WorldWideScience

Sample records for biologischer parameter abschlussbericht

  1. Kringlopen in de biologische landbouw: best belangrijk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.F.F.P.; Wit, de J.

    2004-01-01

    In het meerjarige onderzoeksprogramma 'Intersectorale samenwerking binnen de biologische landbouw' wordt gezocht naar concepten voor samenwerking, met als doel kringlopen binnen biologische landbouwsystemen beter te sluiten. De huidige kringloop binnen de Nederlandse biologische landbouw kan gekensc

  2. Kennzeichnung biologischer Lebensmittel

    OpenAIRE

    Bickel, Regula

    2014-01-01

    Das Merkblatt bietet Unterstützung bei der korrekten Deklaration biologischer Lebensmittel, indem es die Anforderungen und die Möglichkeiten zur Kennzeichnung gemäss den in der Schweiz geltenden gesetzlichen Grundlagen und privatrechtlichen Richtlinien von Bio Suisse und Demeter übersichtlich darstellt.

  3. Emission-reduced rapeseed-technology. Project-part 2: expelling of dehulled rapeseed. Final report; Biologisch abbaubare Schmierstoffe - Emissionsarme Rapssaatverarbeitung. Teilvorhaben 2: Trennpressen geschaelter Rapssaat als wissenschaftlich-technische Begleitung. Berichtsteil 1: Schlussbericht als Uebersicht. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, F.H.

    2002-04-01

    Within the technical oil-production the lipids are released by compression and extraction with hexan. Characteristical for rapeseed is the enormous hexan-retention in meal and the delayed release of hexan in the surrounding area. Cause: the lipids, which are locked in the very compact hulls. - The environmental protection integrated in the process of production requires a reduction/avoidance of hexan-emission. The solution: partial detachment of the hulls as an head-end-operation. A process to dehull rapeseed is known since 1979. In the opinion of oil millers dehulled rapeseed is not continuously pressable due to the lack of stability of compressed solid. The aim of the project is to furnish proof of the possibility to press rapeseed. Therefore two experimental ways are necessary: To find out the characteristics of the material under an axial compression and the variation of material- end compression-parameter, research of the screw-press process with a constant stream of compressed material and an ejection of a stable expeller with a variation of the geometric-, process- and material-parameter. Results: (A) dehulled rapeseed (hulls reduced to 1/4) can be pressed in a screw-press (40 kg/h) continuously; after upscaling the press to a semitechnical press an emission-reduced rapeseed-technology is possible. (B) When rapeseed is pressed, friction and therefore a heat-up is clearly reduced; the oil leaves the press with 40 C; a gentle production of oil is possible; user: Teutoburger Oelmuehle, Ibbenbueren. (orig.) [German] Bei technischer Oelgewinnung werden die Lipide durch Pressen und Extrahieren mit Hexan freigesetzt. Spezielles Merkmal von Raps ist die starke Hexanretention im Schrot und verzoegerte Hexanfreisetzung in die Umgebung. Verursacher: die in den kompakten Huellen eingeschlossenen Lipide. - Produktionsintegrierter Umweltschutz erfordert Minderung / Vermeidung der Hexanemissionen. Der Weg: partielles Abtrennen der Huellen als Head-end-Prozessstufe. Ein

  4. Biologisch bemesten lastig te plannen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sukkel, W.

    2001-01-01

    Als voorbeeld van een bemestingsplan wordt het experimentele biologische systeem te Meterik gebruikt. Hierbij wordt uitgegaan van een evenwichtsbemesting voor fosfaat. Tevens is het belang van een goede vruchtwisseling belicht

  5. Voorbehandeling van biologische zomerbloemen : praktijkproeven met diverse biologische middelen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helm, van der F.P.M.; Slootweg, G.; Garcia Victoria, N.

    2009-01-01

    In dit project zijn een aantal biologische alternatieven gescreend voor de behandeling van bacteriegroei en verlenging van de houdbaarheid van zomerbloemen. Alternatieven zijn in drie proeven met verschillende zomerbloemen in verschillende fasen van de afzetketen getest. De werking is beoordeeld doo

  6. Inventarisatie diergeneesmiddelen in de biologische melkveehouderij

    OpenAIRE

    Werf, van der, S.P.; Kijlstra, A.; Buitendijk, J.; Klink, M.C.M.; Munniksma, K.; Schaaf, van der, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    Zowel kennisinstellingen als individuele bedrijven proberen op hun wijze onderzoek te doen naar de effectiviteit van alternatieven voor bepaalde aandoeningen in de biologische veehouderij. Op welke schaal dit binnen de bedrijven gebeurt, was tot op heden nog niet bekend en was daarom de reden voor het onderzoek, waarvan hier de rapportage voor de biologische melkveeveehouderij volgt. De doelstelling van het onderzoek was het inventariseren van de gezondheidsproblemen in de biologische melkvee...

  7. Scale-up of biological purification methods. A contribution of planning and optimization of bio-remediation of mineral hydrocarbon contaminated soils. Final report; Scale-up biologischer Reinigungsverfahren. Ein Beitrag zur Sanierungsplanung und -optimierung mineraloelkohlenwasserstoff-kontaminierter Boeden. Projekt-Abschlussbericht und Datenanhang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krass, J.; Mathes, K.; Breckling, B.; Loenker, O.; Schulz-Berendt, V.

    2000-06-01

    Contamination with mineral oils are dangerous for soil and groundwater. Regularly, they require a remediation procedure. Biological purification methods are very suitable for this purpose. An important aspect of their application is a sound prognosis of the expected decontamination. The Cooperation Project of the University of Bremen and the Company Umweltschutz Nord GmbH and Co. contributed to this purpose. The University partner elaborated statistical models as well as numerical simulation models of different complexity. New developments in remedation planning as well as methods and rules for process optimization were specified. In this respect the project improves the methods in handling oil spills. (orig.) [German] Kontaminationen mit Mineraloelprodukten sind eine Gefahrenquelle fuer Boden und Grundwasser und erfordern in der Regel die Sanierung der genannten Medien. Besonders geeignete Reinigungsverfahren fuer solche Bodenverunreinigungen sind biologische Verfahren. Wichtiger Baustein fuer ihre Anwendung ist jedoch eine solide Sanierungsprognose. Zu deren Verbesserung traegt das Verbundprojekt der Universitaet Bremen und der Firma Umweltschutz Nord GmbH and Co. bei. Hierzu wurden von dem universitaeren Verbundpartner sowohl statistische als auch numerische Simulationsmodelle verschiedener Komplexitaet entwickelt. Neben dieser Weiterentwicklung der Sanierungsplanung wurden Methoden und Regeln zur Optimierung der biologischen Sanierung mit Mineraloelkohlenwasserstoffen kontaminierter Boeden erarbeitet. (orig.)

  8. Forschungsprojekt KRETA: Abschlussbericht

    OpenAIRE

    Ammicht Quinn, Regina; Beimborn, Maria; Hagendorff, Thilo; Königseder, Anja; Leese, Matthias; Nagenborg, Michael; Schuler, Magdalena; Schumann, David

    2014-01-01

    KRETA ist ein von 02/2011 bis 01/2014 (zuzüglich einer Verlängerungsphase bis 05/2014) vom Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung im Rahmen des Programms für zivile Sicherheitsforschung (Bekanntmachung: „Detektionssysteme für chemische, biologische, radiologische, nukleare und explosive Gefahrstoffe (CBRNE-Gefahren)“) am Internationalen Zentrum für Ethik in den Wissenschaften (IZEW) an der Universität Tübingen gefördertes Verbundprojekt. Als Besonderheit ist hierbei hervorzuheben, dass e...

  9. Biologische bestrijdingsmiddelen kunnen imago ernstig schaden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sukkel, W.

    1999-01-01

    In Nederland zijn zijn voor de akkerbouw en de vollegrondsgroententeelt slechts vier biologische (niet-synthetische) middelen toegestaan: Bacillus thuringiensis, pyretrine + piperonylbutoxide, koperoxychloride en zwavel. Een opsomming van de tot nu toe bekende eigenschappen (doelorganismen; toegelat

  10. Bewaaronderzoek biologische cranberry's : onderdeel van project "Ketenontwikkeling biologische cranberry's in Nederland"

    OpenAIRE

    Verschoor, J.A.; PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente

    2007-01-01

    In deze rapportage wordt verslag gedaan van het onderzoek naar bewaring van biologisch geteelde cranberry’s. Het doel van het onderzoek is het optimaliseren van de bewaarbaarheid van Nederlandse biologisch geteelde cranberry’s (Vaccinium macrocarpon), zodat vermarkting van kwalitatief hoge bessen tot en met de Kerst haalbaar wordt.

  11. Productie biologisch uitgangsmateriaal narcis en hyacint valt nog niet mee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuilichem, van J.A.A.; Vreeburg, P.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    De biologische teelt streeft naar een gesloten teeltcyclus. Een evenwichtige bodem en cultivarkeuze zijn daarvoor de basis. Omdat deze maatregelen nog onvoldoende resultaat opleveren met het huidige sortiment heeft PPO Bloembollen haalbaarheid van biologische productie van uitgangsmateriaal bekeken

  12. Marktontwikkeling biologische (vers)producten in de bedrijfscateringketen : eindrapport AKK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de P.W.G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Binnen de doelstelling om in 2004 5% van de consumentenbestedingen aan biologische producten te laten uitgeven dient de bedrijfscatering een belangrijke rol te spelen. Gedurende de werkweek gebruiken miljoenen werknemers hun lunchmaaltijden in het bedrijfsrestaurant. Het introduceren van biologische

  13. Biologische teelt en afzetbevordering van (kas)asperge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, C.; Hulst, van der P.

    2004-01-01

    Dit onderzoek bestond uit twee onderdelen, in de eerste plaats is met behulp van enquêtes de bestaande teelt en afzet van biologische asperges onderzocht, in de tweede plaats zijn er teeltproeven met biologische kasasperges gedaan.

  14. Biologische monitoring zoete rijkswateren: microverontreinigingen in driehoeksmosselen, 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotterman, M.J.J.

    2006-01-01

    In het kader van de Biologische Monitoring Zoete Rijkswateren is in 2005 een actieve biologische monitoring (ABM) onderzoek uitgevoerd met driehoeksmosselen (Dreissena polymorpha) in een aantal zoete rijkswateren. Het betreft een uitvoering van het deelproject "Microverontreinigingen in driehoeksmos

  15. Een biologisch bosje bloemen voor iedere dag van het jaar

    OpenAIRE

    Weening, K.

    2003-01-01

    In dit nummer: Een biologisch bosje bloemen; Biologische zelfzuivelaars maken keten helder; Een kleinere beker biologische melk; ‘Investeer in relatie met beleidsmedewerker’; Te weinig bekend over het overwaaien van genen; Santana en Topaz leveren hoge productie; ‘Ik leer precies wat ik wilde weten’; Nieuw: IBL Actueel

  16. Biologische bloemen in de lift: nieuwe afzetstructuur voor biologische bloemen [thema Glastuinbouw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weening, K.

    2003-01-01

    Beschrijving van knelpunten in de biologische-bloementeelt en afzet, en van initiatieven voor verbetering. Een nieuwe afzetstructuur, waarbij gebruik wordt gemaakt van het distributienetwerk van groothandel EOSTA naar natuurvoedingsketens en supermarkten, heeft in 2002 voor een verkoopstijging gezor

  17. Voetafdruk wijst biologische sector de weg

    OpenAIRE

    Sukkel, W.

    2009-01-01

    Biologische producten hebben een milieuvriendelijk imago. Maar dat is niet terecht als je een onbespoten kiwi laat invliegen uit Nieuw-Zeeland. Wijnand Sukkel van Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving onderzoekt of het berekenen van voedselkilometers en koolstofvoetafdrukken de sector kan helpen om het imago waar te maken

  18. Drijfmesttoepassing vergt meer onderzoek: onderzoek biologische teelt

    OpenAIRE

    Zuilichem, van, J.A.A.; Kater, L.J.M.; Huijsmans, J.F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Verslag van bemestingsonderzoek bij narcis cv. 'Tête-â-Tête' door PPO Bloembollen en Agrotechnology & Food Innovations van Wageningen Universiteit. Het toepassen van drijfmest tijdens het groeiseizoen blijkt goed te werken, maar zorgt er niet voor dat de emissienorm gehaald wordt. Gegevens in bijgaand figuur: Beschikbare (nitraat)stikstof in bouwvoor (30 cm) bij biologische teelt narcis cv. 'Tête-â-Tête'

  19. Biologische melkveehouderij laat gunstig rendement zien

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaalmink, B.W.

    2001-01-01

    Economische resultaten van biologische melkveehouderijen (deelnemers aan het Bioveem-project; zeven op zand, twee op klei, één op veen) in boekjaar 1999/2000, in vergelijking met gangbare melkveebedrijven. In tabellen de kengetallen voor de bedrijven en de bedrijfsresultaten (opbrengsten, kosten, ne

  20. Emission-reduced rapeseed-technology. Project-part 2: expelling of dehulled rapeseed. Final report; Biologisch abbaubare Schmierstoffe - Emissionsarme Rapssaatverarbeitung. Teilvorhaben 2: Trennpressen geschaelter Rapssaat als wissenschaftlich-technische Begleitung. Anlagen zu den Berichtsteilen 1 und 3: Arbeitsuebersichten und Balkenplaene; Ergebnisprotokolle der Vorhabensgespraeche Demonstrationsanlage. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schein, C.

    2002-04-01

    Within the technical oil-production the lipids are released by compression and extraction with hexan. Characteristical for rapeseed is the enormous hexan-retention in meal and the delayed release of hexan in the surrounding area. Cause: the lipids, which are locked in the very compact hulls. - The environmental protection integrated in the process of production requires a reduction/avoidance of hexan-emission. The solution: partial detachment of the hulls as an head-end-operation. A process to dehull rapeseed is known since 1979. In the opinion of oil millers dehulled rapeseed is not continuously pressable due to the lack of stability of compressed solid. The aim of the project is to furnish proof of the possibility to press rapeseed. Therefore two experimental ways are necessary: (1) To find out the characteristics of the material under an axial compression and the variation of material- and compression-parameter, (2) research of the screw-press process with a constant stream of compressed material and an ejection of a stable expeller with a variation of the geometric-, process- and material-parameter. Results: (A) dehulled rapeseed (hulls reduced to 1/4) can be pressed in a screw-press (40 kg/h) continuously; after upscaling the press to a semitechnical press an emission-reduced rapeseed-technology is possible. (B) When rapeseed is pressed, friction and therefore a heat-up is clearly reduced; the oil leaves the press with 40 C; a gentle production of oil is possible; user: Teutoburger Oelmuehle, Ibbenbueren. (orig.) [German] Bei technischer Oelgewinnung werden die Lipide durch Pressen und Extrahieren mit Hexan freigesetzt. Spezielles Merkmal von Raps ist die starke Hexanretention im Schrot und verzoegerte Hexanfreisetzung in die Umgebung. Verursacher: die in den kompakten Huellen eingeschlossenen Lipide. - Produktionsintegrierter Umweltschutz erfordert Minderung / Vermeidung der Hexanemissionen. Der Weg: partielles Abtrennen der Huellen als Head

  1. Inventarisatie diergeneesmiddelengebruik in de biologische vleesveehouderij

    OpenAIRE

    Werf, van der, S.P.; Kijlstra, A.; Klink, M.C.M.; Munniksma, K.

    2004-01-01

    In de biologische veehouderij wordt getracht dierziektes zoveel mogelijk te voorkomen door de selectie van dieren met een hoge natuurlijke weerstand, het geven van gezonde voeding en het zorgdragen voor een optimaal leefklimaat waardoor het natuurlijke gedrag van de dieren zoveel mogelijk tot uiting kan komen. Indien een dier toch ziek wordt gaat de voorkeur uit naar een behandeling met een alternatieve geneeswijze zoals homeopathie, fytotherapie e.d., mits aangetoond is dat deze middelen ook...

  2. Ras- en teeltproef biologische Alstroemeria : teeltaspecten en rassen vergelijking in een biologsche teelt van Alstroemeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helm, van der F.P.M.; Labrie, C.W.

    2009-01-01

    Het assortiment is bij de afzet van biologische snijbloemen een belangrijk knelpunt. De biologische teelt van snijbloemen onder glas kan bijdragen aan een breder sortiment biologische snijbloemen met een goede houdbaarheid over een langere periode in het jaar. Alstroemeria staat bekend als een vrij

  3. Kringlopen in de biologische landbouw, deel II: Studiedag 'Optimaal Intersectoraal': een breed scala aan uitdagingen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de J.; Barendrecht, W.

    2004-01-01

    Verslag van een workshop georganiseerd door LBI en WUR over het sluiten van kringlopen in de biologische landbouw. Een en ander in het kader van het LNV-onderzoeksprogramma 'Intersectorale samenwerking binnen de biologische landbouw'. De huidige situatie in de Nederlandse biologische landbouw wordt

  4. Sturende factoren voor verhoging van vet- en eiwit gehalten in biologische melk : een eerste verkenning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bont, J.; Magendans, D.; Nes, van H.; Oude Lenferink, K.; Spit, J.J.; Verkuijl, M.; Louis Bolk,

    2009-01-01

    In de biologische veehouderij worden geitenhouders beperkt in hun maatregelen om vet- en eiwitgehalten te verhogen, door de biologische regelgeving. Door deze maatregelen ligt het vetgehalte in de biologische geitenmelk significant lager dan in de gangbare geitenhouderij. Aangezien 80 % van de biolo

  5. Derivation of radioecological parameters from the long-term emission of iodine-129. Final report; Ableitung von radiooekologischen Parametern aus dem langfristigen Eintrag von Iod-129. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, R.; Klipsch, K.; Ernst, T.; Gorny, M.; Jakob, D.; Vahlbruch, J. [Zentrum fuer Strahlenschutz und Radiooekologie (ZSR), Universitaet Hannover (Germany); Synal, H.A. [Paul Scherrer Inst., ETH Hoenggerberg, Zuerich (Switzerland); Schnabel, C. [Institut fuer Teilchenphysik, ETH Hoenggerberg, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    In this project, the distribution and behaviour of {sup 129}I and {sup 127}I in the environment and its pathways through the environment to man were comprehensively investigated in order to provide a basis for estimating the radiation exposure to man due to releases of {sup 129}I. To this end, the actual situation in Lower Saxony, Germany, was studied for exemplary regions near to and far from the coast of the North Sea. Accelerator mass spectrometry, radiochemical neutron activation analysis, ion chromatography, and ICP-MS were applied to measure the iodine isotopes, {sup 129}I and P{sup 127}I, in sea-water, air, precipitation, surface and ground waters, soils, plants, animals, foodstuffs, total diet, and human and animal thyroid glands. For air-borne iodine, the speciation as well as the particle size distribution of aerosols was determined. Soil depth profiles were investigated down to depths of 2.5 m in order to study the iodine migration as well as individual surface soil samples to allow for the determination of transfer factors of the iodine isotopes into plants. From the analytical results radioecological parameters for the long-term behaviour of {sup 129}I in the pedo- and biosphere were derived. The iodine isotopes are in severe disequilibrium in the different environmental compartments. The pre-nuclear equilibrium {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio in the biosphere was determined to be 2.0 x 10{sup -13} with a geometric standard deviation of 1.39. Today, the environmental isotopic ratios in Northern Germany range from 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -10}. The highest ratios are found in North Sea water, the lowest in deep soil samples and ground water. The North Sea appears as the dominant source of air-borne iodine in Northern Germany due to the emissions of European reprocessing plants. The results are discussed with respect to their radiological relevance and in view of the general protection of the environment, i.e. air, water, soil and the biosphere. (orig.)

  6. Ras- en teeltproef biologische Alstroemeria : teeltaspecten en rassen vergelijking in een biologsche teelt van Alstroemeria

    OpenAIRE

    Helm, van der, F.P.M.; Labrie, C.W.

    2009-01-01

    Het assortiment is bij de afzet van biologische snijbloemen een belangrijk knelpunt. De biologische teelt van snijbloemen onder glas kan bijdragen aan een breder sortiment biologische snijbloemen met een goede houdbaarheid over een langere periode in het jaar. Alstroemeria staat bekend als een vrij sterk gewas met relatief weinig grote problemen. Met behulp van koeling en belichting is het mogelijk dit product jaarrond aan te voeren. Gangbaar wordt nog maar nauwelijks Alstroemeria geteeld zon...

  7. Biological test methods for the ecotoxicological characterization of wastes. Final report; Biologische Testerverfahren zur oekotoxikologischen Charakterisierung von Abfaellen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Roland [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung, Berlin (Germany); Donnevert, Gerhild [Fachhochschule Giessen-Friedberg (Germany). FB MNI; Roembke, Joerg [ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH, Floersheim am Main (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    The ecotoxicological characterization of waste is part of their assessment as hazardous or non-hazardous according to the European Waste List. Despite its transfer into national law in the waste list ordnance 2001 no methodological recommendations have been provided to cover the hazard criterion (H14 ''ecotoxicity'') which was taken over from the legislation on dangerous substances. Based on the recommendations of CEN guideline 14735 (2005), an international ring test was organised by BAM, FH Giessen-Friedberg and ECT GmbH. In total, 67 laboratories from 15 countries participated in the ring test. It was performed with three representative waste types: an ash from an incineration plant mainly contaminated with heavy metals, a soil containing high concentrations of organic contaminants (PAHs) and a preserved wood waste contaminated with copper and other heavy metals. Samples were prepared by BAM (e.g. inter alia dried, sieved and homogenised) and distributed. Parallel to the biological testing the eluates and solid samples were chemically characterized. The basic test battery used in the ring test consisted of three aquatic (Algae test, Daphnia acute test and Microtox test) and three terrestrial (earthworm acute and plant test with two species (oat, rape)) tests. In addition, data were submitted for ten additional tests (five aquatic (including a genotoxicity test) and five terrestrial ones). Almost all tests were performed according to ISO guidelines, providing EC50 values as measurement of toxicity. Data evaluation was done following recent recommendations made by ISO (2002) and Environment Canada (2005). Besides a high number of reference test data, 634 data sets were produced in the basic test battery and 204 data sets in the additional tests. Only few data sets were not acceptable (e.g. due to lack of reference data) and even less results were identified as statistical or biological outliers. For example, in the case of the basic test battery the acceptance rate varied between 74.1% (Algae test) and 92.6% (Daphnia test). Methodologically, no problems occurred but further guidance on moisture determination in the terrestrial tests as well as details concerning reference testing and data evaluation for several tests are needed. Independently which test system is considered, SOI always caused the lowest effects and WOO was most toxic, while the EC50 values of INC show an intermediate toxicity. Among the aquatic tests, daphnids and one algal species were the most sensitive ones, while plants were always more sensitive than earthworms in the solid waste samples. Based on the test results from additional tests proposals for the modification of the existing basic test battery could be made. For example, the earthworm acute test could be replaced by another soil invertebrate test with higher sensitivity. Further work performed in parallel to the ring test improves waste testing considerably (e.g. the use of artificial soil as control substrate). A comparison of the ring test results with literature data published so far revealed a good agreement. The results of this ring test support confirm that a combination of a battery of biological tests and chemical residue analysis is needed for an ecotoxicological characterization of wastes. With small modifications proposed in this report the basic test battery is considered to be well suitable for the hazard and risk assessment of wastes. Further, probably multi-variate evaluation of the ring test results will improve the identification of those tests most qualified for the ecotoxicological characterization of wastes. Finally, the experiences made in the ring test support also the proposals made in CEN guideline 14735 (2005) concerning the performance of such tests. (orig.)

  8. Sterke vermindering mogelijk van bewaarverliezen biologisch fruit: tweejarig onderzoek afgerond

    OpenAIRE

    Jager, de, AG Bram; Westerweele, C.G.; Verschoor, J.; Sluis, van der, J.

    2003-01-01

    PPO-fruit en ATO onderzochten een aantal methoden om bewaarproblemen bij biologische appelen aan te pakken: rot door schimmels en verlies van vruchtkwaliteit als gevolg van verruwing en vochtverlies. De maatregelen betroffen behandeling met heet water, warme lucht, antagonisten (bezetten de voor schimmels beschikbare plaats), plantversterkers, calciumchloride (wwerstandverhogend) en plantaardige olieën (schimmelonderdrukkend. Bij Elstar lijkt de heetwatermethode een duidelijke reductie te kun...

  9. Leistet die biologische Landwirtschaft einen Beitrag zur Resilienz landwirtschaftlicher Familienbetriebe?

    OpenAIRE

    Strauss, Agnes; Darnhofer, Ika

    2015-01-01

    Da der biologischen Landwirtschaft ein ganzheitliches, systemisches Verständnis des Betriebes zugrunde liegt, erscheint sie besonders geeignet die Resilienz der Betriebe zu stärken. Es gibt jedoch wenig empirische Hinweise ob (und wenn ja, wie) die biologische Landwirtschaft die Resilienz der Betriebe in der Praxis beeinflusst. In diesem Beitrag wird der Einfluss der biologischen Landwirtschaft auf die Resilienz von Familienbetrieben, anhand vier Faktoren analysiert. Die Studie zeigt, dass di...

  10. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields; Biologische Wirkungen elektromagnetischer Felder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, E. [Inst. fuer Physiologie, Univ. Witten-Herdecke (Germany)

    1993-07-26

    In this generally intelligible article, the author describes at first the physical fundamentals of electromagnetic fields and their basic biological significance and effects for animals and human beings before dealing with the discussion regarding limiting values and dangers. The article treats possible connections with leukaemia as well as ith melatonine production more detailed. (vhe) [Deutsch] Der Autor beschreibt in seinem allgemeinverstaendlichen Artikel zuerst die physikalischen Grundlagen elektromagnetischer Felder und ihre grundsaetzliche biologische Bedeutung und Auswirkungen fuer Tiere und Menschen, bevor er auf die Diskussion um Grenzwerte und Gefahren eingeht. Ausfuehrlicher behandelt der Artikel moegliche Zusammenhaenge mit Leukaemie sowie mit der Melatoninproduktion. (vhe)

  11. Mikroskopische und spektroskopische Charakterisierung biologisch relevanter Oberflächen

    OpenAIRE

    Strehle, Marion A.

    2003-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit werden biologisch relevante Oberflächen untersucht, die in der Medizin bzw. in der Biologie eine wichtige Rolle spielen. Die Proteinadsorption auf Implantat-Oberflächen wurde charakterisiert, um wichtige Informationen über den Adsorptionsprozess zu erhalten. Das Fernziel hierbei ist, durch ein umfassendes Wissen über diesen für die Implantation wichtigen Schritt Biomaterialien mit möglichst hoher Gewebeverträglichkeit zu entwickeln. Die Verteilung von Propolis auf der Wachs-O...

  12. Biologische leefstijlfactoren in volwassen afstandsonderwijs: voorspellen van cognitief presteren en leerprestatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijselaers, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Gijselaers, H. J. M. (2015, 29 October). Biologische leefstijlfactoren in volwassen afstandsonderwijs: voorspellen van cognitief presteren en leerprestatie [Biological lifestyle factors in adult distance education: predicting cognitive and learning performance]. Pitch given for the board of commissi

  13. Effectief in vijf stappen: wat sociale media kunnen betekenen voor een biologisch bedrijf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijn, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Anno 2012 zijn sociale media een veelgebruikt marketingtool, waarmee bedrijven gemakkelijk veel klanten kunnen bereiken. Ook biologische bedrijven mogen deze boot niet missen. Om je zichtbaar te maken, nieuwe klanten binnen te halen, of samenwerking aan te gaan.

  14. Geschiktheid biologische aardappelrassen voor biofrites en biochips : verkenning naar eisen en de mogelijkheden van de huidige biologische aardappelrassen voor biofrites en biochips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van C.A.P.; Bus, C.B.

    2011-01-01

    Uit bakproeven met biologische aardappelrassen blijkt dat een aantal rassen met een hoog niveau van Phytophthora-resistentie, perspectief biedt voor goede frites- en chipbereiding. Hoewel de bakkwaliteit van deze rassen standaard minder optimaal was dan van het ras Phytophthora-gevoelige hoofdras Ag

  15. DFG-Projekt (Rh 14/8-1) Komponenten der Lernmotivation in Mathematik : Abschlussbericht

    OpenAIRE

    Rheinberg, Falko; Wendland, Mirko

    2006-01-01

    Abschlussbericht zum DFG-Projekt "Veränderung der Lernmotivation in Mathematik und Physik: eine Komponentenanalyse und der Einfluss elterlicher sowie schulischer Kontextfaktoren" Abstract: Dass die Lernmotivation besonders in mathematisch-naturwissenschaftlichen Fächern im Verlauf der Sekundarschulzeit sinkt, kann als gesichert gelten (Krapp, 1998). Allerdings ergibt sich bei genauerem Hinsehen ein recht differenziertes Bild. Dies betrifft insbesondere die verschiedenen Komponenten von Lernmo...

  16. Biologische witlof in onderzoek : uitstekend teeltresultaat mogelijk, knelpunten vooral in de trek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruistum, van G.; Lange, de J.

    2003-01-01

    Proeftuin Zwaagdijk en PPO-Lelystad onderzochten in de periode 2000-2002 de teeltzekerheid, opbrengst en kwaliteit van biologische witlof. Het onderzoek spitste zich toe op bemesting en onkruidbestrijding (door afbranden) tijdens de teelt van witlofpennen, en toepassing van verschillende soorten bio

  17. Biologische klok bepaalt veel processen in de plant : planten reageren gedurende de dag verschillend op teeltmaatregelen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2008-01-01

    Steeds meer wordt duidelijk dat de biologische klok in de plant een rol speelt bij een enorm groot aantal processen. Voorbeelden zijn zaadkieming, lengtegroei, fotosynthese, productie van plantenhormonen, activiteit van enzymen, opening en sluiting van huidmondjes, en opengaan van bloemen. Dat betek

  18. Analyse en biologisch beheer van het watersysteem in het Vogelpark Avifauna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.G.D.; Weber, A.; Blankendaal, V.G.

    2003-01-01

    In het kader van het “Helder water” project van TNO wordt gekeken naar biologische oplossingen voor waterkwaliteitsproblemen. Het vogelpark Avifauna kampt in de zomermaanden in de pelikanenvijver met algenproblemen en in de rest van het watersysteem, wat doorstroomd wordt met water uit de Rijn, is d

  19. Biological degradation of partially oxidated constituents of stabilized sapropel; Biologischer Abbau teiloxidierter Inhaltsstoffe stabilisierter Faulschlaemme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheminski, A.; Krull, R.; Hempel, D.C. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Bioverfahrenstechnik

    1999-07-01

    Partial oxidation of sapropel with ozone destroys the cell walls of microorganisms in sludge and releases the cell constituents. Substances that are not biologically degraded because of the size or structure of their molecules are transformed into smaller, water-soluble and biologically degradable fractions by the reaction with ozone. The experiments aim to render the partially oxidated sewage sludge constituents highly biologically degradable using a minimum of oxidation agents. For the experiments described, stabilized sapropels with low biological activity are used. Hence the ozone is mainly used for the partial oxidation of recalcitrant constituents. (orig.) [German] Durch partielle Oxidation von Faulschlaemmen mit Ozon werden die Zellwaende der Mikroorganismen im Schlamm zerstoert und die Zellinhaltsstoffe freigesetzt. Dabei werden Substanzen, die aufgrund ihrer Molekuelgroesse oder -struktur biologisch nicht abgebaut werden, durch die Reaktion mit Ozon in kleinere, wasserloesliche und biologisch abbaubare Bruchstuecke ueberfuehrt. Ziel der Versuche ist es, durch den Einsatz moeglichst geringer Mengen an Oxidationsmitteln eine hohe biologische Abbaubarkeit der teiloxidierten Klaerschlamminhaltsstoffe zu erreichen. Fuer die hier vorgestellten Experimente wurden stabilisierte Faulschlaemme mit geringer biologischer Aktivitaet eingesetzt. Dadurch wird das Ozon vorwiegend zur Teiloxidation recalcitranter Inhaltsstoffe genutzt. (orig.)

  20. Wirkungen hoher Schwefelgaben auf Mineralstoffgehalte, Proteinfraktionen und Kleberqualität von Weizen aus biologisch-dynamischem Anbau

    OpenAIRE

    Hagel, I.; Wieser, H; Schnug, E.

    1999-01-01

    In der vorgestellten Arbeit sollte geprüft werden, ob hohe Schwefel-Gaben den Dehnwiderstand des Klebers weiter verringern und welche Auswirkungen diese auf die Proteinfraktionen ausüben. Gleichzeitig sollte ein Beitrag zur Schwefel-Ernährung von Weizen unter biologisch-dynamischen Anbauverhältnissen geleistet werden. Auf einem Winterweizenschlag (Sorte Bussard) eines biologisch-dynamisch wirt­schaftenden Betriebes (Dottenfelderhof, Bad Vilbel) wurde 1998 zu Vegetationsbe­ginn ein Schwefe...

  1. Resilienz im Vorschulalter: wie stark kann die familiäre Leseumwelt biologische und soziokulturelle Entwicklungsrisiken kompensieren?

    OpenAIRE

    Jäkel, Julia; Wolke, Dieter; Leyendecker, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    "Erfolgreiche kindliche Entwicklung kann durch biologische und soziokulturelle Risiken behindert werden. Zugleich zeigen zahlreiche Studien, dass die familiäre Leseumwelt einen protektiven Faktor für die Entwicklung im Vorschulalter darstellen kann. Die Autoren verglichen Daten aus zwei Längsschnittstudien um zu untersuchen, wie stark die familiäre Leseumwelt biologische (Frühgeburtlichkeit) und soziokulturelle Risiken (niedriger sozioökonomischer Status und Migrationshintergrund) in der kogn...

  2. Update welzijnsprestaties biologische veehouderij = Update animal welfare status of organic farming in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Ruis, M.A.W.; Pinxterhuis, J.B; Vrolijk, M.

    2010-01-01

    De biologische veehouderij wil laten zien dat ze staat voor een maatschappelijk verantwoorde en duurzame productie, met aandacht voor milieu, klimaat, natuur en landschap, voedselkwaliteit, inkomen en dierenwelzijn. Dierenwelzijn als één van de thema’s van duurzaamheid staat centraal in deze rapportage. De bestaande kennis over dit onderwerp is geïnventariseerd voor de melkvee-, varkens-, pluimvee-, schapen- en geitensectoren. De welzijnsprestaties zijn gebaseerd op dierkenmerken en zijn inge...

  3. Samen op zoek naar oplossingen voor probleemplagen in de biologische teelt van houtig kleinfruit

    OpenAIRE

    Beliën, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Biologisch geteeld kleinfruit is enorm geliefd bij het grote publiek. Biotelers van houtig kleinfruit kampen echter met een aantal probleemplagen en -ziekten die ze zonder de krachtige chemische gewasbeschermingsmiddelen het hoofd moeten bieden. Daarom werd in 2013 in het kader van een CCBT-project in gezamenlijk overleg gezocht naar alternatieve oplossingen voor de bestrijding van deze plagen en ziekten. In de loop van dit project werden diverse overlegmomenten georganiseerd tussen telers, v...

  4. Verwerp biotechnologie niet bij voorbaat: in gesprek met Guido Ruivenkamp over biotechnologie in de biologische landbouw

    OpenAIRE

    Stobbelaar, D.J.; Schotveld, E.

    2006-01-01

    In aanloop naar de studiedag van het KLV op 5 oktober rondom biotechnologie in de biologische landbouw een interview met Guide Ruivenkamp. Ruivenkamp houdt zich bij Wageningen Universiteit en de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam bezig met regionale toepassingen van biotechnologie op maat in ontwikkelingslanden. Hij stelt dat voor- en tegenstanders van nieuwe technieken vaak de techniek en de context waarin een techniek is ontwikkeld als vaststaand worden beschouwd. Gentech en het grootkapitaal bij...

  5. Woher kommt die Liebe? : über biologische Grundlagen menschlichen Verhaltens

    OpenAIRE

    Kull, Ulrich

    1984-01-01

    Die Frage nach der Herkunft der Liebe wird hier evolutionsbiologisch verstanden. Biologisch wäre natürlich auch eine ontogenetische, entwicklungsphysiologische Betrachtungsweise. Man könnte fragen: Welche physiologische Grundlage hat das Auftreten der psychischen Phänomene, die zum Komplex "Liebe" gehören? Es müßte dann die hormonelle Basis psychischer Faktoren, zum Beispiel der psychischen Geschlechtsmerkmale, diskutiert werden. Dieser Themenkreis wird hier nicht behandelt.

  6. Zum biologisch-dynamischen Forschungsansatz – Nur philosophisches Beiwerk oder Erkenntnisbedingung einer Wissenschaft vom Leben?

    OpenAIRE

    Hagel, Ingo

    2002-01-01

    [Einleitung:] Die Biologisch-Dynamische Wirtschaftsweise ist die älteste unter den verschiedenen Methoden des Ökologischen Landbaus. Ihr geistiges Fundament ist eine Reihe von Vorträgen, die Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925) im Jahr 1924 in Koberwitz bei Breslau für Landwirte hielt (STEINER 1924a). Daher können ihre Voraussetzungen und Intentionen und auch ihr Forschungsansatz nicht losgelöst von dem spirituellen Weltbild der Anthroposophie, deren Begründer Rudolf Steiner ist, betrachtet werden. ...

  7. Beheersing van Botrytis in cyclaam : effectiviteit van biologische producten, plantversterkende meststoffen en voedingsbehandelingen tegen Botrytis in cyclaam bij verschillende teelttemperaturen

    OpenAIRE

    Hofland-Zijlstra, J.D.; De, Vries; Wensveen, van, W.

    2012-01-01

    Referaat Door Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw is onderzoek gedaan naar de ontwikkeling van beheersstrategiën voor niet-chemische beheersing van Botrytis in cyclaam en is de invloed bepaald van lagere teelttemperaturen. Dit project is gefinancierd door Productschap Tuinbouw. De kennisinventarisatie geeft een overzicht van alternatieve beheersingsmethoden. Aansluitend is in een kasproef de effectiviteit bepaald van biologische producten, plantversterkende meststoffen en voedingsbehandelingen (calciu...

  8. Enhanced biological phosphate removal: Modelling and design in theory and practice; Die vermehrte biologische Phosphorelimination: Bemessung und Modellierung in Theorie und Praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, H. [Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft und Abfalltechnik, Univ. Hannover (Germany)

    1995-06-01

    The importance of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in wastewater treatment plants and their design is increasing. The development of a steady-state design model for the design of wastewater treatment plants with nitrification, denitrification and EBPR, therefore, is very important. Creating such a model, practical aspects have to be considered, if qualitative and quantitative statements on the influence of various wastewater- and surrounding conditions (e.g. substrate composition, influence of nitrate, anaerobic contact time) on EBPR shall be considered. The design model for EBPR presented is verified using data from miscellaneous treatment plants with EBPR (e.g. Berlin-Ruhleben). Sensitivity studies for the most important influencing parameters and surrounding conditions are done, using fictive plant data. Based on these studies recommendations for the optimization of EBPR are given. They illustrate which measures improving the surrounding conditions for EBPR (e.g. increase of amount of readily available organic substrate, decrease of total sludge age) are the most effective ones with regard to an increase of the biologically removed phosphorus concentration. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Auslegung von Klaeranlagen mit vermehrter biologischer Phosphorelimination (BIO/P) kommt bei der Vielzahl von Planungs- und Baumassnahmen eine immer groessere Bedeutung zu. Daher wurde ein Bemessungsmodell fuer Klaeranlagen mit Nitrifikation, Denitrifikation und BIO-P entwickelt. Hierbei waren praxisorientierte Fragestellungen vorrangig zu beruecksichtigen, um zukuenftig qualitative und quantitative Abschaetzungen zu den Einfluessen unterschiedlichster, abwassertechnischer Randbedingungen, wie z.B. der Substratzusammensetzung, dem Nitrateinfluss und der anaeroben Kontaktzeit, auf die BIO-P vornehmen zu koennen. Das stationaere BIO-P-Bemessungsmodell wurde an sehr unterschiedlichen, mit BIO-P ausgelegten Klaeranlagen (z.B. Klaeranlage Berlin-Ruhleben) verifiziert. Mit Hilfe

  9. Die NetAcademy on Media Management und das JMM - The International Journal on Media Management. Schlussbericht Phase 7 (2002) und Abschlussbericht (1997-2002)

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid-isler, Salome; Mierzejewska, Bozena Izabela

    2003-01-01

    Das Institut für Medien- und Kommunikationsmanagement erhielt von der Bertelsmann Stiftung und der Heinz Nixdorf Stiftung ein befristetes, substanzielles Sponsoring, um eine Internetplattform für die Forschungskooperation mit Wissenschaftlern aus dem Gebiet des Medien- und Kommunikationsmanagements, sowie ein akademisches online Journal zu realisieren. Der vorliegende Abschlussbericht legt Rechenschaftüber die gesteckten Ziele, ihre Realisierung und den Ausblick für die Zukunft der NetAcademy...

  10. Membrane activation, biological sewage treatment without excess sludge production?; Membranbelebung - biologische Abwasserreinigung ohne Anfall von Ueberschussschlamm?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornel, P. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. WAR - Wasserversorgung, Abwassertechnik, Abfalltechnik, Umwelt- und Raumplanung

    2000-07-01

    About 23 million cubic meters of sewage sludge are produced in Germany every year, i.e. about 2.7 - 3 million Mg. Sewage treatment accounts for up to 30% of the investment cost of a new sewage system. The current market price for sewage sludge treatment and disposal is about 1,500 DM/mg TR, i.e. an annual cost of 4 - 4.5 thousand million DM in Germany. Operators of sewage sludge systems are therefore looking into alternative options to reduce the sludge volume, e.g. by microfiltration and low-pressure membranes for biomass separation in activation processes. [German] Der biologische Abbau von Abwasserinhaltsstoffen fuehrt bei konventionell betriebenen Belebungsanlagen zur Bildung von Ueberschussschlamm. In Deutschland fallen jaehrlich ca. 23 Mio. m{sup 3}, entsprechend 2,7 Mio. Mg bis 3 Mio. Mg an. Bis zu 30% der Investitionskosten beim Klaeranlagenneubau muessen fuer die Schlammbehandlung aufgewendet werden. Der Marktpreis fuer sachgerechte Behandlung und Entsorgung des Klaerschlamms wird mit 1.500 DM/Mg TR angegeben. Dies entspricht jaehrlichen Aufwendungen von 4 bis 4,5 Mrd. DM in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Es ist deshalb nicht verwunderlich, wenn sich insbesondere die Klaeranlagenbetreiber Belebungsverfahren wuenschen, die eine weitestgehende Reinigung des Abwassers ohne Schlammanfall bewerkstelligen. Die Weiterentwicklung der Mikrofiltrationstechnik und der Einsatz von Niederdruckmembranen zur Biomassenabtrennung im Belebungsverfahren, scheint die Moeglichkeit zu eroeffnen, Belebungsverfahren ohne oder nahezu ohne Ueberschussschlammanfall zu betreiben. (orig.)

  11. Leerstellen der Diskussion: eine kritische Besprechung der Abschlussberichte des RADIESCHEN-Projekts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Schuldt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rezension zu:Klar, Jochen ; Enke, Harry (2013. Projekt RADIESCHEN: Rahmenbedingungen einer disziplinübergreifenden Forschungsdateninfrastruktur; Report „Organisation und Struktur http://ebooks.gfz-potsdam.de/pubman/item/escidoc:117051:2 [Zugriff: 26.07.2013]Koudela, Daniela ; Köhler, Klaus ; Müller-Pfefferkorn, Ralph (2013. Projekt RADIESCHEN: Rahmenbedingungen einer disziplinübergreifenden Forschungsdateninfrastruktur; Report „Technik”. http://ebooks.gfz-potsdam.de/pubman/item/escidoc:117050:4 [Zugriff: 26.07.2013]Rathmann, Torsten (2013a. Projekt RADIESCHEN: Rahmenbedingungen einer disziplinübergreifenden Forschungsdateninfrastruktur; Preise, Kosten und Domänen; Entspricht dem Report D4.3 „LZW-Kostenstruktur” nach Projektantrag. http://ebooks.gfz-potsdam.de/pubman/item/escidoc:117052:2 [Zugriff: 26.07.2013]Rathmann, Torsten (2013b. Projekt RADIESCHEN: Rahmenbedingungen einer disziplinübergreifenden Forschungsdateninfrastruktur; Kostenverteilung und Risiken; Entspricht dem Report D4.2 „2. Entwurf LZW-Kosten” nach Projektantrag. http://ebooks.gfz-potsdam.de/pubman/item/escidoc:117203:1 [Zugriff: 26.07.2013]Projekt RADIESCHEN (2013. Projekt RADIESCHEN: Rahmenbedingungen einer disziplinübergreifenden Forschungsdateninfrastruktur; Report „Synthese”; Entspricht dem Report D6.3 „Abschlussbericht des Projekts und Roadmap für eine Infrastruktur für Forschungsdaten in Deutschland” nach Projektantrag. http://ebooks.gfz-potsdam.de/pubman/item/escidoc:117053:2 [Zugriff: 26.07.2013

  12. Hydrogen as an energy carrier. Final report; Wasserstoff als Energietraeger. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebholz, H. [ed.

    1998-12-01

    This final report of the Special Field of Research 270 (SFB 270) documents the work and results of the four promotion phases from 1989 to 1998, presented in reports on 15 part-projects. From its inception, SFB 270, which bears the title ''Hydrogen as an Energy Carrier'', has been dedicated to two fields of work: in Project Area A to the production of hydrogen (7 part-projects) and in Project Area B to the transport and storage of hydrogen (8 part-projects). The scientific results of the part-projects have also been presented in detail in the progress reports and interim reports of 1991, 1994 and 1997. Some of them have also been presented at the colloquiums of SFB 270. Twelve part-projects have been abstracted individually for the ENERGY database. [German] Der vorliegende Abschlussbericht des Sonderforschungsbereichs 270 dokumentiert die Arbeiten und Ergebnisse der vier Foerderungsphasen von 1989 bis 1998. Sie sind in den Berichten von 15 Teilprojekten wiedergegeben. Der Sonderforschungsbereich 270 'Wasserstoff als Energietraeger' hat sich von Anfang an zwei Aufgabengebieten gewidmet: Im Projektbereich A der Herstellung von Wasserstoff (7 Teilprojekte) und im Projektbereich B dem Transport und der Speicherung von Wasserstoff (8 Teilprojekte). Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Teilprojekte sind ausfuehrlich auch in den Arbeits- und Ergebnisberichten 1991, 1994 und 1997 wiedergegeben. Sie wurden auch, in Teilen, in entsprechenden Kolloquien des SFB 270 praesentiert. Fuer die Datenbank ENERGY wurden 12 Teilprojekte separat aufgenommen. (orig.)

  13. Behaviour at landfills of waste having undergone mechanic-biological and thermal conditioning; Deponieverhalten mechanisch-biologisch und thermisch behandelten Restabfalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danhamer, H.; Dach, J.; Jager, J. [Institut WAR, Darmstadt (Germany). FG Abfalltechnik

    1998-12-31

    The work studies, in landfill test reactors, water, gas and heat transport as well as gas and leachate formation in waste having undergone mechanical-biological and thermal conditioning. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wurde der Wasser-, Gas- und Waermetransport, sowie die Gasbildung- und Sickerwasserbelastung mechanisch-biologisch und thermisch vorbehandelter Abfaelle in Deponieversuchsreaktoren untersucht. (orig.)

  14. Present-day use of biodegradable wastes and future perspectives; Verwendung von biologisch abbaubarem Abfall heute und zukuenftige Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmo, L.; Langenkamp, H. [Forschungsanstalt der Europaeischen Kommission, Abt. Soil and Waste, Ispra (Italy)

    2002-07-01

    This waste stream is amenable to various directives aimed at lessening possible negative effects of biological waste management on the environment. At the EU level these are the Landfill Directive (1999/31/EC), the Sewage Sludge Directive 86/278/EEC, the Organic Farming Regulation (EEC no. 2092/91) and the eco-label for soil improvers and growing media (Commission decision no. 2001/688/EC). An effective resource management of biodegradable materials can play an important role in sustainable development. [German] Um moegliche negative Folgen des Managements biologische Abfaelle auf die Umwelt zu verringern wurde dieser Abfallstrom im Rahmen verschiedener Richtlinien geregelt. Deponierung von Abfaellen (Landfill Directive 1999/31/EG), die Klaerschlammrichtlinie 86/278/EWG, die 'Organic Farming Regulation' (EWG N circle 2092/91) und das Umweltzeichen fuer Bodenverbesserer und Kultur Substrate (Beschluss der Kommission vom 2001/688/EG) sind die relevanten EU-Instrumente, die diesen Abfallstrom regeln. Im Hinblick auf die nachhaltige Entwicklung kann effektives Ressourcenmanagement von biologisch abbaubaren Abfalls eine wichtige Rolle spielen. (orig.)

  15. Sewage sludge dehydration with biodegradable polyelectrolytes as flocculants. Final report. Pt. 1. Development of synthetic polyelectrolytes; Klaerschlammentwaesserung unter Einsatz biologisch abbaubarer Polyelektrolyte als Flockungshilfsmittel. Abschlussbericht. T. 1. Entwicklung der synthetischen Polyelektrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matuschewski, H.; Gohlke, U.; Jaeger, W.

    1997-09-01

    Polyelectrolytes with improved degradability were to be developed for dehydration of uncontaminated sewage sludge. Part-project I investigated the synthesis of polymers. For this purpose, polyvinyl alcohol was functionalized into polyelectrolytes by etheration, Mannich reaction, acetalisation and graft copolymerisation. Some of the new polymers have very good flocculation and dehydration characteristics. (SR) [Deutsch] Ziel des Vorhabens war es, Ergebnisse zur Entwaesserung nicht kontaminierter Klaerschlaemme mit Polyelektrolyten mit verbesserter Abbaubarkeit zu erarbeiten. Ziel des Teilvorhabens I war die Synthese entsprechender Polymerer. Dazu wurde Polyvinylalkohol durch Veretherung, Mannichreaktion, Acetalisierung und Propfcopolymerisation zu Polyelektrolyten funktionalisiert. Die neuen Polymere weisen zum Teil sehr gute Flockungs- und Entwaesserungseigenschaften auf. (SR)

  16. Selective hydroxylation of hydrocarbons using biological processes, illustrated by phenol production from benzene. Final report; Selektive Hydroxylierung von Kohlenwasserstoffen mit Hilfe biologischer Verfahren am Beispiel der Herstellung von Phenol aus Benzol. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmer, G.; Tillaart, J. van den; Lenke, H.; Schloemann, M.; Knackmuss, H.J.; Karau, A.

    2002-07-01

    A biotechnological process for selective hydroxylation of aromatic compounds was to be developed. Phenol production was used as an example. It can be produced in principle either from benzene or from toluene. The first phase of the project focused on toluene, which is tolerated better by bacteria, and the reaction of toluene into benzoic acid produces just as many reduction equivalents as required for oxidation of benzoic acid to benzoic acid-cis-1,2-dihydrodiol. Two strains of bacteria were developed specially for this purpose. The first was the toluene-tolerant strain Pseudomonas putida Idaho (Cruden et al., 1992) in which the benzoic acid-cis-1,2-dihydrodiol dehydrogenase genes were inactivated. The second was a derivative of the strain Pseudomonas putida U-JT103 (Rossiter et al., 1987; Jenkins eta al., 1995; Morawski et al., 1997) which is known to be capable of converting benzoic acid into benzoic acid-cis-1,2-dihydrodiol just like Ralstonia eutropha B9. Although both bacterial strains were capable of converting toluene into benzoic acid-cis-1,2-dihydrodiol, it was not possible so far to produce stoichiometric amounts of benzoic acid-cis-1,2-dihydrodiol from toluene or its metabolites. [German] Ziel des Forschungsvorhabens war es, ein biotechnologisches Verfahren zur selektiven Hydroxylierung von aromatischen Verbindungen am Beispiel der Herstellung von Phenol zu entwickeln. Wie in der Zielsetzung ausgefuehrt gibt es prinzipiell die Moeglichkeit Benzol oder Toluol als Ausgangsverbindungen einzusetzen. Aufgrund der Tatsache, dass (i) Toluol von Bakterien besser toleriert wird als Benzol und dass (ii) der Umsatz von Toluol zur Benzoesaeure genauso viele Reduktionsaequivalente liefert wie fuer die Oxidation von Benzoesaeure zu Benzoesaeure-cis-1,2-dihydrodiol notwendig sind, wurde im Laufe der ersten Phase des Projektes beschlossen, ein Verfahren ausgehend von Toluol zu entwickeln. Hierfuer war es notwendig Produktionsstaemme zu konstruieren, die in der Lage sind, Toluol zu Benzoesaeure-cis-1,2-dihydrodiol umzusetzen. Es gelang zwei solche Produktionsstaemme mittels molekularbiolgogischer Methoden zu erhalten. Bei dem einen Konstrukt handelt es sich um den Toluol tolerierenden Bakterienstamm Pseudomonas putida Idaho (Cruden et al., 1992), bei dem die Benzoesaeure-cis-1,2-dihydrodiol-Dehydrogenase/Gene inaktiviert wurden. Bei dem zweiten Konstrukt handelt es sich um eine Derivat des Bakterienstammens Pseudomonas putida U-JT103 (Rossiter et al., 1987; Jenkins et al., 1995; Morawski et al., 1997), von dem bekannt war, dass er, entsprechend wie Ralstonia eutropha B9, Benzoesaeure in Benzoesaeure-cis-1,2-dihydrodiol umwandeln kann. Auf diesen Stamm wurde ein Modul mit den benoetigten Genen der Toluoloxidation uebertragen. Obwohl fuer beide Staemme gezeigt werden konnte, dass sie Toluol zu Benzoesaeure-cis-1,2-dihydrodiol umsetzen koennen, ist es bislang nicht gelungen, Benzoesaeure-cis-1,2-dihydrodiol in stoechiometrischen Mengen aus Toluol oder dessen Metaboliten herzustellen. (orig.)

  17. Bioassays en chemische metingen, is er een relatie?; multivariate analyse van chemische en biologische waarnemingen aan sedimenten van de Waddenzee en het Zeehavenkanaal

    OpenAIRE

    Brink, van den, W.; Kater, B.J.

    2000-01-01

    Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van de multivariatieanalyse van twee onderzoeken uitgevoerd door het Rijksinstituut voor Kust en Zee. In het Waddenonderzoek zijn sedimenten van zestien plaatsen in de Waddenzee zowel chemisch als biologisch beoordeeld met behulp van chemische metingen en een aantal laboratoriumbiotests in vitro en in vivo. De gegevensset van de Waddenzee is verzameld om na te gaan of waargenomen effecten in de biotests gerelateerd zijn aan de chemische karakteristieken, e...

  18. Zahlungsbereitschaft für kollektive Umweltgüter. Theoretische Grundlagen und empirische Analysen am Fallbeispiel der Wertschätzung biologischer Vielfalt im Wald

    OpenAIRE

    Liebe, Ulf; Preisendörfer, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Um kollektive (Umwelt-)Güter zu bewerten, verwenden Ökonomen seit nunmehr etlichen Jahren Auskünfte zur Zahlungsbereitschaft, die in Umfragen erhoben werden. Die Zahlungsbereitschaftsanalyse hat sich zu einem wichtigen Forschungsfeld entwickelt, dessen Ergebnisse zum Teil in politische und juristische Entscheidungen einfließen. Der vorliegende Artikel fordert die Soziologie auf, sich in dieses Forschungsfeld einzumischen. Konkret wird am Beispiel der monetären Bewertung biologischer Vielfalt ...

  19. Crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells. Final report; Duennschicht-Solarzellen aus kristallinem Silizium. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeuber, A.; Wettling, W.; Eyer, A.; Faller, F.; Hebling, C.; Hurrle, A.; Lautenschlager, H.; Luedemann, R.; Lutz, F.; Reber, S.; Schetter, C.; Schillinger, N.; Schindler, R.; Schumacher, J.O.; Warta, W.

    1998-09-01

    Activities under the project covered all the processes involved in the fabrication of a crystalline silicon thin-film solar cell applying the high-temperature method, so that R and D work was carried out from testing of materials suitable for the dielectric and semiconductive layers required, development of the process sequences for fabrication of the solar cells, simulation and optimisation of the cell design through to final characterisation of the thin films and solar cells. Several cell designs were tested in parallel for intercomparison. Several high-temperature resistant materials were tested for their suitability to serve as substrate materials.The final project report presents the basic research work and studies on the physical and technological aspects of the crystalline thin-film solar cell as well as the major results of specific development work. The report shows that significant progress could be achieved. The efficiencies of all solar cell designs developed under the project are between 9 and 11%, including those using substrate materials easily available in industry, and it could be demonstrated that the solar cells are equal in potential to the wafer-based silicon cell. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Es wurden alle wesentlichen Teilprozesse, die fuer die Entwicklung einer kristallinen Silicium Duennschicht-Solarzelle nach dem Hochtemperaturverfahren wichtig sind, bearbeitet. Der Projektrahmen reichte von der Materialentwicklung fuer die dielektrischen und halbleitenden Schichten ueber die Entwicklung der Solarzellenprozessschritte, die Simulation und Optimierung des Zellendesigns bis zur Charakterisierung von Schichten und Solarzellen. Dabei wurden mehrere verschiedene Zellentypen parallel untersucht und miteinander verglichen. In einer Studie wurden verschiedene hochtemperaturfeste Materialien auf ihre Eignung als Substrate hin untersucht. In dem hier vorgelegten Abschlussbericht werden die erarbeiteten Grundlagen zur Physik und Technologie der kristallinen

  20. Mechanical-biological waste treatment and anaerobic processes. 59. information meeting, Neuwied, October 1999; Mechanisch-biologische Restabfallbehandlung und Anaerobverfahren. 59. Informationsgespraech in Neuwied im Oktober 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hangen, H.O.; Euler, H.; Leonhardt, H.W. [comps.

    1999-10-01

    This proceedings volume discusses the specifications for and cost of mechanical-biological waste treatment, the optimisation of economic efficiency and pollutant emissons, the combination of mechanical-biological and thermal waste treatment processes, the value of mechanical-biological waste treatment, waste management concepts, process engineering and practical experience, and the eco-balance of the process. [German] Themen dieses Proceedingsbandes sind: Anforderungen und Kosten der mechanisch-biologischen Abfallbehandlung; Optimierung der Wirtschaftlichkeit und Emissionssituation; Kombination von mechanisch-biologischer und thermischer Muellbehandlung; Bewertung der mechanisch-biologischen Abfallbehandlung, Abfallwirtschaftskonzepte, Verfahrenstechnik und Betriebserfahrungen; Oekobilanz. (SR)

  1. An approach to quasi-biological nanodosimetry; Ein Ansatz zu quasi-biologischer Nanodosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajek, M. [Inst. of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, Vienna Univ. of Tech. (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    The increasing utilization of charged particle beams for therapeutic purposes requires designing novel detector systems which shall be capable of assessing radiation quality for a diversity of ion species. It is shown that the pattern of energy deposition in thermoluminescent phosphors and biological tissue contains conceptual parallels. The correlation of physical and radiobiological parameters observed experimentally for specific endpoints (single- and double-strand breaks of DNA) opens the possibility of realizing successfully quasi-biological solid-state nanodosimetry on the basis of thermoluminescence. (orig.)

  2. Biologische Entschwefelung von Biogas

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    Ziel dieser Arbeit ist die Erhöhung von Abbauleistung und Stabilität des biologischen Abbaus von Schwefelwasserstoff (H2S) in Biotropfkörpern zur Entschwefelung von Biogas. Für die Nutzung von Biogas ist häufig eine Reduktion des H2S-Gehalts erforderlich. Üblicherweise wird H2S von aeroben Mikroorganismen bei Zugabe von Luft zum Biogas entweder direkt im Biogasreaktor oder in nachgeschalteten Biotropfkörpern zu Schwefel und Schwefelsäure oxidiert. In der Praxis auftretende Schwankungen der H2...

  3. Material flow management by combining mechanic-biological and thermal waste processing; Stoffstrommanagement durch Kombination von mechanisch-biologischer und thermischer Abfallbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahlten, M.J. [Joma Umwelt-Beratungsgesellschaft mbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    1998-10-01

    The aim of modern, sustainable waste management must be to conceive flexible waste management concepts which safeguard economy and the optimized use of realized investments even if the waste volumes accruing do not tally with projections. A prerequisite of cost-optimized, environmentally compatible and sustainable waste management in accordance with the requirements of the technical code on municipal waste (TASi) is the integration of the thermal processing of waste and its harnessing as an energy source. A way of realizing such flexible and cost-efficient concepts is by combining mechanic, and mechanic-biological, conditioning of waste with a topped thermal processing plant harnessing its energy potential. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Zielsetzung moderner, nachhaltiger Abfallwirtschaft muss es sein, flexible abfallwirtschaftliche Konzepte zu realisieren, die bei unsicheren Restabfallmengen neben der Wirtschaftlichkeit der Konzeption insbesondere auch eine optimierte Auslastung der realisierten Anlagen (der getaetigten Investitionen) erlaubt. Voraussetzung fuer eine kostenoptimierte, umweltvertraegliche und nachhaltige Abfallwirtschaft, die die Vorgaben der TASi beruecksichtigt, ist die Einbindung von thermischer Behandlung und energetischer Verwertung. Ein moeglicher Weg, derartige, flexible und auch kostenvertraegliche Konzepte zu realisieren, ist die Kombination aus mechanischer und mechanisch-biologischer Vorbehandlung der verbleibenden Restabfaelle mit einer nachgeschalteten thermischen/energetischen Nutzung der vorbehandelten Abfaelle. (orig./SR)

  4. Service behaviour of PVD-coated gearings and bearings lubricated with biodegradable oils; Verhalten PVD-beschichteter Verzahnungen und Spindellager unter dem Einsatz biologisch abbaubarer Schmierstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weck, M.; Brecher, C.; Queins, M.; Schlattmeier, H.; Reinartz, Th.; Bugiel, C.; Spachtholz, G. [Laboratorium fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Betriebslehre (WZL) der RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2004-11-01

    The following report presents the results of practical investigations with PVD coated gears and spindle bearings in combination with biodegradable lubricants. In order to compensate the performance deficit and the rising wear of the mechanical components when using non-additived oils, suitable PVD coating systems were used on the loaded surfaces. This coatings are capable of substituting the tribological functions of conventional, additivated lubricants. All investigations have been carried out in the context of the Collaborative Research Center 442 (''environmentally friendly tribosystems by suitable coatings and fluids with respect to the machine tool''). The aim is to realize an environment-friendly system consisting of the mechanical components and the corresponding lubricants, which at least provides an equal performance compared to conventional systems. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Der nachfolgende Beitrag praesentiert Ergebnisse praxisnaher Untersuchungen mit PVD-beschichteten Verzahnungen und Spindellagern unter dem Einsatz biologisch schnell abbaubarer und entfeinerter Schmierstoffe. Um das aus der Entfeinerung resultierende Leistungsdefizit und den Verschleissanstieg der Maschinenelemente zu kompensieren, wird im Rahmen des SFB 442 untersucht, inwieweit durch die Verwendung geeigneter Schichtsysteme fuer die gleit- und waelzbeanspruchten Laufflaechen die tribologischen Funktionen herkoemmlicher, additivierter Fluide auf die PVD-Schichten uebertragen werden koennen. Das Ziel ist, ein umweltvertraegliches System aus Maschinenelement und Schmierstoff zur Verfuegung zu stellen, das in seiner Leistungsfaehigkeit mindestens den konventionell eingesetzten Varianten entspricht. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Mechanical-biological waste conditioning with controlled venting - the Meisenheim mechanical-biological waste conditioning plant; Mechanisch-biologische Restabfallbehandlung nach dem Kaminzugverfahren - MBRA Meisenheim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hangen, H.O. [Abfallwirtschaftsbetrieb Landkreis Bad Kreuznach, Bad Kreuznach (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The decision of the rural district of Bad Kreuznach to propose creating facilities for mechanical-biological waste conditioning at the new northern Meisenheim landfill was consistent and correct. It will ensure that the material deposited at this new, state-of-the-art landfill is organically `lean` and can be deposited with a high density. Preliminary sifting of the material prior to depositing safeguards that no improper components are inadvertently included. Three years of operation warrant the statement that waste components that cannot be appropriately biologically conditioned should be eliminated prior to rotting. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Entscheidung des Landkreises Bad Kreuznach, der neu eingerichteten Norddeponie Meisenheim eine MBRA vorzuschlaten, war auf jeden Fall konsequent und richtig. Es ist damit sicher gestellt, dass in diesem neuen nach dem Stand der Technik eingerichteten Deponiebereich von Anfang an ein Material eingelagert wird, das `organisch abgemagert` ist und mit hoher Einbaudichte eingebaut werden kann. Die Sichtung des gesamten Deponie-Inputs in der Vorsortierhalle gibt ein Stueck Sicherheit, dass keine nicht zugelassenen Stoffe verdeckt dem Ablagerungsbereich der Deponie zugefuehrt werden. Nach mehr als 3 Jahren Betriebszeit kann festgestellt werden, dass biologisch nicht sinnvoll behandelbare Abfallbestandteile vor dem Rotteprozess abgetrennt werden sollten. (orig.)

  6. Development of biodegradable materials on the basis of renewable materials, starch, vegetable oils and natural fibres. Part 3: Derivation of starch of DS = 0.3 to 2.5. Final report; Entwicklung biologisch abbaubarer Werkstoffe auf der Basis nachwachsender Rohstoffe, Staerke, Pflanzenoel und Naturfasern. T. 3: Derivatisierung der Staerke von DS=0,3 bis 2,5. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, G.; Lang, J.; Rafler, G.

    2002-01-01

    The last few years have seen rapid developments in the field of starch use in the polymer sector. Destructured starch, with suitable modifiers, can be processed into foils and formed parts by thermoplastic methods. Their properties during processing and use differ from those of conventional plastics, however. The main reason for this is the structural hydrophilia of starch and starch products, which reduces their technical applications. In this project, the fundamentals for starch-based materials with better material characteristics are to be developed in order to improve the chances of these economically and ecologically attractive materials on the market and enhance their range of applications. [German] In den letzten Jahren haben die Entwicklungen auf dem Gebiet des Staerkeeinsatzes im Polymersektor erhebliche Fortschritte gemacht. Destrukturierte Staerken lassen sich heute unter Zusatz geeigneter Modifikatoren nach bekannten Formgebungsverfahren thermoplastisch zu Folien und Formkoerpern verarbeiten. Das Eigenschaftsprofil der staerkebasierenden Materialien entspricht jedoch nicht demjenigen konventioneller Kunststoffe. Dies betrifft sowohl die Gebrauchs- als auch die Verarbeitungseigenschaften. Wesentliche Ursache dieser fuer viele Applikationen unzureichenden Materialeigenschaften ist die strukturbedingte Hydrophilie von Staerken und daraus hergestellten Produkten. Diese Hydrophilie fuehrt dann zu einer hohen Feuchtigkeitsempfindlichkeit von staerkebasierenden Materialien, die ihre Einsatzmoeglichkeiten in technischen Bereichen erheblich einschraenkt. In dem durch die Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe gefoerderten Verbundprojekt ''Entwicklung bioabbaubarer Werkstoffe auf der Basis nachwachsender Rohstoffe, Staerke und Pflanzenoel'' sollen deshalb Grundlagen fuer staerkebasierende Werkstoffe bzw. Werkstoffkomponenten mit deutlich verbesserten Materialeigenschaften erarbeitet werden, um die Chancen dieser wirtschaftlich und oekologisch attraktiven Materialien am Kunststoffmarkt signifikant zu verbessern bzw. ihnen auch neue Applikationen zu erschliessen. (orig.)

  7. Blades and disks in gas turbines. Material and component behaviour. Project department D. Final report; Schaufeln und Scheiben in Gasturbinen. Werkstoff- und Bauteilverhalten. Projektbereich D. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The Special Research Department No. 339, ``Disks and Blades in Gas Turbines - Material and Component Characteristics`` received financial support from 1988 through 1996. This final report discusses activities of the years 1994, 1995, and 1996. Project group D, ``Production and Quality Assurance``, investigated rotors and blades. Grinding techniques were developed and optimized for nickel base materials, and the effects of grinding on the marginal zones was investigated, including an analysis of intrinsic stresses induced by machining. In the field of ceramics, separation and production of reinforced ceramics was investigated, and techniques for vacuum soldering of ceramic/ceramic and ceramic/metal compounds for high-temperature applications were developed. In the framework of a part-project carried out at HMI, neutron diffraction was used for nondestructive analysis of volume intrinsic stresses near the joint both on model geometries and on the joint between metal shaft and ceramic rotor. The development and application of computerized tomography for testing of ceramic rotors and joints was an important contribution to quality assurance. (orig./MM) [Deutsch] Der Sonderforschungsbereich 339 `Schaufeln und Scheiben in Gasturbinen - Werkstoff- und Bauteilverhalten` wurde von 1988 bis Ende 1996 gefoerdert. Der vorliegende Abschlussbericht behandelt vor allem die Arbeiten der Jahre 1994, 1995 und 1996. Am Bauteil Rotor und Schaufel orientierten sich die Arbeiten des Projektbereichs D `Fertigung und Qualitaetssicherung`. Zum einen wurden hier Schleifverfahren fuer Nickelbasis-Werkstoffe entwickelt und optimiert und der Einfluss der Schleifbearbeitung auf die Randzoneneigenschaften studiert. Zur Randzonencharakterisierung gehoerte insbesondere auch die Analyse bearbeitungsinduzierter Eigenspannungen. Auf der Seite der Keramiken wurde zum einen die trennende Fertigung verstaerkter Keramiken untersucht. Zum anderen wurden Techniken fuer das Hochvakuumloeten von Keramik

  8. Silicon solar cells with high efficiencies. Final report; Silicium-Solarzellen mit hoechsten Wirkungsgraden. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wettling, W.; Knobloch, J.; Glunz, S.W.; Henninger, V.; Kamerewerd, F.J.; Koester, B.; Leimenstoll, A.; Schaeffer, E.; Schumacher, J.; Sterk, S.; Warta, W.

    1996-06-01

    In this report the basic activities for the development of the silicon high efficiency solar cell technology are described. The project had two main goals: (i) The improvement of efficiencies using a systematic optimization of all cell parameters and technology steps and (ii) the simplification of the technology towards the possibilities of an industrial production, keeping the cell efficiency at a high level. Starting from the LBSF technology, developed at Fraunhofer ISE, the reduction of all loss mechanisms led to efficiencies up to 22.5% on FZ-silicon. Using a modification of this technology efficiencies of up to 21.7% have been reached on Cz-silicon. Even after the reduction of the number of photolithographic steps from six to three efficiencies up to 21.6% on FZ- and 19.5% on Cz-silicon have been obtained. These are best values in an international comparison. (orig.) [Deutsch] In diesem Projektbericht werden grundlegende Arbeiten zur Entwicklung der Silicium-`Highefficiency`-Solarzellentechnologie beschrieben. Das Projekt hatte zwei Hauptziele: (i) Die Erhoehung der Wirkungsgrade durch eine systematische Optimierung aller Zellparameter und aller Technologieschritte und (ii) die Vereinfachung der Technologie unter Beibehaltung sehr hoher Wirkungsgrade mit dem Ziel einer Annaeherung an die Moeglichkeiten der Industriefertigung. Ausgehend von der im Fraunhofer ISE entwickelten LBSF-Technologie gelang es durch Reduzierung aller Verlustmechanismen, Wirkungsgrade bis zu 22.5% auf FZ-Silicium zu erreichen. Nach Anpassung der Technologie wurden auf Cz-Silicium Wirkungsgrade bis 21.7% erzielt. Ein von sechs auf drei Fotomaskenschritte reduzierter Prozess erzielte immerhin noch Werte bis 21.6% auf FZ- und 19.5% auf Cz-Material. Alle dieser Werte stellen im internationalen Vergleich Spitzenleistungen dar. (orig.)

  9. Tussenrapport : uitloop biologische varkens : verslag studiemiddag biologische veehouderij PO-34

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    2004-01-01

    Bij deze tussenrapportage zijn al een aantal (voorlopige)conclusies te trekken enaanbevelingen te doen rondom de uitloop voor varkens. Uit het thema dier komt naar voren dat bij vleesvarkens de meeste spoelwormeieren in de verharde uitloop te vinden zijn en dat er maar een gering aantal volwassen wormen gevonden wordt. Op één van de bedrijven is Ivermectine met succes toegepast als ontwormingsmiddel. Vanuit de gegevens wordt de aanbeveling gedaan de varkens bij aankomst op het bedrijf te ontw...

  10. Evaluation of combustion experiments conducted during the research and development project ``Mechanical-biological waste conditioning in combination with thermal processing of partial waste fractions``; Auswertung der Verbrennungsversuche zum Forschungs- und Entwicklungsvorhaben ``mechanisch-biologische Restmuellbehandlung unter Einbindung thermischer Verfahren fuer Teilfraktionen``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, J.; Lohf, A.; Herr, C. [Institut WAR, Darmstadt (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The technical code on municipal waste makes specific demands on waste to be deposited at landfills which can only be met if mechanical-biological conditioning of waste as well as thermal processing of partial waste fractions are continued also in the future. But waste that has undergone mechanical or mechanical-biological conditioning presents different combustion properties from those of unconditioned waste. In this second stage of the research project, the thermal processability of waste having undergone mechanical or mechanical-biological conditioning was studied. Together with the results from the first project stage, where the throughput represented exclusively mechanically conditioned material, the results of the latter measuring campaigns comprehensively demonstrate possibilities for the thermal processing of partial waste fractions having undergone biological-mechanical conditioning, and inform on changes in plant performance. (orig.) [Deutsch] Um die in der TA-Siedlungsabfall an den abzulagernden Restmuell gestellten Deponieeingangsbedingungen zu erfuellen, muss neben einer mechanisch-biologischen Aufbereitung bei Teilfraktionen auch weiterhin eine thermische Behandlung eingeplant werden. Die Verbrennungseigenschaften von mechanisch oder mechanisch-biologisch vorbehandeltem Restmuell weichen allerdings von denen von unbehandeltem Restmuell ab. In dieser zweiten Projektphase des Forschungsvorhabens wurde eine Untersuchung bezueglich der thermischen Behandelbarkeit von mechanisch und auch biologisch vorbehandeltem Muell durchgefuehrt. Die Ergebnisse der Messkampagnen bilden zusammen mit den Ergebnissen der ersten Projektphase, in der ausschliesslich mechanisch vorbehandeltes Material durchgesetzt wurde, eine umfassende Darstellung ueber Moeglichkeiten und veraenderte Anlagenverhalten bei der thermischen Behandlung von Teilfraktionen aus der biologisch-mechanisch Vorbehandlung. (orig.)

  11. Biologische Charakteristik der menschlichen Skelettreste

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stránská, Petra

    Darmstadt : Philipp von Zabern, 2015 - (Ernée, M.), s. 168-194 ISBN 978-3-8053-4969-7. - (Römisch-Germanische Forschungen. 72) Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Early Bronze Age * human remains * cemetery Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  12. Biologische zuivering met de Fytobac

    OpenAIRE

    Werd, de, H.A.E.; Bruine, de, J.A.; Meijel, van, B.; Meuffels, G.J.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Ervaringen met de Fytobac systemen in Vredepeel en Wijnandsrade weer over het jaar 2011. Beide systemen zijn gebruikt voor de reiniging van water dat vrijkomt bij het reinigen van spuitapparatuur. In Vredepeel is in dezelfde opvangput ook verontreiniging die ontstaan is bij het vullen van de spuit en restvloef opgevangen. Dit rapport geeft meetresultaten en praktische ervaringen uit 2011 weer en wordt beëindigd met conclusies waarin aangegeven wordt wat de resultaten van deze activiteiten bet...

  13. Climate change and the Lower Weser region. Final report; Klimaaenderung und Unterweserregion (KLIMU) 'Fallstudie Weseraestuar'. Teilprojekt: Oekologischer Komplex. T. B: Klimasensitivitaet der Unterweser und ihrer Vorlaender. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterkamp, S.; Schirmer, M.

    2000-12-01

    The climate sensitivity of the aquatic, amphibic and terrestrial compartments of the lower Weser region was analyzed. This region, located between Bremen and Bremerhaven in northern Germany, is part of a bigger natural reserve ('Unterwesermarsch'). Vegetation and land use were mapped at the biotype level, and forecasts of changes to be expected were attempted on the basis of a regionalised climate scenario. Climate-induced changes in the topology of the headlands and in the morphology of the lower Weser river could not be taken into account. [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit (Teil B: 'Klimasensitivitaet der Unterweser und ihrer Vorlaender') des Teilprojektes Oekologischer Komplex wird die Klimasensitivitaet der aquatischen, amphibischen und terrestrischen Lebensraeume der Unterweserregion analysiert. (Die Ergebnisse der Untersuchungen der Klimasensitivitaet der Marschen sind im Abschlussbericht des Teilprojektes Oekologischer Komplex, Teil A, Kraft and Schirmer 2000 beschrieben). Das Untersuchungsgebiet, im Norden Deutschlands zwischen Bremen und Bremerhaven gelegen, stellt den inneren Teil des Naturraumes Unterwesermarsch dar. Die Vegetation und die Nutzung des Gebietes wurde flaechendeckend auf der Ebene von Biotoptypenkartierungen erfasst. Prognosen der Flaechenbilanzen und der kuenftigen Veraenderung der Biotoptypen und der Fauna des Vorlandes und der Unterweser wurden auf der Grundlage eines regionalisierten Klimaszenarios vorgenommen. Klimabedingte Veraenderungen der Topografie der Vorlandbereiche und der Morphologie der Unterweser konnten innerhalb der vorliegenden Studie nicht beruecksichtigt werden. (orig.)

  14. Ko-RFID Abschlussbericht

    OpenAIRE

    Straube, Frank; Fürstenberg, Frank; Bensel, Philipp; Vogeler, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Unter dem Titel „Kollaboration in RFID-gestützten Wertschöpfungsnetzen“ arbeiteten die Projektpartner über den Zeitraum von drei Jahren an den folgenden Fragestellungen: Welche Rolle spielt Vertrauen in unternehmensübergreifende RFID-Anwendungen? Wie kann ein Vertrauensverhältnis erzeugt werden? Wie können ungleichmäßige Kosten/Nutzen-Aufteilungen unternehmensübergreifender RFID-Anwendungen gelöst werden, um zu einer Win-Win-Situation zu gelangen? Welche Potenziale ergeben sich fü...

  15. Selection and examination of types of waste relevant to underground disposal. Final report; Auswahl und Untersuchung UTD-relevanter Abfallarten. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichelt, C. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Tieflagerung; Brasser, T. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Tieflagerung; Bahadir, M. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik; Fischer, R. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik; Lorenz, W. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik; Petersen, C. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik

    1995-12-31

    Kenntnisse ueber den Abfall selbst, die geologisch-hydrogeologischen Verhaeltnisse des Deponieraumes und seiner Umgebung sowie der zukuenftigen Entwicklung des gesamten Deponiesystems. Die Langzeitsicherheit jeder Untertagedeponie (sinngemaess auch jeder sonstigen untertaegigen Verbringung von Stoffen) ist dabei in erster Linie davon abhaengig, ob auf das Wirtsgestein und dei darin abgelagerten Abfaelle Wasser oder waessrige Loesungen einwirken koennen, in welchem Umfang dadurch Umloeseprozesse und/oder eine Schadstoffmobilisierung resultieren koennen und letztlich, ob Beeintraechtigungen der Barrieren sowie eine Ausbreitung von Schadstoffen in der naeheren und weiteren Umgebung einer Untertagedeponie moeglich sind. Hierzu muessen insbesondere die Abfaelle selbst sowie deren Reaktionsvermoegen mit fluiden Komponenten in geologischen Systemen bekannt sein und erforderlichenfalls untersucht und bewertet werden. Der vorliegende Abschlussbericht ist in diesem Zusammenhang als Beitrag zur Schaffung der notwendigen Datenbasis fuer UTD-relevante Abfallarten ausgerichtet. Damit konnten wichtige Aussagen zum Abfallaufkommen selbst und den zu beruecksichtigenden Abfallinhaltsstoffen ermittelt, wie auch eine Abschaetzung deren Gefaehrdungspotentials vorgenommen werden und als Grundlage fuer weiterfuehrende Forschungs- und Entwicklungsarbeiten dienen. (orig./SR)

  16. Development of a method for direct biological removal of ammonium to nitrogen in treatment of waste waters of the anaerobic sludge digestion - deammonification. Final report; Entwicklung eines Verfahrens zur direkten biologischen Umsetzung von Ammonium zu Stickstoff bei der Behandlung von Abwaessern der Anaerob-Klaerschlammfaulung - Deammonifikation. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenwinkel, K.H.; Seyfried, C.F.; Kunst, S.; Diekmann, H.; Hippen, A.; Helmer, C.; Scholten, E.

    2001-07-01

    The nitrogen elimination in municipal and industrial wastewater continues to play a major role in wastewater treatment, especially since the Wastewater Directive (AbwV) from 1997 introduced several changes in the requirements and regulations in regard to the pollutant and nutrient removal. As particularly the nitrogen elimination often makes for a considerable cost factor in wastewater treatment, especially when part-streams with high nitrogen loads must be (co-)treated, there is a constant search for economically viable treatment concepts. In this research project, the method of deammonification was developed, that is the process sequence of aerobic nitritation and anoxic ammonium oxidation ('biological comproportioning' of ammonium and nitrite into molecular nitrogen), which is based completely on the metabolism processes of autotrophic micro-organisms, which leads to saving potentials, especially of the carbon demand. Because of the shortened aerobic oxidation steps and the application of biofilm technology, it is also possible to reduce the oxygen demand and the reaction volume. In regard to the purposeful application of deammonification in operation technology, the project steps were targeted to determine the process-defining parameters and to check suitable method technologies and operation control systems in greater detail. To achieve this, the crucial frame conditions for the realisation and the operation performance of the autotrophic nitrogen elimination were defined on the basis of industrial and pilot-technical examinations under consideration of the (micro-)biological connections. Eventually, directives on the establishment of a stable deammonification operation could be derived. On the one hand, we ran a stock-taking of the operation of three industrial leachate treatment plants, on the other hand we operated test-plants on sludge-water treatment. Furthermore, various examinations with different reactor configurations and purposeful

  17. Cleaning of process and excess water from organic waste fermentation with a combination of biological treatment stage and microfiltration; Reinigung von Prozess- und Ueberschusswaessern aus der Bioabfallvergaerung durch Kombination aus biologischer Stufe und Mikrofiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buer, T.; Schumacher, J. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft

    1999-07-01

    Within the framework of an R and D project sponsored by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt, cleaning of process and excess water from organic waste fermentation plants was studied at the Institute for Siedlungswasserwirtschaft of Aachen Technical University RWTH. The focus in studying these waste waters was on the adaptation and optimization of the ZenoGem {sup trademark} process - a biological cleaning technique with an integrated microfiltration membrane. The use of this technology had the following objectives: to safeguard compliance with the limiting values for direct or indirect discharge of excess water and to reduce the heavy metal freight of circulating process water reentering the fermentation process for mashing raw organic waste. Thus the pollutant content of the fermentation residue was to be cut down. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen eines von der Deutschen Bundesstiftung Umwelt gefoerderten Forschungs- und Entwicklungsvorhabens wurde am Institut fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft der RWTH Aachen die Prozess- und Ueberschusswasserreinigung von Bioabfallvergaerungsanlagen untersucht. Dabei stellte die Adaption und Optimierung des ZenoGem {sup trademark} -Verfahrens - ein biologisches Reinigungsverfahren mit integrierter Mikrofiltrationsmembran - fuer diese Abwaesser den Untersuchungsschwerpunkt dar. Ziel war es, mit dieser Technologie zum einen die Grenzwerte fuer eine direkte oder indirekte Einleitung des Ueberschusswassers zu gewaehrleisten und zum anderen die zirkulierenden Prozesswaesser, die in den Vergaerungsprozess zum Anmaischen der Roh-Bioabfaelle zurueckgefuehrt werden, an Schwermetallen zu entfrachten. Hierdurch sollte eine Schadstoffreduktion im Gaerreststoff erzielt werden. (orig.)

  18. Engine 3E. NO{sub x} reduction by means of homogenisation of mixtures inside combustion chambers. Final report; Engine 3E. NO{sub x}-Reduktion durch Homogenisierung des Gemisches in Brennkammern. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarzalis, N.; Homann; Schubert

    1999-11-05

    This is the final report of the Technology Project 'NO{sub x} reduction by means of homogenisation of mixtures inside combustion chambers', which is part of the Engine 3E 2010 programme of the BMBF, which was to promote research in aircraft engineering. In this project, technologies were developed to achieve a 60% reduction of NO{sub x} emissions as compared to ICAO '95 in an annular combustion chamber in realistic operating conditions where the emissions of substances oher than NO{sub x} were to be of the same level as the emissions of modern jet drives. Further, the design of the new combustion chamber was to be conventional in order to retain the possibility of converting existing propulsion systems to the new technology. [German] Diese Notiz enthaelt den Abschlussbericht des Technologievorhabens 'NO{sub x}-Reduktion durch Homogenisierung des Gemisches in Brennkammern'. Das Vorhaben ist Teil des Luftfahrtfoerderprogramms Engine 3E 2010 der Bundesregierung und wird vom Bundesministerium fuer Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie (BMBF) unter dem Foerderkennzeichen 20T9540 gefoerdert. Das Programm wurde am 01. Juli 1995 begonnen und endete am 30. Juni 1999. Entsprechend dem Foerderantrag wurden in dem Vorhaben Einzeltechnologien erarbeitet, die erforderlich sind, um eine 60% Reduktion der NO{sub x}-Emissionen gegenueber ICAO '95 in einer Ringbrennkammer unter realistischen Betriebsbedingungen zu demonstrieren, wobei die restlichen Emissionen das Emissionsniveau moderner Triebwerke nicht ueberschreiten sollten. Darueber hinaus sollte das aeussere Design der zu entwickelnden Brennkammer sind von konventionellen Brennkammern nicht unterscheiden, um die Moeglichkeit der Umruestung von alten Triebwerken mit der Brennkammern der neuen Technologie offen zu halten. (orig.)

  19. Climatic change and the effects on the marine ecosystem around the island of Sylt. Final report; Das marine Oekosystem um Sylt unter veraenderten Klimabedingungen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackschewitz, D.; Menn, I.; Reise, K.

    2000-05-01

    Climatic warming of 1.5 to 2.5 C with a higher water temperature may only slightly change the species spectrum of the intertidal zone of the island of Sylt (North Sea). This is shown by a comparison with tidal flats of the French Atlantic coast. Stronger effects are expected from a sea level rise and an increase in hydrodynamic forces. This may result in a decrease of eelgrass and mussel beds. On the high intertidal zone muddy flats will be replaced by sandy flats due to wave action. Enhanced erosion at the Wadden Sea shoreline will probably entail its continued petrification to prevent further losses. This will cause a decrease of natural habitats with their specific assemblages, and the esthetic appeal of the Wadden Sea will decrease too. It is proposed that sand replenishment on the Wadden Sea shoreline will better preserve the natural sequence of biotopes on the tidal flats. The erosive beach on the seaward side of the island of Sylt is both focal place for tourist recreation, and the site of a highly diverse interstitial fauna. This fauna will be able to re-establish itself three months after a campaign of sand replenishment. Sand replenishment was found to be an effective way to compensate beach erosion and, due to the quick re-establishment of the fauna, it may be regarded as an acceptable method of coastal defense from an ecological perspective. (orig.) [German] Bei einer Klimaerwaermung um 1,5 bis 2,5 C wird der direkte Einfluss hoeherer Wassertemperatur das biologische Artenspektrum im Sylter Gezeitenbereich nicht wesentlich veraendern. Dies ergibt ein Vergleich mit Watten der franzoesischen Atlantikkueste. Bedeutender sind voraussichtlich Auswirkungen hoeherer Wasserstaende und einer zunehmenden Hydrodynamik. Seegraswiesen und Muschelbaenke werden dadurch im Wattbereich abnehmen. In Ufernaehe werden schlickige von sandigen Watten verdraengt. Einer verstaerkten Erosion an ungeschuetzten Wattufern wird voraussichtlich mit weiteren Befestigungen begegnet

  20. Parameter Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Heitzig, Martina; Cameron, Ian;

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter the importance of parameter estimation in model development is illustrated through various applications related to reaction systems. In particular, rate constants in a reaction system are obtained through parameter estimation methods. These approaches often require the application...... of optimisation techniques coupled with dynamic solution of the underlying model. Linear and nonlinear approaches to parameter estimation are investigated. There is also the application of maximum likelihood principles in the estimation of parameters, as well as the use of orthogonal collocation to...... generate a set of algebraic equations as the basis for parameter estimation.These approaches are illustrated using estimations of kinetic constants from reaction system models....

  1. Climate change and the Lower Weser region: Direct and indirect consequences of a climate change for the ecological situation in the Weser, the forelands and in the diked marshes. Final report; Klimaaenderung und Unterweserregion (KLIMU) 'Fallstudie Weseraestuar'. Direkte und indirekte Auswirkungen eines Klimawandels auf die oekologischen Verhaeltnisse in Weser, Vorland und Binnendeichsmarschen. Teilprojekt Oekologischer Komplex. T. A: Binnenland. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, D.; Schirmer, M.

    2001-03-01

    In the subproject 'Ecological Complex' within the combined project 'Climate Change and the Lower Weser Region' (KLIMU), formerly 'Case Study Weser Estuary', the ecological effects of a climate change for the Lower Weser, the tidal forelands and the marshes protected by dikes are assessed. For the description of the ecological situation of the research area the biotope types acc. to DRACHENFELS are assessed and processed using a GIS (ARC View/ARC Info), complemented by relief data, status of protection, agricultural utilization and soil parameters. When a defined future climate (climate scenario) with +55 cm sea-level, +30 cm tidal rise, increased precipitation (but with -6% in summer.) and +2.7 C mean annual temperature acts upon this landscape, the following consequences will arise (without morphological adaptation), which are described in the final report part A for the marshes and in part B for the Lower Weser and the forelands: the shallow water areas of the Lower Weser increase by 29%, tidal areas by 55% and the tidal reeds by 250%; the grassland outside the summerdikes looses it's agricultural value and decreases by 30%. CO{sub 2}- and temperature-increase will rise the biomass production of the reeds by up to 25%, the invasion of neophytes and neozoans will be accelerated. In general the conditions in the foreland will become more natural. In the marshes protected by dikes the raised temperature will promote the invasion of thermophilic species as well; raised temperature and CO{sub 2}-contents of the atmosphere will allow an increase in productivity by 25% and thus help the agriculture. The biotope types of the moist grassland will remain dominated by agriculture, areas within 2 km from the dikes will tend to become more moist, areas far from there will in parts suffer from considerable drought during summer. The reaction options of the coastal protection result in the consumption of highly valued nature-areas (e.g. for a

  2. Blades and discs in gas turbines. Behaviour of material and components. Project department A-C. Final report; Schaufeln und Scheiben in Gasturbinen. Werkstoff- und Bauteilverhalten. Projektbereiche A bis C. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The special research area 339 `Blades and discs in gas turbines, behaviour of material and components` was carried on from 1988 to the end of 1196. This final report deals with the work in the years 1994, 1995 and 1996. In the project area A `Development of material` manufacturing processes both for metallic and ceramic high temperature materials were developed, tested and optimised. In the area of optimising casting structure, it was shown that the making grains finer up to the medium temperature range can be a suitable means for significantly raising the resistance to LCF loading with nearly unchanged heat and creep strength properties. Another main point was the characterisation and optimisation of sprayed ceramic layers on metallic substrates (heat insulating layers) and compound ceramic materials. In project area B `Material behaviour` the mechanisms were studied, which, particularly in metallic high temperature materials such as nickel-based superalloys, lead to failure of the material under thermo-mechanical stresses. In project area C `Component design`, on the one hand models for estimating service life for metallic high temperature materials under different thermo-mechanical stresses were developed. [Deutsch] Der Sonderforschungsbereich 339, `Schaufeln und Scheiben in Gasturbinen - Werkstoff- und Bauteilverhalten` wurde von 1988 bis Ende 1996 gefoerdert. Dieser Abschlussbericht behandelt die Arbeiten der Jahre 1994, 1995 und 1996. Im Projektbereich A `Werkstoffentwicklung` wurden Herstellungsverfahren sowohl fuer metallische als auch fuer keramische Hochtemperaturwerkstoffe entwickelt, erprobt und optimiert. Auf dem Gebiet der Gussgefuegeoptimierung konnte gezeigt werden, dass die Kornfeinung bis in den mittleren Temperaturbereich ein geeignetes Mittel sein kann, um den Widerstand gegen LCF-Belastung bei annaehernd unveraenderten Warm- und Kriechfestigkeitseigenschaften signifikant zu erhoehen. Einen weiteren Schwerpunkt bildete die Charakterisierung und

  3. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal under alternating anaerobic and anoxic conditions. Pt. 2. The sorption-denitrification-P-removal-system; Vermehrte biologische Phosphorelimination durch alternierende anaerob/anoxische Milieubedingungen. T. 2. S-DN-P-Biofilmverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieker, C.A. [Berliner Wasserbetriebe, Berlin (Germany); Hegemann, W. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Siedlungswasserwirtschaft

    2000-07-01

    The Sorption-Denitrification-P-Removal-system (S-DN-P-system) is a process which combines biological excess P-removal and denitrification in a biofilm system. The accumulation of polyP organisms is achieved by sequencing anaerobic and anoxic conditions. The biofilm is in alternating contact with primary treated wastewater (anaerobic phase) and nitrified wastewater (anoxic phase). In the anaerobic phase, P-Release takes place and readily biodegradable organic substrate is fermented to volatile fatty acids and absorbed by the polyP organisms. In addition to this, other organic substrate is physically/chemically adsorbed in the biofilm. In the anoxic phase the biofilm dentirifies the ab/adsorbed organic substrate and, at the same time, P-uptake and polyP formation occurs. The research on the S-DN-P-system shows that P-removal in the anaerobic/anoxic system works well and ab- and adsorption mechanisms nearly remove all of the readily biodegradable substrate in the anaerobic phase. Consequently, this substrate can be used for denitrification in the anoxic phase. The S-DN-P-Process is a very promising concept. However, up to now the technical scale-up is unclear. This is subject to further investigation at the Technical University of Berlin. (orig.) [German] Das S-DN-P-Verfahren ist ein Biofilmverfahren, welches die vermehrte biologische Phosphorelemination und die Denitrifikation kombiniert. Die Anreicherung von denitrifizierenden polyP-Organismen wird durch alternierende anaerob-anoxische Milieubedingungen erreicht. Der Biofilm wird abwechselnd mit vorgeklaertem Abwasser beschickt (Sorptionsphase) und nitrifiziertem Abwasser (Denitrifikationsphase). In der anaeroben Sorptionsphase erfolgt eine P-Rueckloesung sowie die Aufnahme und zellinterne Speicherung von organischen Saeuren durch polyP-Organismen. Darueber hinaus werden andere organische Substanzen im Biofilm chemisch/physikalisch adsorbiert. In der Denitrifikationsphase werden die zuvor gespeicherten und

  4. Microbial metabolism in oil fields and production plants. Final report. Mikrobielle Stoffwechselprozesse in Erdoelfeldern und Gewinnungsanlagen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeveke, R.; Graff, M.

    1987-04-01

    In laboratory experiments and by attempts to produce enrichment cultures of bacteria from samples of oil deposits the influence of the ecological parameters salt concentration, temperature and hydrostatic pressure on the establishment of microbial dissimilatory sulfate reduction were looked into. In situ sulfate reduction in untampered deposits would appear to be very unlikely. But through the influence of secondary or tertiary operations (even in deep deposits) bacterial H/sub 2/S production may be initiated. In the type of oil deposit investigated the participation of an autochthonous bacterial biocenosis can almost certainly be ruled out. On the question of the availability of energy and nutrient sources and of the terminal electron acceptor sulfate, it could be shown that most deposits contained sufficient ammonium and sulfate to support dissimilatory sulfate reduction, while phosphate appeared often to be a limiting factor. In addition it is shown that the degradation of components from natural deposits is of no significance. Some oil field chemicals, on the other hand, provide good sources of energy and nutrients at whose expense, through a syntrophism between sulfate reducing and non sulfate reducing bacteria, dissimilatory sulfate reduction can occur. Other oil field chemicals may provide sulfate or phosphate. The effects of these circumstances on practical operations are discussed. With 9 figs., 39 tabs..

  5. Bomb parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reconstruction of neutron and gamma-ray doses at Hiroshima and Nagasaki begins with a determination of the parameters describing the explosion. The calculations of the air transported radiation fields and survivor doses from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs require knowledge of a variety of parameters related to the explosions. These various parameters include the heading of the bomber when the bomb was released, the epicenters of the explosions, the bomb yields, and the tilt of the bombs at time of explosion. The epicenter of a bomb is the explosion point in air that is specified in terms of a burst height and a hypocenter (or the point on the ground directly below the epicenter of the explosion). The current reassessment refines the energy yield and burst height for the Hiroshima bomb, as well as the locations of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki hypocenters on the modern city maps used in the analysis of the activation data for neutrons and TLD data for gamma rays. (J.P.N.)

  6. Preliminary experiments dealing with improvement of the ratio of nitrogen mineralizing to carbon mineralizing microorganisms in return sludge of wastewater treatment plants. Final report; Vorversuche zur Verbesserung des Verhaeltnisses von stickstoffverarbeitenden zu kohlenstoffverarbeitenden Mikroorganismen im Rueckfuehrungsschlamm von Klaeranlagen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholmes, P.; Wolff, E.K.

    1996-08-01

    The relevant biological component of return sludge consist of so-called `Schlammflocken` in which different carbon as well as nitrogen mineralizing organisms can be found. It was our aim, to analyse the ratio between the biology activities of nitrogen and carbon metabolising organisms in return sludge from conventional biological wastewater treatment plants and to develop corresponding methods for improvement of this ratio. On a semi-technical scale return sludge passes a separator for conditioning and is applied on top of a moving clear-phase for differential sedimentation. Selected fractions of the sediment are returned to the sewage treatment plant. Thereby it is possible to increase the quality of return sludge with respect to its activity in nitrogen metabolism. In the future this will lead to much higher efficiency of nitrogen compound degrading wastewater treatment plants. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die biologische Komponente des Rueckfuehrungsschlammes besteht aus sogenannten `Schlammflocken`, in denen unterschiedliche Organismen wie C-Mineralisierer und N-Mineralisierer angesiedelt sind. Unser Ziel war es, fuer Rueckfuehrungsschlaemme aus konventionellen biologischen Klaeranlagen das Verhaeltnis der biologischen Aktivitaeten von Stickstoff- und Kohlenstoffmineralisierern zu analysieren und Methoden zu dessen Verbesserung zu entwickeln. Im halbtechnischen Massstab passiert Ruecklaufschlamm zur Flockenkonditionierung einen Separator und wird nach Resuspendierung des Kammerinhalts in einen Stroemungskanal zur differentiellen Sedimentation einer fliessenden Klarphase ueberschichtet. Ein bezueglich der Nitrifiziererleistung ausgesuchter Teil des so konditionierten Rueckschlammes wird dann wieder eingespeist. Auf diese Weise ist es moeglich, die Qualitaet des Rueckfuehrungsschlammes hinsichtlich seiner Nitrifiziererleistung merklich zu erhoehen. Dies wird in Zukunft erlauben, Klaerwerkskapazitaeten wesentlich besser auszunutzen. (orig.)

  7. Biologische bestrijding van Rhizoctonia in chrysant

    OpenAIRE

    Paternotte, S.J.; Maaswinkel, R.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani in chrysant is de laatste jaren een toenemend probleem. De ziekteverschijnselen zijn geelverkleuring, verwelking en afsterving van de onderste bladeren. Op de stengel op de grens van grond en lucht ontstaat een stengellesie. De wortels van planten worden bruin en sterven af. Uiteindelijk kan daardoor de hele plant dood gaan. Bestrijding met chemische gewasbeschermingsmiddelen is mogelijk. In literatuur en in eerder onderzoek zijn positieve resultaten met een aantal biologis...

  8. Biologische Integration von Halbleiter-Nanostrukturen

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchner, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war es, nanostrukturierte Biosensoren aus Halbleitermaterialien in eine physiologische Umgebung zu integrieren und dort zu betreiben. Dabei handelte es sich erstens um einen Biosensor mit empfindlichen FET-Messpunkten auf GaAs-Basis zur Messung extrazellulärer Potentiale von elektrisch aktiven biologischen Zellen. Das zweite Sensorsystem bestand aus Halbleiternanokristallen auf der Basis von CdSe und CdTe, die durch ihre stabilen und steuerbaren Fluoreszenzeigensc...

  9. Biologische Anwendungen der Fluoreszenz-Nahfeldmikroskopie

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsch, Achim Klaus

    1998-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit befaßt sich mit dem Aufbau und der Anwendung eines optischen Nahfeldmikroskops, welches fürr Untersuchungen an biologischen Proben entworfen wur- de. Mit diesem Mikroskop können simultan mit der Probentopographie optische Signale mit einer Auflösung jenseits der Abbeschen Auflösungsgrenze aufgezeichnet werden. Ne- ben der Entwicklung der notwendigen nahfeldoptischen Techniken und Methoden wurde insbesondere auf die Implementation der aus der optischen Fernfeldmikroskopi...

  10. Scientific measurement and evaluation programme (WMEP). Phase 3. Vol. 1 and 2. Final report; Wissenschaftliches Mess- und Evaluierungsprogramm (WMEP) zum Breitentest ''250 MW Wind''. Phase 3. Bd. 1 und 2. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doepfer, R.; Durstewitz, M.; Ensslin, C. [and others

    2000-07-01

    ), Kassel, mit der begleitenden Durchfuehrung des 'Wissenschaftlichen Mess- und Evaluierungsprogramms' (WMEP) beauftragt. Im Rahmen dieses Programms werden von allen gefoerderten WEA fuer einen Zeitraum von zehn Jahren ausgewaehlte Betriebsdaten und -ergebnisse erfasst und ausgewertet. Der vorliegende Abschlussbericht beschreibt die Ergebnisse der 3. Durchfuehrungsphase (01.07.1996 - 30.06.2000) des WMEP in vier Jahresberichten und einer Zusammenfassung der wichtigsten Arbeitsschwerpunkte. In der dritten Projektphase konnten erstmals Jahresauswertungen mit dem vollstaendigen Anlagenbestand druchgefuehrt werden, da alle bewilligten Projekte ins WMEP aufgenommen werden konnten. Zum 30.06.2000 betraegt der Anlagenbestand 1497 WEA mit einer installierten Nennleistung von insgesamt 349,5 MW, der an ca. 1.100 unterschiedlichen Standorten installiert ist. Insgesamt wurden im WMEP bis zu 1557 WEA messtechnisch begleitet. Das Leistungsspektrum der einzelnen WEA reicht dabei von 2,5 kW bis 1,5 MW. In der Projektphase III des WMEP standen besonders erste Auswertungen zur Wirtschaftlichkeit, zum Langzeitverhalten sowie zum Leistungsbeitrag der Windenergie im Vordergrund. Besonders hervorzuheben sind noch die ebenfalls in dieser Phase begonnenen Auswertungen zur zeitlichen Entwicklung der Windenergienutzung, die nunmehr alle in Deutschland betriebenen WEA umfassen. (orig.)

  11. Physiological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physiological characteristics of man depend on the intake, metabolism and excretion of stable elements from food, water, and air. The physiological behavior of natural radionuclides and radionuclides from nuclear weapons testing and from the utilization of nuclear energy is believed to follow the pattern of stable elements. Hence information on the normal physiological processes occurring in the human body plays an important role in the assessment of the radiation dose received by man. Two important physiological parameters needed for internal dose determination are the pulmonary function and the water balance. In the Coordinated Research Programme on the characterization of Asian population, five participants submitted data on these physiological characteristics - China, India, Japan, Philippines and Viet Nam. During the CRP, data on other pertinent characteristics such as physical and dietary were simultaneously being collected. Hence, the information on the physiological characteristics alone, coming from the five participants were not complete and are probably not sufficient to establish standard values for the Reference Asian Man. Nonetheless, the data collected is a valuable contribution to this research programme

  12. Teelthandleiding van biologische cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) : onderdeel van project "Ketenontwikkeling biologische cranberry's in Nederland"

    OpenAIRE

    Timmer, R.D.; Balkhoven-Baart, J.M.T.

    2006-01-01

    In deze rapportage wordt verslag gedaan van het teelttechnische onderzoek aan cranberry's. Behandeld worden: het gewas (botanische aspecten, groei en ontwikkeling, optimale groeiomstandigheden en inhoudstoffen/gezondheidsaspecten), markt (productie in Nederland en wereldwijd, telersprijzen, marktprijzen), rassen (rassenkeuze en vermeerdering), aanleg en onderhoud van het teeltperceel, bemesting, gewasbescherming en onkruidbestrijding, teeltmaatregelen, oogst en distributie, bedrijfseconomie.

  13. Een biologisch oog voor vrijwel alles. De biologische denkwereld van Dick Hillenius

    OpenAIRE

    Ludo Hellemans

    2006-01-01

    The biological world view of Dick Hillenius, writer and biologist


    The Dutch author and biologist Dick Hillenius (1927-1987) deserves to be mentioned in the history of biology in the Netherlands because of his role in promoting public understanding of evolution and evolutionary theory in the 1960s and 1970s. Trained in herpetology, Hillenius was curato...

  14. De groothandel en verwerking van biologische produkten : de mogelijkheden van het gangbare naast het biologische kanaal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hack, M.D.; Wijngaarden, G.; Borgstein, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    Qualitative research on the bottle -necks in the marketing and processing of biological products in the conventional and biological wholesale trade en processing industries, and on the conditions for (further) introduction of biological products in The Netherlands

  15. Dispersion behaviour of rape oil methyl ester and rape-oil-based hydraulic oils in soils and on soil surfaces with due consideration to the technical performance capabilities of the hydraulic oils. Part-project 1: studies on model ecosystems. Part-project 2: provision of oils with defined degrees of ageing. Final report; Ausbreitungsverhalten von Rapsoelmethylester und Hydraulikoelen auf Rapsoelbasis im Boden und auf Bodenoberflaechen unter Beruecksichtigung der technischen Leistungsfaehigkeit der Hydraulikoele. Teilvorhaben 1: Untersuchungen an Modelloekosystemen. Teilvorhaben 2: Bereitstellung definiert gealterter Hydraulikoele. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, W.; Schuett, C.; Roemer, A.; Foelster, N.; Lemke, M.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of the present cooperative research project is to study the toxicity, the degradation and in particular the dispersion behaviour of biologically rapidly degradable hydraulic oils and rape oil methyl esters (RME) in soils and waters with a special focus on hydraulic oils. This is to serve as a basis for developing guidelines for action in the event of accidents involving biologically rapidly degradable hydraulic fluids that ensure proper accident reporting and handling. The outcome of the cooperative research project is to permit a first risk assessment for the soil and water compartments in the event of accidents involving hydraulic oils and RME. Another task is to clarify to what extent it is permissible to deviate from the usual measures prescribed for oil accidents involving crude oil when biologically rapidly degradable hydraulic oils or RME are involved instead. [German] Ziel des Verbundvorhabens ist es, die Toxizitaet, den Abbau und insbesondere das Ausbreitungsverhalten von biologisch schnell abbaubaren Hydraulikoelen und Rapsoelmethylester (RME) in Boden und Wasser zu untersuchen, wobei der Schwerpunkt der Arbeiten bei den Hydraulikoelen liegt. Damit sollen Verfahrensrichtlinien angegeben werden, die im Falle von Unfaellen mit biologisch schnell abbaubaren Hydraulikfluessigkeiten oder Biodiesel eine angemessene Unfallaufnahme und -abwicklung sicherstellen. Als Ergebnis des Verbundvorhabens soll eine erste Risikoabschaetzung fuer die Kompartimente Boden und Wasser bei Unfaellen mit Hydraulikoelen und RME moeglich sein. Darueber hinaus soll geklaert werden, inwieweit Abweichungen von den ueblichen Massnahmen bei Oelunfaellen mit Mineraloelprodukten im Vergleich zu biologisch schnell abbaubaren Hydraulikoelen oder RME moeglich sind. (orig.)

  16. Mathematical modelling and laser measurement technique of combustion processes. Final report 1994-1996; Mathematische Modellierung und Lasermesstechnik von Verbrennungsvorgaengen. Abschlussbericht 1994 - 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Due to financial boundary conditions and greater industrially orientated targets, the project was restructured in its third phase. The general theme `Mathematical modelling and laser measurement technique of combustion processes` was made more precise by the central questions of the Sub-heading `Modelling and validation`. It applies equally as target for the three part projects (a) Modelling process, (b) Standard flames (c) Coal and solid combustion, soot formation, radiation. Due to the preliminary work done, good progress was achieved in all projects, in some cases discoveries were made and new types of projects were developed. The quality and quantity of the basic data as input parameters for modelling and validation data as test parameters for the prediction of the models was expanded further by comparison of different methods of measurement. [Deutsch] Aufgrund der finanziellen Randbedingungen und der staerker industrieorientierten Zielsetzungen wurde das Projekt in seiner dritten Phase neu strukturiert. Das Generalthema `Mathematische Modellierung und Lasermesstechnik von Verbrennungsvorgaengen` wurde um die zentralen Fragestellungen als Zwischenueberschrift praezisiert: `Modellierung und Validierung`. Sie gilt fuer die drei Teilprojekt (a) Modellierungsverfahren (b) Standardflammen (c) Kohle- und Feststoffverbrennung, Russbildung, Strahlung in gleichem Mass als Zielsetzung. In allen Vorhaben konnten aufgrund der geleisteten Vorarbeit gute Fortschritte erzielt werden, in einigen Faellen Entdeckungen gemacht und neuartige Verfahren entwickelt werden. Die Qualitaet und Quantitaet der Basisdaten als Eingangsgroessen fuer die Modellierung und der Validierungsdaten als Testgroessen fuer die Voraussagen der Modelle konnten durch Vergleich unterschiedlicher Messmethoden generell weiter ausgebaut werden. (orig.)

  17. Qualification of the indentation test for the local characterization of nuclear facility materials. Final report; Qualifizierung des Eindruckversuchs zur lokalen Charakterisierung kerntechnischer Werkstoffe. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandler, Martin; Seifert, Thomas; Schlesinger, Michael; Mohrmann, Ralf; Kilgus, Normen; Venugopal, Ravula

    2007-12-21

    With the aid of the registrating indentation test, the project intends to characterise the operational changes in the local material properties of nuclear materials by a quasi-nondestructive indentation test. The focus was on the materials 22NiMoCr3-7 and X6CrNiNb18-10, both of which are widely used in nuclear engineering. As the accuracy of the method depends on experimental influencing factors like surface treatment, intrinsic stresses, or material anisotropy, these influences are to be quantified and will be considered in the evaluation of the material characteristics. The influencing parameters will be investigated experimentally and numerically by FE simulations so that their influence can be distinguished from the actual material behaviour. (orig.)

  18. Lumped-parameter models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, M.

    2006-12-15

    A lumped-parameter model represents the frequency dependent soil-structure interaction of a massless foundation placed on or embedded into an unbounded soil domain. In this technical report the steps of establishing a lumped-parameter model are presented. Following sections are included in this report: Static and dynamic formulation, Simple lumped-parameter models and Advanced lumped-parameter models. (au)

  19. Clearing up the kinetics in high temperature fuel cells SOFC. Final report; Aufklaerung der Kinetik in Hochtemperatur-Brennstoffzellen SOFC. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stimming, U.

    1997-05-12

    In this work, the kinetics of the oxygen reduction of the SOFC cathode are to be detailed, i.e., depending on the parameters of electrode potential, temperature and oxygen partial pressure, they are to be examined with impedance spectroscopy and quasi-stationary current/voltage measurements. From the dependence of the impedances and the current density on the temperature and the oxygen partial pressure, apparent activation energies and pre-exponential factors as well as apparent reaction orders are to be determined, in order to obtain information on possible reaction mechanisms. These investigations should be carried out not only on standard cathode material (La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3}, LSM) but also on modified LSM cathodes. This modification should consist either of the addition of noble metal catalysts or in a change of the composition of the cathode material, and should lead to increased catalytic activity of the cathode. In addition, using the example of the standard cathode, different possible reaction mechanisms should be compared by a computer simulation of the current/voltage measurements and impedance spectra. (orig.) [Deutsch] In dieser Arbeit soll die Kinetik der Sauerstoffreduktion an der SOFC Kathode detailliert, d.h. in Abhaengigkeit der Parameter Elektrodenpotential, Temperatur und Sauerstoffpartialdruck mit Impedanzspektroskopie und quasi-stationaeren Strom/Spannungsmessungen untersucht werden. Aus den Abhaengigkeiten der Impedanzen und der Stromdichte von der Temperatur und vom Sauerstoffpartialdruck sollen scheinbare Aktivierungsenergien und prae-exponentielle Faktoren sowie scheinbare Reaktionsordnungen bestimmt werden, um Hinweise auf moegliche Reaktionsmechanismen zu erhalten. Diese Untersuchungen sollen nicht nur am Standardkathodenmaterial (La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3}, LSM), sondern auch an modifizierten LSM-Kathoden durchgefuehrt werden. Diese Modifizierung soll entweder im Zusatz von Edelmetallkatalysatoren oder in einer Aenderung

  20. MEC: microsensor system for use in estuaries and coastal waters. Final report; MEC: Mikrosensorsystem zum Einsatz in Aestuaren und Kuestengewaessern. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bley, K.

    2001-12-10

    The goal of the present project was to develop innovative, cost-effective, durable and energy-efficient microsensor systems for continuous in situ monitoring as well as for scientific explorations of seawater in terms of the parameters temperature, oxygen concentration, conductivity and ion composition. A major design specification for the sensor system, which was to work by biochemical impedance spectroscopy, was that it should be capable of integration into existing as well as into new systems of the type elaborated in the framework of the BLUE BOX project. This sensor system for multiparameter analysis of seawaters was to consist of the following components: miniaturized electrolytic measuring cell; integrated control and evaluation software for impedance spectroscopy; microfluidic module; antifouling concept; calibration and evaluation software; and serial as well as CAN Bus interfaces. The ultimate goal of the work was to establish functional patterns which can serve as a basis for the short-term industrial-scale manufacture of sensor systems for marine monitoring. As a first application the present study was to permit these functional patterns to be elaborated and tested for use in BLUE BOX systems. [German] Zielstellung dieses Vorhabens war die Entwicklung innovativer kostenguenstiger, langzeistabiler und energieeffizienter Mikrosysteme sowohl fuer die kontinuierliche in situ-Ueberwachung als auch wissenschaftliche Untersuchung des Meerwassers bezueglich der Parameter Temperatur, Sauerstoffkonzentration, Leitfaehigkeit und ionaler Zusammensetzungen. Insbesondere sollte das auf der Basis der elektrochemischen Impedanzspektroskopie arbeitende Sensorsystem so ausgelegt werden, dass eine Integration in bestehende Systeme genau so moeglich ist wie die Integration in neue Systeme wie sie im Rahmen des BLUE BOX-Projektes erarbeitet wurden. Das Sensorsystem fuer die Multiparameteranalyse von Meeresgewaessern sollte sich aus folgenden Komponenten zusammensetzen

  1. In-service leak testing of district heating systems using dissolved tracer gas. Final report; Betriebsbegleitende Lecksuche mit geloestem Tracergas in Fernwaermesystemen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hergarten, A.; Althaus, W. [eds.

    1997-07-31

    The feasibility of in-service leak detection with dissolved tracer gas was investigated. Helium was selected as tracer gas because of its good diffusion characteristics, selective detectability at very low concentrations, inert and unproblematic behaviour within the district heating system, and good environmental compatibility. For a systematic investigation of the influencing parameters governing practical applications, a pipeline test field comprising about 240 m of KMR district heating pipelines and 61 controllable simulation leaks was constructed, and experiments using the new method were carried out. The required helium concentration amounts to a few grams of helium per cubic metre of district heating water. The water can be charged in the water preparation or feeding stage, and commercial detectors can be used. (orig./GL) [Deutsch] Zur Entwicklung einer betriebsbegleitenden Lecksuchmethode fuer erdverlegte Rohrleitungen wurden in einem Feasbility-Test die Machbarkeit der Tracergassuche mittels geloestem Spuergas bestaetigt. Als Tracergas wurde Helium aufgrund seines guenstigen Diffusionsverhaltens, seiner selektiven Nachweisbarkeit bei kleinsten Konzentrationen, seines inerten, unproblematischen Verhaltens im Fernwaermenetz und seiner guten Umweltvertraeglichkeit ausgewaehlt. Zur systematischen Untersuchung der Einflussparameter bei der Anwendung der Methode unter praxisnahen Bedingungen wurde ein Rohrleitungsversuchsfeld mit ca. 240 m KMR-Fernwaermeleitung und 61 regelbaren Simulationsleckagen aufgebaut und die neue Lecksuchmethode eingehend experimentell getestet. Die einzustellende Heliumkonzentration im Fernwaermewasser ist mit wenigen Gramm Helium je Kubikmeter Fernwaermewasser gering. Eine Vorrichtung fuer die empfohlene Beladung des gesamten Netzwasserinhalts kann in Wasseraufbereitung oder Nachspeisung des Netzes eingebunden werden. Zur Detektion koennen, marktverfuegbare Messgeraete verwendet werden. (orig./GL)

  2. The reluctance motor as a direct drive system for electric-powered vehicles. Final report; Der Reluktanzmotor als Direktantrieb im Elektrofahrzeug. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-15

    For a vehicle drive system, in which the driving wheels are driven directly by the motor without the use of reduction gearing, a motor with a low speed of rotation and very high torque is required. Motors of this type have previously only been manufactured as permanent excitation synchronous designs, which are very expensive due to the use of special magnetic materials. An attempt has been made to work round this disadvantage by designing a direct drive system in the form of a switched reluctance motor. In order to obtain a better understanding of the technical problems involved in this drive concept, a number of preparatory steps were necessary: - simulation of a number of motors of different geometrical design, making use of a field calculation programme at the Swiss Federal Technical Institute at Lausanne, - the construction of two small prototype motors with associated control electronics, - optimisation of operating parameters, - after fitting of the drive system to a vehicle (go-cart) field tests were carried out. Experience gained in this way formed the basis for realisation of the direct drive system: - a small, representative motor section provided the measurement data necessary for determining the `tooth` shape which would produce the required high torque, - motor simulation with the assistance of the field calculation programme, - design and construction of a prototype motor. Parallel to the development of the motor, the task of producing the microprocessor-controlled power regulation electronics was also tackled: - evaluation of the microprocessor, - circuit design, layout and manufacture of the printed circuit board, - software development, particularly for current regulation. (author) figs., tabs.

  3. Geochemical investigations into the retention of reactive carbon compounds for toxic heavy metals. Final report; Geochemische Untersuchungen zur Retention von reaktiven Kohlenstoffverbindungen fuer toxische Schwermetalle. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupsch, H.; Mansel, A.; Crustewitz, C.

    2003-03-01

    The composition, reactivity and stability of reactive organic carbon compounds adsorbed on geogenic matrices was investigated. The surface deposits of NOM and its dependence on geochemical parameters was investigated in selected geomatrices. The retention of toxic heavy metals on these surface deposits of NOM was investigated in consideration of the presence of hydroxy species and inorganic ligands. The investigations of the reactivity of the NOM species requires analyses of these compounds and of the heavy metals in the ultratracer region. This was possible by means of radiochemical methods that were further developed in the context of this project. Radioactive labeling of identified reactive carbon compounds, e.g. with radioactive iodine, on the one hand, and the use of radioactive Cu, Pb, Hg isotopes on the other hand enabled speciation analyses in the binary systems (heavy metal + geomatrix, heavy metal + reactive carbon compounds, reactive carbon compounds + geomatrix) and especially in the ternary system (heavy metal + geomatrix + reactive carbon compounds) in defined conditions. The special labelling techniques were a precondition for distribution measurements in the near-natural, low concentration range. (orig.) [German] Ziel des Projektes war es, mit der vorhandenen Analytik und Expertise die Zusammensetzung, die Reaktivitaet und die Stabilitaet der auf den geogenen Matrizes sorbierten reaktiven organischen Kohlenstoffverbindungen und die damit verbundenen Stoffumsaetze aufzuklaeren. An ausgewaehlten Geomatrizes wurde die Ausbildung von Oberflaechendepositen des NOM und deren Abhaengigkeit gegenueber geochemischen Parametern untersucht. Unter der Beruecksichtigung der Gegenwart von Hydroxyspezies und anorganischen Liganden wurde die Retention toxischer Schwermetalle an diesen Oberflaechendepositen des NOM untersucht. Die Untersuchungen zur Reaktivitaet der NOM-Spezies setzt eine Analytik dieser Verbindungen und der Schwermetalle im Ultraspurenbereich

  4. High-efficiency, thin-film- and concentrator solar cells from GaAs. Final report; High-efficiency, Duennschicht- und Konzentrator-Solarzellen aus Galliumarsenid. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wettling, W. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Bett, A.W. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Pilkuhn, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Teilinstitut 4; Scholz, F. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Teilinstitut 4; Baldus, A. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Blieske, U. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Blug, A. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Duong, T. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Schetter, C. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Stollwerck, G. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Sulima, O. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Wegener, A. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Doernen, A. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Teilinstitut 4; Frankowsky, G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Teilinstitut 4; Haase, D. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Teilinstitut 4; Hahn, G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Teilinstitut 4; Hangleiter, A. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Teilinstitut 4; Stauss, P. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Teilinstitut 4; Tsai, C.Y. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Teilinstitut 4; Zieger, K. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Teilinstitut 4

    1996-10-01

    Main topic of the project was the manufacturing of highly efficient GaAs-solar cells and the fabrication of concentrator cells. During this process significant progress was made with the material preparation, the solar cell technology and the material and process characterisation. This succeeded in the following efficiencies: - GaAs solar cell made by MOVPE technology: 22.9% on 4 cm{sup 2} (AM1.5g) - GaAs solar cell made by LPE-ER process: 22.8% on 4 cm{sup 2} (AM1.5g) - GaAs concentrator solar cell made by LPE-ER process: 24.9% at C=100xAM1.5d - GaAs concentrator module with fresnel lenses: Module efficiency 20.1% (under irradiation of 793 W/m{sup 2}). Another main focus was the epitaxy of GaAs on Si substrate. Two different approaches were investigated. Together with the cooperation partner ASE, Heilbronn a selective growth technology was developed that led to a decreased crack formation. By a simultanous optimization of the other epitaxy and process parameters, the efficiency was increased up to 16.6% AM0 on 1 cm{sup 2} solar cells. Furthermore a hybrid epitaxy was investigated. A GaAs layer was deposited onto a Si substrate using MOVPE. The solar cell structure was grown with a low temperature LPE. Unexpected difficulties appeared with this process, so that fundamental experiments needed to be done with the LPE technology. So far, no solar cells could be manufactured with this method. In addition, work was performed on GaInP solar cells on GaAs substrate. An efficiency of 15.7% (AM0) was acchieved. (orig.) [Deutsch] Gegenstand des Projekts war die Herstellung hocheffizienter GaAs-Solarzellen und die Fertigung von Konzentratorsolarzellen. Dazu wurden wesentliche Fortschritte bei der Materialpraeparation, der Solarzellentechnologie und der Material- and Prozesscharakterisierung erzielt. Diese Erfolge druecken sich in den erzielten Wirkungsgraden aus: - GaAs-Solarzelle hergestellt mit MOVPE-Technologie: 22.9% auf 4 cm{sup 2} (AM1.5g) - GaAs-Solarzelle hergestellt

  5. STC Germany/Russia. Fluence calculations of surveillance specimens of the VVER-440. Final report; WTZ Russland. Fluenzberechnungen fuer Voreilproben beim WWER-440. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konheiser, J.; Grahn, A.

    2014-07-01

    Reactor pressure vessels (RPV) are non-restorable equipment and their lifetime may restrict the nuclear power plant-life as a whole. Surveillance specimen programs for RPV materials are among the most important measures of in-service inspection programs that are necessary for realistic and reliable assessment of the RPV residual lifetime. In addition to the chemical composition of the RPV steel, the radiation parameters (neutron and gamma fluences and spectra) have the most important impact on the RPV embrittlement characteristics. In this work, different geometric positions which have influence on the radiation conditions of the samples are investigated. Thus, the uncertainties can be determined in the fluence values of surveillance specimens. The fluence calculations were carried out by the codes TRAMO and DORT. This study was accompanied by ex-vessel neutron dosimetry experiments at Kola NPP, Unit 3 (VVER-440/213), which provide the basis for validation of calculated neutron fluences. The main neutron-activation monitoring reactions were {sup 54}Fe(n,p){sup 54}Mn and {sup 58}Ni(n,p){sup 58}Co. The activity measurements were carried out by ''Scientific and Engineering Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Safety (SEC NRS). Good agreement between the deterministic and stochastic calculation results as well as between the calculations and the ex-vessel measurements was found. The average difference between measured and calculated values is 5%. The influence of the channels for surveillance specimens and the shielding effect of a baffle rib on the monitors and on the Monte-Carlo calculated results was studied. For the surveillance specimens in the maximum of the flux, an average flux of around 2.45 * 10{sup 12} neutrons/cm{sup 2} was calculated for the neutron flux E> 0.5 MeV. The differences in the surveillance specimens could be up to 20% depending on the direction to the core. Discrepancies up to 10% can be caused by the change of the position of the

  6. Pin solar cells based on amorphous and microcrystalline silicon. Final report; PIN-Solarzellen auf der Basis von amorphem und mikrokristallinem Silizium mit stabilisierten hohen Wirkungsgraden. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, M.B.; Brummack, H.

    1998-12-01

    We develop solar cells based on amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon thin films. Transient forward current switching and time-of-flight measurements are applied to qualify real solar cells. The main goal of this programme is attaining high and stable photovoltaic conversion efficiencies. In order to optimise efficiency, we had to carefully analyse the performance-limiting interfaces by joint in-situ ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy investigations. Several methods of improving the interface between transparent conducting oxide (TCO) and the p-doped window layers have been tested, and the kinetic and spectroscopic ellipsometry data provide a detailed knowledge on the initial growth of amorphous as well as nanocrystalline silicon layers. CO{sub 2} plasma treatment turns out to grow a protecting silicon oxide layer by chemical transport, ZnO proves to be the chemically most stable TCO option. Initial efficiencies exceeding 10% and stabilising at 8.4% in aSi:H tandem structures have been achieved by proper hydrogen dilution of the process gases. Hydrogen dilution does also play a very important role for improving the electronic quality of nanocrystalline silicon from very high frequency (VHF) plasma deposition or thermocatalytic hot-wire CVD. Aiming at high efficiency nanocrystalline bottom cells for micromorph stacked solar cell arrangements, we show the large-area feasibility of the high-rate deposition method and analyse the impact of the deposition parameters on optic and electronic film properties. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des Vorhabens wurden Duennschichtsolarzellen auf der Basis amorphen und nanokristallinen Siliciums entwickelt und im Hinblick auf hohe stabilisierte Wirkungsgrade optimiert. Tandemstrukturen aus amorphem Silicium erreichen anfaenglich photovoltaische Wandlungswirkungsgrade ueber 10% und stabilisierte Werte von 8,4%. Ein erster Schwerpunkt der Untersuchungen lag bei der Optimierung der kritischen TCO/p- und p/i-Grenzflaechen. Der

  7. Emission model for landfills with mechanically-biologically pretreated waste, with the emphasis on modelling the gas balance; Emissionsprognosemodell fuer Deponien mit mechanisch-biologisch vorbehandelten Abfaellen - Schwerpunkt: Modellierung des Gashaushaltes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danhamer, H.

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this work was to determine influence factors on processes going on in landfills with mechanically-biologically pretreated waste (MBP-landfills) in order to predict emissions. For this purpose a computer based model has been developed. The model allows to simulate the gas, water and heat balance as well as settlement processes and was called DESIM2005 (version MB). It is based on theoretical modeling approaches as well as data from lab and reactor experiments. The main focus of model application was to determine factors influencing the gas phase and the emissions of landfill gas and methane during operation and aftercare of MBP-landfills. By performing simulations the effects of changing parameters for the processes gas transport and biological degradation as well as the effects of different qualities in waste pretreatment and of varying landfill operation techniques were investigated. Possibilities for increasing the environmental sustainability of landfills containing mechanically-biologically pretreated waste were shown. (orig.)

  8. Abschlussbericht des Arbeitskreises Intellectual Property Management

    OpenAIRE

    Bader, Martin A.; Gassmann, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    (unveröffentlicht) - Abschlussprotokoll zum Arbeitskreis ?Intellectual Property Management? (7/03?3/04); branchenübergreifend mit neun grossen deutschen, schweizerischen und liechtensteinischen Industrieteilnehmern

  9. Magnetic S-parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We propose a direct test of the existence of gauge duals for nonsupersymmetric asymptotically free gauge theories developing an infrared fixed point by computing the S-parameter in the electric and dual magnetic description. In particular we show that at the lower bound of the conformal window the...... magnetic S-parameter, i.e. the one determined via the dual magnetic gauge theory, assumes a simple expression in terms of the elementary magnetic degrees of freedom. The results further support our recent conjecture of the existence of a universal lower bound on the S parameter and indicates that it is an...

  10. Predicting transformers oil parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Shaban, K.; El-Hag, A.; Matveev, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper different configurations of artificial neural networks are applied to predict various transformers oil parameters. The prediction is performed through modeling the relationship between the transformer insulation resistance extracted from the Megger test and the breakdown strength, interfacial tension, acidity and the water content of the transformers oil. The process of predicting these oil parameters statuses is carried out using two different configurations of neural networks....

  11. PARAMETER DESIGN PROPELLER KAPAL

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Ridwan; - Sulaiman

    2012-01-01

      Designer propeller kapal harus mempertimbangkan berbagai parameter untuk menghasilkan bentuk, type dan ukuran propeller yang memiliki nilai  efektifitas dan effisiensi propulsi tinggi. Propulsi kapal merupakan faktor yang mendominasi  operasional kapal, karena pemakaian bahan bakar untuk operasional propulsi kapal merupakan 42% dari total cost operasional kapal dan merupakan added value yang akan diperoleh oleh perusahaan pelayaran. Pertimbangan parameter desain propeller arg...

  12. Reassessment of safeguards parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Richter, J.L.; Mullen, M.F.

    1994-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is reassessing the timeliness and goal quantity parameters that are used in defining safeguards approaches. This study reviews technology developments since the parameters were established in the 1970s and concludes that there is no reason to relax goal quantity or conversion time for reactor-grade plutonium relative to weapons-grade plutonium. For low-enriched uranium, especially in countries with advanced enrichment capability there may be an incentive to shorten the detection time.

  13. Parameter Estimation Through Ignorance

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Hailiang

    2015-01-01

    Dynamical modelling lies at the heart of our understanding of physical systems. Its role in science is deeper than mere operational forecasting, in that it allows us to evaluate the adequacy of the mathematical structure of our models. Despite the importance of model parameters, there is no general method of parameter estimation outside linear systems. A new relatively simple method of parameter estimation for nonlinear systems is presented, based on variations in the accuracy of probability forecasts. It is illustrated on the Logistic Map, the Henon Map and the 12-D Lorenz96 flow, and its ability to outperform linear least squares in these systems is explored at various noise levels and sampling rates. As expected, it is more effective when the forecast error distributions are non-Gaussian. The new method selects parameter values by minimizing a proper, local skill score for continuous probability forecasts as a function of the parameter values. This new approach is easier to implement in practice than alter...

  14. Neutron Thermalization Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical discussion of the neutron thermalization parameters employed to describe the transient time and space-dependent phenomena is presented. These parameters are (i) M2, the second energy transfer moment of the scattering kernel weighted by the Maxwellian distribution, (ii) the thermalization time constant, (iii) the diffusion cooling coefficient, (iv) the absorption cooling coefficient, (v) the rethermalization length, (vi) the diffusion heating coefficient, and (vii) the limit of the decay constant (vΣs)min. The determination of the time and space transient parameters using the polynomial representation for the energy part of the neutron flux is discussed. Based upon the low-order polynomial expansion, interrelationships between various parameters are obtained. Limitations of these expressions in the analysis of transient phenomena are pointed out. An attempt is made to compare theoretical and experimental results for several moderators. Theoretical M2 values are obtained using the first term of the Placzek mass expansion and the correction with the generalized Doppler approximation. In these calculations available theoretical or derived frequency spectra of the dynamical modes of the moderators are used. Various experimental methods for the determination of neutron thermalization parameters are compared. The uncertainties and limitations of the different methods are pointed out. Available experimental data are surveyed and a list of ''best values'' is suggested. The comparison between theoretical and experimental data shows that a large theoretical and experimental effort is needed to obtain a full understanding of the results. (author)

  15. Revisiting Cosmological parameter estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Jayanti

    2014-01-01

    Constraining theoretical models with measuring the parameters of those from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy data is one of the most active areas in cosmology. WMAP, Planck and other recent experiments have shown that the six parameters standard $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological model still best fits the data. Bayesian methods based on Markov-Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling have been playing leading role in parameter estimation from CMB data. In one of the recent studies \\cite{2012PhRvD..85l3008P} we have shown that particle swarm optimization (PSO) which is a population based search procedure can also be effectively used to find the cosmological parameters which are best fit to the WMAP seven year data. In the present work we show that PSO not only can find the best-fit point, it can also sample the parameter space quite effectively, to the extent that we can use the same analysis pipeline to process PSO sampled points which is used to process the points sampled by Markov Chains, and get consistent res...

  16. Parameter estimation through ignorance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hailiang; Smith, Leonard A

    2012-07-01

    Dynamical modeling lies at the heart of our understanding of physical systems. Its role in science is deeper than mere operational forecasting, in that it allows us to evaluate the adequacy of the mathematical structure of our models. Despite the importance of model parameters, there is no general method of parameter estimation outside linear systems. A relatively simple method of parameter estimation for nonlinear systems is introduced, based on variations in the accuracy of probability forecasts. It is illustrated on the logistic map, the Henon map, and the 12-dimensional Lorenz96 flow, and its ability to outperform linear least squares in these systems is explored at various noise levels and sampling rates. As expected, it is more effective when the forecast error distributions are non-Gaussian. The method selects parameter values by minimizing a proper, local skill score for continuous probability forecasts as a function of the parameter values. This approach is easier to implement in practice than alternative nonlinear methods based on the geometry of attractors or the ability of the model to shadow the observations. Direct measures of inadequacy in the model, the "implied ignorance," and the information deficit are introduced. PMID:23005513

  17. PARAMETER DESIGN PROPELLER KAPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ridwan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available   Designer propeller kapal harus mempertimbangkan berbagai parameter untuk menghasilkan bentuk, type dan ukuran propeller yang memiliki nilai  efektifitas dan effisiensi propulsi tinggi. Propulsi kapal merupakan faktor yang mendominasi  operasional kapal, karena pemakaian bahan bakar untuk operasional propulsi kapal merupakan 42% dari total cost operasional kapal dan merupakan added value yang akan diperoleh oleh perusahaan pelayaran. Pertimbangan parameter desain propeller argonomis dapat mendukung tujuan di atas sehingga dapat menurunkan pemakaian bahan bakar hingga 20 % saat kapal dioperaionalkan.

  18. The Cosmological Parameters 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Lahav, Ofer

    2014-01-01

    This is a review article for The Review of Particle Physics 2014 (aka the Particle Data Book). It forms a compact review of knowledge of the cosmological parameters at the beginning of 2014. Topics included are Parametrizing the Universe; Extensions to the standard model; Probes; Bringing observations together; Outlook for the future.

  19. Band parameters of phosphorene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Wang, J.; Zhang, Y.;

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorene is a two-dimensional nanomaterial with a direct band-gap at the Brillouin zone center. In this paper, we present a recently derived effective-mass theory of the band structure in the presence of strain and electric field, based upon group theory. Band parameters for this theory are co...

  20. Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellip, Rodney D.; Ross, Kenton W.; Spruce, Joseph P.; Smoot, James C.; Ryan, Robert E.; Gasser, Gerald E.; Prados, Donald L.; Vaughan, Ronald D.

    2010-01-01

    The Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool (PPET) is a set of algorithms implemented in MATLAB that estimates key vegetative phenological parameters. For a given year, the PPET software package takes in temporally processed vegetation index data (3D spatio-temporal arrays) generated by the time series product tool (TSPT) and outputs spatial grids (2D arrays) of vegetation phenological parameters. As a precursor to PPET, the TSPT uses quality information for each pixel of each date to remove bad or suspect data, and then interpolates and digitally fills data voids in the time series to produce a continuous, smoothed vegetation index product. During processing, the TSPT displays NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) time series plots and images from the temporally processed pixels. Both the TSPT and PPET currently use moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite multispectral data as a default, but each software package is modifiable and could be used with any high-temporal-rate remote sensing data collection system that is capable of producing vegetation indices. Raw MODIS data from the Aqua and Terra satellites is processed using the TSPT to generate a filtered time series data product. The PPET then uses the TSPT output to generate phenological parameters for desired locations. PPET output data tiles are mosaicked into a Conterminous United States (CONUS) data layer using ERDAS IMAGINE, or equivalent software package. Mosaics of the vegetation phenology data products are then reprojected to the desired map projection using ERDAS IMAGINE

  1. Opname van gras- en mengkuil door dragende biologische zeugen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, P.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Binnendijk, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    In dit onderzoek is nagegaan of bij dragende zeugen een deel van het krachtvoer door graskuil of mengkuil met CCM of gerst kan worden vervangen.In this study it was determined whether the concentrate allowance of pregnant sows can be partly replaced by the supply of grass silage of grass silage mixe

  2. Effect van watergiftmethode en cultivar op biologische tripsbestrijding in alstroemeria

    OpenAIRE

    Staaij, van der, M.; Grosman, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Het effect van watergift en cultivar op het verpoppingsgedrag van trips werd onderzocht op praktijkbedrijven en in een kasproef bij Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw in Bleiswijk. Daarnaast werd het effect van aaltjes, een bodemroofmijt en een insectenpathogene schimmel na een grondbehandeling op trips nagegaan. Op geen van de vier praktijkbedrijven werden poppen op het gewas aangetroffen. Ook in de kasproef werd vastgesteld dat trips niet op het gewas verpopt, maar in de grond. De methode van water...

  3. Charakterisierung von Nanopartikel-Protein-Agglomeraten in biologisch relevanten Medien

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Forschungsarbeit wurden drei unterschiedliche Nanomaterialien untersucht, welche unter physiologischen Bedingungen ein unterschiedliches Verhalten aufwiesen. Bei diesen Materialien handelte es sich um stabilisatorfreie Legierungs-Nanopartikel aus der Laser-Ablation, amorphe Silica- sowie um Poly(organosiloxan) Nanopartikel. Im Hinblick auf in vitro Zellstudien wurde eine Größencharakterisierung in Zellmedium in Gegenwart von Proteinen aus fötalem Rinderserum durchgeführt. ...

  4. Consumentenonderzoek naar biologische produkten : hoe het marktaandeel vergroot kan worden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baggerman, T.; Hack, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    The consumer attitude towards organic farming and organic food is investigated. Objects of research were: knowledge of organic farming, perception of organic food, the influence of socio-economical characteristics, motivation to buy or not to buy and market dynamics

  5. Biologische teelt tulp : stikstofvoorziening via fertigatie werkt goed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wondergem, M.J.; Zuilichem, van J.A.A.; Snoek, A.J.; Jansma, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    Fertigatie van dierlijke meststoffen met ondergronds liggende slangen bij tulp: verslag van een oriënterende proef op PPO-locatie De Noord in St. Maartensburg. Gegevens in bijgaande tabellen: 1) De totale stikstofgift in kg/ha van de gefertigeerde tulpen en de controle; 2) Opbrengst van de tulp 'Lee

  6. Biologisch-dynamische Forschung zwischen "wissenschaftlicher Weltsicht" und "Ideologie"

    OpenAIRE

    Eysel, Georg

    2002-01-01

    Der Beitrag zeigt den Konflikt zwischen "wertefreier" Wissenschaft und "ganzheitlicher" Forschung auf. Ein Zusammenspiel bio-dynamischer Forschung und der Anthroposophie mit anderen Disziplinen könnte einen Beitrag zu einem neuen Wissenschaftsbegriff mit umfassender Weltanschauung leisten. Dialog, Verständnis, Toleranz, Offenheit, kritisches Hinterfragen und Mut zur sinnvollen Anpassung sind dafür notwendige Schritte.

  7. QACCP Analyse in der Verarbeitung von biologischer Säuglingsnahrung

    OpenAIRE

    Särkkä-Tirkkonen, Marjo; Väisänen, Hanne M.; Kretzschmar, Ursula; Seidel, Kathrin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality influencing processing steps based on the processes of carrot baby food. Once the processing conditions were identified, the possibilities for alternative processing techniques will be explored to improve the overall product and process quality. Next to the food safety (hazard) in the food processing the quality aspect is getting more and more important and an analyse system to optimise the process needs to be established (Qualit...

  8. Ovarian reserve parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, Julie Lyng; Pinborg, Anja;

    2012-01-01

    It remains controversial whether anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration is influenced by hormonal contraception. This study quantified the effect of hormonal contraception on both endocrine and sonographic ovarian reserve markers in 228 users and 504 non-users of hormonal contraception. On day...... 2-5 of the menstrual cycle or during withdrawal bleeding, blood sampling and transvaginal sonography was performed. After adjusting for age, ovarian reserve parameters were lower among users than among non-users of hormonal contraception: serum AMH concentration by 29.8% (95% CI 19.9 to 38...... was observed between duration of hormonal-contraception use and ovarian reserve parameters. No dose-response relation was found between the dose of ethinyloestradiol and AMH or AFC. This study indicates that ovarian reserve markers are lower in women using sex steroids for contraception. Thus, AMH...

  9. Military display performance parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Meyer, Frederick

    2012-06-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of four of its segments: avionics, vetronics, dismounted soldier, and command and control. Requirements are summarized for a number of technology-driving parameters, to include luminance, night vision imaging system compatibility, gray levels, resolution, dimming range, viewing angle, video capability, altitude, temperature, shock and vibration, etc., for direct-view and virtual-view displays in cockpits and crew stations. Technical specifications are discussed for selected programs.

  10. LCTF Spectral Parameters Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Pons, Alicia; Peralta, Celia; Campos, Joaquín; Negueruela, Angel I.; Rabal, A.; Martínez, T.

    2009-01-01

    Liquid crystal tunable filters (LCTF) are being widely used as spectral analysis system in different applications, particularly in color imaging and multispectral imaging. This work presents a study on the stability, at short and long terms, of the parameters defining the bandpass function: spectral distribution of transmittance maximum, bandwidth and mean or effective wavelength, λm, calculated according to the Full Wide Half Maximum (FWHM) criterion. Measurements have been made by a direct ...

  11. LMFBR plant parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains up-to-date data on existing or firmly decided prototype or demonstration LMFBR reactors (Table I), on planned commercial size LMFBR according to the present status of design (Table II) and on experimental fast reactors such as BOR-60, DFR, EBR-II, FERMI, FFTF, JOYO, KNK-II, PEC, RAPSODIE-FORTISSIMO (Table III). Only corrected and revised parameters submitted by the countries participating in the IWGFR are included in this document

  12. Setting Parameters by Example

    OpenAIRE

    Eppstein, David

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a class of "inverse parametric optimization" problems, in which one is given both a parametric optimization problem and a desired optimal solution; the task is to determine parameter values that lead to the given solution. We describe algorithms for solving such problems for minimum spanning trees, shortest paths, and other "optimal subgraph" problems, and discuss applications in multicast routing, vehicle path planning, resource allocation, and board game programming.

  13. Calculation of shielding parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the propose of reduce the hazard to radiation, exist three basic factors: a) time, the time to exposition to working person inside to area, from exist determined speed the doses, is proportional of the time permanence; b) distance, the reduce to doses is inverse square of the distance to exposition point; c) building, consist to interpose between source and exposition point to material. The main aspect development to the analysis of parameters distance and building. The analysis consist to development of the mathematical implicit, in the model of source radioactive, beginning with the geometry to source, distance to exposition source, and configuration building. In the final part was realize one comparative studied to calculus of parameters to blinding, employs two codes CPBGAM and MICROSHIELD, the first made as part to work thesis. The point source its a good approximation to any one real source, but in the majority of the time to propose analysis the spatial distribution of the source must realized in explicit way. The buildings calculus in volumetry's source can be approximate begin's of plan as source adaptations. It's important to have present that not only the building exist the exposition to the radiation, and the parameters time and distance plays an important paper too. (Author)

  14. LMFBR plant parameters 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document has been prepared on the basis of information provided by the members of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR). It contains updated parameters of 27 experimental, prototype and commercial size liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs). Most of the reactors are currently in operation, under construction or in an advanced planning stage. Parameters of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (USA), PEC (Italy), RAPSODIE (France), DFR (UK) and EFFBR (USA) are included in the report because of their important role in the development of LMFBR technology from first LMFBRs to the prototype size fast reactors. Two more reactors appeared in the list: European Fast Reactor (EFR) and PRISM (USA). Parameters of these reactors included in this publication are based on the data from the papers presented at the 23rd Annual Meeting of the IWGFR. All in all more than four hundred corrections and additions have been made to update the document. The report is intended for specialists and institutions in industrialized and developing countries who are responsible for the design and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors

  15. Lumped Parameter Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive description of the lumped-parameter models applicable to the interpretation of environmental tracers in groundwater systems is given. It will be shown that the lumped-parameter models are particularly useful for interpreting the tracer data which were obtained at separate sampling sites, when it is neither possible, nor justified, to use distributed-parameter models, as the latter require more detailed knowledge of the investigated system, which is often unavailable. A more detailed description of the approach and a number of examples can be found in Maloszewski and Zuber (1996) and in other references given further. A user-friendly programme (FLOWPC) for the interpretation of environmental tracer data by several most commonly used models is available from the IAEA. For a better understanding of the tracer method and the interpretation of the tracer data, several definitions are recalled. Some of these definitions are more or less generally accepted and frequently used (e.g., Gardner and Ely 1967, Levenspiel 1972, Lohman et al. 1972, NEA 1990); whereas remaining are unfortunately used only occasionally. As a consequence of infrequent use of adequate definitions, a lot of misunderstandings occur in literature, especially when radioisotope ages versus water ages are considered, or when mathematical models equivalent to the behaviour of a well-mixed reservoir are used for groundwater systems in which good mixing never occurs. As explained further, some misunderstandings also result from a common identification of tracer ages with water ages in fractured rocks whereas in fact these two physical quantities differ considerably. The tracer method is a technique for obtaining information about a system or some part of a system by observing the behaviour of a specific substance, the tracer, which has been added (injected) to the system. Environmental tracers are added by natural processes whereas their production is either natural or results from the global

  16. Radiation portal evaluation parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection of the unauthorized movement of radioactive materials is one of the most effective nonproliferation measures. Automatic special nuclear material (SNM) portal monitors are designed to detect this unauthorized movement and are an important part of the safeguard systems at US nuclear facilities. SNM portals differ from contamination monitors because they are designed to have high sensitivity for the low energy gamma-rays associated with highly enriched uranium (HEU) and plutonium. These instruments are now being installed at international borders to prevent the spread of radioactive contamination an SNM. In this paper the parameters important to evaluating radiation portal monitors are discussed. (author)

  17. Timetable Attractiveness Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schittenhelm, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Timetable attractiveness is influenced by a set of key parameters that are described in this article. Regarding the superior structure of the timetable, the trend in Europe goes towards periodic regular interval timetables. Regular departures and focus on optimal transfer possibilities make these...... timetables attractive. The travel time in the timetable depends on the characteristics of the infrastructure and rolling stock, the heterogeneity of the planned train traffic and the necessary number of transfers on the passenger’s journey. Planned interdependencies between trains, such as transfers and...

  18. Global parameter test ideals

    OpenAIRE

    Katzman, Mordechai; Murru, Serena; Velez, Juan D.; Zhang, Wenliang

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows the existence of ideals whose localizations and completions at prime ideals are parameter test ideals of the localized and completed rings. We do this for Cohen-Macaulay localizations (resp., completions) of non-local rings, for generalized Cohen-Macaulay rings, and for non-local rings with isolated non Cohen-Macaulay points, each being an isolated non $F$-rational point. The tools used to prove this results are constructive in nature and as a consequence our results yield al...

  19. Fitting of Z' parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Gulov, Alexey; Skalozub, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with an approach to the model-independent searching for the Z' gauge boson as a virtual state in scattering processes. The relations between the Z' couplings to fermions covering a wide class of models beyond the standard model are found and used. They reduce in an essential way the number of parameters to be fitted in experiments. Special observables which uniquely pick out the Z' at energies of LEP and ILC colliders in different leptonic processes are introduced and the data...

  20. Distributed Parameter Modelling Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    development of a short-path evaporator. The oil shale processing problem illustrates the interplay amongst particle flows in rotating drums, heat and mass transfer between solid and gas phases. The industrial application considers the dynamics of an Alberta-Taciuk processor, commonly used in shale oil and oil......Here the issue of distributed parameter models is addressed. Spatial variations as well as time are considered important. Several applications for both steady state and dynamic applications are given. These relate to the processing of oil shale, the granulation of industrial fertilizers and the...

  1. Measuring the chargino parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Kalinowski

    2000-07-01

    After the supersymmetric particles have been discovered, the priority will be to determine independently the fundamental parameters to reveal the structure of the underlying supersymmetric theory. In my talk I discuss how the chargino sector can be reconstructed completely by measuring the cross-sections with polarized beams at e+e- collider experiments: $\\tilde{X}^{+}_{i}\\tilde{X}^{-}_{j}[i,j=1,2]$. The closure of the two-chargino system can be investigated by analysing sum rules for the production cross-sections.

  2. Optical model parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter contains a description of the optical model Segment of the Reference Input Parameter Library. The Segment consists of some 293 optical model potentials for incident neutrons (76), protons (125), deuterons (6), tritons (26), 3He (53), and 4He (7). Global as well as nuclide-specific potentials are included that utilize spherical, vibrational, or rotational models. The optical model parameterizations in the Starter File are given in a very general format, which is described here in detail together with the conventions used for numbering the potentials. In general, it is recommended that nuclide-specific potentials be used for materials where careful analyses have been made. For cases where global parameterizations must be used, recommendations are included. The recommended file, which is the main RIPL optical potential file, is named losalamos-omlib.dat. Additionally, there are supplemental files that define the parameters and specify the format (losalamos.readme) and that include subroutines and short codes for accessing and summarizing the file (losalamos-omcode.for). (author)

  3. The IRI topside parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Coïsson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The IRI electron density topside has been constructed on the basis of the data available about thirty years ago. Recently a large amount of data from old topside sounders have been processed to get electron density profiles. These profiles allow to test IRI model under a wide spectrum of different conditions and to understand the behavior of the modeled topside. A set of 12 000 topside profiles have been chosen from the ISIS2 database, selecting those with the better quality of the inverted profile. An analysis of each IRI topside constitutive parameter has been done for all the experimental cases allowing to find some critical conditions under which the IRI topside could become completely unrealistic. In particular for very high solar activity at high latitudes it has been found that some IRI parameters could reach values that change drastically the shape of IRI topside. A proposal to control their range of variability is formulated in order to avoid the occurrence of such cases.

  4. Reactor parameter simulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reactor parameter simulation system (RPSS) has been built with the capability of analyzing any reactor signals, decomposing those signals into their deterministic and stochastic components, then reconstructing new, simulated signals that possess the same statistical and correlation structure as the original plant variables. Important uses of the RPSS are for integration with reactor simulation software to provide tools for plant control strategy development, and for safety-study investigations of scenarios that can arise involving signal faults generated from degraded sensors. A third use of the RPSS is for frequency-domain filtering of reactor process variables contaminated with serially correlated noise, which is important for our ongoing development of expert systems for sensor-operability surveillance. 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  5. varying elastic parameters distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Moussawi, Ali

    2014-12-01

    The experimental identication of mechanical properties is crucial in mechanics for understanding material behavior and for the development of numerical models. Classical identi cation procedures employ standard shaped specimens, assume that the mechanical elds in the object are homogeneous, and recover global properties. Thus, multiple tests are required for full characterization of a heterogeneous object, leading to a time consuming and costly process. The development of non-contact, full- eld measurement techniques from which complex kinematic elds can be recorded has opened the door to a new way of thinking. From the identi cation point of view, suitable methods can be used to process these complex kinematic elds in order to recover multiple spatially varying parameters through one test or a few tests. The requirement is the development of identi cation techniques that can process these complex experimental data. This thesis introduces a novel identi cation technique called the constitutive compatibility method. The key idea is to de ne stresses as compatible with the observed kinematic eld through the chosen class of constitutive equation, making possible the uncoupling of the identi cation of stress from the identi cation of the material parameters. This uncoupling leads to parametrized solutions in cases where 5 the solution is non-unique (due to unknown traction boundary conditions) as demonstrated on 2D numerical examples. First the theory is outlined and the method is demonstrated in 2D applications. Second, the method is implemented within a domain decomposition framework in order to reduce the cost for processing very large problems. Finally, it is extended to 3D numerical examples. Promising results are shown for 2D and 3D problems.

  6. Process Damping Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phenomenon of process damping as a stabilising effect in milling has been encountered by machinists since milling and turning began. It is of great importance when milling aerospace alloys where maximum surface speed is limited by excessive tool wear and high speed stability lobes cannot be attained. Much of the established research into regenerative chatter and chatter avoidance has focussed on stability lobe theory with different analytical and time domain models developed to expand on the theory first developed by Trusty and Tobias. Process damping is a stabilising effect that occurs when the surface speed is low relative to the dominant natural frequency of the system and has been less successfully modelled and understood. Process damping is believed to be influenced by the interference of the relief face of the cutting tool with the waveform traced on the cut surface, with material properties and the relief geometry of the tool believed to be key factors governing performance. This study combines experimental trials with Finite Element (FE) simulation in an attempt to identify and understand the key factors influencing process damping performance in titanium milling. Rake angle, relief angle and chip thickness are the variables considered experimentally with the FE study looking at average radial and tangential forces and surface compressive stress. For the experimental study a technique is developed to identify the critical process damping wavelength as a means of measuring process damping performance. For the range of parameters studied, chip thickness is found to be the dominant factor with maximum stable parameters increased by a factor of 17 in the best case. Within the range studied, relief angle was found to have a lesser effect than expected whilst rake angle had an influence.

  7. Robust underwater visibility parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaneveld, J Ronald; Pegau, W

    2003-11-17

    We review theoretical models to show that contrast reduction at a specific wavelength in the horizontal direction depends directly on the beam attenuation coefficient at that wavelength. If a black target is used, the inherent contrast is always negative unity, so that the visibility of a black target in the horizontal direction depends on a single parameter only. That is not the case for any other target or viewing arrangement. We thus propose the horizontal visibility of a black target to be the standard for underwater visibility. We show that the appropriate attenuation coefficient can readily be measured with existing simple instrumentation. Diver visibility depends on the photopic beam attenuation coefficient, which is the attenuation of the natural light spectrum convolved with the spectral responsivity of the human eye (photopic response function). In practice, it is more common to measure the beam attenuation coefficient at one or more wavelength bands. We show that the relationship: visibility is equal to 4.8 divided by the photopic beam attenuation coefficient; originally derived by Davies-Colley [1], is accurate with an average error of less than 10% in a wide variety of coastal and inland waters and for a wide variety of viewing conditions. We also show that the beam attenuation coefficient measured at 532 nm, or attenuation measured by a WET Labs commercial 20 nm FWHM transmissometer with a peak at 528nm are adequate substitutes for the photopic beam attenuation coefficient, with minor adjustments. PMID:19471421

  8. Decoding information by following parameter modulation with parameter adaptive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Changsong; Lai, C.-H.

    1999-06-01

    It has been proposed to realize secure communication using chaotic synchronization via transmission of a binary message encoded by parameter modulation in the chaotic system. This paper considers the use of parameter adaptive control techniques to extract the message, based on the assumptions that we know the equation form of the chaotic system in the transmitter but do not have access to the precise values of the parameters which are kept secret as a secure set. In the case in which a synchronizing system can be constructed using parameter adaptive control by the transmitted signal and the synchronization is robust to parameter mismatches, the parameter modulation can be revealed and the message decoded without resorting to exact parameter values in the secure set. A practical local Lyapunov function method for designing parameter adaptive control rules based on originally synchronized systems is presented.

  9. Parameters of care for craniosynostosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, Joseph G; Warren, Stephen M; Bernstein, Joseph;

    2012-01-01

    A multidisciplinary meeting was held from March 4 to 6, 2010, in Atlanta, Georgia, entitled "Craniosynostosis: Developing Parameters for Diagnosis, Treatment, and Management." The goal of this meeting was to create parameters of care for individuals with craniosynostosis....

  10. Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Rigby; M. Mrugala; G. Shideler; T. Davidsavor; J. Leem; D. Buesch; Y. Sun; D. Potyondy; M. Christianson

    2003-12-17

    The Yucca Mountain Project is entering a the license application (LA) stage in its mission to develop the nation's first underground nuclear waste repository. After a number of years of gathering data related to site characterization, including activities ranging from laboratory and site investigations, to numerical modeling of processes associated with conditions to be encountered in the future repository, the Project is realigning its activities towards the License Application preparation. At the current stage, the major efforts are directed at translating the results of scientific investigations into sets of data needed to support the design, and to fulfill the licensing requirements and the repository design activities. This document addresses the program need to address specific technical questions so that an assessment can be made about the suitability and adequacy of data to license and construct a repository at the Yucca Mountain Site. In July 2002, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published an Integrated Issue Resolution Status Report (NRC 2002). Included in this report were the Repository Design and Thermal-Mechanical Effects (RDTME) Key Technical Issues (KTI). Geotechnical agreements were formulated to resolve a number of KTI subissues, in particular, RDTME KTIs 3.04, 3.05, 3.07, and 3.19 relate to the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the host rock (NRC 2002, pp. 2.1.1-28, 2.1.7-10 to 2.1.7-21, A-17, A-18, and A-20). The purpose of the Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report is to present an accounting of current geotechnical information that will help resolve KTI subissues and some other project needs. The report analyzes and summarizes available qualified geotechnical data. It evaluates the sufficiency and quality of existing data to support engineering design and performance assessment. In addition, the corroborative data obtained from tests performed by a number of research organizations is presented to reinforce

  11. Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Yucca Mountain Project is entering a the license application (LA) stage in its mission to develop the nation's first underground nuclear waste repository. After a number of years of gathering data related to site characterization, including activities ranging from laboratory and site investigations, to numerical modeling of processes associated with conditions to be encountered in the future repository, the Project is realigning its activities towards the License Application preparation. At the current stage, the major efforts are directed at translating the results of scientific investigations into sets of data needed to support the design, and to fulfill the licensing requirements and the repository design activities. This document addresses the program need to address specific technical questions so that an assessment can be made about the suitability and adequacy of data to license and construct a repository at the Yucca Mountain Site. In July 2002, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published an Integrated Issue Resolution Status Report (NRC 2002). Included in this report were the Repository Design and Thermal-Mechanical Effects (RDTME) Key Technical Issues (KTI). Geotechnical agreements were formulated to resolve a number of KTI subissues, in particular, RDTME KTIs 3.04, 3.05, 3.07, and 3.19 relate to the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the host rock (NRC 2002, pp. 2.1.1-28, 2.1.7-10 to 2.1.7-21, A-17, A-18, and A-20). The purpose of the Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report is to present an accounting of current geotechnical information that will help resolve KTI subissues and some other project needs. The report analyzes and summarizes available qualified geotechnical data. It evaluates the sufficiency and quality of existing data to support engineering design and performance assessment. In addition, the corroborative data obtained from tests performed by a number of research organizations is presented to reinforce

  12. S-parameter uncertainty computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidkjær, Jens

    A method for computing uncertainties of measured s-parameters is presented. Unlike the specification software provided with network analyzers, the new method is capable of calculating the uncertainties of arbitrary s-parameter sets and instrument settings.......A method for computing uncertainties of measured s-parameters is presented. Unlike the specification software provided with network analyzers, the new method is capable of calculating the uncertainties of arbitrary s-parameter sets and instrument settings....

  13. Fluctuation of the Hubble parameter

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xi-Bin; Qin, Hao-Feng; Zhang, Zhi-Song; Zhang, Tong-Jie

    2014-01-01

    We study the Hubble parameter $H(z)$ in perturbed Friedmann universe and obtain an expression of the perturbed Hubble parameter $H(z,\\textbf{n})$. We derive the Hubble parameter power spectrum by using the initial spectrum during inflation and the Bardeen transfer function. We obtain a semi-analytical expression in the case of cold dark matter (CDM) universe. Similar with luminosity distance, the Hubble parameter spectrum is suggested to be an useful observational tool to determine some cosmo...

  14. Support of the Ukrainean Supervisory Authority during the extension of the improved operational NCP monitoring. Final report part III; Unterstuetzung der ukrainischen Aufsichtsbehoerde beim Ausbau der verbesserten betrieblichen KKW-Ueberwachung. Abschlussbericht Teil III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, M.; Carl, H.

    2005-05-01

    Technical systems to improve the operational monitoring for the three units of the South Ukraine NPP and for the 1{sup st} unit of the Chmelnitzky NPP were put up by analogy with the systems for the Zaporoshye NPP and the Rovno NPP. For that up to 51 safety-relevant technological and 16 radiological parameters from every unit are available to the supervisory authority on-site and in the crisis centre in Kiev for collection and assessment. These parameters are transferred on-line by modern technical equipment once a minute. The developed evaluation software enables the visualisation of the monitoring results in form of diagrams, charts and graphs. By means of an archive modus the trends of all parameters can be analysed. With the integration of the technical equipment delivered for the sheltered room of the Zaporoshye NPP into the on-site existing remote monitoring system is it now possible to record and to evaluate essential safety-relevant parameters of the whole NPP also during severe accidents by means of modern technical equipment. (orig.)

  15. Parameter Sensitivity in Multivariate Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Bert F., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Interpretation of multivariate models requires knowing how much the fit of the model is impaired by changes in the parameters. The relation of parameter change to loss of goodness of fit can be called parameter sensitivity. Formulas are presented for assessing the sensitivity of multiple regression and principal component weights. (Author/JKS)

  16. Minimization of disinfection byproduct formation and regrowth in the distribution network of long distance distribution systems. Final report; Minimierung der Desinfektionsnebenproduktbildung und der Wiederverkeimung im Verteilungsnetz von Fernwasserversorgungssystemen. Teilprojekt 1: Optimierung des Desinfektionsregimes. Teilprojekt 2: Optimierung des Betriebes von Fernleitungssystemen. Teilprojekt 3: Mischung von Waessern, Ortsnetze. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wricke, B.; Krueger, M.; Weber, A.; Petzoldt, H.; Korth; Andrusch; Boehm; Haeusler

    2002-03-27

    possible to asses the consequences of the operational and disinfectant conditions on the bacterial quality change in the system. It was shown that there is no need to work with disinfectant residuals in systems fed with water containing low BOM, regardless of the flow time and the flow way. In the FWV DS as well as in the DS of the HWA the chlorine dosage could be reduced without an increased bacterial content of the water. (orig.) [German] Ziel des Verbundforschungsvorhaben war es, durch Untersuchungen im Leitungsnetz der Fernwasserversorgung Elbaue-Ostharz GmbH (FWV) sowie der Halleschen Wasser und Abwasser GmbH (HWA) in Verbindung mit Untersuchungen an Versuchsanlagen die Ablaeufe der mikrobiologischen Gueteveraenderung bei der Wasserverteilung in Fernleitungsnetzen unter den in Deutschland ueblichen Bedingungen der Verteilung eines Wassers mit niedrigen Gehalten an biologisch abbaubaren Stoffen und Desinfektionsmittelrestkonzentrationen aufzuklaeren und auf dieser Grundlage Ansaetze fuer die Modellierung zu erarbeiten. Die Bearbeitung des Vorhabens erfolgte in drei Teilprojekten. Ein wesentlicher Schwerpunkt fuer alle Teilprojekte war ein gemeinsam realisiertes Netzmessprogramm. Im Ergebnis der durchgefuehrten Untersuchungen konnte gezeigt werden, dass die ueber die Koloniezahl erfassbare Aufkeimung im Leitungsnetz im Wesentlichen auf den Eintrag von Mikroorganismen aus den in allen Leitungen vorhandenen Biofilmen in den Wasserkoerper zurueckzufuehren ist. Beim Einsatz der chemischen Desinfektion ist die Bildung von Naehrstoffen zu beachten. Als wesentliche, die Biofilmbildung beeinflussende Faktoren wurden der Naehrstoffgehalt und das eingesetzte Rohrleitungsmaterial ermittelt. Insbesondere konnte gezeigt werden, dass es in mit Bitumen ausgekleideten Leitungen zu einer verstaerkten Besiedlung kommt, waehrend die biologische Aktivitaet in zementmoertelausgekleideten Leitungen durch den hohen pH-Wert an der Oberflaeche gestoert wird. Der Keimeintrag aus dem Biofilm ist

  17. Combined-cycle power plant. 500 MW on a single shaft. Active stability improvement of the compressor - methods of analysis. Final report; GuD-Kraftwerk, 500 MW auf einer Welle. Aktive Stabilitaetsverbesserung am Verdichter - Analyseverfahren. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoff, H.; Methling, F.O.

    2002-07-01

    Various analysis techniques are tested as possible stall and surge avoidance monitoring systems on high-speed axial compressors. Measurements were taken in a 4-stage transonic compressor with igv in the region of stable operation as well as approaching and crossing the surge line with fully developed rotating stall. The measurements contain the static wall pressure in front of each blade row. Artificial neural networks, Fourier techniques and cepstral analysis are investigated. The different methods are checked on a single sensor signal to reduce the instrumentational effort. Using the cepstral analysis a characteristic parameter is calculated which is valid in all investigated regions of operation of the compressor. This characteristic parameter is based on the blade passing frequency, i.e. in the terms of cepstral analysis it is the intensity of the fundamental component as well as the intensities of all its higher harmonics which are covered by the sensor signal. (orig.)

  18. Decoding Information by Following Parameter Modulation With Parameter Adaptive Control

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Changsong; Lai, C.-H.

    2000-01-01

    It has been proposed to realize secure communication using chaotic synchronization via transmission of binary message encoded by parameter modulation in the chaotic system. This paper considers the use of parameter adaptive control techniques to extract the message, based on the assumptions that we know the equation form of the chaotic system in the transmitter but do not have access to the precise values of the parameters which are kept secret as a secure set. In the case that a synchronizin...

  19. Telemetry System of Biological Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The mobile telemetry system of biological parameters serves for reading and wireless data transfer of measured values of selected biological parameters to an outlying computer. It concerns basically long time monitoring of vital function of car pilot.The goal of this projects is to propose mobile telemetry system for reading, wireless transfer and processing of biological parameters of car pilot during physical and psychical stress. It has to be made with respect to minimal consum...

  20. DRAM BASED PARAMETER DATABASE OPTIMIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Marcinkevicius, Tadas

    2012-01-01

    This thesis suggests an improved parameter database implementation for one of Ericsson products. The parameter database is used during the initialization of the system as well as during the later operation. The database size is constantly growing because the parameter database is intended to be used with different hardware configurations. When a new technology platform is released, multiple revisions with additional features and functionalities are later created, resulting in introduction of ...

  1. WIPP Compliance Certification Application calculations parameters. Part 2: Parameter documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeast New Mexico has been studied as a transuranic waste repository for the past 23 years. During this time, an extensive site characterization, design, construction, and experimental program was completed, which provided in depth understanding of the dominant processes that are most likely to influence the containment of radionuclides for 10,000 years. Nearly 1,500 parameters were developed using information gathered from this program and were input to numerical models for WIPP Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) calculations. The CCA probability models require input parameters that are defined by a statistical distribution. Developing parameters begins with the assignment of an appropriate distribution type, which is dependent on the type, magnitude, and volume of data or information available. Parameter development may require interpretation or statistical analysis of raw data, combining raw data with literature values, scaling laboratory or field data to fit code grid mesh sizes, or other transformations. Documentation of parameter development is designed to answer two questions: What source information was used to develop this parameter? and Why was this particular data set/information used? Therefore, complete documentation requires integrating information from code sponsors, parameter task leaders, performance assessment analysts, and experimental principal investigators. This paper, Part 2 of 2 parts, contains a discussion of the WIPP CCA PA Parameter Tracking System, document traceability and retrievability, and lessons learned from related audits and reviews

  2. Deformation, strength and toughness of Al-6xxx profile welds under static and crash loads. Final report; Verformungsfaehigkeit, Festigkeit und Zaehigkeit von AI-6XXX-Profilschweissverbindungen bei statischer und crashartiger Belastung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeser, S.; Memhard, D.; Blauel, J.G.; Boehme

    2000-10-01

    The mechanical behaviour of welded aluminium alloy profiles was characterised using a MIG weld on a die-cast ICE floor profile of AlMgSi0,7/SG-AlMg4,5MnZr, including the material gradients induced by welding and the influence of higher load rates. Mechanical-technological characteristics as well as stress/strain curves of the different zones were measured on small tensile test pieces. The tensile tests were simulated using the Gurson model in order to define parameters for a description of the ductile damage. Using these damage parameters, tensile tests were simulated on flat tensile test pieces with orientation transverse to the weld in order to assess the load, deformation and failure characteristics of the whole (flawless) weld. Flawed seams were tested in experiments with CCT (centre-cracked tensile) test pieces in order to obtain cracking resistance curves J{sub R}. The numerical analyses covered both deformation and failure. [German] Das mechanische Verhalten von geschweissten Profilkonstruktionen aus Aluminiumlegierungen wurde am Beispiel einer MIG-Schweissverbindung an einem stranggepressten ICE-Bodenprofil aus AlMgSi0,7/SG-AlMg4,5MnZr werkstoffmechanisch charakterisiert. Dabei wurden die schweissbedingten Werkstoffgradienten ebenso beruecksichtigt wie der Einfluss hoeherer Belastungsgeschwindigkeiten. Anhand von Versuchen an Kleinzugproben wurden mechanisch-technologische Kennwerte sowie wahre Spannungs-Dehnungs-Kurven fuer die einzelnen Materialbereiche (Grundwerkstoff, Waermeeinflusszone, Schweissgut) ermittelt. Diese Zugversuche wurden mit dem Gurson-Modell simuliert, um Parameter fuer eine Beschreibung der duktilen Schaedigung zu bestimmen. Mit diesen Schaedigungsparametern wurden an Flachzugproben mit Orientierung quer zur Naht durchgefuehrte Zugversuche simuliert, um das Traglast-, Verformungs- und Versagensverhalten der gesamten (fehlerfreien) Naht zu analysieren. Fuer die Charakterisierung des Nahtverhaltens mit Fehler wurden Bruchmechanikversuche

  3. Retention of an overall system during enhanced oil recovery from reservoirs by means of chemical flooding. Final report. Retention eines Gesamtchemikaliensystems bei der Mehrentoelung von Lagerstaetten durch chemisches Fluten. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinitz, W.

    1990-09-01

    The economic efficiency of tertiary petroleum production processes is determined by the retention behaviour of the chemicals used in the petroleum reservoir. Application-oriented laboratory experiments on retention in an overall system were carried out in an overall system. The experiments started with an analytical characterisation of the chemical substances used, and of the surrounding rock and water phases. The following influencing parameters of material loss were considered. Deposit conditions rock composition, crude oil properties, chemical substances (o.g. mixed tensides and xanthane). (EF).

  4. Influence of heavy-metal-containing dusts on the release of plateled-activating factor (PAF) by alveolar macrophages. Final report; Einfluss von schwermetallhaltigen Staeuben auf die Freisetzung von Platelet-Activating Factor (PAF) durch Alveolarmakrophagen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gercken, G.; Froemming, G.; Mueller, I.M.

    1993-05-01

    The research project investigated the possibility for activating rabbit and bovine alveolar macrophages by quartz- and heavy-metal-containing dust. The formation of platelet activating factor (PAF) was used as a biochemical parameter. For comparison, human monocytes, monocytes differentiated as macrophages and granulocytes were additionally investigated. The results permit the conclusion that the formation of PAF is linked to the particle structure of the respective dust, not so much to the chemical condition of particle surface. In the case of heavy-metal containing dust, the inhibition of PAF synthesis by the heavy metals is not to be excluded. (orig./vhe) [Deutsch] In dem Forschungsprojekt wurde die Aktivierbarkeit von Kaninchen- und Rinderalveolarmakrophagen durch Quarz- und schwermetallhaltige Staeube untersucht. Als biochemischer Parameter wurde die Platelet-Activating-Factor (PAF) - Bildung herangezogen. Zum Vergleich wurden zusaetzlich humane Monocyten, zu Makrophagen ausdifferenzierte Monocyten und Granulocyten untersucht. Aufgrund der Ergebnisse kann davon ausgegangen werden, dass die PAF-Bildung mit der Partikelstruktur der einzelnen Staeube und weniger mit der chemischen Beschaffenheit der Partikeloberflaeche zusammenhaengt. Bei schwermetallhaltigen Staeuben ist eine Inhibierung der PAF-Synthese durch die Schwermetalle nicht auszuschliessen. (orig./vhe)

  5. Influence of different sealing-systems on engine acoustics. Acoustical optimised sealing-systems. Final report; Entwicklung eines rechnergestuetzten Verfahrens zur akustischen Optimierung von Dichtungen zwischen Motorstruktur und Anbauteilen. Akustisch optimierte Dichtsysteme. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pischinger, S.; Pilath, C. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen; Joerres, M. [Ford-Werke, Koeln (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The subject of this project is to analyze and optimize the acoustical behaviour of the sealing between cylinderhead and valve cover. The investigations will be done by experiment and calculation using the commercial software code MSC Nastran. The Powertrain used for these investigations is a 4 cylinder inline spark ignition engine. The expected results will be a detailed knowledge of the noise transmission via elastomer sealings between the base engine structure and covers. A Matrix of the most influencing parameter will be provided and a calculation approach will be shown to predict the acoustical relevant vibrations of an elastomer sealing system typically used on valve covers The simulation method developed in this project which is based on MSC Nastran shows accurate results compared to measurements. The calculation results were significantly better than those which were conducted using the state-of-the-art modal calculation approach. The key for getting good simulation results is to include the frequency dependent shear modulus of the sealing material in the calculation. A second step was to optimize the sealing regarding to its' NVH behaviour. Using design of experiments (DoE) the geometry and the material parameters were optimized. One result of the optimization is that it is not possible to give a general statement about the best sealing geometry. The optimised sealing geometry is dependent of the utilized material; for one a material the best geometry is a compact square geometry while for other materials it is more like a T-profile. (orig.)

  6. Free flight in parameter space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlstedt, Palle; Nilsson, Per Anders

    2008-01-01

    The well-known difficulty of controlling many synthesis parameters in performance, for exploration and expression, is addressed. Inspired by interactive evolution, random vectors in parameter space are assigned to an array of pressure sensitive pads. Vectors are scaled with pressure and added to ...

  7. Generating three-parameter sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filinyuk M. A.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Generating sensors provide the possibility of getting remote information and its easy conversion into digital form. Typically, these are one-parameter sensors formed by combination of a primary transmitter (PT and a sine wave generator. Two-parameter sensors are not widely used as their implementation causes a problem with ambiguity output when measuring the PT. Nevertheless, the problem of creating miniature, thrifty multi-parameter RF sensors for different branches of science and industry remains relevant. Considering ways of designing RF sensors, we study the possibility of constructing a three-parameter microwave radio frequency range sensor, which is based on a two-stage three-parameter generalized immitance convertor (GIC. Resistive, inductive and capacitive PT are used as sensing elements. A mathematical model of the sensor, which describes the relation of the sensor parameters to the parameters of GIC and PT was developed. The basic parameters of the sensor, its transfer function and sensitivity were studied. It is shown that the maximum value of the power generated signal will be observed at a frequency of 175 MHz, and the frequency ranges depending on the parameters of the PT will be different. Research results and adequacy of the mathematical model were verified by the experiment. Error of the calculated dependences of the lasing frequency on PT parameters change, compared with the experimental data does not exceed 2 %. The relative sensitivity of the sensor based on two-stage GIC showed that for the resistive channel it is about 1.88, for the capacitive channel –1,54 and for the inductive channel –11,5. Thus, it becomes possible to increase the sensor sensitivity compared with the sensitivity of the PT almost 1,2—2 times, and by using the two stage GIC a multifunctional sensor is provided.

  8. Wind power project. Investigation of the habitat use of selected native small game species in the vicinity of wind power systems. Final report; Projekt Windkraftanlagen. Untersuchungen zur Raumnutzung ausgewaehlter heimischer Niederwildarten im Bereich von Windkraftanlagen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohlmeyer, K.; Menzel, C.

    2001-04-01

    Acting on behalf of the State Hunting Association of Lower Saxony the Game Research Institute (IWFo) of Hannover Veterinary University carried out a three-year study from April 1998 through March 2001 on the habitat use of selected native small game species in the vicinity of aerogenerators. This final report depicts the animals' preferred places, use of agricultural land, avoidance radius, if any, their activities and exposure to predator pressure. The target species were roe deer, hare, red fox, partridge and carrion crow. The study was carried out in Lower Saxony and Bremen on a total study area of 22.3 km{sup 2}, comprising four areas with running aerogenerators and five control areas without an aerogenerator. All parameters were studied in terms of a comparison between aerogenerator and control areas. The objective was to identify differences in population, use of space and habitat and in behaviour. [German] Am Institut fuer Wildtierforschung an der Tieraerztlichen Hochschule Hannover (IWFo) wurde im Auftrag der Landesjaegerschaft Niedersachsen (LJN) in einer dreijaehrigen Studie von April 1998 bis Maerz 2001 die Raumnutzung ausgewaehlter heimischer Niederwildarten im Bereich von Windkraftanlagen (WKA) untersucht. Im Weiteren wurden Aufenthaltspraeferenzen, Nutzung der landwirtschaftlichen Flaechen, moegliche Naeherungslimits und Aktivitaeten der Wildarten sowie der Beutegreiferdruck dargestellt. Zielarten der Studie waren Rehwild, Feldhase, Rotfuchs, Rebhuhn und Rabenkraehen. Die Untersuchungen wurden in vier Gebieten mit in Betrieb befindlichen WKA sowie in fuenf Referenzgebieten ohne WKA in Niedersachsen und Bremen auf einer Flaeche von insgesamt 22,3 km{sup 2} durchgefuehrt. Alle Parameter wurden vergleichend fuer die WKA- und Referenzgebiete betrachtet. Moegliche Unterschiede im Besatz bzw. Bestand, in Raum- und Habitatnutzung sowie im Verhalten wurden herausgearbeitet. (orig.)

  9. Telemetry System of Biological Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Spisak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The mobile telemetry system of biological parameters serves for reading and wireless data transfer of measured values of selected biological parameters to an outlying computer. It concerns basically long time monitoring of vital function of car pilot.The goal of this projects is to propose mobile telemetry system for reading, wireless transfer and processing of biological parameters of car pilot during physical and psychical stress. It has to be made with respect to minimal consumption, weight and maximal device mobility. This system has to eliminate signal noise, which is created by biological artifacts and disturbances during the data transfer.

  10. Confinement order parameters and fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Herbst, Tina K; Pawlowski, Jan M

    2015-01-01

    We study order parameters for the confinement-deconfinement phase transition related to the Polyakov-loop variable. The functional renormalisation group is used to compute these order parameters in a unified, non-perturbative continuum approach. Our result for the expectation value of the traced Polyakov loop agrees quantitatively with the lattice result. Furthermore, we discuss how this order parameter differs from the standard continuum Polyakov loop. For temperatures close to the phase transition temperature there are significant deviations. We argue that these deviations are of crucial importance for QCD effective models, which usually implicitly rely on a Gaussian approximation neglecting this difference.

  11. Fluctuations in some climate parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Erlykin, A D; Wolfendale, A W; 10.1016/j.jastp.2011.01.021

    2011-01-01

    There is argument as to the extent to which there has been an increase over the past few decades in the frequency of the extremes of climatic parameters, such as temperature, storminess, precipitation, etc, an obvious point being that Global Warming might be responsible. Here we report results on those parameters of which we have had experience during the last few years: Global surface temperature, Cloud Cover and the MODIS Liquid Cloud Fraction. In no case we have found indications that fluctuations of these parameters have increased with time.

  12. Development and implementation of an on-line monitoring system for the detection of the surge limit of multi stage axial compressors. Final report; Ueberwachungssystem zur Pumpgrenzdetektion in vielstufigen Axialverdichtern. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenen, H.; Niehuis, R.

    2003-07-01

    A monitoring system for the prediction of the stability limit of a multi-stage axial compressor has been developed. Based on the pressure fluctuations in the casing above a first compressor rotor the approach to the search limit can be detected. By means of a computer system equipped with a digital signal processor board the dynamic pressure signals are picked up and analyzed. Based on FFT-Spectra suitable parameters for the estimation of the stability limit can be calculated. Measurement data from various test runs at different gas turbine compressors demonstrated the reliability of the system. Mean issue of the system is the a ability of real time detection which allows an application in industrial environment. In order to guarantee the long term stability and security the soft ware has been programmed so that a permanent self control as well as a control by a connected host computer is possible. By means of these control mechanism the proper function of the measurement transducers the data acquisition and the communication with the host computer is assured. This guarantees a high operational reliability which also allows a safe integration in a gas turbine control system. The soft ware is based on the programming environment DASYLAB in order to provide a maximum of user friendliness The up to date test with the system on the gas turbine tests field of Siemens have been performed successfully. A long term test in a power plant has not jet been carried out. (orig.) [German] Es wurde ein Ueberwachungssystem entwickelt, das die Voraussage der Stabilitaetsgrenze eines mehrstufigen Axialverdichters ermoeglicht. Basierend auf den Druckfluktuationen ueber dem ersten Verdichterlaufrad koennen Aussagen ueber die Annaeherung an die Pumpgrenze getroffen werden. Mit Hilfe eines Rechnersystems mit integrierter Signalprozessorkarte werden die dynamischen Drucksignale aufgenommen und verarbeitet. Basierend auf einer FFT-Analyse werden geeignete Parameter bestimmt, die die

  13. An Evaluation Of Rocket Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Beri

    1959-07-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of conventional parameters of internal ballistics of Solid Propellant Rockets using external burning cruciform charge, on the geometry of charge aad rocket motor is discussed and results applied in a special case.

  14. Dynamic parameter array system (DPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes software which provides a means of sharing data among tasks and of accessing and altering dynamically the values of parameters in an executing task. The parameters reside in an RSX-11M memory management region or a VMS global section. The data may be accessed and altered by any task attaching the region. An interactive task is described which allows the user read/write access to the parameters from the keyboard. Keyboard commands can be used to make a disk file copy of values in the region, to initialize the values from a disk file, to examine and modify values, and to define synonyms for parameters. User-callable subroutines which create, attach, and map the region are also described

  15. Ergodic parameters and dynamical complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Rui Vilela

    2011-09-01

    Using a cocycle formulation, old and new ergodic parameters beyond the Lyapunov exponent are rigorously characterized. Dynamical Renyi entropies and fluctuations of the local expansion rate are related by a generalization of the Pesin formula. How the ergodic parameters may be used to characterize the complexity of dynamical systems is illustrated by some examples: clustering and synchronization, self-organized criticality and the topological structure of networks. PMID:21974678

  16. The fundamental parameters of physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The four parameters space, time, mass and charge are shown to possess an exact symmetry as a group of order 4. The explicit properties of the parameters as displayed in this group are then used to propose derivations of the fundamental principles of classical mechanics, electromagnetic theory and particle physics. The derivations suggest that the laws of physics and the fundamental particles have a single origin in the initial process of direct measurement. (Auth.)

  17. Hubble Parameter in Void Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Nakao, Ken-ichi; Gouda, Naoteru; Chiba, Takeshi; Ikeuchi, Satoru; Nakamura, Takashi; Shibata, Masaru

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the distance-redshift relation in the simple void model. As discussed by Moffat and Tatarski, if the observer stays at the center of the void, the observed Hubble parameter is not so different from the background Hubble parameter. However, if the position of observer is off center of the void, we must consider the peculiar velocity correction which is measured by the observed dipole anisotropy of cosmic microwave background. This peculiar velocity correction for the redshift is...

  18. R-groups and parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Ban, Dubravka; Goldberg, David

    2011-01-01

    For classical groups we show the isomorphism of the Knapp-Stein $R$-group, which describes the structure of parabolically induced representations, and the Arthur $R$-group of the parameter associated to the inducing representation by the local Langlands conjecture. We do this in the case of inducing from discrete series representations. In the case of unitary groups we show this isomorphism under a mild assumption on the parameter, which we show holds in at least half the cases.

  19. The CTS thin film solar cell, development of high-performance modules ('HOLMOF'). Final report; Die CTS Duennschichtsolarzelle, Entwicklung von Leistungsmodulen (Kurzbezeichnung: 'HOLMOD'). Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    During this project, the efficiency of solar cells was improved from 8.5 percent to 11.5 percent on average, which means a relative increase of about 35 percent. The further investigations focused on ageing and on the most stable parameter combinations. [German] Der Durschnitt der Solarzellenwirkungsgrade konnte im Laufe dieses Projektes von 8.5% auf 11.5% gesteigert werden. Dies ist eine relative Zunahme des Solarzellenwirkungsgrades um ca. 35%. Nach der Erarbeitung des hohen Wirkungsgradniveaus wurde begonnen, die Alterung verschieden prozessierter Schichten mit jeweils verschiedenen Rueckkontakten zu untersuchen, um die stabilsten Parameterkombinationen herauszufinden. Im Rahmen des HOLMOD-Projektes war bis zu diesem Zeitpunkt fast ausschliesslich Gold als Rueckkontaktmaterial verwendet worden, da es aufgrund der kurzen Pumpzeiten und der grossen Substrataufnahme der vorhandenen Gold-Aufdampfanlage einen grossen Probendurchsatz erlaubte. An den Zellen mit Gold-Rueckkontakten wurden nur vereinzelt Alterungsmessungen durchgefuehrt, da diese wegen der bekannten Bildung von Goldtelluriden cum grano salis zu bewerten sind. Diese Alterungsmessungen ermoeglichten jedoch einen zwar relativen, aber nuetzlichen Vergleich von z.B. verschiedenen CdTe- oder CdS-Quellenmaterialien untereinander. Die Datenbasis der Solarzellen mit Au-Rueckkontakt dient nun zum Vergleich mit dem Alterungsverhalten anderer Rueckkontaktmaterialien. (orig.)

  20. Sorption and permeation properties of cuticula for monoterpenes with special regard to the influence of gaseous pollutants on spruces. Sorptions- und Permeationseigenschaften von Cuticeln fuer Monoterpene unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des Einflusses von Schadgasen auf Fichte; Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, H.; Schmid, C.; Steinbrecher, R.

    1992-03-27

    The objective of this work was to determine the sorption and permeation parammeters of isolated cuticles for monoterpenes and to determine the influence of ozone on these quantities. Preliminary investigations permit to conclude that the Citrus aurantium cuticles used for many measurements possess sorption properties for monoterpenes that are similar to those of Picea abies. The cuticula/water partition coefficient was predicted most accurately from the octanol/water partition coefficient. The sorption of gaseous monoterpenes was determined by microweighing. [alpha]-pinene and limonene show non-linear sorption isotherms. For limonene and [alpha]-pinene, similarly high permeation and diffusion coefficients as those of benzene vapour were measured in both transport directions. Cuticular water content does not influence monoterpene sorption but plays an important part in their diffusion. Fumigation with 20, respectively 80, ppb of ozone for a period of six months did not influence the sorption and permeation parameters of isolated cuticles of Citrus aurantium. But for spruce cuticles isolated after fumigation only, increased limonene sorption was observed. As monoterpenes react with air pollutants, this fact indicates that they aggravate injury to plants from air pollutants. (orig./UWA)

  1. Metallurgical and process engineering fundamentals of cast iron melting in a cokeless cupola furnace. Final report; Metallurgische und verfahrenstechnische Grundlagen des Schmelzens von Gusseisen im kokslosen Kupolofen (KLKO). Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuermann, E.; Pluschkell, W.; Scholz, R.; Davies, M.

    2000-07-01

    The development of an adiabatically analytical and numerically verifiable energetic process model is described which takes account of the influence of all relevant process parameters. The project was to provide a basis for assessing the performance of a real plant (Laufach) and for developing an adiabatic numerical model. The methods and results are described in detail. [German] In dem Bericht wird die Entwicklung eines adiabat analytischen und numerisch tragfaehigen energetischen Prozessmodells vorgestellt, welches den Einfluss der wesentlichen Betriebsgroessen wie z.B. Erdgasvolumenstrom, Schmelzleistung, Abstichtemperatur, Laenge der Ueberhitzungszone, Laenge der Vorwaermzone bei ausreichend hohem Ofen, spezifische Oberflaeche des Einsatzgutes auf die Schmelzleistung des KLKO beschreibt. Ziel ist es, insgesamt das Betriebsverhalten einer realen Anlage in Laufach (Versuchsofen) zu beurteilen und nachzuempfinden sowie erste Betriebsoptimierungen durchzufuehren. Dazu wird zunaechst ein adiabates Prozessmodell (geschlossene Loesung) und danach ein adiabates numerisches Prozessmodell als Voraussetzung zur Beruecksichtigung von Abbrandreaktionen, Zersetzungsreaktionen usw. (keine geschlossene Loesung moeglich) entwickelt. Fuer die Modellierung wird der Ofen in die 4 Zonen Vorwaermzone, Schmelzzone, Ueberhitzungszone und Brennraum aufgeteilt. Der Gesamtvorgang im Ofen wird auf der Basis einer Hintereinanderschaltung dieser vier Gegenstrom-Rekuperatoren modelliert. (orig.)

  2. Reduction of robot base parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a new step in the search of minimum dynamic parameters of robots. In spite of planing exciting trajectories and using base parameters, some parameters remain not identifiable due to the perturbation effects. In this paper, we propose methods to reduce the set of base parameters in order to get an essential set of parameters. This new set defines a simplified identification model witch improves the noise immunity of the estimation process. It contributes also in reducing the computation burden of a simplified dynamic model. Different methods are proposed and are classified in two parts: methods, witch perform reduction and identification together, come from statistical field and methods, witch reduces the model before the identification thanks to a priori information, come from numerical field like the QR factorization. Statistical tools and QR reduction are shown to be efficient and adapted to determine the essential parameters. They can be applied to open-loop, or graph structured rigid robot, as well as flexible-link robot. Application for the PUMA 560 robot is given. (authors). 9 refs., 4 tabs

  3. Inflation and cosmological parameter estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, J.

    2007-05-15

    In this work, we focus on two aspects of cosmological data analysis: inference of parameter values and the search for new effects in the inflationary sector. Constraints on cosmological parameters are commonly derived under the assumption of a minimal model. We point out that this procedure systematically underestimates errors and possibly biases estimates, due to overly restrictive assumptions. In a more conservative approach, we analyse cosmological data using a more general eleven-parameter model. We find that regions of the parameter space that were previously thought ruled out are still compatible with the data; the bounds on individual parameters are relaxed by up to a factor of two, compared to the results for the minimal six-parameter model. Moreover, we analyse a class of inflation models, in which the slow roll conditions are briefly violated, due to a step in the potential. We show that the presence of a step generically leads to an oscillating spectrum and perform a fit to CMB and galaxy clustering data. We do not find conclusive evidence for a step in the potential and derive strong bounds on quantities that parameterise the step. (orig.)

  4. Improvement of short term forecast of ozone concentrations within the summersmog system. Final report; Erstellung einer Ozon-Kurzfristprognose fuer das Smogfruehwarnsystem. Verbesserung der Ozon-Kurzzeitprognose im Rahmen des Smogfruehwarnsystems. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimer, E.; Flemming, J.; Enke, W.; Berendorf, K.; Dlabka, M.; Weiss, W. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie; Wiegand, G.; Stern, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Informatik, Verkehrs- und Umweltplanung mbH (IVU), Sexau (Germany)

    2000-04-01

    The aim was the development of an ozone forecast system with an improved quality in relation to the old forecast tool at Federal Environmental Agency of Germany. A System has been developed to forecast ground level ozone over Germany: - a statistical module for local forecast on the basis of ARMAX-modeling - the photochemical transport model REM3 to forecast the Europeanwide formation of ozone. REM 3 forecast are used as additional parameter within statistical and Fuzzy modeling - Fuzzy and Sugeno-Fuzzy-models as an alternative to the classical statistical approach - development of a Neuro-Fuzzy system for automatic learning and adaptation of observation data. The data basis for all modules is given by meteorological realtime data and forecasts from the German Weather Service and ozone measurements of the Federal Environmental Agency and the German countries. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel war die Entwicklung eines, gegenueber dem bis dahin verwendeten Verfahren verbesserten, routinemaessig einsetzbaren Modells zur bundesweiten Prognose des taeglichen Maximums der Ozonkonzentration. Es wurde ein Prognosesystem zur Vorhersage des bodennahen Ozons entwickelt. Folgende Verfahren wurden einbezogen: - ein statistisches Vorhersagemodul fuer die lokale Ozonvorhersage auf der Basis von ARMAX-Modellen; - das photochemische Ausbreitungsmodell REM3 zur flaechenhaften Vorhersage der grossraeumigen Ozonentwicklung; REM3-Ergebnisse werden als zusaetzliche Eingabeparameter fuer die auf statistischen bzw. Fuzzy-Modellen basierende lokale Ozonvorhersage verwendet. - Fuzzy- und Sugeno-Fuzzy-Systeme als Alternative zu dem klassischen statistischen Verfahren und zur Kombination aller Verfahren bei der Ozonprognose. - Entwicklung von Sugeno-Fuzzy-Systemen, die als Selbstlernsysteme eingerichtet werden koennen. Datenbasis fuer alle Verfahren sind die aktuellen meteorologischen lokalen und Feldprognosen des Deutschen Wetterdienstes, die aktuellen meteorologischen Beobachtungen und die

  5. Parameter Estimation Using VLA Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Willem C.

    The main objective of this dissertation is to extract parameters from multiple wavelength images, on a pixel-to-pixel basis, when the images are corrupted with noise and a point spread function. The data used are from the field of radio astronomy. The very large array (VLA) at Socorro in New Mexico was used to observe planetary nebula NGC 7027 at three different wavelengths, 2 cm, 6 cm and 20 cm. A temperature model, describing the temperature variation in the nebula as a function of optical depth, is postulated. Mathematical expressions for the brightness distribution (flux density) of the nebula, at the three observed wavelengths, are obtained. Using these three equations and the three data values available, one from the observed flux density map at each wavelength, it is possible to solve for two temperature parameters and one optical depth parameter at each pixel location. Due to the fact that the number of unknowns equal the number of equations available, estimation theory cannot be used to smooth any noise present in the data values. It was found that a direct solution of the three highly nonlinear flux density equations is very sensitive to noise in the data. Results obtained from solving for the three unknown parameters directly, as discussed above, were not physical realizable. This was partly due to the effect of incomplete sampling at the time when the data were gathered and to noise in the system. The application of rigorous digital parameter estimation techniques result in estimated parameters that are also not physically realizable. The estimated values for the temperature parameters are for example either too high or negative, which is not physically possible. Simulation studies have shown that a "double smoothing" technique improves the results by a large margin. This technique consists of two parts: in the first part the original observed data are smoothed using a running window and in the second part a similar smoothing of the estimated parameters

  6. Understanding bibliometric parameters and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhri, Asim F; Siddiqui, Adeel; Khan, Nickalus R; Cohen, Harris L

    2015-01-01

    Bibliometric parameters have become an important part of modern assessment of academic productivity. These parameters exist for the purpose of evaluating authors (publication count, citation count, h-index, m-quotient, hc-index, e-index, g-index, i-10 [i-n] index) and journals (impact factor, Eigenfactor, article influence score, SCImago journal rank, source-normalized impact per paper). Although in recent years there has been a proliferation of bibliometric parameters, the true meaning and appropriate use of these parameters is generally not well understood. Effective use of existing and emerging bibliometric tools can aid in assessment of academic productivity, including readiness for promotions and other awards. However, if not properly understood, the data can be misinterpreted and may be subject to manipulation. Familiarity with bibliometric parameters will aid in their effective implementation in the review of authors-whether individuals or groups-and journals, as well as their possible use in the promotions review process, maximizing the effectiveness of bibliometric analysis. PMID:25969932

  7. Air and soil spectrometry for differentiation of reactively changed lignite mining areas in central Germany. Final report; Luft- und bodengestuetzte spektrometrische Untersuchungen zur Differenzierung reaktiv veraenderter Braunkohlentagebaugebiete in Mitteldeutschland. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, H.; Krueger, G.; Rein, B.; Segl, K. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (Germany); Mueller, A.; Reinhaeckel, G. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany); Glaesser, W.; Schreck, P.; Wiegand, U. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Bad Lauchstaedt (Germany); Volk, P.; Schrader, D. [Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Fernerkundung mbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Absorptionskante bei 2,3 {mu}m, wobei der Einfluss variabler Kaolinitgehalte korrigiert werden musste. Pyrit, der in dem Abraum sehr feinkoernig vorliegt, zeigt opakes Verhalten; er konnte ueber die Berechnung eines korrigierten Reflexionsvermoegens bei 2,1 {mu}m bestimmt werden. Quarz war im thermalen Infrarot ueber die Tiefe einer Bande bei 8,62 {mu}m bestimmbar. Stoerende Einfluesse anderer Bestandteile auf die Bestimmung jedes dieser Parameter und die Bedeutung von Oberflaechenfeuchte und teilweiser Vegetationsbedeckung der Kippen wurden ebenfalls untersucht. Die laborspektrometrische Bestimmung von Kaolinit, TOC und Pyrit ist auf ca. 1-2 Gew.-% (Gewichts-Prozent), die von Quarz auf <5 Gew.-% in den jeweils relevanten Konzentrationsbereichen moeglich. (orig.)

  8. Effects of estrogenic chemicals on fish: investigation of reproduction parameters on rainbow trout and zebrafish; Die Wirkung estrogen aktiver Umweltchemikalien auf Fische. Untersuchungen reproduktionsrelevanter Parameter bei Regenbogenforelle und Zebrabaerbling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieberstein, U.

    2001-07-01

    Fischpopulation zu untersuchen. Hierzu wurden immunhisto- und immuncytochemische Untersuchungen an Regenbogenforellen (Oncorhynchus mykiss) und In vivo-Langzeitversuche mit Zebrabaerblingen (Danio rerio) ueber den gesamten Lebenszyklus im Durchflusssystem durchgefuehrt. Mit Hilfe eines polyklonalen Antikoerpers gegen Regenbogenforellen-Vg gelang es, nach 17b-Estradiol-Injektion Vg in der Leber weiblicher und maennlicher Regenbogenforellen nachzuweisen. Durch die Immuncytochemie konnte der intrazellulaere Synthese- und Sekretionsweg von Vg ueber das rER und den Golgi-Apparat dargestellt werden. Am Beispiel des Zebrabaerblings war die endokrine Wirkung von Nonylphenol (NP), Octylphenol (OP) und Dehydroepiandrosteron (DHEA) auf Fische nachweisbar. Die Untersuchung ausgewaehlter entwicklungs-biologischer, reproduktionsbiologischer, anatomischer, histologischer und ultrastruktureller Parameter ermoeglichte eine Bewertung schadstoffbedingter Veraenderungen waehrend der Larval-, Juvenil- und Adultphase der Tiere. Die lebenslange Belastung der Zebrabaerblings-Populationen mit NP, OP und DHEA fuehrte grundsaetzlich zu einer deutlichen Verschiebung des Geschlechterverhaeltnisses in Richtung der weiblichen Fische. Nach Abschluss der Exposition der Zebrabaerblinge im Durchflusssystem waren, induziert durch NP, OP und DHEA, weitreichende konditionelle und strukturelle Veraenderungen der Reproduktionsorgane, des Skeletts und der Leber dokumentierbar. Es konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass toxische Wirkungen von NP, OP und DHEA bereits nach einwoechiger Belastung waehrend der Embryonal- und Larvalphase erkannt werden koennen, waehrend sich estrogene Wirkungen auf den Zebrabaerbling, erst nach Exposition ueber den gesamten Lebenszyklus zeigen.

  9. Catalogue of HI PArameters (CHIPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponara, J.; Benaglia, P.; Koribalski, B.; Andruchow, I.

    2015-08-01

    The catalogue of HI parameters of galaxies HI (CHIPA) is the natural continuation of the compilation by M.C. Martin in 1998. CHIPA provides the most important parameters of nearby galaxies derived from observations of the neutral Hydrogen line. The catalogue contains information of 1400 galaxies across the sky and different morphological types. Parameters like the optical diameter of the galaxy, the blue magnitude, the distance, morphological type, HI extension are listed among others. Maps of the HI distribution, velocity and velocity dispersion can also be display for some cases. The main objective of this catalogue is to facilitate the bibliographic queries, through searching in a database accessible from the internet that will be available in 2015 (the website is under construction). The database was built using the open source `` mysql (SQL, Structured Query Language, management system relational database) '', while the website was built with ''HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)'' and ''PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor)''.

  10. GALAPAGOS: From Pixels to Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Barden, Marco; Peng, Chien Y; McIntosh, Daniel H; Guo, Yicheng; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.20619.x

    2012-01-01

    To automate source detection, two-dimensional light-profile Sersic modelling and catalogue compilation in large survey applications, we introduce a new code GALAPAGOS, Galaxy Analysis over Large Areas: Parameter Assessment by GALFITting Objects from SExtractor. Based on a single setup, GALAPAGOS can process a complete set of survey images. It detects sources in the data, estimates a local sky background, cuts postage stamp images for all sources, prepares object masks, performs Sersic fitting including neighbours and compiles all objects in a final output catalogue. For the initial source detection GALAPAGOS applies SExtractor, while GALFIT is incorporated for modelling Sersic profiles. It measures the background sky involved in the Sersic fitting by means of a flux growth curve. GALAPAGOS determines postage stamp sizes based on SExtractor shape parameters. In order to obtain precise model parameters GALAPAGOS incorporates a complex sorting mechanism and makes use of modern CPU's multiplexing capabilities. It...

  11. Parameter estimation and inverse problems

    CERN Document Server

    Aster, Richard C; Thurber, Clifford H

    2005-01-01

    Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems primarily serves as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and introductory graduate courses. Class notes have been developed and reside on the World Wide Web for faciliting use and feedback by teaching colleagues. The authors'' treatment promotes an understanding of fundamental and practical issus associated with parameter fitting and inverse problems including basic theory of inverse problems, statistical issues, computational issues, and an understanding of how to analyze the success and limitations of solutions to these probles. The text is also a practical resource for general students and professional researchers, where techniques and concepts can be readily picked up on a chapter-by-chapter basis.Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems is structured around a course at New Mexico Tech and is designed to be accessible to typical graduate students in the physical sciences who may not have an extensive mathematical background. It is accompanied by a Web site that...

  12. Stability of distributed parameter systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K. E.; Kinnen, E.

    1972-01-01

    A theorem is derived for the stability of solutions of general linear partial differential equations. A norm of the state space in the form of multiple integrals over the spatial domain is used for the Liapunov functional. Theorems and lemmas are also given for linear time-invariant constant coefficient distributed parameter systems, a class of nonlinear distributed parameter systems and for others with a Lure-type nonlinearity. The theorem conditions are similar to those known for corresponding ordinary differential equations but with operators replacing matrices.

  13. Reconstruction of fundamental SUSY parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. M. Zerwas et al.

    2003-09-25

    We summarize methods and expected accuracies in determining the basic low-energy SUSY parameters from experiments at future e{sup +}e{sup -} linear colliders in the TeV energy range, combined with results from LHC. In a second step we demonstrate how, based on this set of parameters, the fundamental supersymmetric theory can be reconstructed at high scales near the grand unification or Planck scale. These analyses have been carried out for minimal supergravity [confronted with GMSB for comparison], and for a string effective theory.

  14. Load Estimation from Modal Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Brincker, Rune; Fernández, Pelayo Fernández; Canteli, Alfonso Fernández

    In Natural Input Modal Analysis the modal parameters are estimated just from the responses while the loading is not recorded. However, engineers are sometimes interested in knowing some features of the loading acting on a structure. In this paper, a procedure to determine the loading from a FRF...... matrix assembled from modal parameters and the experimental responses recorded using standard sensors, is presented. The method implies the inversion of the FRF which, in general, is not full rank matrix due to the truncation of the modal space. Furthermore, some ecommendations are included to improve...

  15. Advancement and testing of analysis techniques for the determination of the structural dynamic behavior of containment structures. Final report; Weiterentwicklung und Erprobung von Analysemethoden zur Bestimmung des strukturdynamischen Verhaltens von Containmentstukturen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievers, Juergen; Bahr, Ludwig; Arndt, Jens; Heckoetter, Christian; Grebner, Hans

    2014-11-15

    purpose, simplified models of a military aircraft and a medium-sized passenger aircraft were used. The parameter studies show that, as expected, the impact velocity as well as the failure criteria for concrete and steel have a significant influence on the integrity of the containment structure. With a 3D global analysis model of a Konvoi-type reactor building, the floor response spectra were calculated using a generic enveloping spectrum based on the ground response spectra of German nuclear power plant sites to derive loads for a cooling loop. For the area with the highest loads, determined by stress calculations with an analysis model of a cooling loop, a methodology to estimate material fatigue based on nuclear safety standard KTA 3201.2 has been tested. 3D analysis models of the spherical steel containment vessel of the Konvoi type have been developed and tested, one of them including all locks and pipe ducts. However, there remain unresolved issues, in particular in determining the maximum load-bearing capacity of containment structures made of reinforced concrete with regard to the influence of local crack-like damage in concrete and the modelling of the bond between concrete and the reinforcing bars as well as the cladding tubes of the prestressing tendons.

  16. SYVAC3 parameter distribution package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SYVAC3 (Systems Variability Analysis Code, generation 3) is a computer program that implements a method called systems variability analysis to analyze the behaviour of a system in the presence of uncertainty. This method is based on simulating the system many times to determine the variation in behaviour it can exhibit. SYVAC3 specializes in systems representing the transport of contaminants, and has several features to simplify the modelling of such systems. It provides a general tool for estimating environmental impacts from the dispersal of contaminants. This report describes a software object type (a generalization of a data type) called Parameter Distribution. This object type is used in SYVAC3, and can also be used independently. Parameter Distribution has the following subtypes: beta distribution; binomial distribution; constant distribution; lognormal distribution; loguniform distribution; normal distribution; piecewise uniform distribution; Triangular distribution; and uniform distribution. Some of these distributions can be altered by correlating two parameter distribution objects. This report provides complete specifications for parameter distributions, and also explains how to use them. It should meet the needs of casual users, reviewers, and programmers who wish to add their own subtypes. (author). 30 refs., 75 tabs., 56 figs

  17. Fundamental Parameters of Massive Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Crowther, Paul A.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the determination of fundamental parameters of `normal' hot, massive OB-type stars, namely temperatures, luminosities, masses, gravities and surface abundances. We also present methods used to derive properties of stellar winds -- mass-loss rates and wind velocities from early-type stars.

  18. MSSM without a free parameter

    CERN Document Server

    Kitano, Ryuichiro; Nagai, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    It is often argued that the minimal supersymmetric standard model has O(100) free parameters and the generic parameter region is already excluded by the null observation of the flavor and CP violating processes as well as the constraints from the LHC experiments. This situation naturally leads us to consider the case where all the dangerous soft supersymmetry breaking terms such as the scalar masses and scalar couplings are absent, while only the unified gaugino mass term and the mu term are non-vanishing at the grand unification scale. We revisit this simple situation taking into account the observed Higgs boson mass, 125 GeV. Since the gaugino mass and the mu term are fixed in order to explain the Higgs boson and the Z boson masses, there is no free parameter left in this scenario. We find that there are three independent parameter sets exist including ones which have not been discussed in the literature. We also find that the abundance of the dark matter can be explained by relic gravitinos which are non-t...

  19. Photovoltaic module parameters acquisition model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Photovoltaic five-parameter model is proposed using Matlab® and Simulink. • The model acquisits input sparse data matrix from stigmatic measurement. • Computer simulations lead to continuous I–V and P–V characteristics. • Extrapolated I–V and P–V characteristics are in hand. • The model allows us to predict photovoltaics exploitation in different conditions. - Abstract: This paper presents basic procedures for photovoltaic (PV) module parameters acquisition using MATLAB and Simulink modelling. In first step, MATLAB and Simulink theoretical model are set to calculate I–V and P–V characteristics for PV module based on equivalent electrical circuit. Then, limited I–V data string is obtained from examined PV module using standard measurement equipment at standard irradiation and temperature conditions and stated into MATLAB data matrix as a reference model. Next, the theoretical model is optimized to keep-up with the reference model and to learn its basic parameters relations, over sparse data matrix. Finally, PV module parameters are deliverable for acquisition at different realistic irradiation, temperature conditions as well as series resistance. Besides of output power characteristics and efficiency calculation for PV module or system, proposed model validates computing statistical deviation compared to reference model

  20. Do we understand IBM parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microscopic calculation of interacting-boson model (IBM) parameters is performed for Xe isotopes within the framework of the broken-pair model. We employ a shell-model hamiltonian which reproduces the spectra of near-magic and semi-magic nuclei. As a first approximation we adopt the idea of Otsuka, Arima and Iachello, that IBM states represent fermion states built from collective S- and D-pairs - the SD space. We show that at least two effects are needed to explain the empirical values of IBM parameters. Firstly there is a reduction in collectivity of S- and D-pairs in states with several broken pairs, due to the Pauli-blocking effect of the latter. Secondly the shell-model hamiltonian mixes the SD space with other fermion states which are not explicitly represented in the IBM. Among the latter, states with a collective G-pair (J=4) are the most important, but they contribute less than half of the total renormalization of the parameters. The calculated IBM parameters chi of the E2 transition operators exhibit similar trends to those which occur in the IBM hamiltonian. We explain the IBM Majorana force as a renormalization effect on states with even J; not as a repulsion in states with odd J. The latter emerge as rather pure states with mix little with the non-collective fermion space. This indicates that they may be experimentally observable. With our calculated parameters the IBM spectra and E2 transitions are of comparable quality to those obtained in IBM fits of the data. (orig.)

  1. Cogeneration: Key feasibility analysis parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper first reviews the essential requirements, in terms of scope, objectives and methods, of technical/economic feasibility analyses applied to cogeneration systems proposed for industrial plants in Italy. Attention is given to the influence on overall feasibility of the following factors: electric power and fuel costs, equipment coefficients of performance, operating schedules, maintenance costs, Italian Government taxes and financial and legal incentives. Through an examination of several feasibility studies that were done on cogeneration proposals relative to different industrial sectors, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effects of varying the weights of different cost benefit analysis parameters. With the use of statistical analyses, standard deviations are then determined for key analysis parameters, and guidelines are suggested for analysis simplifications

  2. Getting parameters from learning data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy L. Lacroix

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Response time data in learning experiments show a typical trend. They start out slow, quickly improve, before finally tending toward optimal performance. This trend provides critical information that can be used to test various theories of learning. One convenient way to characterize the data is the use of a learning curve; an idealized curve that passes through the observed data points as a function of training. This idealized curve has free parameters that must be estimated using optimization techniques. In this tutorial, we show how to estimate learning curve parameters using three softwares (Excel, SPSS, and Mathematica assuming that the idealized curve is a power function. The techniques can easily be adapted to other functions. Finally, details are provided on related topics (maximizing block sizes, testing curvatures, etc..

  3. Multivariate optimization of ILC parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Bazarov, Ivan V

    2005-01-01

    We present results of multiobjective optimization of the International Linear Collider (ILC) which seeks to maximize luminosity at each given total cost of the linac (capital and operating costs of cryomodules, refrigeration and RF). Evolutionary algorithms allow quick exploration of optimal sets of parameters in a complicated system such as ILC in the presence of realistic constraints as well as investigation of various what-if scenarios in potential performance. Among the parameters we varied there were accelerating gradient and Q of the cavities (in a coupled manner following a realistic Q vs. E curve), the number of particles per bunch, the bunch length, number of bunches in the train, etc. We find an optimum which decreases (relative to TDR baseline) the total linac cost by 22 %, capital cost by 25 % at the same luminosity of 3·1038

  4. Optimization of hidrocyclone work parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Golomeova, Mirjana; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the procedure of optimization of laboratory hydrocyclone work by the application of dispersion analysis and planning with Greek-Latin square. The application of this method makes possible significant reduction of the number of tests and close optimization of the whole process. Tests were carried out by D-100 mm hydrocyclone. Optimization parameters are as follows: contents of solid in pulp, underflow diameter, overflow diameter and inlet pressure. The influence of optimi...

  5. Multiobjectivization for Classifier Parameter Tuning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pilát, M.; Neruda, Roman

    New York: ACM, 2013 - (Blum, C.), s. 97-98 ISBN 978-1-4503-1964-5. [GECCO 2013. Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference. Amsterdam (NL), 06.07.2013-10.07.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/11/1368 Grant ostatní: GA UK(CZ) 345511 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : multiobjective optimization * classification * machine learning * evolutionary algorithm * multiobjectivization * parameter tuning Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  6. Vascular parameters from angiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper measures geometric and dynamic vascular parameters using digital angiographic image sequences: An image analysis system for neuroangiography is being developed by the Medical Imaging Division and Endovascular Therapy section of our department. Angiographic images are obtained from a GE Digital Fluoricon 5000 system. The image sets are analyzed on a Stellar GS2000 graphics mini-supercomputer using software modules written for use with the Application Visualization System (AVS). Flow phantoms are used to evaluate analysis routines and bolus injection techniques

  7. Getting parameters from learning data

    OpenAIRE

    Guy L. Lacroix; Denis Cousineau

    2006-01-01

    Response time data in learning experiments show a typical trend. They start out slow, quickly improve, before finally tending toward optimal performance. This trend provides critical information that can be used to test various theories of learning. One convenient way to characterize the data is the use of a learning curve; an idealized curve that passes through the observed data points as a function of training. This idealized curve has free parameters that must be estimated using optimizati...

  8. Multiscale Modelling of Elastic Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Børset, Kari

    2008-01-01

    Petrophysical properties in general and elasticity in particular have heterogeneous variations over many length scales. In a reservoir model, on which one for example can simulate fluid flow, seismic responses and resisitivity, it is necessary that the petrophysical parameters represent all these variations, even though the model is at a scale to coarse to capture all these properties in detail. Upscaling is a technique to bring information from one scale to a coarser in a consistent manner....

  9. Delayed recombination and cosmic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current cosmological constraints from cosmic microwave background anisotropies are typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme, however additional resonance and ionizing radiation sources can delay recombination, altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from the cosmic microwave background data. We show that for recent observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe satellite mission (WMAP) 5-year survey and from the arcminute cosmology bolometer array receiver experiment, additional resonance radiation is nearly degenerate with variations in the spectral index, ns, and has a marked effect on uncertainties in constraints on the Hubble constant, age of the universe, curvature and the upper bound on the neutrino mass. When a modified recombination scheme is considered, the redshift of recombination is constrained to z*=1078±11, with uncertainties in the measurement weaker by 1 order of magnitude than those obtained under the assumption of standard recombination while constraints on the shift parameter are shifted by 1σ to R=1.734±0.028. From the WMAP5 data we obtain the following constraints on the resonance and ionization sources parameters: εαi<0.058 at 95% c.l.. Although delayed recombination limits the precision of parameter estimation from the WMAP satellite, we demonstrate that this should not be the case for future, smaller angular scales measurements, such as those by the Planck satellite mission.

  10. Key parameters controlling radiology departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For radiology departments and outstanding practises control and optimization of processes demand an efficient management based on key data. Systems of key data deliver indicators for control of medical quality, service quality and economics. For practices effectiveness (productivity), for hospitals effectiveness and efficiency are in the focus of economical optimization strategies. Task of daily key data is continuous monitoring of activities and workflow, task of weekly/monthly key data is control of data quality, process quality and achievement of objectives, task of yearly key data is determination of long term strategies (marketing) and comparison with competitors (benchmarking). Key parameters have to be defined clearly and have to be available directly. For generation, evaluation and control of key parameters suitable forms of organization and processes are necessary. Strategies for the future will be directed more to the total processes of treatment. To think in total processes and to steer and optimize with suitable parameters is the challenge for participants in the healthcare market of the future. (orig.)

  11. GRCop-84 Rolling Parameter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, William S.; Ellis, David L.

    2008-01-01

    This report is a section of the final report on the GRCop-84 task of the Constellation Program and incorporates the results obtained between October 2000 and September 2005, when the program ended. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed a new copper alloy, GRCop-84 (Cu-8 at.% Cr-4 at.% Nb), for rocket engine main combustion chamber components that will improve rocket engine life and performance. This work examines the sensitivity of GRCop-84 mechanical properties to rolling parameters as a means to better define rolling parameters for commercial warm rolling. Experiment variables studied were total reduction, rolling temperature, rolling speed, and post rolling annealing heat treatment. The responses were tensile properties measured at 23 and 500 C, hardness, and creep at three stress-temperature combinations. Understanding these relationships will better define boundaries for a robust commercial warm rolling process. The four processing parameters were varied within limits consistent with typical commercial production processes. Testing revealed that the rolling-related variables selected have a minimal influence on tensile, hardness, and creep properties over the range of values tested. Annealing had the expected result of lowering room temperature hardness and strength while increasing room temperature elongations with 600 C (1112 F) having the most effect. These results indicate that the process conditions to warm roll plate and sheet for these variables can range over wide levels without negatively impacting mechanical properties. Incorporating broader process ranges in future rolling campaigns should lower commercial rolling costs through increased productivity.

  12. Michel Parameters averages and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new measurements of Michel parameters in τ decays are combined to world averages. From these measurements model independent limits on non-standard model couplings are derived and interpretations in the framework of specific models are given. A lower limit of 2.5 tan β GeV on the mass of a charged Higgs boson in models with two Higgs doublets can be set and a 229 GeV limit on a right-handed W-boson in left-right symmetric models (95 % c.l.)

  13. Navigating the Updated Anaphylaxis Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemp Stephen F

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis, an acute and potentially lethal multi-system clinical syndrome resulting from the sudden, systemic degranulation of mast cells and basophils, occurs in a variety of clinical scenarios and is almost unavoidable inmedical practice. Healthcare professionalsmust be able to recognize its features, treat an episode promptly and appropriately, and be able to provide recommendations to prevent future episodes. Epinephrine, administered immediately, is the drug of choice for acute anaphylaxis. The discussion provides an overview of one set of evidence-based and consensus parameters for the diagnosis and management of anaphylaxis.

  14. Parameters influencing the pyrotechnic reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Beat [Swiss Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sports, armasuisse, Science and Technology, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland)

    2005-02-01

    Phenomena (reaction effects) such as varied light emissions, sound, varied burning rates, varied heats of reaction and reaction products occur during the reaction of inorganic redox systems used for pyrotechnics. The peculiarity of these redox reactions is, that they take place as solid-solid, solid-liquid or solid-gaseous state reactions. In opposite the theoretical redox reaction normally postulated in inorganic chemistry takes place in a solvent. By variation of different parameters as for example the reducing agent, the oxidizer, the oxygen balance and the particle size, it is possible to create the above-mentioned effects in a wide range. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Predicting Parameters in Deep Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Denil, Misha; Shakibi, Babak; Dinh, Laurent; Ranzato, Marc'Aurelio; De Freitas, Nando

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that there is significant redundancy in the parameterization of several deep learning models. Given only a few weight values for each feature it is possible to accurately predict the remaining values. Moreover, we show that not only can the parameter values be predicted, but many of them need not be learned at all. We train several different architectures by learning only a small number of weights and predicting the rest. In the best case we are able to predict more than 95% of...

  16. Parameter estimation and inverse problems

    CERN Document Server

    Aster, Richard C; Thurber, Clifford H

    2011-01-01

    Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems, 2e provides geoscience students and professionals with answers to common questions like how one can derive a physical model from a finite set of observations containing errors, and how one may determine the quality of such a model. This book takes on these fundamental and challenging problems, introducing students and professionals to the broad range of approaches that lie in the realm of inverse theory. The authors present both the underlying theory and practical algorithms for solving inverse problems. The authors' treatment is approp

  17. Minimum QOS Parameter Set in Transport Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪芸; 顾冠群

    1997-01-01

    QOS(Quality Of Service)parameter definitions are the basis of further QOS control.But QOS parameters defined by organizations such as ISO and ITU are incoherent and incompatible.It leads to the imefficiency of QOS controls.Based on the analysis of QOS parameters defined by ISO and ITU,this paper first promotes Minimum QOS Parameter Set in transport layer.It demonstrates that the parameters defined by ISO and ITU can be represented b parameters or a combination of parameters of the Set.The paper also expounds that the Set is open and manageable and it can be the potential unified base for QOS parameters.

  18. Photovoltaics in buildings. Final report; Photovoltaik in Gebaeuden. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erge, T.; Hullmann, H.; Kaiser, R.; Kovach-Hebling, A.; Laukamp, H.; Reise, C.; Sauer, D.U.; Schmid, J.; Schmidt, H.; Sick, F.

    1996-08-31

    The feasibility in principle of photovoltaic plants integrated in buildings was proved in the 1980`s in the context of several pilot and demonstration projects both in Germany and internationally. However, the realisation and operation of these plants showed the necessity for further research and development work both in the system technique and particularly in the architectural area. The research project `Photovoltaics in buildings` reached the target of establishing a bridge between the technically orientated work of the researchers, developers and manufacturers of photovoltaic components on the one hand, and the architects and town planners on the other hand. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] Die prinzipielle Machbarkeit gebaeudeintegrierter Photovoltaikanlagen wurde in den 80er Jahren im Rahmen mehrerer Pilot- und Demonstrationsprojekte sowohl in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland als auch international nachgewiesen. Die Realisierung und der Betrieb dieser Anlagen zeigte jedoch die Notwendigkeit weiterer Forschungs- und Entwicklungsarbeiten sowohl im systemtechnischen als insbesondere auch im architektonischen Bereich auf. Mit dem Forschungsprojekt `Photovoltaik in Gebaeuden` wurde das Ziel erreicht, eine Bruecke zu schlagen zwischen den eher technisch orientierten Arbeiten der Forscher, Entwickler und Hersteller von Photovoltaikkomponenten auf der einen Seite und den Architekten und Stadtplanern auf der anderen. (orig./AKF)

  19. Projekt Tatfunk: Abschlussbericht zur Evaluation im Schuljahr 2003/04

    OpenAIRE

    Hense, Jan Ulrich; Mandl, Heinz

    2005-01-01

    The project “Tatfunk“ (“doing radio”) is an innovative school project which aims at fostering entrepreneurial thinking and action in schools. The project consists of a voluntary course in Gymnasiums (college preparatory high schools) for students at age 17-18. Their task is to produce and market a radio show working collaboratively and self-dependently. If required, they can engage the assistance of professional “media coaches” (i.e. journalists) or their course teachers. According to its did...

  20. Coaster - Drive development; Coaster Gentle Mobile. Antriebsentwicklung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathoy, A.

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses various electrical drive systems for a proposed people-mover system using motorised cabins on a carrier-structure similar to that of a roller-coaster. The system, suitable for both city applications and as a transport / fun system in mountainous tourist areas, is described. Various options for energy storage are discussed and their advantages and disadvantages are described. Drive concepts and system characteristics are discussed in detail. Test runs with a coaster test-platform on a short stretch of line are described, as is further testing on a stationary test-bed. The report is completed with a review of further work to be done in a second phase before the product is commercialised.

  1. Material parameters for thermoelectric performance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M N Tripathi; C M Bhandari

    2005-09-01

    The thermoelectric performance of a thermoelement is ideally defined in terms of the so-called figure-of-merit = 2 / , where , and refer respectively to the Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity of the thermoelement material. However, there are other parameters which are fairly good indicators of a material's thermoelectric `worth'. A simple yet useful performance indicator is possible with only two parameters-energy gap and lattice thermal conductivity. This indicator can outline all potentially useful thermoelectric materials. Thermal conductivity in place of lattice thermal conductivity can provide some additional information about the temperature range of operation. Yet another performance indicator may be based on the slope of vs. ln plots. plotted against ln shows a linear relationship in a simplified model, but shows a variation with temperature and carrier concentration. Assuming that such a relationship is true for a narrow range of temperature and carrier concentration, one can calculate the slope of vs. ln plots against temperature and carrier concentrations. A comparison between the variation of and slope suggests that such plots may be useful to identify potential thermoelectric materials.

  2. Steering Parameters for Rock Grouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Gustafson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Swedish tunnel grouting practice normally a fan of boreholes is drilled ahead of the tunnel front where cement grout is injected in order to create a low permeability zone around the tunnel. Demands on tunnel tightness have increased substantially in Sweden, and this has led to a drastic increase of grouting costs. Based on the flow equations for a Bingham fluid, the penetration of grout as a function of grouting time is calculated. This shows that the time scale of grouting in a borehole is only determined by grouting overpressure and the rheological properties of the grout, thus parameters that the grouter can choose. Pressure, grout properties, and the fracture aperture determine the maximum penetration of the grout. The smallest fracture aperture that requires to be sealed thus also governs the effective borehole distance. Based on the identified parameters that define the grouting time-scale and grout penetration, an effective design of grouting operations can be set up. The solution for time as a function of penetration depth is obtained in a closed form for parallel and pipe flow. The new, more intricate, solution for the radial case is presented.

  3. Measuring neutrino oscillation parameters using $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhouse, Christopher James [Oriel College, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-01

    MINOS is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It consists of two large steel-scintillator tracking calorimeters. The near detector is situated at Fermilab, close to the production point of the NuMI muon-neutrino beam. The far detector is 735 km away, 716m underground in the Soudan mine, Northern Minnesota. The primary purpose of the MINOS experiment is to make precise measurements of the 'atmospheric' neutrino oscillation parameters (Δmatm2 and sin2atm). The oscillation signal consists of an energy-dependent deficit of vμ interactions in the far detector. The near detector is used to characterize the properties of the beam before oscillations develop. The two-detector design allows many potential sources of systematic error in the far detector to be mitigated by the near detector observations. This thesis describes the details of the vμ-disappearance analysis, and presents a new technique to estimate the hadronic energy of neutrino interactions. This estimator achieves a significant improvement in the energy resolution of the neutrino spectrum, and in the sensitivity of the neutrino oscillation fit. The systematic uncertainty on the hadronic energy scale was re-evaluated and found to be comparable to that of the energy estimator previously in use. The best-fit oscillation parameters of the vμ-disappearance analysis, incorporating this new estimator were: Δm2 = 2.32-0.08+0.12 x 10-3 eV2, sin 2 2θ > 0.90 (90% C.L.). A similar analysis, using data from a period of running where the NuMI beam was operated in a configuration producing a predominantly $\\bar{v}$μ beam, yielded somewhat different best-fit parameters Δ$\\bar{m}${sup 2} = (3.36-0.40+0.46(stat.) ± 0.06(syst.)) x 10-3eV2, sin2 2$\\bar{θ}$ = 0.86-0.12_0

  4. Measuring neutrino oscillation parameters using $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhouse, Christopher James; /Oxford U.

    2011-02-01

    MINOS is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It consists of two large steel-scintillator tracking calorimeters. The near detector is situated at Fermilab, close to the production point of the NuMI muon-neutrino beam. The far detector is 735 km away, 716m underground in the Soudan mine, Northern Minnesota. The primary purpose of the MINOS experiment is to make precise measurements of the 'atmospheric' neutrino oscillation parameters ({Delta}m{sub atm}{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub atm}). The oscillation signal consists of an energy-dependent deficit of {nu}{sub {mu}} interactions in the far detector. The near detector is used to characterize the properties of the beam before oscillations develop. The two-detector design allows many potential sources of systematic error in the far detector to be mitigated by the near detector observations. This thesis describes the details of the {nu}{sub {mu}}-disappearance analysis, and presents a new technique to estimate the hadronic energy of neutrino interactions. This estimator achieves a significant improvement in the energy resolution of the neutrino spectrum, and in the sensitivity of the neutrino oscillation fit. The systematic uncertainty on the hadronic energy scale was re-evaluated and found to be comparable to that of the energy estimator previously in use. The best-fit oscillation parameters of the {nu}{sub {mu}}-disappearance analysis, incorporating this new estimator were: {Delta}m{sup 2} = 2.32{sub -0.08}{sup +0.12} x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}, sin {sup 2} 2{theta} > 0.90 (90% C.L.). A similar analysis, using data from a period of running where the NuMI beam was operated in a configuration producing a predominantly {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} beam, yielded somewhat different best-fit parameters {Delta}{bar m}{sup 2} = (3.36{sub -0.40}{sup +0.46}(stat.) {+-} 0.06(syst.)) x 10{sup -3}eV{sup 2}, sin{sup 2} 2{bar {theta}} = 0.86{sub -0.12}{sup _0.11}(stat.) {+-} 0.01(syst.). The tension between these

  5. Optimization of submerged vane parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H SHARMA; B JAIN; Z AHMAD

    2016-03-01

    Submerged vanes are airfoils which are in general placed at certain angle with respect to the flow direction in a channel to induce artificial circulations downstream. By virtue of these artificially generated circulations, submerged vanes were utilized to protect banks of rivers against erosion, to control shifting of rivers, to avoid blocking of lateral intake with sediment deposition, etc. Odgaard and his associates have experimentally obtained the optimum vane sizes and recommended that it can be used for vane design. Thispaper is an attempt to review and validate the findings of Odgaard and his associates by utilizing computational fluid dynamics and experiments as a tool in which the vane generated vorticity in the downstream was maximized in order to obtain optimum vane parameters for single and multiple vane arrays.

  6. Designing Underwater Cellular Networks Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejman Khadivi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Oceanographic data collection, pollution monitoring, offshore exploration, disaster prevention, assisted navigation and tactical surveillance are some of the applications of underwater networks. Underwater networks should send the gathered information to other users or an offshore station via a base station in the sea. Since the available bandwidth in underwater is severely limited, frequency reuse and cellular networks concepts are very important. In this paper, after driving the ratio of signal to interference for underwater acoustic channels, the constraints for the cell radius are determined. One of the important results of this work is that, for special parameters like bandwidth, it may be impossible to provide the required signal to interference ratio and bandwidth for the network users. Furthermore, in this paper, number of supportable users, per-user bandwidth, and the user capacity for a cellular underwater network are determined.

  7. Wearable vital parameters monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramaliu, Radu Vadim; Vasile, Alexandru; Bacis, Irina

    2015-02-01

    The system we propose monitors body temperature, heart rate and beside this, it tracks if the person who wears it suffers a faint. It uses a digital temperature sensor, a pulse sensor and a gravitational acceleration sensor to monitor the eventual faint or small heights free falls. The system continuously tracks the GPS position when available and stores the last valid data. So, when measuring abnormal vital parameters the module will send an SMS, using the GSM cellular network , with the person's social security number, the last valid GPS position for that person, the heart rate, the body temperature and, where applicable, a valid fall alert or non-valid fall alert. Even though such systems exist, they contain only faint detection or heart rate detection. Usually there is a strong correlation between low/high heart rate and an eventual faint. Combining both features into one system results in a more reliable detection device.

  8. Data Handling and Parameter Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist

    2016-01-01

    literature that are mostly based on the ActivatedSludge Model (ASM) framework and their appropriate extensions (Henze et al., 2000).The chapter presents an overview of the most commonly used methods in the estimation of parameters from experimental batch data, namely: (i) data handling and validation, (ii...... spatial scales. At full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs),mechanistic modelling using the ASM framework and concept (e.g. Henze et al., 2000) has become an important part of the engineering toolbox for process engineers. It supports plant design, operation, optimization and control applications......). Models have also been used as an integral part of the comprehensive analysis and interpretation of data obtained from a range of experimental methods from the laboratory, as well as pilot-scale studies to characterise and study wastewater treatment plants. In this regard, models help to properly explain...

  9. Practice parameter on disaster preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Shaw, Jon A

    2013-11-01

    This Practice Parameter identifies best approaches to the assessment and management of children and adolescents across all phases of a disaster. Delivered within a disaster system of care, many interventions are appropriate for implementation in the weeks and months after a disaster. These include psychological first aid, family outreach, psychoeducation, social support, screening, and anxiety reduction techniques. The clinician should assess and monitor risk and protective factors across all phases of a disaster. Schools are a natural site for conducting assessments and delivering services to children. Multimodal approaches using social support, psychoeducation, and cognitive behavioral techniques have the strongest evidence base. Psychopharmacologic interventions are not generally used but may be necessary as an adjunct to other interventions for children with severe reactions or coexisting psychiatric conditions. PMID:24157398

  10. Single Parameter Range and Whole Parameter Range, and Assessment of Novelty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    It is a relatively common phenomenon to limit technical features with parameter range in patent claims. It is argued in this article that the parameter range should be distinctly divided into single parameter range and whole parameter range depending on the different mode and function of limitation. Each and every parameter in a single parameter range may independently achieve a technical effect, and limit one embodiment alone; while a single parameter in the whole parameter range cannot independently ac...

  11. Applied parameter estimation for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Englezos, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Formulation of the parameter estimation problem; computation of parameters in linear models-linear regression; Gauss-Newton method for algebraic models; other nonlinear regression methods for algebraic models; Gauss-Newton method for ordinary differential equation (ODE) models; shortcut estimation methods for ODE models; practical guidelines for algorithm implementation; constrained parameter estimation; Gauss-Newton method for partial differential equation (PDE) models; statistical inferences; design of experiments; recursive parameter estimation; parameter estimation in nonlinear thermodynam

  12. Estimation of Synchronous Machine Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oddvar Hallingstad

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper gives a short description of an interactive estimation program based on the maximum likelihood (ML method. The program may also perform identifiability analysis by calculating sensitivity functions and the Hessian matrix. For the short circuit test the ML method is able to estimate the q-axis subtransient reactance x''q, which is not possible by means of the conventional graphical method (another set of measurements has to be used. By means of the synchronization and close test, the ML program can estimate the inertial constant (M, the d-axis transient open circuit time constant (T'do, the d-axis subtransient o.c.t.c (T''do and the q-axis subtransient o.c.t.c (T''qo. In particular, T''qo is difficult to estimate by any of the methods at present in use. Parameter identifiability is thoroughly examined both analytically and by numerical methods. Measurements from a small laboratory machine are used.

  13. Impulsivity Parameter for Solar Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Fajardo-Mendieta, W G; Alvarado-Gómez, J D; Calvo-Mozo, B

    2016-01-01

    Three phases are typically observed during solar flares: the preflare, impulsive, and decay phases. During the impulsive phase, it is believed that the electrons and other particles are accelerated after the stored energy in the magnetic field is released by reconnection. The impulsivity of a solar flare is a quantifiable property that shows how quickly this initial energy release occurs. It is measured via the impulsivity parameter, which we define as the inverse of the overall duration of the impulsive phase. We take the latter as the raw width of the most prominent nonthermal emission of the flare. We computed this observable over a work sample of 48 M-class events that occurred during the current Solar Cycle 24 by using three different methods. The first method takes into account all of the nonthermal flare emission and gives very accurate results, while the other two just cover fixed energy intervals (30-40 keV and 25-50 keV) and are useful for fast calculations. We propose an alternative way to classify...

  14. Rainfall-Runoff Parameters Uncertainity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, A.; Saghafian, B.; Maknoon, R.

    2003-04-01

    Karkheh river basin, located in southwest of Iran, drains an area of over 40000 km2 and is considered a flood active basin. A flood forecasting system is under development for the basin, which consists of a rainfall-runoff model, a river routing model, a reservior simulation model, and a real time data gathering and processing module. SCS, Clark synthetic unit hydrograph, and Modclark methods are the main subbasin rainfall-runoff transformation options included in the rainfall-runoff model. Infiltration schemes, such as exponentioal and SCS-CN methods, account for infiltration losses. Simulation of snow melt is based on degree day approach. River flood routing is performed by FLDWAV model based on one-dimensional full dynamic equation. Calibration and validation of the rainfall-runoff model on Karkheh subbasins are ongoing while the river routing model awaits cross section surveys.Real time hydrometeological data are collected by a telemetry network. The telemetry network is equipped with automatic sensors and INMARSAT-C comunication system. A geographic information system (GIS) stores and manages the spatial data while a database holds the hydroclimatological historical and updated time series. Rainfall runoff parameters uncertainty is analyzed by Monte Carlo and GLUE approaches.

  15. Voltage stability, bifurcation parameters and continuation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, F.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper considers the importance of the choice of bifurcation parameter in the determination of the voltage stability limit and the maximum power load ability of a system. When the bifurcation parameter is power demand, the two limits are equivalent. However, when other types of load models and bifurcation parameters are considered, the two concepts differ. The continuation method is considered as a method for determination of voltage stability margins. Three variants of the continuation method are described: the continuation parameter is the bifurcation parameter the continuation parameter is initially the bifurcation parameter, but is free to change, and the continuation parameter is a new `arc length` parameter. Implementations of voltage stability software using continuation methods are described. (author) 23 refs., 9 figs.

  16. System and method for motor parameter estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhrs, Bin; Yan, Ting

    2014-03-18

    A system and method for determining unknown values of certain motor parameters includes a motor input device connectable to an electric motor having associated therewith values for known motor parameters and an unknown value of at least one motor parameter. The motor input device includes a processing unit that receives a first input from the electric motor comprising values for the known motor parameters for the electric motor and receive a second input comprising motor data on a plurality of reference motors, including values for motor parameters corresponding to the known motor parameters of the electric motor and values for motor parameters corresponding to the at least one unknown motor parameter value of the electric motor. The processor determines the unknown value of the at least one motor parameter from the first input and the second input and determines a motor management strategy for the electric motor based thereon.

  17. On Markov parameters in system identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Minh; Juang, Jer-Nan; Longman, Richard W.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed discussion of Markov parameters in system identification is given. Different forms of input-output representation of linear discrete-time systems are reviewed and discussed. Interpretation of sampled response data as Markov parameters is presented. Relations between the state-space model and particular linear difference models via the Markov parameters are formulated. A generalization of Markov parameters to observer and Kalman filter Markov parameters for system identification is explained. These extended Markov parameters play an important role in providing not only a state-space realization, but also an observer/Kalman filter for the system of interest.

  18. Renormalizable two-parameter piecewise isometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, J. H.; Vivaldi, F.

    2016-06-01

    We exhibit two distinct renormalization scenarios for two-parameter piecewise isometries, based on 2 π / 5 rotations of a rhombus and parameter-dependent translations. Both scenarios rely on the recently established renormalizability of a one-parameter triangle map, which takes place if and only if the parameter belongs to the algebraic number field K = Q ( √{ 5 }) associated with the rotation matrix. With two parameters, features emerge which have no counterpart in the single-parameter model. In the first scenario, we show that renormalizability is no longer rigid: whereas one of the two parameters is restricted to K , the second parameter can vary continuously over a real interval without destroying self-similarity. The mechanism involves neighbouring atoms which recombine after traversing distinct return paths. We show that this phenomenon also occurs in the simpler context of Rauzy-Veech renormalization of interval exchange transformations, here regarded as parametric piecewise isometries on a real interval. We explore this analogy in some detail. In the second scenario, which involves two-parameter deformations of a three-parameter rhombus map, we exhibit a weak form of rigidity. The phase space splits into several (non-convex) invariant components, on each of which the renormalization still has a free parameter. However, the foliations of the different components are transversal in parameter space; as a result, simultaneous self-similarity of the component maps requires that both of the original parameters belong to the field K .

  19. Physiological Parameters Database for Older Adults

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Physiological Parameters Database for Older Adults is available for download and contains physiological parameters values for healthy older human adults (age 60...

  20. On parameter identification for large space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, S. M.; Goglia, G. L.

    1983-01-01

    The design of a controller for large space structures (LSS) based on the LQG theory requires the knowledge of the LSS parameters. Since apriori knowledge of the parameters is usually not reliable, the parameters must be identified prior to the controller synthesis, using methods such as the maximum likelihood technique. An expression is obtained for the Fisher information matrix for LSS, from which Cramer-Rao bounds can be obtained in order to determine the accuracy with which the parameters can be identified.

  1. Fiting method in a hierarchized parameter problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In some problems one has to perform a least squares fit on a large sample of data, with few general parameters and other ones particular to small data subsets. Examples are given, and a method is proposed to vary all parameters at each iteration (ensuring optimal convergence) while keeping the amount of calculation roughly proportional to the number of parameters

  2. Least square fitting with one parameter less

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, Bernd A

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that whenever the multiplicative normalization of a fitting function is not known, least square fitting by $\\chi^2$ minimization can be performed with one parameter less than usual by converting the normalization parameter into a function of the remaining parameters and the data.

  3. Review Of Parameter Estimation Using Adaptive Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LALITA RANI, SHALOO KIKAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comparative study of different adaptive filter algorithm for channel parameter estimation is described. We presented different parameter estimation approaches of adaptive filtering. An extended Kalman filter is then applied as a near-optimal solution to the adaptive channel parameter estimation problem. Kalman filtering is applied for motion parameters resulting in optimal pose estimation. A parallel Kalman filter is applied for joint estimation of code delay, multipath gains and Doppler shift. In this paper, a complete review of parameter estimation using adaptive filtering is explained.

  4. Parameters Optimization of Synergetic Recognition Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAOJun; DONGHuoming; SHAOJing; ZHAOJing

    2005-01-01

    Synergetic pattern recognition is a novel and effective pattern recognition method, and has some advantages in image recognition. Researches have shown that attention parameters λ and parameters B, C directly influence on the recognition results, but there is no general research theory to control these parameters in the recognition process. We abstractly analyze these parameters in this paper, and purpose a novel parameters optimization method based on simulated annealing algorithm. SA algorithm has good optimization performance and is used to search the global optimized solution of these parameters. Theoretic analysis and experimental results both show that the proposed parameters optimization method is effective, which can fully improve the performance of synergetic recognition approach, and the algorithm realization is simple and fast.

  5. Cosmological parameter estimation using Particle Swarm Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constraining parameters of a theoretical model from observational data is an important exercise in cosmology. There are many theoretically motivated models, which demand greater number of cosmological parameters than the standard model of cosmology uses, and make the problem of parameter estimation challenging. It is a common practice to employ Bayesian formalism for parameter estimation for which, in general, likelihood surface is probed. For the standard cosmological model with six parameters, likelihood surface is quite smooth and does not have local maxima, and sampling based methods like Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method are quite successful. However, when there are a large number of parameters or the likelihood surface is not smooth, other methods may be more effective. In this paper, we have demonstrated application of another method inspired from artificial intelligence, called Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for estimating cosmological parameters from Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data taken from the WMAP satellite

  6. Self-adaptive parameters in genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Eric; Pigeon, Luc; Delisle, Sylvain

    2004-04-01

    Genetic algorithms are powerful search algorithms that can be applied to a wide range of problems. Generally, parameter setting is accomplished prior to running a Genetic Algorithm (GA) and this setting remains unchanged during execution. The problem of interest to us here is the self-adaptive parameters adjustment of a GA. In this research, we propose an approach in which the control of a genetic algorithm"s parameters can be encoded within the chromosome of each individual. The parameters" values are entirely dependent on the evolution mechanism and on the problem context. Our preliminary results show that a GA is able to learn and evaluate the quality of self-set parameters according to their degree of contribution to the resolution of the problem. These results are indicative of a promising approach to the development of GAs with self-adaptive parameter settings that do not require the user to pre-adjust parameters at the outset.

  7. Robust estimation of hydrological model parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bárdossy

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of hydrological model parameters is a challenging task. With increasing capacity of computational power several complex optimization algorithms have emerged, but none of the algorithms gives a unique and very best parameter vector. The parameters of fitted hydrological models depend upon the input data. The quality of input data cannot be assured as there may be measurement errors for both input and state variables. In this study a methodology has been developed to find a set of robust parameter vectors for a hydrological model. To see the effect of observational error on parameters, stochastically generated synthetic measurement errors were applied to observed discharge and temperature data. With this modified data, the model was calibrated and the effect of measurement errors on parameters was analysed. It was found that the measurement errors have a significant effect on the best performing parameter vector. The erroneous data led to very different optimal parameter vectors. To overcome this problem and to find a set of robust parameter vectors, a geometrical approach based on Tukey's half space depth was used. The depth of the set of N randomly generated parameters was calculated with respect to the set with the best model performance (Nash-Sutclife efficiency was used for this study for each parameter vector. Based on the depth of parameter vectors, one can find a set of robust parameter vectors. The results show that the parameters chosen according to the above criteria have low sensitivity and perform well when transfered to a different time period. The method is demonstrated on the upper Neckar catchment in Germany. The conceptual HBV model was used for this study.

  8. Burstiness parameter for finite event sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Eun-Kyeong

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing inhomogeneous temporal patterns in natural and social phenomena is important to understand underlying mechanisms behind such complex systems, hence even to predict and control them. Temporal inhomogeneities in event sequences have been described in terms of bursts that are rapidly occurring events in short time periods alternating with long inactive periods. The bursts can be quantified by a simple measure, called burstiness parameter, which was introduced by Goh and Barab\\'asi [EPL \\textbf{81}, 48002 (2008)]. The burstiness parameter has been widely used due to its simplicity, which however turns out to be strongly biased when the number of events in the time series is not large enough. As the finite size effects on burstiness parameter have been largely ignored, we analytically investigate the finite size effects of the burstiness parameter. Then we suggest an alternative definition of burstiness parameter that is unbiased and yet simple. Using our alternative burstiness parameter, one can di...

  9. Study of electroweak parameters at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of the line shape and asymmetry parameters of the Z0 in its leptonic and hadronic decays are reviewed. Progress is reported about a considerable increase in measurement accuracy. Several tests of the Standard Model confirm it to better than one per cent. New values for the effective mixing parameter are derived from the line shape parameters averaged over the four LEP experiments. The corresponding limits on the top mass are presented. (orig.)

  10. Study of electroweak parameters at lep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurements of the line shape and asymmetry parameters of the Z0 in its leptonic and hadronic decays are reviewed. Progress is reported about a considerable increase in measurement accuracy. Several tests of the Standard Model confirm it to better than one per cent. New values for the effective mixing parameter are derived from the line shape parameters averaged over the four LEP experiments. The corresponding limits on the top mass are presented. (author)

  11. Setting parameters in the cold chain

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria Rodríguez; Itaxaso Amorrortu; María Jesús Álvarez

    2011-01-01

    Breaks in the cold chain are important economic losses in food and pharmaceutical companies. Many of the failures in the cold chain are due to improper adjustment of equipment parameters such as setting the parameters for theoretical conditions, without a corresponding check in normal operation. The companies that transport refrigeratedproducts must be able to adjust the parameters of the equipment in an easy and quick to adapt their functioning to changing environmental conditions. This arti...

  12. Universally Sloppy Parameter Sensitivities in Systems Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Gutenkunst, Ryan N.; Waterfall, Joshua J.; Casey, Fergal P.; Brown, Kevin S.; Christopher R. Myers; Sethna, James P.

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative computational models play an increasingly important role in modern biology. Such models typically involve many free parameters, and assigning their values is often a substantial obstacle to model development. Directly measuring in vivo biochemical parameters is difficult, and collectively fitting them to other experimental data often yields large parameter uncertainties. Nevertheless, in earlier work we showed in a growth-factor-signaling model that collective fitting could yield...

  13. Aspheric surface parameters measurement by Fizeau interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a method for measurement the aspheric parameter by a Fizeau interferometer is presented. The aspheric surface can be a parabola, hyperbola or an ellipsoid. The main radiuse of curvature and eccentricity are the main parameters. The fringe patterns are analysed by phase shift method and the aspheric parameters are determined by fitting the aspheric function to the data. The experimental setup and measurement result will be presented.

  14. A subject-specific postural instability parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argatov, I

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical modeling approach is applied for deriving subject-specific stabilometric parameters associated with center-of-pressure sway measurements for assessing balancing ability of subjects in quiet standing on a force platform. Based on the inverted pendulum model, a new combined stabilometric parameter including anthropometric characteristics (body height and mass) is obtained which represents a measure of postural instability. A physical meaning of the subject-specific parameter is related to the effective stiffness of the inverted pendulum model. PMID:22795475

  15. Online Tracking Parameter Adaptation based on Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Chau D.P.; Badie J.; Bremond F.; Thonnat M.

    2013-01-01

    International audience Parameter tuning is a common issue for many tracking algorithms. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes an online parameter tuning to adapt a tracking algorithm to various scene contexts. In an offline training phase, this approach learns how to tune the tracker parameters to cope with different contexts. In the online control phase, once the tracking quality is evaluated as not good enough, the proposed approach computes the current context and tunes th...

  16. Comparison of parameters describing stratified surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a lot of methods of two-process surface topography description. Some parameters can be computed from material ratio graph. There are included in ISO standards. The methods described in ISO standards 13565-2 (Pk, Ppk, Pvk, Pmr1 and Pmr2) and 13565-3 (Pmq, Pvq and Pmq) are compared in this paper. Profiles with given values of Pmq, Pvq and Pmq parameters and wavelengths were modelled. For these profiles, material ratio curve and Pk, Ppk, Pvk, Pmr1 and Pmr2 parameters were calculated. As a result, dependencies among parameters from ISO 13565-3 and ISO 13565-2 standard were found

  17. Multivariate distributions of soil hydraulic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei; Pachepsky, Yakov; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Martinez, Gonzalo; Bogena, Heye; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-05-01

    Statistical distributions of soil hydraulic parameters have to be known when synthetic fields of soil hydraulic properties need to be generated in ensemble modeling of soil water dynamics and soil water content data assimilation. Pedotransfer functions that provide statistical distributions of water retention and hydraulic conductivity parameters for textural classes are most often used in the parameter field generation. Presence of strong correlations can substantially influence the parameter generation results. The objective of this work was to review and evaluate available data on correlations between van Genuchten-Mualem (VGM) model parameters. So far, two different approaches were developed to estimate these correlations. The first approach uses pedotransfer functions to generate VGM parameters for a large number of soil compositions within a textural class, and then computes parameter correlations for each of the textural classes. The second approach computes the VGM parameter correlations directly from parameter values obtained by fitting VGM model to measured water retention and hydraulic conductivity data for soil samples belonging to a textural class. Carsel and Parish (1988) used the Rawls et al. (1982) pedotransfer functions, and Meyer et al. (1997) used the Rosetta pedotransfer algorithms (Schaap, 2002) to develop correlations according to the first approach. We used the UNSODA database (Nemes et al. 2001), the US Southern Plains database (Timlin et al., 1999), and the Belgian database (Vereecken et al., 1989, 1990) to apply the second approach. A substantial number of considerable (>0.7) correlation coefficients were found. Large differences were encountered between parameter correlations obtained with different approaches and different databases for the same textural classes. The first of the two approaches resulted in generally higher values of correlation coefficients between VGM parameters. However, results of the first approach application depend

  18. Multi-Parameter Estimation for Orthorhombic Media

    KAUST Repository

    Masmoudi, Nabil

    2015-08-19

    Building reliable anisotropy models is crucial in seismic modeling, imaging and full waveform inversion. However, estimating anisotropy parameters is often hampered by the trade off between inhomogeneity and anisotropy. For instance, one way to estimate the anisotropy parameters is to relate them analytically to traveltimes, which is challenging in inhomogeneous media. Using perturbation theory, we develop travel-time approximations for orthorhombic media as explicit functions of the anellipticity parameters η1, η2 and a parameter Δγ in inhomogeneous background media. Specifically, our expansion assumes inhomogeneous ellipsoidal anisotropic background model, which can be obtained from well information and stacking velocity analysis. This approach has two main advantages: in one hand, it provides a computationally efficient tool to solve the orthorhombic eikonal equation, on the other hand, it provides a mechanism to scan for the best fitting anisotropy parameters without the need for repetitive modeling of traveltimes, because the coefficients of the traveltime expansion are independent of the perturbed parameters. Furthermore, the coefficients of the traveltime expansion provide insights on the sensitivity of the traveltime with respect to the perturbed parameters. We show the accuracy of the traveltime approximations as well as an approach for multi-parameter scanning in orthorhombic media.

  19. The Dynamical Parameters of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Roos, M; Roos, Matts

    2002-01-01

    The results of different analyses of the dynamical parameters of the Universe are converging towards agreement. Remaining disagreements reflect systematic errors coming either from the observations or from differences in the methods of analysis. Compiling the most precise parameter values with our estimates of such systematic errors added, we find the following best values: the baryonic density parameter $\\Ombh =0.019\\pm 0.02$, the density parameter of the matter component $\\Omm =0.29\\pm 0.06$, the density parameter of the cosmological constant $\\Oml = 0.71\\pm 0.07$, the spectral index of scalar fluctuations $n_s =1.02 \\pm 0.08$, the equation of state of the cosmological constant $w_{\\lambda} < -0.86$, and the deceleration parameter $q_0 = -0.56 \\pm 0.04$. We do not modify the published best values of the Hubble parameter $H_0 = 0.73\\pm 0.07$ and the total density parameter $\\Om0\\thinspace ^{+0.03}_{-0.02}$.

  20. Methods for measurement of durability parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place

    1996-01-01

    Present selected methods for measurement of durabilty parameters relating to chlorides, corrosion, moisture and freeze-thaw, primarly on concrete. Advantages and drawbacks of the different methods are included.......Present selected methods for measurement of durabilty parameters relating to chlorides, corrosion, moisture and freeze-thaw, primarly on concrete. Advantages and drawbacks of the different methods are included....

  1. Robust stability of interval parameter matrices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This note is devoted to the problem of robust stability of interval parameter matrices. Based on some basic facts relating the H∞ norm of a transfer function to the Riccati matrix inequality and Hamilton matrix, several test conditions with parameter perturbation bounds are obtained.

  2. Distributed parameter model of the TRESTLE pulser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A distributed parameter circuit analog model was developed to evaluate design improvements for the TRESTLE pulser. The approach for specifying the model network and estimating model parameters is given. Model results are shown to compare favorably to available measurements. The model's flexibility and economy allowed ready evaluation of potential modifications

  3. Important Parameters and Applications for Nickel Electroforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Benzon, Michael Eis; Rasmussen, J.P.; Fontenay, Frank Le Sage De

    Electroforming is versatile process that is being used more and more, although the basic idea is almost a hundred years old. This paper will concentrate on the important mechanical properties and electrolyte parameters of nickel electroforming. Electrolyte parameters such as current density, p...

  4. Estimation of physical parameters in induction motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, H.; Knudsen, Morten; Rasmussen, Henrik;

    1994-01-01

    Parameter estimation in induction motors is a field of great interest, because accurate models are needed for robust dynamic control of induction motors......Parameter estimation in induction motors is a field of great interest, because accurate models are needed for robust dynamic control of induction motors...

  5. Parameters of low-energy supersymmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that only three (msub(3/2) γ=M/msub(3/2) and A) of four parameters of the low-energy part of the theory based on the supergravitized Grand Unification Theory (SUGRA GUT) depend upon the detailes of the gravitation theory, whilst the fourth parameter (B) is defined by the Grand Unification model

  6. Transistor h parameter conversion slide rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantner, R. E.

    1967-01-01

    Slide rule enables the ready conversion of transistor h parameters from one form to another and reduces calculation time by a factor of 5 to 10. The scales are selected to cover all ranges of each parameter that will normally exist for any transistor, and answers are given in the correct order of magnitude, making powers-of-ten calculations unnecessary.

  7. Parameter identification in the logistic STAR model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekner, Line Elvstrøm; Nejstgaard, Emil

    We propose a new and simple parametrization of the so-called speed of transition parameter of the logistic smooth transition autoregressive (LSTAR) model. The new parametrization highlights that a consequence of the well-known identification problem of the speed of transition parameter is that the...

  8. Postprocessing MPEG based on estimated quantization parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren

    2009-01-01

    the case where the coded stream is not accessible, or from an architectural point of view not desirable to use, and instead estimate some of the MPEG stream parameters based on the decoded sequence. The I-frames are detected and the quantization parameters are estimated from the coded stream and used...

  9. Useful surface parameters for biomaterial discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxeberria, Marina; Escuin, Tomas; Vinas, Miquel; Ascaso, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Topographical features of biomaterials' surfaces are determinant when addressing their application site. Unfortunately up to date there has not been an agreement regarding which surface parameters are more representative in discriminating between materials. Discs (n = 16) of different currently used materials for implant prostheses fabrication, such as cast cobalt-chrome, direct laser metal soldered (DLMS) cobalt-chrome, titanium grade V, zirconia (Y-TZP), E-glass fiber-reinforced composite and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) were manufactured. Nanoscale topographical surface roughness parameters generated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), microscale surface roughness parameters obtained by white light interferometry (WLI) and water angle values obtained by the sessile-water-drop method were analyzed in order to assess which parameter provides the best optimum surface characterization method. Correlations between nanoroughness, microroughness, and hydrophobicity data were performed to achieve the best parameters giving the highest discriminatory power. A subset of six parameters for surface characterization were proposed. AFM and WLI techniques gave complementary information. Wettability did not correlate with any of the nanoroughness parameters while it however showed a weak correlation with microroughness parameters. PMID:26148576

  10. Acoustical parameters in concert hall acoustics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ke; ZHOU Qijun

    2003-01-01

    Professor Beranek talked about the sound qualities of concert hall. The 58 famousconcert halls in the world were graded according to the subjective comparison from the profes-sional musicians and music lovers. Six measurable objective parameters were proposed. Theranking according to these parameters were presented.

  11. Background-cross-section-dependent subgroup parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new set of subgroup parameters was derived that can reproduce the self-shielded cross section against a wide range of background cross sections. The subgroup parameters are expressed with a rational equation which numerator and denominator are expressed as the expansion series of background cross section, so that the background cross section dependence is exactly taken into account in the parameters. The advantage of the new subgroup parameters is that they can reproduce the self-shielded effect not only by group basis but also by subgroup basis. Then an adaptive method is also proposed which uses fitting procedure to evaluate the background-cross-section-dependence of the parameters. One of the simple fitting formula was able to reproduce the self-shielded subgroup cross section by less than 1% error from the precise evaluation. (author)

  12. Estimation for large non-centrality parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, Sónia; Mexia, João; Fonseca, Miguel; Carvalho, Francisco

    2016-06-01

    We introduce the concept of estimability for models for which accurate estimators can be obtained for the respective parameters. The study was conducted for model with almost scalar matrix using the study of estimability after validation of these models. In the validation of these models we use F statistics with non centrality parameter τ =‖λ/‖2 σ2 when this parameter is sufficiently large we obtain good estimators for λ and α so there is estimability. Thus, we are interested in obtaining a lower bound for the non-centrality parameter. In this context we use for the statistical inference inducing pivot variables, see Ferreira et al. 2013, and asymptotic linearity, introduced by Mexia & Oliveira 2011, to derive confidence intervals for large non-centrality parameters (see Inácio et al. 2015). These results enable us to measure relevance of effects and interactions in multifactors models when we get highly statistically significant the values of F tests statistics.

  13. MFV reductions of MSSM parameter space

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdusSalam, S. S.; Burgess, C. P.; Quevedo, F.

    2015-02-01

    The 100+ free parameters of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) make it computationally difficult to compare systematically with data, motivating the study of specific parameter reductions such as the cMSSM and pMSSM. Here we instead study the reductions of parameter space implied by using minimal flavour violation (MFV) to organise the R-parity conserving MSSM, with a view towards systematically building in constraints on flavour-violating physics. Within this framework the space of parameters is reduced by expanding soft supersymmetry-breaking terms in powers of the Cabibbo angle, leading to a 24-, 30- or 42-parameter framework (which we call MSSM-24, MSSM-30, and MSSM-42 respectively), depending on the order kept in the expansion. We provide a Bayesian global fit to data of the MSSM-30 parameter set to show that this is manageable with current tools. We compare the MFV reductions to the 19-parameter pMSSM choice and show that the pMSSM is not contained as a subset. The MSSM-30 analysis favours a relatively lighter TeV-scale pseudoscalar Higgs boson and tan β ˜ 10 with multi-TeV sparticles.

  14. Selection of Parameters in Ball-Spinning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maosheng LI; Yongnian YAN; Shihong ZHANG; Dachang KANG

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, with the development of spinning processes, more and more systematic research about spinning parameters has been published. Based on these results, a routing about how to select spinning parameters has been gradually formed. However, ball spinning, due to its own features plus research lack, is still unclear about its parameter selections. In addition, some manufacture-enterprises only notice the use of this technique whereas ignore the theory creation. The optimal parameters about the ball spinning although have been released from these enterprises but in fact not a helpful theory for other researchers and producers. Focus on selecting the parameters based on the trial-and-error, this article has carried a series of experiments to study the influence on the spinning working course from those parameters, especially the peeling phenomena, and the tube diameter bulging. An optimal graph of the working angle, the axial feeding rate, and the acceptable working course is put forward. Additionally, based on the theory of the minimal reduction rate, the selection of the ball diameter is finally described. Thus, it has given the rules to get the proper parameters in ball spinning.

  15. Selection of noise parameters for Kalman filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ka-Veng Yuen; Ka-In Hoi; Kai-Meng Mok

    2007-01-01

    The Bayesian probabilistic approach is proposed to estimate the process noise and measurement noise parameters for a Kalman filter. With state vectors and covariance matrices estimated by the Kalman filter, the likehood of the measurements can be constructed as a function of the process noise and measurement noise parameters. By maximizing the likklihood function with respect to these noise parameters, the optimal values can be obtained. Furthermore, the Bayesian probabilistic approach allows the associated uncertainty to be quantified. Examples using a single-degree-of-freedom system and a ten-story building illustrate the proposed method. The effect on the performance of the Kalman filter due to the selection of the process noise and measurement noise parameters was demonstrated. The optimal values of the noise parameters were found to be close to the actual values in the sense that the actual parameters were in the region with significant probability density. Through these examples, the Bayesian approach was shown to have the capability to provide accurate estimates of the noise parameters of the Kalman filter, and hence for state estimation.

  16. Exploiting intrinsic fluctuations to identify model parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Christoph; Sahle, Sven; Pahle, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Parameterisation of kinetic models plays a central role in computational systems biology. Besides the lack of experimental data of high enough quality, some of the biggest challenges here are identification issues. Model parameters can be structurally non-identifiable because of functional relationships. Noise in measured data is usually considered to be a nuisance for parameter estimation. However, it turns out that intrinsic fluctuations in particle numbers can make parameters identifiable that were previously non-identifiable. The authors present a method to identify model parameters that are structurally non-identifiable in a deterministic framework. The method takes time course recordings of biochemical systems in steady state or transient state as input. Often a functional relationship between parameters presents itself by a one-dimensional manifold in parameter space containing parameter sets of optimal goodness. Although the system's behaviour cannot be distinguished on this manifold in a deterministic framework it might be distinguishable in a stochastic modelling framework. Their method exploits this by using an objective function that includes a measure for fluctuations in particle numbers. They show on three example models, immigration-death, gene expression and Epo-EpoReceptor interaction, that this resolves the non-identifiability even in the case of measurement noise with known amplitude. The method is applied to partially observed recordings of biochemical systems with measurement noise. It is simple to implement and it is usually very fast to compute. This optimisation can be realised in a classical or Bayesian fashion. PMID:26672148

  17. Bedrijfsrestaurant als springplank : acceptatie van nieuwe biologische producten door introductie in de catering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, M.J.; Zimmermann, K.L.; Berg, van den I.

    2009-01-01

    Dit onderzoek verschaft inzicht in het overdrachtsmechanisme tussen de introductie van nieuwe producten in de catering (bedrijfsrestaurants) en de acceptatie van deze nieuwe producten door de consumenten. In Deel I van het rapport wordt een conceptueel model gepresenteerd dat als handvat dient voor

  18. Die moderne Adipositasepidemie vor dem Hintergrund physiologischer Regulation und biologischer Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fürnsinn C

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Die wohlstandsassoziierte Zunahme von Übergewicht und Adipositas ist eine große medizinische und gesundheitspolitische Herausforderung, doch ihre Ursachen sind noch kaum verstanden. Die etablierte Interpretation, weniger Notwendigkeit für körperliche Arbeit bei hoher Verfügbarkeit von Nahrung würde notwendigerweise zu einer positiven Kalorienbilanz führen, scheint viel zu kurz zu greifen. Der Nachweis einer starken genetischen Determination der Adipositas macht es nötig, das tradierte Bild von Hedonismus und Willensschwäche des Adipösen durch eine Suche nach physiologisch-vegetativen Mechanismen, die eine übermäßige Fettspeicherung verursachen, zu ersetzen. So gibt es heute klare Evidenz für Regelkreise, die über die Modulation von Appetit und Kalorienverbrauch die Fettreserven des Körpers gezielt auf einen Sollwert justieren. Damit lautet die treffende Fragestellung womöglich: Welche Aspekte der modernen Lebensbedingungen führen denn zu einer Erhöhung dieses Sollwerts, des so genannten „set point“? Obwohl wir von einer klaren Beantwortung dieser Frage weit entfernt sind, gibt es Hinweise aus Kulturvergleichen und Beobachtungen an Tieren, dass insbesondere die Zusammensetzung und Qualität der industriellen Nahrungsmittel großen Einfluss auf die Regulation, also den physiologisch angestrebten Zielwert, von Fettmasse und Körpergewicht haben. Wenn dem so ist, so lautet die nächste Frage: Wieso hat die Evolution Regulationsmechanismen hervorgebracht, die unter den gegebenen Umständen die Entwicklung einer augenscheinlich mit Nachteilen behafteten Adipositas bedingen? Dazu wurden schon einige Hypothesen präsentiert, doch wie hier diskutiert wird, kann jede dieser Ideen bei näherer Betrachtung so manche Frage nicht zufriedenstellend beantworten. Dies mag daran liegen, dass die Entwicklung einer physiologischen Reaktion auf Überfluss und Nahrungsqualität des Industriezeitalters mangels prähistorischer Perioden mit vergleichbaren Lebensumständen nicht möglich war. Demgemäß wäre die moderne Entgleisung des „set point“ als Zufallsereignis zu verstehen und die Versuche, sie durch sinnvolle Regulationsmechanismen zu erklären, wären müßig.

  19. Die moderne Adipositasepidemie vor dem Hintergrund physiologischer Regulation und biologischer Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Fürnsinn C

    2015-01-01

    Die wohlstandsassoziierte Zunahme von Übergewicht und Adipositas ist eine große medizinische und gesundheitspolitische Herausforderung, doch ihre Ursachen sind noch kaum verstanden. Die etablierte Interpretation, weniger Notwendigkeit für körperliche Arbeit bei hoher Verfügbarkeit von Nahrung würde notwendigerweise zu einer positiven Kalorienbilanz führen, scheint viel zu kurz zu greifen. Der Nachweis einer starken genetischen Determination der Adipositas macht es nötig, das tradier...

  20. Product-Carbon-Footprint von Lebensmitteln in Österreich: biologisch und konventionell im Vergleich

    OpenAIRE

    Theurl, M.C.; Markut, T.; Hörtenhuber, S.; Lindenthal, T.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this broad conceived study was to analyse greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) of more than 130 foodstuffs from two organic agricultural production methods (Organic premium brand and Organic EU-standard) as compared to conventional farming in Austria. The system boundaries of the life-cycle study ranged from agriculture and its upstream supply chain to the retailer, including changes in soil organic carbon (humus) and land use change. In conclusion, all organic products in both organic ...

  1. Biologische Ansätze zum Verhältnis von Literatur und Emotionen

    OpenAIRE

    Mellmann, Katja

    2010-01-01

    Als eine Möglichkeit, emotionale Wirkungen von Literatur zu beschreiben, wird eine evolutionspsychologische Heuristik vorgeschlagen. Während der rein textwissenschaftliche Ansatz nur die Darstellung von Emotionen in Texten untersuchen kann, ermöglicht der literaturpsychologische Ansatz ein Inbeziehungsetzen von Werkstruktur und Leserpsyche und damit hypothetische Aussagen über emotionale Wirkungsphänomene. Die Evolutionspsychologie eröffnet einen Zugang insbesondere zu einigen sehr basalen Wi...

  2. Privatwirtschaftlicher Standard für ökologisches/biologisches Heimtierfutter

    OpenAIRE

    Rombach, Martin; Schick, Alissa

    2009-01-01

    In Deutschland existiert bisher weder ein nationaler Standard für Heimtierfutter noch ein anerkannter oder akzeptierter privatwirtschaftlicher Standard. Der vorliegende Standard soll diese Lücke schließen und den Herstellern und Inverkehrbringern von Heimtierfuttermitteln, welche mit einem Hinweis auf den ökologischen Landbau gekennzeichnet werden, eine Vermarktung erlauben und Rechtssicherheit geben.

  3. De detailhandel in biologische produkten : de mogelijkheden voor supermarkten en speciaalzaken naast de natuurvoedingswinkels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgstein, M.H.; Zimmermann, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    Qualitative research on the sale of biological products (biodynamic and ecological) in the supermarkets, specialist shops and natural food stores in The Netherlands and inventarisation of bottle-necks which prohibit this sale. Conditions are formulated for promoting the introduction of organic produ

  4. Arbeitspferde im biologisch-dynamischen Gemüsebau. Zusammenfassung des Berichtes 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Strüber, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    Das Projekt aus 2003 (SP 29) wurde in 2004 fortgesetzt. Die Flächen wurden vergrößert, dementsprechend stiegen die Einsatzstunden an und neue Geräte wurden getestet. Auf einem größeren Betrieb in Norwegen wurden Vergleichsdaten unter anderen Bedingungen erhoben. Im Rechts/Links Versuch zu Bodenverdichtung wurden signifikante Unterschiede im Boden (pH-Wert, Verdichtung) und der Pflanze (Chemie, Physik, Bildekräfte) zu Gunsten des Pferdes ermittelt. Pferde erzielten gute Leistungen i...

  5. Graph-Based Data Mining for Biological Applications (Graafgebaseerde datamining voor biologische toepassingen)

    OpenAIRE

    Schietgat, Leander

    2010-01-01

    Het onderzoek in deze thesis situeert zich in het domein van het relatio neel leren. In het bijzonder stellen we leeralgoritmes voor die modellen bouwen voor gestructureerde gegevens op basis van grafen. Het belangrij kste doel van deze thesis is om de efficiëntie van relationele leeralgor itmes te verhogen, alsook hun toepasbaarheid op problemen uit de biologi e en chemie. In het eerste deel bestuderen we hiërarchische multi-label classificatie (HMC), een variant van classificatie waarbij e...

  6. Von Donuts und Zucker: Mit Neutronen biologische Makromoleküle erforschen

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Roland P.

    2003-05-01

    Für die Erforschung von Biomolekülen bieten Neutronen einzigartige Eigenschaften. Vor allem ihre unterschiedliche Wechselwirkung mit dem natürlichen Wasserstoff und seinem schweren Isotop Deuterium ermöglicht tiefe Einblicke in Struktur, Funktion und Dynamik von Proteinen, Nukleinsäuren und Biomembranen. Bei vielen Fragestellungen zur Strukturaufklärung gibt es kaum oder keine Alternative zum Neutron. Das Institut Laue-Langevin trägt Bahnbrechendes zum Erfolg der Neutronen-Methoden in der Biologie bei.

  7. Biologische und materialbedingte Komplikationen in der zahnärztlichen Implantologie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Wismeijer; D. Buser; S. Chen

    2015-01-01

    The ITI Treatment Guide series, a unique compendium of evidence-based treatment methods in implant dentistry in daily practice, written by renowned clinicians, provides a comprehensive overview of various therapeutic options. Using an illustrated step-by-step approach, the ITI Treatment Guide shows

  8. Parameter Estimation of Partial Differential Equation Models

    KAUST Repository

    Xun, Xiaolei

    2013-09-01

    Partial differential equation (PDE) models are commonly used to model complex dynamic systems in applied sciences such as biology and finance. The forms of these PDE models are usually proposed by experts based on their prior knowledge and understanding of the dynamic system. Parameters in PDE models often have interesting scientific interpretations, but their values are often unknown and need to be estimated from the measurements of the dynamic system in the presence of measurement errors. Most PDEs used in practice have no analytic solutions, and can only be solved with numerical methods. Currently, methods for estimating PDE parameters require repeatedly solving PDEs numerically under thousands of candidate parameter values, and thus the computational load is high. In this article, we propose two methods to estimate parameters in PDE models: a parameter cascading method and a Bayesian approach. In both methods, the underlying dynamic process modeled with the PDE model is represented via basis function expansion. For the parameter cascading method, we develop two nested levels of optimization to estimate the PDE parameters. For the Bayesian method, we develop a joint model for data and the PDE and develop a novel hierarchical model allowing us to employ Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques to make posterior inference. Simulation studies show that the Bayesian method and parameter cascading method are comparable, and both outperform other available methods in terms of estimation accuracy. The two methods are demonstrated by estimating parameters in a PDE model from long-range infrared light detection and ranging data. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. © 2013 American Statistical Association.

  9. The Importance of Vocal Parameters Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Ghisa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To analyze communication we need to study the main parameters that describe the vocal sounds from the point of view of information content transfer efficiency. In this paper we analyze the physical quality of the “on air" information transfer, according to the audio streaming parameters and from the particular phonetic nature of the human factor. Applying this statistical analysis we aim to identify and record the correlation level of the acoustical parameters with the vocal ones and the impact which the presence of this cross-correlation can have on communication structures’ improvement.

  10. Cosmological models with linearly varying deceleration parameter

    OpenAIRE

    Akarsu, Özgür; Dereli, Tekin; Oflaz, Neslihan

    2011-01-01

    arXiv:1102.0915v3 [gr-qc] 8 Sep 2011 Cosmological models with linearly varying deceleration parameter ¨O zg¨ur Akarsu Tekin Dereli † Department of Physics, Ko¸c University, 34450 ˙Istanbul/Turkey. Abstract We propose a new law for the deceleration parameter that varies linearly with time and covers Berman’s law where it is constant. Our law not only allows one to generalize many exact solutions that were obtained assuming constant deceleration parameter, but al...

  11. The measurement of mechanical parameters in machines

    CERN Document Server

    Rayevskii, N P

    1965-01-01

    The Measurement of Mechanical Parameters in Machines is a translation from the Russian version and presents methods used in the U.S.S.R. for measuring mechanical properties. This book discusses different indicators and accepted methods of measuring separate parameters. This text also explains the metrological characteristics of mechanical parameters that can be determined by applying the equations of motion, usually represented as equations of kinetic energy or as a Lagrangian equation. The electrical methods of measuring machines and recording results are noted, and the kinds of methods pref

  12. RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF CRANE BRAKE PARAMETERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The high failure rate of crane brake results from improper choice of braking torque. The mathematical model of reliability for the crane brake parameters is introduced. Based on large amount of actual data the parameter reliabilities of 5~50 t general overhead travelling cranes are calculated,the probabilities that the braking torque is less than the static torque acting on the axle when the load moves down are obtained. Moreover,the ways to improve the reliability of brake parameters are discussed,the most reasonable values of braking safety coefficient are given.

  13. Parameter identification of civil engineering structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, J. N.; Sun, C. T.

    1980-01-01

    This paper concerns the development of an identification method required in determining structural parameter variations for systems subjected to an extended exposure to the environment. The concept of structural identifiability of a large scale structural system in the absence of damping is presented. Three criteria are established indicating that a large number of system parameters (the coefficient parameters of the differential equations) can be identified by a few actuators and sensors. An eight-bay-fifteen-story frame structure is used as example. A simple model is employed for analyzing the dynamic response of the frame structure.

  14. Robust Parameter Selection for Parallel Tempering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamze, Firas; Dickson, Neil; Karimi, Kamran

    This paper describes an algorithm for selecting parameter values (e.g. temperature values) at which to measure equilibrium properties with Parallel Tempering Monte Carlo simulation. Simple approaches to choosing parameter values can lead to poor equilibration of the simulation, especially for Ising spin systems that undergo first-order phase transitions. However, starting from an initial set of parameter values, the careful, iterative respacing of these values based on results with the previous set of values greatly improves equilibration. Example spin systems presented here appear in the context of Quantum Monte Carlo.

  15. Parameter Sensitivity in LSMs: An Analysis Using Stochastic Soil Moisture Models and ELDAS Soil Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Teuling, A.J.; R. Uijlenhoet; Hurk, van den, M.; S. I. Seneviratne

    2009-01-01

    Integration of simulated and observed states through data assimilation as well as model evaluation requires a realistic representation of soil moisture in land surface models (LSMs). However, soil moisture in LSMs is sensitive to a range of uncertain input parameters, and intermodel differences in parameter values are often large. Here, the effect of soil parameters on soil moisture and evapotranspiration are investigated by using parameters from three different LSMs participating in the Euro...

  16. Classification of hydrological parameter sensitivity and evaluation of parameter transferability across 431 US MOPEX basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Huiying; Hou, Zhangshuan; Huang, Maoyi; Bao, Jie; Sun, Yu; Tesfa, Teklu; Ruby Leung, L.

    2016-05-01

    The Community Land Model (CLM) represents physical, chemical, and biological processes of the terrestrial ecosystems that interact with climate across a range of spatial and temporal scales. As CLM includes numerous sub-models and associated parameters, the high-dimensional parameter space presents a formidable challenge for quantifying uncertainty and improving Earth system predictions needed to assess environmental changes and risks. This study aims to evaluate the potential of transferring hydrologic model parameters in CLM through sensitivity analyses and classification across watersheds from the Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX) in the United States. The sensitivity of CLM-simulated water and energy fluxes to hydrological parameters across 431 MOPEX basins are first examined using an efficient stochastic sampling-based sensitivity analysis approach. Linear, interaction, and high-order nonlinear impacts are all identified via statistical tests and stepwise backward removal parameter screening. The basins are then classified according to their parameter sensitivity patterns (internal attributes), as well as their hydrologic indices/attributes (external hydrologic factors) separately, using Principal component analysis (PCA) and expectation-maximization (EM) - based clustering approach. Similarities and differences among the parameter sensitivity-based classification system (S-Class), the hydrologic indices-based classification (H-Class), and the Koppen climate classification systems (K-Class) are discussed. Within each parameter sensitivity-based classification system (S-Class) with similar parameter sensitivity characteristics, similar inversion modeling setups can be used for parameter calibration, and the parameters and their contribution or significance to water and energy cycling may also be more transferrable. This classification study provides guidance on identifiable parameters, and on parameterization and inverse model design for CLM but the

  17. Sample Size and Item Parameter Estimation Precision When Utilizing the One-Parameter "Rasch" Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between sample size and item parameter estimation precision when utilizing the one-parameter model. Item parameter estimates are examined relative to "true" values by evaluating the decline in root mean squared deviation (RMSD) and the number of outliers as sample size increases. This occurs across…

  18. ESTIMATION ACCURACY OF EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    muhammad zahid rashid

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The exponential distribution is commonly used to model the behavior of units that have a constant failure rate. The two-parameter exponential distribution provides a simple but nevertheless useful model for the analysis of lifetimes, especially when investigating reliability of technical equipment.This paper is concerned with estimation of parameters of the two parameter (location and scale exponential distribution. We used the least squares method (LSM, relative least squares method (RELS, ridge regression method (RR,  moment estimators (ME, modified moment estimators (MME, maximum likelihood estimators (MLE and modified maximum likelihood estimators (MMLE. We used the mean square error MSE, and total deviation TD, as measurement for the comparison between these methods. We determined the best method for estimation using different values for the parameters and different sample sizes

  19. Level density parameters for Fermi gas model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang Youxiang; Wang Cuilan; Zhou Chunmei; Su Zongdi

    1986-08-01

    Nuclear level densities are crucial ingredient in the statistical models, for instance, in the calculations of the widths, cross sections, emitted particle spectra, etc. for various reaction channels. In this work 667 sets of more reliable and new experimental data are adopted, which include average level spacing D/sub 0/, radiative capture width GAMMA/sup 0//sub ..gamma../ at neutron binding energy and cumulative level number N/sub 0/ at the low excitation energy. They are published during 1973 to 1983. Based on the parameters given by Gilberg--Cameron and Cook the physical quantities mentioned above are calculated. The calculated results have the deviation obviously from experimental values. In order to improve the fitting, the parameters in the G--C formula are adjusted and a new set of level density parameters is obtained. The parameters in this work are more suitable to fit new measurements.

  20. DEB parameters estimation for Mytilus edulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, S.; van der Meer, J.; Kooijman, S. A. L. M.; Sousa, T.

    2011-11-01

    The potential of DEB theory to simulate an organism life-cycle has been demonstrated at numerous occasions. However, its applicability requires parameter estimates that are not easily obtained by direct observations. During the last years various attempts were made to estimate the main DEB parameters for bivalve species. The estimation procedure was by then, however, rather ad-hoc and based on additional assumptions that were not always consistent with the DEB theory principles. A new approach has now been developed - the covariation method - based on simultaneous minimization of the weighted sum of squared deviations between data sets and model predictions in one single procedure. This paper presents the implementation of this method to estimate the DEB parameters for the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, using several data sets from the literature. After comparison with previous trials we conclude that the parameter set obtained by the covariation method leads to a better fit between model and observations, with potentially more consistency and robustness.

  1. Predicting Engine Parameters using the Optical Spectrum

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD) system is under development to predict engine anomalies and engine parameters of the Space Shuttle's Main Engine (SSME)....

  2. LISA parameter estimation using numerical merger waveforms

    CERN Document Server

    Thorpe, J I; Kelly, B J; Fahey, R P; Arnaud, K; Baker, J G

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in numerical relativity provide a detailed description of the waveforms of coalescing massive black hole binaries (MBHBs), expected to be the strongest detectable LISA sources. We present a preliminary study of LISA's sensitivity to MBHB parameters using a hybrid numerical/analytic waveform for equal-mass, non-spinning holes. The Synthetic LISA software package is used to simulate the instrument response and the Fisher information matrix method is used to estimate errors in the parameters. Initial results indicate that inclusion of the merger signal can significantly improve the precision of some parameter estimates. For example, the median parameter errors for an ensemble of systems with total redshifted mass of one million Solar masses at a redshift of one were found to decrease by a factor of slightly more than two for signals with merger as compared to signals truncated at the Schwarzchild ISCO.

  3. LISA parameter estimation using numerical merger waveforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorpe, J I; McWilliams, S T; Kelly, B J; Fahey, R P; Arnaud, K; Baker, J G, E-mail: James.I.Thorpe@nasa.go [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Rd, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2009-05-07

    Recent advances in numerical relativity provide a detailed description of the waveforms of coalescing massive black hole binaries (MBHBs), expected to be the strongest detectable LISA sources. We present a preliminary study of LISA's sensitivity to MBHB parameters using a hybrid numerical/analytic waveform for equal-mass, non-spinning holes. The Synthetic LISA software package is used to simulate the instrument response, and the Fisher information matrix method is used to estimate errors in the parameters. Initial results indicate that inclusion of the merger signal can significantly improve the precision of some parameter estimates. For example, the median parameter errors for an ensemble of systems with total redshifted mass of 10{sup 6} M{sub o-dot} at a redshift of z approx 1 were found to decrease by a factor of slightly more than two for signals with merger as compared to signals truncated at the Schwarzchild ISCO.

  4. Discussion of Muskingum method parameter X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-fang RUI

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The parameter X of the Muskingum method is a physical parameter that reflects the flood peak attenuation and hydrograph shape flattening of a diffusion wave in motion. In this paper, the historic process that hydrologists have undergone to find a physical explanation of this parameter is briefly discussed. Based on the fact that the Muskingum method is the second-order accuracy difference solution to the diffusion wave equation, its numerical stability condition is analyzed, and a conclusion is drawn: X<=0.5 is the uniform condition satisfying the demands for its physical meaning and numerical stability. It is also pointed out that the methods that regard the sum of squares of differences between the calculated and observed discharges or stages as the objective function and the routing coefficients C0 , C1 and C2 of the Muskingum method as the optimization parameters cannot guarantee the physical meaning of X.

  5. Study on Physiological Parameter Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Madan Kshirsagar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Heart disease and stroke are considered among the world’s leading causes of death and disability. The non-invasive technique for physiological parameter monitoring is required to overcome the limitations of the existing systems. As per the study and observations, photoplenthesmography (PPG imaging technology can be used for capturing signals which contains pulsatile information. These signals can gives us many vital parameters such as heart rate, respiration rate, oxygen saturation level, heart rate variability, arterial fibrillation etc. These PPG signals contain noise due to motion artifacts. Motion artifact reduction results in better accuracy of final outcomes. In this paper, different PPG techniques and motion artifact reduction methods which have been used for estimation of some of the cardiovascular parameters are studied. Classification of the PPG data collection methods on the basis of some factors such as source of light, photo detector, skin part used, type of PPG used and extracted parameters etc. is carried out.

  6. Precursor Parameter Identification for IGBT Prognostics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precursor parameters have been identified to enable development of a prognostic approach for insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT). The IGBT were subjected to...

  7. Antenna system for measuring electromagnetic field parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Ilnitskiy, Ludvig Ya.; Shcherbyna, Olga A.

    2014-01-01

    A functional block diagram of the general-purpose antenna system for measuring electromagnetic wave parameters has been presented. Theoretical relationships forming a basis of the antenna system structure are described, and the antenna operation principle is presented.

  8. On Carleman estimates with two large parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We provide a general framework for the analysis and the derivation of Carleman estimates with two large parameters. For an appropriate form of weight functions strong pseudo-convexity conditions are shown to be necessary and sufficient.

  9. LISA parameter estimation using numerical merger waveforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in numerical relativity provide a detailed description of the waveforms of coalescing massive black hole binaries (MBHBs), expected to be the strongest detectable LISA sources. We present a preliminary study of LISA's sensitivity to MBHB parameters using a hybrid numerical/analytic waveform for equal-mass, non-spinning holes. The Synthetic LISA software package is used to simulate the instrument response, and the Fisher information matrix method is used to estimate errors in the parameters. Initial results indicate that inclusion of the merger signal can significantly improve the precision of some parameter estimates. For example, the median parameter errors for an ensemble of systems with total redshifted mass of 106 Mo-dot at a redshift of z ∼ 1 were found to decrease by a factor of slightly more than two for signals with merger as compared to signals truncated at the Schwarzchild ISCO.

  10. Sensor Placement for Modal Parameter Subset Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Bernal, Dionisio; Damkilde, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The present paper proposes an approach for deciding on sensor placements in the context of modal parameter estimation from vibration measurements. The approach is based on placing sensors, of which the amount is determined a priori, such that the minimum Fisher information that the frequency...... responses carry on the selected modal parameter subset is, in some sense, maximized. The approach is validated in the context of a simple 10-DOF mass-spring-damper system by computing the variance of a set of identified modal parameters in a Monte Carlo setting for a set of sensor configurations, whose......). It is shown that the widely used Effective Independence (EI) method, which uses the modal amplitudes as surrogates for the parameters of interest, provides sensor configurations yielding theoretical lower bound variances whose maxima are up to 30 % larger than those obtained by use of the max-min approach....

  11. PARAMETER ESTIMATION IN BREAD BAKING MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiyanto Hadiyanto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bread product quality is highly dependent to the baking process. A model for the development of product quality, which was obtained by using quantitative and qualitative relationships, was calibrated by experiments at a fixed baking temperature of 200°C alone and in combination with 100 W microwave powers. The model parameters were estimated in a stepwise procedure i.e. first, heat and mass transfer related parameters, then the parameters related to product transformations and finally product quality parameters. There was a fair agreement between the calibrated model results and the experimental data. The results showed that the applied simple qualitative relationships for quality performed above expectation. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the microwave input is most meaningful for the internal product properties and not for the surface properties as crispness and color. The model with adjusted parameters was applied in a quality driven food process design procedure to derive a dynamic operation pattern, which was subsequently tested experimentally to calibrate the model. Despite the limited calibration with fixed operation settings, the model predicted well on the behavior under dynamic convective operation and on combined convective and microwave operation. It was expected that the suitability between model and baking system could be improved further by performing calibration experiments at higher temperature and various microwave power levels.  Abstrak  PERKIRAAN PARAMETER DALAM MODEL UNTUK PROSES BAKING ROTI. Kualitas produk roti sangat tergantung pada proses baking yang digunakan. Suatu model yang telah dikembangkan dengan metode kualitatif dan kuantitaif telah dikalibrasi dengan percobaan pada temperatur 200oC dan dengan kombinasi dengan mikrowave pada 100 Watt. Parameter-parameter model diestimasi dengan prosedur bertahap yaitu pertama, parameter pada model perpindahan masa dan panas, parameter pada model transformasi, dan

  12. Biosorption Parameter Estimation with Genetic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Yung-Tse Hung; Eui Yong Kim; Xiao Feng; Khim Hoong Chu

    2011-01-01

    In biosorption research, a fairly broad range of mathematical models are used to correlate discrete data points obtained from batch equilibrium, batch kinetic or fixed bed breakthrough experiments. Most of these models are inherently nonlinear in their parameters. Some of the models have enjoyed widespread use, largely because they can be linearized to allow the estimation of parameters by least-squares linear regression. Selecting a model for data correlation appears to be dictated by the ea...

  13. Topological Order Parameters for Interacting Topological Insulators

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhong; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    We propose a topological order parameter for interacting topological insulators, expressed in terms of the full Green's functions of the interacting system. We show that it is exactly quantized for a time reversal invariant topological insulator, and it can be experimentally measured through the topological magneto-electric effect. This topological order parameter can be applied to both interacting and disordered systems, and used for determining their phase diagrams.

  14. Vehicle parameter identification using population based algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    GÖKDAĞ, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    This work deals with parameter identification of a vehicle using population based algorithms such as Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Artificial Bee Colony Optimization (ABC) and Genetic Algorithm (GA). Full vehicle model with seven degree of freedom (DoF) is employed, and two objective functions based on reference and computed responses are proposed. Solving the optimization problem vehicle mass, moments of inertia and vehicle center of gravity parameters, which are necessary for later app...

  15. Study on Physiological Parameter Detection Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Shruti Madan Kshirsagar; Gyankamal J. Chhajed

    2014-01-01

    Heart disease and stroke are considered among the world’s leading causes of death and disability. The non-invasive technique for physiological parameter monitoring is required to overcome the limitations of the existing systems. As per the study and observations, photoplenthesmography (PPG) imaging technology can be used for capturing signals which contains pulsatile information. These signals can gives us many vital parameters such as heart rate, respiration rate, oxygen saturation level, he...

  16. Pico: Parameters for the Impatient Cosmologist

    OpenAIRE

    Fendt, William A.; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2006-01-01

    We present a fast, accurate, robust and flexible method of accelerating parameter estimation. This algorithm, called Pico, can compute the CMB power spectrum and matter transfer function as well as any computationally expensive likelihoods in a few milliseconds. By removing these bottlenecks from parameter estimation codes, Pico decreases their computational time by 1 or 2 orders of magnitude. Pico has several important properties. First, it is extremely fast and accurate over a large volume ...

  17. Parameter tracking with partial forgetting method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dedecius, Kamil; Nagy, Ivan; Kárný, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 1 (2012), s. 1-12. ISSN 0890-6327 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : regression models * model * parameter estimation * parameter tracking Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.219, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/AS/dedecius-0370448.pdf

  18. Physicochemical parameters of Amazon Melipona honey

    OpenAIRE

    Ligia Bicudo de Almeida-Muradian; Adriana Hitomi Matsuda; Deborah Helena Markowicz Bastos

    2007-01-01

    Stingless bees produce a honey that is different from the Apis honey in terms of composition. There aren't enough data to establish quality control parameters for this product, mainly due to lack of research results. The aim of this work is to evaluate some physicochemical parameters that can be used for the characterization and for the quality control of the Meliponinae honey. Four different samples were collected in the Amazon region of Brazil in 2004 (Melipona compressipes manaoense bee an...

  19. Identifiable parameters for parallel robots kinematic calibration

    OpenAIRE

    Besnard, Sébastian; Khalil, Wisama

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical method for the determination of the identifiable parameters of parallel robots. The special case of Stewart-Gough 6 degrees-offreedom parallel robots is studied for classical and self calibration methods, but this method can be generalized to any kind of parallel robot. The method is based on QR decomposition of the observation matrix of the calibration system. Numerical relations between the identifiable and non identifiable parameters can be obtained.

  20. Retrieval of material parameters for uniaxial metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Papadakis, Georgia T.; Yeh, Pochi; Atwater, Harry A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a general method for retrieving the effective tensorial permittivity of any uniaxially anisotropic metamaterial. By relaxing the usually imposed condition of non-magnetic metal/dielectric metamaterials, we also retrieve the permeability tensor and show that hyperbolic metamaterials exhibit a strong diamagnetic response in the visible regime. We obtain global material parameters, directly measurable with spectroscopic ellipsometry and distinguishable from mere wave parameters, by us...

  1. On asymmetric collisions with large disruption parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collisions between a weak electron bunch and a strong positron bunch are studied within a flat model. Electrons are tracked through the transverse space charge field of the positron bunch, and it is shown that positrons in a storage ring may remain stable after asymmetric collisions with a weak electron bunch in spite of large values of the electron disruption parameter. The plasma oscillations that affect collisions with large disruption parameters may be suppressed by properly matching the electrons. 8 refs., 5 figs

  2. Online identification of linear loudspeakers parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bo Rohde; Rubak, Per

    2007-01-01

    Feed forward nonlinear error correction of loudspeakers can improve sound quality. For creating a realistic feed forward strategy identification of the loudspeaker parameters is needed. The strategy of the compensator is that the nonlinear behaviour of the loudspeakers has relatively small drift...... algorithms. Two different identification techniques (ARMA and FIR) are compared. The stability of the nonlinearities and linear loudspeaker parameters are tested in a measurement series....

  3. Parameters for natural resistance in bovine milk

    OpenAIRE

    Ploegaert, T.C.W.

    2010-01-01

    Parameters for natural resistance in bovine milk Mastitis or udder inflammation is one of the most important health problems of dairy cattle. Resistance against mastitis and many other diseases is partly based on the naturally present disease resistance capacity: innate immunity. This research therefore aimed to identify adequate immune parameters and determine their relation with the susceptibility of the individual animal for mastitis and possibly also other health problems. Natural antibod...

  4. Ophthalmic parameters in adult Shih Tzu dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Kamachi Kobashigawa; Tiago Barbalho Lima; Ivan Ricardo Martinez Padua; Alexandre Augusto Franchi de Barros Sobrinho; Fabio de Andrade Marinho; Kethye Priscila Ortêncio; José Luiz Laus

    2015-01-01

    Ocular surface diseases are often diagnosed in brachycephalic dogs. The ophthalmic parameters of the Shih Tzu dogs are evaluated in this study since this breed is among the most commonly affected by these diseases. In this study, ophthalmic parameters of this breed were partly studied under physical restraint. Schirmer tear test, breakup time test, aesthesiometry, biomicroscopy, non-contact specular microscopy, laser flaremetry, applanation tonometry, ultrasonography and ophthalmoscopy were c...

  5. Measurements of thermal parameters of solar modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, K.; Krac, E.

    2016-04-01

    In the paper the methods of measuring thermal parameters of photovoltaic panels - transient thermal impedance and the absorption factor of light-radiation are presented. The manner of realising these methods is described and the results of measurements of the considered thermal parameters of selected photovoltaic panels are presented. The influence of such selected factors as a type of the investigated panel and its mounting manner on transient thermal impedance of the considered panels is also discussed.

  6. Evaluation of Acoustic parameters of Churches

    OpenAIRE

    Vodopija, Janko; Fajt, Sinisa; Krhen, Miljenko

    2010-01-01

    National audience The purpose of this paper is to give an evaluation of subjective and objective acoustic parameters in two architecturally different churches in Zagreb, Croatia. These churches have completely different architectural parameters due to different style, shape and volume. The influence of high vaulted ceiling in one church is compared to the lower flat ceiling of the other. The influence of large high ceiling lateral aisles and the lateral galleries to both binaural and monau...

  7. Calculation of mixed core safety parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this presentation is the reactor physics explanation of the most important nuclear safety parameters in mixed TRIGA cores as well as their calculation methods and appropriate computer codes. Nuclear core parameters, such as power density peaking factors and temperature reactivity coefficients are considered. The computer codes adapted, tested and widely available for TRIGA nuclear calculations are presented. Thermal-hydraulics aspects of safety analysis are not treated

  8. Spin bath narrowing with adaptive parameter estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Cappellaro, Paola

    2012-01-01

    We present a measurement scheme capable of achieving the quantum limit of parameter estimation using an adaptive strategy that minimizes the parameter's variance at each step. The adaptive rule we propose makes the scheme robust against errors, in particular imperfect readouts, a critical requirement to extend adaptive schemes from quantum optics to solid-state sensors. Thanks to recent advances in single-shot readout capabilities for electronic spins in the solid state (such as Nitrogen Vaca...

  9. Distillation tray structural parameter study: Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, J. Ronald

    1991-01-01

    The purpose here is to identify the structural parameters (plate thickness, liquid level, beam size, number of beams, tray diameter, etc.) that affect the structural integrity of distillation trays in distillation columns. Once the sensitivity of the trays' dynamic response to these parameters has been established, the designer will be able to use this information to prepare more accurate specifications for the construction of new trays. Information is given on both static and dynamic analysis, modal response, and tray failure details.

  10. Matrix parameters and storage conditions of manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinfurtner, Karlheinz [Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (IME), Schmallenberg (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The literature study presents an overview of storage conditions for manure and information about important matrix parameters of manure such as dry matter content, pH value, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen. The presented results show that for matrix parameters a dissimilarity of cattle and pig manure can be observed but no difference within the species for different production types occurred with exception of calves. A scenario for western and central European countries is derived. (orig.)

  11. Parameter Estimation of Noise Corrupted Sinusoids

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Jr., W.,; Johnnie, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Existing algorithms for fitting the parameters of a sinusoid to noisy discrete time observations are not always successful due to initial value sensitivity and other issues. This paper demonstrates the techniques of FIR filtering, Fast Fourier Transform, circular autocorreltion, and nonlinear least squares minimization as useful in the parameter estimation of amplitude, frequency and phase exemplified for a low-frequency time-delayed sinusoid describing simple harmonic motion. Alternative mea...

  12. Processing of resonance parameter covariance files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prudent use of resonance parameter covariance information requires the availability of a means of error propagation from the resonance parameters to the cross sections. This work presents an approach to obtaining these so-called resonance parameter sensitivities. The resonance parameter sensitivity methodology developed herein generally provides accurate results when compared to direct recalculations using existing and wellknown cross-section processing codes. However, it has been shown in several cases that self-shielded cross sections can be very nonlinear functions of the basic parameters. For this reason, caution must be used in any study which assumes that a linear relationship exists between a given self-shielded group cross section and its corresponding basic data parameters. The study also has pointed out the need for more approximate techniques which will allow the required sensitivity information to be obtained in a more cost-effective manner. This paper is a synopsis of major work that was completed nearly ten years ago. However, due to the lack of additional development in the field, it remains essentially the current state-of-the-art

  13. Evaluation of resonance parameters of U-233

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compilation of nuclear data is in progress in Japan, and the second edition of Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL-2) will be published. The evaluation of the resonance parameters of U-233, which will be included in JENDL-2, has been made. The measured values of the resonance parameters after the publication of BNL-325 (second edition) were collected, and searched by using CINDA-78. The data by Blons, Kolar, Ryabov, and Bergen were used for the present evaluation. Complete set of the data was made for each measurement. Fission and capture areas integrated over energy intervals were obtained. The total, fission and capture cross-sections of U-233 were calculated from the various sets of complete resonance parameters, and shown in figures. The calculated values of total, fission and capture cross-sections based on the parameters by Blons were compared with the measured values. Correction of the resonance parameters with poor reproducibility was able to be made with the NDES system by Nakagawa. The final parameters which will be included in JENDL are shown in tables. (Kato, T.)

  14. Aerodynamic Parameter Identification of a Venus Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Robert A.

    An analysis was conducted to identify the parameters of an aerodynamic model for a Venus lander based on experimental free-flight data. The experimental free-flight data were collected in the NASA Langley 20-ft Vertical Spin Tunnel with a 25-percent Froude-scaled model. The experimental data were classified based on the wind tunnel run type: runs where the lander model was unperturbed over the course of the run, and runs were the model was perturbed (principally in pitch, yaw, and roll) by the wind tunnel operator. The perturbations allow for data to be obtained at higher wind angles and rotation rates than those available from the unperturbed data. The model properties and equations of motion were used to determine experimental values for the aerodynamic coefficients. An aerodynamic model was selected using a priori knowledge of axisymmetric blunt entry vehicles. The least squares method was used to estimate the aerodynamic parameters. Three sets of results were obtained from the following data sets: perturbed, unperturbed, and the combination of both. The combined data set was selected for the final set of aerodynamic parameters based on the quality of the results. The identified aerodynamic parameters are consistent with that of the static wind tunnel data. Reconstructions, of experimental data not used in the parameter identification analyses, achieved similar residuals as those with data used to identify the parameters. Simulations of the experimental data, using the identified parameters, indicate that the aerodynamic model used is incapable of replicating the limit cycle oscillations with stochastic peak amplitudes observed during the test.

  15. Blind estimation of compartmental model parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computation of physiologically relevant kinetic parameters from dynamic PET or SPECT imaging requires knowledge of the blood input function. This work is concerned with developing methods to accurately estimate these kinetic parameters blindly; that is, without use of a directly measured blood input function. Instead, only measurements of the output functions - the tissue time-activity curves - are used. The blind estimation method employed here minimizes a set of cross-relation equations, from which the blood term has been factored out, to determine compartmental model parameters. The method was tested with simulated data appropriate for dynamic SPECT cardiac perfusion imaging with 99mTc-teboroxime and for dynamic PET cerebral blood flow imaging with 15O water. The simulations did not model the tomographic process. Noise levels typical of the respective modalities were employed. From three to eight different regions were simulated, each with different time-activity curves. The time-activity curve (24 or 70 time points) for each region was simulated with a compartment model. The simulation used a biexponential blood input function and washin rates between 0.2 and 1.3 min-1 and washout rates between 0.2 and 1.0 min-1. The system of equations was solved numerically and included constraints to bound the range of possible solutions. From the cardiac simulations, washin was determined to within a scale factor of the true washin parameters with less than 6% bias and 12% variability. 99mTc-teboroxime washout results had less than 5% bias, but variability ranged from 14% to 43%. The cerebral blood flow washin parameters were determined with less than 5% bias and 4% variability. The washout parameters were determined with less than 4% bias, but had 15-30% variability. Since washin is often the parameter of most use in clinical studies, the blind estimation approach may eliminate the current necessity of measuring the input function when performing certain dynamic studies

  16. Blind estimation of compartmental model parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bella, E V; Clackdoyle, R; Gullberg, G T

    1999-03-01

    Computation of physiologically relevant kinetic parameters from dynamic PET or SPECT imaging requires knowledge of the blood input function. This work is concerned with developing methods to accurately estimate these kinetic parameters blindly; that is, without use of a directly measured blood input function. Instead, only measurements of the output functions--the tissue time-activity curves--are used. The blind estimation method employed here minimizes a set of cross-relation equations, from which the blood term has been factored out, to determine compartmental model parameters. The method was tested with simulated data appropriate for dynamic SPECT cardiac perfusion imaging with 99mTc-teboroxime and for dynamic PET cerebral blood flow imaging with 15O water. The simulations did not model the tomographic process. Noise levels typical of the respective modalities were employed. From three to eight different regions were simulated, each with different time-activity curves. The time-activity curve (24 or 70 time points) for each region was simulated with a compartment model. The simulation used a biexponential blood input function and washin rates between 0.2 and 1.3 min(-1) and washout rates between 0.2 and 1.0 min(-1). The system of equations was solved numerically and included constraints to bound the range of possible solutions. From the cardiac simulations, washin was determined to within a scale factor of the true washin parameters with less than 6% bias and 12% variability. 99mTc-teboroxime washout results had less than 5% bias, but variability ranged from 14% to 43%. The cerebral blood flow washin parameters were determined with less than 5% bias and 4% variability. The washout parameters were determined with less than 4% bias, but had 15-30% variability. Since washin is often the parameter of most use in clinical studies, the blind estimation approach may eliminate the current necessity of measuring the input function when performing certain dynamic studies

  17. Inhomogeneity-induced variance of cosmological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, A.; Schwarz, D. J.

    2012-02-01

    Context. Modern cosmology relies on the assumption of large-scale isotropy and homogeneity of the Universe. However, locally the Universe is inhomogeneous and anisotropic. This raises the question of how local measurements (at the ~102 Mpc scale) can be used to determine the global cosmological parameters (defined at the ~104 Mpc scale)? Aims: We connect the questions of cosmological backreaction, cosmic averaging and the estimation of cosmological parameters and show how they relate to the problem of cosmic variance. Methods: We used Buchert's averaging formalism and determined a set of locally averaged cosmological parameters in the context of the flat Λ cold dark matter model. We calculated their ensemble means (i.e. their global value) and variances (i.e. their cosmic variance). We applied our results to typical survey geometries and focused on the study of the effects of local fluctuations of the curvature parameter. Results: We show that in the context of standard cosmology at large scales (larger than the homogeneity scale and in the linear regime), the question of cosmological backreaction and averaging can be reformulated as the question of cosmic variance. The cosmic variance is found to be highest in the curvature parameter. We propose to use the observed variance of cosmological parameters to measure the growth factor. Conclusions: Cosmological backreaction and averaging are real effects that have been measured already for a long time, e.g. by the fluctuations of the matter density contrast averaged over spheres of a certain radius. Backreaction and averaging effects from scales in the linear regime, as considered in this work, are shown to be important for the precise measurement of cosmological parameters.

  18. Multi-parameters scanning in HTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Masmoudi, Nabil

    2014-08-05

    Building credible anisotropy models is crucial in imaging. One way to estimate anisotropy parameters is to relate them analytically to traveltime, which is challenging in inhomogeneous media. Using perturbation theory, we develop traveltime approximations for transversely isotropic media with horizontal symmetry axis (HTI) as explicit functions of the anellipticity parameter η and the symmetry axis azimuth ϕ in inhomogeneous background media. Specifically, our expansion assumes an inhomogeneous elliptically anisotropic background medium, which may be obtained from well information and stacking velocity analysis in HTI media. This formulation has advantages on two fronts: on one hand, it alleviates the computational complexity associated with solving the HTI eikonal equation, and on the other hand, it provides a mechanism to scan for the best fitting parameters η and ϕ without the need for repetitive modeling of traveltimes, because the traveltime coefficients of the expansion are independent of the perturbed parameters η and ϕ. The accuracy of our expansion is further enhanced by the use of shanks transform. We show the effectiveness of our scheme with tests on a 3D model and we propose an approach for multi-parameters scanning in TI media.

  19. Statistics of Parameter Estimates: A Concrete Example

    KAUST Repository

    Aguilar, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Most mathematical models include parameters that need to be determined from measurements. The estimated values of these parameters and their uncertainties depend on assumptions made about noise levels, models, or prior knowledge. But what can we say about the validity of such estimates, and the influence of these assumptions? This paper is concerned with methods to address these questions, and for didactic purposes it is written in the context of a concrete nonlinear parameter estimation problem. We will use the results of a physical experiment conducted by Allmaras et al. at Texas A&M University [M. Allmaras et al., SIAM Rev., 55 (2013), pp. 149-167] to illustrate the importance of validation procedures for statistical parameter estimation. We describe statistical methods and data analysis tools to check the choices of likelihood and prior distributions, and provide examples of how to compare Bayesian results with those obtained by non-Bayesian methods based on different types of assumptions. We explain how different statistical methods can be used in complementary ways to improve the understanding of parameter estimates and their uncertainties.

  20. Inhomogeneity-induced variance of cosmological parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegand, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Modern cosmology relies on the assumption of large-scale isotropy and homogeneity of the Universe. However, locally the Universe is inhomogeneous and anisotropic. So, how can local measurements (at the 100 Mpc scale) be used to determine global cosmological parameters (defined at the 10 Gpc scale)? We use Buchert's averaging formalism and determine a set of locally averaged cosmological parameters in the context of the flat Lambda cold dark matter model. We calculate their ensemble means (i.e. their global values) and variances (i.e. their cosmic variances). We apply our results to typical survey geometries and focus on the study of the effects of local fluctuations of the curvature parameter. By this means we show, that in the linear regime cosmological backreaction and averaging can be reformulated as the issue of cosmic variance. The cosmic variance is found largest for the curvature parameter and discuss some of its consequences. We further propose to use the observed variance of cosmological parameters t...

  1. Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis: SPA Convention and Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchliffe, I.; et al.

    2005-05-05

    High-precision analyses of supersymmetry parameters aim atreconstructing the fundamental supersymmetric theory and its breakingmechanism. A well defined theoretical framework is needed whenhigher-order corrections are included. We propose such a scheme,Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis SPA, based on a consistent set ofconventions and input parameters. A repository for computer programs isprovided which connect parameters in different schemes and relate theLagrangian parameters to physical observables at LHC and high energy e+e-linear collider experiments, i.e., masses, mixings, decay widths andproduction cross sections for supersymmetric particles. In addition,programs for calculating high-precision low energy observables, thedensity of cold dark matter (CDM) in the universe as well as the crosssections for CDM search experiments are included. The SPA scheme stillrequires extended efforts on both the theoretical and experimental sidebefore data can be evaluated in the future at the level of the desiredprecision. We take here an initial step of testing the SPA scheme byapplying the techniques involved to a specific supersymmetry referencepoint.

  2. On closure parameter estimation in chaotic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hakkarainen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Many dynamical models, such as numerical weather prediction and climate models, contain so called closure parameters. These parameters usually appear in physical parameterizations of sub-grid scale processes, and they act as "tuning handles" of the models. Currently, the values of these parameters are specified mostly manually, but the increasing complexity of the models calls for more algorithmic ways to perform the tuning. Traditionally, parameters of dynamical systems are estimated by directly comparing the model simulations to observed data using, for instance, a least squares approach. However, if the models are chaotic, the classical approach can be ineffective, since small errors in the initial conditions can lead to large, unpredictable deviations from the observations. In this paper, we study numerical methods available for estimating closure parameters in chaotic models. We discuss three techniques: off-line likelihood calculations using filtering methods, the state augmentation method, and the approach that utilizes summary statistics from long model simulations. The properties of the methods are studied using a modified version of the Lorenz 95 system, where the effect of fast variables are described using a simple parameterization.

  3. Cosmological parameter estimation: impact of CMB aberration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The peculiar motion of an observer with respect to the CMB rest frame induces an apparent deflection of the observed CMB photons, i.e. aberration, and a shift in their frequency, i.e. Doppler effect. Both effects distort the temperature multipoles alm's via a mixing matrix at any l. The common lore when performing a CMB based cosmological parameter estimation is to consider that Doppler affects only the l = 1 multipole, and neglect any other corrections. In this paper we reconsider the validity of this assumption, showing that it is actually not robust when sky cuts are included to model CMB foreground contaminations. Assuming a simple fiducial cosmological model with five parameters, we simulated CMB temperature maps of the sky in a WMAP-like and in a Planck-like experiment and added aberration and Doppler effects to the maps. We then analyzed with a MCMC in a Bayesian framework the maps with and without aberration and Doppler effects in order to assess the ability of reconstructing the parameters of the fiducial model. We find that, depending on the specific realization of the simulated data, the parameters can be biased up to one standard deviation for WMAP and almost two standard deviations for Planck. Therefore we conclude that in general it is not a solid assumption to neglect aberration in a CMB based cosmological parameter estimation

  4. Gezondheid en comfort in 'moderne' kantoorgebouwen (2) Europees project Officair: eerste resultaten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Roda, C.

    2016-01-01

    Het Europese onderzoeksproject Officair maakte gebruik van een onderzoeksprocedure waarmee zoveel mogelijk risicofactoren konden worden bepaald. Dit betrof het bepalen van de eigenschappen van gebouw/werkplek, de fysische, chemische en biologische parameters en bewoner gerelateerde factoren (e.g. de

  5. Delineating Parameter Unidentifiabilities in Complex Models

    CERN Document Server

    Raman, Dhruva V; Papachristodoulou, Antonis

    2016-01-01

    Scientists use mathematical modelling to understand and predict the properties of complex physical systems. In highly parameterised models there often exist relationships between parameters over which model predictions are identical, or nearly so. These are known as structural or practical unidentifiabilities, respectively. They are hard to diagnose and make reliable parameter estimation from data impossible. They furthermore imply the existence of an underlying model simplification. We describe a scalable method for detecting unidentifiabilities, and the functional relations defining them, for generic models. This allows for model simplification, and appreciation of which parameters (or functions thereof) cannot be estimated from data. Our algorithm can identify features such as redundant mechanisms and fast timescale subsystems, as well as the regimes in which such approximations are valid. We base our algorithm on a novel quantification of regional parametric sensitivity: multiscale sloppiness. Traditional...

  6. Setting parameters in the cold chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Rodríguez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Breaks in the cold chain are important economic losses in food and pharmaceutical companies. Many of the failures in the cold chain are due to improper adjustment of equipment parameters such as setting the parameters for theoretical conditions, without a corresponding check in normal operation. The companies that transport refrigeratedproducts must be able to adjust the parameters of the equipment in an easy and quick to adapt their functioning to changing environmental conditions. This article presents the results of a study carried out with a food distribution company. The main objective of the study is to verify the effectiveness of Six Sigma as a methodological toolto adjust the equipment in the cold chain. The second objective is more speciÞ c and is to study the impact of: reducing the volume of storage in the truck, the initial temperature of the storage areain the truck and the frequency of defrost in the transport of refrigerated products.

  7. ILC Extraction Line Simulations with TDR Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Marin, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the impact of the latest ILC beam parameters at the Interaction Point (IP), as specified in the 2013 ILC Technical Design Report (TDR), on beam losses in the extraction line. The previous beam loss evaluation was based on the parameters specified in the 2007 ILC Reference Design Report (RDR). The results of this study are compared to the results obtained in the past for the ``nominal'' and the ``low power'' (low-P) parameter options of the RDR. The initial disrupted beam distribution at IP was generated using Guinea-Pig code, and the beam losses were obtained in tracking simulations using DIMAD. The study is performed for 500 GeV center-of-mass beam energy and the extraction line optics corresponding to the latest final focus optics with L* = 4.5 m, with and without detector solenoid.

  8. On entanglement of light and Stokes parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żukowski, Marek; Laskowski, Wiesław; Wieśniak, Marcin

    2016-08-01

    We present a new approach to Stokes parameters, which enables one to see better non-classical properties of bright quantum light, and of undefined overall photon numbers. The crucial difference is as follows. The standard quantum optical Stokes parameters are averages of differences of intensities of light registered at the two exits of polarization analyzers, and one gets their normalized version by dividing them by the average total intensity. The new ones are averages of the registered normalized Stokes parameters, for the duration of the experiment. That is, we redefine each Stokes observable as the difference of photon number operators at the two exits of a polarizing beam splitter multiplied by the inverse of their sum. The vacuum eigenvalue of the operator is defined a zero. We show that with such an approach one can obtain more sensitive entanglement indicators based on polarization measurements.

  9. Discussion on the parameters of design waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-ying

    2008-01-01

    In order to respond the discredit on the design wave standard and to recommend new consideration on design wave parameters, based on the long-term distribution of statistic characteristics of waves and the short-term probability properties of sea state defined by giving the return period, the calculation of the return period, the height, the period, and the oceanic wave parameters of the design wave and the forecasting methods are discussed in this paper. To provide references for the operation reliability of floating structures in the extreme sea state, the method of determining the design wave parameters is resurveyed. A proposal is recommended that the design wave, which can be either significant wave with 500-year of the return period, or the maximum wave with 1/N of exceeding probability, 100-year of the return period, can be applied in the engineering design practice.

  10. Cosmological parameters from lenses distance ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Cardone, Vincenzo F; Scudellaro, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Strong lensing provides popular techniques to investigate the mass distribution of intermediate redshift galaxies, testing galaxy evolution and formation scenarios. It especially probes the background cosmic expansion, hence constraining cosmological parameters. The measurement of Einstein radii and central velocity dispersions indeed allows to trace the ratio D_s/D_ls between the distance D_s from the observer to the source and the distance D_ls from the lens to the source. We present an improved method to explicitly include the two - component structure in the galaxy lens modeling, in order to analyze the role played by the redshift and the model dependence on a nuisance parameter, F_E, which is usually marginalized in the cosmological applications. We show how to deal with these problems and carry on a Fisher matrix analysis to infer the accuracy on cosmological parameters achieved by this method.

  11. Proline puckering parameters for collagen structure simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collagen is made of triple helices rich in proline residues, and hence is influenced by the conformational motions of prolines. Because the backbone motions of prolines are restricted by the helical structures, the only side chain motion—proline puckering—becomes an influential factor that may affect the stability of collagen structures. In molecular simulations, a proper proline puckering population is desired so to yield valid results of the collagen properties. Here we design the proline puckering parameters in order to yield suitable proline puckering populations as demonstrated in the experimental results. We test these parameters in collagen and the proline dipeptide simulations. Compared with the results of the PDB and the quantum calculations, we propose the proline puckering parameters for the selected collagen model simulations

  12. Determination of kinetic parameters for biomass combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, A; Pizarro, C; García, R; Bueno, J L; Lavín, A G

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work is to provide a wide database of kinetic data for the most common biomass by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG). Due to the characteristic parameters of DTG curves, a two-stage reaction model is proposed and the kinetic parameters obtained from model-based methods with energy activation values for first and second stages in the range 1.75·10(4)-1.55·10(5)J/mol and 1.62·10(4)-2.37·10(5)J/mol, respectively. However, it has been found that Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose model-free methods are not suitable to determine the kinetic parameters of biomass combustion since the assumptions of these two methods were not accomplished in the full range of the combustion process. PMID:27233095

  13. Statistical analysis of earthquake ground motion parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several earthquake ground response parameters that define the strength, duration, and frequency content of the motions are investigated using regression analyses techniques; these techniques incorporate statistical significance testing to establish the terms in the regression equations. The parameters investigated are the peak acceleration, velocity, and displacement; Arias intensity; spectrum intensity; bracketed duration; Trifunac-Brady duration; and response spectral amplitudes. The study provides insight into how these parameters are affected by magnitude, epicentral distance, local site conditions, direction of motion (i.e., whether horizontal or vertical), and earthquake event type. The results are presented in a form so as to facilitate their use in the development of seismic input criteria for nuclear plants and other major structures. They are also compared with results from prior investigations that have been used in the past in the criteria development for such facilities

  14. Aquifer parameter estimation from surface resistivity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwas, Sri; de Lima, Olivar A L

    2003-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the additional use, other than ground water exploration, of surface geoelectrical sounding data for aquifer hydraulic parameter estimation. In a mesoscopic framework, approximated analytical equations are developed separately for saline and for fresh water saturations. A few existing useful aquifer models, both for clean and shaley sandstones, are discussed in terms of their electrical and hydraulic effects, along with the linkage between the two. These equations are derived for insight and physical understanding of the phenomenon. In a macroscopic scale, a general aquifer model is proposed and analytical relations are derived for meaningful estimation, with a higher level of confidence, of hydraulic parameter from electrical parameters. The physical reasons for two different equations at the macroscopic level are explicitly explained to avoid confusion. Numerical examples from existing literature are reproduced to buttress our viewpoint. PMID:12533080

  15. Technical parameters for specifying imagery requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, Paul P.; Dunnette, Sheri J.

    1994-01-01

    Providing visual information acquired from remote events to various operators, researchers, and practitioners has become progressively more important as the application of special skills in alien or hazardous situations increases. To provide an understanding of the technical parameters required to specify imagery, we have identified, defined, and discussed seven salient characteristics of images: spatial resolution, linearity, luminance resolution, spectral discrimination, temporal discrimination, edge definition, and signal-to-noise ratio. We then describe a generalizing imaging system and identified how various parts of the system affect the image data. To emphasize the different applications of imagery, we have constrasted the common television system with the significant parameters of a televisual imaging system for technical applications. Finally, we have established a method by which the required visual information can be specified by describing certain technical parameters which are directly related to the information content of the imagery. This method requires the user to complete a form listing all pertinent data requirements for the imagery.

  16. Parameters of high-temperature superconducting transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, E. P.; Dzhafarov, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Parameters of the high-temperature superconducting (HTSC) transformer with a core-type magnetic circuit and with coaxial and symmetrical interleaved windings made of the first-generation HTSC wire with a localized magnetic field are considered. The parameters of the most widespread core-type transformer with a coaxial HTSC winding are compared with those of a conventional transformer with a copper wire winding. Advantages of the HTSC transformers, such as reduction in the leakage inductive reactance and the HTSC winding's cross section, volume, and mass, as compared with the same parameters of conventional transformers with a copper wire winding are demonstrated. The efficiency of the HTSC transformers has proven to be determined predominantly by the core loss. In order to increase the efficiency of the HTSC transformer, it is proposed to use the amorphous electrical steel as the material of its magnetic circuit.

  17. Perfusion parameters in MRI of pancreas transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Evaluation of the role of perfusion parameters in the detection of circulatory disturbance and chronic rejection in patients after pancreas transplantation. Materials and Methods: 70 examinations of 39 patients after pancreas transplantation were performed. Using a dynamic gadolinium-enhanced Turbo-FLASH-sequence, we evaluated the perfusion parameters in a group of patients with chronic rejection, with circulatory disturbance, and in a control group with normal organ function. Results: There were statistically significant differences of the perfusion parameters in patients with chronic rejection and circulatory disturbance compared to the control group. Conclusion: Dynamic MRI can help detect patients with chronic rejection and circulatory disturbance and should therefore be part of the routine follow-up in patients after pancreas transplantation. (orig.)

  18. Degradation Parameters from Pulse-Chase Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Celine; Chiarugi, Davide; Valleriani, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Pulse-chase experiments are often used to study the degradation of macromolecules such as proteins or mRNA. Considerations for the choice of pulse length include the toxicity of the pulse to the cell and maximization of labeling. In the general case of non-exponential decay, varying the length of the pulse results in decay patterns that look different. Analysis of these patterns without consideration to pulse length would yield incorrect degradation parameters. Here we propose a method that constructively includes pulse length in the analysis of decay patterns and extracts the parameters of the underlying degradation process. We also show how to extract decay parameters reliably from measurements taken during the pulse phase. PMID:27182698

  19. Fault detection using parameter transfer functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reduce the number of alarms in NPP many techniques have been proposed for process monitoring and diagnosis. The object of our investigation is a dynamic process with digital signals. The general parametric model defines the transfer function form and it covers all dynamics characteristics between two monitoring parameters. To determine the proper model coefficients we are using recoursing least square methods. The transfer function coefficients define the correlation between two variables in desired time period. During process monitoring just the relation is observed because the number of coefficients and the structure is predefined with transfer function form. During plant operation the transfer functions for important parameters must be calculated and estimated. The estimated values are input parameters for an analytical algorithm. It determines which part of system causes the transient and recognizes it. The proposed methodology allows a computer to monitor the system behaviour and to find out the most probable cause for abnormal condition. (author). 3 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Spatial homogenization of diffusion theory parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is common practice in the determination of nuclear reactor criticality and power distributions to introduce two stages of homogenization. This paper will be concerned with the second stage in which group diffusion parameters for homogenized fuel rod cells, explicitly represented control rods, poison lumps and structural materials are further homogenized over fuel assemblies. We first extend some work by Kollas and Henry (1976) dealing with the question of whether ''exact'' equivalent homogenized diffusion theory parameters exist. We prove that, if an assembly composed of heterogeneous slabs can be described by group-diffusion theory, it is possible to define group parameters spatially constant over the entire assembly that reproduce exactly the average reaction rates and leakage rates of that assembly

  1. Statistical analysis of earthquake ground motion parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Several earthquake ground response parameters that define the strength, duration, and frequency content of the motions are investigated using regression analyses techniques; these techniques incorporate statistical significance testing to establish the terms in the regression equations. The parameters investigated are the peak acceleration, velocity, and displacement; Arias intensity; spectrum intensity; bracketed duration; Trifunac-Brady duration; and response spectral amplitudes. The study provides insight into how these parameters are affected by magnitude, epicentral distance, local site conditions, direction of motion (i.e., whether horizontal or vertical), and earthquake event type. The results are presented in a form so as to facilitate their use in the development of seismic input criteria for nuclear plants and other major structures. They are also compared with results from prior investigations that have been used in the past in the criteria development for such facilities.

  2. Effect of Burnishing Parameters on Surface Finish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirsat, Uddhav; Ahuja, Basant; Dhuttargaon, Mukund

    2016-06-01

    Burnishing is cold working process in which hard balls are pressed against the surface, resulting in improved surface finish. The surface gets compressed and then plasticized. This is a highly finishing process which is becoming more popular. Surface quality of the product improves its aesthetic appearance. The product made up of aluminum material is subjected to burnishing process during which kerosene is used as a lubricant. In this study factors affecting burnishing process such as burnishing force, speed, feed, work piece diameter and ball diameter are considered as input parameters while surface finish is considered as an output parameter In this study, experiments are designed using 25 factorial design in order to analyze the relationship between input and output parameters. The ANOVA technique and F-test are used for further analysis.

  3. Proline puckering parameters for collagen structure simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Di, E-mail: diwu@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Collagen is made of triple helices rich in proline residues, and hence is influenced by the conformational motions of prolines. Because the backbone motions of prolines are restricted by the helical structures, the only side chain motion—proline puckering—becomes an influential factor that may affect the stability of collagen structures. In molecular simulations, a proper proline puckering population is desired so to yield valid results of the collagen properties. Here we design the proline puckering parameters in order to yield suitable proline puckering populations as demonstrated in the experimental results. We test these parameters in collagen and the proline dipeptide simulations. Compared with the results of the PDB and the quantum calculations, we propose the proline puckering parameters for the selected collagen model simulations.

  4. Structural Parameters of Star Clusters: Stochastic Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Narbutis, D; de Meulenaer, P; Mineikis, T; Vansevičius, V

    2014-01-01

    Stochasticity of bright stars introduces uncertainty and bias into derived structural parameters of star clusters. We have simulated a grid of cluster $V$-band images, observed with Subaru Suprime-Cam with age, mass, and size representing a cluster population in the M31 galaxy and derived their structural parameters by fitting King model to the surface brightness distribution. We have found that clusters less massive than $10^4 M_\\odot$ show significant uncertainty in their core and tidal radii for all ages, while clusters younger than 10 Myr have their sizes systematically underestimated for all masses. This emphasizes the importance of stochastic simulations to asses the true uncertainty of structural parameters in studies of semi-resolved and unresolved clusters.

  5. Density Matrix for Mesoscopic Distributed Parameter Circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Ying-Hua; WANG Qi; LUO Hai-Mei; LEI Min-Sheng

    2005-01-01

    Under the Born-von-Karmann periodic boundary condition, we propose a quantization scheme for nondissipative distributed parameter circuits (i.e. a uniform periodic transmission line). We find the unitary operator for diagonalizing the Hamiltonian of the uniform periodic transmission line. The unitary operator is expressed in a coordinate representation that brings convenience to deriving the density matrix p(q, q',β). The quantum fluctuations of charge and current at a definite temperature have been studied. It is shown that quantum fluctuations of distributed parameter circuits, which also have distributed properties, are related to both the circuit parameters and the positions and the mode of signals and temperature T. The higher the temperature is, the stronger quantum noise the circuit exhibits.

  6. Earth Similarity Index with two free parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, Suresh; Sharma, Mohit K

    2015-01-01

    We have derived Earth Similarity Index (ESI) with two free parameters m and T. These free parameters are optimized with the consideration that the planet Mars is almost similar to the Earth. For the optimized values of free parameters, the interior-ESI, surface-ESI and ESI for some planets are calculated. The results for m = 0.8 and T = 0.8 are compared with the values obtained by Schulze-Makuch {\\it et al.} (2011). We have found that the exoplanet 55 Cnc f is within 10% away from the threshold value T. The exoplanets HD 69830 c, 55 Cnc c, 55 Cnc f, 61 Vir d and HIP 57050 b are found to have ESI within 10% from the threshold value.

  7. Determination of range parameters of observation devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareła, J.; Kastek, M.; Firmanty, K.; Trzaskawka, P.; Dulski, R.; Kucharz, J.

    2012-10-01

    Range parameters of observation devices can be determined on the basis of numerical simulations (NVTherm) or on the basis of measured characteristics. Those measurements can be conducted in both laboratory and field conditions. It is, however, difficult to carry on reliable field measurements of range parameters because they are strongly depended on atmospheric conditions. Thus the laboratory measurements are more favorable option. Analysis of literature and catalogue specifications reveal, that range parameters are given mainly on the basis of Johnson criteria or TTP model. The Johnson criteria has been used since the 50s and most of catalogue range specifications are determined according to it. There are also NATO standards, which describe the measurement procedures and methodology required to define the detection, recognition and identification ranges for standard NATO targets. For the determination of range parameters the following device characteristics must be known: minimal resolvable temperature for thermal imaging devices and minimal resolvable contrast for VIS devices. The TTP model offers a new approach to the determination of range characteristics of observation devices. It has been developed by U.S. Army's Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate since the year 2000. It was created because the modified Johnson criteria did not yield reliable results in case of modern systems with digital image processing. In order to determine the range parameters using TTP model, the modulation transfer function MTF, presample MTF function, and 3D noise of a tested system must be known as well as its basic design data as optical magnification and display type. The paper describes the measurement stand, measurement methodology and the procedure for the determination of range parameters. The results for thermal and VIS cameras are also presented, and they are analyzed and compared with the results obtained from current methods, including the measurement

  8. Thermophysical parameters of chosen granular samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Božiková

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the thermophysical properties of granary mass. It is necessary to know the thermophysical parameters of granular mass to ensure the quality of the technological processes. Granular mass is composed as a complex of specific kinds of grains. It is a non-uniform material with both microscopic and macroscopic structures. Biophysical and physiological processes are realized within grains. Heat transfer cannot be isolated from the solid transfer and from the heat-moisture transfer. It means that specification of granular mass and granular fragments is difficult to determine. We researched the thermophysical properties of granular mass. Thermophysical parameters were measured by the Isomet instrument (made by the Applied Precision Comp.. It is used for quick and exact measurement of thermophysical parameters of various materials. Measurements were performed with a spike probe with the range of thermal conductivity of 0.015-0.2 Wm-1K-1. The spike probe was inserted into the analysed material. Heat was generated by the spike probe used. The time process of temperature which is related to the thermophysical parameters of samples was analysed. The relations of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity to the temperature of chosen samples (wheat, malt barley and colza were measured first. The moisture content of samples during the measurements was constant 6.5%. All the measurements were realized at room temperature. Because moisture content is one of the most important parameters which determine the thermophysical parameters of biological materials, we made a second series of measurements of the relations of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity to the moisture content.

  9. The parameter space investigation method toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Statnikov, Roman

    2011-01-01

    The Parameter Space Investigation (PSI) method was developed to help engineers with a wide range of multicriteria optimization problems, such as design, identification, design of control systems, and operational development of prototypes. This unique resource shows you how to use PSI to construct a feasible solution set without limitations on the number of parameters and criteria. The book presents visualization tools that are used to construct the feasible solution set, conduct multicriteria analysis, and correct the initial problem statement.You explore topics that have not been covered in a

  10. State and parameter estimation in bio processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, M.; Roux, G.; Dahhou, B. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France)]|[Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1994-12-31

    A major difficulty in monitoring and control of bio-processes is the lack of reliable and simple sensors for following the evolution of the main state variables and parameters such as biomass, substrate, product, growth rate, etc... In this article, an adaptive estimation algorithm is proposed to recover the state and parameters in bio-processes. This estimator utilizes the physical process model and the reference model approach. Experimentations concerning estimation of biomass and product concentrations and specific growth rate, during batch, fed-batch and continuous fermentation processes are presented. The results show the performance of this adaptive estimation approach. (authors) 12 refs.

  11. Parameter Estimation of Noise Corrupted Sinusoids

    CERN Document Server

    O'Brien, Francis J; Johnnie, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Existing algorithms for fitting the parameters of a sinusoid to noisy discrete time observations are not always successful due to initial value sensitivity and other issues. This paper demonstrates the techniques of FIR filtering, Fast Fourier Transform, and nonlinear least squares minimization as useful in the parameter estimation of amplitude, frequency and phase exemplified for a low-frequency time-delayed sinusoid describing simple harmonic motion. Alternative means are described for estimating frequency and phase angle. An autocorrelation function for harmonic motion is also derived.

  12. A three-parameter asteroid taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Edward F.; Williams, James G.; Matson, Dennis L.; Veeder, Glenn J.; Gradie, Jonathan C.

    1989-01-01

    Broadband U, V, and x photometry together with IRAS asteroid albedos have been used to construct an asteroid classification system. The system is based on three parameters (U-V and v-x color indices and visual geometric albedo), and it is able to place 96 percent of the present sample of 357 asteroids into 11 taxonomic classes. It is noted that all but one of these classes are analogous to those previously found using other classification schemes. The algorithm is shown to account for the observational uncertainties in each of the classification parameters.

  13. Modelling and parameter estimation of dynamic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Raol, JR; Singh, J

    2004-01-01

    Parameter estimation is the process of using observations from a system to develop mathematical models that adequately represent the system dynamics. The assumed model consists of a finite set of parameters, the values of which are calculated using estimation techniques. Most of the techniques that exist are based on least-square minimization of error between the model response and actual system response. However, with the proliferation of high speed digital computers, elegant and innovative techniques like filter error method, H-infinity and Artificial Neural Networks are finding more and mor

  14. Measuring subdiffusion parameter and subdiffusion coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derive theoretical formulas which allow one to extract the subdiffusion parameter α and subdiffusion coefficient Dα form measured concentration profiles of transported substance in a subdiffusive medium. The parameters occur in the relation defining the subdiffusion 2> = 2Dαtα/[Γ(1+α)] with α 2> denotes the mean-square displacement of a Brownian particle. The analysis is performed separately for the medium, where optical measurements of concentrations are possible (the medium is transparent for a laser beam), as well as for the non-transparent medium. (author)

  15. LQG vertex with finite Immirzi parameter

    OpenAIRE

    Engle, Jonathan; Livine, Etera; Pereira, Roberto; Rovelli, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    We extend the definition of the "flipped" loop-quantum-gravity vertex to the case of a finite Immirzi parameter. We cover the Euclidean as well as the Lorentzian case. We show that the resulting dynamics is defined on a Hilbert space isomorphic to the one of loop quantum gravity, and that the area operator has the same discrete spectrum as in loop quantum gravity. This includes the correct dependence on the Immirzi parameter, and, remarkably, holds in the Lorentzian case as well. The ad hoc f...

  16. Comparison of load parameters for stored materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Andersen, J.; Nielsen, J.

    1997-01-01

    The load parameters listed in the european prestandard and those derived from the material tests conform reasonably well in many cases. There are, however, also many cases where the agreement is not satisfactory, especially due to larger variability of the measured values. This yields cretainly for...... coal, and perhaps also for flour. There are too few parameters determined from triaxial tests and direct K-measurements to judge if these, presumably more accurate tests, gives systematic different results. Where exactly the same material has been used in different apparatus large differences are found...

  17. Order parameter fluctuations in the holographic superconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Plantz, N W M; Vandoren, S

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effect of order parameter fluctuations in the holographic superconductor. In particular, the fully backreacted spectral functions of the order parameter in both the normal and the superconducting phase are computed. We also present a vector-like large-$N$ version of the Ginzburg-Landau model that accurately describes our long-wavelength results in both phases. The large-$N$ limit of the latter model explains why the Higgs mode and the second-sound mode are not present in the spectral functions. Our results indicate that the holographic superconductor describes a relativistic multi-component superfluid in the universal regime of the BEC-BCS crossover.

  18. Discovering independent parameters in complex dynamical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lainscsek, Claudia; Weyhenmeyer, Jonathan; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Letellier, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The transformation of a nonlinear dynamical system into a standard form by using one of its variables and its successive derivatives can be used to identify the relationships that may exist between the parameters of the original system such as the subset of the parameter space over which the dynamics is left invariant. We show how the size of the attractor or the time scale (the pseudo-period) can be varied without affecting the underlying dynamics. This is demonstrated for the Rössler and th...

  19. METHOD ON ESTIMATION OF DRUG'S PENETRATED PARAMETERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇红; 曾衍钧; 许景锋; 张梅

    2004-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) is a new method for drug delivery. The analysis of plenty of experiments in vitro can lead to a suitable mathematical model for the description of the process of the drug's penetration through the skin, together with the important parameters that are related to the characters of the drugs.After the research work of the experiments data,a suitable nonlinear regression model was selected. Using this model, the most important parameter-penetrated coefficient of 20 drugs was computed.In the result one can find, this work supports the theory that the skin can be regarded as singular membrane.

  20. Radioactive logging parameters for common minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmundson, H.; Raymer, L.L.

    1979-09-01

    This paper presents a list of about seventy minerals encountered in sedimentary formations together with their associated radioactive logging parameters. A procedure to calculate the radioactive parameters is given, and exact details are furnished for all logs but the neutron, which requires extensive and complex computation. It is significant that without considering rare elements such as boron, the computed neutron porosities assuming a thermal detecting device are consistently higher in shales, micas and zeolites than with an epithermal detecting device. This confirms our experience in the field. It is hoped that this compilation will serve as a qualititative aid in gauging the effect of most common minerals on the usual radioactive logging devices.

  1. Radioactive logging parameters for common minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a list of about seventy minerals encountered in sedimentary formations together with their associated radioactive logging parameters. A procedure to calculate the radioactive parameters is given, and exact details are furnished for all logs but the neutron, which requires extensive and complex computation. It is significant that without considering rare elements such as boron, the computed neutron porosities assuming a thermal detecting device are consistently higher in shales, micas and zeolites than with an epithermal detecting device. This confirms our experience in the field. It is hoped that this compilation will serve as a qualititative aid in gauging the effect of most common minerals on the usual radioactive logging devices

  2. Parameter estimation of the WMTD model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ji; QIU Hong-bing

    2009-01-01

    The MTD (mixture transition distribution) model based on Weibull distribution (WMTD model) is proposed in this paper, which is aimed at its parameter estimation. An EM algorithm for estimation is given and shown to work well by some simulations. And bootstrap method is used to obtain confidence regions for the parameters. Finally, the results of a real example--predicting stock prices--show that the WMTD model proposed is able to capture the features of the data from thick-tailed distribution better than GMTD (mixture transition distribution) model.

  3. Photon energy absorption parameters for some polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Tejbir; Rajni [Physics Department, M.M. University, Mullana-133 203 Haryana (India); Kaur, Updesh [Physics Department, P.K.R.J.S.S. School, Ambala City, Haryana (India); Singh, Parjit S., E-mail: dr_parjit@hotmail.co [Physics Department, Punjabi University, Patiala-147 002 Punjab (India)

    2010-03-15

    Some photon energy absorption parameters viz. mass energy absorption coefficient (mu/rho){sub en}, photon energy absorption effective atomic number (Z{sub PEA}), electron density (N{sub e}) and KERMA relative to air has been computed in the energy range from 1 keV to 20 MeV for some polymers such as nylon, poly-acrylo-nitrile, poly-methyl-acrylate, poly-vinyl-chloride, poly-styrene, synthetic rubber and poly-tetra-fluro-ethylene. The dependence of different parameters on incident photon energy and chemical composition of the selected polymers has been studied .

  4. Pellet impact drilling operational parameters: experimental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article deals with the study of particle-impact drilling that is designed to enhance the rate-of-penetration function in hard and tough drilling environments. It contains the experimental results on relation between drilling parameters and drilling efficiency, the experiments being conducted by means of a specially designed laboratory model. To interpret the results properly a high-speed camera was used to capture the pellet motion. These results can be used to choose optimal parameters, as well as to develop enhanced design of ejector pellet impact drill bits

  5. Asymmetry in the reconstructed deceleration parameter

    CERN Document Server

    Bernal, Carla; Motta, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    We study the orientation dependence of the reconstructed deceleration parameter as a function of redshift. We use the Union 2 and Loss datasets, by using the well known preferred axis discussed in the literature, finding the best fit reconstructed deceleration parameter. We found that a low redshift transition of the reconstructed $q(z)$ is clearly absent in one direction and amazingly sharp in the opposite one. We discuss the possibility that such a behavior can be associated with large scale structures affecting the data.

  6. Blast wave parameters at diminished ambient pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silnikov, M. V.; Chernyshov, M. V.; Mikhaylin, A. I.

    2015-04-01

    Relation between blast wave parameters resulted from a condensed high explosive (HE) charge detonation and a surrounding gas (air) pressure has been studied. Blast wave pressure and impulse differences at compression and rarefaction phases, which traditionally determine damage explosive effect, has been analyzed. An initial pressure effect on a post-explosion quasi-static component of the blast load has been investigated. The analysis is based on empirical relations between blast parameters and non-dimensional similarity criteria. The results can be directly applied to flying vehicle (aircraft or spacecraft) blast safety analysis.

  7. Tables of nuclear level density parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Renormalized Gas Model (RGM) has been used to calculate single particle level density parameters for more than 2000 nucleides over the range 9<=Z<=126 (15<=A<=338). Three separate tables present the elements on or near the valley of beta stability, neutron-rich fission fragment nucleides, and transitional nuclei, actinides and light-mass super heavy elements. Each table identifies the nucleus in terms of Z and N and presents the RGM deformation energy of binding, the total RGM structural energy correction over the free gas Fermi surface, and the level density parameter

  8. Correlations among Stress Parameters, Meat and Carcass Quality Parameters in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Dokmanovic, Marija; Baltic, Milan Z.; Duric, Jelena; Ivanovic, Jelena; Popovic, Ljuba; Todorovic, Milica; Markovic, Radmila; Pantic, Srdan

    2015-01-01

    Relationships among different stress parameters (lairage time and blood level of lactate and cortisol), meat quality parameters (initial and ultimate pH value, temperature, drip loss, sensory and instrumental colour, marbling) and carcass quality parameters (degree of rigor mortis and skin damages, hot carcass weight, carcass fat thickness, meatiness) were determined in pigs (n = 100) using Pearson correlations. After longer lairage, blood lactate (p

  9. GEODYN- ORBITAL AND GEODETIC PARAMETER ESTIMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putney, B.

    1994-01-01

    The Orbital and Geodetic Parameter Estimation program, GEODYN, possesses the capability to estimate that set of orbital elements, station positions, measurement biases, and a set of force model parameters such that the orbital tracking data from multiple arcs of multiple satellites best fits the entire set of estimation parameters. The estimation problem can be divided into two parts: the orbit prediction problem, and the parameter estimation problem. GEODYN solves these two problems by employing Cowell's method for integrating the orbit and a Bayesian least squares statistical estimation procedure for parameter estimation. GEODYN has found a wide range of applications including determination of definitive orbits, tracking instrumentation calibration, satellite operational predictions, and geodetic parameter estimation, such as the estimations for global networks of tracking stations. The orbit prediction problem may be briefly described as calculating for some later epoch the new conditions of state for the satellite, given a set of initial conditions of state for some epoch, and the disturbing forces affecting the motion of the satellite. The user is required to supply only the initial conditions of state and GEODYN will provide the forcing function and integrate the equations of motion of the satellite. Additionally, GEODYN performs time and coordinate transformations to insure the continuity of operations. Cowell's method of numerical integration is used to solve the satellite equations of motion and the variational partials for force model parameters which are to be adjusted. This method uses predictor-corrector formulas for the equations of motion and corrector formulas only for the variational partials. The parameter estimation problem is divided into three separate parts: 1) instrument measurement modeling and partial derivative computation, 2) data error correction, and 3) statistical estimation of the parameters. Since all of the measurements modeled by

  10. Correlation between Global Parameters of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Yu-Yen; Wang, Wei-Hao; Chen, Pisin

    2010-01-01

    Recently Disney et al. (2008) found a striking correlation among the five basic parameters that govern the galactic dynamics: R50, R90, Lr, Md, and MHI . They suggested that this is in conflict with the LCDM model, which predicts the hierarchical formation of cosmic structures from bottom up. In light of the importance of the issue, we performed a similar analysis on global parameters of galaxies with a significantly larger database and two additional parameters, LJ and RJ, of the near-infrared J band. We used databases from the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-band Feed Array Survey for the atomic gas properties, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey for the optical properties, and the Two Micron All Sky Survey for the near-infrared properties, of the galaxies. We conducted principal component analysis (PCA) to find relations among these observational variables and confirmed that the five parameters in the work of Disney et al. are indeed correlated. The first principal component dominates the correlations among the fiv...

  11. Deriving force field parameters for coordination complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrby, Per-Ola; Brandt, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The process of deriving molecular mechanics force fields for coordination complexes is outlined. Force field basics are introduced with an emphasis on special requirements for metal complexes. The review is then focused on how to set up the initial model, define the target, refine the parameters......, and validate the final force field, Alternatives to force field derivation are discussed briefly....

  12. Models and parameters for environmental radiological assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents a unified compilation of models and parameters appropriate for assessing the impact of radioactive discharges to the environment. Models examined include those developed for the prediction of atmospheric and hydrologic transport and deposition, for terrestrial and aquatic food-chain bioaccumulation, and for internal and external dosimetry. Chapters have been entered separately into the data base

  13. Practice Parameter for Psychodynamic Psychotherapy with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medicus, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This Practice Parameter describes the principles of psychodynamic psychotherapy with children and is based on clinical consensus and available research evidence. It presents guidelines for the practice of child psychodynamic psychotherapy, including indications and contraindications, the setting, verbal and interactive (play) techniques, work with…

  14. A tool for parameter-space explorations

    CERN Document Server

    Murase, Yohsuke; Ito, Nobuyasu

    2014-01-01

    A software for managing simulation jobs and results, named "OACIS", is presented. It controls a large number of simulation jobs executed in various remote servers, keeps these results in an organized way, and manages the analyses on these results. The software has a web browser front end, and users can submit various jobs to appropriate remote hosts from a web browser easily. After these jobs are finished, all the result files are automatically downloaded from the computational hosts and stored in a traceable way together with the logs of the date, host, and elapsed time of the jobs. Some visualization functions are also provided so that users can easily grasp the overview of the results distributed in a high-dimensional parameter space. Thus, OACIS is especially beneficial for the complex simulation models having many parameters for which a lot of parameter searches are required. By using API of OACIS, it is easy to write a code that automates parameter selection depending on the previous simulation results....

  15. Multi-Parameter Scattering Sensor and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Paul S. (Inventor); Fischer, David G. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Methods, detectors and systems detect particles and/or measure particle properties. According to one embodiment, a detector for detecting particles comprises: a sensor for receiving radiation scattered by an ensemble of particles; and a processor for determining a physical parameter for the detector, or an optimal detection angle or a bound for an optimal detection angle, for measuring at least one moment or integrated moment of the ensemble of particles, the physical parameter, or detection angle, or detection angle bound being determined based on one or more of properties (a) and/or (b) and/or (c) and/or (d) or ranges for one or more of properties (a) and/or (b) and/or (c) and/or (d), wherein (a)-(d) are the following: (a) is a wavelength of light incident on the particles, (b) is a count median diameter or other characteristic size parameter of the particle size distribution, (c) is a standard deviation or other characteristic width parameter of the particle size distribution, and (d) is a refractive index of particles.

  16. Experimental determination of modal parameters for rotors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper an experimental method of determining modal parameters (eigenvalues and natural shapes of vibration) of rotor friction bearing systems is described. The method was applied at a simple rotor test stand (Laval shaft). It may possibly be used for larger turborotors, too, if a corresponding opportunity is given for excitation. (orig.)

  17. MIXMAX random number generator. Generalised parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Savvidy, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    We are exploring the parameter space of the MIXMAX random number generator, which is based on Kolmogorov-Anosov C-system defined on a torus. For a two-parameter family of C-system operators A(N,s), parametrised by the integers N and s, we found new larger values of N. One can deduce from this data that the entropy and the period are sharply increasing with N. For all of these parameters, the sequence passes all tests in the BigCrush suite. For the largest of them, N=44851, the period approaches million digits. The generator with N=256 and s=487013230256099064 has the best combination of speed, reasonable size of the state and availability for implementing the parallelisation and is currently the default generator in the ROOT software package at CERN. A three-parameter generator A(N,s,m) of the MIXMX family of generators is also presented, and it provides high quality statistical properties for small values of N.

  18. Michel parameters in radiative muon decay

    CERN Document Server

    Arbuzov, A B

    2016-01-01

    Radiative muon and tau lepton decays are described within the model-independent approach with the help of generalized Michel parameters. The exact dependence on charged lepton masses is taken into account. The results are relevant for modern and future experiments on muon and tau lepton decays.

  19. Estimation of motility parameters from trajectory data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Christian L.; Pedersen, Jonas Nyvold; Mortensen, Kim I.;

    2015-01-01

    Given a theoretical model for a self-propelled particle or micro-organism, how does one optimally determine the parameters of the model from experimental data in the form of a time-lapse recorded trajectory? For very long trajectories, one has very good statistics, and optimality may matter little...... which similar results may be obtained also for self-propelled particles....

  20. Hurst Parameter Estimation Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S..Ledesma-Orozco

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Hurst parameter captures the amount of long-range dependence (LRD in a time series. There are severalmethods to estimate the Hurst parameter, being the most popular: the variance-time plot, the R/S plot, theperiodogram, and Whittle’s estimator. The first three are graphical methods, and the estimation accuracy depends onhow the plot is interpreted and calculated. In contrast, Whittle’s estimator is based on a maximum likelihood techniqueand does not depend on a graph reading; however, it is computationally expensive. A new method to estimate theHurst parameter is proposed. This new method is based on an artificial neural network. Experimental results showthat this method outperforms traditional approaches, and can be used on applications where a fast and accurateestimate of the Hurst parameter is required, i.e., computer network traffic control. Additionally, the Hurst parameterwas computed on series of different length using several methods. The simulation results show that the proposedmethod is at least ten times faster than traditional methods.

  1. Planck 2013 results. XVI. Cosmological parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.;

    2013-01-01

    We present the first results based on Planck measurements of the CMB temperature and lensing-potential power spectra. The Planck spectra at high multipoles are extremely well described by the standard spatially-flat six-parameter LCDM cosmology. In this model Planck data determine the cosmologica...

  2. A variable parameter parametric snake method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marouf, A.; Houacine, A.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new approach to parametric snake method by using variable snake parameters. Adopting fixed parameter values for all points of the snake, as usual, constitutes by itself a limitation that leads to poor performances in terms of convergence and tracking properties. A more adapted choice should be the one that allows selection depending on the image region properties as on the contour shape and position. However, such variability is not an easy task in general and a precise method need to be defined to assure contour point dependent tuning at iterations. We were particularly interested in applying this idea to the recently presented parametric method [1]. In the work mentioned, an attraction term is used to improve the convergence of the standard parametric snake without a significant increase in computational load. We show here, that improved performances can ensue from applying variable parameter concepts. For this purpose, the method is first analyzed and then a procedure is developed to assure an automatic variable parameter tuning. The interest of our approach is illustrated through object segmentation results.

  3. Systematics of local pion optical model parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Sarker, Dipika Rani; Sengupta, H M; Peterson, R J

    2010-01-01

    A simple six-parameter local optical potential has been used to fit the global supply of pion-nucleus elastic scattering data, with good success. The resulting real and imaginary well-depths show a striking resonant structure, derived from the underlying pion-nucleon resonances.

  4. Pointvalue characterizations in multi-parameter algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Hasler, Maximilian F.; Marti, Jean-André

    2010-01-01

    We extend classical results from the Colombeau algebra, concerning point-value characterizations of generalized functions, to the more general case of multi-parameter (C,E,P)–algebras. Our investigations include considerations about different definitions of subspaces related to tempered generalized functions.

  5. Divertor parameters and divertor operation in ASDEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussmann, G.; Ditte, U.; Eckstein, W.; Grave, T.; Keilhacker, M.; McCormick, K.; Murmann, H.; Röhr, H.; Elshaer, M.; Steuer, K.-H.; Szymanski, Z.; Wagner, F.; Becker, G.; Bernhardi, K.; Eberhagen, A.; Gehre, O.; Gernhardt, J.; Gierke, G. V.; Glock, E.; Gruber, O.; Haas, G.; Hesse, M.; Janeschitz, G.; Karger, F.; Kissel, S.; Klüber, O.; Kornherr, M.; Lisitano, G.; Mayer, H. M.; Meisel, D.; Müller, E. R.; Poschenrieder, W.; Ryter, F.; Rapp, H.; Schneider, F.; Siller, G.; Smeulders, P.; Söldner, F.; Speth, E.; Stäbler, A.; Vollmer, O.

    1984-12-01

    Recent measurements of plasma boundary and divertor scrape-off parameters for ohmically and neutral injection heated plasmas are presented. For these data the power flow onto the divertor plates and the sputtering rates at the plates are calculated and compared with separate measurements. The impurity behaviour in front of the plates is also discussed.

  6. Five-Parameter Bivariate Probability Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, J.; Brewer, D.; Smith, O. W.

    1986-01-01

    NASA technical memorandum presents four papers about five-parameter bivariate gamma class of probability distributions. With some overlap of subject matter, papers address different aspects of theories of these distributions and use in forming statistical models of such phenomena as wind gusts. Provides acceptable results for defining constraints in problems designing aircraft and spacecraft to withstand large wind-gust loads.

  7. Practice Parameter for psychodynamic psychotherapy with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernberg, Paulina F; Ritvo, Rachel; Keable, Helene

    2012-05-01

    This Practice Parameter describes the principles of psychodynamic psychotherapy with children and is based on clinical consensus and available research evidence. It presents guidelines for the practice of child psychodynamic psychotherapy, including indications and contraindications, the setting, verbal and interactive (play) techniques, work with the parents, and criteria for termination. PMID:22525961

  8. Distributed Parameter Estimation in Probabilistic Graphical Models

    OpenAIRE

    Mizrahi, Yariv Dror; Denil, Misha; De Freitas, Nando

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents foundational theoretical results on distributed parameter estimation for undirected probabilistic graphical models. It introduces a general condition on composite likelihood decompositions of these models which guarantees the global consistency of distributed estimators, provided the local estimators are consistent.

  9. Educational Parameters Revealed from VLE Logging Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zanden, A. H. W. (Piet); Veen, W. (Wim)

    2007-01-01

    Educational management wants to comprehend the uses of ICT in Education to get a grip on its effects due to the multiple annual investments in the Virtual Learning Environment. In the search to define educational parameters a vast amount of datasets is examined from 289 institutes using Blackboard. The focus is on the three dimensions growth,…

  10. Hypergeometric Functions with Integral Parameter Differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per W.

    1971-01-01

    For a generalized hypergeometric function pFq(z) with positive integral differences between certain numerator and denominator parameters, a formula expressing the pFq(z) as a finite sum of lower-order functions is proved. From this formula, Minton's two summation theorems for p = q + 1, z = 1 are...

  11. PERSONALISED BODY COUNTER CALIBRATION USING ANTHROPOMETRIC PARAMETERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pölz, S; Breustedt, B

    2016-09-01

    Current calibration methods for body counting offer personalisation for lung counting predominantly with respect to ratios of body mass and height. Chest wall thickness is used as an intermediate parameter. This work revises and extends these methods using a series of computational phantoms derived from medical imaging data in combination with radiation transport simulation and statistical analysis. As an example, the method is applied to the calibration of the In Vivo Measurement Laboratory (IVM) at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) comprising four high-purity germanium detectors in two partial body measurement set-ups. The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code and the Extended Cardiac-Torso (XCAT) phantom series have been used. Analysis of the computed sample data consisting of 18 anthropometric parameters and calibration factors generated from 26 photon sources for each of the 30 phantoms reveals the significance of those parameters required for producing an accurate estimate of the calibration function. Body circumferences related to the source location perform best in the example, while parameters related to body mass show comparable but lower performances, and those related to body height and other lengths exhibit low performances. In conclusion, it is possible to give more accurate estimates of calibration factors using this proposed approach including estimates of uncertainties related to interindividual anatomical variation of the target population. PMID:26396263

  12. Selection of informative parameters of vibroacoustic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshek, L. N.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of selecting informative parameters of vibro-acoustic processes and the construction of apparatus for their determination are discussed. It is assumed that the processes being investigated are structurally uniform and either purely random or contain not very many determinative components.

  13. The Complete Set of QT Parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halámek, Josef; Jurák, Pavel; Villa, M.; Novák, M.; Lipoldová, J.; Fráňa, P.; Vondra, Vlastimil; Leinveber, P.; Somers, V.; Kára, J.

    Tel-Aviv : Israel Heart Society, 2008. s. 113. ISBN N. [IDSS 2008 - International Dead Sea Symposium on Cardiac Arrhythmias and Device Therapy /9./. 22.09.2008-24.09.2008, Tel-Aviv] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : QT parameters Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  14. Calculation of the ceramics Weibull parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fuis, Vladimír; Návrat, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 58, - (2011), s. 642-647. ISSN 2010-376X. [International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedicine 2011. Bali, 26.10.2011-28.10.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : biomaterial parameters * Weibull statistics * ceramics Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics http://www.waset.org/journals/waset/v58/v58-132.pdf

  15. Drawing an elephant with four complex parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jürgen; Khairy, Khaled; Howard, Jonathon

    2010-06-01

    We define four complex numbers representing the parameters needed to specify an elephantine shape. The real and imaginary parts of these complex numbers are the coefficients of a Fourier coordinate expansion, a powerful tool for reducing the data required to define shapes.

  16. PHYSICAL PARAMETERS IN CIRCUMNUCLEAR STAR FORMING REGIONS

    OpenAIRE

    G. F. Hägele; Cardaci, M. V.; Díaz, A. I.; Terlevich, E.; Terlevich, R.; Castellanos, M. (Maritza)

    2008-01-01

    This is an electronic version of an article published in Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica. Hägele, G.E. et al. Physical parameters in circumnuclear star forming regions. Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica 33 (2008): 172

  17. Scanning anisotropy parameters in complex media

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2011-03-21

    Parameter estimation in an inhomogeneous anisotropic medium offers many challenges; chief among them is the trade-off between inhomogeneity and anisotropy. It is especially hard to estimate the anisotropy anellipticity parameter η in complex media. Using perturbation theory and Taylor’s series, I have expanded the solutions of the anisotropic eikonal equation for transversely isotropic (TI) media with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) in terms of the independent parameter η from a generally inhomogeneous elliptically anisotropic medium background. This new VTI traveltime solution is based on a set of precomputed perturbations extracted from solving linear partial differential equations. The traveltimes obtained from these equations serve as the coefficients of a Taylor-type expansion of the total traveltime in terms of η. Shanks transform is used to predict the transient behavior of the expansion and improve its accuracy using fewer terms. A homogeneous medium simplification of the expansion provides classical nonhyperbolic moveout descriptions of the traveltime that are more accurate than other recently derived approximations. In addition, this formulation provides a tool to scan for anisotropic parameters in a generally inhomogeneous medium background. A Marmousi test demonstrates the accuracy of this approximation. For a tilted axis of symmetry, the equations are still applicable with a slightly more complicated framework because the vertical velocity and δ are not readily available from the data.

  18. Models and parameters for environmental radiological assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C W [ed.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents a unified compilation of models and parameters appropriate for assessing the impact of radioactive discharges to the environment. Models examined include those developed for the prediction of atmospheric and hydrologic transport and deposition, for terrestrial and aquatic food-chain bioaccumulation, and for internal and external dosimetry. Chapters have been entered separately into the data base. (ACR)

  19. On the measurement of cosmological parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Croft, Rupert A C

    2011-01-01

    We have catalogued and analysed cosmological parameter determinations and their error bars published between the years 1990 and 2010. Our study focuses on the number of measurements, their precision and their accuracy. The accuracy of past measurements is gauged by comparison with the WMAP7 results. The 637 measurements in our study are of 12 different parameters and we place the techniques used to carry them out into 12 different categories. We find that the number of published measurements per year in all 12 cases except for the dark energy equation of state parameter w_0 peaked between 1995 and 2004. Of the individual techniques, only BAO measurements were still rising in popularity at the end of the studied time period. The fractional error associated with most measurements has been declining relatively slowly, with several parameters, such as the amplitude of mass fluctutations sigma_{8} and the Hubble constant H_0 remaining close to the 10% precision level for a 10-15 year period. The accuracy of recent...

  20. Resolved resonance parameters for 236Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multilevel Breit-Wigner parameters were obtained for fission cross-section representation in the 0.01-33 eV energy region from evaluation of a 236Np experimental fission cross-section in the resolved resonance region. (author)

  1. Seamless continental-domain hydrologic model parameter estimations with Multi-Scale Parameter Regionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Naoki; Clark, Martyn; Newman, Andrew; Wood, Andy

    2016-04-01

    Estimation of spatially distributed parameters is one of the biggest challenges in hydrologic modeling over a large spatial domain. This problem arises from methodological challenges such as the transfer of calibrated parameters to ungauged locations. Consequently, many current large scale hydrologic assessments rely on spatially inconsistent parameter fields showing patchwork patterns resulting from individual basin calibration or spatially constant parameters resulting from the adoption of default or a-priori estimates. In this study we apply the Multi-scale Parameter Regionalization (MPR) framework (Samaniego et al., 2010) to generate spatially continuous and optimized parameter fields for the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model over the contiguous United States(CONUS). The MPR method uses transfer functions that relate geophysical attributes (e.g., soil) to model parameters (e.g., parameters that describe the storage and transmission of water) at the native resolution of the geophysical attribute data and then scale to the model spatial resolution with several scaling functions, e.g., arithmetic mean, harmonic mean, and geometric mean. Model parameter adjustments are made by calibrating the parameters of the transfer function rather than the model parameters themselves. In this presentation, we first discuss conceptual challenges in a "model agnostic" continental-domain application of the MPR approach. We describe development of transfer functions for the soil parameters, and discuss challenges associated with extending MPR for VIC to multiple models. Next, we discuss the "computational shortcut" of headwater basin calibration where we estimate the parameters for only 500 headwater basins rather than conducting simulations for every grid box across the entire domain. We first performed individual basin calibration to obtain a benchmark of the maximum achievable performance in each basin, and examined their transferability to the other basins. We then

  2. Data assimilation for kinetic parameters uncertainty analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several years ago, the OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) established the Expert Group on Uncertainty Analysis in Modeling (UAM-LWR) after thorough discussions of the demands from nuclear research, industry, safety and regulation to provide the best estimate predictions of nuclear systems parameters with their confidence bounds. UAM objectives include among others, the quantification of uncertainties of neutronic calculations with respect to their value for the multi-physics analysis. Since the kinetics parameters and their uncertainties are of particular interest for these studies the deterministic approaches for analysis of uncertainties in nuclear reactor kinetic parameters (neutron generation lifetime and delayed neutron effective fraction) have been developed in frame of the UAM-LWR. The approach uses combination of generalization of perturbation theory to reactivity analysis, and the Generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT) for sensitivity computation. It has been applied to the UAM complementary fast neutron SNEAK test case that has unique set of experimental data for βeff. In this example, the covariance matrices of nuclear data have been derived from COMMARA library by Bayesian adjustment upon the set of the fast neutron integral benchmarks with the BERING code package. Then, the kinetic parameters uncertainties with their correlations have been applied to simplified model of a reactivity insertion transient where relative uncertainty of power peak was taken as figure of merit. The results demonstrate that the uncertainties due to nuclear data impact significantly the energy release in a coupled transient modeling. It was also found that such uncertainties become higher if the correlations between uncertainties of different lumped parameters are taken into account. (author)

  3. Mixed integer evolution strategies for parameter optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Emmerich, Michael T M; Eggermont, Jeroen; Bäck, Thomas; Schütz, M; Dijkstra, J; Reiber, J H C

    2013-01-01

    Evolution strategies (ESs) are powerful probabilistic search and optimization algorithms gleaned from biological evolution theory. They have been successfully applied to a wide range of real world applications. The modern ESs are mainly designed for solving continuous parameter optimization problems. Their ability to adapt the parameters of the multivariate normal distribution used for mutation during the optimization run makes them well suited for this domain. In this article we describe and study mixed integer evolution strategies (MIES), which are natural extensions of ES for mixed integer optimization problems. MIES can deal with parameter vectors consisting not only of continuous variables but also with nominal discrete and integer variables. Following the design principles of the canonical evolution strategies, they use specialized mutation operators tailored for the aforementioned mixed parameter classes. For each type of variable, the choice of mutation operators is governed by a natural metric for this variable type, maximal entropy, and symmetry considerations. All distributions used for mutation can be controlled in their shape by means of scaling parameters, allowing self-adaptation to be implemented. After introducing and motivating the conceptual design of the MIES, we study the optimality of the self-adaptation of step sizes and mutation rates on a generalized (weighted) sphere model. Moreover, we prove global convergence of the MIES on a very general class of problems. The remainder of the article is devoted to performance studies on artificial landscapes (barrier functions and mixed integer NK landscapes), and a case study in the optimization of medical image analysis systems. In addition, we show that with proper constraint handling techniques, MIES can also be applied to classical mixed integer nonlinear programming problems. PMID:22122384

  4. Objective parameters for engine noise quality evaluation; Objektive Parameter zur Bewertung der Motorgeraeuschqualitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, Bernhard; Brandl, Stephan [AVL List GmbH, Graz (Austria); Sontacchi, Alois [Univ. fuer Musik und Darstellende Kunst, Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Elektronische Musik und Akustik; Girstmair, Josef [Kompetenzzentrum Das Virtuelle Fahrzeug, Graz (Austria). Gruppe Antriebsstrang Dynamik und Akustik

    2013-06-01

    Due to ongoing downsizing efforts and more stringent emission regulations, relevance of sound quality monitoring during engine and vehicle development is strongly increasing. Therefore AVL developed new sound quality parameters like CKI (Combustion Knocking Index) and HI (Harshness Index). Using these parameters sound quality can be objectively monitored, without subjective evaluations, online throughout the complete development process. (orig.)

  5. Approaches to automatic parameter fitting in a microscopy image segmentation pipeline: An exploratory parameter space analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Held

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Research and diagnosis in medicine and biology often require the assessment of a large amount of microscopy image data. Although on the one hand, digital pathology and new bioimaging technologies find their way into clinical practice and pharmaceutical research, some general methodological issues in automated image analysis are still open. Methods: In this study, we address the problem of fitting the parameters in a microscopy image segmentation pipeline. We propose to fit the parameters of the pipeline′s modules with optimization algorithms, such as, genetic algorithms or coordinate descents, and show how visual exploration of the parameter space can help to identify sub-optimal parameter settings that need to be avoided. Results: This is of significant help in the design of our automatic parameter fitting framework, which enables us to tune the pipeline for large sets of micrographs. Conclusion: The underlying parameter spaces pose a challenge for manual as well as automated parameter optimization, as the parameter spaces can show several local performance maxima. Hence, optimization strategies that are not able to jump out of local performance maxima, like the hill climbing algorithm, often result in a local maximum.

  6. Planck 2013 results. XVI. Cosmological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T. C.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Haissinski, J.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hou, Z.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T. J.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the first cosmological results based on Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and lensing-potential power spectra. We find that the Planck spectra at high multipoles (ℓ ≳ 40) are extremely well described by the standard spatially-flat six-parameter ΛCDM cosmology with a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations. Within the context of this cosmology, the Planck data determine the cosmological parameters to high precision: the angular size of the sound horizon at recombination, the physical densities of baryons and cold dark matter, and the scalar spectral index are estimated to be θ∗ = (1.04147 ± 0.00062) × 10-2, Ωbh2 = 0.02205 ± 0.00028, Ωch2 = 0.1199 ± 0.0027, and ns = 0.9603 ± 0.0073, respectively(note that in this abstract we quote 68% errors on measured parameters and 95% upper limits on other parameters). For this cosmology, we find a low value of the Hubble constant, H0 = (67.3 ± 1.2) km s-1 Mpc-1, and a high value of the matter density parameter, Ωm = 0.315 ± 0.017. These values are in tension with recent direct measurements of H0 and the magnitude-redshift relation for Type Ia supernovae, but are in excellent agreement with geometrical constraints from baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) surveys. Including curvature, we find that the Universe is consistent with spatial flatness to percent level precision using Planck CMB data alone. We use high-resolution CMB data together with Planck to provide greater control on extragalactic foreground components in an investigation of extensions to the six-parameter ΛCDM model. We present selected results from a large grid of cosmological models, using a range of additional astrophysical data sets in addition to Planck and high-resolution CMB data. None of these models are favoured over the standard six-parameter ΛCDM cosmology. The deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity isinsensitive to the addition of tensor modes and to

  7. Acarbose bioequivalence: exploration of new pharmacodynamic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Yang, Jin; Tao, Lei; Li, Lingjun; Ma, Pengcheng; Fawcett, John Paul

    2012-06-01

    To investigate bioequivalence (BE) testing of an acarbose formulation in healthy Chinese volunteers through the use of recommended and innovative pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters. Following the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance, a randomized, cross-over study of acarbose test (T) and reference (R) (Glucobay®) formulations was performed with a 1-week wash-out period. Preliminary pilot studies showed that the appropriate dose of acarbose was 2 × 50 mg, and the required number of subjects was 40. Serum glucose concentrations after sucrose administration (baseline) and co-administration of sucrose/acarbose on the following day were both determined. Three newly defined PD measures of glucose fluctuation (glucose excursion (GE), GE' (glucose excursion without the effect of the homeostatic glucose control), and fAUC (degree of fluctuation of serum glucose based on AUC)), the plateau glucose concentration (C(ss)), and time of maximum reduction in glucose concentration (T (max)) were tested in the evaluation. The adequacy of the two parameters recommended by the FDA, ΔC(SG,max) (maximum reduction in serum glucose concentration) and AUEC((0-4h)) (reduction in the AUC((0-4h)) of glucose between baseline and acarbose formulation) was also evaluated. The T (max) values were comparable, and the 90% confidence intervals of the geometric test/reference ratios (T/R) for ΔC(SG,max), C(ss), GE, and fAUC were all within 80-125%. The parameter GE' was slightly outside the limits, and the parameter AUEC((0-4h)) could not be computed due to the presence of negative values. In acarbose BE evaluation, while the recommended parameter ΔC(SG,max) is valuable, the combination of C(ss) and one of the newly defined glucose fluctuation parameters, GE, GE', and fAUC is preferable than AUEC((0-4h)). The acarbose test formulation can be initially considered to be bioequivalent to Glucobay®. PMID:22419151

  8. Monitor of dynamic parameters in real time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the complex physical systems exist parameters that are necessary for monitoring in real time. In the nuclear industry, particularly in a reactor this surveillance is important, where the times of the reactions are almost instantaneous. Although many of these parameters are monitored, given the advance of the computer systems the monitoring could either be enlarged direct or indirect of other parameters. The analysis of the neutron noise in the nuclear reactors, plays an important role, the noise signal it contains information about the operation conditions of a system, when analyzing it with analysis methodologies of analogical signals to provide important information for the early detection of possible flaws and to indicate the permissible operation levels. To show the characteristics of the operation of the system of Monitoring of Dynamic Parameters in Real Time, oscillations of neutron noise of the TRIGA Mark III of the ININ were analyzed, these were caused with the control bar to a power of 10 Watts, the oscillations were carried out to a frequency of 1Hz, signal of low frequency. In this work a virtual instrument that allows by means of the spectral analysis method in frequency point by point is presented, to indicate in real time periodic variations that could be presented in the neutron noise signal, visualizing in advance the dynamic behavior of the system or nuclear plant. Another of the tests of the monitoring system presented is that of the oscillatory event happened in the reactor of Laguna Verde Nucleo electric Central, would be convenient to have an instrument of surveillance for monitoring through the neutron noise signal the behavior of some important parameter to predict and to indicate in an immediate way an abnormal condition in the reactor operation or in the plant system. These parameters can be the power, the recirculation water flow, etc. The monitor is based on a personal computer (PC), a data acquisition card (ADC) and a computer program

  9. Production of loose insulating materials as material use of industrial remainder wood and small dimensioned wood. Subproject: production of insulating material chips out of industrial planing processes. Final report; Produktion loser Daemmstoffe aus Holzspaenen und -fasern als hoeherwertige stoffliche Nutzung von Industrierestholz und Schwachholz - Lose Daemmstoffe aus Holz. Teilvorhaben: Herstellung von Daemmstoffspaenen aus industriellen Hobelprozessen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heisel, U.; Troeger, J.; Pittner, W.

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of the research project consisted in designing industrial planning processes in such a way, that shavings as the by-product are suitable for being used as thermal insulation. The relevant characteristic tool quantities and machine setting parameters were to be optimised with regard to an increased yield in suitable insulating shavings, with the proviso that the surface qualities achieved up to now had to be kept at least. The stability of volume in the component is an essential prerequisite for using the shavings as insulating material. The effect of the individual cutting parameters on the stability of volume was detected with the help of a simple accelerated method of testing. The essential characteristic quantities of the tool and the material were being varied in the framework of the investigations. Most influencing factors show optimal ranges regarding the surface quality of the planed product and the volume stability of the produced shavings. Basing on the characteristic tool quantities determined in this way, an improved tool was realised and tested. In the course of this, it was possible in turn to detect the optimum of the process setting parameters with regard to the quality of the surface and the shavings. The shaving materials available in the result were examined further in the framework of the group project for characterising the material and determining the characteristics concerning building physics. (orig.)

  10. CosmoSIS: modular cosmological parameter estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Zuntz, Joe; Jennings, Elise; Rudd, Douglas; Manzotti, Alessandro; Dodelson, Scott; Bridle, Sarah; Sehrish, Saba; Kowalkowski, James

    2014-01-01

    Cosmological parameter estimation is entering a new era. Large collaborations need to coordinate high-stakes analyses using multiple methods; furthermore such analyses have grown in complexity due to sophisticated models of cosmology and systematic uncertainties. In this paper we argue that modularity is the key to addressing these challenges: calculations should be broken up into interchangeable modular units with inputs and outputs clearly defined. We present a new framework for cosmological parameter estimation, CosmoSIS, designed to connect together, share, and advance development of inference tools across the community. We describe the modules already available in CosmoSIS, including CAMB, Planck, cosmic shear calculations, and a suite of samplers. We illustrate it using demonstration code that you can run out-of-the-box with the installer available at http://bitbucket.org/joezuntz/cosmosis

  11. Determination of Induction Machine Parameters by Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. E.A. Anazia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 38.1 Watt fractional horse power induction laboratory test motor model was created using MotorSolve 5.2; an electrical machine design application. Initial machine parameters such as voltage, speed, and main dimensions were selected and fed into the application and simulations ran. The simulated results were presented and analyzed. Unlike other induction machine parameter identification process, this method is simple, flexible and accurate since it does not involve rigorous mathematical manual computations and derivations and can be fine tuned to the best quality by adjusting precision accuracy algorithm embedded in the application. The (FE finite element block of the machine design application performs all iteration internally and displays the result graphically as well as in discrete form.

  12. Measurements and correlations between several atmospheric parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolarž Predrag

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal atmospheric air-ion concentrations have been investigated at a site where synchronous aerosol, ozone, temperature and relative humidity measurements were also made. Air-ions, temperature and relative humidity were measured with Gerdien type Cylindrical Detector of Air-Ions (CDI-06 made in the Institute of Physics, Belgrade. Ozone and aerosols were measured with commercial instruments owned by the Institute of Public Health, Belgrade. Typical daily variations of the measured parameters were analyzed and showed that air-ions of both signs and ozone are positively correlated, while aerosols show strong inverse correlation with air-ions. Also, concentrations of air-ions and ozone are decreasing with temperature while aerosol concentration and humidity are increasing. These processes could be explained concerning properties of the specified parameters, measuring place properties and weather conditions.

  13. Lunin-Maldacena deformations with three parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the solution generating symmetries by which Lunin and Maldacena have generated the gravity duals of β-deformations of certain field theories. We identify the O(2,2,R) matrix, which acts on the background matrix E = g+B, where g and B are the metric and the B-field of the undeformed background, respectively. This simplifies the calculations and makes some features of the deformed backgrounds more transparent. We also find a new three-parameter deformation of the Sasaki-Einstein manifolds T1,1 and Yp,q. Following the recent literature on the three-parameter deformation of AdS5 x S5, one would expect that our new solutions should correspond to non-supersymmetric marginal deformations of the relevant dual field theories

  14. Impact parameter profile of synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Artru, X

    2005-01-01

    The horizontal impact parameter profile of synchrotron radiation, for fixed vertical angle of the photon, is calculated. This profile is observed through an astigmatic optical system, horizontally focused on the electron trajectory and vertically focused at infinity. It is the product of the usual angular distribution of synchrotron radiation, which depends on the vertical angle $\\psi$, and the profile function of a caustic staying at distance $\\bcl = (\\gamma^{-2} + \\psi^2) \\RB/2 $ from the orbit circle, $\\RB$ being the bending radius and $\\gamma$ the Lorentz factor. The {\\it classical impact parameter} $\\bcl$ is connected to the Schott term of radiation damping theory. The caustic profile function is an Airy function squared. Its fast oscillations allow a precise determination of the horizontal beam width.

  15. Design parameters for borehole strain instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladwin, Michael T.; Hart, Rhodes

    1985-01-01

    The response of a borehole strain meter to hydrostatic and shear deformations in an isotropic medium is calculated to facilitate optimum instrument design and produce instrument response factors for parameters typically encountered in installed instruments. Results for an empty borehole are first compared with results for an instrument in intimate contact with the surrounding rock. The effects of the grout used to install the instrument are then examined. Where possible, analytic forms for the response factors are given. Results for typical installations are then presented in graphical form for optimizing instrument design in an environment of known elastic parameters. Alternatively, the results may be applied in the measurement of unknown strain signals, to correct for instrument response or to provide in-situ estimates of the elastic properties of the environment by examination of observed strain response to known strain signals.

  16. Superconducting State Parameters of Binary Superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya M. Vora

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A well known pseudopotential is used to investigate the superconducting state parameters viz. electron-phonon coupling strength , Coulomb pseudopotential *, transition temperature ТС, isotope effect exponent  and effective interaction strength N0V for the AgxZn1 – x and AgxAl1 – x binary superconductors theoretically for the first time. We have incorporated here five different types of the local field correction functions to show the effect of exchange and correlation on the aforesaid properties. Very strong influence of the various exchange and correlation functions is concluded from the present study. The comparison with other such experimental values is encouraging, which confirms the applicability of the model potential in explaining the superconducting state parameters of binary mixture.

  17. Hexagonal boron nitride and water interaction parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanbin; Wagner, Lucas K; Aluru, Narayana R

    2016-04-28

    The study of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) in microfluidic and nanofluidic applications at the atomic level requires accurate force field parameters to describe the water-hBN interaction. In this work, we begin with benchmark quality first principles quantum Monte Carlo calculations on the interaction energy between water and hBN, which are used to validate random phase approximation (RPA) calculations. We then proceed with RPA to derive force field parameters, which are used to simulate water contact angle on bulk hBN, attaining a value within the experimental uncertainties. This paper demonstrates that end-to-end multiscale modeling, starting at detailed many-body quantum mechanics and ending with macroscopic properties, with the approximations controlled along the way, is feasible for these systems. PMID:27131542

  18. Hexagonal boron nitride and water interaction parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanbin; Wagner, Lucas K.; Aluru, Narayana R.

    2016-04-01

    The study of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) in microfluidic and nanofluidic applications at the atomic level requires accurate force field parameters to describe the water-hBN interaction. In this work, we begin with benchmark quality first principles quantum Monte Carlo calculations on the interaction energy between water and hBN, which are used to validate random phase approximation (RPA) calculations. We then proceed with RPA to derive force field parameters, which are used to simulate water contact angle on bulk hBN, attaining a value within the experimental uncertainties. This paper demonstrates that end-to-end multiscale modeling, starting at detailed many-body quantum mechanics and ending with macroscopic properties, with the approximations controlled along the way, is feasible for these systems.

  19. The LIPAR-5 resonance parameter library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LIPAR-5 neutron resolved resonance parameter library has been elaborated. It contains data for 94 isotopes. The author's evaluations are included in LIPAR. Other authors' results are also included after re-evaluation. The codes used for the evaluation are described briefly. Tables of results are included for every isotope: the boundaries of the resolved resonance region, the numbers of s- and p-resonances, the thermal neutron partial cross-sections and the resonance integrals. The parameters are presented in ENDF/B-6 format. LIPAR is part of the nuclear data library of the MCU Monte Carlo code for neutron transport calculations. LIPAR was verified by comparing the benchmark experiment and Monte Carlo calculation results. (author). 44 refs, 6 tabs

  20. The mobilisation model and parameter sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the PRObabillistic Safety Assessment (PROSA) of radioactive waste in a salt repository one of the nuclide release scenario's is the subrosion scenario. A new subrosion model SUBRECN has been developed. In this model the combined effect of a depth-dependent subrosion, glass dissolution, and salt rise has been taken into account. The subrosion model SUBRECN and the implementation of this model in the German computer program EMOS4 is presented. A new computer program PANTER is derived from EMOS4. PANTER models releases of radionuclides via subrosion from a disposal site in a salt pillar into the biosphere. For uncertainty and sensitivity analyses the new subrosion model Latin Hypercube Sampling has been used for determine the different values for the uncertain parameters. The influence of the uncertainty in the parameters on the dose calculations has been investigated by the following sensitivity techniques: Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficients, Partial Rank Correlation Coefficients, Standardised Rank Regression Coefficients, and the Smirnov Test. (orig./HP)

  1. Bayesian parameter estimation for effective field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Wesolowski, S; Furnstahl, R J; Phillips, D R; Thapaliya, A

    2015-01-01

    We present procedures based on Bayesian statistics for effective field theory (EFT) parameter estimation from data. The extraction of low-energy constants (LECs) is guided by theoretical expectations that supplement such information in a quantifiable way through the specification of Bayesian priors. A prior for natural-sized LECs reduces the possibility of overfitting, and leads to a consistent accounting of different sources of uncertainty. A set of diagnostic tools are developed that analyze the fit and ensure that the priors do not bias the EFT parameter estimation. The procedures are illustrated using representative model problems and the extraction of LECs for the nucleon mass expansion in SU(2) chiral perturbation theory from synthetic lattice data.

  2. Kaon B parameter with Wilson fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate the kaon B parameter in quenched lattice QCD at β=6.0 using Wilson fermions at κ=0.154 and 0.155. We use two kinds of nonlocal (''smeared'') sources for quark propagators to calculate the matrix elements between states of definite momentum. The use of smeared sources yields results with much smaller errors than obtained in previous calculations with Wilson fermions. By combining results for p=(0,0,0) and p=(0,0,1), we show that one can carry out the noperturbative subtraction necessary to remove the dominant lattice artifacts induced by the chiral-symmetry-breaking term in the Wilson action. Our final results are in good agreement with those obtained using staggered fermions. We also present results for B parameters of the ΔI=3/2 part of the electromagnetic penguin operators, and preliminary results for BK in the presence of two flavors of dynamical quarks

  3. Optimum Operational Parameters for Yawed Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Peters

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A set of systematical optimum operational parameters for wind turbines under various wind directions is derived by using combined momentum-energy and blade-element-energy concepts. The derivations are solved numerically by fixing some parameters at practical values. Then, the interactions between the produced power and the influential factors of it are generated in the figures. It is shown that the maximum power produced is strongly affected by the wind direction, the tip speed, the pitch angle of the rotor, and the drag coefficient, which are specifically indicated by figures. It also turns out that the maximum power can take place at two different optimum tip speeds in some cases. The equations derived herein can also be used in the modeling of tethered wind turbines which can keep aloft and deliver energy.

  4. Analysis of Modeling Parameters on Threaded Screws.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, Miquela S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brake, Matthew Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vangoethem, Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Assembled mechanical systems often contain a large number of bolted connections. These bolted connections (joints) are integral aspects of the load path for structural dynamics, and, consequently, are paramount for calculating a structure's stiffness and energy dissipation prop- erties. However, analysts have not found the optimal method to model appropriately these bolted joints. The complexity of the screw geometry cause issues when generating a mesh of the model. This paper will explore different approaches to model a screw-substrate connec- tion. Model parameters such as mesh continuity, node alignment, wedge angles, and thread to body element size ratios are examined. The results of this study will give analysts a better understanding of the influences of these parameters and will aide in finding the optimal method to model bolted connections.

  5. Bayesian parameter estimation for effective field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, S.; Klco, N.; Furnstahl, R. J.; Phillips, D. R.; Thapaliya, A.

    2016-07-01

    We present procedures based on Bayesian statistics for estimating, from data, the parameters of effective field theories (EFTs). The extraction of low-energy constants (LECs) is guided by theoretical expectations in a quantifiable way through the specification of Bayesian priors. A prior for natural-sized LECs reduces the possibility of overfitting, and leads to a consistent accounting of different sources of uncertainty. A set of diagnostic tools is developed that analyzes the fit and ensures that the priors do not bias the EFT parameter estimation. The procedures are illustrated using representative model problems, including the extraction of LECs for the nucleon-mass expansion in SU(2) chiral perturbation theory from synthetic lattice data.

  6. HL-LHC parameter space and scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HL-LHC project aims at a total integrated luminosity of approximately 3000 fb-1 over the lifetime of the HL-LHC. Assuming an exploitation period of ca. 10 years this goal implies an annual integrated luminosity of approximately 200 fb-1 to 300 fb-1per year. This paper looks at potential beam parameters that are compatible with the HL-LHC performance goals and discusses briefly potential variation in the parameter space. It is shown that the design goal of the HL-LHC project can only be achieved with a full upgrade of the injector complex and the operation with β* values close to 0.15 m. Significant margins for leveling can be achieved for β* values close to 0.15 m. However, these margins can only be harvested during the HL-LHC operation if the required leveling techniques have been demonstrated in operation

  7. Nuclear Matter Bulk Parameter Scales and Correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the arising of correlations among some isovector bulk parameters in nonrelativistic and relativistic hadronic mean-field models. For the former, we investigate correlations in the nonrelativistic (NR) limit of relativistic point-coupling models. We provide analytical correlations, for the NR limit model, between the symmetry energy and its derivatives, namely, the symmetry energy slope, curvature, skewness and fourth order derivative, discussing the conditions in which they are linear ones. We also show that some correlations presented in the NR limit model are reproduced for relativistic models presenting cubic and quartic self-interactions in its scalar field. As a direct application of such linear correlations, we remark its association with possible crossing points in the density dependence of the linearly correlated bulk parameter. (author)

  8. Systematic parameter inference in stochastic mesoscopic modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Lei, Huan; Li, Zhen; Karniadakis, George

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method to efficiently determine the optimal coarse-grained force field in mesoscopic stochastic simulations of Newtonian fluid and polymer melt systems modeled by dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) and energy conserving dissipative particle dynamics (eDPD). The response surfaces of various target properties (viscosity, diffusivity, pressure, etc.) with respect to model parameters are constructed based on the generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) expansion using simulation results on sampling points (e.g., individual parameter sets). To alleviate the computational cost to evaluate the target properties, we employ the compressive sensing method to compute the coefficients of the dominant gPC terms given the prior knowledge that the coefficients are sparse. The proposed method shows comparable accuracy with the standard probabilistic collocation method (PCM) while it imposes a much weaker restriction on the number of the simulation samples especially for systems with high dimensional parametric space....

  9. Circular object recognition based on shape parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Aijun; Li Jinzong; Zhu Bing

    2007-01-01

    To recognize circular objects rapidly in satellite remote sensing imagery, an approach using their geometry properties is presented.The original image is segmented to be a binary one by one dimension maximum entropy threshold algorithm and the binary image is labeled with an algorithm based on recursion technique.Then, shape parameters of all labeled regions are calculated and those regions with shape parameters satisfying certain conditions are recognized as circular objects.The algorithm is described in detail, and comparison experiments with the randomized Hough transformation (RHT) are also provided.The experimental results on synthetic images and real images show that the proposed method has the merits of fast recognition rate, high recognition efficiency and the ability of anti-noise and anti-jamming.In addition, the method performs well when some circular objects are little deformed and partly misshapen.

  10. RTLS entry load relief parameter optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crull, T. J.

    1975-01-01

    The results are presented of a study of a candidate load relief control law for use during the pullup phase of Return-to-Launch-Site (RTLS) abort entries. The control law parameters and cycle time which optimized performance of the normal load factor limiting phase (load relief phase) of an RTLS entry are examined. A set of control law gains, a smoothing parameter, and a normal force coefficient curve fit are established which resulted in good load relief performance considering the possible aerodynamic coefficient uncertainties defined. Also, the examination of various guidance cycle times revealed improved load relief performance with decreasing cycle time. A .5 second cycle provided smooth and adequate load relief in the presence of all the aerodynamic uncertainties examined.

  11. UPSILON' (10.01) resonance parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The resonance parameters of the UPSILON' = (10.01) were measured using the LENA detector at the DORIS e+e- storage ring. We obtained a mass of m(UPSILON') = (10 013.6 +- 1.2 +- 10.0) MeV and an electronic width of GAMMAsub(e)sub(e)(T )=(0.53 +- 0.007+0sup(.)09sub(-)0sub(.)05) keV. The upper limit set to the μ-pair branching ratio is 3.8% which implies a lower limit on the total UPSILON' width of 14 keV. Together with our previous measurement of the UPSILON parameters we obtain a mass difference M(UPSILON') - M(UPSILON) = (552.0 +- 1.3 +- 10.0) MeV and GAMMAsub(e)sub(e)(UPSILON')GAMMAsub(e)sub(e)(UPSILON) = 0.43 840 0.07+0sup(.)050sub(.)00. (orig.)

  12. Habitable Zone Dependence on Stellar Parameter Uncertainties

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    An important property of exoplanetary systems is the extent of the Habitable Zone (HZ), defined as that region where water can exist in a liquid state on the surface of a planet with sufficient atmospheric pressure. Both ground and space-based observations have revealed a plethora of confirmed exoplanets and exoplanetary candidates, most notably from the Kepler mission using the transit detection technique. Many of these detected planets lie within the predicted HZ of their host star. However, as is the case with the derived properties of the planets themselves, the HZ boundaries depend on how well we understand the host star. Here we quantify the uncertainties of HZ boundaries on the parameter uncertainties of the host star. We examine the distribution of stellar parameter uncertainties from confirmed exoplanet hosts and Kepler candidate hosts and translate these into HZ boundary uncertainties. We apply this to several known systems with a HZ planet to determine the uncertainty in their HZ status.

  13. Physics parameters for new W's and Z's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New massive neutral or charged gauge bosons are expected in any extension of the gauge structure of Standard Model. Observation of such new particles by their decays to quark jets will be very difficult in the face of high QCD backgrounds. The leptonic decay modes of such new particles would provide clear observable signatures up to masses around 5 TeV under nominal SSC running conditions. We specify the physics parameters which characterize these channels. 11 refs., 3 figs

  14. Inflationary parameters and primordial perturbation spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Wands, D

    2003-01-01

    I discuss how parameters describing inflation in the very early universe may be related to primordial perturbation spectra. Precision observations of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) such as those provided by the WMAP satellite offer an unprecedented window onto the physics of the very early universe. To theorists exploring speculative models of physics at high energies, the CMB offers us the chance to put our ideas to the test.

  15. AIR LOAD BREAK SWITCH DESIGN PARAMETERS

    OpenAIRE

    Støa-Aanensen, Nina Sasaki

    2015-01-01

    Current interruption is vital in the power system, as this makes it possible to control the use of different loads, change the grid configuration, and minimize damage when faults occur. This thesis presents a study of the different switch design and test circuit parameters involved in medium voltage air load break switching and how they affect the thermal interrupting capability. Mediumvoltage load break switches are common in the distribution grid, and are a cheaper option ...

  16. System parameter identification information criteria and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Badong; Hu, Jinchun; Principe, Jose C

    2013-01-01

    Recently, criterion functions based on information theoretic measures (entropy, mutual information, information divergence) have attracted attention and become an emerging area of study in signal processing and system identification domain. This book presents a systematic framework for system identification and information processing, investigating system identification from an information theory point of view. The book is divided into six chapters, which cover the information needed to understand the theory and application of system parameter identification. The authors' research pr

  17. Dimensionless parameters for lidar performance characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Comerón Tejero, Adolfo; Agishev, Ravil R.

    2014-01-01

    A set of three dimensionless parameters is proposed to characterize lidar systems. Two of them are based on an asymptotic approximation of the output signal-to-noise ratio as a function of the input optical power reaching the photoreceiver when there is no background radiation. Of these, one is defined as the ratio between the input signal power level coming from a reference range in a reference atmosphere (reference power level) and the input power level that would produce a reference output...

  18. Statistical modeling of violin bowing parameter contours

    OpenAIRE

    Maestre G??mez, Esteban

    2009-01-01

    We present a framework for modeling right-hand gestures in bowed-string instrument playing, applied to violin. Nearly non-intrusive sensing techniques allow for accurate acquisition of relevant timbre-related bowing gesture parameter cues. We model the temporal contour of bow transversal velocity, bow pressing force, and bow-bridge distance as sequences of short segments, in particular B??ezier cubic curve segments. Considering different articulations, dynamics, and contexts, a number of n...

  19. Structure parameters in molecular tunneling ionization theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Ping; Li, Wei; Zhao, Song-Feng

    2014-04-01

    We extracted the accurate structure parameters in molecular tunneling ionization theory (so called MO-ADK theory) for 22 selected linear molecules including some inner orbitals. The molecular wave functions with the correct asymptotic behavior are obtained by solving the time-independent Schrödinger equation with B-spline functions and molecular potentials numerically constructed using the modified Leeuwen-Baerends (LBα) model.

  20. Order parameters in smectic liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis explores some of the important mechanisms for switching in smectic liquid crystals. It is mainly concerned with the interaction of the electric field and various order parameters in smectic phases. Distortion of these order parameters and also the layer structures associated with smectics are discussed in depth. Initial work is concentrated on the electroclinic effect of commercially available FLC mixtures, where experimental results suggest the presence of non-uniformity in the molecular director profile. Two possible models are suggested assuming a variation of the order parameter θ through the cell. The first model assumes that the smectic layers remain bookshelf-like, and the second that the layers tilt in a vertical chevron structure when a cone angle is induced electroclinically or otherwise. The latter model is the first 'order parameter' model of an electric field induced vertical chevron. The presence of non-uniformity in the director profile is sensed by a method similar to wavelength extinction spectroscopy. Investigations are undertaken on racemic smectic materials with high dielectric biaxiality. Modelling of such a material reveals a new electroclinic effect which shows a discrete second order phase transition on application of a field. It is suggested that a bistable electroclinic effect stabilised with a high frequency ac field may be realised if a residual polarisation is present in the high biaxiality material, and that this might be useful in the displays industry. Experimental investigations of such a material confirm the above effects close to the smectic A-C transition. Finally a higher order smectic phase, the smectic I* phase, is considered. The distortion of the hexagonal bond orientational order is investigated experimentally during application of an electric field. The first dynamic model of the switching process is presented, showing good agreement with the experimental results. It is suggested that the bond orientational

  1. Order parameter problem in lattice QCD thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The symmetry properties of an effective action of lattice QCD at finite temperature are studied. The findings of analytical investigations in the approximation based on the spherical model of a ferromagnet are employed to argue that the imagianry part of the Polyakov line could be the order parameter of phase transition which does not imply a spontaneous breaking of Z3-symmetry, the center of colour SU(3)-group. 16 refs

  2. One parameter model potential for noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A phenomenological one parameter model potential which includes s-d hybridization and core-core exchange contributions is proposed for noble metals. A number of interesting properties like liquid metal resistivities, band gaps, thermoelectric powers and ion-ion interaction potentials are calculated for Cu, Ag and Au. The results obtained are in better agreement with experiment than the ones predicted by the other model potentials in the literature. (author)

  3. A novel parameter in comet assay measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Kirilova Milena; Ivanov Rumen; Miloshev George

    2005-01-01

    Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE) or Comet assay is a very sensitive method for assessing damages in DNA on a single cell level. It has found many applications in fields where genotoxic activity could be an issue. In environmental monitoring, health care, food industry Comet assay is used with increasing popularity. For verifying the results obtained by this method many parameters could be monitored. To that end several software packages exist. In the conditions that we are suggesting on...

  4. Aqueous Electrolytes: Model Parameters and Process Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj

    This thesis deals with aqueous electrolyte mixtures. The Extended UNIQUAC model is being used to describe the excess Gibbs energy of such solutions. Extended UNIQUAC parameters for the twelve ions Na+, K+, NH4+, H+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, HSO4-, OH-, CO32-, HCO3-, and S2O82- are estimated. A computer ...... program including a steady state process simulator for the design, simulation, and optimization of fractional crystallization processes is presented....

  5. Parameter-Free Extended Edit Distance

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Fuad, Muhammad Marwan

    2014-01-01

    The edit distance is the most famous distance to compute the similarity between two strings of characters. The main drawback of the edit distance is that it is based on local procedures which reflect only a local view of similarity. To remedy this problem we presented in a previous work the extended edit distance, which adds a global view of similarity between two strings. However, the extended edit distance includes a parameter whose computation requires a long training time. In this paper w...

  6. Surface Texture Parameters Application for Nanocoatings

    OpenAIRE

    Bulaha, N; Rudzītis, J

    2013-01-01

    surface roughness is a quality indicator of the surface. Due to the introduction of the new standard ISO 25178-2:2012 nanocoating surface has begun to be explored in volume rather than through the profiles, as it was done previously. In this work surface 3D topography parameters of different coatings on the basis of TiAl were analysed in order to determine the highest quality coatings

  7. Structure parameters in molecular tunneling ionization theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We extracted the accurate structure parameters in molecular tunneling ionization theory (so called MO-ADK theory) for 22 selected linear molecules including some inner orbitals. The molecular wave functions with the correct asymptotic behavior are obtained by solving the time-independent Schrödinger equation with B-spline functions and molecular potentials numerically constructed using the modified Leeuwen-Baerends (LBα) model.

  8. Demographic and transportation parameters in RADTRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the default parameters for each of the three major variable categories -- transportation network, land use, and population -- in the current version of the RADTRAN code. Changes in the variable assumptions associated with the release of RADTRAN 4.0 will then be described as will the options for users to supply locally-available, rather than national-level, default values. Finally, long-term enhancements anticipated for the code will be discussed. 17 refs

  9. DESIGN PARAMETERS OF CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR INDUCER

    OpenAIRE

    KOÇAK, Saim

    1998-01-01

    Design characteristics of centrifugal compressor impellers working with compressible fluids are analyzed, and the design parameters of inducer are defined. The effects of incidence, deviation and deflection angles, relative eddy, rotating stall and Mach number are investigated. The relation between minimum relative Mach number of inducer and flow angle is investigated and it is observed that the minimum Mach number occurs for flow angle values between -680 and -520 . In the design, the effect...

  10. The Age Parameter in Giant EAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capdevielle, J. N.; Cohen, F.; Sanosyan, K.

    The age parameter from the longitudinal development can be used to describe the lateral distribution in giant EAS up to 5 km from the axis, even if the scaling properties of Approximation B in cascade theory fail after 3.5 Moliere radii. A set of analytic descriptions is proposed under the gaussian hypergeometric formalism replacing the Eulerian formalism of the classical NKG distribution, valid for electrons, muons and vertical equivalent muons (v.e.m.).

  11. Identifying crucial parameter correlations maintaining bursting activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Doloc-Mihu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental and computational studies suggest that linearly correlated sets of parameters (intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons allow central pattern-generating networks to produce and maintain their rhythmic activity regardless of changing internal and external conditions. To determine the role of correlated conductances in the robust maintenance of functional bursting activity, we used our existing database of half-center oscillator (HCO model instances of the leech heartbeat CPG. From the database, we identified functional activity groups of burster (isolated neuron and half-center oscillator model instances and realistic subgroups of each that showed burst characteristics (principally period and spike frequency similar to the animal. To find linear correlations among the conductance parameters maintaining functional leech bursting activity, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA to each of these four groups. PCA identified a set of three maximal conductances (leak current, [Formula: see text]Leak; a persistent K current, [Formula: see text]K2; and of a persistent Na+ current, [Formula: see text]P that correlate linearly for the two groups of burster instances but not for the HCO groups. Visualizations of HCO instances in a reduced space suggested that there might be non-linear relationships between these parameters for these instances. Experimental studies have shown that period is a key attribute influenced by modulatory inputs and temperature variations in heart interneurons. Thus, we explored the sensitivity of period to changes in maximal conductances of [Formula: see text]Leak, [Formula: see text]K2, and [Formula: see text]P, and we found that for our realistic bursters the effect of these parameters on period could not be assessed because when varied individually bursting activity was not maintained.

  12. Measurement Data Modeling and Parameter Estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhengming; Yao, Jing; Gu, Defeng

    2011-01-01

    Measurement Data Modeling and Parameter Estimation integrates mathematical theory with engineering practice in the field of measurement data processing. Presenting the first-hand insights and experiences of the authors and their research group, it summarizes cutting-edge research to facilitate the application of mathematical theory in measurement and control engineering, particularly for those interested in aeronautics, astronautics, instrumentation, and economics. Requiring a basic knowledge of linear algebra, computing, and probability and statistics, the book illustrates key lessons with ta

  13. Spektroskopische Bestimmung biophysikalischer Parameter humanen Blutes

    OpenAIRE

    Meinke, Martina

    2010-01-01

    In this work the optical parameters absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient and phase function of blood and its components were investigated, which are useful for optical methods in both diagnostics and therapy. They serve to calculate the dose of light-tissue interaction and permit new optical measuring methods and devices to be developed. So, it was possible to develop new non-invasive blood monitoring procedures of high clinical relevance, including procedures for online determinati...

  14. Quasiparticle spectra via Kolmogorov stochasticity parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study on three-quasiparticle states, we present results of statistical analysis of the one-quasiparticle (1qp) and three-quasiparticle (3qp) excitations by calculating a stochasticity parameter introduced by Kolmogorov. The objective for this statistical study is to test whether there is any change in the fluctuation properties (i.e. any transition from chaotic to integrable domain or vice versa) while going from the 1qp excitations to the 3qp excitations

  15. Analysis of higher power research reactors' parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this monograph was to analyze and compare parameters of different types of research reactors having higher power. This analysis could be used for decision making and choice of a reactor which could possibly replace the existing ageing RA reactor in Vinca. Present experimental and irradiation needs are taken into account together with the existing reactors operated in our country, RB and TRIGA reactor

  16. Normal Parameters Of Skeletally Immature Knees

    OpenAIRE

    Bathen, Mary; Bastrom, Tracey P.; Edmonds, Eric W.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: A child’s knee undergoes significant morphologic changes during development. Age-specific normal parameters have not been previously described. The purpose of this study was to delineate the changes that occur with growth utilizing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: A retrospective review of a radiologic database of MRI knees, ages 4 to 18 years, was undertaken using “normal” diagnosis codes, including: knee pain, plicae, septic arthritis, jumper’s knee, growing pains, ben...

  17. The BRST symmetry and the fictitious parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Nogueira, A A

    2016-01-01

    Our goal in this work is to present the variational method of fictitious parameters and its connection with the BRST symmetry. Firstly we implement the method in QED at zero temperature and then we extend the analysis to GQED at finite temperature. As we will see the core of the study is the general statement in gauge theories at finite temperature, assigned by Tyutin work, that the physics does not depend on the gauge choices, covariant or not, due to BRST symmetry.

  18. Directional spread parameter at intermediate water depth

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Deo, M.C.; Anand, N.M.; AshokKumar, K.

    distribution of wave energies over various wave frequencies and directions. A number of methods are available to estimate directional spectrum from the measurements made by a moored buoy (Longuet-Higgins et al., 1963; Borgman, 1982; Isobe et al., 1984; Kobune.... These signals pertained to the vertical motion and two horizontal translations, viz., north–south and east–west motions of the buoy. Mitsuyasu et al. (1975) showed that maximum spreading parameter corresponding to the peak frequency of wave spectrum can...

  19. Plasma diagnostics discharge parameters and chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Auciello, Orlando

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Diagnostics, Volume 1: Discharge Parameters and Chemistry covers seven chapters on the important diagnostic techniques for plasmas and details their use in particular applications. The book discusses optical diagnostic techniques for low pressure plasmas and plasma processing; plasma diagnostics for electrical discharge light sources; as well as Langmuir probes. The text also describes the mass spectroscopy of plasmas, microwave diagnostics, paramagnetic resonance diagnostics, and diagnostics in thermal plasma processing. Electrical engineers, nuclear engineers, microwave engineers, che

  20. 2-rational Cubic Spline Involving Tension Parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Shrivastava; J Joseph

    2000-08-01

    In the present paper, 1-piecewise rational cubic spline function involving tension parameters is considered which produces a monotonic interpolant to a given monotonic data set. It is observed that under certain conditions the interpolant preserves the convexity property of the data set. The existence and uniqueness of a 2-rational cubic spline interpolant are established. The error analysis of the spline interpolant is also given.

  1. Cell structural parameters of potato tuber tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Zdunek A.; Pawlak K.; Król A.; Gancarz M.; Czachor H.; Konstankiewicz K.

    2002-01-01

    The present study reviews results of research on the quantitative determination of cell structural parameters such as: surface area, perimeter, Ferret's diameters, elongation, compac- tion, for the parenchyma of potato tuber, taking into consideration inner and outer core tissues. Tissue images were obtained for the samples in their natural state without any preparation using an optic confocal microscope. The quantitative analysis of the microscopic image of the cross-sections of the cell's s...

  2. Problems of Q-parameter calculation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlček, Libor; Chlup, Zdeněk; Kozák, Vladislav

    Brno: UFM AV ČR, 2001 - (Dlouhý, I.), s. čl. 9 [Transferability of Fracture Mechanical Characteristics, Final Project Workshop-NATO SfP. Brno (CZ), 05.11.2001-06.11.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS2041001; GA MŠk ME 303 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : Q-parameter * FEM * brittle fracture Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  3. Performance Analysis of Parameter Estimation Using LASSO

    OpenAIRE

    Panahi, Ashkan; Viberg, Mats

    2012-01-01

    The Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) has gained attention in a wide class of continuous parametric estimation problems with promising results. It has been a subject of research for more than a decade. Due to the nature of LASSO, the previous analyses have been non-parametric. This ignores useful information and makes it difficult to compare LASSO to traditional estimators. In particular, the role of the regularization parameter and super-resolution properties of LASSO h...

  4. One-parameter groups and combinatorial physics

    CERN Document Server

    Duchamp, G; Solomon, A I; Horzela, A; Blasiak, P; Duchamp, Gerard; Penson, Karol A.; Solomon, Allan I.; Horzela, Andrej; Blasiak, Pawel

    2004-01-01

    In this communication, we consider the normal ordering of sums of elements of the form (a*^r a a*^s), where a* and a are boson creation and annihilation operators. We discuss the integration of the associated one-parameter groups and their combinatorial by-products. In particular, we show how these groups can be realized as groups of substitutions with prefunctions.

  5. Effects of Mismatched Parameter on Chaotic Synchronization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENGJiang-hua; FANGJin-qing

    2003-01-01

    Chaos-based security communication has become one of the most interesting hot subjects for research of chaotic theory in real world since. In recent years, secure communication via synchronized chaos has been intensely studied. However, in practical application it is difficult to construct two complete identical chaotic systems since there are many reasons to induce parameter mismatch between two systems (response system and drive system).

  6. IMPROVEMENT OF FLUID PIPE LUMPED PARAMETER MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Xiaowu; Wei Jianhua; Qiu Minxiu; Wu Genmao

    2004-01-01

    The traditional lumped parameter model of fluid pipe is introduced and its drawbacks are pointed out.Furthermore, two suggestions are put forward to remove these drawbacks.Firstly, the structure of equivalent circuit is modified, and then the evaluation of equivalent fluid resistance is change to take the frequency-dependent friction into account.Both simulation and experiment prove that this model is precise to characterize the dynamic behaviors of fluid in pipe.

  7. Monitoring environmental parameters in poultry production facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Corkery, Gerard; Ward, Shane; Kenny, Colum; Hemmingway, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Increases in fuel and feed prices are placing a significant burden on the poultry industry in Ireland and worldwide. For producers to meet their financial targets, increased performance and output is a key issue, now more than ever. To optimise performance in broiler production houses, the effect of environmental and air quality parameters on bird performance and energy consumption must be known to allow farmers make informed management decisions. This paper concentrates on ...

  8. Investigation of Design Parameters in Ultrasound Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Jordens, Jeroen; Degrève, Jan; Braeken, Leen; Van Gerven, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The cavitational activity of a tubular sonoreactor was simulated and related to the chemical reaction rate in order to study the effect of different design parameters. The conversion was improved with a factor 10 by optimization of the reactor diameter. Further improvement of the conversion with 20% was achieved by shifting the transducers apart. When the reactor diameter is in the millimeter scale, stainless steel and borosilicate glass walls very well resemble sound-hard walls. The impact o...

  9. Characteristic parameters of drift chambers calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present here the methods we used to analyse the characteristic parameters of drift chambers. The algorithms to calculate the electric potential in any point for any drift chamber geometry are presented. We include the description of the programs used to calculate the electric field, the drift paths, the drift velocity and the drift time. The results and the errors are discussed. (Author) 7 refs

  10. Measurement of optical parameters of aerogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work is devoted to the measurement of optical parameters of aerogel which can be used as Cherenkov light radiator. The refractive index, the light scattering and absorption lengths, the variation of the refractive index inside an aerogel block were measured for the aerogel produced conjointly by the Institute of Catalysis and Institute of Nuclear Physics (Novosibirsk). Atomic and nuclear properties of the aerogel are presented

  11. Surveillance of industrial processes with correlated parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrew M.; Gross, Kenny C.; Kubic, William L.; Wigeland, Roald A.

    1996-01-01

    A system and method for surveillance of an industrial process. The system and method includes a plurality of sensors monitoring industrial process parameters, devices to convert the sensed data to computer compatible information and a computer which executes computer software directed to analyzing the sensor data to discern statistically reliable alarm conditions. The computer software is executed to remove serial correlation information and then calculate Mahalanobis distribution data to carry out a probability ratio test to determine alarm conditions.

  12. Optimization of parameters of heat exchangers vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei MELEKHIN; Aleksandr MELEKHIN

    2014-01-01

    The relevance of the topic due to the decision of problems of the economy of resources in heating systems of vehicles. To solve this problem we have developed an integrated method of research, which allows to solve tasks on optimization of parameters of heat exchangers vehicles. This method decides multicriteria optimization problem with the program nonlinear optimization on the basis of software with the introduction of an array of temperatures obtained using thermography. The authors have d...

  13. Online Parameter Tuning for Object Tracking Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, Duc Phu; Thonnat, Monique; Bremond, François; Corvee, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    International audience Object tracking quality usually depends on video scene conditions (e.g. illumination, density of objects, object occlusion level). In order to overcome this limitation, this article presents a new control approach to adapt the object tracking process to the scene condition variations. More precisely, this approach learns how to tune the tracker parameters to cope with the tracking context variations. The tracking context, or context, of a video sequence is defined as...

  14. Core Dominance Parameter for -Ray Loud Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. H. Li; J. H. Fan; D. X. Wu

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we compiled 572 blazars that have known core dominance parameter (log ), out of which 121 blazars are -ray loud blazars. We compared log between 121 blazars and the rest with non -ray detections, and found that -ray loud blazars showed a different distribution, and their average value of log is greater than that for non -ray blazars. Our analysis suggests that the -ray emissions are strongly beamed.

  15. Indirect determination of single scattering albedo and complex refractive index of atmospheric aerosol from combined spectral sun- and sky-radiance- as well spectral radiation flux-measurements and determination of radiative forcing. Final report; Indirekte Bestimmung der Single Scattering Albedo und des komplexen Brechungsindex des atmosphaerischen Aerosols aus kombinierten spektralen Sonnen- und Himmelsstrahlungs- sowie spektralen Strahlungsflussmessungen und Ermittlung des Strahlungsantriebs. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyningen-Huene, W. von; Burrows, J.P.; Schmidt, T.; Freitag, M.; Waltersdorf, M.; Roth, S.

    2001-07-01

    The insufficient knowledge of radiation parameters of the atmospheric aerosol yields a highly insufficient evaluation of the aerosol impact in different tasks. Climate research (determination of radiative forcing by aerosols), environmental control and monitoring (determination of aerosol impact), satellite remote sensing (atmospheric correction) and aerosol research (radiative properties) require the exact knowledge and complete data sets of optical aerosol parameters. During the closure experiment LACE-98 the main radiative aerosol parameters have been derived experimentally by closure of different atmospheric radiation measurements: spectral aerosol optical thickness, phase function and single scattering albedo. The use of spectral down-welling flux measurements enables the determination of spectral single scattering albedo. Radiative transfer calculations with these parameters have been used for the determination of the top-of-atmosphere radiance to be compared with satellite data (SeaWiFS). Resulting from these comparisons a dynamical surface reflectance model for land surfaces has been derived used in a retrieval procedure for the determination of the aerosol optical thickness from top-of-atmosphere reflectance from multi-spectral satellite data, applicable over land surface. The optical aerosol parameters, the retrieval procedure developed and the obtained regional distribution of the aerosol optical thickness over Germany are presented. (orig.) [German] Die unzureichende Kenntnis von strahlungsrelevanten Aerosolparametern fuehrt zu hohen Unsicherheiten bei der Bewertung des Aerosoleinflusses in verschiedenen Aufgabenbereichen. Klimaforschung (Bestimmung des Strahlungsantriebs durch Aerosole), Umweltkontrolle und Ueberwachung (Bestimmung des Aerosolimpakts), Fernerkundung (Atmosphaerenkorrektur) und Aerosolforschung (Strahlungseigenschaften) benoetigten exakte Kenntnis und komplette Saetze von optischen Aerosolparametern. Durch Schliessung verschiedener

  16. Entropy parameters for desiccant wheel design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work a thermodynamic analysis of a desiccant wheel is proposed to investigate and identify the optimum size and operating regime of this device. A steady state entropy generation expression, based on effectiveness parameters suitable for desiccant wheels operability, is obtained applying a control volume approach and assuming perfect gas behaviour of the binary air–vapour mixture. A new entropy generation number NL is defined using a minimum indicative value of the entropy generation SL,min and investigated in order to obtain useful criteria for desiccant wheels optimization. The effectiveness-NTU design method is employed by combining solution of thermal exchange efficiency for rotary heat exchanger with the characteristic potential method, under the conditions of heat and mass transfer analogy. The analysis is applied to a specific desiccant wheel and NL variation with NTU is explored under various operative conditions and wheels characteristics in terms of dimensionless velocity and flow unbalance ratio. - Highlights: • Steady state entropy generation based on effectiveness parameters for heat and mass transfer. • Definition of a new entropy generation number NL for desiccant wheel. • Least irreversible features for a defined dehumidification rate of the desiccant wheel. • NL can be used as an optimization parameter for desiccant wheels design and control

  17. Planck 2013 results. XVI. Cosmological parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T.C.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Haissinski, J.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hou, Z.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T.J.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first results based on Planck measurements of the CMB temperature and lensing-potential power spectra. The Planck spectra at high multipoles are extremely well described by the standard spatially-flat six-parameter LCDM cosmology. In this model Planck data determine the cosmological parameters to high precision. We find a low value of the Hubble constant, H0=67.3+/-1.2 km/s/Mpc and a high value of the matter density parameter, Omega_m=0.315+/-0.017 (+/-1 sigma errors) in excellent agreement with constraints from baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) surveys. Including curvature, we find that the Universe is consistent with spatial flatness to percent-level precision using Planck CMB data alone. We present results from an analysis of extensions to the standard cosmology, using astrophysical data sets in addition to Planck and high-resolution CMB data. None of these models are favoured significantly over standard LCDM. The deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity is insensitive to the additi...

  18. Dynamical topological order parameters far from equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budich, Jan Carl; Heyl, Markus

    2016-02-01

    We introduce a topological quantum number—coined dynamical topological order parameter (DTOP)—that is dynamically defined in the real-time evolution of a quantum many-body system and represented by a momentum space winding number of the Pancharatnam geometric phase. Our construction goes conceptually beyond the standard notion of topological invariants characterizing the wave function of a system, which are constants of motion under coherent time evolution. In particular, we show that the DTOP can change its integer value at discrete times where so called dynamical quantum phase transitions occur, thus serving as a dynamical analog of an order parameter. Interestingly, studying quantum quenches in one-dimensional two-banded Bogoliubov-de Gennes models, we find that the DTOP is capable of resolving if the topology of the system Hamiltonian has changed over the quench. Furthermore, we investigate the relation of the DTOP to the dynamics of the string order parameter that characterizes the topology of such systems in thermal equilibrium.

  19. Shape parameters of Galactic open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Kharchenko, N V; Petrov, M I; Piskunov, A E; Röser, S; Schilbach, E; Scholz, R -D

    2008-01-01

    (abridged) In this paper we derive observed and modelled shape parameters (apparent ellipticity and orientation of the ellipse) of 650 Galactic open clusters identified in the ASCC-2.5 catalogue. We provide the observed shape parameters of Galactic open clusters, computed with the help of a multi-component analysis. For the vast majority of clusters these parameters are determined for the first time. High resolution ("star by star") N-body simulations are carried out with the specially developed $\\phi$GRAPE code providing models of clusters of different initial masses, Galactocentric distances and rotation velocities. The comparison of models and observations of about 150 clusters reveals ellipticities of observed clusters which are too low (0.2 vs. 0.3), and offers the basis to find the main reason for this discrepancy. The models predict that after $\\approx 50$ Myr clusters reach an oblate shape with an axes ratio of $1.65:1.35:1$, and with the major axis tilted by an angle of $q_{XY} \\approx 30^\\circ$ with...

  20. Physicochemical parameters of Amazon Melipona honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Bicudo de Almeida-Muradian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Stingless bees produce a honey that is different from the Apis honey in terms of composition. There aren't enough data to establish quality control parameters for this product, mainly due to lack of research results. The aim of this work is to evaluate some physicochemical parameters that can be used for the characterization and for the quality control of the Meliponinae honey. Four different samples were collected in the Amazon region of Brazil in 2004 (Melipona compressipes manaoense bee and Melipona seminigra merribae bee. Honey analyses were performed as described by the official methods. The mean results were: moisture (30.13%, pH (3.65, acidity (24.57 mEq/kg, water activity (0.75, fructose (31.91%, glucose (29.30% and sucrose (0.19%. These results reinforce the need for a specific regulation for stingless bee honey. This will only be feasible when enough data is available to establish upper and lower limits for the physicochemical parameters used for quality control.