation and endemism. For this purpose, a 569 m long sediment sequence was recovered from the central part of the lake in spring 2013 within the scope of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) and the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project. In January 2016, the lowermost core sections of the 569 m long sediment sequence were opened. Ongoing work comprises core correlation to a composite sequence and various geological and biological analyses on the sediment material. Here, we present the results of analyses of the upper 248 m of this sequence, which covers the last ca. 640 ka according to an age model based on tephrostratigraphy as well as tuning of in situ physical and biogeochemical proxy data to orbital parameters and supported by paleomagnetic studies. The sedimentological, physical, and geochemical data from the sediment sequence indicate changes in primary productivity, water column stratification, and water depth of the lake, and in weathering and erosion processes in the catchment. These changes can be clearly correlated with orbitally driven environmental change, such as the intensity of glacial and interglacial periods as well as stadials and interstadials. These long-term changes are interspersed by short-term events, such as the deposition of tephra horizons. More than 30 tephra layers were found in the upper 248 m. The comparison of long-term and short-term environmental changes with paleontological and molecular clock analyses indicates that catastrophic extinction events in the endemic species community did not occur over the last 640 ka in Lake

  17. Groundtruthing and potential for predicting acid deposition impacts in headwater streams using bedrock geology, GIS, angling, and stream chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, C S; McInerney, B; Turner, M D

    2008-04-15

    Atmospheric acid deposition is of environmental concern worldwide, and the determination of impacts in remote areas can be problematic. Rainwater in central Pennsylvania, USA, has a mean pH of approximately 4.4. Bedrock varies dramatically in its ability to neutralize acidity. A GIS database simplified reconnaissance of non-carbonate bedrock streams in the Valley and Ridge Province and identified potentially chronically impacted headwater streams, which were sampled for chemistry and brook trout. Stream sites (n=26) that originate in and flow through the Tuscarora had a median pH of 5.0 that was significantly different from other formations. Shawangunk streams (n=6) and non-Tuscarora streams (n=20) had a median pH of 6.0 and 6.3, respectively. Mean alkalinity for non-Tuscarora streams (2.6 mg/L CaCO(3)) was higher than the mean for Tuscarora streams (0.5 mg/L). Lower pH and alkalinity suggest that the buffering capability of the Tuscarora is inferior to that of adjacent sandstones. Dissolved aluminum concentrations were much higher for Tuscarora streams (0.2 mg/L; approximately the lethal limit for brook trout) than for non-Tuscarora streams (0.03 mg/L) or Shawangunk streams (0.02 mg/L). Hook-and-line methods determined the presence/absence of brook trout in 47 stream reaches with suitable habitat. Brook trout were observed in 21 of 22 non-Tuscarora streams, all 6 Shawangunk streams, and only 9 of 28 Tuscarora stream sites. Carefully-designed hook-and-line sampling can determine the presence or absence of brook trout and help confirm biological impacts of acid deposition. 15% of 334 km of Tuscarora stream lengths are listed as "impaired" due to atmospheric deposition by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. 65% of the 101 km of Tuscarora stream lengths examined in this study were impaired.

  18. The role of energy in the emergence of biology from chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibrova, Daria V; Chudetsky, Michail Y; Galperin, Michael Y; Koonin, Eugene V; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y

    2012-10-01

    Any scenario of the transition from chemistry to biology should include an "energy module" because life can exist only when supported by energy flow(s). We addressed the problem of primordial energetics by combining physico-chemical considerations with phylogenomic analysis. We propose that the first replicators could use abiotically formed, exceptionally photostable activated cyclic nucleotides both as building blocks and as the main energy source. Nucleoside triphosphates could replace cyclic nucleotides as the principal energy-rich compounds at the stage of the first cells, presumably because the metal chelates of nucleoside triphosphates penetrated membranes much better than the respective metal complexes of nucleoside monophosphates. The ability to exploit natural energy flows for biogenic production of energy-rich molecules could evolve only gradually, after the emergence of sophisticated enzymes and ion-tight membranes. We argue that, in the course of evolution, sodium-dependent membrane energetics preceded the proton-based energetics which evolved independently in bacteria and archaea.

  19. Quantitative Determination of Iron in Limonite Using Spectroscopic Methods with Senior and General Chemistry Students: Geology-Inspired Chemistry Lab Explorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopegedera, A. M. R. P.; Coughenour, Christopher L.; Oswalt, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Limonite is the field term for a mixed assemblage of ferric oxyhydroxides, often containing nonferric silicate impurities. It is abundant on Earth's surface, possesses variable iron content, and is easily recognized by distinctive yellow and ochre hues. Limonite is a unique centerpiece for undergraduate chemistry laboratories because each sample…

  20. Chemistry-transport coupling and retroactive effects on material properties within the context of a deep geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bildstein, O.

    2010-06-01

    The author gives an overview of his research and teaching activities. His researches first dealt with the development of a simulation of the chemistry/transport coupling and of the retroactive effects on transport parameters, then with the chemistry/transport modelling and its coupling with mechanics, and finally with the multi-scale investigation of porous materials. Perspectives are discussed and publications are indicated

  1. Calamintha nepeta (L. Savi and its Main Essential Oil Constituent Pulegone: Biological Activities and Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijat Božović

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants play an important role in the treatment of a wide range of diseases, even if their chemical constituents are not always completely recognized. Observations on their use and efficacy significantly contribute to the disclosure of their therapeutic properties. Calamintha nepeta (L. Savi is an aromatic herb with a mint-oregano flavor, used in the Mediterranean areas as a traditional medicine. It has an extensive range of biological activities, including antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, as well as anti-ulcer and insecticidal properties. This study aims to review the scientific findings and research reported to date on Calamintha nepeta (L. Savi that prove many of the remarkable various biological actions, effects and some uses of this species as a source of bioactive natural compounds. On the other hand, pulegone, the major chemical constituent of Calamintha nepeta (L. Savi essential oil, has been reported to exhibit numerous bioactivities in cells and animals. Thus, this integrated overview also surveys and interprets the present knowledge of chemistry and analysis of this oxygenated monoterpene, as well as its beneficial bioactivities. Areas for future research are suggested

  2. Mentha suaveolens Ehrh. (Lamiaceae) Essential Oil and Its Main Constituent Piperitenone Oxide: Biological Activities and Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božović, Mijat; Pirolli, Adele; Ragno, Rino

    2015-05-13

    Since herbal medicines play an important role in the treatment of a wide range of diseases, there is a growing need for their quality control and standardization. Mentha suaveolens Ehrh. (MS) is an aromatic herb with fruit and a spearmint flavor, used in the Mediterranean areas as a traditional medicine. It has an extensive range of biological activities, including cytotoxic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypotensive and insecticidal properties, among others. This study aims to review the scientific findings and research reported to date on MS that prove many of the remarkable various biological actions, effects and some uses of this species as a source of bioactive natural compounds. On the other hand, piperitenone oxide (PO), the major chemical constituent of the carvone pathway MS essential oil, has been reported to exhibit numerous bioactivities in cells and animals. Thus, this integrated overview also surveys and interprets the present knowledge of chemistry and analysis of this oxygenated monoterpene, as well as its beneficial bioactivities. Areas for future research are suggested.

  3. Processes that Drove the Transition from Chemistry to Biology: Concepts and Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Two properties are particularly germane to the transition from chemistry to biology. One is the emergence of complex molecules (polymers) capable of performing non-trivial functions, such as catalysis, energy transduction or transport across cell walls. The other is the ability of several functions to work in concert to provide reproductive advantage to systems hosting these functions. Biological systems exhibit these properties at remarkable levels of efficiency and accuracy in a way that appears effortless. However, dissection of these properties reveals great complexities that are involved. This opens a question: how a simple, ancestral system could have acquired the required properties? Other questions follow. What are the chances that a functional polymer emerges at random? What is the minimum structural complexity of a polymer to carry out a function at a reasonable level of efficiency? Can we identify concrete, protobiologically plausible mechanisms that yield advantageous coupling between different functions? These and similar questions are at the core of the main topic of this session: how soulless chemistry became life? Clearly, we do not have complete answers to any of these questions. However, in recent years a number of new and sometimes unexpected clues have been brought to light. Of particular interest are proteins because they are the main functional polymers in contemporary cells. The emergence of protein functions is a puzzle. It is widely accepted that a well ]defined, compact structure (fold) is a prerequisite for function. It is equally widely accepted that compact folds are rare among random amino acid polymers. Then, how did protein functionality start? According to one hypothesis well folded were preceded by their poorly folded, yet still functional ancestors. Only recently, however, experimental evidence supporting this hypothesis has been presented. In particular, a small enzyme capable of ligating two RNA fragments with the rate of 106

  4. Applications of 14C-AMS on archaeology, climate, environment, geology, oceanography and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, P.R.S.; Anjos, R.M.; Macario, K.D.; Santos, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The first experiment discusses the chronology of prehistoric settlements of the central-south Brazilian coast. In the southern Brazilian coast there is a high density of these shellmounds, dated in general between 6,000 and 2,000 BP. A charcoal sample from a coastal shellmound of Rio de Janeiro State was dated by 14 C-AMS to 7,860±80 years BP. This is an unexpected result that pulls back by some two thousand years the antiquity consensually accepted for the settlement of that region. We performed an experiment concerning the isotopic signature of the local waters of an important Brazilian coastal upwelling, located in Arraial do Cabo, R.J., with applications in the fields of Oceanography and Marine Ecology. We assess the contribution of the wind-driven coastal upwelling of Arraial do Cabo to the local biological production. The variation of the carbon isotopic compositions was investigated in a population of a seaweed. Upwelling events were simulated in the laboratory, in order to study three regimes: total upwelling (SACW), partial upwelling (mixed water) and no-upwelling (TW). Water samples were collected at 70 m depth (SACW) and at 10 m (TW). The seaweed was cultivated during seven days, in controlled conditions, into the three mentioned types of water. The results of 14 C-AMS measurements in the seaweed tissue show a clear indication of difference in the isotopic signature of the water sources, allowing to infer the differences of the water sources. We believe that the present results contribute to opening new perspectives for the use of 14 C as a tracer of the biological production in upwelling areas all over the world. The next reported experiment is on climate at the Amazon region. An increase in the Hg flux is a strong indicator of disturbance in a forest ecosystem related to abrupt changes in the water balance, and its changes reflect changes in the ocean and average regional temperatures. In regions where the geological background of mercury is

  5. Current Status and Future Perspectives in Flavor Research: Highlights of the 11th Wartburg Symposium on Flavor Chemistry & Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Thomas; Krautwurst, Dietmar; Schieberle, Peter

    2018-03-14

    The 11th Wartburg Symposium on Flavor Chemistry & Biology, held at the hotel "Auf der Wartburg" in Eisenach, Germany, from June 21 to 24 in 2016, offered a venue for global exchange on cutting-edge research in chemistry and biology of odor and taste. The focus areas were (1) functional flavor genomics and biotechnology, (2) flavor generation and precursors, (3) new approaches and precursors, (4) new approaches and technologies, (5) new molecules and structure/activity relationships, (6) food-borne bioactives and chemosensory health prevention, and (7) chemosensory reception, processing, and perception. Selected from more than 250 applicants, 160 distinguished scientists and rising stars from academia and industry from 24 countries participated in this multidisciplinary event. This special issue comprises a selection of 33 papers from oral presentations and poster contributions and is prefaced by this symposium introduction to carve out essential achievements in odor and taste chemistry and to share future research perspectives.

  6. Beyond prostaglandins - chemistry and biology of cyclic oxygenated metabolites formed by free-radical pathways from polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jahn, Ullrich; Galano, J. M.; Durand, T.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 32 (2008), s. 5894-5955 ISSN 1433-7851 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : biological activity * fatty acids * isoprostanes * oxidation * total synthesis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 10.879, year: 2008

  7. Two Methods of Determining Total Phenolic Content of Foods and Juices in a General, Organic, and Biological (GOB) Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Lee Alan; Leung, Sam H.; Puderbaugh, Amy; Angel, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    The determination of total phenolics in foods and fruit juices was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry course. Two different colorimetric methods were used over three years and comparative student results indicate that a ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) indicator…

  8. Water as Life, Death, and Power: Building an Integrated Interdisciplinary Course Combining Perspectives from Anthropology, Biology, and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willermet, Cathy; Mueller, Anja; Juris, Stephen J.; Drake, Eron; Upadhaya, Samik; Chhetri, Pratik

    2013-01-01

    In response to a request from a campus student organization, faculty from three fields came together to develop and teach an integrated interdisciplinary course on water issues and social activism. This course, "Water as Life, Death, and Power", brought together topics from the fields of anthropology, biology and chemistry to explore…

  9. What are Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs) ?Examples of Biological and Chemistry Approaches to their Detection, Exposure and Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will overview what Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs) are, provide some examples of various CECs and some of the biological and chemistry approaches to assess their exposure and effects to aquatic life. The term CECs has been used since the 1990s to identif...

  10. Research on condensed matter and atomic physics using major experimental facilities and devices: Physics, chemistry, biology. Reports on results. Vol. 3. 4. Chemistry. 5. Biology. 6. Development of methods and instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report in three volumes substantiates the contents of the programme survey published in September 1989. The progress reports cover the following research areas: Vol. I, (1). Atomic and molecular physics - free atoms, molecules, macromolecules, clusters, matrix-isolated atoms and molecules. (2) Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces - epitaxy, surface structure, adsorption, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties, thin films, synthetic layer structure. Vol. II, (3). Solid-state physics, and materials science -structural research, lattice dynamics, magnetic structure and dynamics, electronic states; load; spin and pulse density fluctuations; diffusion and internal motion, defects, unordered systems and liquids. Vol. III, (4). Chemistry - bonding and structure, kinetics and reaction mechanisms, polymer research, analysis and synthesis. (5). Biology, - structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules, membrane and cell biology. (6) Development of methods and instruments - neutron sources, synchrotron sources, special accelerators, research with interlinked systems and devices. (orig.) [de

  11. Exploring Biological and Geological Age-related Changes through Variations in Intra- and Intertooth Proteomes of Ancient Dentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopio, Noemi; Chamberlain, Andrew T; Buckley, Michael

    2018-03-02

    Proteomic analyses are becoming more widely used in archeology not only due to the greater preservation of proteins in ancient specimens than DNA but also because they can offer different information, particularly relating to compositional preservation and potentially a means to estimate biological and geological age. However, it remains unclear to what extent different burial environments impact these aspects of proteome decay. Teeth have to date been much less studied than bone but are ideal to explore how proteins decay with time due to the negligible turnover that occurs in dentine relative to bone. We investigated the proteome variability and deamidation levels of different sections of molar teeth from archeological bovine mandibles as well as their mandibular bone. We obtained a greater yield of proteins from the crown of the teeth but did not find differences between the different molars analyzed within each mandible. We also obtained the best variety of protein from a well-preserved mandible that was not the youngest one in terms of chronological age, showing the influence of the preservation conditions on the final proteomic outcome. Intriguingly, we also noticed an increase in abundance levels of fetuin-A in biologically younger mandibles as reported previously, but the opposite trend in tooth dentine. Interestingly, we observed higher glutamine deamidation levels in teeth from the geologically oldest mandible despite it being the biologically youngest specimen, showing that the archeological age strongly impacts on the level of deamidations observed, much more so than biological aging. This indicates that the glutamine deamidation ratio of selected peptides may act as a good predictor of the relative geochronological age of archeological specimens.

  12. Wavelength feature mapping as a proxy to mineral chemistry for investigating geologic systems : An example from the Rodalquilar epithermal system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, F.D.; Kopačková, Veronika; Koucká, Lucie; van der Werff, H.M.A.; van Ruitenbeek, F.J.A.; Bakker, W.H.

    2018-01-01

    The final product of a geologic remote sensing data analysis using multi spectral and hyperspectral images is a mineral (abundance) map. Multispectral data, such as ASTER, Landsat, SPOT, Sentinel-2, typically allow to determine qualitative estimates of what minerals are in a pixel, while

  13. Combinatorial chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    1994-01-01

    An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds.......An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds....

  14. A spatially extensive, 25-year time series of urbanization impacts on stream chemistry and biological response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, M. E.; Schley, M. L.; Martin, H. M.; Sexton, J. O.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past quarter-century, urban expansion has posed an increasingly serious threat to freshwater systems, yet most studies investigating urban impacts rely on space-for-time analysis to characterize chemical and biological responses or infer causal mechanisms. Despite a well-articulated rationale, such inference is often confounded by inability to separate gradients of urbanization from strong spatial covariates and historical legacies. Temporal analysis of monitoring can control for these covariates, but continuous urbanization data have been lacking. Thus, we know relatively little about the chemical and biological trajectories of streams during urbanization, from which to derive expectations following mitigation. We used a newly developed 25-y annual time series of 30m impervious cover (IC) encompassing the DC-Baltimore metropolitan corridor to relate urbanization patterns to long-term stream biota and water quality monitoring data in 50 watersheds from Maryland's core/trend program. We assessed seasonal chemical data (3 month average) for trends in magnitude and variation, as well as the frequency of extreme values. Stream macroinvertebrates were analyzed for taxon-specific changes in abundance and/or occurrence frequency using Threshold Indicator Taxon Analysis (TITAN), and change points were compared with shifts in both impervious surface and stream chemistry. At surprisingly low (0-3% IC) levels of watershed urbanization, we noted marked increases in measures of fall and winter dissolved material and pulses of alkalinity corresponding with increases in impervious cover. At moderate (3-8% IC) levels, we found continued correspondence between increasing impervious cover and both dissolved material and alkalinity in all seasons, and marked changes in macroinvertebrate community composition. Changes in macroinvertebrates appeared more closely associated with pulses of development than changes in monthly water chemistry. However, at higher levels of

  15. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection

  16. Meeting of the French geological society - Uranium: geology, geophysics, chemistry. Book of abstracts; Reunion de la Societe Geologique de France - Uranium: geologie, geophysique, chimie. Recueil des resumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakari, A.A.; Mima, S.; Bidaud, A.; Criqui, P.; Menanteau, P.; David, S.; Pagel, M.; Chagnes, A.; Cote, G.; Courtaud, B.; Thiry, J.; Miehe, J.M.; Gilbert, F.; Cuney, M.; Bruneton, P.; Ewington, D.; Vautrin-Ul, C.; Cannizzo, C.; Betelu, S.; Chausse, A.; Ly, J.; Bourgeois, D.; Maynadie, J.; Meyer, D.; Clavier, N.; Costin, D.T.; Cretaz, F.; Szenknect, S.; Ravaux, J.; Poinssot, C.; Dacheux, N.; Durupt, N.; Blanvillain, J.J.; Geffroy, F.; Aparicio, B.; Dubessy, J.; Nguyen-Trung, C.; Robert, P.; Uri, F.; Beaufort, D.; Lescuyer, J.L.; Morichon, E.; Allard, T.; Milesi, J.P.; Richard, A.; Rozsypal, C.; Mercadier, J.; Banks, D.A.; Boiron, M.C.; Cathelineau, M.; Dardel, J.; Billon, S.; Patrier, P.; Wattinne, A.; Vanderhaeghe, O.; Fabre, C.; Castillo, M.; Salvi, S.; Beziat, D.; Williams-Jones, A.E.; Trap, P.; Durand, C.; Goncalves, P.; Marquer, D.; Feybesse, J.L.; Richard, Y.; Orberger, B.; Hofmann, A.; Megneng, M.; Orberger, B.; Bouttemy, M.; Vigneron, J.; Etcheberry, A.; Perdicakis, M.; Prignon, N.; Toe, W.; Andre-Mayer, A.S.; Eglinger, A.; Jordaan, T.; Hocquet, S.; Ledru, P.; Selezneva, V.; Vendryes, G.; Lach, P.; Cuney, M.; Mercadier, J.; Brouand, M.; Duran, C.; Seydoux-Guillaume, A.M.; Bingen, B.; Parseval, P. de; Guillaume, D.; Bosse, V.; Paquette, J.L.; Ingrin, J.; Montel, J.M.; Giot, R.; Maucotel, F.; Hubert, S.; Gautheron, C.; Tassan-Got, L.; Pagel, M.; Barbarand, J.; Cuney, M.; Lach, P.; Bonhoure, J.; Leisen, M.; Kister, P.; Salaun, A.; Villemant, B.; Gerard, M.; Komorowski, J.C.; Michel, A.; Riegler, T.; Tartese, R.; Boulvais, P.; Poujols, M.; Gloaguen, E.; Mazzanti, M.; Mougel, V.; Nocton, G.; Biswas, B.; Pecaut, J.; Othmane, G.; Menguy, N.; Vercouter, T.; Morin, G.; Galoisy, L.; Calas, G.; Fayek, M.

    2010-11-15

    This document brings together the abstracts of the 39 presentations given at this meeting days on uranium, organized by the French geological society, and dealing with: 1 - Prospective study of the electronuclear technological transition; 2 - The front-end of the nuclear cycle: from the molecule to the process; 3 - Geophysics: recent changes; 4 - Use of well logging in uranium exploration; 5 - Genetical classification of thorium deposits; 6 - Genetical nomenclature of uranium sources; 7 - Uranium deposits linked to a Proterozoic discordance - retrospective; 8 - The use of spectral analysis techniques in uranium exploration: real-time mapping of clay alteration features; 9 - Development of functionalized silk-screened carbon electrodes for the analysis of uranium trace amounts; 10 - Study of the actinides solvation sphere in organic environment; 11 - Thermodynamic of uraniferous phases of interest for the nuclear cycle; 12 - Heap leaching of marginal minerals at Somair: from lab studies to the production of 700 t of uranium/year; 13 - Agglomeration phenomenology and role of iron in uranium heap leaching; 14 - Chloride uranyl complexes up to 300 deg. C along the saturation vapour curve: Raman spectroscopy analysis and metallogenic consequences; 15 - Weathering systems in the Shea Creek deposit (Athabasca, Canada): vertical variability of argillaceous weathering; 16 - Weathering systems in the Shea Creek deposit (Athabasca, Canada): contribution of irradiation defects in clays to the tracing of past uranium migrations; 17 - Uranium concentrations in mineralizing fluids of the Athabasca basin: analytical and experimental approach; 18 - Paleo-surfaces and metallic rooting: the autochthonous uranium of pre-Athabasca paleo-alterites, Canada; 19 - Distribution of argillaceous parageneses in the Imouraren deposit - Niger; 20 - Heat flux and radioelements concentration (U, Th, K) of precambrian basements: implications in terms of crust growth mechanisms, paleo

  17. XVIII Mendeleev congress on general and applied chemistry. Summaries of reports in five volumes. Volume 5. IV Russian-French symposium Supramolecular systems in chemistry and biology. II Russian-Indian symposium on organic chemistry. International symposium on present-day radiochemistry Radiochemistry: progress and prospects. International symposium Green chemistry, stable evolution and social responsibility of chemists. Symposium Nucleophilic hydrogen substitution in aromatic systems and related reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The 5 volume of the XVIII Mendeleev congress on general and applied chemistry includes summaries of reports on the subjects of sypramolecular systems in chemistry and biology, organic chemistry, modern radiochemistry, green chemistry - development and social responsibility of chemists, nucleophilic hydrogen substitution in aromatic systems and related chemical reactions [ru

  18. Influence of bedrock geology on water chemistry of slope wetlands and headwater streams in the southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monique LaPerriere Nelson; Charles C. Rhoades; Kathleen A. Dwire

    2011-01-01

    We characterized the water chemistry of nine slope wetlands and adjacent headwater streams in Colorado subalpine forests and compared sites in basins formed on crystalline bedrock with those formed in basins with a mixture of crystalline and sedimentary bedrock. The pH, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4 +, acid neutralizing capacity, and electrical conductivity of wetland porewater and...

  19. Evaluation of geologic materials to limit biological intrusion into low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the results of a three-year research program to evaluate the performance of selected soil and rock trench cap designs in limiting biological intrusion into simulated waste. The report is divided into three sections including a discussion of background material on biological interactions with waste site trench caps, a presentation of experimental data from field studies conducted at several scales, and a final section on the interpretation and limitations of the data including implications for the user

  20. Different pathways but same result? Comparing chemistry and biological effects of burned and decomposed litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, Stefano; Bonanomi, Giuliano; Incerti, Guido; El-Gawad, Ahmed M. Abd; Sarker, Tushar Chandra; Cesarano, Gaspare; Saulino, Luigi; Saracino, Antonio; Castro Rego, Francisco

    2017-04-01

    Litter burning and biological decomposition are oxidative processes co-occurring in many terrestrial ecosystems, producing organic matter with different chemical properties and differently affecting plant growth and soil microbial activity. Here, we tested the chemical convergence hypothesis (i.e. materials with different initial chemistry tend to converge towards a common profile, with similar biological effects, as the oxidative process advances) for burning and decomposition. We compared the molecular composition of 63 organic materials - 7 litter types either fresh, decomposed for 30, 90, 180 days, or heated at 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 °C - as assessed by 13C NMR. We used litter water extracts (5% dw) as treatments in bioassays on plant (Lepidium sativum) and fungal (Aspergillus niger) growth, and a washed quartz sand amended with litter materials (0.5 % dw) to assess heterotrophic respiration by CO2 flux chamber. We observed different molecular variations for materials either burning (i.e. a sharp increase of aromatic C and a decrease of most other fractions above 200 °C) or decomposing (i.e. early increase of alkyl, methoxyl and N-alkyl C and decrease of O-alkyl and di-O-alkyl C fractions). Soil respiration and fungal growth progressively decreased with litter age and temperature. Plant growth underwent an inhibitory effect by untreated litter, more and less rapidly released over decomposing and burning materials, respectively. Correlation analysis between NMR and bioassay data showed that opposite responses for soil respiration and fungi, compared to plants, are related to essentially the same C molecular types. Our findings suggest a functional convergence of decomposed and burnt organic substrates, emerging from the balance between the bioavailability of labile C sources and the presence of recalcitrant and pyrogenic compounds, oppositely affecting different trophic levels.

  1. Deep Time Data Infrastructure: Integrating Our Current Geologic and Biologic Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolankowski, S. M.; Fox, P. A.; Ma, X.; Prabhu, A.

    2016-12-01

    As our knowledge of Earth's geologic and mineralogical history grows, we require more efficient methods of sharing immense amounts of data. Databases across numerous disciplines have been utilized to offer extensive information on very specific Epochs of Earth's history up to its current state, i.e. Fossil record, rock composition, proteins, etc. These databases could be a powerful force in identifying previously unseen correlations such as relationships between minerals and proteins. Creating a unifying site that provides a portal to these databases will aid in our ability as a collaborative scientific community to utilize our findings more effectively. The Deep-Time Data Infrastructure (DTDI) is currently being defined as part of a larger effort to accomplish this goal. DTDI will not be a new database, but an integration of existing resources. Current geologic and related databases were identified, documentation of their schema was established and will be presented as a stage by stage progression. Through conceptual modeling focused around variables from their combined records, we will determine the best way to integrate these databases using common factors. The Deep-Time Data Infrastructure will allow geoscientists to bridge gaps in data and further our understanding of our Earth's history.

  2. Multidisciplinary study of Wyoming test sites. [hydrology, biology, geology, lithology, geothermal, and land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, R. S. (Principal Investigator); Marrs, R. W.; Agard, S. S.; Downing, K. G.; Earle, J. L.; Froman, N. L.; Gordon, R.; Kolm, K. E.; Tomes, B.; Vietti, J.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Investigation of a variety of applications of EREP photographic data demonstrated that EREP S-190 data offer a unique combination of synoptic coverage and image detail. The broad coverage is ideal for regional geologic mapping and tectonic analysis while the detail is adequate for mapping of crops, mines, urban areas, and other relatively small features. The investigative team at the University of Wyoming has applied the EREP S-190 data to: (1) analysis of photolinear elements of the Powder River Basin, southern Montana, and the Wind River Mountains; (2) drainage analysis of the Powder River Basin and Beartooth Mountains; (3) lithologic and geologic mapping in the Powder River Basin, Black Hills, Green River Basin, Bighorn Basin and Southern Bighorn Mountains; (4) location of possible mineralization in the Absaroka Range; and (5) land use mapping near Riverton and Gillette. All of these applications were successful to some degree. Image enhancement procedures were useful in some efforts requiring distinction of small objects or subtle contrasts.

  3. The Clarinet Reed: AN Introduction to its Biology, Chemistry, and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadonte, Donald Jay

    Although clarinet reeds have been used for over two-hundred years, there has been little scientific study of the reed, either from a material science or engineering perspective. This document is intended to be the first large-scale study of the clarinet reed covering its biology, chemistry and physics. The reed is made, most often, from cane--Arundo donax. We present a complete atlas of the anatomy of Arundo donax, and examine the role of each of the cellular components in the clarinet reed performance. We examine the three principal chemical components of the processed clarinet reed: cellulose, xylan, and lignin through the use of instrumental analysis. We examine the breakdown pathways of the clarinet reed, and isolate five: (1) decrystallization of the cellulose microstructure, (2) removal of xylan by saliva, (3) plasticization of the reed material due to alkalai attack in saliva, (4) the culturing of a bacterium, Staph Epidermitis, in the cell wall matrix, (5) density changes due to salival coating of the reed. The physics of the reed is examined, and a finite element model of the modal shapes is presented. We present a theoretical treatment of the two modes of excitation of the reed, a low frequency mode (normal playing mode) due to vortex shedding, and a high frequency mode which is associated with reed squeak.

  4. REDOX CHEMISTRY OF MOLYBDENUM IN NATURAL WATERS AND ITS INVOLVEMENT IN BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deli eWang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The transition element molybdenum (Mo possesses diverse valances (+II to +VI, and is involved in forming cofactors in more than 60 enzymes in biology. Redox switching of the element in these enzymes catalyzes a series of metabolic reactions in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and the element therefore plays a fundamental role in the global carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur cycling. In the present oxygenated waters, oxidized Mo(VI predominates thermodynamically, whilst reduced Mo species are mainly confined within specific niches including cytoplasm. Only recently has the reduced Mo(V been separated from Mo(VI in sulfidic mats and even in some reducing waters. Given the presence of reduced Mo(V in contemporary anaerobic habitats, it seems that reduced Mo species were present in the ancient reducing ocean (probably under both ferrigenous and sulfidic conditions, prompting the involvement of Mo in enzymes including nitrogenase and nitrate reductase. During the global transition to oxic conditions, reduced Mo species were constrained to specific anaerobic habitats, and efficient uptake systems of oxidized Mo(VI became a selective advantage both for prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Some prokaryotes are still able to directly utilize reduced Mo if any exists in ambient environments. In total, this mini-review describes the redox chemistry and biogeochemistry of Mo over the Earth’s history.

  5. DNA as information: at the crossroads between biology, mathematics, physics and chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Julyan H E; Giannerini, Simone; González, Diego L

    2016-03-13

    On the one hand, biology, chemistry and also physics tell us how the process of translating the genetic information into life could possibly work, but we are still very far from a complete understanding of this process. On the other hand, mathematics and statistics give us methods to describe such natural systems-or parts of them-within a theoretical framework. Also, they provide us with hints and predictions that can be tested at the experimental level. Furthermore, there are peculiar aspects of the management of genetic information that are intimately related to information theory and communication theory. This theme issue is aimed at fostering the discussion on the problem of genetic coding and information through the presentation of different innovative points of view. The aim of the editors is to stimulate discussions and scientific exchange that will lead to new research on why and how life can exist from the point of view of the coding and decoding of genetic information. The present introduction represents the point of view of the editors on the main aspects that could be the subject of future scientific debate. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Complex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Gon; Kim, Jae Sang; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Boo Yeon

    2006-06-01

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  7. THE HIGH BACKGROUND RADIATION AREA IN RAMSAR IRAN: GEOLOGY, NORM, BIOLOGY, LNT, AND POSSIBLE REGULATORY FUN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karam, P. A.

    2002-02-25

    The city of Ramsar Iran hosts some of the highest natural radiation levels on earth, and over 2000 people are exposed to radiation doses ranging from 1 to 26 rem per year. Curiously, inhabitants of this region seem to have no greater incidence of cancer than those in neighboring areas of normal background radiation levels, and preliminary studies suggest their blood cells experience fewer induced chromosomal abnormalities when exposed to 150 rem ''challenge'' doses of radiation than do the blood cells of their neighbors. This paper will briefly describe the unique geology that gives Ramsar its extraordinarily high background radiation levels. It will then summarize the studies performed to date and will conclude by suggesting ways to incorporate these findings (if they are borne out by further testing) into future radiation protection standards.

  8. The Redox Chemistry and Chemical Biology of H2S, Hydropersulfides and Derived Species: Implications to Their Possible Biological Activity and Utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Katsuhiko; Akaike, Takaake; Sawa, Tomohiro; Kumagai, Yoshito; Wink, David A.; Tantillo, Dean J.; Hobbs, Adrian J.; Nagy, Peter; Xian, Ming; Lin, Joseph; Fukuto, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenously generated and putative signaling/effector molecule. In spite of its numerous reported functions, the chemistry by which it elicits its functions is not understood. Moreover, recent studies allude to the existence of other sulfur species besides H2S that may play critical physiological roles. Herein, the basic chemical biology of H2S as well as other related or derived species is discussed and reviewed. A particular focus of this review are the per- and poly-sulfides which are likely in equilibrium with free H2S and which may be important biological effectors themselves. PMID:25229186

  9. Redox chemistry and chemical biology of H2S, hydropersulfides, and derived species: implications of their possible biological activity and utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Katsuhiko; Akaike, Takaaki; Sawa, Tomohiro; Kumagai, Yoshito; Wink, David A; Tantillo, Dean J; Hobbs, Adrian J; Nagy, Peter; Xian, Ming; Lin, Joseph; Fukuto, Jon M

    2014-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenously generated and putative signaling/effector molecule. Despite its numerous reported functions, the chemistry by which it elicits its functions is not understood. Moreover, recent studies allude to the existence of other sulfur species besides H2S that may play critical physiological roles. Herein, the basic chemical biology of H2S as well as other related or derived species is discussed and reviewed. This review particularly focuses on the per- and polysulfides which are likely in equilibrium with free H2S and which may be important biological effectors themselves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of Biological Macromolecules and Aquatic Chemistries on the Inhibition of Nitrifying Bacteria by Silver Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radniecki, T. S.; Anderson, J. W.; Schneider, M. C.; Stankus, D. P.; Nason, J. A.; Semprini, L.

    2010-12-01

    The use of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) as a broad spectrum biocide in a wide range of consumer goods has grown exponentially since 2006 (1), which may result in an increased release of Ag-NP into wastewater streams and ultimately the receiving bodies of water. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) play a critical role in the global nitrogen cycle through the oxidation of ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO2-) and are widely considered to be the most sensitive microbial fauna in the environment being readily inhibited by contaminants, including Ag-NP (2). This research used physiological techniques in combination with physical/chemical assays to characterize the inhibition of Nitrosomonas europaea, the model AOB, by silver ions (Ag+), 3-5 nm Ag-NP, 20 nm Ag-NP and 80 nm Ag-NP under a variety of aqueous chemistries. In addition, the stability of Ag-NP suspensions was examined under a variety of aqueous chemistries including in the presences of divalent cations, chloride anions, natural organic matter (NOM), proteins (BSA) and lipopolysaccharides (alginate). Using the stable Ag-NP/test media suspensions, N. europaea was found to be extremely sensitive to Ag+, 3-5 nm Ag-NP, 20 nm Ag-NP and 80 nm Ag-NP with concentrations of 0.1, 0.12, 0.5 and 1.5 ppm, respectively, resulting in a 50% decrease in nitrification rates. The inhibition was correlated with the amount of Ag+ released into solution. It is suspected that the inhibition observed from Ag-NP exposure is caused by the liberated Ag+. The aquatic chemistry of the test media was found to have a profound influence on the stability of Ag-NP suspensions. The presence of Ag ligands (e.g. EDTA and Cl-) reduced toxicity of Ag-NP through the formation of Ag-ligand complexes with the liberated Ag+. The presence of divalent cations (e.g. Ca2+ or Mg2+) resulted in the rapid aggregation of Ag-NP leading to a decrease in Ag+ liberation and thus a decrease in N. europaea inhibition. The presence of 5 ppm NOM resulted in a highly stable Ag

  11. Using Grand Challenges to Teach Science: A Biology-Geology Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyford, M.; Myers, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    . Global Sustainability: Managing Earth's Resources (GEOL 1600) focuses on the energy-water climate nexus with a similar emphasis on STEM and non-STEM perspectives as LIFE 1002. Each week, there are three one hour lectures and a two hour lab. To set the stage for global and systems thinking, the concept of the Anthropocene and planetary boundaries are introduced early in the semester. Lectures focus on a variety of energy-water-climate topics and provide the content background for the labs. Labs are mini-case studies that address a variety of issues set in different global contexts, e.g. groundwater in Bangladesh, coal in China and petroleum in Saudi Arabia. Often the labs cover two weeks with one part covering science and the other economics. Unlike the other two courses, Energy: A Geological Perspective (GEOL 3650), is enrolled with half geology majors and half non-majors, representing almost every college on campus. Its organizational structure is similar to 1600. Labs focus on case studies, each lasting from 3 to 5 weeks, with each week addressing a different aspect of the same issue and social context, e.g. geology, economics, engineering, regulatory and political/social. Students, working in groups, present oral and written reports. Topics range from nuclear power and weapons in Iran to atmospheric emissions and global climate treaties.

  12. Towards the virtual artery: a multiscale model for vascular physiology at the physics-chemistry-biology interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Alfons G; Alowayyed, Saad; Lorenz, Eric; Melnikova, Natalia; Mountrakis, Lampros; van Rooij, Britt; Svitenkov, Andrew; Závodszky, Gábor; Zun, Pavel

    2016-11-13

    This discussion paper introduces the concept of the Virtual Artery as a multiscale model for arterial physiology and pathologies at the physics-chemistry-biology (PCB) interface. The cellular level is identified as the mesoscopic level, and we argue that by coupling cell-based models with other relevant models on the macro- and microscale, a versatile model of arterial health and disease can be composed. We review the necessary ingredients, both models of arteries at many different scales, as well as generic methods to compose multiscale models. Next, we discuss how this can be combined into the virtual artery. Finally, we argue that the concept of models at the PCB interface could or perhaps should become a powerful paradigm, not only as in our case for studying physiology, but also for many other systems that have such PCB interfaces.This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'. © 2016 The Authors.

  13. Stress-associated synchronization and desynchronization in geologic and biologic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluchevsky, A. V.; Kluchevskaya, A. A.

    2010-12-01

    Variations in the annual numbers of representative earthquakes in three areas and six districts of the Baikal rift zone in 1964-2002 were subjected to correlation analysis. Episodes of significant correlations of shock flow rates were found against the background of chaotic seismic activity. They followed the rearrangements (catastrophes) of stresses in the lithosphere, which are also stressing factors for the whole rift geodynamic system. The episode of the late 1970s-early 1980s was particularly long and showed the maximum correlation. Therefore, it can be considered the principal event in seismic process synchronization in the Baikal Rift Zone. The same approach to data analysis revealed similar synchronization and desynchronization phenomena in the behavior of Baikalian turbellaria when they deviated from homeostasis as a result of illumination, which is a stress for this biologic system. Possible reasons for the behavior of biologic and geodynamic systems are discussed in terms of the synergetic concept of phenomena in living and nonliving nature.

  14. Scanning near-field optical microscopy on rough surfaces: applications in chemistry, biology, and medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Shear-force apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM with very sharp uncoated tapered waveguides relies on the unexpected enhancement of reflection in the shear-force gap. It is the technique for obtaining chemical (materials contrast in the optical image of “real world” surfaces that are rough and very rough without topographical artifacts, and it is by far less complicated than other SNOM techniques that can only be used for very flat surfaces. The experimental use of the new photophysical effect is described. The applications of the new technique are manifold. Important mechanistic questions in solid-state chemistry (oxidation, diazotization, photodimerization, surface hydration, hydrolysis are answered with respect to simultaneous AFM (atomic force microscopy and detailed crystal packing. Prehistoric petrified bacteria and concomitant pyrite inclusions are also investigated with local RAMAN SNOM. Polymer beads and unstained biological objects (rabbit heart, shrimp eye allow for nanoscopic analysis of cell organelles. Similarly, human teeth and a cancerous tissue are analyzed. Bladder cancer tissue is clearly differentiated from healthy tissue without staining and this opens a new highly promising diagnostic tool for precancer diagnosis. Industrial applications are demonstrated at the corrosion behavior of dental alloys (withdrawal of a widely used alloy, harmless substitutes, improvement of paper glazing, behavior of blood bags upon storage, quality assessment of metal particle preparations for surface enhanced RAMAN spectroscopy, and determination of diffusion coefficient and light fastness in textile fiber dyeing. The latter applications include fluorescence SNOM. Local fluorescence SNOM is also used in the study of partly aggregating dye nanoparticles within resin/varnish preparations. Unexpected new insights are obtained in all of the various fields that cannot be obtained by other techniques.

  15. Role of Brine Chemistry and Sorption in Potential Long-Term Storage of Radioactive Waste in Geologic Salt Formations: Experimental Evaluation of Sorption Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, T. M.; Emerson, H. P.; Michael, D. P.; Reed, D. T.

    2016-12-01

    Bedded geologic salt formations have been shown to have many favorable properties for the disposal of radioactive waste (i.e., reducing conditions, fracture healing). Performance assessment (PA) modeling for a 10,000 year period for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM have predicted an extremely low risk of radioactive material reaching the surrounding environment after the 100 year period required for creep to seal the waste panels and access shafts. Human intrusion caused by drilling operations for oil and gas exploration is the main pathway of concern for environmental release of radioactive material due to pressurized brine pockets located within the salt formation below the repository. Our work focuses on the long-term capability of salt repositories and the associated geologic media to safely isolate stored radioactive waste from the surrounding environment, even in the event of a human intrusion scenario such as a direct brine release (DBR) due to a drilling operation intersecting a brine pocket. In particular, we are revisiting the degree of conservatism in the estimated sorption partition coefficients (Kds) used in the PA model based on complementary batch and column experimental methods (Dittrich and Reimus, 2016). The main focus of this work is to investigate the role of ionic strength, solution chemistry, and oxidation state (III-VI) in actinide sorption to dolomite rock. Based on redox conditions and solution chemistry expected in the WIPP, possible actinide species include Pu(III), Pu(IV), U(IV), U(VI), Np(IV), Np(V), Am(III), and Th(IV). We will present (1) a conceptual overview of Kd use in the PA model, (2) background and evolution of the Kd ranges used, and (3) results from batch and column experiments and model predictions for Kds with WIPP-relevant geologic media. We will also briefly discuss the challenges of upscaling from lab experiments to field scale predictions, the presence of ligands (e.g., acetate, citrate, EDTA

  16. Using Fossil Shark Teeth to Illustrate Evolution and Introduce Basic Geologic Concepts in a High School Biology Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, J. G.; Nunn, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Shell Foundation sponsors a program at Louisiana State University called Shell Undergraduate Recruitment and Geoscience Education (SURGE). The purpose of SURGE is to help local high school science teachers incorporate geology into their classrooms by providing resources and training. As part of this program, a workshop for high school biology teachers was held at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge on June 3-5, 2007. We had the teachers do a series of activities on fossil shark teeth to illustrate evolution and introduce basic earth science concepts such as geologic time, superposition, and faunal succession and provided the teachers with lesson plans and materials. As an example, one of our exercises explores the evolution of the megatoothed shark lineage leading to Carcharocles megalodon, the largest predatory shark in history with teeth up to 17 cm long. Megatoothed shark teeth make excellent evolutionary subjects because they have a good fossil record and show continuous transitions in morphology from the Eocene to Pliocene. Our activity follows the learning cycle model. We take advantage of the curiosity of sharks shared by most people, and allow students to explore the variations among different shark teeth and explain the causes of those variations. The objectives of this exercise are to have the students: 1) sort fossil shark teeth into biologically reasonable species; 2) form hypotheses about evolutionary relationships among fossil shark teeth; and 3) describe and interpret evolutionary trends in the fossil Megatoothed lineage. To do the activity, students are divided into groups of 2-3 and given a shuffled set of 72 shark tooth cards with different images of megatoothed shark teeth. They are instructed to group the shark tooth cards into separate species of sharks. After sorting the cards, students are asked to consider the evolutionary relationships among their species and arrange their species chronologically according to the species first

  17. Earth is speaking: listen her! On-line questionnaire about anomalous geological and biological phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarra, Alessandra; Quattrocchi, Fedora; Cantucci, Barbara; Mazzarini, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Earthquakes can be associated with non-seismic phenomena which may manifest many weeks before and after the main shock. These phenomena are characterized by ground fractures and soil liquefactions at surface often coupled with degassing events, chemical alterations of water and soils, changes in temperature and/or waters level in the epicentral area. Further manifestations include radio disturbances and light emissions. On the other hand, anomalous behavior of animals has been reported to occur before environmental changes. The co-occurrence of several phenomena may be considered as a signal of subsurface changes, and their analysis may be used as possible forecast indicators for seismic events, landslides, damages in infrastructure (e.g., dam) and groundwaters contamination. In order to obtain an accurate statistical analysis of these factors, a pre-crisis large database over a prolonged period of time is a pre-requisite. To this end, we elaborated a questionnaire for the population to pick up signs about anomalous phenomena like as: animal behavior, geological manifestations, effect on vegetation, degassing, changes on aquifers, wells and springs. After the January 25, 2013, mainshock (ML 4.8) in the Garfagnana seismic district, the Bagni di Lucca Municipality was selected as pilot site for testing this questionnaire. The complexity, variety and extension of this territory (165 kmq) sound suitable for this project. Bagni di Lucca is located in the southern border of the Garfagnana seismogenic source, characterized by the carbonate Mesozoic sequences and the Tertiary terrigenous sedimentary deposits of the Tuscan Nappe. The questionnaire was published on Bagni di Lucca web site (https://docs.google.com/file/d/0Bzw3vOYX47XoTGltTVJRbkJuajA/edit) in collaboration with Municipal Commitee, Local Civil Protection and Local Red Cross, and sent by ordinary mail to the citizenry. It is possible to answer to the questionnaire, also anonymously, direct on line (https

  18. Macromolecular crowding: chemistry and physics meet biology (Ascona, Switzerland, 10-14 June 2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foffi, G; Pastore, A; Piazza, F; Temussi, P A

    2013-08-02

    conference held in Ascona from 10 to 14 June 2012. In the unique scenario of the Maggiore lake and absorbed in the magic atmosphere of the Centro Stefano Franscini (CSF) at Monte Verità, we enjoyed three-and-a-half days of intense and inspiring activity, where not only many of the most prominent scientists working on macromolecular crowding, but also experts in closely related fields such as colloids and soft matter presented their work. The meeting was intended and has been organized to bring theoreticians and experimentalists together in the attempt to promote an active dialogue. Moreover, we wanted different disciplines to be represented, notably physics and chemistry, besides biology, as cross-fertilization is proving an increasingly fundamental source of inspiration and advancement. This issue of Physical Biology (PB) features a selection of the oral contributions presented at the conference, expanded in the form of research or review articles. PB, one of the scientific journals of the Institute of Physics (IOP), is one of the most dynamic and lively forums active at the interface between biology on one side, and physics and mathematics on the other. As its mission is stated by IOP, PB 'focuses on research in which physics-based approaches lead to new insights into biological systems at all scales of space and time, and all levels of complexity'. For these reasons, and also in view of its high reputation and broad readership, PB appears to be the ideal place for disseminating the thriving pieces of research presented at the conference. We are extremely grateful to PB and its kind and efficient editorial staff who helped make this issue a great scientific follow-up to the conference. The opening lecture of the conference, the first of four day-opening keynote lectures, was given by Allen P Minton from NIH (USA), possibly the most influential among the pioneers in the field. He provided a lucid and well-thought-out overview of the concept of macromolecular crowding

  19. Macromolecular crowding: chemistry and physics meet biology (Ascona, Switzerland, 10-14 June 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foffi, G.; Pastore, A.; Piazza, F.; Temussi, P. A.

    2013-08-01

    held in Ascona from 10 to 14 June 2012. In the unique scenario of the Maggiore lake and absorbed in the magic atmosphere of the Centro Stefano Franscini (CSF) at Monte Verità, we enjoyed three-and-a-half days of intense and inspiring activity, where not only many of the most prominent scientists working on macromolecular crowding, but also experts in closely related fields such as colloids and soft matter presented their work. The meeting was intended and has been organized to bring theoreticians and experimentalists together in the attempt to promote an active dialogue. Moreover, we wanted different disciplines to be represented, notably physics and chemistry, besides biology, as cross-fertilization is proving an increasingly fundamental source of inspiration and advancement. This issue of Physical Biology (PB) features a selection of the oral contributions presented at the conference, expanded in the form of research or review articles. PB, one of the scientific journals of the Institute of Physics (IOP), is one of the most dynamic and lively forums active at the interface between biology on one side, and physics and mathematics on the other. As its mission is stated by IOP, PB 'focuses on research in which physics-based approaches lead to new insights into biological systems at all scales of space and time, and all levels of complexity'. For these reasons, and also in view of its high reputation and broad readership, PB appears to be the ideal place for disseminating the thriving pieces of research presented at the conference. We are extremely grateful to PB and its kind and efficient editorial staff who helped make this issue a great scientific follow-up to the conference. The opening lecture of the conference, the first of four day-opening keynote lectures, was given by Allen P Minton from NIH (USA), possibly the most influential among the pioneers in the field. He provided a lucid and well-thought-out overview of the concept of macromolecular crowding through an

  20. Developing and Evaluating an Eighth Grade Curriculum Unit That Links Foundational Chemistry to Biological Growth: Changing the Research-Based Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Rebecca; Howes, Elaine V.; Carlson, Janet; Roth, Kathleen; Bourdelat-Parks, Brooke; Roseman, Jo Ellen; Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; Flanagan, Jean C.

    2013-01-01

    Much of modern biology has become increasingly chemical in character. Not surprisingly, students often have trouble understanding key ideas in biology because they lack foundational chemistry ideas. AAAS and BSCS are collaborating to develop and study a curriculum unit that supports students' ability to explain a variety of biological processes…

  1. Developing and Evaluating an Eighth Grade Curriculum Unit That Links Foundational Chemistry to Biological Growth: Paper 5--Using Teacher Measures to Evaluate the Promise of the Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Jean C.; Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; Roseman, Jo Ellen

    2013-01-01

    AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science) is collaborating with BSCS (Biological Sciences Curriculum Study) in the development of a curriculum unit for eighth grade students that connects fundamental chemistry and biology concepts to better prepare them for high school biology. Recognizing that teachers play an influential role in…

  2. FOREWORD: Third Nordic Symposium on Computer Simulation in Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaski, K.; Salomaa, M.

    1990-01-01

    These are Proceedings of the Third Nordic Symposium on Computer Simulation in Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Mathematics, held August 25-26, 1989, at Lahti (Finland). The Symposium belongs to an annual series of Meetings, the first one of which was arranged in 1987 at Lund (Sweden) and the second one in 1988 at Kolle-Kolle near Copenhagen (Denmark). Although these Symposia have thus far been essentially Nordic events, their international character has increased significantly; the trend is vividly reflected through contributions in the present Topical Issue. The interdisciplinary nature of Computational Science is central to the activity; this fundamental aspect is also responsible, in an essential way, for its rapidly increasing impact. Crucially important to a wide spectrum of superficially disparate fields is the common need for extensive - and often quite demanding - computational modelling. For such theoretical models, no closed-form (analytical) solutions are available or they would be extremely difficult to find; hence one must rather resort to the Art of performing computational investigations. Among the unifying features in the computational research are the methods of simulation employed; methods which frequently are quite closely related with each other even for faculties of science that are quite unrelated. Computer simulation in Natural Sciences is presently apprehended as a discipline on its own right, occupying a broad region somewhere between the experimental and theoretical methods, but also partially overlapping with and complementing them. - Whichever its proper definition may be, the computational approach serves as a novel and an extremely versatile tool with which one can equally well perform "pure" experimental modelling and conduct "computational theory". Computational studies that have earlier been made possible only through supercomputers have opened unexpected, as well as exciting, novel frontiers equally in mathematics (e.g., fractals

  3. The relationship between the chemistry and biological activity of the bisphosphonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebetino, Frank H; Hogan, Anne-Marie L; Sun, Shuting; Tsoumpra, Maria K; Duan, Xuchen; Triffitt, James T; Kwaasi, Aaron A; Dunford, James E; Barnett, Bobby L; Oppermann, Udo; Lundy, Mark W; Boyde, Alan; Kashemirov, Boris A; McKenna, Charles E; Russell, R Graham G

    2011-07-01

    The ability of bisphosphonates ((HO)(2)P(O)CR(1)R(2)P(O)(OH)(2)) to inhibit bone resorption has been known since the 1960s, but it is only recently that a detailed molecular understanding of the relationship between chemical structures and biological activity has begun to emerge. The early development of chemistry in this area was largely empirical and based on modifying R(2) groups in a variety of ways. Apart from the general ability of bisphosphonates to chelate Ca(2+) and thus target the calcium phosphate mineral component of bone, attempts to refine clear structure-activity relationships had led to ambiguous or seemingly contradictory results. However, there was increasing evidence for cellular effects, and eventually the earliest bisphosphonate drugs, such as clodronate (R(1)=R(2)=Cl) and etidronate (R(1)=OH, R(2)=CH(3)), were shown to exert intracellular actions via the formation in vivo of drug derivatives of ATP. The observation that pamidronate, a bisphosphonate with R(1)=OH and R(2)=CH(2)CH(2)NH(2), exhibited higher potency than previously known bisphosphonate drugs represented the first step towards the later recognition of the critical importance of having nitrogen in the R(2) side chain. The synthesis and biological evaluation of a large number of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates took place particularly in the 1980s, but still with an incomplete understanding of their structure-activity relationships. A major advance was the discovery that the anti-resorptive effects of the nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (including alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate, and zoledronate) on osteoclasts appear to result from their potency as inhibitors of the enzyme farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS), a key branch-point enzyme in the mevalonate pathway. FPPS generates isoprenoid lipids utilized in sterol synthesis and for the post-translational modification of small GTP-binding proteins essential for osteoclast function. Effects on other cellular targets

  4. Addressing the Grand Challenge of atmospheric carbon dioxide: geologic sequestration vs. biological recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Ben J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract On February 15, 2008, the National Academy of Engineering unveiled their list of 14 Grand Challenges for Engineering. Building off of tremendous advancements in the past century, these challenges were selected for their role in assuring a sustainable existence for the rapidly increasing global community. It is no accident that the first five Challenges on the list involve the development of sustainable energy sources and management of environmental resources. While the focus of this review is to address the single Grand Challenge of "develop carbon sequestration methods", is will soon be clear that several other Challenges are intrinsically tied to it through the principles of sustainability. How does the realm of biological engineering play a role in addressing these Grand Challenges?

  5. Mössbauer spectroscopy: applications in chemistry, biology, industry, and nanotechnology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharma, Virender K; Klingelhofer, Gostar; Nishida, Tetsuaki

    2013-01-01

    "A one-stop reference for determining the oxidation states of elements so that oxidation eduction chemistry can be studied across a wide variety of systems, this book presents advances in the field...

  6. Distinguishing geology from biology in the Ediacaran Doushantuo biota relaxes constraints on the timing of the origin of bilaterians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, John A; Thomas, Ceri-Wyn; Bengtson, Stefan; Kearns, Stuart L; Xiao, Shuhai; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2012-06-22

    The Ediacaran Doushantuo biota has yielded fossils that include the oldest widely accepted record of the animal evolutionary lineage, as well as specimens with alleged bilaterian affinity. However, these systematic interpretations are contingent on the presence of key biological structures that have been reinterpreted by some workers as artefacts of diagenetic mineralization. On the basis of chemistry and crystallographic fabric, we characterize and discriminate phases of mineralization that reflect: (i) replication of original biological structure, and (ii) void-filling diagenetic mineralization. The results indicate that all fossils from the Doushantuo assemblage preserve a complex mélange of mineral phases, even where subcellular anatomy appears to be preserved. The findings allow these phases to be distinguished in more controversial fossils, facilitating a critical re-evaluation of the Doushantuo fossil assemblage and its implications as an archive of Ediacaran animal diversity. We find that putative subcellular structures exhibit fabrics consistent with preservation of original morphology. Cells in later developmental stages are not in original configuration and are therefore uninformative concerning gastrulation. Key structures used to identify Doushantuo bilaterians can be dismissed as late diagenetic artefacts. Therefore, when diagenetic mineralization is considered, there is no convincing evidence for bilaterians in the Doushantuo assemblage.

  7. Selected water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in New England in 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskel, Peter K.

    2017-06-22

    The New England Water Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is headquartered in Pembroke, New Hampshire, with offices in East Hartford, Connecticut; Augusta, Maine; Northborough, Massachusetts; and Montpelier, Vermont. The areas of expertise covered by the water science center’s staff of 130 include aquatic biology, chemistry, geographic information systems, geology, hydrologic sciences and engineering, and water use.

  8. Preface: Special Issue of the 5th International Symposium on Biological and Environmental Chemistry of DMS(P) and Related Compounds, Goa, India, 19–22 October 2010

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Stefels, J.; Shenoy, D.M.; Simo, R.; Malin, G.; Levasseur, M.; Belviso, S.; DileepKumar, M.

    This Special Issue of Biogeochemistry contains a selection of papers presented at the 5th International Symposium on Biological and Environmental Chemistry of DMS(P) and Related Compounds, organized at the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO...

  9. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Web Academy Webinar: Compost from Food Waste: Understanding Soil Chemistry and Soil Biology on a College/University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains information about the Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Web Academy Webinar Series titled Compost from Food Waste:Understanding Soil Chemistry and Soil Biology on a College/University Campus

  10. Selectivity on-target of bromodomain chemical probes by structure-guided medicinal chemistry and chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdeano, Carles; Ciulli, Alessio

    2016-09-01

    Targeting epigenetic proteins is a rapidly growing area for medicinal chemistry and drug discovery. Recent years have seen an explosion of interest in developing small molecules binding to bromodomains, the readers of acetyl-lysine modifications. A plethora of co-crystal structures has motivated focused fragment-based design and optimization programs within both industry and academia. These efforts have yielded several compounds entering the clinic, and many more are increasingly being used as chemical probes to interrogate bromodomain biology. High selectivity of chemical probes is necessary to ensure biological activity is due to an on-target effect. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of bromodomain-targeting compounds, focusing on the structural basis for their on-target selectivity or lack thereof. We also highlight chemical biology approaches to enhance on-target selectivity.

  11. Recent advances in amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides and synthetic polypeptides: chemistry, self-assembly and biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hua; Wang, Jing; Song, Ziyuan; Yin, Lichen; Zhang, Yanfeng; Tang, Haoyu; Tu, Chunlai; Lin, Yao; Cheng, Jianjun

    2014-01-07

    Polypeptides are fascinating materials with unique properties for various biological materials. We highlight here recent advances in amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides (NCAs) and synthetic polypeptides from the aspects of chemistry, self-assembly and biological applications. New synthetic methodologies, mechanistic studies and optimization of polymerization conditions for the preparation of well-defined novel polypeptides are comprehensively reviewed and evaluated. Functional polypeptides, mostly prepared from novel NCA monomers, with ultra-stable helical conformation, stimuli-sensitive properties, or glycoprotein mimetics are summarized. We also highlight a number of interesting self-assembled structures of polypeptides in solid state and solution, with particular emphasis on those structures other than amphiphilic self-assembly. The biological applications of polypeptides in drug and gene delivery are also reviewed. Future directions and perspectives are discussed in the conclusion.

  12. Electron Bifurcation: Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Two-Electron Brokering in Biological Redox Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Yuly, Jonathon L; Lubner, Carolyn E; Mulder, David W; King, Paul W; Peters, John W; Beratan, David N

    2017-09-19

    processes of their own. We dissect the thermodynamics and kinetics of electron bifurcation in Nfn and find that the key features of electron bifurcation are (1) spatially separated transfer pathways that diverge from a two-electron donor, (2) one thermodynamically uphill and one downhill redox pathway, with a large negative shift in the donor's reduction potential after departure of the first electron, and (3) electron tunneling and activation factors that enable bifurcation, producing a 1:1 partitioning of electrons onto the two pathways. Electron bifurcation is found in the CO 2 reducing pathways of methanogenic archaea, in the hydrogen pathways of hydrogenases, in the nitrogen fixing pathway of Fix, and in the mitochondrial charge transfer chain of complex III, cytochrome bc 1 . While crossed potentials may offer the biological advantage of producing tightly regulated high energy reactive species, neither kinetic nor thermodynamic considerations mandate crossed potentials to generate successful electron bifurcation. Taken together, the theoretical framework established here, focusing on the underpinning electron tunneling barriers and activation free energies, explains the logic of electron bifurcation that enables energy conversion and conservation in Nfn, points toward bioinspired schemes to execute multielectron redox chemistry, and establishes a roadmap for examining novel electron bifurcation networks in nature.

  13. Chemistry and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Barendsen, G.W.; Kal, H.B.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    1983-01-01

    This book contains the extended abstracts of the contributions of the poster workshop sessions on chemistry and physics of the 7th international congress of radiation research. They cover the following main topics: primary processes in radiation physics and chemistry, general chemistry in radiation chemistry, DNA and model systems in radiation chemistry, molecules of biological interest in radiation chemistry, techniques in radiation chemistry, hot atom chemistry. refs.; figs.; tabs

  14. Linking geology, fluid chemistry, and microbial activity of basalt- and ultramafic-hosted deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perner, M; Hansen, M; Seifert, R; Strauss, H; Koschinsky, A; Petersen, S

    2013-07-01

    Hydrothermal fluids passing through basaltic rocks along mid-ocean ridges are known to be enriched in sulfide, while those circulating through ultramafic mantle rocks are typically elevated in hydrogen. Therefore, it has been estimated that the maximum energy in basalt-hosted systems is available through sulfide oxidation and in ultramafic-hosted systems through hydrogen oxidation. Furthermore, thermodynamic models suggest that the greatest biomass potential arises from sulfide oxidation in basalt-hosted and from hydrogen oxidation in ultramafic-hosted systems. We tested these predictions by measuring biological sulfide and hydrogen removal and subsequent autotrophic CO2 fixation in chemically distinct hydrothermal fluids from basalt-hosted and ultramafic-hosted vents. We found a large potential of microbial hydrogen oxidation in naturally hydrogen-rich (ultramafic-hosted) but also in naturally hydrogen-poor (basalt-hosted) hydrothermal fluids. Moreover, hydrogen oxidation-based primary production proved to be highly attractive under our incubation conditions regardless whether hydrothermal fluids from ultramafic-hosted or basalt-hosted sites were used. Site-specific hydrogen and sulfide availability alone did not appear to determine whether hydrogen or sulfide oxidation provides the energy for primary production by the free-living microbes in the tested hydrothermal fluids. This suggests that more complex features (e.g., a combination of oxygen, temperature, biological interactions) may play a role for determining which energy source is preferably used in chemically distinct hydrothermal vent biotopes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Application of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) in forensic chemistry and toxicology with focus on biological matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Werner; Keller, Thomas; Regenscheit, Priska

    1995-01-01

    The IMS (Ion Mobility Spectroscopy) instrument 'Ionscan' takes advantage of the fact that trace quantities of illicit drugs are adsorbed on dust particles on clothes, in cars and on other items of evidence. The dust particles are collected on a membrane filter by a special attachment on a vacuum cleaner. The sample is then directly inserted into the spectrometer and can be analyzed immediately. We show casework applications of a forensic chemistry and toxicology laboratory. One new application of IMS in forensic chemistry is the detection of psilocybin in dried mushrooms without any further sample preparation.

  16. Using chemistry and microfluidics to understand the spatial dynamics of complex biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastrup, Christian J; Runyon, Matthew K; Lucchetta, Elena M; Price, Jessica M; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2008-04-01

    Understanding the spatial dynamics of biochemical networks is both fundamentally important for understanding life at the systems level and also has practical implications for medicine, engineering, biology, and chemistry. Studies at the level of individual reactions provide essential information about the function, interactions, and localization of individual molecular species and reactions in a network. However, analyzing the spatial dynamics of complex biochemical networks at this level is difficult. Biochemical networks are nonequilibrium systems containing dozens to hundreds of reactions with nonlinear and time-dependent interactions, and these interactions are influenced by diffusion, flow, and the relative values of state-dependent kinetic parameters. To achieve an overall understanding of the spatial dynamics of a network and the global mechanisms that drive its function, networks must be analyzed as a whole, where all of the components and influential parameters of a network are simultaneously considered. Here, we describe chemical concepts and microfluidic tools developed for network-level investigations of the spatial dynamics of these networks. Modular approaches can be used to simplify these networks by separating them into modules, and simple experimental or computational models can be created by replacing each module with a single reaction. Microfluidics can be used to implement these models as well as to analyze and perturb the complex network itself with spatial control on the micrometer scale. We also describe the application of these network-level approaches to elucidate the mechanisms governing the spatial dynamics of two networkshemostasis (blood clotting) and early patterning of the Drosophila embryo. To investigate the dynamics of the complex network of hemostasis, we simplified the network by using a modular mechanism and created a chemical model based on this mechanism by using microfluidics. Then, we used the mechanism and the model to

  17. Derivatization chemistry of the double-decker dicobalt sandwich ion targeted to design biologically active substances

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grüner, Bohumír; Švec, Petr; Hájková, Zuzana; Císařová, I.; Pokorná, Jana; Konvalinka, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 11 (2012), s. 2243-2262 ISSN 0033-4545 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00320901 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : AIDS treatment * boranes * canastide ion * carboranes * dicarbollides * HIV -protease Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.386, year: 2012

  18. Integrating Biology into the General Chemistry Laboratory: Fluorometric Analysis of Chlorophyll "a"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Meredith C.

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that introduces fluorometry of chlorophyll "a" at the general chemistry level is described. The use of thin-layer chromatography to isolate chlorophyll "a" from spirulina and leaf matter enables quantification of small amounts of chlorophyll "a" via fluorometry. Student results were reasonably…

  19. Some aspects of the organic, biological and inorganic chemistry of astatine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, G.W.M.

    1982-01-01

    Astatine has no stable isotopes and the radioactive isotopes with half-lives sufficiently long for chemical experiments ( 209 At, 210 At, 211 At) must be produced artificially with a cyclotron or with a high energy accelerator by spallation of Th. This thesis deals with the synthesis and chemistry of At-compounds and the determination of some of their properties. (C.F.)

  20. Design of SGLT2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes: A History Driven by Biology to Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenqing; Jiang, Linlin; Xie, Yafei; Liu, Yuqiang; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Guilong

    2015-01-01

    A brief history of the design of sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors is reviewed. The design of O-glucoside SGLT2 inhibitors by structural modification of phlorizin, a naturally occurring O-glucoside, in the early stage was a process mainly driven by biology with anticipation of improving SGLT2/SGLT1 selectivity and increasing metabolic stability. Discovery of dapagliflozin, a pioneering C-glucoside SGLT2 inhibitor developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb, represents an important milestone in this history. In the second stage, the design of C-glycoside SGLT2 inhibitors by modifications of the aglycone and glucose moiety of dapagliflozin, an original structural template for almost all C-glycoside SGLT2 inhibitors, was mainly driven by synthetic organic chemistry due to the challenge of designing dapagliflozin derivatives that are patentable, biologically active and synthetically accessible. Structure-activity relationships (SAR) of the SGLT2 inhibitors are also discussed.

  1. Chemistry and the worm: Caenorhabditis elegans as a platform for integrating chemical and biological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, S Elizabeth; Whitesides, George M

    2011-05-16

    This Review discusses the potential usefulness of the worm Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism for chemists interested in studying living systems. C. elegans, a 1 mm long roundworm, is a popular model organism in almost all areas of modern biology. The worm has several features that make it attractive for biology: it is small (biology, the Review provides examples of current research with C. elegans that is chemically relevant. It also describes tools-biological, chemical, and physical-that are available to researchers studying the worm. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Factor analysis for instruments of science learning motivation and its implementation for the chemistry and biology teacher candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetya, A. T.; Ridlo, S.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the learning motivation of science instruments and compare the learning motivation of science from chemistry and biology teacher candidates. Kuesioner Motivasi Sains (KMS) in Indonesian adoption of the Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ II) consisting of 25 items with a 5-point Likert scale. The number of respondents for the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) test was 312. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO), determinant, Bartlett’s Sphericity, Measures of Sampling Adequacy (MSA) tests against KMS using SPSS 20.0, and Lisrel 8.51 software indicate eligible indications. However testing of Communalities obtained results that there are 4 items not qualified, so the item is discarded. The second test, all parameters of eligibility and has a magnitude of Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA), P-Value for the Test of Close Fit (RMSEA <0.05), Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) was good. The new KMS with 21 valid items and composite reliability of 0.9329 can be used to test the level of learning motivation of science which includes Intrinsic Motivation, Sefl-Efficacy, Self-Determination, Grade Motivation and Career Motivation for students who master the Indonesian language. KMS trials of chemistry and biology teacher candidates obtained no significant difference in the learning motivation between the two groups.

  3. Electron Transfer in Chemistry and Biology – The Primary Events in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    molecular unit to another. This reaction, accompanied by proton and hydrogen atom trans- fers, occurs in a cascade in many biological processes, includ- ing photosynthesis. The key chemical steps involved in photo- synthesis and the many ...

  4. Recent advances in gossypol derivatives and analogs: a chemistry and biology view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuzhi; Li, Jun; Dong, Chun-E; Huang, Jian; Zhou, Hai-Bing; Wang, Wei

    2017-07-01

    Gossypol as a natural occurring polyphenol has been studied in a wide range of therapeutic contexts for a long time. The chemical modifications on gossypol were limited due to the unique chemical properties of polyphenols. The design and synthesis of gossypol derivatives and the exploration of their biological activities are the interest of the synthetic chemists, medicinal chemists and pharmacologists. Thus, the progress of diverse gossypol derivatives and analogs' synthesis, biological activities, mechanism elucidation and drug discovery based on gossypol scaffold is summarized.

  5. Biological assessment and streambed-sediment chemistry of streams in the Indianapolis metropolitan area, Indiana, 2003–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, David C.

    2012-01-01

    During 2003–2008, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled 13 sites in the Indianapolis metropolitan area in Indiana for benthic invertebrates, fish communities, and streambed-sediment chemistry. Data from seven White River sites and six tributary sites complement surface-water chemistry data collected by the Indianapolis Department of Public Works. The information is being used to assess changes in water quality in conjunction with the City's programs to reduce combined sewer overflows and other point and nonpoint sources of pollution in the Indianapolis area. During the study, 233 benthic-invertebrate taxa were identified from which the Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) Index, the Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), and the Invertebrate Community Index (ICI) were calculated. EPT index scores ranged from 2 to 16 on the White River and from 2 to 17 on the tributaries. EPT index scores indicate that these pollution-intolerant taxa are more prevalent upstream from and away from the combined-sewer areas of Indianapolis. HBI scores from sites on the White River ranged from 4.67 (good) to 9.55 (very poor), whereas on the tributaries, scores ranged from 4.21 (very good) to 8.14 (poor). Lower HBI scores suggest that less organic pollution was present and, like the EPT scores, indicate better conditions where combined-sewer overflows (CSOs) are not present. Similarly, ICI scores indicated better conditions upstream from the CSO outfalls on the White River. White River scores ranged from 12 to 46, where higher ICI scores indicate better conditions in the benthic-invertebrate community. ICI scores at the tributary sites ranged from 12 to 52, with the highest scores on streams without CSOs.

  6. Supramolecular Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    antigen interactions. working in different areas such as chemical science, biological science, physical science, material science and so on. On the whole, supramolecular chemistry focuses on two over- lapping areas, 'supramolecules' and ...

  7. Grasping the nature of the cell interior: from Physiological Chemistry to Chemical Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyne, Ciara; Crowley, Peter B

    2016-08-01

    Current models of the cell interior emphasise its crowded, chemically complex and dynamically organised structure. Although the chemical composition of cells is known, the cooperative intermolecular interactions that govern cell ultrastructure are poorly understood. A major goal of biochemistry is to capture these myriad interactions in vivo. We consider the landmark discoveries that have shaped this objective, starting from the vitalist framework established by early natural philosophers. Through this historical revisionism, we extract important lessons for the bioinspired chemists of today. Scientific specialisation tends to insulate seminal ideas and hamper the unification of paradigms across biology. Therefore, we call for interdisciplinary collaboration in grappling with the complex cell interior. Recent successes in integrative structural biology and chemical biology demonstrate the power of hybrid approaches. The future roles of the (bio)chemist and model systems are also discussed as starting points for in vivo explorations. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  8. Medicinal Chemistry of Annonaceous Acetogenins: Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Novel Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Kojima

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Most Annonaceous acetogenins are characterized by between one and three THF ring(s with one or two flanking hydroxyl group(s in the center of a C32/34 fatty acid, and the terminal carboxylic acid is combined with a 2-propanol unit to form an α,β-unsaturated γ-lactone. While many studies have addressed the properties and synthesis of natural acetogenins due to their attractive biological activities and unique structural features, a number of analogues have also been described. This review covers the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of acetogenin analogues.

  9. Marine Natural Product Bis-indole Alkaloid Caulerpin: Chemistry and Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunagariya, Jignesh; Bhadja, Poonam; Zhong, Shenghui; Vekariya, Rohit; Xu, Shihai

    2017-09-27

    Marine bis-indole alkaloids comprise a large and increasingly growing class of secondary metabolites, and continue to deliver a great variety of structural templates. The alkaloids derived from marine resources play a crucial role in medicinal chemistry and as chemical agents. In particular, bis-indole alkaloid caulerpin isolated from marine green algae Caulerpa and a red algae Chondria armata at various places around the world, and tested against several therapeutic areas such as anti-diabetic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-larvicidal, anti-herpes, anti-tubercular, anti-microbial and immunostimulating activity as well as means of other chemical agents. Herein, we summarized discovery of caulerpin, and its potential medicinal and chemical applications in chronological order with various aspects. Additionally, synthesis of caulerpin, its functional analogues, and structural isomer have also been reviewed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Biological Chemistry and Functionality of Protein Sulfenic Acids and Related Thiol Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarie-Baez, Nelmi O.; Silva Lopez, Elsa I.; Furdui, Cristina M.

    2016-01-01

    Selective modification of proteins at cysteine residues by reactive oxygen, nitrogen or sulfur species formed under physiological and pathological states is emerging as a critical regulator of protein activity impacting cellular function. This review focuses primarily on protein sulfenylation (-SOH), a metastable reversible modification connecting reduced cysteine thiols to many products of cysteine oxidation. An overview is first provided on the chemistry principles underlining synthesis, stability and reactivity of sulfenic acids in model compounds and proteins, followed by a brief description of analytical methods currently employed to characterize these oxidative species. The following chapters present a selection of redox-regulated proteins for which the -SOH formation was experimentally confirmed and linked to protein function. These chapters are organized based on the participation of these proteins in the regulation of signaling, metabolism and epigenetics. The last chapter discusses the therapeutic implications of altered redox microenvironment and protein oxidation in disease. PMID:26340608

  11. Cu(II) coordination chemistry of patellamide derivatives: possible biological functions of cyclic pseudopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comba, Peter; Dovalil, Nina; Gahan, Lawrence R; Haberhauer, Gebhard; Hanson, Graeme R; Noble, Christopher J; Seibold, Björn; Vadivelu, Prabha

    2012-02-27

    Two synthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring cyclic pseudooctapeptides patellamide  A-F and ascidiacyclamide, that is, H(4)pat(2), H(4)pat(3), as well as their Cu(II) complexes are described. These cyclic peptide derivatives differ from the naturally occurring macrocycles by the variation of the incorporated heterocyclic donor groups and the configuration of the amino acids connecting the heterocycles. The exchange of the oxazoline and thiazole groups by dimethylimidazoles or methyloxazoles leads to more rigid macrocycles, and the changes in the configuration of the side chains leads to significant differences in the folding of the cyclic peptides. These variations allow a detailed study of the various possible structural changes on the chemistry of the Cu(II) complexes formed. The coordination of Cu(II) with these macrocyclic species was monitored by high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), spectrophotometric (UV/Vis) and circular dichroic (CD) titrations, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations and molecular mechanics (MM) simulations have been used to model the structures of the Cu(II) complexes and provide a detailed understanding of their geometric preferences and conformational flexibility. This is related to the Cu(II) coordination chemistry and the reactivity of the dinuclear Cu(II) complexes towards CO(2) fixation. The variation observed between the natural and various synthetic peptide systems enables conclusions about structure-reactivity correlations, and our results also provide information on why nature might have chosen oxazolines and thiazoles as incorporated heterocycles. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. 'Nothing of chemistry disappears in biology': the Top 30 damage-prone endogenous metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma-Ortiz, Claudia; Jeffryes, James G; Cooper, Arthur J L; Niehaus, Thomas D; Thamm, Antje M K; Frelin, Océane; Aunins, Thomas; Fiehn, Oliver; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Henry, Christopher S; Hanson, Andrew D

    2016-06-15

    Many common metabolites are intrinsically unstable and reactive, and hence prone to chemical (i.e. non-enzymatic) damage in vivo Although this fact is widely recognized, the purely chemical side-reactions of metabolic intermediates can be surprisingly hard to track down in the literature and are often treated in an unprioritized case-by-case way. Moreover, spontaneous chemical side-reactions tend to be overshadowed today by side-reactions mediated by promiscuous ('sloppy') enzymes even though chemical damage to metabolites may be even more prevalent than damage from enzyme sloppiness, has similar outcomes, and is held in check by similar biochemical repair or pre-emption mechanisms. To address these limitations and imbalances, here we draw together and systematically integrate information from the (bio)chemical literature, from cheminformatics, and from genome-scale metabolic models to objectively define a 'Top 30' list of damage-prone metabolites. A foundational part of this process was to derive general reaction rules for the damage chemistries involved. The criteria for a 'Top 30' metabolite included predicted chemical reactivity, essentiality, and occurrence in diverse organisms. We also explain how the damage chemistry reaction rules ('operators') are implemented in the Chemical-Damage-MINE (CD-MINE) database (minedatabase.mcs.anl.gov/#/top30) to provide a predictive tool for many additional potential metabolite damage products. Lastly, we illustrate how defining a 'Top 30' list can drive genomics-enabled discovery of the enzymes of previously unrecognized damage-control systems, and how applying chemical damage reaction rules can help identify previously unknown peaks in metabolomics profiles. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  13. Investigating Membranes: Using Artificial Membranes to Convey Chemistry and Biology Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrelak, Yoshi; McCallister, Gary

    2009-01-01

    While not organic in nature, quick-"growing" artificial membranes can be a profound visual aid when teaching students about cellular processes and the chemical nature of membranes. Students are often intrigued when they see biological and chemical concepts come to life before their eyes. In this article, the authors share their approach to growing…

  14. Quantitative terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and analysis in chemistry and biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2005-01-01

    crystals and biological material. In order to obtain quantitative results great care in the analysis of the experimental data is required. I will discuss common pitfalls in the analysis of THz-TDS data as well as the influence of electronic and laser noise on the results of a THz-TDS experiment....

  15. On-Demand Targeting: Investigating Biology with Proximity-Directed Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Marcus J C; Poganik, Jesse R; Aye, Yimon

    2016-03-23

    Proximity enhancement is a central chemical tenet underpinning an exciting suite of small-molecule toolsets that have allowed us to unravel many biological complexities. The leitmotif of this opus is "tethering"-a strategy in which a multifunctional small molecule serves as a template to bring proteins/biomolecules together. Scaffolding approaches have been powerfully applied to control diverse biological outcomes such as protein-protein association, protein stability, activity, and improve imaging capabilities. A new twist on this strategy has recently appeared, in which the small-molecule probe is engineered to unleash controlled amounts of reactive chemical signals within the microenvironment of a target protein. Modification of a specific target elicits a precisely timed and spatially controlled gain-of-function (or dominant loss-of-function) signaling response. Presented herein is a unique personal outlook conceptualizing the powerful proximity-enhanced chemical biology toolsets into two paradigms: "multifunctional scaffolding" versus "on-demand targeting". By addressing the latest advances and challenges in the established yet constantly evolving multifunctional scaffolding strategies as well as in the emerging on-demand precision targeting (and related) systems, this Perspective is aimed at choosing when it is best to employ each of the two strategies, with an emphasis toward further promoting novel applications and discoveries stemming from these innovative chemical biology platforms.

  16. Biological and geological characteristics of the R1 and R2 coral mounds, Rockall Trough, west of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnithan, V.; Grehan, A.; van Weering, T.; Olu-Leroy, K.

    2003-04-01

    The carbonate mounds discovered in the mid-1990s on the Irish Continental Margin are unique. It is not only their size (up to 300 m in height and 2-3 km in diameter), distribution (along the margins of the Porcupine Seabight and Rockall Trough), abundance (> 250 individual mounds) but also their association with deep-water coral species that has generated a great deal of interest in the scientific community. During the past 10 years a number of European Union funded projects concentrated their efforts on studying these deep-sea features. However, there is still a great deal to be learnt regarding mound structure, dynamics and genesis. The basic question why and how carbonate mounds are formed is still largely unanswered. The CARACOLE (CARbonate And COLD water Ecosystems) Cruise in August 2001, was an Irish-French-EU inter-disciplinary co-operation program with participation of ACES, ECOMOUND and GEOMOUND related scientists from Germany, The Netherlands and Belgium to study carbonate mounds and deep-coral reefs in the Porcupine Seabight and Rockall Trough, west of Ireland. The IFREMER led cruise aboard the French Research Vessel Atalante deployed the 'state of the art' remotely operated vehicle, Victor 6000 at a total of 5 mound locations selected on the basis of previous extensive seismic, acoustic and bottom sampling studies, mainly carried out by RV 'Pelagia' of the Royal NIOZ. High-resolution geo-referenced video and digital still photography was used for detailed observation and mapping. This poster presents preliminary results and work in progress from the R1 and R2 Rockall Trough mound sites based on video and bathymetric analysis carried out by the authors in March 2002 at IFREMER. The focus of the analysis was two fold: 1) Biological, encompassing the identification and mapping of coral habitats and associated species, and 2) geological which includes mapping of the morphology and nature (character) of the seabed. From the observations and analysis

  17. Current Advances in L-DOPA and DOPA-Peptidomimetics: Chemistry, Applications and Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzarri, Bruno Mattia; Tortolini, Silvia; Rotelli, Luca; Botta, Giorgia; Saladino, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine [2-amino-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) propanoic acid (L-DOPA) is a natural constituent of animal and plant tissue derived from post-translational modification of the amino acid tyrosine. L-DOPA is modified during metabolism to catecholamine neurotransmitters, noradrenaline and adrenaline, which are characterized by different biological activities. L-DOPA has been the first drug of choice in the therapy of Parkinson's disease that is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder involving the loss of dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra pars compacta. The social and economic impact of these diseases is very high due to the progressive aging of the population. This review focuses on the biological effect of LDOPA, as well as on the synthesis of L-DOPA derivatives and their application in central nervous system diseases. Among them, L-DOPA-containing peptides (L-DOPA-Pep) show important biological and pharmacological activities. For example, L-DOPA analogues of the alpha-factor interact with models of the G protein-coupled receptor, inhibit the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins, and are used for improving L-DOPA absorption in long-term treatment of Parkinson's disease and as skin moisturizer in cosmetic compositions. Moreover, L-DOPA residues in proteins provide reactive tools for the preparation of adhesives and coatings materials. Usually, L-DOPA-Pep is prepared by traditional liquid or solid state procedures starting from simple amino acids. Recently, selective side-chain modifications of pre-formed peptides have also been reported both for linear and branched peptides. Here, we describe the recent advances in the synthesis of L-DOPA and dopa-peptidomimetics and their biological and pharmacological activities, focusing the attention on new synthetic procedures and biological mechanism of actions.

  18. Natural Proline-Rich Cyclopolypeptides from Marine Organisms: Chemistry, Synthetic Methodologies and Biological Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wan-Yin; Dahiya, Rajiv; Qin, Hua-Li; Mourya, Rita; Maharaj, Sandeep

    2016-10-26

    Peptides have gained increased interest as therapeutics during recent years. More than 60 peptide drugs have reached the market for the benefit of patients and several hundreds of novel therapeutic peptides are in preclinical and clinical development. The key contributor to this success is the potent and specific, yet safe, mode of action of peptides. Among the wide range of biologically-active peptides, naturally-occurring marine-derived cyclopolypeptides exhibit a broad range of unusual and potent pharmacological activities. Because of their size and complexity, proline-rich cyclic peptides (PRCPs) occupy a crucial chemical space in drug discovery that may provide useful scaffolds for modulating more challenging biological targets, such as protein-protein interactions and allosteric binding sites. Diverse pharmacological activities of natural cyclic peptides from marine sponges, tunicates and cyanobacteria have encouraged efforts to develop cyclic peptides with well-known synthetic methods, including solid-phase and solution-phase techniques of peptide synthesis. The present review highlights the natural resources, unique structural features and the most relevant biological properties of proline-rich peptides of marine-origin, focusing on the potential therapeutic role that the PRCPs may play as a promising source of new peptide-based novel drugs.

  19. Research on condensed matter and atomic physics, using major experimental facilities and devices: Physics, chemistry, biology. Reports on results. Vol. 1. 1. Atomic and molecular physics. 2. Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report in three volumes substantiates the contents of the programme survey published in September 1989. The progress reports cover the following research areas: Vol. I, (1). Atomic and molecular physics - free atoms, molecules, macromolecules, clusters, matrix-isolated atoms and molecules. (2) Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces - epitaxy, surface structure, adsorption, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties, thin films, synthetic layer structure. Vol. II, (3). Solid-state physics, and materials science -structural research, lattice dynamics, magnetic structure and dynamics, electronic states; load; spin and pulse density fluctuations; diffusion and internal motion, defects, unordered systems and liquids. Vol. III, (4). Chemistry - bonding and structure, kinetics and reaction mechanisms, polymer research, analysis and synthesis. (5). Biology, - structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules, membrane and cell biology. (6) Development of methods and instruments - neutron sources, synchrotron sources, special accelerators, research with interlinked systems and devices. (orig.) [de

  20. "Solvent-in-salt" systems for design of new materials in chemistry, biology and energy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azov, Vladimir A; Egorova, Ksenia S; Seitkalieva, Marina M; Kashin, Alexey S; Ananikov, Valentine P

    2018-02-21

    Inorganic and organic "solvent-in-salt" (SIS) systems have been known for decades but have attracted significant attention only recently. Molten salt hydrates/solvates have been successfully employed as non-flammable, benign electrolytes in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries leading to a revolution in battery development and design. SIS with organic components (for example, ionic liquids containing small amounts of water) demonstrate remarkable thermal stability and tunability, and present a class of admittedly safer electrolytes, in comparison with traditional organic solvents. Water molecules tend to form nano- and microstructures (droplets and channel networks) in ionic media impacting their heterogeneity. Such microscale domains can be employed as microreactors for chemical and enzymatic synthesis. In this review, we address known SIS systems and discuss their composition, structure, properties and dynamics. Special attention is paid to the current and potential applications of inorganic and organic SIS systems in energy research, chemistry and biochemistry. A separate section of this review is dedicated to experimental methods of SIS investigation, which is crucial for the development of this field.

  1. Biomimeticity in tissue engineering scaffolds through synthetic peptide modifications-altering chemistry for enhanced biological response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejalekshmi, Kumaran G; Nair, Prabha D

    2011-02-01

    Biomimetic and bioactive biomaterials are desirable as tissue engineering scaffolds by virtue of their capability to mimic natural environments of the extracellular matrix. Biomimeticity has been achieved by the incorporation of synthetic short peptide sequences into suitable materials either by surface modification or by bulk incorporation. Research in this area has identified several novel synthetic peptide segments, some of them with cell-specific interactions, which may serve as potential candidates for use in explicit tissue applications. This review focuses on the developments and prospective directions of incorporating short synthetic peptide sequences onto scaffolds for tissue engineering, with emphasis on the chemistry of peptide immobilization and subsequent cell responses toward modified scaffolds. The article provides a decision-tree-type flow chart indicating the most probable cellular events on a given peptide-modified scaffold along with the consolidated list of synthetic peptide sequences, supports as well as cell types used in various tissue engineering studies, and aims to serve as a quick reference guide to peptide chemists and material scientists interested in the field. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Environmental chemistry. Seventh edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1999-11-01

    This book presents a basic understanding of environmental chemistry and its applications. In addition to providing updated materials in this field, the book emphasizes the major concepts essential to the practice of environmental chemistry. Topics of discussion include the following: toxicological chemistry; toxicological chemistry of chemical substances; chemical analysis of water and wastewater; chemical analysis of wastes and solids; air and gas analysis; chemical analysis of biological materials and xenobiotics; fundamentals of chemistry; and fundamentals of organic chemistry.

  3. Molecular evolution between chemistry and biology : The interplay of competition, cooperation, and mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Peter

    2018-03-02

    Biological evolution is reduced to three fundamental processes in the spirit of a minimal model: (i) Competition caused by differential fitness, (ii) cooperation of competitors in the sense of symbiosis, and (iii) variation introduced by mutation understood as error-prone reproduction. The three combinations of two fundamental processes each, ([Formula: see text]) competition and mutation, ([Formula: see text]) cooperation and competition, and ([Formula: see text]) cooperation and mutation, are analyzed. Changes in population dynamics that are induced by bifurcations and threshold phenomena are discussed.

  4. Key discoveries in bile acid chemistry and biology and their clinical applications: history of the last eight decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Alan F; Hagey, Lee R

    2014-08-01

    During the last 80 years there have been extraordinary advances in our knowledge of the chemistry and biology of bile acids. We present here a brief history of the major achievements as we perceive them. Bernal, a physicist, determined the X-ray structure of cholesterol crystals, and his data together with the vast chemical studies of Wieland and Windaus enabled the correct structure of the steroid nucleus to be deduced. Today, C24 and C27 bile acids together with C27 bile alcohols constitute most of the bile acid "family". Patterns of bile acid hydroxylation and conjugation are summarized. Bile acid measurement encompasses the techniques of GC, HPLC, and MS, as well as enzymatic, bioluminescent, and competitive binding methods. The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids results from vectorial transport of bile acids by the ileal enterocyte and hepatocyte; the key transporters have been cloned. Bile acids are amphipathic, self-associate in solution, and form mixed micelles with polar lipids, phosphatidylcholine in bile, and fatty acids in intestinal content during triglyceride digestion. The rise and decline of dissolution of cholesterol gallstones by the ingestion of 3,7-dihydroxy bile acids is chronicled. Scientists from throughout the world have contributed to these achievements. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. What are they thinking? Automated analysis of student writing about acid-base chemistry in introductory biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haudek, Kevin C; Prevost, Luanna B; Moscarella, Rosa A; Merrill, John; Urban-Lurain, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Students' writing can provide better insight into their thinking than can multiple-choice questions. However, resource constraints often prevent faculty from using writing assessments in large undergraduate science courses. We investigated the use of computer software to analyze student writing and to uncover student ideas about chemistry in an introductory biology course. Students were asked to predict acid-base behavior of biological functional groups and to explain their answers. Student explanations were rated by two independent raters. Responses were also analyzed using SPSS Text Analysis for Surveys and a custom library of science-related terms and lexical categories relevant to the assessment item. These analyses revealed conceptual connections made by students, student difficulties explaining these topics, and the heterogeneity of student ideas. We validated the lexical analysis by correlating student interviews with the lexical analysis. We used discriminant analysis to create classification functions that identified seven key lexical categories that predict expert scoring (interrater reliability with experts = 0.899). This study suggests that computerized lexical analysis may be useful for automatically categorizing large numbers of student open-ended responses. Lexical analysis provides instructors unique insights into student thinking and a whole-class perspective that are difficult to obtain from multiple-choice questions or reading individual responses.

  6. What Are They Thinking? Automated Analysis of Student Writing about Acid–Base Chemistry in Introductory Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna B.; Moscarella, Rosa A.; Merrill, John; Urban-Lurain, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Students’ writing can provide better insight into their thinking than can multiple-choice questions. However, resource constraints often prevent faculty from using writing assessments in large undergraduate science courses. We investigated the use of computer software to analyze student writing and to uncover student ideas about chemistry in an introductory biology course. Students were asked to predict acid–base behavior of biological functional groups and to explain their answers. Student explanations were rated by two independent raters. Responses were also analyzed using SPSS Text Analysis for Surveys and a custom library of science-related terms and lexical categories relevant to the assessment item. These analyses revealed conceptual connections made by students, student difficulties explaining these topics, and the heterogeneity of student ideas. We validated the lexical analysis by correlating student interviews with the lexical analysis. We used discriminant analysis to create classification functions that identified seven key lexical categories that predict expert scoring (interrater reliability with experts = 0.899). This study suggests that computerized lexical analysis may be useful for automatically categorizing large numbers of student open-ended responses. Lexical analysis provides instructors unique insights into student thinking and a whole-class perspective that are difficult to obtain from multiple-choice questions or reading individual responses. PMID:22949425

  7. The ChEBI reference database and ontology for biologically relevant chemistry: enhancements for 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Janna; de Matos, Paula; Dekker, Adriano; Ennis, Marcus; Harsha, Bhavana; Kale, Namrata; Muthukrishnan, Venkatesh; Owen, Gareth; Turner, Steve; Williams, Mark; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    ChEBI (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi) is a database and ontology of chemical entities of biological interest. Over the past few years, ChEBI has continued to grow steadily in content, and has added several new features. In addition to incorporating all user-requested compounds, our annotation efforts have emphasized immunology, natural products and metabolites in many species. All database entries are now ‘is_a’ classified within the ontology, meaning that all of the chemicals are available to semantic reasoning tools that harness the classification hierarchy. We have completely aligned the ontology with the Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) Foundry-recommended upper level Basic Formal Ontology. Furthermore, we have aligned our chemical classification with the classification of chemical-involving processes in the Gene Ontology (GO), and as a result of this effort, the majority of chemical-involving processes in GO are now defined in terms of the ChEBI entities that participate in them. This effort necessitated incorporating many additional biologically relevant compounds. We have incorporated additional data types including reference citations, and the species and component for metabolites. Finally, our website and web services have had several enhancements, most notably the provision of a dynamic new interactive graph-based ontology visualization. PMID:23180789

  8. Peptide B12: emerging trends at the interface of inorganic chemistry, chemical biology and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelder, Felix; Zhou, Kai; Sonnay, Marjorie

    2013-01-28

    The sophisticated and efficient delivery of vitamin B(12) ("B(12)") into cells offers promise for B(12)-bioconjugates in medicinal diagnosis and therapy. It is therefore surprising that rather little attention is presently paid to an alternative strategy in drug design: the development of structurally perfect, but catalytically inactive semi-artificial B(12) surrogates. Vitamin B(12) cofactors catalyse important biological transformations and are indispensible for humans and most other forms of life. This strong metabolic dependency exhibits enormous medicinal opportunities. Inhibitors of B(12) dependent enzymes are potential suppressors of fast proliferating cancer cells. This perspective article focuses on the design and study of backbone modified B(12) derivatives, particularly on peptide B(12) derivatives. Peptide B(12) is a recently introduced class of biomimetic cobalamins bearing an artificial peptide backbone with adjustable coordination and redox-properties. Pioneering biological studies demonstrated reduced catalytic activity, combined with inhibitory potential that is encouraging for future efforts in turning natural cofactors into new anti-proliferative agents.

  9. Integrated Ecological River Health Assessments, Based on Water Chemistry, Physical Habitat Quality and Biological Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yoon Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated integrative river ecosystem health using stressor-based models of physical habitat health, chemical water health, and biological health of fish and identified multiple-stressor indicators influencing the ecosystem health. Integrated health responses (IHRs, based on star-plot approach, were calculated from qualitative habitat evaluation index (QHEI, nutrient pollution index (NPI, and index of biological integrity (IBI in four different longitudinal regions (Groups I–IV. For the calculations of IHRs values, multi-metric QHEI, NPI, and IBI models were developed and their criteria for the diagnosis of the health were determined. The longitudinal patterns of the river were analyzed by a self-organizing map (SOM model and the key major stressors in the river were identified by principal component analysis (PCA. Our model scores of integrated health responses (IHRs suggested that mid-stream and downstream regions were impaired, and the key stressors were closely associated with nutrient enrichment (N and P and organic matter pollutions from domestic wastewater disposal plants and urban sewage. This modeling approach of IHRs may be used as an effective tool for evaluations of integrative ecological river health..

  10. História da química e da geologia: Joseph Black e James Hutton como referências para educação em ciências History of chemistry and geology: Joseph Black and James Hutton as references for science education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalina Aparecida L. Sicca

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The second half of eighteenth century is marked by the advancement of chemistry and geology. The first science acquired the law of conservation of mass and this science represented a important support to geology and mineralogy. We say that both became modern science that time. Our aim is to show up some interrelations between history of chemistry and history of geology by means of the study of Joseph Black's and James Hutton's works. We defend that it is positive to science education to understand and approach the relations among different and disciplinary areas of science.

  11. A Case-Based Scenario with Interdisciplinary Guided-Inquiry in Chemistry and Biology: Experiences of First Year Forensic Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Sarah L.; Loughlin, Wendy A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, insight into forensic science students' experiences of a case-based scenario with an interdisciplinary guided-inquiry experience in chemistry and biology is presented. Evaluation of student experiences and interest showed that the students were engaged with all aspects of the case-based scenario, including the curriculum theory…

  12. Actin Immobilization on Chitin for Purifying Myosin II: A Laboratory Exercise That Integrates Concepts of Molecular Cell Biology and Protein Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Marcelle Gomes; Grossi, Andre Luiz; Pereira, Elisangela Lima Bastos; da Cruz, Carolina Oliveira; Mendes, Fernanda Machado; Cameron, Luiz Claudio; Paiva, Carmen Lucia Antao

    2008-01-01

    This article presents our experience on teaching biochemical sciences through an innovative approach that integrates concepts of molecular cell biology and protein chemistry. This original laboratory exercise is based on the preparation of an affinity chromatography column containing F-actin molecules immobilized on chitin particles for purifying…

  13. We Don't Get Any Training: The Impact of a Professional Development Model on Teaching Practices of Chemistry and Biology Graduate Teaching Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutambuki, Jacinta M.; Schwartz, Renee

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the implementation of best teaching practices by science graduate teaching assistants [GTAs] (3 chemists and 2 biologists) in five inquiry-based, interdisciplinary chemistry-biology experiments during a six-week professional development (PD) program, Engage PD. Additionally, we examined GTAs' experiences in implementing…

  14. Chemistry and biological activity of essential oils from Piper claussenianum (Piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, André M; Barreto, Anna Léa S; Batista, Eber M; Curvelo, José Alexandre da R; Velozo, Leosvaldo S M; Moreira, Davyson de L; Guimarães, Elsie F; Soares, Rosângela Maria A; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C

    2010-11-01

    Analyses of essential oils obtained from fresh and dried leaves and inflorescences of Piper clausenianum were performed using GC-FID, GC-MS and NMR techniques. Forty compounds were detected for these four oils with the total of identified constituents ranging from 88.7% for the dried inflorescences to 97.7% for the dried leaves. Sesquiterpenes were the main constituents in the volatile fraction from leaves with a high percentage of (E)-nerolidol (up to 83%). However, monoterpenes were identified in greater amount in the inflorescences, with linalool percentages from 50% up. The essential oils from fresh leaves and inflorescences were submitted to anti-parasitic activity against a strain of Leishmania amazonensis. Both samples showed biological activity, but the essential oil from P. claussenianum fresh leaves, which was rich in (E)-nerolidol, showed effective growth inhibition of L. amazonensis due to the high percentage of this metabolite in the mixture.

  15. Structural and Conformational Chemistry from Electrochemical Molecular Machines. Replicating Biological Functions. A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Toribio F

    2017-12-14

    Each constitutive chain of a conducting polymer electrode acts as a reversible multi-step electrochemical molecular motor: reversible reactions drive reversible conformational movements of the chain. The reaction-driven cooperative actuation of those molecular machines generates, or destroys, inside the film the free volume required to lodge/expel balancing counterions and solvent: reactions drive reversible film volume variations, which basic structural components are here identified and quantified from electrochemical responses. The content of the reactive dense gel (chemical molecular machines, ions and water) mimics that of the intracellular matrix in living functional cells. Reaction-driven properties (composition-dependent properties) and devices replicate biological functions and organs. An emerging technological world of soft, wet, reaction-driven, multifunctional and biomimetic devices and the concomitant zoomorphic or anthropomorphic robots is presented. © 2017 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Electron Bifurcation: Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Two-Electron Brokering in Biological Redox Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Peng; Yuly, Jonathon L.; Lubner, Carolyn E. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Mulder, David W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; King, Paul W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Peters, John W. [Institute; Beratan, David N. [Department

    2017-08-23

    How can proteins drive two electrons from a redox active donor onto two acceptors at very different potentials and distances? And how can this transaction be conducted without dissipating very much energy or violating the laws of thermodynamics? Nature appears to have addressed these challenges by coupling thermodynamically uphill and downhill electron transfer reactions, using two-electron donor cofactors that have very different potentials for the removal of the first and second electron. Although electron bifurcation is carried out with near perfection from the standpoint of energy conservation and electron delivery yields, it is a biological energy transduction paradigm that has only come into focus recently. This Account provides an exegesis of the biophysical principles that underpin electron bifurcation.

  17. [Scientific-Pedagogic School of Biological and Medical Chemistry of the O. O. Bogomolets National Medical University (on the 160th year of its founding)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubs'kyĭ, Iu I; Khmelevs'kyĭ, Iu V; Velykyĭ, M M

    2002-01-01

    In this work the most important stages of the scientific-pedagogic school of biologic and medical chemistry formation in Bogomolets National Medical University starting from the period of foundation as early as in 1863 till nowadays the Chair of Medical Chemistry and Physics as a part of Medical Faculty of Saint Volodymyr Emperor University in the city of Kyiv have been estimated and generalized. The especial attention is attracted to the fact, that it was Kyiv University where firstly the Chair of Biochemistry was created in order of stuyding the regularities of biochemical processes running in the human organism and metabolism disturbances inducing the pathologic processes at some diseases. The scientific and scientific-pedagogical trends of the chair work in different periods of its development are presented, simltneously the leading role of famous Ukrainian scientists--biochemicians in foundation and development of biologic and medical chemistry scientific school in the University are emphasized. Nowadays the Chair is the educational and scientific center supporting and developing the best traditions on training the specialists of different qualification levels: physicians Masters of Science, Philosophy Doctors and Doctors of Science in Medicine and Biology. The Chair is considered to be a basic one among the Ukraine higher medic and pharmaceutic educational institutions having the III-IV accreditation rate on the problems of teaching-organizational, educational-methodical and scientific work. On the Chair base there is functioning the Scientific Problem-Solving Commission of Ministry of health Protections of Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine "Biological and medical Chemistry" (the chairman is the Corresponding-Member of Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Prof. Yu.I. Gubsky. The Chair personnel compiled and issued the contemporary manuals in Ukraine language on Biologic and Bioorganic Chemistry.

  18. Biological chemistry as a foundation of DNA genealogy: the emergence of "molecular history".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyosov, A A

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents the basis of DNA genealogy, a new field of science, which is currently emerging as an unusual blend of biochemistry, history, linguistics, and chemical kinetics. The methodology of the new approach is comprised of chemical (biological) kinetics applied to a pattern of mutations in non-recombinant fragments of DNA (Y chromosome and mtDNA, the latter not being considered in this overview). The goal of the analysis is to translate DNA mutation patterns into time spans to the most recent common ancestors of a given population or tribe and to the dating of ancient migration routes. To illustrate this approach, time spans to the common ancestors are calculated for ethnic Russians, that is Eastern Slavs (R1a1 tribe), Western Slavs (I1 and I2 tribes), and Northern (or Uralic) Slavs (N1c tribe), which were found to live around 4600 years before present (R1a1), 3650 ybp (I1), 3000 and 10,500 ybp (I2, two principal DNA lineages), and 3525 ybp (N1c) (confidence intervals are given in the main text). The data were compared with the respective dates for the nearest common ancestor of the R1a1 "Indo-European" population in India, who lived 4050 years before present, whose descendants represent the majority of the upper castes in India today (up to 72%). Furthermore, it was found that the haplotypes of ethnic Russians of the R1a1 haplogroup (up to 62% of the population in the Russian Federation) and those of the R1a1 Indians (more than 100 million today) are practically identical to each other, up to 67-marker haplotypes. This essentially solves a 200-year-old mystery of who were the Aryans who arrived in India around 3500 years before the present. Haplotypes and time spans to the ancient common ancestors were also compared for the ethnic Russians of haplogroups I1 and I2, on one hand, and the respective I1 and I2 populations in Eastern and Western Europe and Scandinavia, on the other. It is suggested that the approach described in this overview lays the

  19. An outlook on chlorogenic acids-occurrence, chemistry, technology, and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Rohit; Mohan Rao, L Jagan

    2013-01-01

    Phenolics are widespread dietary antioxidants. Among these, chlorogenic acids (CGAs) received considerable attention for their wide distribution and part of human diet with potential biological effects. CGAs (71 compounds), being esters of derivatives of cinnamic acids with quinic acid are widely distributed in plant materials. Coffee is among the highest found in plants, ranging from 4 to 14%. Besides, these are reported in plant foods such as apples, pears, carrot, tomato, sweet potato, Phyllostachys edulis, oilseeds, Prunus domestica L, cherries, and eggplant. The traditional Chinese medicinal plants such as flowers and buds of Lonicera japonica Thunb and the leaves of Eucommia ulmodies contained CGAs as bioactive compound. These play an important role in the formation of roasted coffee flavor and have a marked influence on coffee cup quality. CGAs are considered as main precursors of coffee flavor and pigments. Recent technological advancements in the separation and purification of CGAs such as molecular-imprinted polymer technique; microwave-assisted extraction; pH gradient counter current chromatography has also been described. The consumption of coffee correlated to several health benefits such as reducing the risk of human chronic diseases such as inflammation, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease owing to its antioxidant potential.

  20. Electrophoretic separation techniques and their hyphenation to mass spectrometry in biological inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtkamp, Hannah; Grabmann, Gerlinde; Hartinger, Christian G

    2016-04-01

    Electrophoretic methods have been widely applied in research on the roles of metal complexes in biological systems. In particular, CE, often hyphenated to a sensitive MS detector, has provided valuable information on the modes of action of metal-based pharmaceuticals, and more recently new methods have been added to the electrophoretic toolbox. The range of applications continues to expand as a result of enhanced CE-to-MS interfacing, with sensitivity often at picomolar level, and evolved separation modes allowing for innovative sample analysis. This article is a followup to previous reviews about CE methods in metallodrug research (Electrophoresis, 2003, 24, 2023-2037; Electrophoresis, 2007, 28, 3436-3446; Electrophoresis, 2012, 33, 622-634), also providing a comprehensive overview of metal species studied by electrophoretic methods hyphenated to MS. It highlights the latest CE developments, takes a sneak peek into gel electrophoresis, traces biomolecule labeling, and focuses on the importance of early-stage drug development. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Research on condensed matter and atomic physics using major experimental facilities and devices: Physics, chemistry, biology. Reports on results. Vol. 2. 3. Solid state physics and materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report in three volumes substantiates the contents of the programme survey published in September 1989. The progress reports cover the following research areas: Vol. I, (1). Atomic and molecular physics - free atoms, molecules, macromolecules, clusters, matrix-isolated atoms and molecules. (2) Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces - epitaxy, surface structure, adsorption, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties, thin films, synthetic layer structure. Vol. II, (3). Solid-state physics, and materials science -structural research, lattice dynamics, magnetic structure and dynamics, electronic states; load; spin and pulse density fluctuations; diffusion and internal motion, defects, unordered systems and liquids. Vol. III, (4). Chemistry - bonding and structure, kinetics and reaction mechanisms, polymer research, analysis and synthesis. (5). Biology, - structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules, membrane and cell biology. (6) Development of methods and instruments - neutron sources, synchrotron sources, special accelerators, research with interlinked systems and devices. (orig.) [de

  2. Development of C-Methyl Branched Purine Ribonucleoside Analogs: Chemistry, Biological Activity and Therapeutic Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, Riccardo; Grifantini, Mario; Cappellacci, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we first highlighted on C-methyl-branched nucleosides and nucleotides approved as anti-hepatitis C infection (HCV) drugs, their mechanism of action and recent progress in the development of new clinical candidates. Then, we report on our attempt to develop several C-methyl nucleosides/tides potentially useful for treatment of various diseases such cancer, pain, epilepsy and glaucoma. Design, synthesis and pharmacological screening of 1'-C-, 2'-C-, 3'-C-methyladenosine or other purine/pyrimidine nucleosides allowed us to discover some promising new molecules. 3'-C-Methyladenosine showed antitumor activity against several human tumor cell lines. We have investigated the mechanism of action of 3;-C-methyladenosine that proved to be an effective inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase. Moreover, we will also summarize the chemical and biological properties of some of the recent N6-substituted and 5', N6-disubstituted 2'-C-methyladenosine derivatives that were synthetized in our laboratory and evaluated as A1 adenosine receptor agonists. 2-Chloro-2'- C-methyl-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (2'-Me-CCPA), 5'-chloro-5'-deoxy-N6-(±)-(endo-norborn- 2-yl)adenosine (5'Cl5'd-(±)-ENBA) and 2'-C-methyl-5'-chloro-5'-deoxy-N6-(±)-(endonorborn- 2-yl)adenosine (2'-Me-5'Cl5'd-(±)-ENBA) displayed high hA1AR affinity and selectivity. 2'-Me-CCPA and 5'Cl5'd-(±)-ENBA showed significant analgesic properties.

  3. Secondary Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (PCB Teachers’ Views about In-service Training Related to Curricular Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Çağlayan Mercan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey the Physics, Chemistry and Biology (PCB curricula were renewed in 2008. However, little in-service training for teachers has been conducted to disseminate the ideas in the new curricula. The purpose of this study was to investigate PCB teachers’ views on in-service training, which may serve as the base knowledge of educational change in Turkey that can be used in further curricular development. In Istanbul 99 teachers voluntarily participated in this qualitative case study. Data were collected utilizing semi-structured interviews and analyzed by employing constant comparative analysis. The data showed that for 40% of the teachers the in-service training was insufficient: the new curricula were not introduced to them adequately. Only 7% of the teachers expressed positive views towards the in-service training. The teachers were concerned about the incompetence of the trainers and the low quality of the training programs. 20% of the teachers felt that they need to keep up to date with the new curricula and establish ways of cooperation among teachers. The results imply that educational change is more than changing the curriculum, which requires serious planning for implementation requiring a reconceptualization of in-service training as part of a larger professional development framework.

  4. AN INTEGRATIVE WAY OF TEACHING MOLECULAR CELL BIOLOGY AND PROTEIN CHEMISTRY USING ACTIN IMMOBILIZATION ON CHITIN FOR PURIFYING MYOSIN II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Souza

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Our intent is to present our experience on teaching Molecular Cell Biology andProtein Chemistry at UNIRIO through an innovative approach that includes myosin IIextraction and purification. We took advantage of the properties of muscle contractionand propose a simple method for purifying myosin II by affinity chromatography. Thisoriginal method is based on the preparation of an affinity column containing actinmolecules covalently bound to chitin particles. We propose a three-week syllabus thatincludes lectures and bench experimental work. The syllabus favors the activelearning of protein extraction and purification, as well as, of scientific concepts suchas muscle contraction, cytoskeleton structure and its importance for the living cell. Italso promotes the learning of the biotechnological applications of chitin and theapplications of protein immobilization in different industrial fields. Furthermore, theactivities also target the development of laboratorial technical abilities, thedevelopment of problem solving skills and the ability to write up a scientific reportfollowing the model of a scientific article. It is very important to mention that thissyllabus can be used even in places where a facility such as ultra-centrifugation islacking.

  5. Physical Principles and Extant Biology Reveal Roles for RNA-Containing Membraneless Compartments in Origins of Life Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudyal, Raghav R; Pir Cakmak, Fatma; Keating, Christine D; Bevilacqua, Philip C

    2018-03-21

    This Perspective focuses on RNA in biological and nonbiological compartments resulting from liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS), with an emphasis on origins of life. In extant cells, intracellular liquid condensates, many of which are rich in RNAs and intrinsically disordered proteins, provide spatial regulation of biomolecular interactions that can result in altered gene expression. Given the diversity of biogenic and abiogenic molecules that undergo LLPS, such membraneless compartments may have also played key roles in prebiotic chemistries relevant to the origins of life. The RNA World hypothesis posits that RNA may have served as both a genetic information carrier and a catalyst during the origin of life. Because of its polyanionic backbone, RNA can undergo LLPS by complex coacervation in the presence of polycations. Phase separation could provide a mechanism for concentrating monomers for RNA synthesis and selectively partition longer RNAs with enzymatic functions, thus driving prebiotic evolution. We introduce several types of LLPS that could lead to compartmentalization and discuss potential roles in template-mediated non-enzymatic polymerization of RNA and other related biomolecules, functions of ribozymes and aptamers, and benefits or penalties imparted by liquid demixing. We conclude that tiny liquid droplets may have concentrated precious biomolecules and acted as bioreactors in the RNA World.

  6. Cobalt complexes as internal standards for capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometry studies in biological inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtkamp, Hannah U; Morrow, Stuart J; Kubanik, Mario; Hartinger, Christian G

    2017-07-01

    Run-by-run variations are very common in capillary electrophoretic (CE) separations and cause imprecision in both the migration times and the peak areas. This makes peak and kinetic trend identification difficult and error prone. With the aim to identify suitable standards for CE separations which are compatible with the common detectors UV, ESI-MS, and ICP-MS, the Co III complexes [Co(en) 3 ]Cl 3 , [Co(acac) 3 ] and K[Co(EDTA)] were evaluated as internal standards in the reaction of the anticancer drug cisplatin and guanosine 5'-monophosphate as an example of a classical biological inorganic chemistry experiment. These Co III chelate complexes were considered for their stability, accessibility, and the low detection limit for Co in ICP-MS. Furthermore, the Co III complexes are positively and negatively charged as well as neutral, allowing the detection in different areas of the electropherograms. The background electrolytes were chosen to cover a wide pH range. The compatibility to the separation conditions was dependent on the ligands attached to the Co III centers, with only the acetylacetonato (acac) complex being applicable in the pH range 2.8-9.0. Furthermore, because of being charge neutral, this compound could be used as an electroosmotic flow (EOF) marker. In general, employing Co complexes resulted in improved data sets, particularly with regard to the migration times and peak areas, which resulted, for example, in higher linear ranges for the quantification of cisplatin.

  7. How to integrate geology, biology, and modern wireless technologies to assess biotic-abiotic interactions on coastal dune systems: a new multidisciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, Giovanni; Bertoni, Duccio; Bini, Monica; Ciccarelli, Daniela; Ribolini, Adriano; Ruocco, Matteo; Pozzebon, Alessandro; Alquini, Fernanda; Giaccari, Riccardo; Tordella, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Coastal dune systems are arguably one of the most dynamic environments because their evolution is controlled by many factors, both natural and human-related. Hence, they are often exposed to processes leading to erosion, which in turn determine serious naturalistic and economic losses. Most recent studies carried out on different dune fields worldwide emphasized the notion that a better definition of this environment needs an approach that systematically involves several disciplines, striving to merge every data collected from any individual analyses. Therefore, a new multidisciplinary method to study coastal dune systems has been conceived in order to integrate geology, biology, and modern wireless technologies. The aim of the work is threefold: i) to check the reliability of this new approach; ii) to provide a dataset as complete as ever about the factors affecting the evolution of coastal dunes; and iii) to evaluate the influence of any biotic and abiotic factors on plant communities. The experimentation site is located along the Pisa coast within the Migliarino - S. Rossore - Massaciuccoli Regional Park, a protected area where human influence is low (Tuscany, Italy). A rectangle of 100 x 200 m containing 50 grids of 20 x 20 m was established along the coastal dune systems from the coastline to the pinewood at the landward end of the backdune area. Sampling from each grid determined grain-size analysis carried out on surface sediment samples such as geologic aspects; topographic surveys performed by means of DGPS-RTK instruments; geophysical surveys conducted with a GPR equipment, which will be matched with core drilling activities; digital image analysis of high definition pictures taken by means of a remote controlled aircraft drone flying over the study area; biological data obtained by percent cover of each vascular plant species recorded in the sampling unit. Along with geologic and biologic methodologies, this research implemented the use of informatics

  8. A next generation enzymatic magnesium assay on the Abbott ARCHITECT chemistry system meets performance goals based on biological variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, D; Martens, P; Mah, W; Yip, P M

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of the Abbott ARCHITECT enzymatic assay for magnesium (3P68) in serum/plasma and urine against analytical goals based on biological variation. Analytical performance was evaluated according to CLSI protocols. Precision was examined using commercial chemistry controls. Accuracy was assessed against NIST SRM 956c, electrolytes in human serum. Correlation with the arsenazo Mg assay (7D70) was completed using patient samples (plasma, N = 101; urine, N = 90). Common interferences were examined in pooled patient specimens with high and low magnesium concentrations. The enzymatic Mg assay displayed imprecision of 1.7% at 0.72 mmol/L and 1.4% at 1.80 mmol/L (20 days, one calibration, one reagent lot). The linear range was verified between 0.18-7.0 mmol/L (plasma) and 0.01-10.69 mmol/L (urine). Results of the enzymatic assay (x) correlated well with the predicate assay (y) with the relationships y = 0.891x + 0.035, R = 0.967 (plasma) and y = 1.181x + 0.086, R = 0.997 (urine). Mean bias of the NIST SRM 956 c samples was -1.4%. This method showed minimal interference by hemoglobin (3g/L as hemolysate), lipemia (20 g/L Intralipid), unconjugated bilirubin (531 μmol/L), and ascorbate (680 μmol/L). The ARCHITECT Magnesium assay 3P68 achieved the desirable analytical quality specification of 4.8% for total allowable error. In comparison to the 7D70 assay, notable improvements are seen in precision, 30-day calibration stability, and minimal interference by hemolyzed and lipemic samples. © 2013.

  9. Desalination Brine Discharge Impacts on Coastal Biology and Water Chemistry - A Case Study from Carlsbad Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, K. L.; Heck, N.; Potts, D. C.; Paytan, A.

    2017-12-01

    Fresh water demand is increasing world-wide due to on-going droughts, climate change and increasing human population and associated demand for food and water. Desalination of seawater is a reliable source of potable water; however the effects of byproduct brine discharge from desalination plants on coastal areas have not been thoroughly assessed. Here we report results from in-situmeasurements of the effects of brine discharge on water chemistry and coastal biology from a desalination plant in Carlsbad, Southern California. We compared select parameters in the coastal zone around the discharge site before and after operation began and conducted additional controlled laboratory incubations with key coastal species and brine effluent. Our in-situ data shows differences in salinity and temperature between the discharge area and a control site both before and after the desalination plant started operation. The discharge water is warmer by 3-5 Co than the ambient seawater and a temperature gradient is seen around the discharge channel. This is likely a result of mixing of the desalination brine with power plant cooling water for dilution prior to discharge and the higher temperatures are not directly attributed to the desalination. Our post-discharge results show a decipherable salinity plume at the bottom of the water column ( 6 m depth) reaching up to 600 m offshore from the discharge site. This indicates inefficient mixing of the brine in the coastal discharge zone. No significant differences are found in nutrient levels, organic carbon or chlorophyll a concentrations around the discharge. The benthic biology assemblage post-discharge is significantly different from the pre-discharge organisms' assemblage. However, the role of seasonal changes in temperature may also have impacted the data as the sampling was conducted during different seasons. Controlled incubation experiments of brittle stars (Ophiothrix spiculata) shows no significant difference in growth or

  10. Geology's Impact on Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzorusso, Ann

    2017-04-01

    Most people consider geology boring, static and difficult. The fields of astronomy and physics have "rebranded" themselves with exciting programs formatted so as to be readily understandable to the general public. The same thing can be done for geology. My research on geology's influence on other disciplines has resulted in a book, Tweeting da Vinci, in which I was able to show how geology affected Italy's art, architecture, medicine, religion, literature, engineering and just about everything else. The reaction to the book and my lectures by both students and the general public has been very positive, including four gold medals, with reviews and comments indicating that they never knew geology could be so exciting. The book is very user friendly, packed with facts, full-color photos, paintings, sketches and illustrations. Complex aspects of geology are presented in an easily understandable style. Widely diverse topics—such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion—are stitched together using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. The book can be used in classes such as physics, chemistry, literature, art history, medicine, Classical Studies, Latin, Greek and Italian. By incorporating a "geologic perspective" in these courses, it can be perceived as a more "all encompassing" discipline and encourage more students to study it. The lectures I have given on college campuses have resulted in students seeing their own majors from a different perspective and some have even signed up for introductory geology courses. One college organized summer course to the Bay of Naples based on the book. We followed the geology as well as the culture of the area and the students were profoundly moved. To encourage dialog, the book is linked to Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. This has enabled followers from

  11. Proceedings of the 17. Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Chemistry Society; 7. National Symposium on Inorganic Chemistry. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    These 17. Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Chemistry Society and 7. National Symposium on Inorganic Chemistry present several subjects of different interests for the participants, including sections about inorganic chemistry; organic chemistry; environmental chemistry; technological chemistry; electrochemistry; physical chemistry; photochemistry; chemical education; natural products; analytical chemistry and biological chemistry. (C.G.C.)

  12. Development of Geography and Geology Terminology in British Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meara, Rhian; Cameron, Audrey; Quinn, Gary; O'Neill, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    The BSL Glossary Project, run by the Scottish Sensory Centre at the University of Edinburgh focuses on developing scientific terminology in British Sign Language for use in the primary, secondary and tertiary education of deaf and hard of hearing students within the UK. Thus far, the project has developed 850 new signs and definitions covering Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Astronomy and Mathematics. The project has also translated examinations into BSL for students across Scotland. The current phase of the project has focused on developing terminology for Geography and Geology subjects. More than 189 new signs have been developed in these subjects including weather, rivers, maps, natural hazards and Geographical Information Systems. The signs were developed by a focus group with expertise in Geography and Geology, Chemistry, Ecology, BSL Linguistics and Deaf Education all of whom are deaf fluent BSL users.

  13. Biosynthetic inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi

    2006-08-25

    Inorganic chemistry and biology can benefit greatly from each other. Although synthetic and physical inorganic chemistry have been greatly successful in clarifying the role of metal ions in biological systems, the time may now be right to utilize biological systems to advance coordination chemistry. One such example is the use of small, stable, easy-to-make, and well-characterized proteins as ligands to synthesize novel inorganic compounds. This biosynthetic inorganic chemistry is possible thanks to a number of developments in biology. This review summarizes the progress in the synthesis of close models of complex metalloproteins, followed by a description of recent advances in using the approach for making novel compounds that are unprecedented in either inorganic chemistry or biology. The focus is mainly on synthetic "tricks" learned from biology, as well as novel structures and insights obtained. The advantages and disadvantages of this biosynthetic approach are discussed.

  14. Migration chemistry and behaviour of iodine relevant to geological disposal of radioactive wastes. A literature review with a compilation of sorption data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Gunten, H.R. von

    1988-09-01

    This report reviews the literature on iodine migration, chemistry and behaviour in the environment up to November 1987. It deals mainly with 129 I released from a land repository, with particular consideration of the Swiss scenario for the disposal of low- and medium-level radioactive waste. As a background to this review, the basic properties of radioiodine, its distribution, circulation in nature and radiological impact are presented. A large number of sorption and diffusion data for iodine on rocks, sediments, minerals, cements and other materials have been compiled from many different laboratories. Based on this information, an assessment of the sorption and retardation of radioiodine in geomedia is made and methodologies for obtaining sorption distribution ratios (R D values) are discussed. The review also covers natural analogue studies of 129 I, retardation of iodine by cement barriers and the possible influences of organic compounds and microorganisms on the behaviour of iodine. Some possibilities for further research on diffusion measurements and near-field chemistry of radioiodine are outlined. (author) 259 refs., 9 figs., 32 tabs

  15. Forging patterns and making waves from biology to geology: a commentary on Turing (1952) 'The chemical basis of morphogenesis'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Philip

    2015-04-19

    Alan Turing was neither a biologist nor a chemist, and yet the paper he published in 1952, 'The chemical basis of morphogenesis', on the spontaneous formation of patterns in systems undergoing reaction and diffusion of their ingredients has had a substantial impact on both fields, as well as in other areas as disparate as geomorphology and criminology. Motivated by the question of how a spherical embryo becomes a decidedly non-spherical organism such as a human being, Turing devised a mathematical model that explained how random fluctuations can drive the emergence of pattern and structure from initial uniformity. The spontaneous appearance of pattern and form in a system far away from its equilibrium state occurs in many types of natural process, and in some artificial ones too. It is often driven by very general mechanisms, of which Turing's model supplies one of the most versatile. For that reason, these patterns show striking similarities in systems that seem superficially to share nothing in common, such as the stripes of sand ripples and of pigmentation on a zebra skin. New examples of 'Turing patterns' in biology and beyond are still being discovered today. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  16. Soft-Bodied Fossils Are Not Simply Rotten Carcasses – Toward a Holistic Understanding of Exceptional Fossil Preservation:Exceptional Fossil Preservation Is Complex and Involves the Interplay of Numerous Biological and Geological Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Parry, Luke A.; Smithwick, Fiann; Nordén, Klara K.; Saitta, Evan T.; Lozano-Fernandez, Jesus; Tanner, Alastair R.; Caron, Jean Bernard; Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Briggs, Derek E.G.; Vinther, Jakob

    2018-01-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossils are the product of complex interplays of biological and geological processes including burial, autolysis and microbial decay, authigenic mineralization, diagenesis, metamorphism, and finally weathering and exhumation. Determining which tissues are preserved and how biases affect their preservation pathways is important for interpreting fossils in phylogenetic, ecological, and evolutionary frameworks. Although laboratory decay experiments reveal important aspect...

  17. Radiochemistry at the University of Missouri-Columbia. A joint venture with chemistry, nuclear engineering, molecular biology, biochemistry, and the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.H.; Duval, P.; Jurisson, S.S.; Robertson, J.D.; Wall, J.D.; Quinn, T.P.; Volkert, W.A.; Neumeyer, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Missouri University, a recipient of a U.S. Department of Energy Radiochemistry Education Award Program (REAP) grant in 1999, has significantly expanded its education and research mission in radiochemistry. While MU had a viable radiochemistry program through existing faculty expertise and the utilization of the Missouri University Research Reactor, the REAP award allowed MU to leverage its resources in significantly expanding capabilities in radiochemistry. Specifically, the grant enabled the: (1) hiring of a new faculty member in actinide radiochemistry (Dr. Paul Duval); (2) support of six graduate students in radiochemistry; (3) purchase of new radiochemistry laboratory equipment; (4) more extensive collaboration with DOE scientists through interactions with faculty and graduate students, and (5) revised radiochemical curriculum (joint courses across disciplines and new courses in actinide chemistry). The most significant impact of this award has been in encouraging interdisciplinary education and research. The proposal was initiated by a joint effort between Nuclear Engineering and Chemistry, but also included faculty in biochemistry, radiology, and molecular biology. Specific outcomes of the REAP grant thus far are: (1) increased educational and research capabilities in actinide chemistry (faculty hire and equipment acquisition); (2) increased integration of biochemistry and radiochemistry (e.g., radiochemical analysis of uranium speciation in biological systems); (3) stronger interdisciplinary integration of molecular biology and radiochemical sciences (alpha-emitters for treating cancer); (4) new and more extensive interactions with national laboratory facilities (e.g., student internships at LANL and LLBL, faculty and lab scientist exchange visits, analytical measurements and collaboration with the Advanced Photon Source), and (7) new research funding opportunities based on REAP partnership. (author)

  18. What Are They Thinking? Automated Analysis of Student Writing about Acid-Base Chemistry in Introductory Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna B.; Moscarella, Rosa A.; Merrill, John; Urban-Lurain, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Students' writing can provide better insight into their thinking than can multiple-choice questions. However, resource constraints often prevent faculty from using writing assessments in large undergraduate science courses. We investigated the use of computer software to analyze student writing and to uncover student ideas about chemistry in an…

  19. Physical, chemical, geological, and biological data collected by U.S. Geological Survey from moorings in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Pacific Ocean, and Mediterranean Sea from 1975-05-08 to 2015-07-14 (NCEI Accession 0156446)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Time series datasets collected by the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program from 1975 to the present. The data were collected to address specific research...

  20. Advances in quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin, John R

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features detailed reviews written by leading international researchers. This volume focuses on the theory of heavy ion physics in medicine.Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features

  1. On the emergence of biology from chemistry: a discontinuist perspective from the point of view of stability and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bich, Leonardo; Damiano, Luisa

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we argue that molecular evolution, and the evolution of prebiotic and early biological systems are qualitatively different processes, in which a crucial role is played respectively by structural stability and by dynamical mechanisms of regulation and integration. These different features entail also distinct modalities of interaction between system and environment that need to be taken into consideration when discussing molecular and biological evolution and selection.

  2. Geologic Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, William L.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in geologic time with an introduction to the subject. Separate sections discuss the relative time scale, major divisions in geologic time, index fossils used as guides for telling the age of rocks, the atomic scale, and the age of the earth.…

  3. Impacts of effluent from Carlsbad Desalination Plant on the coastal biology and chemistry - a in-situ study of pre- and post-discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, K. L.; Paytan, A.; Potts, D. C.; Heck, N.

    2016-02-01

    The Carlsbad Desalination plant located by Carlsbad Beach in Southern California is currently under construction, estimated for operation in late 2015. This study is conducting in-situ measurements of the effects of the effluent discharge. Effluent will be mixed with power plant cooling water. Both pre- and post-discharge measurements of salinity, temperature, Chl a, nutrients (NO3, PO4 and silica), δ13C and δ15N stable isotopes, DOC, radioisotopes, organic pollutants, sediment sorting, algae diversity and benthic organisms' diversity are collected and compared. This allows for a real-time comparison of the effect of discharge. Pre-discharge sampling was done in the winter and summer seasons to capture seasonal variability. The first baseline results of the water chemistry pre-discharge suggest homogenous water chemistry in this coastal region at the time of sampling due to wave and tidal mixing. The outflow plume has a relative higher water temperature but other than that samples collected around the discharge site are not statistically different than around a control site. The biological samples, however, shows that the high water flow rate at the discharge channel seems to disturb benthic organisms from settling on the bottom (larger grain size and lower benthic organisms' abundance). The most abundant organisms in the area were the tube-forming worms in the genus Polychaeta. An algae count showed that at all sites sampled the diatom Pseudo-Nitzschia sp. (a known toxic alga that forms large algae blooms) is the most abundant phytoplankton. Based on the first pre-discharge data it is concluded that, beside differences in water temperature, the water chemistry is relatively uniform and corresponds to conditions expected for coastal seawater in this region at the time of sampling. However, because of the heavy water flow from the outflow channel the benthic community shows decreased abundance in the vicinity of the outflow.

  4. Guidelines for measuring the physical, chemical, and biological condition of wilderness ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas G Fox; J. Christopher Bernabo; Betsy Hood

    1987-01-01

    Guidelines include a large number of specific measures to characterize the existing condition of wilderness resources. Measures involve the atmospheric environment, water chemistry and biology, geology and soils, and flora. Where possible, measures are coordinated with existing long-term monitoring programs. Application of the measures will allow more effective...

  5. The Breath of Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    The present preliminary text is a short thematic presentation in biological inorganic chemistry meant to illustrate general and inorganic (especially coordination) chemistry in biochemistry. The emphasis is on molecular models to explain features of the complicated mechanisms essential to breathing...

  6. Historical foundations of chemical geology and geochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manten, A.A.

    1966-01-01

    Roughly, the name chemical geology has been used for as long as chemistry has been applied in geology; the name geochemistry was introduced by Schönbein, in 1838. Whereas initially the names were often regarded as synonymous, in our century there is a tendency to make a distinction between the two

  7. Mass spectrometry. Environment, biology, oenology, medicine, geology, chemistry, archaeology, mechanisms; Spectrometrie de masse. Environnement, biologie, oenologie, medecine, geologie, chimie, archeologie, mecanismes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This document provides the papers (communications and posters) presented at the 16. French days of mass spectrometry, held September 6-9, 1999 in Nancy, France. 5 papers are interesting for the INIS database and are analyzed separately. (O.M.)

  8. Mass spectrometry. Environment, biology, oenology, medicine, geology, chemistry, archaeology, mechanisms; Spectrometrie de masse. Environnement, biologie, oenologie, medecine, geologie, chimie, archeologie, mecanismes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This document provides the papers (communications and posters) presented at the 16. French days of mass spectrometry, held September 6-9, 1999 in Nancy, France. 7 papers are interesting for the ETDE database and are analyzed separately. (O.M.)

  9. Review of the ethnobotany, chemistry, biological activity and safety of the botanical dietary supplement Morinda citrifolia (noni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlus, Alison D; Kinghorn, Douglas A

    2007-12-01

    Morinda citrifolia, commonly called noni, has a long history as a medicinal plant and its use as a botanical dietary supplement has grown tremendously in recent years. This has prompted a concomitant increase in research on the phytochemical constituents and biological activity of noni. A relatively large number of scientific publications on noni have been published in recent years, including a number of review articles. The goals of this review are to provide an updated categorization of the phytochemical constituents found in noni and to provide perspective for its extensive utilization as a major botanical dietary supplement. Included herein are a comprehensive list of known ethnobotanical uses and common names of M. citrifolia, a brief summary of relevant biological studies and a discussion of the safety of noni as a supplement.

  10. Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I am particularly happy that the Academy is bringing out this document by Professor M S. Valiathan on Ayurvedic Biology. It is an effort to place before the scientific community, especially that of India, the unique scientific opportunities that arise out of viewing Ayurveda from the perspective of contemporary science, its tools ...

  11. A Simple and Selective Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Trace Gold in Real, Environmental, Biological, Geological and Soil Samples Using Bis (Salicylaldehyde Orthophenylenediamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Soomro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple high sensitive, selective, and rapid spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace gold based on the rapid reaction of gold(III with bis(salicylaldehydeorthophenylenediamine (BSOPD in aqueous and micellar media has been developed. BSOPD reacts with gold(III in slightly acidic solution to form a 1:1 brownish-yellow complex, which has an maximum absorption peak at 490 nm in both aqueous and micellar media. The most remarkable point of this method is that the molar absorptivities of the gold-BSOPD complex form in the presence of the nonionic TritonX-100 surfactant are almost a 10 times higher than the value observed in the aqueous solution, resulting in an increase in the sensitivity and selectivity of the method. The apparent molar absorptivities were found to be 2.3 × 104 L mol−1 cm−1 and 2.5 × 105 L mol−1 cm−1 in aqueous and micellar media, respectively. The reaction is instantaneous and the maximum absorbance was obtained after 10 min at 490 nm and remains constant for over 24 h at room temperature. The linear calibration graphs were obtained for 0.1 –30 mg L−1 and 0.01 –30 mg L−1 of gold(III in aqueous and surfactant media, respectively. The interference from over 50 cations, anions and complexing agents has been studied at 1 mg L−1 of Au(III; most metal ions can be tolerated in considerable amounts in aqueous micellar solutions. The Sandell’s sensitivity, the limit of detection and relative standard deviation (n = 9 were found to be 5 ng cm−2, 1 ng mL−1 and 2%, respectively in aqueous micellar solutions. Its sensitivity and selectivity are remarkably higher than that of other reagents in the literature. The proposed method was successfully used in the determination of gold in several standard reference materials (alloys and steels, environmental water samples (potable and polluted, and biological samples (blood and urine, geological, soil and complex synthetic mixtures. The results obtained agree

  12. The "Other" Inositols and Their Phosphates: Synthesis, Biology, and Medicine (with Recent Advances in myo-Inositol Chemistry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mark P; Mills, Stephen J; Potter, Barry V L

    2016-01-26

    Cell signaling via inositol phosphates, in particular via the second messenger myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and phosphoinositides comprises a huge field of biology. Of the nine 1,2,3,4,5,6-cyclohexanehexol isomers, myo-inositol is pre-eminent, with "other" inositols (cis-, epi-, allo-, muco-, neo-, L-chiro-, D-chiro-, and scyllo-) and derivatives rarer or thought not to exist in nature. However, neo- and d-chiro-inositol hexakisphosphates were recently revealed in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, thus highlighting the paucity of knowledge of the origins and potential biological functions of such stereoisomers, a prevalent group of environmental organic phosphates, and their parent inositols. Some "other" inositols are medically relevant, for example, scyllo-inositol (neurodegenerative diseases) and d-chiro-inositol (diabetes). It is timely to consider exploration of the roles and applications of the "other" isomers and their derivatives, likely by exploiting techniques now well developed for the myo series. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Destination: Geology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Louise

    2016-04-01

    "While we teach, we learn" (Roman philosopher Seneca) One of the most beneficial ways to remember a theory or concept is to explain it to someone else. The offer of fieldwork and visits to exciting destinations is arguably the easiest way to spark a students' interest in any subject. Geology at A-Level (age 16-18) in the United Kingdom incorporates significant elements of field studies into the curriculum with many students choosing the subject on this basis and it being a key factor in consolidating student knowledge and understanding. Geology maintains a healthy annual enrollment with interest in the subject increasing in recent years. However, it is important for educators not to loose sight of the importance of recruitment and retention of students. Recent flexibility in the subject content of the UK curriculum in secondary schools has provided an opportunity to teach the basic principles of the subject to our younger students and fieldwork provides a valuable opportunity to engage with these students in the promotion of the subject. Promotion of the subject is typically devolved to senior students at Hessle High School and Sixth Form College, drawing on their personal experiences to engage younger students. Prospective students are excited to learn from a guest speaker, so why not use our most senior students to engage and promote the subject rather than their normal subject teacher? A-Level geology students embarking on fieldwork abroad, understand their additional responsibility to promote the subject and share their understanding of the field visit. They will typically produce a series of lessons and activities for younger students using their newly acquired knowledge. Senior students also present to whole year groups in seminars, sharing knowledge of the location's geology and raising awareness of the exciting destinations offered by geology. Geology fieldwork is always planned, organised and led by the member of staff to keep costs low, with recent visits

  14. Carbonate chemistry dynamics and biological processes along a river-sea gradient (Gulf of Trieste, northern Adriatic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrosso, Gianmarco; Giani, Michele; Cibic, Tamara; Karuza, Ana; Kralj, Martina; Del Negro, Paola

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we investigated, for two years and with a bi-monthly frequency, how physical, chemical, and biological processes affect the marine carbonate system in a coastal area characterized by high alkalinity riverine discharge (Gulf of Trieste, northern Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean Sea). By combining synoptic measurements of the carbonate system with in situ determinations of the primary production (14C incorporation technique) and secondary prokaryotic carbon production (3H-leucine incorporation) along a river-sea gradient, we showed that the conservative mixing between river endmember and off-shore waters was the main driver of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) distribution and seasonal variation. However, during spring and summer seasons also the influence of biological uptake and release of DIC was significant. In the surface water of June 2012, the spreading and persistence of nutrient-rich freshwater stimulated the primary production (3.21 μg C L- 1 h- 1) and net biological DIC decrease (- 100 μmol kg- 1), reducing the dissolved CO2 concentration and increasing the pHT. Below the pycnocline of August 2012, instead, an elevated bacterial carbon production rate (0.92 μg C L- 1 h- 1) was related with net DIC increase (92 μmol kg- 1), low dissolved oxygen concentration, and strong pHT reduction, suggesting the predominance of bacterial heterotrophic respiration over primary production. The flux of carbon dioxide estimated at the air-sea interface exerted a low influence on the seasonal variation of the carbonate system. A complex temporal and spatial dynamic of the air-sea CO2 exchange was also detected, due to the combined effects of seawater temperature, river discharge, and water circulation. On annual scale the system was a sink of atmospheric CO2. However, in summer and during elevated riverine discharges, the area close to the river's mouth acted as a source of carbon dioxide. Also the wind speed was crucial in controlling the air-sea CO2

  15. Practical application of biological variation and Sigma metrics quality models to evaluate 20 chemistry analytes on the Beckman Coulter AU680.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Mai Thi Chi; Hoang, KienTrung; Greaves, Ronda F

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the imprecision and bias data generated for 20 routine chemistry analytes against both the biological variation fitness for purpose (FFP) and Sigma metrics (SM) criteria. Twenty serum/plasma analytes were evaluated on the Beckman Coulter AU680. Third party commercial lyophilized internal quality control samples of human origin were used for day-to-day imprecision calculations. Commercial external quality assurance (EQA) samples were used to determine the systematic error between the test method result and the instrument group mean result from the EQA program for each analyte. Biological variation data was used to calculate the minimum, desirable and optimal imprecision and bias for determination of FFP. The desirable total allowable error was determined from biological variation data and applied to the SM calculation. The outcomes of both quality approaches were then compared. The day-to-day imprecision of most tested analytes (except sodium and chloride) were smaller than the allowable imprecision (ranging from minimum to optimum). Most analytes achieved at least minimum bias. The SM varied with analyte concentration with six analytes producing low Sigma values. Comparing the quality processes eleven analytes produced a green light for both FFP and SM. There was some difference seen in interpretation for the other nine analytes. The individual interpretation of bias and imprecision using FFP criteria allowed for the clear determination of the major source of error. Whereas, SM provided a summative evaluation of method performance. But the selection of total allowable error (TEa) is fundamental to this interpretation and harmonisation of the TEa calculation is needed. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Biological, chemical, geological, and other data were collected from the R/V KITTIWAKE at 100 sites in Puget Sound from 01 June 1998 to 01 July 1998 as part of a three-year study of toxins (NODC Accession 0000425)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Biological, chemical, geological, and other data were collected from the R/V Kittiwait from 01 June 1998 to 01 July 1998. Data were submitted by the Washington State...

  17. Study of a multitrophical integrated aquatic system for the teaching-learning of the subjects physics, chemistry and biology in the bachelor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Eva; Espinosa, Cecilia

    2017-04-01

    In Mexico exist due to the lack of water in the City, which is where the College of Sciences and Humanities Orient (at UNAM) is located. This is because a point of view from the Chemical, Physics and Biology subjects is important to find learning strategies that motivate students to seek solutions to problems such as these. As Science Mentors, students were asked to propose water treatment from the homes they live in. From these investigations the students concluded that it was necessary to study in depth the wetlands like Multi-trophic Aquatic System that allow the treatment of gray water, so that a prototype of Micro-scale Multitrophic Aquatic System was set up in the laboratory, where the pH was measured , The concentration of oxygen, phosphates, from a Chemical perspective. As for the subject of Biology, we worked on the search for mycorrhizal fungi associated with the growth of plants for the purification of water. In physics we worked the sedimentation system. Artificial wetlands are man-made zones in which, in a controlled manner, mechanisms for the removal of contaminants present in wastewater, occurring in natural wetlands through physical, biological and chemical processes, are constructed mechanically and Is waterproofed to prevent losses of water to the subsoil, the use of substrates different from the original land for rooting the plants and their selection that will colonize the wetland benefit the recovery of water. The present project aims to structure an Artificial Wetland to carry out didactic strategies, activities with students, as well as work on research projects in the sciences of Chemistry, Physics and Biology. Through the application of chemical, biological and physical concepts and processes, so that students of the different semesters of the College of Sciences and Humanities Plantel Oriente, appropriate the relevant knowledge in the area of experimental sciences, developing thinking skills and achieve Significant learning, which are

  18. Structural Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, John; Frankel, Kurt L.

    2011-05-01

    Structural geology and continental tectonics were ushered in to the modern quantitative age of geosciences with the arrival of the global plate tectonics paradigm (circa 1968), derived using new data from the oceans' depths, and John Ramsay's 1967 seminal work, Folding and Fracturing of Rocks. Fossen is to be applauded for crafting a unique, high-caliber, and accessible undergraduate textbook on structural geology that faithfully reflects this advance and the subsequent evolution of the discipline. This well-written text draws on Fossen's wealth of professional experience, including his broad and diverse academic research and experience in the petroleum industry. This book is beautifully illustrated, with excellent original color diagrams and with impressive color field photographs that are all keyed to locations and placed into geologic context.

  19. Medicinal Chemistry/Pharmacology in Sophomore Organic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Aline M.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a series of lectures designed to illustrate the use of general organic chemical principles in molecular biology, introduce current research in interdisciplinary areas to the beginner, increase interest in organic chemistry, and bridge the gap between traditional organic chemistry, biology, and the consumer. An outline is presented.…

  20. Dynamic Processes in Biology, Chemistry, and Materials Science: Opportunities for UltraFast Transmission Electron Microscopy - Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabius, Bernd C.; Browning, Nigel D.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Diehl, Barbara L.; Stach, Eric A.

    2012-07-25

    This report summarizes a 2011 workshop that addressed the potential role of rapid, time-resolved electron microscopy measurements in accelerating the solution of important scientific and technical problems. A series of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and National Academy of Science workshops have highlighted the critical role advanced research tools play in addressing scientific challenges relevant to biology, sustainable energy, and technologies that will fuel economic development without degrading our environment. Among the specific capability needs for advancing science and technology are tools that extract more detailed information in realistic environments (in situ or operando) at extreme conditions (pressure and temperature) and as a function of time (dynamic and time-dependent). One of the DOE workshops, Future Science Needs and Opportunities for Electron Scattering: Next Generation Instrumentation and Beyond, specifically addressed the importance of electron-based characterization methods for a wide range of energy-relevant Grand Scientific Challenges. Boosted by the electron optical advancement in the last decade, a diversity of in situ capabilities already is available in many laboratories. The obvious remaining major capability gap in electron microscopy is in the ability to make these direct in situ observations over a broad spectrum of fast (µs) to ultrafast (picosecond [ps] and faster) temporal regimes. In an effort to address current capability gaps, EMSL, the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, organized an Ultrafast Electron Microscopy Workshop, held June 14-15, 2011, with the primary goal to identify the scientific needs that could be met by creating a facility capable of a strongly improved time resolution with integrated in situ capabilities. The workshop brought together more than 40 leading scientists involved in applying and/or advancing electron microscopy to address important scientific problems of relevance to DOE’s research

  1. Herbal Therapies for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Chemistry, Biology, and Potential Application of Selected Plants and Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicero L. T. Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus has been recognized since antiquity. It currently affects as many as 285 million people worldwide and results in heavy personal and national economic burdens. Considerable progress has been made in orthodox antidiabetic drugs. However, new remedies are still in great demand because of the limited efficacy and undesirable side effects of current orthodox drugs. Nature is an extraordinary source of antidiabetic medicines. To date, more than 1200 flowering plants have been claimed to have antidiabetic properties. Among them, one-third have been scientifically studied and documented in around 460 publications. In this review, we select and discuss blood glucose-lowering medicinal herbs that have the ability to modulate one or more of the pathways that regulate insulin resistance, β-cell function, GLP-1 homeostasis, and glucose (reabsorption. Emphasis is placed on phytochemistry, anti-diabetic bioactivities, and likely mechanism(s. Recent progress in the understanding of the biological actions, mechanisms, and therapeutic potential of compounds and extracts of plant origin in type 2 diabetes is summarized. This review provides a source of up-to-date information for further basic and clinical research into herbal therapy for type 2 diabetes. Emerging views on therapeutic strategies for type 2 diabetes are also discussed.

  2. Bad chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Petsko, Gregory A

    2004-01-01

    General chemistry courses haven't changed significantly in forty years. Because most basic chemistry students are premedical students, medical schools have enormous influence and could help us start all over again to create undergraduate chemistry education that works.

  3. Geologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayland, T.E.; Rood, A.

    1983-01-01

    The modern Great Divide Basin is the end product of natural forces influenced by the Green River lake system, Laramide tectonism, and intermittent volcanic events. It ranks as one of the most complex structural and stratigtaphic features within the Tertiary basins of Wyoming. Portions of the Great Divide Basin and adjoining areas in Wyoming have been investigated by applying detailed and region exploration methods to known uranium deposits located within the Red Desert portions of the basin. Geologic field investigations conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporaton (Bendix) were restricted to reconnaissance observations made during infrequent visits to the project area by various Bendix personnel. Locations of the most comprehensive field activities are shown in Figure II-1. The principal source fo data for geologic studies of the Red Desert project area has been information and materials furnished by industry. Several hundred holes have been drilled by various groups to delineate the uranium deposits. Results from Bendix-drilled holes at selected locations within the project area are summarized in Table II-1. Additional details and gross subsurface characteristics are illustrated in cross sections; pertinent geologic features are illustrated in plan maps. Related details of continental sedimentation that pertain to the Wyoming Basins generally, and the project area specificially, are discussed in subsections of this Geologic Studies section

  4. Water quality, organic chemistry of sediment, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradfield, A.D.; Flexner, N.M.; Webster, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of water quality, organic sediment chemistry, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, was conducted during December 1990. The study was designed to assess the extent of possible contamination of water and biota in the streams from creosote-related discharge originating at this Superfund site. Central Creek, adjacent to the plant, had degraded water quality and biological conditions. Water samples from the most downstream station on Central Creek contained 30 micrograms per liter of pentachlorophenol, which exceeds the State's criterion maximum concentrations of 9 micrograms per liter for fish and aquatic life. Bottom-sediment samples from stations on Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, napthalene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1,400 to 2,500 micrograms per kilogram. Chronic or acute toxicity resulted during laboratory experiments using test organisms exposed to creosote-related contaminants. Sediment elutriate samples from Central Creek caused slightly to highly toxic effects on Ceriodaphnia dubia. Pimephales promelas, and Photobacterium phosphoreum. Fish-tissue samples from this station contained concentrations of naphthalene. dibenzofuran, fluorene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1.5 to 3.9 micrograms per kilogram Blue-green algae at this station represented about 79 percent of the organisms counted, whereas diatoms accounted for only 11 percent. Benthic invertebrate and fish samples from Central Creek had low diversity and density. Sediment samples from a station on the South Fork Forked Deer River downstream from its confluence with Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, anthracene, chrysene, fluoranthene, fluorene, pyrere, and phenanthrene ranging from 2,800 to 69,000 micrograms per kilogram. Sediment elutriate samples using water as elutriate from this station contained concentrations of extractable organic compounds ranging from an estimated

  5. Coordination chemistry of technetium 99 applied to biology and medicine; Application de la chimie de coordination du technetium 99 dans le domaine de la biologie et de la medecine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belhadj-Tahar, H. [Groupe Sante Recherche, Dir. Medical et Scientifique, 31 - Toulouse (France); Darbieu, M.H. [Faculte de Pharmacie de Toulouse, Lab. de Chimie de Coordination, CNRS UPR 8241, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2003-12-01

    Coordination chemistry of technetium 99 applied to biology and medicine. Rational conceptualisation of new photon emitter probes for in vivo investigations with technetium 99m (on the tracer scale) requires the coordination chemistry of ponderable technetium 99 isotope. Physicochemical and structural studies carried out on technetium 99 complex models enable us to identify predictive parameters involved in radiopharmaceutical in vivo tropism (specificity) for the target bodies. In addition, this work leads to the development and control of a new technetium complexation protocol under physiological conditions (pH {approx} 7.4 and T < 45 deg. C) in order to label bio-vectors without denaturing them. (author)

  6. New constraints on the subsurface geology of the Mexico City Basin: The San Lorenzo Tezonco deep well, on the basis of 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and whole-rock chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, J. L.; Layer, P. W.; Morales-Casique, E.; Benowitz, J. A.; Rangel, E.; Escolero, O.

    2013-10-01

    The San Lorenzo Tezonco deep well, drilled in 2012 by "Sistema de Aguas de la Ciudad de México" (Water Supply System of Mexico City) in the Mexico Basin to a depth of 2008 m, offers an excellent opportunity to explore the subsurface stratigraphy and general geology of the region. Unfortunately, only chipped samples from this well were recovered, which were examined and analyzed for whole-rock chemistry, 40Ar/39Ar, and U-Pb zircon geochronology, in order to reconstruct the lithology of the well. Contrary to previous deep wells of the Mexico Basin, no basement sedimentary rocks were found in this one. While the upper 70 m are composed of lacustrine sediments associated with Lake Texcoco, volcanic rocks make up the majority of the well and range in age from more than 18 Ma to 0.25 Ma. Andesitic lavas are the most abundant products of the stratigraphic column, followed by acidic products represented by dacitic and rhyolitic lavas and ignimbrite deposits. Less abundant are basaltic andesite lavas appearing in the upper and lower parts of the column. The thickest sequence of the well is represented not only by Miocene volcanic rocks ranging from 5 to 17 Ma, suggesting a period of intense volcanic activity in this area producing mainly andesitic lavas, but also by thick rhyolitic ignimbrite deposits dated at 5 Ma. These deposits suggest the presence of a caldera structure, probably buried by subsequent volcanic products and lacustrine sediments. Trace element concentrations suggest that volcanism is likely produced in a subduction environment with typical negative anomalies of Nb, Ta, Ti, and P and positive anomalies in Pb and Cs. We correlated the well units with units outcropping in mountain ranges in the surrounding area, with the recognition of the following units or formations: Eocene Andesite, San Nicolás Basaltic Andesite, Tepoztlán Formation, Miocene Volcanism, Sierra de las Cruces, and Chichinautzin Volcanic Field products. By correlating the two closest deep

  7. The application of 199Hg NMR and 199mHg perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy to define the biological chemistry of HgII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iranzo, Olga; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben; Ryu, Seung-baek

    2007-01-01

    The use of de novo designed peptides is a powerful strategy to elucidate HgII-protein interactions and to gain insight into the chemistry of HgII in biological systems. Cysteine derivatives of the designed -helical peptides of the TRI family [Ac-G-(LaKbAcLdEeEfKg)4-G-NH2] bind HgII at high p......H values and at peptide/HgII ratios of 3:1 with an unusual trigonal thiolate coordination mode. The resulting HgII complexes are good water-soluble models for HgII binding to the protein MerR. We have carried out a parallel study using 199Hg NMR and 199mHg perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy...... to characterize the distinct species that are generated under different pH conditions and peptide TRI L9C/HgII ratios. These studies prove for the first time the formation of [Hg{(TRI L9C)2-(TRI L9C H)}], a dithiolate-HgII complex in the hydrophobic interior of the three-stranded coiled coil (TRI L9C)3. 199Hg NMR...

  8. Comparative chemistry and biological properties of the solid residues from hydrodistillation of Spanish populations of Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Vioque, R.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid residues from the hydrodistillation of selected Spanish populations of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. have been analyzed for their polyphenol composition, and antioxidant and bioplaguicide activities. The objective was to evaluate and select the most suitable plant materials as sources of natural antioxidants and crop protectants. Total polyphenol content and polyphenol composition of rosemary populations were very dependent on the growth location: populations from Aranjuez showed a higher content of total polyphenols and were richer in rosmarinic acid as compared with their equivalent populations from Cuenca, whereas these latter were characterized by an overall higher content in genkwanin and carnosol. Most of the antioxidant activities were highly correlated with the total content of polyphenols although some polyphenols like carnosic acid and carnosol seemed to favor such activities. The extracts from R. officinalis were strong antifeedants against Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say and moderate against Spodoptera littoralis Boisd and Myzus persicae Sulzer, according to their feeding ecologies. The biological effects of the active samples cannot be accounted by their chemical composition, suggesting additive or synergistic effects. Both the phytotoxic and stimulating effects on Lactuca sativa L., and Lolium perenne L. leaf and/or root growth were observed.Se ha analizado la composición en polifenoles y las actividades antioxidante y bioplaguicida de los residuos sólidos procedentes de la hidrodestilación de poblaciones seleccionadas de romero (Rosmarinus officinalis L.. El objetivo fue evaluar y seleccionar los materiales vegetales más adecuados como fuente de antioxidantes y bioplaguicidas naturales. El contenido total y la composición en polifenoles de las poblaciones de romero dependieron mucho de la localidad de cultivo: las poblaciones de Aranjuez mostraron un mayor contenido en polifenoles y fueron más ricas en

  9. Iron-sulfur clusters as biological sensors: the chemistry of reactions with molecular oxygen and nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crack, Jason C; Green, Jeffrey; Thomson, Andrew J; Le Brun, Nick E

    2014-10-21

    Iron-sulfur cluster proteins exhibit a range of physicochemical properties that underpin their functional diversity in biology, which includes roles in electron transfer, catalysis, and gene regulation. Transcriptional regulators that utilize iron-sulfur clusters are a growing group that exploit the redox and coordination properties of the clusters to act as sensors of environmental conditions including O2, oxidative and nitrosative stress, and metabolic nutritional status. To understand the mechanism by which a cluster detects such analytes and then generates modulation of DNA-binding affinity, we have undertaken a combined strategy of in vivo and in vitro studies of a range of regulators. In vitro studies of iron-sulfur cluster proteins are particularly challenging because of the inherent reactivity and fragility of the cluster, often necessitating strict anaerobic conditions for all manipulations. Nevertheless, and as discussed in this Account, significant progress has been made over the past decade in studies of O2-sensing by the fumarate and nitrate reduction (FNR) regulator and, more recently, nitric oxide (NO)-sensing by WhiB-like (Wbl) and FNR proteins. Escherichia coli FNR binds a [4Fe-4S] cluster under anaerobic conditions leading to a DNA-binding dimeric form. Exposure to O2 converts the cluster to a [2Fe-2S] form, leading to protein monomerization and hence loss of DNA binding ability. Spectroscopic and kinetic studies have shown that the conversion proceeds via at least two steps and involves a [3Fe-4S](1+) intermediate. The second step involves the release of two bridging sulfide ions from the cluster that, unusually, are not released into solution but rather undergo oxidation to sulfane (S(0)) subsequently forming cysteine persulfides that then coordinate the [2Fe-2S] cluster. Studies of other [4Fe-4S] cluster proteins that undergo oxidative cluster conversion indicate that persulfide formation and coordination may be more common than previously

  10. Migration chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, L.

    1992-05-01

    Migration chemistry, the influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour of pollutants in the environment, is an interplay between the actual natur of the pollutant and the characteristics of the environment, such as pH, redox conditions and organic matter content. The wide selection of possible pollutants in combination with varying geological media, as well as the operation of different chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions compleactes the prediction of the influence of these processes on the mobility of pollutants. The report summarizes a wide range of potential pollutants in the terrestrial environment as well as a variety of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions, which can be expected to influence the migration behaviour, comprising diffusion, dispersion, convection, sorption/desorption, precipitation/dissolution, transformations/degradations, biochemical reactions and complex formation. The latter comprises the complexation of metal ions as well as non-polar organics to naturally occurring organic macromolecules. The influence of the single types of processes on the migration process is elucidated based on theoretical studies. The influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour is unambiguous, as the processes apparently control the transport of pollutants in the terrestrial environment. As the simple, conventional K D concept breaks down, it is suggested that the migration process should be described in terms of the alternative concepts chemical dispersion, average-elution-time and effective retention. (AB) (134 refs.)

  11. Geology Fulbrights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulbright grants in geology for 1988-89 remain open. Specific opportunities are available in Egypt, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Iceland, Iraq, Kuwait, Morocco, Mozambique, Oman, Poland, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Turkey, U.S.S.R., West Bank, Yemen, and Zimbabwe. Other countries are also open to applications in any discipline, and geology is among their preferred fields.The grants are available until awarded and are open only to U.S. citizens. In Central and South America and French-speaking Africa, knowledge of host-country language is required. For more information, contact the Council for International Exchange of Scholars (CIES), 11 Dupont Circle N.W., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036; tel. 202-939-5401.

  12. Temperature-controlled micro-TLC: a versatile green chemistry and fast analytical tool for separation and preliminary screening of steroids fraction from biological and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Slączka, Magdalena M; Zarzycka, Magdalena B; Bartoszuk, Małgorzata A; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Baran, Michał J

    2011-11-01

    whole range of target substances as well as chemo-taxonomic studies and fingerprinting of complex mixtures, which are present in biological or environmental samples. Due to low consumption of eluent (usually 0.3-1mL/run) mainly composed of water-alcohol binary mixtures, this method can be considered as environmentally friendly and green chemistry focused analytical tool, supplementary to analytical protocols involving column chromatography or planar micro-fluidic devices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Analytical Chemistry in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, Yuri

    2016-09-06

    Research in Russian analytical chemistry (AC) is carried out on a significant scale, and the analytical service solves practical tasks of geological survey, environmental protection, medicine, industry, agriculture, etc. The education system trains highly skilled professionals in AC. The development and especially manufacturing of analytical instruments should be improved; in spite of this, there are several good domestic instruments and other satisfy some requirements. Russian AC has rather good historical roots.

  14. Soft-Bodied Fossils Are Not Simply Rotten Carcasses - Toward a Holistic Understanding of Exceptional Fossil Preservation: Exceptional Fossil Preservation Is Complex and Involves the Interplay of Numerous Biological and Geological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Luke A; Smithwick, Fiann; Nordén, Klara K; Saitta, Evan T; Lozano-Fernandez, Jesus; Tanner, Alastair R; Caron, Jean-Bernard; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Briggs, Derek E G; Vinther, Jakob

    2018-01-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossils are the product of complex interplays of biological and geological processes including burial, autolysis and microbial decay, authigenic mineralization, diagenesis, metamorphism, and finally weathering and exhumation. Determining which tissues are preserved and how biases affect their preservation pathways is important for interpreting fossils in phylogenetic, ecological, and evolutionary frameworks. Although laboratory decay experiments reveal important aspects of fossilization, applying the results directly to the interpretation of exceptionally preserved fossils may overlook the impact of other key processes that remove or preserve morphological information. Investigations of fossils preserving non-biomineralized tissues suggest that certain structures that are decay resistant (e.g., the notochord) are rarely preserved (even where carbonaceous components survive), and decay-prone structures (e.g., nervous systems) can fossilize, albeit rarely. As we review here, decay resistance is an imperfect indicator of fossilization potential, and a suite of biological and geological processes account for the features preserved in exceptional fossils. © 2017 The Authors. BioEssays Published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Geological, hydrological, and biological issues related to the proposed development of a park at the confluence of the Los Angeles River and the Arroyo Seco, Los Angeles County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Michael; Trenham, Peter C.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Reichard, Eric G.; Tinsley, John C.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Meyer, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    A new park is being considered for the confluence of the Los Angeles River and the Arroyo Seco in Los Angeles County, California. Components of the park development may include creation of a temporary lake on the Los Angeles River, removal of channel lining along part of the Arroyo Seco, restoration of native plants, creation of walking paths, and building of facilities such as a boat ramp and a visitor center. This report, prepared in cooperation with the Mountains Recreation and Conservancy Authority, delineates the geological, hydrological, and biological issues that may have an impact on the park development or result from development at the confluence, and identifies a set a tasks to help address these science issues. Geologic issues of concern relate to surface faulting, earthquake ground motions, liquefaction, landsliding, and induced seismicity. Hydrologic issues of concern relate to the hydraulics and water quality of both surface water and ground water. Biological issues of concern include colonization-extinction dynamics, wildlife corridors, wildlife reintroduction, non-native species, ecotoxicology, and restoration of local habitat and ecology. Potential tasks include (1) basic data collection and follow-up monitoring, and (2) statistical and probabilistic analyses and simulation modeling of the seismic, hydraulic, and ecological processes that may have the greatest impact on the park. The science issues and associated tasks delineated for the proposed confluence park will also have transfer value for river restoration in other urban settings.

  16. Mathematical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Trinajstić, Nenad; Gutman, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    A brief description is given of the historical development of mathematics and chemistry. A path leading to the meeting of these two sciences is described. An attempt is made to define mathematical chemistry, and journals containing the term mathematical chemistry in their titles are noted. In conclusion, the statement is made that although chemistry is an experimental science aimed at preparing new compounds and materials, mathematics is very useful in chemistry, among other things, to produc...

  17. Interactions between lithology and biology drive the long-term response of stream chemistry to major hurricanes in a tropical landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.H. McDowell; R.L. Brereton; F.N. Scatena; J.B. Shanley; N.V. Brokaw; A.E. Lugo

    2013-01-01

    Humid tropical forests play a dominant role in many global biogeochemical cycles, yet long-term records of tropical stream chemistry and its response to disturbance events such as severe storms and droughts are rare. Here we document the long-term variability in chemistry of two streams in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico over a period of 27 years. Our two focal...

  18. “Biotecnological War” - A Conceptual And Perceptual Assessment Tool For Teaching Biotechnology And Protein Chemistry For Undergraduate Students In Biological Sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. C. Cruz et al.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available "Biotecnological War" board game, a conceptual and perceptual assessment tool for biotechnology and protein chemistry teaching for undergraduate students in biological sciences and related areas. It is a proposal initially conceived as an alternative complementary tool for biochemistry teaching of proteins and peptides, challenging students, aiming to review concepts transmitted in classroom, stimulating diverse student’s abilities, such as their creativity, competitiveness and resource management. OBJECTIVES. Correlate biochemistry importance of proteins and peptides with the development of new products. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Firstly, theoretical-practical classes were given with seminars to be presented by the groups, including topics that will be addressed in game. Groups of 5 students, with previously viewed themes drawn a goal to be achieved. There are two drawn goals variations: Academic or Commercial. Board is divided into provinces, which must be bought with an initial resource to complete the goal. Before the beginning each group will have 15 minutes to plan their actions. The objective is to develop the entire objective drawn with appropriate methodology, having at least 1 territory in each province. RESULTS. This game proved to be an excellent tool for complementary evaluation of students, which stimulated teamwork and a strong competitive spirit within classroom, which allowed to analyze students' perception regarding the protein subject and team work. On the other hand, for teacher and students participating in compulsory traineeship program this game demonstrated new ways to approach complex subjects in biochemistry using creativity with the development of new activities such as this board game. CONCLUSION: Overall, students had a good impression of “Biotecnological war” game since it helped to secure and administer the protein and peptides biochemical subject in a competitive and team work way.

  19. Chemistry and biology of Hyaluronan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garg, Hari G; Hales, Charles A

    2004-01-01

    ... rheological properties. They are visco-elastic and the viscosity is strongly shear-dependent. For this reason, hyaluronan can act as a lubricant. It is found in joints and other tissues such as muscles at surfaces which are moving over each other. The human body is a well-oiled machine and hyaluronan seems to be that oil. However, hyaluronan has also ...

  20. Planetary geology

    CERN Document Server

    Gasselt, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date interdisciplinary geoscience-focused overview of solid solar system bodies and their evolution, based on the comparative description of processes acting on them. Planetary research today is a strongly multidisciplinary endeavor with efforts coming from engineering and natural sciences. Key focal areas of study are the solid surfaces found in our Solar System. Some have a direct interaction with the interplanetary medium and others have dynamic atmospheres. In any of those cases, the geological records of those surfaces (and sub-surfaces) are key to understanding the Solar System as a whole: its evolution and the planetary perspective of our own planet. This book has a modular structure and is divided into 4 sections comprising 15 chapters in total. Each section builds upon the previous one but is also self-standing. The sections are:  Methods and tools Processes and Sources  Integration and Geological Syntheses Frontiers The latter covers the far-reaching broad topics of exo...

  1. Elemental characterization of new Polish and U.S. NIST geological, environmental and biological reference materials by neutron activation analysis and comments on the methodology of interlaboratory comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.

    1995-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been extensively used in interlaboratory comparisons aiming at the certification of new Polish geological, environmental and botanical materials (RMs): Apatite Concentrate CTA-AC-1, Fine Fly Ash CTA-FFA-1, Oriental Tobacco Leaves CTA-OTL-1, Virginia Tobacco Leaves CTA-VTL-2. For quality assurance and traceability purposes, already existing RMs of similar composition, such as Apatite Ore AR and NIST SRM-2704 Buffalo River Sediment were analyzed in our Laboratory as well as NIST SRM-1573a Tomato Leaves which was assayed as an intercomparison sample prior to the certification at the NIST. Results obtained for a total of 47 elements are reported and critically evaluated. Problems of organizing and evaluating interlaboratory comparisons are also discussed. (author). 28 refs, 1 fig., 8 tabs

  2. Geologic environmental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yoon; Koh, Young Kown; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kim, Jhin Wung

    2000-05-01

    The geoscience research works are focused on the production of geologic basic data accompanying with the technical development of geology and hydrogeologic characterization. The lithology of the Korean peninsula consists of a complex structure of 29 rock types from Archean to Quaternary. The wide distribution of Mesozoic plutonic rock is an important consideration as a potential host rock allowing flexibility of siting. The recent tectonic activities are limited to localized particular area, which can be avoided by excluding in the early stage of siting. Three rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses and massive volcanic rocks were suggested as the preferred host rocks for the further study on HLW disposal system. This report contains grouping of regional faults, and on the distributional characteristics of faults and fractures(zones) in terms of lithological domain and tectonical provinces. The regional groundwater regime can be grouped into 3 regimes by tectonic setting and four groundwater regions based on an altitute. Groundwaters can be grouped by their chemistry and host rocks. The origin of groundwater was proposed by isotope ({sup 1}8O, {sup 2}H, {sup 1}3C, {sup 3}4S, {sup 8}7Sr, {sup 1}5N) studies and the residence time of groundwater was inferred from their tritium contents. Based on the geochemical and isotope characteristics, the geochemical evolutions of each types of groundwater were simulated using SOLVEQ/CHILLER and PHREEQC programs.

  3. Chemistry Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)

  4. Chemistry Dashboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemistry Dashboard is part of a suite of dashboards developed by EPA to help evaluate the safety of chemicals. The Chemistry Dashboard provides access to a variety of information on over 700,000 chemicals currently in use.

  5. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; preparation procedure for aquatic biological material determined for trace metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Gerald L.

    1996-01-01

    A method for the chemical preparation of tissue samples that are subsequently analyzed for 22 trace metals is described. The tissue-preparation procedure was tested with three National Institute of Standards and Technology biological standard reference materials and two National Water Quality Laboratory homogenized biological materials. A low-temperature (85 degrees Celsius) nitric acid digestion followed by the careful addition of hydrogen peroxide (30-percent solution) is used to decompose the biological material. The solutions are evaporated to incipient dryness, reconstituted with 5 percent nitric acid, and filtered. After filtration the solutions were diluted to a known volume and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and cold vapor-atomic absorption spectrophotometry (CV-AAS). Many of the metals were determined by both ICP-MS and ICP-AES. This report does not provide a detailed description of the instrumental procedures and conditions used with the three types of instrumentation for the quantitation of trace metals determined in this study. Statistical data regarding recovery, accuracy, and precision for individual trace metals determined in the biological material tested are summarized.

  6. Positronium chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Green, James

    1964-01-01

    Positronium Chemistry focuses on the methodologies, reactions, processes, and transformations involved in positronium chemistry. The publication first offers information on positrons and positronium and experimental methods, including mesonic atoms, angular correlation measurements, annihilation spectra, and statistical errors in delayed coincidence measurements. The text then ponders on positrons in gases and solids. The manuscript takes a look at the theoretical chemistry of positronium and positronium chemistry in gases. Topics include quenching, annihilation spectrum, delayed coincidence

  7. Aquatic Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Yeun; Kim, Oh Sik; Kim, Chang Guk; Park, Cheong Gil; Lee, Gwi Hyeon; Lee, Cheol Hui

    1987-07-01

    This book deals aquatic chemistry, which treats water and environment, chemical kinetics, chemical balance like dynamical characteristic, and thermodynamics, acid-base chemistry such as summary, definition, kinetics, and PH design for mixture of acid-base chemistry, complex chemistry with definition, and kinetics, precipitation and dissolution on summary, kinetics of precipitation and dissolution, and balance design oxidation and resolution with summary, balance of oxidation and resolution.

  8. Preliminary assessment of geologic materials to minimize biological intrusion of low-level waste trench covers and plans for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.; White, G.C.; Gladney, E.S.; Muller, M.

    1981-01-01

    The long-term integrity of low-level waste shallow land burial sites is dependent on the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological factors that modify the waste containment system. Past research on low-level waste shallow land burial methods has emphasized physical (i.e., water infiltration, soil erosion) and chemical (radionuclide leaching) processes that can cause radionuclide transport from a waste site. Preliminary results demonstrate that a sandy backfill material offers little resistance to root and animal intrusion through the cover profile. However, bentonite clay, cobble, and cobble-gravel combinations do reduce plant root and animal intrusion through cover profiles compared with sandy backfill soil. However, bentonite clay barrier systems appear to be degraded by plant roots through time. Desiccation of the clay barrier by invading plant roots may limit the usefulness of bentonite clay as a moisture and/or biological carrier unless due consideration is given to this interaction. Future experiments are described that further examine the effect of plant roots on clay barrier systems and that determine the effectiveness of proposed biological barriers on larger scales and under various stress conditions

  9. Old Geology and New Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 28 May 2003Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. Geology and bedrock engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This book deals with geology of Korea which includes summary, geology in central part and southern part in Korea and characteristic of geology structure, limestone like geology property of limestone, engineered property of limestone, and design and construction case in limestone area. It also introduces engineered property of the cenozoic, clay rock and shale, geologic and engineered property of phyllite and stratum.

  11. Hydraulic and biological analysis of the passability of select fish species at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging weir at Blackwells Mills, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Alexander J.; Mulligan, Kevin; Suro, Thomas P.; Noreika, John; McHugh, Amy

    2017-10-16

    Recent efforts to advance river connectivity for the Millstone River watershed in New Jersey have led to the evaluation of a low-flow gauging weir that spans the full width of the river. The methods and results of a desktop modelling exercise were used to evaluate the potential ability of three anadromous fish species (Alosa sapidissima [American shad], Alosa pseudoharengus [alewife], and Alosa aestivalis [blueback herring]) to pass upstream over the U.S. Geological Survey Blackwells Mills streamgage (01402000) and weir on the Millstone River, New Jersey, at various streamflows, and to estimate the probability that the weir will be passable during the spring migratory season. Based on data from daily fishway counts downstream from the Blackwells Mills streamgage and weir between 1996 and 2014, the general migratory period was defined as April 14 to May 28. Recorded water levels and flow data were used to theoretically estimate water depths and velocities over the weir, as well as flow exceedances occurring during the migratory period.Results indicate that the weir is a potential depth barrier to fish passage when streamflows are below 200 cubic feet per second using a 1-body-depth criterion for American shad (the largest fish among the target species). Streamflows in that range occur on average 35 percent of the time during the migratory period. An increase of the depth criterion to 2 body depths causes the weir to become a possible barrier to passage when flows are below 400 cubic feet per second. Streamflows in that range occur on average 73 percent of the time during the migration season. Average cross-sectional velocities at several points along the weir do not seem to be limiting to the fish migration, but maximum theoretical velocities estimated without friction loss over the face of the weir could be potentially limiting.

  12. California Geological Survey Geologic Map Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — All the individual maps from the Geologic Atlas of California and the Regional Geologic map series have been georeferenced for display in a GIS (and viewable online...

  13. California Geological Survey Geologic Map Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — All the individual maps from the Geologic Atlas of California and the Regional Geologic map series have been georeferenced for display in a GIS (and viewable online...

  14. Developing Connectivist Schemas for Geological and Geomorphological Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, B.

    2012-12-01

    Teaching geology is difficult; students need to grasp changes in time over three dimensions. Furthermore, the scales and rates of change in four dimensions may vary over several orders of magnitude. Geological explanations incorporate ideas from physics, chemistry, biology and engineering, lectures and textbooks provide a basic framework but they need to be amplified by laboratories and fieldwork involving active student participation and engagement. Being shown named 'things' is only a start to being able to being able to inculcate geological thinking that requires a wide and focused viewpoints. Kastens and Ishikawa (2006) suggested five aspects of thinking geologically, summarised as: 1. Observing, describing, recording, communicating geologically entities (ie basic cognitive skills) 2. (mentally) manipulating these entities 3. interpreting them via causal relationships 4. predicting other aspects using the basic knowledge (to create new knowledge) 5. using cognitive strategies to develop new ways of interpreting gained knowledge. These steps can be used follow the sequence from 'known' through 'need to know' to using knowledge to gain better geologic explanation, taken as enquiry-based or problem solving modes of education. These follow ideas from Dewey though Sternberg's 'thinking styles' and Siemens' connectivist approaches. Implementation of this basic schema needs to be structured for students in a complex geological world in line with Edelson's (2006) 'learning for' framework. In a geomorphological setting, this has been done by showing students how to interpret a landscape (landform, section etc) practice their skills and thus gain confidence with a tutor at hand. A web-based device, 'Virtorial' provides scenarios for students to practice interpretation (or even be assessed with). A cognitive tool is provided for landscape interpretation by division into the recognition of 'Materials' (rock, sediments etc), Processes (slope, glacial processes etc) and

  15. Organic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    This book with sixteen chapter explains organic chemistry on linkage isomerism such as alkane, cycloalkane, alkene, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic halogen compound, alcohol, ether, aldehyde and ketone, carboxylic acid, dicarboxylic acid, fat and detergent, amino, carbohydrate, amino acid and protein, nucleotide and nucleic acid and spectroscopy, a polymer and medical chemistry. Each chapter has introduction structure and characteristic and using of organic chemistry.

  16. Towards a Convention on Geological Heritage (CGH) for the protection of Geological Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocx, Margaret; Semeniuk, Vic

    2017-04-01

    2 V & C Semeniuk Research Group; 21 Glenmere Rd., Warwick, WA, 6024 The history of the biological conservation essentially began with the IUCN and the global awakening following publication of "The Silent Spring". Since then the IUCN has been active in species conservation and later, when recognising the importance of biodiversity, in the development of a Convention on Biological Diversity. However, even in a framework of Convention on Biological Diversity, there are organisations, political systems/parties, and personnel that strive to subjugate and control nature and biology and use nature for profit or to benefit humankind (e.g., genetically modified foods, use of terrain for food production, use of forests as a resource, managed ecosystems, construction of luxury resorts and tourist resorts in wildernesses). This has been the same for geology, in that geological materials are fundamental to industrialisation in the use of metals, building materials, other commodities, and fossil fuels, and have been exploited often regardless of their geoheritage values. The history of geology and its conservation actually predates the focus on conservation of biology - Siccar Point, numerous palaeontologic sites, and other iconic geological sites serve as examples. But in spite of their recognition as iconic geological sites, areas such as Siccar Point, Cliefden Caves, Hallett Cove, and the Kimberley are still under threat. Given that firstly there is an importance to geological features of the Earth per se and, secondly, geological features as geodiversity underpin and sustain biological systems, there is a critical need to develop a convention, similar to the Convention on Biological Diversity, that recognises the importance of geology as a part of Nature. The scope of Geoheritage and the diversity of Geology is such that it involves all sub-disciplines of Geology (e.g., palaeontology, mineralogy, igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic geology, structural geology, hydrology

  17. Chemistry Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Chemistry technology experts at NCATS engage in a variety of innovative translational research activities, including:Design of bioactive small molecules.Development...

  18. Technetium chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, C.; Bryan, J.; Cotton, F.; Ott, K.; Kubas, G.; Haefner, S.; Barrera, J.; Hall, K.; Burrell, A.

    1996-01-01

    Technetium chemistry is a young and developing field. Despite the limited knowledge of its chemistry, technetium is the workhorse for nuclear medicine. Technetium is also a significant environmental concern because it is formed as a byproduct of nuclear weapons production and fission-power generators. Development of new technetium radio-pharmaceuticals and effective environmental control depends strongly upon knowledge of basic technetium chemistry. The authors performed research into the basic coordination and organometallic chemistry of technetium and used this knowledge to address nuclear medicine and environmental applications. This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

  19. Archaeopteryx feathers and bone chemistry fully revealed via synchrotron imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, U; Morton, R W; Manning, P L; Sellers, W I; Farrar, S; Huntley, K G; Wogelius, R A; Larson, P

    2010-05-18

    Evolution of flight in maniraptoran dinosaurs is marked by the acquisition of distinct avian characters, such as feathers, as seen in Archaeopteryx from the Solnhofen limestone. These rare fossils were pivotal in confirming the dinosauria-avian lineage. One of the key derived avian characters is the possession of feathers, details of which were remarkably preserved in the Lagerstätte environment. These structures were previously simply assumed to be impressions; however, a detailed chemical analysis has, until now, never been completed on any Archaeopteryx specimen. Here we present chemical imaging via synchrotron rapid scanning X-ray fluorescence (SRS-XRF) of the Thermopolis Archaeopteryx, which shows that portions of the feathers are not impressions but are in fact remnant body fossil structures, maintaining elemental compositions that are completely different from the embedding geological matrix. Our results indicate phosphorous and sulfur retention in soft tissue as well as trace metal (Zn and Cu) retention in bone. Other previously unknown chemical details of Archaeopteryx are also revealed in this study including: bone chemistry, taphonomy (fossilization process), and curation artifacts. SRS-XRF represents a major advancement in the study of the life chemistry and fossilization processes of Archaeopteryx and other extinct organisms because it is now practical to image the chemistry of large specimens rapidly at concentration levels of parts per million. This technique has wider application to the archaeological, forensic, and biological sciences, enabling the mapping of "unseen" compounds critical to understanding biological structures, modes of preservation, and environmental context.

  20. Developing and Evaluating an Eighth Grade Curriculum Unit That Links Foundational Chemistry to Biological Growth. Paper #1: Selecting Core Ideas and Practices -- An Iterative Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Jo Ellen; Herrmann-Abell, Cari; Flanagan, Jean; Kruse, Rebecca; Howes, Elaine; Carlson, Janet; Roth, Kathy; Bourdelat-Parks, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    Researchers at AAAS and BSCS have developed a six-week unit that aims to help middle school students learn important chemistry ideas that can be used to explain growth and repair in animals and plants. By integrating core physical and life science ideas and engaging students in the science practices of modeling and constructing explanations, the…

  1. Morphometry of Concepcion Bank: Evidence of Geological and Biological Processes on a Large Volcanic Seamount of the Canary Islands Seamount Province.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Rivera

    . Sediment waves and cold-water coral (CWC mounds on the bank summit plateau are the youngest features contributing to its final shaping, and may be indicative of internal wave effects. Numerous submarine canyons generally less than 10 km in length are incised on the bank's flanks. The most developed, hierarchized canyon system runs southwest of the bank, where it merges with other canyons coming from the southern bulges attached to some sections of the seamount flanks. These bulges are postulated as having an intrusive origin, as no major headwall landslide scars have been detected and their role as deposition areas for the submarine canyons seems to be minor. The results presented document how geological processes in the past and recent to subrecent oceanographic conditions and associated active processes determined the current physiography, morphology and sedimentary patterns of Concepcion Bank, including the development and decline of CWC mounds The setting of the seamount in the regional crustal structure is also discussed.

  2. Teaching chemistry with sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia G. Rojas-Fernández

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased awareness on a critical association between the natural environment and human development gave rise multiple projects, aiming to protect the natural environment and to preserve it for future generations. Chemists must be acquainted with the principles of green chemistry and the need to practice experimental chemistry with cleaner chemical reactions and sustainability. This is a major concern for all the educators forming new professionals within the Chemistry, Pharmacology and Biology curricula in the Faculty for Higher Studies Zaragoza from the National Autonomous University of Mexico. With this in mind, we start our teachings explaining from the very beginning, how important it is to perform microscale techniques and to follow the principles of green chemistry in the Basic Science Laboratory. Furthermore, we have modified, designed and evaluated working procedures related with chemical synthesis, kinetics and calorimetry. By doing this, we managed to greatly reduce the amount of reagents required and residues generated. Some laboratory reagents have been substituted with renewable substances. We have also included in our programme a regular treatment of residues generated during everyday laboratory work. Our goal is to emphasize the importance of minimizing the environmental impact of chemistry and to prepare environmentally concerned professionals who keep sustainability as main priority and perform chemistry procedures with good laboratory practice routines.

  3. Precise determination of δ88Sr in rocks, minerals, and waters by double-spike TIMS: A powerful tool in the study of chemical, geologic, hydrologic and biologic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neymark, Leonid A.; Premo, Wayne R.; Mel'nikov, Nikolay N.; Emsbo, Poul

    2014-01-01

    We present strontium isotopic (88Sr/86Sr and 87Sr/86Sr) results obtained by 87Sr–84Sr double spike thermal ionization mass-spectrometry (DS-TIMS) for several standards as well as natural water samples and mineral samples of abiogenic and biogenic origin. The detailed data reduction algorithm and a user-friendly Sr-specific stand-alone computer program used for the spike calibration and the data reduction are also presented. Accuracy and precision of our δ88Sr measurements, calculated as permil (‰) deviations from the NIST SRM-987 standard, were evaluated by analyzing the NASS-6 seawater standard, which yielded δ88Sr = 0.378 ± 0.009‰. The first DS-TIMS data for the NIST SRM-607 potassium feldspar standard and for several US Geological Survey carbonate, phosphate, and silicate standards (EN-1, MAPS-4, MAPS-5, G-3, BCR-2, and BHVO-2) are also reported. Data obtained during this work for Sr-bearing solids and natural waters show a range of δ88Sr values of about 2.4‰, the widest observed so far in terrestrial materials. This range is easily resolvable analytically because the demonstrated external error (±SD, standard deviation) for measured δ88Sr values is typically ≤0.02‰. It is shown that the “true” 87Sr/86Sr value obtained by the DS-TIMS or any other external normalization method combines radiogenic and mass-dependent mass-fractionation effects, which cannot be separated. Therefore, the “true” 87Sr/86Sr and the δ87Sr parameter derived from it are not useful isotope tracers. Data presented in this paper for a wide range of naturally occurring sample types demonstrate the potential of the δ88Sr isotope tracer in combination with the traditional radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr tracer for studying a variety of biological, hydrological, and geological processes.

  4. Nuclear chemistry 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macasek, F.

    2009-01-01

    This text-book (electronic book - multi-media CD-ROM) constitutes a course-book - author's collection of lectures. It consists of 9 lectures in which the reader acquaints with the basis of nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry: History of nucleus; Atomic nuclei; Radioactivity; Nuclear reactions and nucleogenesis; Isotopism; Ionizing radiation; Radiation measurement; Nuclear energetics; Isotopic indicators. This course-book may be interesting for students, post-graduate students of chemistry, biology, physics, medicine a s well as for teachers, scientific workers and physicians. (author)

  5. Chemistry in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Le Tiec, Yannick

    2013-01-01

    Microelectronics is a complex world where many sciences need to collaborate to create nano-objects: we need expertise in electronics, microelectronics, physics, optics and mechanics also crossing into chemistry, electrochemistry, as well as biology, biochemistry and medicine. Chemistry is involved in many fields from materials, chemicals, gases, liquids or salts, the basics of reactions and equilibrium, to the optimized cleaning of surfaces and selective etching of specific layers. In addition, over recent decades, the size of the transistors has been drastically reduced while the functionalit

  6. Future perspectives of radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Future perspectives of radiation chemistry are discussed by the analysis of the related information in detail as obtained from our recent surveys of publications and scientific meetings in radiation chemistry and its neighboring research fields, giving some examples, and are summarized as follows. (1) Traditionally important core-parts of radiation chemistry should be activated more. The corresponding research programs are listed in detail. (2) Research fields of physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, and technology in radiation research should interact more among them with each other. (3) Basic research of radiation chemistry should interact more with its applied research. (4) Interface research fields with radiation chemistry should be produced more with mutually common viewpoints and research interests between the two. Interfaces are not only applied research but also basic one.

  7. Current organic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    Provides in depth reviews on current progress in the fields of asymmetric synthesis, organometallic chemistry, bioorganic chemistry, heterocyclic chemistry, natural product chemistry, and analytical...

  8. Dragonfly: In Situ Exploration of Titan's Organic Chemistry and Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtle, E. P.; Barnes, J. W.; Trainer, M. G.; Lorenz, R. D.

    2017-12-01

    Titan's abundant complex carbon-rich chemistry, interior ocean, and past presence of liquid water on the surface make it an ideal destination to study prebiotic chemical processes and document the habitability of an extraterrestrial environment. Titan exploration is a high science priority due to the level of organic synthesis that it supports. Moreover, opportunities for organics to have interacted with liquid water at the surface (e.g., in impact melt sheets) increase the potential for chemical processes to progress further, providing an unparalleled opportunity to investigate prebiotic chemistry, as well as to search for signatures of potential water-based or even hydrocarbon-based life. The diversity of Titan's surface materials and environments drives the scientific need to be able to sample a variety of locations, thus mobility is key for in situ measurements. Titan's atmosphere is 4 times denser than Earth's reducing the wing/rotor area required to generate a given amount of lift, and the low gravity reduces the required magnitude of lift, making heavier-than-air mobility highly efficient. Dragonfly is a rotorcraft lander mission proposed to NASA's New Frontiers Program to take advantage of Titan's unique natural laboratory to understand how far chemistry can progress in environments that provide key ingredients for life. Measuring the compositions of materials in different environments will reveal how far organic chemistry has progressed. Surface material can be sampled into a mass spectrometer to identify the chemical components available and processes at work to produce biologically relevant compounds. Bulk elemental surface composition can be determined by a neutron-activated gamma-ray spectrometer. Meteorology measurements can characterize Titan's atmosphere and diurnal and spatial variations therein. Geologic features can be characterized via remote-sensing observations, which also provide context for samples. Seismic sensing can probe subsurface

  9. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors. (Auth.)

  10. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors

  11. Eleventh international symposium on radiopharmaceutical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document contains abstracts of papers which were presented at the Eleventh International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry. Sessions included: radiopharmaceuticals for the dopaminergic system, strategies for the production and use of labelled reactive small molecules, radiopharmaceuticals for measuring metabolism, radiopharmaceuticals for the serotonin and sigma receptor systems, labelled probes for molecular biology applications, radiopharmaceuticals for receptor systems, radiopharmaceuticals utilizing coordination chemistry, radiolabelled antibodies, radiolabelling methods for small molecules, analytical techniques in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, and analytical techniques in radiopharmaceutical chemistry

  12. Eleventh international symposium on radiopharmaceutical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document contains abstracts of papers which were presented at the Eleventh International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry. Sessions included: radiopharmaceuticals for the dopaminergic system, strategies for the production and use of labelled reactive small molecules, radiopharmaceuticals for measuring metabolism, radiopharmaceuticals for the serotonin and sigma receptor systems, labelled probes for molecular biology applications, radiopharmaceuticals for receptor systems, radiopharmaceuticals utilizing coordination chemistry, radiolabelled antibodies, radiolabelling methods for small molecules, analytical techniques in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, and analytical techniques in radiopharmaceutical chemistry.

  13. Speculative synthetic chemistry and the nitrogenase problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sonny C.; Holm, Richard H.

    2003-01-01

    There exist a limited but growing number of biological metal centers whose properties lie conspicuously outside the realm of known inorganic chemistry. The synthetic analogue approach, broadly directed, offers a powerful exploratory tool that can define intrinsic chemical possibilities for these sites while simultaneously expanding the frontiers of fundamental inorganic chemistry. This speculative application of analogue study is exemplified here in the evolution of synthetic efforts inspired by the cluster chemistry of biological nitrogen fixation. PMID:12642670

  14. Geological disposal system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Chul Hyung; Kuh, J. E.; Kim, S. K. and others

    2000-04-01

    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected

  15. Geological disposal system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chul Hyung; Kuh, J. E.; Kim, S. K. and others

    2000-04-01

    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected.

  16. Quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, John P

    1993-01-01

    Praised for its appealing writing style and clear pedagogy, Lowe's Quantum Chemistry is now available in its Second Edition as a text for senior undergraduate- and graduate-level chemistry students. The book assumes little mathematical or physical sophistication and emphasizes an understanding of the techniques and results of quantum chemistry, thus enabling students to comprehend much of the current chemical literature in which quantum chemical methods or concepts are used as tools. The book begins with a six-chapter introduction of standard one-dimensional systems, the hydrogen atom,

  17. Biological pathways of exposure and ecotoxicity values for uranium and associated radionuclides: Chapter D in Hydrological, geological, and biological site characterization of breccia pipe uranium deposits in Northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo E.; Linder, Greg L.; Finger, Susan E.; Little, Edward E.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Kuhne, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    This chapter compiles available chemical and radiation toxicity information for plants and animals from the scientific literature on naturally occurring uranium and associated radionuclides. Specifically, chemical and radiation hazards associated with radionuclides in the uranium decay series including uranium, thallium, thorium, bismuth, radium, radon, protactinium, polonium, actinium, and francium were the focus of the literature compilation. In addition, exposure pathways and a food web specific to the segregation areas were developed. Major biological exposure pathways considered were ingestion, inhalation, absorption, and bioaccumulation, and biota categories included microbes, invertebrates, plants, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. These data were developed for incorporation into a risk assessment to be conducted as part of an environmental impact statement for the Bureau of Land Management, which would identify representative plants and animals and their relative sensitivities to exposure of uranium and associated radionuclides. This chapter provides pertinent information to aid in the development of such an ecological risk assessment but does not estimate or derive guidance thresholds for radionuclides associated with uranium. Previous studies have not attempted to quantify the risks to biota caused directly by the chemical or radiation releases at uranium mining sites, although some information is available for uranium mill tailings and uranium mine closure activities. Research into the biological impacts of uranium exposure is strongly biased towards human health and exposure related to enriched or depleted uranium associated with the nuclear energy industry rather than naturally occurring uranium associated with uranium mining. Nevertheless, studies have reported that uranium and other radionuclides can affect the survival, growth, and reproduction of plants and animals. Exposure to chemical and radiation hazards is influenced by a

  18. Materials Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlman, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd edition of Materials Chemistry builds on the strengths that were recognized by a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA). Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field. The 2nd edition continues to offer innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout. After briefly defining materials chemistry and its history, seven chapters discuss solid-state chemistry, metals, semiconducting materials, organic "soft" materials, nanomaterials, and materials characterization. All chapters have been thoroughly updated and expanded with, for example, new sections on ‘soft lithographic’ patterning, ‘click chemistry’ polymerization, nanotoxicity, graphene, as well as many biomaterials applications. The polymer and ‘soft’ materials chapter represents the largest expansion for the 2nd edition. Each ch...

  19. Report on the meeting of the working groups on neutron scattering applied to studying condensed matter, and neutron scattering and complementary methods applied in chemistry and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The present volume consists of 55 lectures. The subjects are: 1) Elastic neutron diffraction, 2) Lattice dynamics, 3) Diffusion, 4) Polymers, 5) Biology, 6) Methods and tools, 7) Magnetism. For distinct papers see hints under relevant topics. (BHO)

  20. Biological Water or Rather Water in Biology?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 13 (2015), s. 2449-2451 ISSN 1948-7185 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : biological water * protein * interface Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 8.539, year: 2015

  1. Etymology of transition metal biomolecules as a learning aid in Biological Chemistry; A etimologia de biomoleculas com metais de transicao como auxiliar na aprendizagem de Quimica Biologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose A.L. da, E-mail: pcd1950@ist.utl.pt [Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa (Portugal). Instituto Superior Tecnico. Centro de Quimico Estrutural

    2013-11-01

    Numerous functional biomolecules are associated with metals, i.e. the metallobiomolecules; more specifically, some are dependent on transition metals required for several crucial biological roles. Nevertheless, their names can lead to ambiguous interpretations concerning the properties and performances of this group of biological molecules. Their etymology may be useful by providing a more perceptive insight into their features. However, etymology can lead to incongruous conclusions, requiring an especially careful approach to prevent errors. Examples illustrating these subjects shall be examined (author)

  2. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Seong

    1993-02-01

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  3. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  4. Analytical chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivánková, Ludmila

    -, č. 22 (2011), s. 718-719 ISSN 1472-3395 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : analytical chemistry * analytical methods * nanotechnologies Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation http://edition.pagesuite-professional.co.uk/launch.aspx?referral=other&pnum=&refresh=M0j83N1cQa91&EID=82bccec1-b05f-46f9-b085-701afc238b42&skip=

  5. Physical and biological controls on the carbonate chemistry of coral reef waters: effects of metabolism, wave forcing, sea level, and geomorphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L Falter

    Full Text Available We present a three-dimensional hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model of a wave-driven coral-reef lagoon system using the circulation model ROMS (Regional Ocean Modeling System coupled with the wave transformation model SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore. Simulations were used to explore the sensitivity of water column carbonate chemistry across the reef system to variations in benthic reef metabolism, wave forcing, sea level, and system geomorphology. Our results show that changes in reef-water carbonate chemistry depend primarily on the ratio of benthic metabolism to the square root of the onshore wave energy flux as well as on the length and depth of the reef flat; however, they are only weakly dependent on channel geometry and the total frictional resistance of the reef system. Diurnal variations in pCO(2, pH, and aragonite saturation state (Ω(ar are primarily dependent on changes in net production and are relatively insensitive to changes in net calcification; however, net changes in pCO(2, pH, and Ω(ar are more strongly influenced by net calcification when averaged over 24 hours. We also demonstrate that a relatively simple one-dimensional analytical model can provide a good description of the functional dependence of reef-water carbonate chemistry on benthic metabolism, wave forcing, sea level, reef flat morphology, and total system frictional resistance. Importantly, our results indicate that any long-term (weeks to months net offsets in reef-water pCO(2 relative to offshore values should be modest for reef systems with narrow and/or deep lagoons. Thus, the long-term evolution of water column pCO(2 in many reef environments remains intimately connected to the regional-scale oceanography of offshore waters and hence directly influenced by rapid anthropogenically driven increases in pCO(2.

  6. Physical and Biological Controls on the Carbonate Chemistry of Coral Reef Waters: Effects of Metabolism, Wave Forcing, Sea Level, and Geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falter, James L.; Lowe, Ryan J.; Zhang, Zhenlin; McCulloch, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model of a wave-driven coral-reef lagoon system using the circulation model ROMS (Regional Ocean Modeling System) coupled with the wave transformation model SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore). Simulations were used to explore the sensitivity of water column carbonate chemistry across the reef system to variations in benthic reef metabolism, wave forcing, sea level, and system geomorphology. Our results show that changes in reef-water carbonate chemistry depend primarily on the ratio of benthic metabolism to the square root of the onshore wave energy flux as well as on the length and depth of the reef flat; however, they are only weakly dependent on channel geometry and the total frictional resistance of the reef system. Diurnal variations in pCO2, pH, and aragonite saturation state (Ωar) are primarily dependent on changes in net production and are relatively insensitive to changes in net calcification; however, net changes in pCO2, pH, and Ωar are more strongly influenced by net calcification when averaged over 24 hours. We also demonstrate that a relatively simple one-dimensional analytical model can provide a good description of the functional dependence of reef-water carbonate chemistry on benthic metabolism, wave forcing, sea level, reef flat morphology, and total system frictional resistance. Importantly, our results indicate that any long-term (weeks to months) net offsets in reef-water pCO2 relative to offshore values should be modest for reef systems with narrow and/or deep lagoons. Thus, the long-term evolution of water column pCO2 in many reef environments remains intimately connected to the regional-scale oceanography of offshore waters and hence directly influenced by rapid anthropogenically driven increases in pCO2. PMID:23326411

  7. More Chemistry with Light! More Light in Chemistry!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Thorsten

    2015-09-21

    "…︁ Why is chemistry overlooked when talking about light? Is the photon a physical particle per se? Are all important light-induced processes biological? Maybe the role of light for chemistry and the role of chemistry for light may be far less important than a few eccentric scientists would like to believe. From the perspective of a synthetically oriented photochemist, however, the facts are different …︁" Read more in the Editorial by Thorsten Bach. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Geological Services Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Researchers use computed tomography (CT) scanners at NETL’s Geological Services Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, to peer into geologic core samples to determine how...

  9. Geophysics & Geology Inspected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, E. R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes findings of a recently published report of the Canadian Geoscience Council, which includes the following topics regarding college geology: facilities; teaching; undergraduate enrollments; postgraduate enrollments; geologic research; and integration of Canadian geoscience with other countries. (CS)

  10. Geology of Uruguay review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Rifas, C.

    2011-01-01

    This work is about the Uruguay geology review.This country has been a devoted to breeding cattle and agriculture.The evolution of geological knowledge begun with Dr. Karl Walther who published 53 papers between 1909 and 1948.

  11. Scientific projection paper for radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simic, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    Together with radiation physics, an understanding of radiation chemistry is necessary for full appreciation of biological effects of high and low energy radiations, and for the development of prophylactic, therapeutic and potentiating methods and techniques in biological organisms. Areas covered in some detail in this report include: the early chemical events involved in the deposition of radiation energy; the kinetics of free radical and excited state reactions; the application of radiation chemistry to radiation biology; and the availability of instrumentation

  12. Reef geology and biology of Navassa Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Margaret W.; Halley, Robert B.; Gleason, Arthur C.R.

    2008-01-01

    Navassa is a small oceanic island (5.2km2 in size) located ~30km west of the southwest tip of Haiti, 160km south of the US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, and in the heart of the Windward Passage. Navassa was claimed in 1856 by the United States. Navassa has also been claimed by Haiti since its independence in 1825 and, prior to that, was considered part of colonial Haitian territory. The current Haitian constitution (1987) claims Navassa by name as Haitian territory (Wiener 2005). This disputed sovereignty is a basis of much resource management challenge.

  13. Radiation chemistry of heavy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, J.L.; Chatterjee, A.

    1980-01-01

    The physical aspects of the energy deposit of fast particles in matter initiate chemical effects which are merged with the early physical processes. Here only radiation chemistry and its relationship to the initial energy deposit are of concern. The primary objective of our track studies is, however, application to biology. In the radiolytic decomposition of water energy is absorbed almost exclusively in water, and the principal chemistry is that of radiation decomposition of water. The track structure in water is expected to be virtually the same as that in a biological system. The study of radiation chemistry of dilute solutions, therefore, provides another method to investigate the structure of tracks as they are likely to be present in an irradiated biological system but at times much longer than they are accessible to purely physical measurements

  14. Developing and Evaluating an Eighth Grade Curriculum Unit That Links Foundational Chemistry to Biological Growth: Designing Professional Development to Support Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Rebecca; Howes, Elaine V.; Carlson, Janet; Roth, Kathleen; Bourdelat-Parks, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    AAAS and BSCS are collaborating to develop and study a curriculum unit that supports students' ability to explain a variety of biological processes such as growth in chemical terms. The unit provides conceptual coherence between chemical processes in nonliving and living systems through the core idea of atom rearrangement and conservation during…

  15. Circumstellar chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glassgold, A.E.

    1989-01-01

    Circumstellar chemistry has a special role in astrochemistry because the astrophysical conditions in the circumstellar envelopes of red giants are frequently well known and clear tests of chemical models are feasible. Recent advances in astronomical observations now offer opportunities to test relevant theories of molecule formation, especially in carbon-rich environments. Many new molecules have recently been discovered using radio and infrared techniques and high spatial resolution maps obtained with large telescopes and interferometers indicate where complex molecules are being formed in these envelopes. A large body of observational data can be understood in terms of the photochemical model, which embraces relevant elements of equilibrium chemistry, photodissociation, and ion-molecule chemistry of the photo-products. A critical review of the photochemical model will be presented together with new results on the synthesis of hydrocarbon molecules and silicon and sulfur compounds

  16. A personal account of forty years in radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swallow, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    An account is given of the author's participation in radiation chemistry research from 1948 to the present day at laboratories in Cambridge and the Paterson Laboratories, Manchester. Emphasis is on the radio-biological aspects of radiation chemistry. (UK)

  17. Teaching and learning the geological knowledge as a part of the science education general field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Pérez, Constancio

    2010-05-01

    Since the early 50s of last century the Teaching of Science has undergone a process of continuous development, (Gutiérrez, 1987; Aliberas, Gutierrez and Izquierdo, 1989) to become a scientific discipline largely accepted as such by many different universities worldwide. Besides, the proliferation of publications, magazines, conferences, symposia, meetings, and so on, proves this assertion. In these publications and meetings the Teaching of Science (or Science Education in more general terms) is addressed as a new field of research, teaching and educational innovation focused on the processes of teaching and learning of the experimental sciences (all of them: Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Geology). The study of this discipline is undertaken from different pedagogical, epistemological, psychological and sociological approaches. From this general perspective we can say that over the last two decades each of the sciences has developed specific characteristics so that, today, we could speak about specific didactics for each one of them. In the case of Geology (or Geoscience) Teaching there have been significant contributions from the following fields of research: the students' prior ideas (constructivist approach), the history of geology (as a subject-specific field) and from epistemology (Pedrinaci, E. 2000). The body of geoscience knowledge has an internal logic (as happens with the other science subjects) that allows us to organize the contents to teach, selecting, arranging and establishing proper relations between them. Still geology has a central, transverse, inter-and transdisciplinary character for its relationship with the other sciences. This character makes it appear as one of the disciplines with a huge potential to combine different methodologies of teaching and learning and different learning models already tested in the research field of Physics, Chemistry or Biology Education. Moreover, the most recent term coined for it "geosciences or earth and

  18. Polymer Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

  19. Indoor Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Carslaw, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    This review aims to encapsulate the importance, ubiquity, and complexity of indoor chemistry. We discuss the many sources of indoor air pollutants and summarize their chemical reactions in the air and on surfaces. We also summarize some of the known impacts of human occupants, who act as sources...... and sinks of indoor chemicals, and whose activities (e.g., cooking, cleaning, smoking) can lead to extremely high pollutant concentrations. As we begin to use increasingly sensitive and selective instrumentation indoors, we are learning more about chemistry in this relatively understudied environment....

  20. General chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yeong Sik; Lee, Dong Seop; Ryu, Haung Ryong; Jang, Cheol Hyeon; Choi, Bong Jong; Choi, Sang Won

    1993-07-01

    The book concentrates on the latest general chemistry, which is divided int twenty-three chapters. It deals with basic conception and stoichiometry, nature of gas, structure of atoms, quantum mechanics, symbol and structure of an electron of ion and molecule, chemical thermodynamics, nature of solid, change of state and liquid, properties of solution, chemical equilibrium, solution and acid-base, equilibrium of aqueous solution, electrochemistry, chemical reaction speed, molecule spectroscopy, hydrogen, oxygen and water, metallic atom; 1A, IIA, IIIA, carbon and atom IVA, nonmetal atom and an inert gas, transition metals, lanthanons, and actinoids, nuclear properties and radioactivity, biochemistry and environment chemistry.

  1. The geological attitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.G.C.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses geological activity which takes place mainly in response to industrial and social pressures. Past geological reaction to these pressures profoundly altered popular conceptions of time, the Church, man, and the balance of nature. The present-day circumstances of geology are not essentially different from those of the past. Petroleum geology in North American illustrates the role of technology in determining the style and scope of geological work. Peaks of activity cluster obviously on the introduction from time to time of new instrumental capabilities (geophysical apparatus, for example), although not infrequently such activity is testing concepts or relationships perceived long before. Organic metamorphism and continental drift provide two examples. The petroleum industry now faces the dilemma of satisfying predicted demands for fuel, without doing irreparable injury to its environment of operation. Awareness of man's place in nature, which is a fundamental perception of geology, governs the geological attitude

  2. Forensic Chemistry Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal GERÇEK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the types of terrorism and crime nowadays, the importance of the forensic sciences can be bett er understood. Forensic science is the application of the wide spectrum of science to answer the question of legal system. It contains the application of the principles, techniques and methods of basic sciences and its main aim is the determination of the physical facts which are important in legal situations. Forensic chemistry is the branch of chemistry which performs the chemical analysis of evidences that used in the courts. Forensic chemist is the professional chemist who analyzes the evidences from crime scene and reaches a result by application of tests. Th us, they have to have a special education. In forensic laboratories candidates who have chemistry/biochemistry undergraduate degree and took biology and forensic chemistry lectures are preferred. It is necessary to design graduate and undergraduate education to train a forensic chemist. Science education should be at the core of the undergraduate education. In addition to this strong laboratory education on both science and forensic science should be given. Th e graduate program of forensic science example should contain forensic science subjects, strong academic lectures on special subjects and research and laboratory components.

  3. Trophic gradients of two minnow species with similar eco-type and their relations to water chemistry and multimetric biological integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoyun Choi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine tolerance ranges and trophic gradients of two fish populations of Zacco koreanus (Zk and Zacco platypus (Zp in relation to chemical water quality and ecological stream health, based on the biological integrity metric (BIM model. Seventy-six streams and rivers were sampled for the analysis. The population of Zk had a narrow chemical tolerance with a low phosphorus limit (< 300 μg/L as total phosphorus, whereas the Zp population occurred within a high limit (up to 1,100 μg/L. Similar patterns in the two populations were shown in nitrogen, biological oxygen demand, suspended solids, and other parameters. The population of Zp had significantly (t=5.25, p<0.001 greater chemical tolerance than the population of Zk. The population of Zk had a positive functional relation (R2=0.43, p<0.001 with insectivore species, but the Zp population had negative linear function (R2=0.50, p<0.001, indicating a trophic difference in the food chain of two populations. Application of the biological integrity model indicated that the values of BIM, as an index of ecological health, were significantly greater (t=13.67, p<0.001 in the population of Zk than the population of Zp.

  4. N-Terminal Cu-Binding Motifs (Xxx-Zzz-His, Xxx-His) and Their Derivatives: Chemistry, Biology and Medicinal Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Paulina; Bossak, Karolina; Stefaniak, Ewelina; Hureau, Christelle; Raibaut, Laurent; Bal, Wojciech; Faller, Peter

    2018-01-16

    Peptides and proteins with N-terminal amino acid sequences NH 2 -Xxx-His (XH) and NH 2 -Xxx-Zzz-His (XZH) form well-established high-affinity Cu II -complexes. Key examples are Asp-Ala-His (in serum albumin) and Gly-His-Lys, the wound healing factor. This opens a straightforward way to add a high-affinity Cu II -binding site to almost any peptide or protein, by chemical or recombinant approaches. Thus, these motifs, NH 2 -Xxx-Zzz-His in particular, have been used to equip peptides and proteins with a multitude of functions based on the redox activity of Cu, including nuclease, protease, glycosidase, or oxygen activation properties, useful in anticancer or antimicrobial drugs. More recent research suggests novel biological functions, mainly based on the redox inertness of Cu II in XZH, like PET imaging (with 64 Cu), chelation therapies (for instance in Alzheimer's disease and other types of neurodegeneration), antioxidant units, Cu transporters and activation of biological functions by strong Cu II binding. This Review gives an overview of the chemical properties of Cu-XH and -XZH motifs and discusses the pros and cons of the vastly different biological applications, and how they could be improved depending on the application. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Confectionary Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Elise Hilf

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities and demonstrations that enable teachers to use various types of confections as tactile experiences to spark chemistry students' interest and generate enthusiasm for learning. Presents uses of candy in teaching about atomic structure, spontaneous nuclear decay, chemical formulas, fractoluminescence, the effect of a molecular…

  6. Supramolecular Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    by-product from the 'unattractive goo' of an experiment which had gone wrong. Pederson examined the product and the struc- ture of dibenzo-18-crown-6 was determined (Figure 2A). Inter- estingly, in presence. 1. N Jayaraman, 2016 Nobel. Prize in Chemistry: Confer- ring Molecular Machines as. Engines of Creativity ...

  7. Food carbohydrate chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wrolstad, R. E

    2012-01-01

    .... Now in Food Carbohydrate Chemistry, author Wrolstad emphasizes the application of carbohydrate chemistry to understanding the chemistry, physical and functional properties of food carbohydrates...

  8. Handbook of heterocyclic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katritzky, Alan R

    2010-01-01

    ... Heterocyclic Chemistry I (1984) Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry II (1996) Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry III (2008) Comprehensive Organic Functional Group Transformations I (1995) Compreh...

  9. Carbohydrates in Supramolecular Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbianco, Martina; Bharate, Priya; Varela-Aramburu, Silvia; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-02-24

    Carbohydrates are involved in a variety of biological processes. The ability of sugars to form a large number of hydrogen bonds has made them important components for supramolecular chemistry. We discuss recent advances in the use of carbohydrates in supramolecular chemistry and reveal that carbohydrates are useful building blocks for the stabilization of complex architectures. Systems are presented according to the scaffold that supports the glyco-conjugate: organic macrocycles, dendrimers, nanomaterials, and polymers are considered. Glyco-conjugates can form host-guest complexes, and can self-assemble by using carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions and other weak interactions such as π-π interactions. Finally, complex supramolecular architectures based on carbohydrate-protein interactions are discussed.

  10. Site-specific antibody-liposome conjugation through copper-free click chemistry: a molecular biology approach for targeted photodynamic therapy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaid, Girgis; Wang, Yucheng; Kuriakose, Jerrin; Broekgaarden, Mans; Alkhateeb, Ahmed; Bulin, Anne-Laure; Hui, James; Tsourkas, Andrew; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2016-03-01

    Nanocarriers, such as liposomes, have the ability to potentiate photodynamic therapy (PDT) treatment regimens by the encapsulation of high payloads of photosensitizers and enhance their passive delivery to tumors through the enhanced permeability and retention effect. By conjugating targeting moieties to the surface of the liposomal nanoconstructs, cellular selectivity is imparted on them and PDT-based therapies can be performed with significantly higher dose tolerances, as off-target toxicity is simultaneously reduced.1 However, the maximal benefits of conventional targeted nanocarriers, including liposomes, are hindered by practical limitations including chemical instability, non-selective conjugation chemistry, poor control over ligand orientation, and loss of ligand functionality following conjugation, amongst others.2 We have developed a robust, physically and chemically stable liposomal nanoplatform containing benzoporphyrin derivative photosensitizer molecules within the phospholipid bilayer and an optimized surface density of strained cyclooctyne moieties for `click' conjugation to azido-functionalized antibodies.3 The clinical chimeric anti-EGFR antibody Cetuximab is site-specifically photocrosslinked to a recombinant bioengineered that recognizes the antibody's Fc region, containing a terminal azide.4 The copper-free click conjugation of the bioengineered Cetuximab derivative to the optimized photosensitizing liposome provides exceptional control over the antibody's optimal orientation for cellular antigen binding. Importantly, the reaction occurs rapidly under physiological conditions, bioorthogonally (selectively in the presence of other biomolecules) and without the need for toxic copper catalysis.3 Such state-of-the-art conjugation strategies push the boundaries of targeted photodynamic therapy beyond the limitations of traditional chemical coupling techniques to produce more robust and effective targeted therapeutics with applications beyond

  11. Medicinal electrochemistry: integration of electrochemistry, medicinal chemistry and computational chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, M O; Maltarollo, V G; de Toledo, R A; Shim, H; Santos, M C; Honorio, K M

    2014-01-01

    Over the last centuries, there were many important discoveries in medicine that were crucial for gaining a better understanding of several physiological processes. Molecular modelling techniques are powerful tools that have been successfully used to analyse and interface medicinal chemistry studies with electrochemical experimental results. This special combination can help to comprehend medicinal chemistry problems, such as predicting biological activity and understanding drug action mechanisms. Electrochemistry has provided better comprehension of biological reactions and, as a result of many technological improvements, the combination of electrochemical techniques and biosensors has become an appealing choice for pharmaceutical and biomedical analyses. Therefore, this review will briefly outline the present scope and future advances related to the integration of electrochemical and medicinal chemistry approaches based on various applications from recent studies.

  12. Environmental geology and hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakić, Zoran; Mileusnić, Marta; Pavlić, Krešimir; Kovač, Zoran

    2017-10-01

    Environmental geology is scientific discipline dealing with the interactions between humans and the geologic environment. Many natural hazards, which have great impact on humans and their environment, are caused by geological settings. On the other hand, human activities have great impact on the physical environment, especially in the last decades due to dramatic human population growth. Natural disasters often hit densely populated areas causing tremendous death toll and material damage. Demand for resources enhanced remarkably, as well as waste production. Exploitation of mineral resources deteriorate huge areas of land, produce enormous mine waste and pollute soil, water and air. Environmental geology is a broad discipline and only selected themes will be presented in the following subchapters: (1) floods as natural hazard, (2) water as geological resource and (3) the mining and mineral processing as types of human activities dealing with geological materials that affect the environment and human health.

  13. Geology of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderblom, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The geology of Mars and the results of the Mariner 4, 6/7, and 9 missions and the Viking mission are reviewed. The Mars chronology and geologic modification are examined, including chronological models for the inactive planet, the active planet, and crater flux. The importance of surface materials is discussed and a multispectral map of Mars is presented. Suggestions are given for further studies of the geology of Mars using the Viking data. 5 references

  14. Fine chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszlo, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Fine Chemistry laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research programs are centered on the renewal of the organic chemistry most important reactions and on the invention of new, highly efficient and highly selective reactions, by applying low cost reagents and solvents. An important research domain concerns the study and fabrication of new catalysts. They are obtained by means of the reactive sputtering of the metals and metal oxydes thin films. The Monte Carlo simulations of the long-range electrostatic interaction in a clay and the obtention of acrylamides from anhydrous or acrylic ester are summarized. Moreover, the results obtained in the field of catalysis are also given. The published papers and the congress communications are included [fr

  15. U.S. Geological Survey Science at the Intersection of Health and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, S. M.; Plumlee, G. S.

    2016-12-01

    People worldwide worry about how their environment affects their health, and expect scientists to help address these concerns. The OneHealth concept recognizes the crucial linkages between environment, human health, and health of other organisms. Many US Geological Survey science activities directly examine or help inform how the Earth and the environment influence toxicological and infectious diseases. Key is our ability to bring to bear a collective expertise in environmental processes, geology, hydrology, hazards, microbiology, analytical chemistry, ecosystems, energy/mineral resources, geospatial technologies, and other disciplines. Our science examines sources, environmental transport and fate, biological effects, and human exposure pathways of many microbial (e.g. bacteria, protozoans, viruses, fungi), inorganic (e.g. asbestos, arsenic, lead, mercury) and organic (e.g. algal toxins, pesticides, pharmaceuticals) contaminants from geologic, anthropogenic, and disaster sources. We develop new laboratory, experimental, and field methods to analyze, model, and map contaminants, to determine their baseline and natural background levels, and to measure their biological effects. We examine the origins, environmental persistence, wildlife effects, and potential for transmission to humans of pathogens that cause zoonotic or vector-borne diseases (e.g., avian influenza or West Nile virus). Collaborations with human health scientists from many organizations are essential. For example, our work with epidemiologists and toxicologists helps understand the exposure pathways and roles of geologically sourced toxicants such as arsenic (via drinking water) and asbestos (via dusts) in cancer. Work with pulmonologists and pathologists helps clarify the sources and fate of inhaled mineral particles in lungs. Wildlife health scientists help human health scientists assess animals as sentinels of human disease. Such transdisciplinary science is essential at the intersection of health

  16. Radioanalytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The bibliography of Hungarian literature in the field of radioanalytical chemistry covers the four-year period 1976-1979. The list of papers contains 290 references in the alphabetical order of the first authors. The majority of the titles belongs to neutron activation analysis, labelling, separation and determination of radioactive isotopes. Other important fields like radioimmunoassay, environmental protection etc. are covered as well. (Sz.J.)

  17. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The division for Analytical Chemistry continued to try and develope an accurate method for the separation of trace amounts from mixtures which, contain various other elements. Ion exchange chromatography is of special importance in this regard. New separation techniques were tried on certain trace amounts in South African standard rock materials and special ceramics. Methods were also tested for the separation of carrier-free radioisotopes from irradiated cyclotron discs

  18. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, John C.; Cannon, Amy S.; Dye, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    A grand challenge facing government, industry, and academia in the relationship of our technological society to the environment is reinventing the use of materials. To address this challenge, collaboration from an interdisciplinary group of stakeholders will be necessary. Traditionally, the approach to risk management of materials and chemicals has been through inerventions intended to reduce exposure to materials that are hazardous to health and the environment. In 1990, the Pollution Prevention Act encouraged a new tact-elimination of hazards at the source. An emerging approach to this grand challenge seeks to embed the diverse set of environmental perspectives and interests in the everyday practice of the people most responsible for using and creating new materials--chemists. The approach, which has come to be known as Green Chemistry, intends to eliminate intrinsic hazard itself, rather than focusing on reducing risk by minimizing exposure. This chapter addresses the representation of downstream environmental stakeholder interests in the upstream everyday practice that is reinventing chemistry and its material inputs, products, and waste as described in the '12 Principles of Green Chemistry'

  19. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonna, P.

    2006-01-01

    The depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and the involvement of greenhouse gases in the global warming has led to change the industrial and energy policies of most developed countries. The goal is now to reserve petroleum to the uses where it cannot be substituted, to implement renewable raw materials obtained from plants cultivation, and to consider the biodegradability of molecules and of manufactured objects by integrating the lifetime concept in their expected cycle of use. The green chemistry includes the design, development and elaboration of chemical products and processes with the aim of reducing or eliminating the use and generation of harmful compounds for the health and the environment, by adapting the present day operation modes of the chemical industry to the larger framework of the sustainable development. In addition to biofuels, this book reviews the applications of green chemistry in the different industrial processes in concern. Part 1 presents the diversity of the molecules coming from renewable carbon, in particular lignocellulose and the biotechnological processes. Part 2 is devoted to materials and treats of the overall available technological solutions. Part 3 focusses on functional molecules and chemical intermediates, in particular in sugar- and fats-chemistry. Part 4 treats of biofuels under the aspects of their production and use in today's technologies. The last part deals with the global approaches at the environmental and agricultural levels. (J.S.)

  20. The Geologic Nitrogen Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B. W.; Goldblatt, C.

    2013-12-01

    N2 is the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, and has been so through the majority of the planet's history. Originally thought to only be cycled in significant amounts through the biosphere, it is becoming increasingly clear that a large degree of geologic cycling can occur as well. N is present in crustal rocks at 10s to 100s of ppm and in the mantle at 1s to perhaps 10s of ppm. In light of new data, we present an Earth-system perspective of the modern N cycle, an updated N budget for the silicate Earth, and venture to explain the evolution of the N cycle over time. In an fashion similar to C, N has a fast, biologically mediated cycle and a slower cycle driven by plate tectonics. Bacteria fix N2 from the atmosphere into bioavailable forms. N is then cycled through the food chain, either by direct consumption of N-fixing bacteria, as NH4+ (the primary waste form), or NO3- (the most common inorganic species in the modern ocean). Some organic material settles as sediment on the ocean floor. In anoxic sediments, NH4+ dominates; due to similar ionic radii, it can readily substitute for K+ in mineral lattices, both in sedimentary rocks and in oceanic lithosphere. Once it enters a subduction zone, N may either be volatilized and returned to the atmosphere at arc volcanoes as N2 or N2O, sequestered into intrusive igneous rocks (as NH4+?), or subducted deep into the mantle, likely as NH4+. Mounting evidence indicates that a significant amount of N may be sequestered into the solid Earth, where it may remain for long periods (100s m.y.) before being returned to the atmosphere/biosphere by volcanism or weathering. The magnitude fluxes into the solid Earth and size of geologic N reservoirs are poorly constrained. The size of the N reservoirs contained in the solid Earth directly affects the evolution of Earth's atmosphere. It is possible that N now sequestered in the solid Earth was once in the atmosphere, which would have resulted in a higher atmospheric pressure, and

  1. Fundamentals of quality assessment of molecular amplification methods in clinical diagnostics. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry Scientific Division Committee on Molecular Biology Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumaier, M; Braun, A; Wagener, C

    1998-01-01

    The increasing interest in molecular biology diagnostics is a result of the tremendous gain of scientific knowledge in genetics, made possible especially since the introduction of amplification techniques. High expectations have been placed on genetic testing, and the number of laboratories now using the relevant technology is rapidly increasing--resulting in an obvious need for standardization and definition of laboratory organization. This communication is an effort towards that end. We address aspects that should be considered when structuring a new molecular diagnostic laboratory, and we discuss individual preanalytical and analytical procedures, from sampling to evaluation of assay results. In addition, different means of controlling contamination are discussed. Because the methodology is in constant change, no general standards can be defined. Accordingly, this publication is intended to serve as a recommendation for good laboratory practice and internal quality control and as a guide to troubleshooting, primarily in amplification techniques.

  2. Dapson in heterocyclic chemistry, part VIII: synthesis, molecular docking and anticancer activity of some novel sulfonylbiscompounds carrying biologically active 1,3-dihydropyridine, chromene and chromenopyridine moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Said Mansour S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several new sulfonebiscompounds having a biologically active 1,2-dihydropyridine-2-one 3–19, acrylamide 20, chromene 21, 22 and chromenopyridine 23, 24 moieties were synthesized and evaluated as potential anticancer agents. The structures of the products were confirmed via elemental analyses and spectral data. The screening tests showed that many of the biscompounds obtained exhibited good anticancer activity against human breast cell line (MCF7 comparable to doxorubicin which was used as reference drug. Compounds 11, 17 and 24 showed IC50 values 35.40 μM, 29.86 μM and 30.99 μM, respectively. In order to elucidate the mechanism of action of the synthesized compounds as anticancer agents, docking on the active site of farnesyltransferase and arginine methyltransferase was also performed and good results were obtained.

  3. Spatial and temporal variation of stream chemistry associated with contrasting geology and land-use patterns in the Chesapeake Bay watershed—Summary of results from Smith Creek, Virginia; Upper Chester River, Maryland; Conewago Creek, Pennsylvania; and Difficult Run, Virginia, 2010–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, Kenneth E.; Denver, Judith M.; Langland, Michael J.; Webber, James S.; Böhlke, J.K.; Hively, W. Dean; Clune, John W.

    2016-11-17

    Despite widespread and ongoing implementation of conservation practices throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed, water quality continues to be degraded by excess sediment and nutrient inputs. While the Chesapeake Bay Program has developed and maintains a large-scale and long-term monitoring network to detect improvements in water quality throughout the watershed, fewer resources have been allocated for monitoring smaller watersheds, even though water-quality improvements that may result from the implementation of conservation practices are likely to be first detected at smaller watershed scales.In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey partnered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Agriculture to initiate water-quality monitoring in four selected small watersheds that were targeted for increased implementation of conservation practices. Smith Creek watershed is an agricultural watershed in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia that is dominated by cattle and poultry production, and the Upper Chester River watershed is an agricultural watershed on the Eastern Shore of Maryland that is dominated by row-cropping activities. The Conewago Creek watershed is an agricultural watershed in southeastern Pennsylvania that is characterized by mixed agricultural activities. The fourth watershed, Difficult Run, is a suburban watershed in northern Virginia that is dominated by medium density residential development. The objective of this study was to investigate spatial and temporal variations in water chemistry and suspended sediment in these four relatively small watersheds that represent a range of land-use patterns and underlying geology to (1) characterize current water-quality conditions in these watersheds, and (2) identify the dominant sources, sinks, and transport processes in each watershed.The general study design involved two components. The first included intensive routine water-quality monitoring at an existing streamgage within each study

  4. Water at surfaces with tunable surface chemistries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Stephanie E.; Vanselous, Heather; Petersen, Poul B.

    2018-03-01

    Aqueous interfaces are ubiquitous in natural environments, spanning atmospheric, geological, oceanographic, and biological systems, as well as in technical applications, such as fuel cells and membrane filtration. Where liquid water terminates at a surface, an interfacial region is formed, which exhibits distinct properties from the bulk aqueous phase. The unique properties of water are governed by the hydrogen-bonded network. The chemical and physical properties of the surface dictate the boundary conditions of the bulk hydrogen-bonded network and thus the interfacial properties of the water and any molecules in that region. Understanding the properties of interfacial water requires systematically characterizing the structure and dynamics of interfacial water as a function of the surface chemistry. In this review, we focus on the use of experimental surface-specific spectroscopic methods to understand the properties of interfacial water as a function of surface chemistry. Investigations of the air-water interface, as well as efforts in tuning the properties of the air-water interface by adding solutes or surfactants, are briefly discussed. Buried aqueous interfaces can be accessed with careful selection of spectroscopic technique and sample configuration, further expanding the range of chemical environments that can be probed, including solid inorganic materials, polymers, and water immiscible liquids. Solid substrates can be finely tuned by functionalization with self-assembled monolayers, polymers, or biomolecules. These variables provide a platform for systematically tuning the chemical nature of the interface and examining the resulting water structure. Finally, time-resolved methods to probe the dynamics of interfacial water are briefly summarized before discussing the current status and future directions in studying the structure and dynamics of interfacial water.

  5. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 7. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural engine Products - Structure and Biological Functions. N R Krishnaswamy. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 7 July 1996 pp 23-30 ...

  6. The Geology of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumann, Ralf

    Titan, the largest and most complex satellite in the solar system exhibits an organic dominated surface chemistry and shares surface features with other large icy satellites as well as the terrestrial planets. It is subject to tidal stresses, and its surface appears to have been modified tectonically. Cassini's global observations at infrared and radar wavelengths as well as local investigations by the instruments on the Huygens probe has revealed that Titan has the largest known abundance of organic material in the solar system apart from Earth, and that its active hydrological cycle is analogous to that of Earth, but with methane replacing water. The surface of Titan exhibits morphological features of different sizes and origins created by geological processes that span the entire dynamic range of aeolian, fluvial and tectonic activities, with likely evidence that cryovolcanism might exists where liquid water, perhaps in concert with ammonia, methane and carbon dioxide, makes its way to the surface from the interior [e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18]. Extended dune fields, lakes, mountainous terrain, dendritic erosion patterns and erosional remnants indicate dynamic surface processes. Valleys, small-scale gullies and rounded cobbles require erosion by extended energetic flow of liquids. There is strong evidence that liquid hydrocarbons are ponded on the surface in lakes, predominantly, but not exclusively, at high northern latitudes. A variety of features including extensive flows and caldera-like constructs are interpreted to be cryovolcanic in origin. Chains and isolated blocks of rugged terrain rising from smoother areas are best described as mountains and might be related to tectonic processes. Impact craters form on all solid bodies in the solar system, and have been detected on Titan. But very few have been observed so they must be rapidly destroyed or buried by other geologic processes The morphologies of the impact

  7. Chemistry in space

    CERN Document Server

    Rehder, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic field of extraterrestrial chemistry brings together ideas of chemistr, astrophysics, and biology to the study of molecules between stars, around stars, and on plantes. This book serves as an introduction to chemial processes under ?unearthly? and hence usually extreme conditions (temperature, pressure, high or low density, bombardment by cosmic rays), and their impact on the early development of our solar system, as well as providing a deeper understanding of processes in earthly regions where conditions approach those of extraterrestrial areas.A unique and extraordinary perspe

  8. Mendeleev-2013. VII All-Russian conference of young scientists, postgraduate students and students with international participation on chemistry and nanomaterials. Book of abstracts. Section 4. Organic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    VII All-Russian conference of young scientists, postgraduate students and students with international participation on chemistry and nanomaterials was conducted on the Chemistry department of Saint-Petersburg University on April, 2-5, 2013. In the conference participants from 14 countries took part. There were five sections: Nanochemistry and nanomaterials, Analytic chemistry, Inorganic chemistry, Organic chemistry, Physical chemistry. In the collection (Section 2 - Organic chemistry) there are the abstracts concerning different aspects of organic chemistry: synthesis and study of properties of heterocyclic, organometallic, biologically active, medicinal compounds, new ion exchange materials, reagents for analytic chemistry, etc [ru

  9. Recent advances in the chemistry and biology of anti-inflammatory and specialized pro-resolving mediators biosynthesized from n-3 docosapentaenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vik, Anders; Dalli, Jesmond; Hansen, Trond Vidar

    2017-06-01

    Several novel oxygenated polyunsaturated lipid mediators biosynthesized from n-3 docosapentaenoic acid were recently isolated from murine inflammatory exudates and human primary cells. These compounds belong to a distinct family of specialized pro-resolving mediators, and display potent in vivo anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution effects. The endogenously formed specialized pro-resolving mediators have attracted a great interest as lead compounds in drug discovery programs towards the development of new classes of drugs that dampen inflammation without interfering with the immune response. Detailed information on the chemical structures, cellular functions and distinct biosynthetic pathways of specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators is a central aspect of these biological actions. Herein, the isolation, structural elucidation, biosynthetic pathways, total synthesis and bioactions of the n-3 docosapentaenoic acid derived mediators PD1 n-3 DPA and MaR1 n-3 DPA are discussed. In addition, a brief discussion of a novel family of mediators derived from n-3 docosapentaenoic acid, termed 13-series resolvins is included. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. AEGIS geologic simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    The Geologic Simulation Model (GSM) is used by the AEGIS (Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems) program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to simulate the dynamic geology and hydrology of a geologic nuclear waste repository site over a million-year period following repository closure. The GSM helps to organize geologic/hydrologic data; to focus attention on active natural processes by requiring their simulation; and, through interactive simulation and calibration, to reduce subjective evaluations of the geologic system. During each computer run, the GSM produces a million-year geologic history that is possible for the region and the repository site. In addition, the GSM records in permanent history files everything that occurred during that time span. Statistical analyses of data in the history files of several hundred simulations are used to classify typical evolutionary paths, to establish the probabilities associated with deviations from the typical paths, and to determine which types of perturbations of the geologic/hydrologic system, if any, are most likely to occur. These simulations will be evaluated by geologists familiar with the repository region to determine validity of the results. Perturbed systems that are determined to be the most realistic, within whatever probability limits are established, will be used for the analyses that involve radionuclide transport and dose models. The GSM is designed to be continuously refined and updated. Simulation models are site specific, and, although the submodels may have limited general applicability, the input data equirements necessitate detailed characterization of each site before application

  11. Geology of the seashore

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    There are many different types of beaches around Ireland. By looking at the geology of the seashore, students can study its rocks, soil, and minerals and learn about its origins. The geology of the seashore also offers a natural environment for many species and plants to live.

  12. Click Chemistry in Complex Mixtures: Bioorthogonal Bioconjugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Craig S.; Finn, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    The selective chemical modification of biological molecules drives a good portion of modern drug development and fundamental biological research. While a few early examples of reactions that engage amine and thiol groups on proteins helped establish the value of such processes, the development of reactions that avoid most biological molecules so as to achieve selectivity in desired bond-forming events has revolutionized the field. We provide an update on recent developments in bioorthogonal chemistry that highlights key advances in reaction rates, biocompatibility, and applications. While not exhaustive, we hope this summary allows the reader to appreciate the rich continuing development of good chemistry that operates in the biological setting. PMID:25237856

  13. Field Geology/Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

  14. Interstellar chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemperer, William

    2006-01-01

    In the past half century, radioastronomy has changed our perception and understanding of the universe. In this issue of PNAS, the molecular chemistry directly observed within the galaxy is discussed. For the most part, the description of the molecular transformations requires specific kinetic schemes rather than chemical thermodynamics. Ionization of the very abundant molecular hydrogen and atomic helium followed by their secondary reactions is discussed. The rich variety of organic species observed is a challenge for complete understanding. The role and nature of reactions involving grain surfaces as well as new spectroscopic observations of interstellar and circumstellar regions are topics presented in this special feature. PMID:16894148

  15. Impacts of effluent from Carlsbad Desalination Plant on the coastal biology and chemistry in a in-situ study of pre- and post-discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, K. L.; Heck, N.; Paytan, A.; Potts, D. C.

    2016-12-01

    Ongoing droughts throughout the world and increasing water demand are creating critical water shortage in arid and semi-arid regions. Desalination of seawater is a powerful source of potable water, however the effects of the brine discharge on coastal areas are insufficiently studied. Here we report results from in-situ measurements of the effects of brine discharge from a desalination plant in Carlsbad, in Southern California before and after operation began. Operation as of December 2015. Pre-discharge samples were collected in December 2014 and September 2015. Post-discharge samples were collected in May 2016 and November 2016. Water samples are collected at the mount of the discharge channel and out to 1000 m offshore. Both surface and bottom water samples were collected and analyzed for salinity, temperature, Chl a concentration, nutrients (NO3, PO4 and silica), δ13C and δ15N of suspended matter, DOC and organic contaminants. Samples are also collected for phytoplankton cell count and sediment grain size. A biological swath was done by SCUBA divers to verify abundance and diversity of benthic organisms. The pre-discharge measurements show a homogenous water column for salinity, Chl a and nutrients. There is a slight temperature difference between the discharge channel and the intake channel due to activities of a power plant around the discharge channel. There are significantly fewer species and a lower abundance of benthic organism by the discharge channel than by the intake. This is possibly due to a higher flow rate at the discharge channel. The preliminary post-discharge analyses show a stratified water column at the discharge area. The salinity was higher by 2 to 3 salinity units at the discharge site. This trend is evident to 600 m offshore. How this affects the benthic organisms and the phytoplankton will be reported.

  16. Further development of semiconductography for low energy beta nuclides and its application for standard radioactive sources and in chemistry and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tykva, R.

    1975-05-01

    A method called semiconductography has been developed and applied to determine distribution of radionuclides emitting corpuscular radiation. This method is fully automated and is based on a programmed detection of the distribution of radionuclides by means of a special surface barrier silicon detector. Simultaneously with the record of the distribution of activity the contour of the sample can also be determined. A special technology has been developed for production of semiconductor detectors permitting detection of low-energy electrons at room temperature and under normal pressure. In comparison to the detectors from Ortec, U.S.A. and diffused silicon detectors from General Electric, U.S.A., the detectors developed by investigators under the research contract are superior in performance in determining the distribution of radionuclides including the low-energy beta-nuclides in tracer experiments in the life sciences. Compared to current ionisation, scintillation, spark chamber, and autoradiographic methods, semiconductography exhibits several special features. It has a high energy resolution permitting discrimination between radionuclides of energies close to each other (e.g., 14 C and 35 S) and determination of the volume distribution of radionuclides in a non-destructive manner. The results obtained under the contract show that in various life-sciences (biochemistry, molecular biology, embryology, teratology, botany, pharmacology), semiconductography with radionuclide-labelled compounds can offer better means to solve such problems which are difficult to approach by usual isotopic methods. The semiconductography has also been successfully used in the determination of non-homogeneity of planar reference sources and in production of labelled substances

  17. Global Journal of Geological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Geological Sciences is aimed at promoting research in all areas of Geological Sciences including geochemistry, geophysics, engineering geology, hydrogeology, petrology, mineralogy, geochronology, tectonics, mining, structural geology, marine geology, space science etc. Visit the Global Journal Series ...

  18. Native American Students' Understanding of Geologic Time Scale: 4th-8th Grade Ojibwe Students' Understanding of Earth's Geologic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Younkyeong; Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Geologic time scale is a very important concept for understanding long-term earth system events such as climate change. This study examines forty-three 4th-8th grade Native American--particularly Ojibwe tribe--students' understanding of relative ordering and absolute time of Earth's significant geological and biological events. This study also…

  19. Global Journal of Geological Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Global Journal of Geological Sciences is aimed at promoting research in all areas of geological Sciences including Petrology, Mineralogy, geophysics, hydrogeology, Engineering geology, Petroleum geology, Palaeontology, environmental geology, Economic geology, etc.

  20. Fundamentals of Structural Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, David D.; Fletcher, Raymond C.

    2005-09-01

    Fundamentals of Structural Geology provides a new framework for the investigation of geological structures by integrating field mapping and mechanical analysis. Assuming a basic knowledge of physical geology, introductory calculus and physics, it emphasizes the observational data, modern mapping technology, principles of continuum mechanics, and the mathematical and computational skills, necessary to quantitatively map, describe, model, and explain deformation in Earth's lithosphere. By starting from the fundamental conservation laws of mass and momentum, the constitutive laws of material behavior, and the kinematic relationships for strain and rate of deformation, the authors demonstrate the relevance of solid and fluid mechanics to structural geology. This book offers a modern quantitative approach to structural geology for advanced students and researchers in structural geology and tectonics. It is supported by a website hosting images from the book, additional colour images, student exercises and MATLAB scripts. Solutions to the exercises are available to instructors. The book integrates field mapping using modern technology with the analysis of structures based on a complete mechanics MATLAB is used to visualize physical fields and analytical results and MATLAB scripts can be downloaded from the website to recreate textbook graphics and enable students to explore their choice of parameters and boundary conditions The supplementary website hosts color images of outcrop photographs used in the text, supplementary color images, and images of textbook figures for classroom presentations The textbook website also includes student exercises designed to instill the fundamental relationships, and to encourage the visualization of the evolution of geological structures; solutions are available to instructors

  1. Geological heritage of Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhadi, H.; Tahiri, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The soil and subsoil of Morocco are rich in geological phenomena that bear the imprint of a history that goes back in time more than 2000 million years. Very many sites geologically remarkable exposed in accessible outcrops, with good quality remain unknown to the general public and therefore deserve to be vulgarized. It is a memory to acquaint to the present generations but also to preserve for future generations. In total, a rich geological heritage in many ways: Varied landscapes, international stratotypes, various geological structures, varied rocks, mineral associations, a huge procession of fossiles, remnants of oceanic crust (ophiolites) among oldests ones in the world (800my), etc... For this geological heritage, an approach of an overall inventory is needed, both regionally and nationally, taking into account all the skills of the earth sciences. This will put the item on the natural (geological) potentialities as a lever for sustainable regional development. For this, it is necessary to implement a strategy of ''geoconservation'' for the preservation and assessment of the geological heritage.

  2. Harmonization of interpretative comments in laboratory hematology reporting: the recommendations of Working Group on Diagnostic Hematology of the Italian Society of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Molecular Biology (WGDH-SIBioC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoro, Sabrina; Da Rin, Giorgio; Fanelli, Alessandra; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2018-02-01

    The goal of harmonizing laboratory testing is contributing to improving the quality of patient care and ultimately ameliorating patient outcome. The complete blood and leukocyte differential counts are among the most frequently requested clinical laboratory tests. The morphological assessment of peripheral blood cells (PB) through microscopic examination of properly stained blood smears is still considered a hallmark of laboratory hematology. Nevertheless, a variable inter-observer experience and the different terminology used for characterizing cellular abnormalities both contribute to the current lack of harmonization in blood smear revision. In 2014, the Working Group on Diagnostic Hematology of the Italian Society of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Molecular Biology (WGDH-SIBioC) conducted a national survey, collecting responses from 78 different Italian laboratories. The results of this survey highlighted a lack of harmonization of interpretative comments in hematology, which prompted the WGDH-SIBioC to develop a project on "Harmonization of interpretative comments in the laboratory hematology report", aimed at identifying appropriate comments and proposing a standardized reporting system. The comments were then revised and updated according to the 2016 revision of the World Health Organization classification of hematologic malignancies. In summary, the purpose of revaluating comments was aimed at: (a) reducing their overall number, (b) standardizing the language, (c) providing information that could be easily comprehended by clinicians and patients, (d) increasing the quality of the clinical information, and (e) suggesting additional diagnostic tests when necessary.

  3. Glossary of Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Julia A.

    The Glossary has expanded coverage particularly in such active fields as carbonate sedimentology, environmental geology and geophysics, GIS, GPS, hydrology and hydraulics, marine and coastal geology, organic geochemistry, paleoecology, seismology, stratigraphic nomenclature, speleology and karst, and structural geology and tectonics. Many definitions provide a syllabification guide and background information. Thus a reader will learn the difference between look-alike pairs, such as sylvanite (a mineral) and sylvinite (a rock); the origin of terms; the meaning of abbreviations and acronyms common in the geosciences vocabulary; the dates many terms were first used; the meaning of certain prefixes; and the preferred term of two or more synonyms.

  4. Current developments in radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The theme of the 2000 Gordon Conference on Radiation Chemistry was 'diversity'. The range of topics covered was heralded by the opening presentations which went from the galactic to molecular biology, radiation chemistry and non thermal surface processes in the outer solar system to achievements and open challenges in DNA research. The rest of the conference reflected the extended usage of radiation chemistry -its processes and techniques - applied to a panorama of topics. The ability to generate either oxidising or reducing free radicals in known quantities has been the foundation stone on which all applications are based. In particular it is noticeable that biological systems have been attempted by an increasing number of workers, such as studies of biological ageing and also reactions of nitric oxide in biological environments. Electron transfer processes in proteins are straightforward applications of solvated electron chemistry even if the results are not straightforward in their interpretation. Other topics presented include, radiation chemical processes induced in: supercritical CO 2 , treatment of contaminated materials, 3-dimensional Fullerenes, zeolites and radiation catalysis. In material science, aspects of ions and excited states in polymers, conducting polymers, donor acceptor processes in photo curing, enhancement of photo-electron yields in doped silver halides- improvement of the photographic process, radiation chemistry in cages and bubbles are discussed. The fundamental aspects of radiation chemistry are not yet all worked out. Subpicosecond pulsed electron beam sources, some of them 'tabletop', are still being planned to probe the early events in radiation chemistry both in water and in organic solvents. There is still an interest in the chemistry produced by pre-solvated electrons and the processes induced by heavy ion radiolysis. The description of the relaxation of an irradiated system which contains uneven distributions of ions

  5. Geological workshop for primary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Rman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Systematical teaching of geology is (yet not established in primary and secondary school in Slovenia. In primaryschool, geological topics are divided among numerous subjects and levels therefore they receive more attention onlyif alternative courses or geological circles are realized. With help of the Geological Survey of Slovenia we have beensuccessfully performing a geological workshop for primary school pupils aiming to popularize geology. With it pupilsare acquainted with methodologies for identification of rocks, minerals, fossils and properties of water.

  6. Fundamentals of nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, K.

    1982-01-01

    The textbook is a Czech-to-German translation of the second revised edition and covers the subject under the headings: general nuclear chemistry, methods of nuclear chemistry, preparative nuclear chemistry, analytical nuclear chemistry, and applied chemistry. The book is especially directed to students

  7. Reconnaissance geologic map of the northern Kawich and southern Reveille ranges, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, J.N.; Eddy, A.C.; Goff, F.E.; Grafft, K.S.

    1980-06-01

    A geological survey was performed in Nye County, Nevada. Results of that survey are summarized in the maps included. The general geology of the area is discussed. Major structures are described. The economics resulting from the mineral exploitation in the area are discussed. The hydrogeology and water chemistry of the area are also discussed.

  8. Reconnaissance geologic map of the northern Kawich and southern Reveille ranges, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, J.N.; Eddy, A.C.; Goff, F.E.; Grafft, K.S.

    1980-06-01

    A geological survey was performed in Nye County, Nevada. Results of that survey are summarized in the maps included. The general geology of the area is discussed. Major structures are described. The economics resulting from the mineral exploitation in the area are discussed. The hydrogeology and water chemistry of the area are also discussed

  9. Where is the future of nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The future potentials of nuclear chemistry as a natural science with a strong orientation towards practical applications has been discussed at this meeting of 45 experts coming from research institutes and laboratories working in the fields of radiochemistry, nuclear chemistry, inorganic and applied chemistry, hot-atom chemistry, radiobiology, and nuclear biology, and from the two nuclear research centres at Juelich and Karlsruhe. The discussion centred around the four main aspects of future work, namely 1. basic research leading to an extension of the periodic table, nuclear reactions, the chemistry of superheavy elements, cosmochemistry; 2. radionuclide technology and activation analysis; 3. nuclear fuel cycle and reprocessing processes together with ultimate disposal methods; 4. radiochemistry in the life sciences, including nuclear chemistry and applications. (HK) [de

  10. Catching the cheats: advances in the detection of endogenous steroid abuse in sport. Chemistry, pharmacology and biology have a pivotal role in doping control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazlawskas, R.; Trout, G.J.; George, A.V.; Cawley, A.T.; Silk, A.J.; Marshall-Gradisnik, S.; Weatherby, R.P.

    2006-01-01

    . Merely elevated levels of A and Et are insufficient proof of a doping offence, but gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) confirms the presence of synthetic copies of endogenous steroids. This technology uses differences in stable carbon isotope ratios (δ 13 C) that reflect the source of origin of the carbon in a compound. In the case of steroids, synthetic copies of endogenous steroids are derived from plant sources, such as soy, that have a low 13 C content. This isotopic signature is carried forward to urinary steroid metabolites that are 13 C depleted in relation to their endogenous analogues that are derived from dietary sources. The differences between the body and the bottle are very small, but measurable using a δ 13 C scale that is now referenced to the international standard, Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB). This enables 13 C/ 12 C measurements to be interpreted in a meaningful manner, where one per mille (% 0 ) represents a one-thousandth difference in 13 C content relative to VPDB; 1% 0 = 0.001099 atom %. While the differences that GC-C-IRMS instruments measure are small, the precision of the IRMS technique is very high, with an estimated uncertainty of 0.2% 0 . Biological internal standards: the δ 13 C value on an endogenous reference compound (ERC) was also measured to minimise inter-individual variations (diet, ethnicity, age, gender). The ERC used was produced by metabolic pathways distinct from the androgen biosynthetic pathway. The averaged difference of δ 13 C A and δ 13 C Et to δ 13 C ERC was observed to increase from 1.1% 0 to 14.5% 0 . To demonstrate that the 13 C depleted values of A and Et observed following endogenous steroid administration are not within natural variations across different populations a comprehensive δ 13 C profiling study was undertaken using 1120 urine samples collected from erythropoietin validation for the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. Comparison of these δ 13 C values to those

  11. Cyclodextrin chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.Z.; Chuaqui, C.A.

    1990-05-01

    The chemistry of cyclodextrins was studied. This study included synthesising some cyclodextrin derivatives, preparing selected inclusion complexes with cyclodextrin and investigating the effects of gamma irradiation on cyclodextrins and certain linear oligosaccharides. This report presents a brief review of the structure and properties of cyclodextrins, the synthesis of cyclodextrin derivatives, their complexation and applications. This is followed by a description of the synthesis of some cyclodextrin derivatives and the preparation of inclusion complexes of cyclodextrin with some organic compounds. Finally, the effects of gamma irradiation on cyclodextrins, some of their derivatives and certain structurally related carbohydrates are discussed. The gamma irradiation studies were carried out for two reasons: to study the effects of gamma irradiation on cyclodextrins and their derivatives; and to investigate selectivity during the gamma irradiation of cyclodextrin derivatives

  12. Theoretical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Work in theoretical chemistry was organized under the following topics: scattering theory and dynamics (elastic scattering of the rare gas hydrides, inelastic scattering in Li + H 2 , statistical theory for bimolecular collisions, model study of dissociative scattering, comparative study of elastic scattering computational methods), studies of atmospheric diatomic and triatomic species, structure and spectra of diatomic molecules, the evaluation of van der Waals forces, potential energy surfaces and structure and dynamics, calculation of molecular polarizabilities, and development of theoretical techniques and computing systems. Spectroscopic parameters are tabulated for NO 2 , N 2 O, H 2 O + , VH, and NH. Self-consistent-field wave functions were computed for He 2 in two-center and three-center bases. Rare gas hydride intermolecular potentials are shown. (9 figures, 14 tables) (U.S.)

  13. Combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  14. Iowa Bedrock Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The bedrock geologic map portrays the current interpretation of the distribution of various bedrock stratigraphic units present at the bedrock surface. The bedrock...

  15. Geologic and Seismologic Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    Utah, Embankment Criteria and Performance Report, August 1994 2. Caliente Creek Stream Group Investigation California, Draft Feasibility Report. June...trenching and soil-stratigraphic investigations east of Sacramento, north of the study area ( Tierra Engineering Consultants, 1983) at Folsom Dam showed...Geologic Map of California, Olaf P. Jenkins edition, Mariposa Sheet: California Division qf Mines and Geology, Scale 1:250,000. Tierra Entgineering

  16. Thermoluminescence studies in geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaran, A.V.; Sunta, C.M.; Nambi, K.S.V.; Bapat, V.N.

    1980-01-01

    Even though the phenomenon of thermoluminescence is well studied, particularly over last 3 decades, its potentialities in the field of geology have not been adequately evaluated. In this report several useful applications of TL in mineralogy, petrogenesis, stratigraphy, tectonics, ore-prospecting and other branches have been identified with particular emphasis to the Indian scene. Important areas in the country that may provide the basic material for such studies are indicated at the end along with brief geological or mineralogical accounts. (auth.)

  17. Coupling between water chemistry and thermal output at unsaturated repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.; LeMone, D.; Casey, D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes issues in predicting thermohydrology in the near field of a deep geological repository and the implications for performance assessment. Predicted thermohydrology depends on waste package design, and particularly on backfill materials. The coupling between solute concentrations and thermal gradients leads to a prediction of highly variable water chemistry in the near field which is radically different than the initial, undisturbed water chemistry; however, most analyses to date assume that waste package chemistry is approximately the same as initial pore water chemistry. Several alternative, simplified approaches for performance assessment are discussed

  18. From Metalloproteins to Coordination Chemistry: A Learning Exercise to Teach Transition Metal Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reglinski, John; Graham, Duncan; Kennedy, Alan R.; Gibson, Lorraine T.

    2004-01-01

    An exercise is organized to reinforce the fundamental rules of coordination chemistry through a biological study of metalloproteins. The work, which is divided into four well-defined activities, involves a major application of computer databases to address chemical problems.

  19. Bioscience methodologies in physical chemistry an engineering and molecular approach

    CERN Document Server

    D'Amore, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The field of bioscience methodologies in physical chemistry stands at the intersection of the power and generality of classical and quantum physics with the minute molecular complexity of chemistry and biology. This book provides an application of physical principles in explaining and rationalizing chemical and biological phenomena. It does not stick to the classical topics that are conventionally considered as part of physical chemistry; instead it presents principles deciphered from a modern point of view, which is the strength of this book.

  20. Designing a Mathematics Course for Chemistry and Geology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, Gareth Q.

    2005-01-01

    Many mathematics departments usually teach a variety of courses for students from different science departments and even from different faculties. These "service" courses are usually taught in the same way as the courses for mathematics major students. However, in science, because of the need to better analyse and interpret experimental…

  1. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1981-01-01

    Describes areas of inorganic chemistry which have changed dramatically in the past year or two, including photochemistry, electrochemistry, organometallic complexes, inorganic reaction theory, and solid state chemistry. (DS)

  2. Strange Bedfellows; Physical and Biological Oceanographers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooster, W. S.

    2002-12-01

    When I started graduate study at Scripps in 1947, both the text, "The Oceans", and the curriculum - all students took the introductory courses in physics, chemistry, biology, and geology - conspired to create awareness of the interactions among these fields. In their preface, the authors spoke of the book as "an aid to the beginner and specialist alike in the coordination of the various fields of oceanography." Harald Sverdrup, perhaps the best known physical oceanographer of his day, introduced us to the interdisciplinary organization, ICES, wrote an important paper (1953) on "the vernal blooming of phytoplankton", and together with fishery biologist O.E.Sette, launched the world renowned CalCOFI program. Another noted physical oceanographer, Henry Stommel, 1949, teamed up with biologist Gordon Riley in a major study of the quantitative ecology of plankton. At the time, physical and biological oceanographers often seemed to be engaged in the same mission. The curriculum format, with its four basic courses, spread to most other graduate programs in oceanography, but the forces of specialization also spread. While the biological oceanographers have always seen the need to understand the milieu within which their creatures function, the physicists often seemed to chafe against wasting their time on squishy subjects like biology when there were so many more important and fascinating things to study. Interactions were further complicated by the confusion between "biological oceanography" and "marine biology", and by the status of "fishery biology" which was often disdained by oceanographers of all stripes. I propose to discuss the evolution of the relationship among these fields during the 60 years since "The Oceans" was first published, concluding with the present marriage of convenience, or at least amicable co-habitation, forced by the widespread concern over the threat of global warming and the need to understand its consequences. It has become clear that

  3. Chemistry and Redox Biology of Mycothiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Aníbal M; Pedre, Brandán; De Armas, María Inés; Tossounian, Maria-Armineh; Radi, Rafael; Messens, Joris; Trujillo, Madia

    2018-02-20

    Mycothiol (MSH, AcCys-GlcN-Ins) is the main low-molecular weight (LMW) thiol of most Actinomycetes, including the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis that affects millions of people worldwide. Strains with decreased MSH content show increased susceptibilities to hydroperoxides and electrophilic compounds. In M. tuberculosis, MSH modulates the response to several antituberculosis drugs. Enzymatic routes involving MSH could provide clues for specific drug design. Recent Advances: Physicochemical data argue against a rapid, nonenzymatic reaction of MSH with oxidants, disulfides, or electrophiles. Moreover, exposure of the bacteria to high concentrations of two-electron oxidants resulted in protein mycothiolation. The recently described glutaredoxin-like protein mycoredoxin-1 (Mrx-1) provides a route for catalytic reduction of mycothiolated proteins, protecting critical cysteines from irreversible oxidation. The description of MSH/Mrx-1-dependent activities of peroxidases helped to explain the higher susceptibility to oxidants observed in Actinomycetes lacking MSH. Moreover, the first mycothiol-S-transferase, member of the DinB superfamily of proteins, was described. In Corynebacterium, both the MSH/Mrx-1 and the thioredoxin pathways reduce methionine sulfoxide reductase A. A novel tool for in vivo imaging of the MSH/mycothiol disulfide (MSSM) status allows following changes in the mycothiol redox state during macrophage infection and its relationship with antibiotic sensitivity. Redundancy of MSH with other LMW thiols is starting to be unraveled and could help to rationalize the differences in the reported importance of MSH synthesis observed in vitro versus in animal infection models. Future work should be directed to establish the structural bases of the specificity of MSH-dependent enzymes, thus facilitating drug developments. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 487-504.

  4. The chemistry of peroxynitrite, a biological toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Koppenol

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxyradicals play a tole in several diseases. While for several decades the hydroxyl radical - produced via the Fenton reaction - has been considered the species that initiates oxyradical damage, new findings suggest that much of this damage can be ascribed to peroxynitrite, O=NOO-, formed from the reaction of the superoxide anion with nitrogen monoxide near activated macrophages. The rate constant for the reaction of this reaction has been investigated by flash photolysis and was found to be significantly higher than previously described in the literature, 1.9 x 10(10 M-1s-1. Studies of the isomerization to nitrate resulted in the discovery of a complex between peroxynitrite and its protonated form with a stability constant of 1 x 10(4 M-1. Some of the harmful reaction of peroxynitrous acid have been ascribed to the hydroxyl radical as a product of homolysis of the O-O bond during the conversion to nitrate. Kinetics of the isomerization reaction as a function of pressure show that the activation volume is only +1.5+1.0 ml mol-1, which is inconsistent with homolysis. Instead, an intermediate, possibly a distorted trans-isomer of O=NOOH could be responsible for the harmful reactions of peroxynitrite.

  5. Virtual Laboratories in Chemistry, Biochemistry, & Molecular Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Michael; Achiam, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Report (state-of-the-art review) from a research and development project on virtual laboratories supported by Markedmodningsfonden (tidl. "Fornyelsesfonden")(2012-2014). http://markedsmodningsfonden.dk/projekt/0/34/495.......Report (state-of-the-art review) from a research and development project on virtual laboratories supported by Markedmodningsfonden (tidl. "Fornyelsesfonden")(2012-2014). http://markedsmodningsfonden.dk/projekt/0/34/495....

  6. Biology, chemistry and pathology of collagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischmajer, R.; Olsen, B.R.; Kuhn, K.

    1985-01-01

    This book consists of five parts and a section of poster papers. Some of the articles are: Structure of the Type II Collagen Gene; Structural and Functional Analysis of the Genes for ..cap alpha..2(1) and ..cap alpha..1(III) collagens; Structure and Expression of the Collagen Genes of C. Elegans; Molecular Basis of Clinical Heterogeneity in the Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome; and Normal and Mutant Human Collagen Genes.

  7. Outstanding marine molecules : chemistry, biology, analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Debitus, Cécile; Kornprobst, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Stalked crinoids were, for a long time, known as fossils found in different quarries, and also from ocean depths since the great expeditions of the eighteenth century. The chemical analyses of fossils and also of living organisms led to the discovery of new bioactive pigments, and also confirmed that the core structures of these pigments had been preserved during the fossilization process. The existence of these quinoid pigments also leads to several interesting questions related to ...

  8. Lewisite: its chemistry, toxicology, and biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, M; Dacre, J C

    1989-01-01

    Lewisite is an organic arsenical war gas which is a vesicant with attendant toxicities due to its ability to combine with thiol groups which are essential for activity of a variety of enzymes. Although Lewisite has been designated as a "suspected carcinogen," the indictment is not supported by the available scientific evidence. Indeed, the unwarranted conclusion is based on one specific case history of a former German soldier whose lower right leg was exposed to liquid Lewisite in 1940 with subsequent development of intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma, and the examination of death certificates of former workers at a Japanese factory that manufactured a variety of war gases including mustard gas, hydrocyanic acid, chloracetophenome, phosgene, diphenylcyanarsine and Lewisite. It is difficult to comprehend why Lewisite was selected out of this group of toxic chemicals as one of those responsible for respiratory cancer in these workers. It would appear to be a difficult task, indeed, to disengage a specific worker from one of the other of several gases at the workplace and assign a specific gas-induced death. The evidence that organic arsenicals are carcinogenic is weak. Although the weight of evidence is such that inorganic arsenical derivatives are considered weak mutagens, the evidence that organic arsenicals are mutagenic is poor. Recent examination of the mutagenic potential of Lewisite using the Ames test has shown that Lewisite is not mutagenic under these circumstances. While oral administration of arsenical compounds, whether inorganic or organic, does not induce teratogenicity except at very high dose levels which are associated with some degree of maternal toxicity, parenteral administration has been associated with teratogenicity but information of maternal toxicity has not always been available. Indeed, maternal toxicity should be considered as an important diagnostic tool in assessing whether a chemical is teratogenic. The significance of parenteral routes for inducing teratogenicity is also problematical. Recently, Lewisite has been shown not to be teratogenic in either rats or rabbits. A monograph on arsenic, succinctly states that "no human epidemiological investigations have been conducted on the carcinogenicity of organic arsenic compounds" (WHO 1981). Indeed, the lack of such evidence eminating from epidemiological sources or from animal studies is resounding. At present, there is no evidence that Lewisite is either carcinogenic, mutagenic or teratogenic. A review of toxicological studies of other organic arsenicals has produced no evidence that they might be carcinogenic, mutagenic or teratogenic.

  9. How does biology emerge from chemistry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Rafal

    2012-01-01

    Proper theory for the origins-of-life should propose a logical chain of events that would start with prebiotic soup and end with a living organism. RNA-world seems to be the only theory for the origin-of-life that succeeds at this task. Despite heavy criticism directed at it no alternative theories...... of similar scope have been put forward. This talk will be an attempt at providing an alternative theory for the origin-of-life based on the so called “compartmentalistic school” approach. We will start by the premise of prebiotic-ecology, in which complex molecules of prebiotic soup interact with each other...... giving rise to supramolecular-selection, a process in which different macromolecular assemblies are preferentially formed basing on their contingent properties. The second premise will be a spontaneous appearance of autopoietic entities trough the actions of supramolecular selection. It will be argued...

  10. Telomerases: chemistry, biology, and clinical applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lue, Neal F; Autexier, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    .... Other topics include telomerase biogenesis, transcriptional and post-translational regulation, off-telomere functions of telomerase and the role of telomerase in cellular senescence, aging and cancer...

  11. Virtual Laboratories in Chemistry, Biochemistry, & Molecular Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Michael; Achiam, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Report (state-of-the-art review) from a research and development project on virtual laboratories supported by Markedmodningsfonden (tidl. "Fornyelsesfonden")(2012-2014). http://markedsmodningsfonden.dk/projekt/0/34/495....

  12. Dark grains of sand: a geological storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo Maresca, Magda

    2017-04-01

    In the secondary Italian school the Earth science learning begins at first year, in synergy with other natural science subjects such as Astronomy, Chemistry and Biology. Italian teachers have to focus on the landscape geomorphological aspects and often Earth processes are difficult to display since they are related to certain phenomena happened during the past and often far from the involved country. In order to better understand the environment surrounding us, very simple and poor materials, like sands, allow the teachers to create attractive lab experiences. According to the IBSE (Inquiry Based Science Education) approach, a learning unit has been implemented starting from a walking along the light carbonate beaches of the Adriatic sea: a smart look to the sands ("engage step"), stroke the students fantasy pushing them to explore some strange black grains on the sands. Dirty sands? Or rock landscape, soil degradation and Ofanto river and coastal processes (erosion, transportation and deposition)? This was the teaching challenge. Due to the youngest age, a third level, guided inquiry, was adopted so the teacher is the "guide of inquiry" encouraging the students using the research question ("Why is the sand dark?", "Do all sands look the same?", "Where does it come from?") and driving the students around their investigation plans ("How can I measure grain size?"). A procedure to answer the above questions and validate the results and explanations has been implemented to allow the students to be proactive in their study. During the learning activities will be the students to ask for field trip to elaborate their new knowledge, verify and visualize the speculated processes. The teaching skills allow to address several geosciences domains such as mineralogy, petrology, regional geology and geodynamics as well as other scientific disciplines such as mathematics (more specifically statistics), forensic science and even life sciences (the presence of bioclasts might

  13. Teaching Green and Sustainable Chemistry: A Revised One-Semester Course Based on Inspirations and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteel-Parrish, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    An elective course, "Toward the Greening of Our Minds": Green and Sustainable Chemistry, has been offered at Washington College since 2005. This new course without laboratory is designed for chemistry and biology majors and minors who have previously taken two semesters of general chemistry and organic chemistry. Due to the popularity of…

  14. Geologic map of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Dohm, James M.; Irwin, Rossman P.; Kolb, Eric J.; Fortezzo, Corey M.; Platz, Thomas; Michael, Gregory G.; Hare, Trent M.

    2014-01-01

    This global geologic map of Mars, which records the distribution of geologic units and landforms on the planet's surface through time, is based on unprecedented variety, quality, and quantity of remotely sensed data acquired since the Viking Orbiters. These data have provided morphologic, topographic, spectral, thermophysical, radar sounding, and other observations for integration, analysis, and interpretation in support of geologic mapping. In particular, the precise topographic mapping now available has enabled consistent morphologic portrayal of the surface for global mapping (whereas previously used visual-range image bases were less effective, because they combined morphologic and albedo information and, locally, atmospheric haze). Also, thermal infrared image bases used for this map tended to be less affected by atmospheric haze and thus are reliable for analysis of surface morphology and texture at even higher resolution than the topographic products.

  15. Geology at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Both advocates and critics disagree on the significance and interpretation of critical geological features which bear on the safety and suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Critics believe that there is sufficient geological evidence to rule the site unsuitable for further investigation. Some advocates claim that there is insufficient data and that investigations are incomplete, while others claim that the site is free of major obstacles. We have expanded our efforts to include both the critical evaluations of existing geological and geochemical data and the collection of field data and samples for the purpose of preparing scientific papers for submittal to journals. Summaries of the critical reviews are presented in this paper

  16. Geology of Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R.; Craddock, R. A.; Crown, D. A.; Leshin, L. A.; Schaber, G. G.

    1987-01-01

    Geologic mapping of the Jovian satellite Io has been completed at 1:15,000,000 scale for an area lying between +40 and -90 deg latitude and 230 and 45 deg longitude, which includes portions of the Ruwa Patera quadrangle (Ji2) and the Lerna Region (Ji4) and the westernmost section of the Colchis Region (Ji3). Image resolution in the mapped area is commonly 0.5 to 2 km/pxl. High resolution areas (less than .5 km/pxl) are located near the south pole (Lerna Region) and in eastern Ruwa Patera quadrangle. Geologic maps for the Ruwa Patera quadrangle (Ji2) and the Lerna Region (Ji4) have been produced at 1:5,000,000 scale. The present effort reexamines the previously mapped areas and synthesizes the geology of Io on a global scale.

  17. The geology of Ganymede

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, E. M.; Lucchitta, B. K.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Plescia, J. B.; Squyres, S. W.

    A broad outline of the geologic history of Ganymede is presented, obtained from a first attempt to map the geology on a global scale and to interpret the characteristics of the observed geologic units. Features of the ancient cratered terrain such as craters and palimpsests, furrows and troughs, are discussed. The grooved terrain is described, including its sulci and cells, and the age relation of these units is considered along with the structure and origin of this terrain. The Gilgamesh Basin and Western Equatorial Basin in the post grooved terrain are treated, as are the bright and dark ray craters and the regolith. The development of all these regions and features is discussed in context. For the regolith, this includes the effect of water migration, sputtering, and thermal annealing. The histories of the ancient cratered terrain, the grooved terrain, and the post grooved terrain are presented.

  18. Geological fakes and frauds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffell, Alastair; Majury, Niall; Brooks, William E.

    2012-02-01

    Some geological fakes and frauds are carried out solely for financial gain (mining fraud), whereas others maybe have increasing aesthetic appeal (faked fossils) or academic advancement (fabricated data) as their motive. All types of geological fake or fraud can be ingenious and sophisticated, as demonstrated in this article. Fake gems, faked fossils and mining fraud are common examples where monetary profit is to blame: nonetheless these may impact both scientific theory and the reputation of geologists and Earth scientists. The substitution or fabrication of both physical and intellectual data also occurs for no direct financial gain, such as career advancement or establishment of belief (e.g. evolution vs. creationism). Knowledge of such fakes and frauds may assist in spotting undetected geological crimes: application of geoforensic techniques helps the scientific community to detect such activity, which ultimately undermines scientific integrity.

  19. Geological Corrections in Gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuška, J.; Marušiak, I.

    2015-12-01

    Applying corrections for the known geology to gravity data can be traced back into the first quarter of the 20th century. Later on, mostly in areas with sedimentary cover, at local and regional scales, the correction known as gravity stripping has been in use since the mid 1960s, provided that there was enough geological information. Stripping at regional to global scales became possible after releasing the CRUST 2.0 and later CRUST 1.0 models in the years 2000 and 2013, respectively. Especially the later model provides quite a new view on the relevant geometries and on the topographic and crustal densities as well as on the crust/mantle density contrast. Thus, the isostatic corrections, which have been often used in the past, can now be replaced by procedures working with an independent information interpreted primarily from seismic studies. We have developed software for performing geological corrections in space domain, based on a-priori geometry and density grids which can be of either rectangular or spherical/ellipsoidal types with cells of the shapes of rectangles, tesseroids or triangles. It enables us to calculate the required gravitational effects not only in the form of surface maps or profiles but, for instance, also along vertical lines, which can shed some additional light on the nature of the geological correction. The software can work at a variety of scales and considers the input information to an optional distance from the calculation point up to the antipodes. Our main objective is to treat geological correction as an alternative to accounting for the topography with varying densities since the bottoms of the topographic masses, namely the geoid or ellipsoid, generally do not represent geological boundaries. As well we would like to call attention to the possible distortions of the corrected gravity anomalies. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract APVV-0827-12.

  20. Electron tunneling in chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamaraev, K.I.; Khajrutdinov, R.F.; Zhdanov, V.P.; Molin, Yu.N.

    1985-01-01

    Results of experimental and theoretical investigations are outlined systematically on electron tunnelling in chemical reactions. Mechanism of electron transport to great distances is shown to be characteristic to chemical compounds of a wide range. The function of tunnel reactions is discussed for various fields of chemistry, including radiation chemistry, electrochemistry, chemistry of solids, chemistry of surface and catalysis