WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological warfare

  1. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  2. Biological warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-01-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

  3. Biological warfare, bioterrorism, and biocrime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H. J.; Breeveld, F. J.; Stijnis, C.; Grobusch, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    Biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing infectious agents. The ability to use biological agents in warfare is prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention. Bioterrorism is defined as the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria

  4. Biological warfare, bioterrorism, and biocrime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, H J; Breeveld, F J; Stijnis, C; Grobusch, M P

    2014-06-01

    Biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing infectious agents. The ability to use biological agents in warfare is prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention. Bioterrorism is defined as the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria or other agents used to cause illness or death in people, but also in animals or plants. It is aimed at creating casualties, terror, societal disruption, or economic loss, inspired by ideological, religious or political beliefs. The success of bioterroristic attempts is defined by the measure of societal disruption and panic, and not necessarily by the sheer number of casualties. Thus, making only a few individuals ill by the use of crude methods may be sufficient, as long as it creates the impact that is aimed for. The assessment of bioterrorism threats and motives have been described before. Biocrime implies the use of a biological agent to kill or make ill a single individual or small group of individuals, motivated by revenge or the desire for monetary gain by extortion, rather than by political, ideological, religious or other beliefs. The likelihood of a successful bioterrorist attack is not very large, given the technical difficulties and constraints. However, even if the number of casualties is likely to be limited, the impact of a bioterrorist attack can still be high. Measures aimed at enhancing diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and capacities alongside training and education will improve the ability of society to combat 'regular' infectious diseases outbreaks, as well as mitigating the effects of bioterrorist attacks. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  5. History of chemical and biological warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szinicz, L.

    2005-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents

  6. History of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szinicz, L

    2005-10-30

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents.

  7. [Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister agents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, proteinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and biological terrorism, speedy decontamination of victims, facilities and equipment is required for the minimization of the damage. In the present situation, washing victims and contaminated materials with large volumes of water is the basic way, and additionally hypochlorite salt solution is used for decomposition of CWA's. However, it still remains unsolved how to dispose large volumes of waste water, and the decontamination reagents have serious limitation of high toxicity, despoiling nature against the environments, long finishing time and non-durability in effective decontamination. Namely, the existing decontamination system is not effective, nonspecifically affecting the surrounding non-target materials. Therefore, it is the urgent matter to build up the usable decontamination system surpassing the present technologies. The symposiast presents the on-going joint project of research and development of the novel decontamination system against CBWA's, in the purpose of realizing nontoxic, fast, specific, effective and economical terrorism on-site decontamination. The projects consists of (1) establishment of the decontamination evaluation methods and verification of the existing technologies and adaptation of bacterial organophosphorus hydrolase, (2) development of adsorptive elimination technologies using molecular recognition tools, and (4) development of deactivation technologies using photocatalysis.

  8. Biomaterials for mediation of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Alan J; Berberich, Jason A; Drevon, Geraldine F; Koepsel, Richard R

    2003-01-01

    Recent events have emphasized the threat from chemical and biological warfare agents. Within the efforts to counter this threat, the biocatalytic destruction and sensing of chemical and biological weapons has become an important area of focus. The specificity and high catalytic rates of biological catalysts make them appropriate for decommissioning nerve agent stockpiles, counteracting nerve agent attacks, and remediation of organophosphate spills. A number of materials have been prepared containing enzymes for the destruction of and protection against organophosphate nerve agents and biological warfare agents. This review discusses the major chemical and biological warfare agents, decontamination methods, and biomaterials that have potential for the preparation of decontamination wipes, gas filters, column packings, protective wear, and self-decontaminating paints and coatings.

  9. Researchers study decontamination of chemical, biological warfare agents

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Army Research Office has awarded Virginia Tech a $680,000 grant over two years to build an instrument that can be used to study the chemistry of gases that will decompose both chemical and biological warfare agents on surfaces.

  10. Cutaneous reactions in nuclear, biological and chemical warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Sandeep

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare have in recent times been responsible for an increasing number of otherwise rare dermatoses. Many nations are now maintaining overt and clandestine stockpiles of such arsenal. With increasing terrorist threats, these agents of mass destruction pose a risk to the civilian population. Nuclear and chemical attacks manifest immediately while biological attacks manifest later. Chemical and biological attacks pose a significant risk to the attending medical personnel. The large scale of anticipated casualties in the event of such an occurrence would need the expertise of all physicians, including dermatologists, both military and civilian. Dermatologists are uniquely qualified in this respect. This article aims at presenting a review of the cutaneous manifestations in nuclear, chemical and biological warfare and their management.

  11. Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare. Part I: Medical aspects of nuclear warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthuri, A S; Pradhan, A B; Dham, S K; Bhalla, I P; Paul, J S

    1990-04-01

    Casualties in earlier wars were due much more to diseases than to weapons. Mention has been made in history of the use of biological agents in warfare, to deny the enemy food and water and to cause disease. In the first world war chemical agents were used to cause mass casualties. Nuclear weapons were introduced in the second world war. Several countries are now involved in developing nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems, for the mass annihilation of human beings, animals and plants, and to destroy the economy of their enemies. Recently, natural calamities and accidents in nuclear, chemical and biological laboratories and industries have caused mass instantaneous deaths in civilian population. The effects of future wars will not be restricted to uniformed persons. It is time that physicians become aware of the destructive potential of these weapons. Awareness, immediate protective measures and first aid will save a large number of persons. This series of articles will outline the medical aspects of nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems in three parts. Part I will deal with the biological effects of a nuclear explosion. The short and long term effects due to blast, heat and associated radiation are highlighted. In Part II, the role of biological agents which cause commoner or new disease patterns is mentioned. Some of the accidents from biological warfare laboratories are a testimony to its potential deleterious effects. Part III deals with medical aspects of chemical warfare agents, which in view of their mass effects can overwhelm the existing medical resources, both civilian and military.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Chemical and biological warfare. Should defenses be researched and deployed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orient, J M

    1989-08-04

    The threat of chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction has intensified because of improved delivery systems and advances in chemistry, genetics, and other sciences. Possible US responses to this threat include deterrence, defenses, and/or disarmament, including a reaffirmation of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention of 1972, which is now in jeopardy. This article discusses the history of chemical and biological warfare, existing and potential weapons, the proliferation of weapons and delivery systems, ways to prevent the use of these weapons, and ways to protect populations from their effects.

  13. Development of Bicarbonate-Activated Peroxide as a Chemical and Biological Warfare Agent Decontaminant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richardson, David E

    2006-01-01

    ...) and other chemistry for the decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents. The mechanism of formation of the active oxidant, peroxymonocarbonate, has been investigated in detail. New surfoxidants...

  14. Technological advancements for the detection of and protection against biological and chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubanks, Lisa M; Dickerson, Tobin J; Janda, Kim D

    2007-03-01

    There is a growing need for technological advancements to combat agents of chemical and biological warfare, particularly in the context of the deliberate use of a chemical and/or biological warfare agent by a terrorist organization. In this tutorial review, we describe methods that have been developed both for the specific detection of biological and chemical warfare agents in a field setting, as well as potential therapeutic approaches for treating exposure to these toxic species. In particular, nerve agents are described as a typical chemical warfare agent, and the two potent biothreat agents, anthrax and botulinum neurotoxin, are used as illustrative examples of potent weapons for which countermeasures are urgently needed.

  15. Decontamination of biological warfare agents by a microwave plasma torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Wilson; Lai, Henry; Kuo, Spencer P.; Tarasenko, Olga; Levon, Kalle

    2005-01-01

    A portable arc-seeded microwave plasma torch running stably with airflow is described and applied for the decontamination of biological warfare agents. Emission spectroscopy of the plasma torch indicated that this torch produced an abundance of reactive atomic oxygen that could effectively oxidize biological agents. Bacillus cereus was chosen as a simulant of Bacillus anthracis spores for biological agent in the decontamination experiments. Decontamination was performed with the airflow rate of 0.393 l/s, corresponding to a maximum concentration of atomic oxygen produced by the torch. The experimental results showed that all spores were killed in less than 8 s at 3 cm distance, 12 s at 4 cm distance, and 16 s at 5 cm distance away from the nozzle of the torch

  16. A new General Purpose Decontamination System for Chemical and Biological Warfare and Terrorism Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khetan, Sushil; Banerjee, xdDeboshri; Chanda, Arani; Collins, Terry

    2003-01-01

    Partial contents: Fe-TAML Activator of Peroxide,Activators of Hydrogen peroxide,Biological Warfare Agents,Bacterial Endospore,Bacterial Spore Deactivation,Modeling Studies,Deactivation Studies with Bacillus spores...

  17. Detection of biological warfare agents using ultra violet-laser induced fluorescence LIDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Deepti; Kumar, Deepak; Maini, Anil K; Sharma, Ramesh C

    2013-08-01

    This review has been written to highlight the threat of biological warfare agents, their types and detection. Bacterial biological agent Bacillus anthracis (bacteria causing the disease anthrax) which is most likely to be employed in biological warfare is being discussed in detail. Standoff detection of biological warfare agents in aerosol form using Ultra violet-Laser Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectroscopy method has been studied. Range-resolved detection and identification of biological aerosols by both nano-second and non-linear femto-second LIDAR is also discussed. Calculated received fluorescence signal for a cloud of typical biological agent Bacillus globigii (Simulants of B. anthracis) at a location of ~5.0 km at different concentrations in presence of solar background radiation has been described. Overview of current research efforts in internationally available working UV-LIF LIDAR systems are also mentioned briefly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. PERMANENCE OF BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL LEACHATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work is to permit EPA/ORD's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) and Edgewood Chemical Biological Center to collaborate together to test the permanence of biological and chemical warfare agents in municipal solid waste landfills. Research into ...

  19. The United States and biological warfare: secrets from the early cold war and Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruwer, A

    2001-01-01

    The United States and Biological Warfare is about accusations that the United States resorted to bacteriological warfare at a time of great military stress during the Korean War. In December 1951, the then US Secretary of Defense ordered early readiness for offensive use of biological weapons. Soon afterwards, the North Korean and Chinese armies accused the United States of starting a large-scale biological warfare experiment in Korea. The US State Department denied the accusation. Both parties to the dispute maintain their positions today. The authors spent 20 years researching the accusations in North America, Europe and Japan. They were the first foreigners to be given access to Chinese classified documents. The reader is also introduced to the concept of 'plausible denial', an official US policy which allowed responsible governmental representatives to deny knowledge of certain events. The authors hope that their work will contribute to the understanding of a time when modern war expanded into a new type of violence.

  20. Mass spectrometry in identification of ecotoxicants including chemical and biological warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, Albert T.

    2005-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is a unique tool to detect and identify trace levels of organic and bioorganic compounds as well as microorganisms in the environment. The range of potential chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents is very broad. An important advantage of mass spectrometry over other techniques involves potential for full spectrum detection of chemical and biological agents including mid-spectrum materials (i.e. bioactive peptides, toxins, etc.) for which biological approaches are inadequate. Being very fast (seconds and minutes), extremely sensitive (zeptomoles 10 -21 ), and informative (detailed qualitative and quantitative composition of mixtures containing hundreds of chemicals), mass spectrometry is a principal analytical tool at the sites of destruction of CW. Due to its unique features, mass spectrometry is applied not only for the detection of CW agents, but for the analysis of products of metabolism and degradation of these agents in organisms or environment as well. The present paper deals with some examples of successful application of mass spectrometry for the analyses of ecotoxicants, chemical warfare agents, explosives, and microorganisms including biology warfare agents

  1. Oxidative decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents using L-Gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raber, Ellen; McGuire, Raymond

    2002-08-05

    A decontamination method has been developed using a single reagent that is effective both against chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents. The new reagent, "L-Gel", consists of an aqueous solution of a mild commercial oxidizer, Oxone, together with a commercial fumed silica gelling agent, Cab-O-Sil EH-5. L-Gel is non-toxic, environmentally friendly, relatively non-corrosive, maximizes contact time because of its thixotropic nature, clings to walls and ceilings, and does not harm carpets or painted surfaces. The new reagent also addresses the most demanding requirements for decontamination in the civilian sector, including availability, low maintenance, ease of application and deployment by a variety of dispersal mechanisms, minimal training and acceptable expense. Experiments to test the effectiveness of L-Gel were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and independently at four other locations. L-Gel was tested against all classes of chemical warfare agents and against various biological warfare agent surrogates, including spore-forming bacteria and non-virulent strains of real biological agents. Testing showed that L-Gel is as effective against chemical agents and biological materials, including spores, as the best military decontaminants.

  2. Analysis of the Threat of Genetically Modified Organisms for Biological Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    biological warfare. The primary focus of the framework are those aspects of the technology directly affecting humans by inducing virulent infectious disease...applications. Simple organisms such as fruit flies have been used to study the effects of genetic changes across generations. Transgenic mice are...Analysis * Multi-cell pathogens * Toxins (Chemical products of living cells.) * Fungi (Robust organism; no genetic manipulation needed

  3. Simulated experiment for elimination of chemical and biological warfare agents by making use of microwave plasma torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Yong C.; Kim, Jeong H.; Uhm, Han S.

    2004-01-01

    The threat of chemical and biological warfare agents in a domestic terrorist attack and in military conflict is increasing worldwide. Elimination and decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents are immediately required after such an attack. Simulated experiment for elimination of CBW agents by making use of atmospheric-pressure microwave plasma torches is carried out. Elimination of biological warfare agents indicated by the vitrification or burnout of sewage sludge powders and decomposition of toluene gas as a chemical agent stimulant are presented. A detailed characterization for the elimination of the simulant chemicals using Fourier transform infrared and gas chromatography is also presented

  4. Simulated experiment for elimination of chemical and biological warfare agents by making use of microwave plasma torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yong C.; Kim, Jeong H.; Uhm, Han S.

    2004-02-01

    The threat of chemical and biological warfare agents in a domestic terrorist attack and in military conflict is increasing worldwide. Elimination and decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents are immediately required after such an attack. Simulated experiment for elimination of CBW agents by making use of atmospheric-pressure microwave plasma torches is carried out. Elimination of biological warfare agents indicated by the vitrification or burnout of sewage sludge powders and decomposition of toluene gas as a chemical agent stimulant are presented. A detailed characterization for the elimination of the simulant chemicals using Fourier transform infrared and gas chromatography is also presented.

  5. Plasma flame for mass purification of contaminated air with chemical and biological warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Shin, Dong H.; Hong, Yong C.

    2006-01-01

    An elimination of airborne simulated chemical and biological warfare agents was carried out by making use of a plasma flame made of atmospheric plasma and a fuel-burning flame, which can purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces such as buildings, public transportation systems, and military vehicles. The plasma flame generator consists of a microwave plasma torch connected in series to a fuel injector and a reaction chamber. For example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies an airflow rate of 5000 lpm contaminated with toluene (the simulated chemical agent) and soot from a diesel engine (the simulated aerosol for biological agents). Large volumes of purification by the plasma flame will free mankind from the threat of airborne warfare agents. The plasma flame may also effectively purify air that is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, in addition to eliminating soot from diesel engines as an environmental application

  6. Developmental Testing of Liquid and Gaseous/Vaporous Decontamination on Bacterial Spores and Other Biological Warfare Agents on Military Relevant Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-11

    Vaporous Decontamination on Bacterial Spores and Other Biological Warfare Agents on Military-Relevant Surfaces 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT... DECONTAMINATION ON BACTERIAL SPORES AND OTHER BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENTS ON MILITARY-RELEVANT SURFACES Page Paragraph 1. SCOPE...surfaces before and after decontamination . The protocol in this TOP is based on the developed test methodologies from Edgewood Chemical Biological

  7. Bioterrorism and Biological Warfare, from Past to the Present: A classic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Zare Bidaki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioterrorism is defined as any terrorist action of intentional release or dissemination of highly pathogenic biological agents, including a variety of microorganisms or biological toxins. With the growing threat of terrorism, is necessary that the potential danger of various microorganisms – as a powerful tool of aggression and threat- to be taken seriously. This review tries to explain the concept of biological weapons and their historical development process with an emphasis on efforts to control the proliferation of these types of weapons over the last century. Potential impact of infectious diseases on people and armed forces was known from since 600 BC. Using the victims of the plague as a weapon in medieval warfare and spread of smallpox as a weapon during the war against the Indians when initially America was discovered, the development of biological weapons during the World War I, World War II and the Cold War, and even since the beginning of the third millennium, all show the strategic importance of pathogenic microorganisms as a deterrent power for the superiority of some governments and cults. Historical attempts to use infectious diseases as biological weapons reveal that the distinction between a natural outbreak of an infectious disease and that of a deliberate biological attack is very difficult. Abusing this characteristic of infectious diseases has made it possible for the purposes of superiority. International agreements to control the development of biological weapons, such as “the 1925 Geneva Protocol” and “the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Biological and Toxic Weapons” have not been able to control the development and using of biological warfare.  The current paper is a classic review (Overview article aiming at increasing the knowledge and awareness of people especially of health authorities and government officials.

  8. Chemical warfare agent and biological toxin-induced pulmonary toxicity: could stem cells provide potential therapies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Daniel J; Dorsey, Russell M; Willis, Kristen L; Hong, Charles; Moyer, Robert A; Oyler, Jonathan; Jensen, Neil S; Salem, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) as well as biological toxins present a significant inhalation injury risk to both deployed warfighters and civilian targets of terrorist attacks. Inhalation of many CWAs and biological toxins can induce severe pulmonary toxicity leading to the development of acute lung injury (ALI) as well as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The therapeutic options currently used to treat these conditions are very limited and mortality rates remain high. Recent evidence suggests that human stem cells may provide significant therapeutic options for ALI and ARDS in the near future. The threat posed by CWAs and biological toxins for both civilian populations and military personnel is growing, thus understanding the mechanisms of toxicity and potential therapies is critical. This review will outline the pulmonary toxic effects of some of the most common CWAs and biological toxins as well as the potential role of stem cells in treating these types of toxic lung injuries.

  9. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Fluorescence and other Optical Properties of Biological Particles for Biological Warfare Agent Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Hoekstra, Alfons; Videen, Gorden; Optics of Biological Particles

    2007-01-01

    This book covers the optics of single biological particles, both theory and experiment, with emphasis on Elastic Light Scattering and Fluorescence. It deals with the optics of bacteria (bio-aerosols), marine particles (selected phytoplankton communities) and red and white blood cells. Moreover, there are dedicated chapters on a general theory for scattering by a cell, and modelling and simulation of scattering by inhomogeneous biological cells. Finally, one chapter is dedicated to astro-biological signatures, discussing the possibilities for detecting non-terrestrial biological material. The volume has up-to-date discussions on new experimental and numerical techniques, and many examples of applications of these techniques in real-life systems, as used to detect and characterize e.g. biological warfare agents or human blood cells.

  10. Personal protection during resuscitation of casualties contaminated with chemical or biological warfare agents--a survey of medical first responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Andrea; Prior, Kate; Schumacher, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The threat of mass casualties caused by an unconventional terrorist attack is a challenge for the public health system, with special implications for emergency medicine, anesthesia, and intensive care. Advanced life support of patients injured by chemical or biological warfare agents requires an adequate level of personal protection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the personal protection knowledge of emergency physicians and anesthetists who would be at the frontline of the initial health response to a chemical/biological warfare agent incident. After institutional review board approval, knowledge of personal protection measures among emergency medicine (n = 28) and anesthetics (n = 47) specialty registrars in the South Thames Region of the United Kingdom was surveyed using a standardized questionnaire. Participants were asked for the recommended level of personal protection if a chemical/biological warfare agent(s) casualty required advanced life support in the designated hospital resuscitation area. The best awareness within both groups was regarding severe acute respiratory syndrome, and fair knowledge was found regarding anthrax, plague, Ebola, and smallpox. In both groups, knowledge about personal protection requirements against chemical warfare agents was limited. Knowledge about personal protection measures for biological agents was acceptable, but was limited for chemical warfare agents. The results highlight the need to improve training and education regarding personal protection measures for medical first receivers.

  11. Love-Wave Sensors Combined with Microfluidics for Fast Detection of Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Matatagui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs. The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13, and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR. Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved.

  12. Insect-gene-activity detection system for chemical and biological warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Ryan S.; Schilling, Amanda S.; Lopez, Arturo M.; Rayms-Keller, Alfredo

    2002-02-01

    Detection of multiple chemical and biological weapons (CBW) agents and/or complex mixtures of toxic industrial chemicals (TIC) is imperative for both the commercial and military sectors. In a military scenario, a multi-CBW attack would create confusion, thereby delaying decontamination and therapeutic efforts. In the commercial sector, polluted sites invariably contain a mixture of TIC. Novel detection systems capable of detecting CBW and TIC are sorely needed. While it may be impossible to build a detector capable of discriminating all the possible combinations of CBW, a detection system capable of statistically predicting the most likely composition of a given mixture is within the reach of current emerging technologies. Aquatic insect-gene activity may prove to be a sensitive, discriminating, and elegant paradigm for the detection of CBW and TIC. We propose to systematically establish the expression patterns of selected protein markers in insects exposed to specific mixtures of chemical and biological warfare agents to generate a library of biosignatures of exposure. The predicting capabilities of an operational library of biosignatures of exposures will allow the detection of emerging novel or genetically engineered agents, as well as complex mixtures of chemical and biological weapons agents. CBW and TIC are discussed in the context of war, terrorism, and pollution.

  13. Decontamination issues for chemical and biological warfare agents: how clean is clean enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raber, E; Jin, A; Noonan, K; McGuire, R; Kirvel, R D

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this assessment is to determine what level of cleanup will be required to meet regulatory and stakeholder needs in the case of a chemical and/or biological incident at a civilian facility. A literature review for selected, potential chemical and biological warfare agents shows that dose information is often lacking or controversial. Environmental regulatory limits or other industrial health guidelines that could be used to help establish cleanup concentration levels for such agents are generally unavailable or not applicable for a public setting. Although dose information, cleanup criteria, and decontamination protocols all present challenges to effective planning, several decontamination approaches are available. Such approaches should be combined with risk-informed decision making to establish reasonable cleanup goals for protecting health, property, and resources. Key issues during a risk assessment are to determine exactly what constitutes a safety hazard and whether decontamination is necessary or not for a particular scenario. An important conclusion is that cleanup criteria are site dependent and stakeholder specific. The results of a modeling exercise for two outdoor scenarios are presented to reinforce this conclusion. Public perception of risk to health, public acceptance of recommendations based on scientific criteria, political support, time constraints, and economic concerns must all be addressed in the context of a specific scenario to yield effective and acceptable decontamination.

  14. Effects of lactoferrin derived peptides on simulants of biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijbrandij, Tjitske; Ligtenberg, Antoon J; Nazmi, Kamran; Veerman, Enno C I; Bolscher, Jan G M; Bikker, Floris J

    2017-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is an important immune protein in neutrophils and secretory fluids of mammals. Bovine LF (bLF) harbours two antimicrobial stretches, lactoferricin and lactoferampin, situated in close proximity in the N1 domain. To mimic these antimicrobial domain parts a chimeric peptide (LFchimera) has been constructed comprising parts of both stretches (LFcin17-30 and LFampin265-284). To investigate the potency of this construct to combat a set of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria which are regarded as simulants for biological warfare agents, the effect on bacterial killing, membrane permeability and membrane polarity were determined in comparison to the constituent peptides and the native bLF. Furthermore we aimed to increase the antimicrobial potency of the bLF derived peptides by cationic amino acid substitutions. Overall, the bactericidal activity of the peptides could be related to membrane disturbing effects, i.e. membrane permeabilization and depolarization. Those effects were most prominent for the LFchimera. Arginine residues were found to be crucial for displaying antimicrobial activity, as lysine to arginine substitutions resulted in an increased antimicrobial activity, affecting mostly LFampin265-284 whereas arginine to lysine substitutions resulted in a decreased bactericidal activity, predominantly in case of LFcin17-30.

  15. Isolation and expression of recombinant antibody fragments to the biological warfare pathogen Brucella melitensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Andrew; Happe, Scott; Mabry, Robert; Koch, Zephyr; Iverson, Brent L; Georgiou, George

    2003-05-01

    Brucella melitensis is a highly infectious animal pathogen able to cause a recurring debilitating disease in humans and is therefore high on the list of biological warfare agents. Immunoglobulin genes from mice immunized with gamma-irradiated B. melitensis strain 16M were used to construct a library that was screened by phage display against similarly prepared bacteria. The selected phage particles afforded a strong enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) signal against gamma-irradiated B. melitensis cells. However, extensive efforts to express the respective single chain antibody variable region fragment (scFv) in soluble form failed due to: (i) poor solubility and (ii) in vivo degradation of the c-myc tag used for the detection of the recombinant antibodies. Both problems could be addressed by: (i) fusing a human kappa light chain constant domain (Ck) chain to the scFv to generate single chain antibody fragment (scAb) antibody fragments and (ii) by co-expression of the periplasmic chaperone Skp. While soluble, functional antibodies could be produced in this manner, phage-displaying scFvs or scAbs were still found to be superior ELISA reagents for immunoassays, due to the large signal amplification afforded by anti-phage antibodies. The isolated phage antibodies were shown to be highly specific to B. melitensis and did not recognize Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in contrast to the existing diagnostic monoclonal YST 9.2.1.

  16. Modified clay minerals efficiency against chemical and biological warfare agents for civil human protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachá, Daniela; Rosenbergová, Kateřina; Slabotínský, Jiří; Kutláková, Kateřina Mamulová; Studentová, Soňa; Martynková, Gražyna Simha

    2014-04-30

    Sorption efficiencies of modified montmorillonite and vermiculite of their mono ionic Na and organic HDTMA and HDP forms were studied against chemical and biological warfare agents such as yperite and selected bacterial strains. Yperite interactions with modified clay minerals were observed through its capture in low-density polyethylene foil-modified clay composites by measuring yperite gas permeation with using chemical indication and gas chromatography methods. The antibacterial activities of synthetized organoclays were tested against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species in minimum inhibitory concentration tests. The obtained results showed a positive influence of modified clay minerals on the significant yperite breakthrough-time increase. The most effective material was the polyethylene-Na form montmorillonite, while the polyethylene-Na form vermiculite showed the lowest efficiency. With increasing organic cations loading in the interlayer space the montmorillonite efficiency decreased, and in the case of vermiculite an opposite effect was observed. Generally the modified montmorillonites were more effective than modified vermiculites. The HDP cations seem to be more effective compare to the HDTMA. The antibacterial activity tests confirmed efficiency of all organically modified clay minerals against Gram-positive bacteria. The confirmation of antibacterial activity against Y. pestis, plague bacteria, is the most interesting result of this part of the study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Water-driven micromotors for rapid photocatalytic degradation of biological and chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinxing; Singh, Virendra V; Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Orozco, Jahir; Kaufmann, Kevin; Dong, Renfeng; Gao, Wei; Jurado-Sanchez, Beatriz; Fedorak, Yuri; Wang, Joseph

    2014-11-25

    Threats of chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA) represent a serious global concern and require rapid and efficient neutralization methods. We present a highly effective micromotor strategy for photocatalytic degradation of CBWA based on light-activated TiO2/Au/Mg microspheres that propel autonomously in natural water and obviate the need for external fuel, decontaminating reagent, or mechanical agitation. The activated TiO2/Au/Mg micromotors generate highly reactive oxygen species responsible for the efficient destruction of the cell membranes of the anthrax simulant Bacillus globigii spore, as well as rapid and complete in situ mineralization of the highly persistent organophosphate nerve agents into nonharmful products. The water-driven propulsion of the TiO2/Au/Mg micromotors facilitates efficient fluid transport and dispersion of the photogenerated reactive oxidative species and their interaction with the CBWA. Coupling of the photocatalytic surface of the micromotors and their autonomous water-driven propulsion thus leads to a reagent-free operation which holds a considerable promise for diverse "green" defense and environmental applications.

  18. Biological and environmental hazards associated with exposure to chemical warfare agents: arsenicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changzhao; Srivastava, Ritesh K; Athar, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    Arsenicals are highly reactive inorganic and organic derivatives of arsenic. These chemicals are very toxic and produce both acute and chronic tissue damage. On the basis of these observations, and considering the low cost and simple methods of their bulk syntheses, these agents were thought to be appropriate for chemical warfare. Among these, the best-known agent that was synthesized and weaponized during World War I (WWI) is Lewisite. Exposure to Lewisite causes painful inflammatory and blistering responses in the skin, lung, and eye. These chemicals also manifest systemic tissue injury following their cutaneous exposure. Although largely discontinued after WWI, stockpiles are still known to exist in the former Soviet Union, Germany, Italy, the United States, and Asia. Thus, access by terrorists or accidental exposure could be highly dangerous for humans and the environment. This review summarizes studies that describe the biological, pathophysiological, toxicological, and environmental effects of exposure to arsenicals, with a major focus on cutaneous injury. Studies related to the development of novel molecular pathobiology-based antidotes against these agents are also described. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Biological and environmental hazards associated with exposure to chemical warfare agents: arsenicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changzhao; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Athar, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Arsenicals are highly reactive inorganic and organic derivatives of arsenic. These chemicals are very toxic and produce both acute and chronic tissue damage. Based on these observations, and considering the low cost and simple methods of their bulk syntheses, these agents were thought to be appropriate for chemical warfare. Among these, the most known agent synthesized and weaponized during World War I (WWI) is Lewisite. Exposure to Lewisite causes painful inflammatory and blistering responses in the skin, lung, and eye. These chemicals also manifest systemic tissue injury following their cutaneous exposure. Although largely discontinued after WWI, their stockpiles are still known to exist in the former Soviet Union, Germany, Italy, the United States, and Asia. Thus, their access by terrorists or accidental exposure could be highly dangerous for humans and the environment. This review summarizes studies which describe the biological, pathophysiological, toxicological, and environmental effects of exposure to arsenicals, with a major focus on cutaneous injury. Studies related to the development of novel molecular pathobiology–based antidotes against these agents are also described. PMID:27636894

  20. Gulf war syndrome: could it be triggered by biological warfare-vaccines using pertussis as an adjuvant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournier, J-N; Jouan, A; Mathieu, J; Drouet, E

    2002-04-01

    Several recent epidemiological studies have shown that vaccinations against biological warfare using pertussis as an adjuvant were associated with the Gulf war syndrome. If such epidemiological findings are confirmed, we propose that the use of pertussis as an adjuvant could trigger neurodegeneration through induction of interleukin-1beta secretion in the brain. In turn, neuronal lesions may be sustained by stress or neurotoxic chemical combinations. Particular susceptibility for IL-1beta secretion and potential distant neuronal damage could provide an explanation for the diversity of the symptoms observed on veterans. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biological warfare warriors, secrecy and pure science in the Cold War: how to understand dialogue and the classifications of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bud, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a case study from the Cold War to reflect on the meaning at the time of the term 'Pure Science'. In 1961, four senior scientists from Britain's biological warfare centre at Porton Down visited Moscow both attending an International Congress and visiting Russian microbiological and biochemical laboratories. The reports of the British scientists in talking about a limited range of topics encountered in the Soviet Union expressed qualities of openness, sociologists of the time associated with pure science. The paper reflects on the discourses of "Pure Science", secrecy and security in the Cold War. Using Bakhtin's approach, I suggest the cordial communication between scientists from opposing sides can be seen in terms of the performance, or speaking, of one language among several at their disposal. Pure science was the language they were allowed to share outside their institutions, and indeed political blocs.

  2. Governing Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      It would seem as though warfare has gotten out of control, not only in Iraq and Afghanistan, but also in Central Africa. The paper outlines the strategic history of politically controlled warfare since the early Enlightenment. The argument is that control is implausible. The idea of control has...

  3. Transport behavior of surrogate biological warfare agents in a simulated landfill: Effect of leachate recirculation and water infiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Saikaly, Pascal

    2010-11-15

    An understanding of the transport behavior of biological warfare (BW) agents in landfills is required to evaluate the suitability of landfills for the disposal of building decontamination residue (BDR) following a bioterrorist attack on a building. Surrogate BW agents, Bacillus atrophaeus spores and Serratia marcescens, were spiked into simulated landfill reactors that were filled with synthetic building debris (SBD) and operated for 4 months with leachate recirculation or water infiltration. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) was used to monitor surrogate transport. In the leachate recirculation reactors, <10% of spiked surrogates were eluted in leachate over 4 months. In contrast, 45% and 31% of spiked S. marcescens and B. atrophaeus spores were eluted in leachate in the water infiltration reactors. At the termination of the experiment, the number of retained cells and spores in SBD was measured over the depth of the reactor. Less than 3% of the total spiked S. marcescens cells and no B. atrophaeus spores were detected in SBD. These results suggest that significant fractions of the spiked surrogates were strongly attached to SBD. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  4. Transport behavior of surrogate biological warfare agents in a simulated landfill: Effect of leachate recirculation and water infiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Saikaly, Pascal; Hicks, Kristin A.; Barlaz, Morton A.; De Los Reyes, Francis Delos De Los

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the transport behavior of biological warfare (BW) agents in landfills is required to evaluate the suitability of landfills for the disposal of building decontamination residue (BDR) following a bioterrorist attack on a building. Surrogate BW agents, Bacillus atrophaeus spores and Serratia marcescens, were spiked into simulated landfill reactors that were filled with synthetic building debris (SBD) and operated for 4 months with leachate recirculation or water infiltration. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) was used to monitor surrogate transport. In the leachate recirculation reactors, <10% of spiked surrogates were eluted in leachate over 4 months. In contrast, 45% and 31% of spiked S. marcescens and B. atrophaeus spores were eluted in leachate in the water infiltration reactors. At the termination of the experiment, the number of retained cells and spores in SBD was measured over the depth of the reactor. Less than 3% of the total spiked S. marcescens cells and no B. atrophaeus spores were detected in SBD. These results suggest that significant fractions of the spiked surrogates were strongly attached to SBD. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  5. Endemic infectious diseases and biological warfare during the Gulf War: a decade of analysis and final concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyams, K C; Riddle, J; Trump, D H; Graham, J T

    2001-11-01

    Infectious diseases were one of the first health threats confronted by Coalition troops deployed to the Arabian desert in August 1990. On the basis of experiences in World War II, the major endemic infectious disease risks were thought to be sandfly fever, cutaneous leishmaniasis, diarrheal disease, and malaria. Although there was active surveillance, no case of sandfly fever and few other endemic infectious diseases were identified among over 500,000 U.S., British, and Canadian ground troops. In addition, there was no diagnosis of biological warfare (BW) exposure, and BW agents were not detected in clinical, environmental, or veterinary samples. The most common infectious disease problems were those associated with crowding (acute upper respiratory infections) and reduced levels of sanitation (travelers-type diarrhea). Only one endemic infectious disease has been confirmed as causing chronic health problems: visceral Leishmania tropica infection (viscerotropic leishmaniasis). However, this protozoan infection was diagnosed in only 12 U.S. veterans, and no new cases have been identified during the last 8 years. Infectious diseases were not a serious problem for Gulf War troops because of extensive preventive medicine efforts and favorable weather and geographic factors. Moreover, it is unlikely that an endemic infectious disease or a BW agent could cause chronic health problems and remain undetected over a 10-year period.

  6. Chemical warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraghavan R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided.

  7. Chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  8. Guerra biológica, bioterrorismo e saúde pública Biological warfare, bioterrorism and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Jacintho da Silva

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso de agentes biológicos como arma não é novidade para a humanidade. Durante séculos, até a atualidade, a guerra biológica tem sido objeto de muita pesquisa e especulação, mas de pouca ação. O medo de efeitos contrários e dúvidas sobre sua eficiência como armas devem ter limitado seu uso. Recentemente, se verificou uma nova forma de terrorismo, empregando agentes infecciosos, devagar e sem muito alarde, até as ocorrências recentes com o Bacillus anthracis nos Estados Unidos. A varíola é possivelmente o mais devastador desses agentes. Menos de 25 anos passados desde sua erradicação, a saúde pública tem que lidar com a possibilidade de sua re-introdução. O cenário da re-introdução da varíola no Brasil é discutido.Biological agents as weapons are not new to mankind. For centuries and into the present, biological warfare has been the subject of much research and speculation, but little action. Their limited use has probably been due to fear of unexpected counter-effects and doubts about their efficiency as weapons. Recently a new form of terrorism employing infectious agents has emerged slowly and without much fanfare, until the recent events with Bacillus anthracis in the United States. Smallpox is potentially the most devastating of these agents. Less than 25 years after the eradication of smallpox, the public health field is now forced to deal with the possibility of its re-introduction. The author discusses the scenario of smallpox re-introduction into Brazil.

  9. Effects of chemical and biological warfare remediation agents on the materials of museum objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solazzo, C.; Erhardt, D.; Marte, F.; von Endt, D.; Tumosa, C.

    In the fall of 2001, anthrax-contaminated letters were sent to public figures in the United States. Chemical and radiation treatments were employed to decontaminate exposed buildings, objects, and materials. These treatments are effective, but potentially damaging to exposed objects and materials. The recommended surface chemical treatments include solutions, gels, and foams of oxidizing agents such as peroxides or chlorine bleaching agents. Such oxidizing agents are effective against a wide range of hazardous chemical and biological agents. Knowing how these reagents affect various substrates would help to anticipate and to minimize any potential damage. We are examining the effects on typical museum materials of reagents likely to be used, including hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite, and potassium peroxymonosulfate. Results so far show significant changes in a number of materials. Surface corrosion was observed on metals such as copper, silver, iron, and brass. Color changes occurred with at least one reagent in about one-fourth of the dyed fabric swatches tested, and about half of the inks. Samples of aged yellowed paper are bleached. Effects varied with both the substrate and the tested reagent. The observed changes were generally less drastic than might have been expected. Enough materials were affected, though, to preclude the use of these reagents on museum objects unless no less drastic alternative is available. It appears that many objects of lesser intrinsic value can be treated without severe loss of properties or usefulness. For example, most documents should remain legible if the appropriate reagent is used. This work will provide a basis for determining which treatment is most appropriate for a specific situation and what consequences are to be expected from other treatments.

  10. Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents with a single multi-functional material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitai, Gabi; Murata, Hironobu; Andersen, Jill D; Koepsel, Richard R; Russell, Alan J

    2010-05-01

    We report the synthesis of new polymers based on a dimethylacrylamide-methacrylate (DMAA-MA) co-polymer backbone that support both chemical and biological agent decontamination. Polyurethanes containing the redox enzymes glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase can convert halide ions into active halogens and exert striking bactericidal activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. New materials combining those biopolymers with a family of N-alkyl 4-pyridinium aldoxime (4-PAM) halide-acrylate co-polymers offer both nucleophilic activity for the detoxification of organophosphorus nerve agents and internal sources of halide ions for generation of biocidal activity. Generation of free bromine and iodine was observed in the combined material resulting in bactericidal activity of the enzymatically formed free halogens that caused complete kill of E. coli (>6 log units reduction) within 1 h at 37 degrees C. Detoxification of diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) by the polyDMAA MA-4-PAM iodide component was dose-dependent reaching 85% within 30 min. A subset of 4-PAM-halide co-polymers was designed to serve as a controlled release reservoir for N-hydroxyethyl 4-PAM (HE 4-PAM) molecules that reactivate nerve agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Release rates for HE 4-PAM were consistent with hydrolysis of the HE 4-PAM from the polymer backbone. The HE 4-PAM that was released from the polymer reactivated DFP-inhibited AChE at a similar rate to the oxime antidote 4-PAM. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biological and Chemical Warfare

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tar" making delivery into enemy lines surer and more accurate. ..... ceptible to antibiotic drugs, antibiotic-resist- ant strains occur ... means of a early warning system based on an automatic alarm ... given immediately by intramuscular injec- tion.

  12. [The re-introduction of malaria in the Pontine Marshes and the Cassino district during the end of World War II. Biological warfare or global war tactics?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Fiorino, Sirio; Manfredi, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    After the fall of the Fascist regime on September 8, 1943, Italy was split into two parts: (i) the Southern regions where the King Victor Emanuel III and the military general staff escaped was under the control of English-American allied armies, and (ii) the northern regions comprising Lazio, Tuscany, Umbria, and Marche still under the control of the Germans. The German Wehrmacht, after suffering several defeats on Southern lines, established a new strengthened line of defence called the Gustav line, located south of Rome and crossing in the western portion the recently-drained Pontine Marshes. In his book published in 2006, Frank Snowden hypothesised that occupying German armies in 1943 had initiated a programme of re-flooding the Pontine plain as a biological warfare strategy to re-introduce malaria infection in the territories south of Rome, Such a plan was intended (i) to slow down the advance of English-American forces, and (ii) to punish Italians who abandoned their former allies. Other authors, including Annibale Folchi, Erhard Geissler, and Jeanne Guillemin, have disputed this hypothesis based on an analysis of recently-uncovered archive documents. What is not disputed is that the flooding of the Pontine and Roman plains in 1943 contributed to a severe malaria epidemic in 1944, which was associated with exceptionally high morbidity and mortality rates in the afflicted populations. Herein, we critically evaluate the evidence and arguments of whether the Wehrmacht specifically aimed to spread malaria as a novel biological warfare strategy in Italy during the Second World War. In our opinion, evidence for specific orders to deliberately spread malaria by the German army is lacking, although the strategy itself may have been considered by Nazis during the waning years of the war.

  13. Nuclear radiation in warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1986-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios; biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Nuclear radiation in warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios); biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion. (U.K.)

  15. Drone warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusterson, Hugh

    2017-11-01

    Crude drones existed as early as World War I, but the technology matured in the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s and the current wars around the Middle East. The U.S. first used a weaponized drone in late 2001, in Afghanistan. Drones may cause more or less civilian casualties depending on the targeting protocols employed by their operators. There is an inherent ambiguity in determining who is an insurgent from several thousand feet, but civilian casualties are likely to be higher if targeters emphasize "signature strikes" over "personality strikes," if they engage in "double-tap strikes," if they rely too much on local informants, and if they rely too heavily on cellphone identification in the absence of corroboration from other intelligence sources. The legality of drone warfare is fairly clear in established battle zones such as Afghanistan, but is more problematic in terms of both international and domestic law when it comes to drone strikes in countries such as Yemen, Pakistan and Somalia with which the U.S. is not at war. Looking to the future, the U.S. would be well advised to sponsor negotiations for an international drone convention that might establish clear international rules for the use of drones, ban autonomous smart drones, and establish adjudicatory procedures to handle allegations of war crimes.

  16. Test Results of Level A Suits to Challenge by Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents and Simulants: Summary Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belmonte, Richard B

    1998-01-01

    ...) terrorism incidents. As part of an effective response, people who are responding to an incident will use personal protective equipment to protect them from exposure to chemical agents or biological agents...

  17. HIGHLY SELECTIVE SENSORS FOR CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENTS, INSECTICIDES AND VOCS BASED ON A MOLECULAR SURFACE IMPRINTING TECHNIQUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract was given as an oral platform presentation at the Pittsburgh Conference, Orlando FL (March 5-9, 2006). Research described is the development of sensors based on molecular surface imprinting. Applications include the monitoring of chemical and biological agents and inse...

  18. Flying Electronic Warfare Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides NP-3D aircraft host platforms for Effectiveness of Navy Electronic Warfare Systems (ENEWS) Program antiship missile (ASM) seeker simulators used...

  19. Information Warfare and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Warren

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the ethics of the practice of information warfare at both the national and corporate levels. Initially examining the present and past actions of individual hackers, it moves to the more organised, future military and economic warfare scenarios. It examines the lack of legal or policy initiatives in this area.

  20. Difficult Decisions: Chemical Warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesnick, Irwin L.; Miller, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Gives the background history and chemistry of modern day chemical warfare from World War I to the present. Provides discussion questions to stimulate deeper thinking on the issue. Contains a discussion activity called "Can New Chemical Weapons Lead to Humane Warfare?" (CW)

  1. Development of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assays for Detection and Quantification of Surrogate Biological Warfare Agents in Building Debris and Leachate▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikaly, Pascal E.; Barlaz, Morton A.; de los Reyes, Francis L.

    2007-01-01

    Evaluation of the fate and transport of biological warfare (BW) agents in landfills requires the development of specific and sensitive detection assays. The objective of the current study was to develop and validate SYBR green quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) assays for the specific detection and quantification of surrogate BW agents in synthetic building debris (SBD) and leachate. Bacillus atrophaeus (vegetative cells and spores) and Serratia marcescens were used as surrogates for Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) and Yersinia pestis (plague), respectively. The targets for SYBR green Q-PCR assays were the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region and recA gene for B. atrophaeus and the gyrB, wzm, and recA genes for S. marcescens. All assays showed high specificity when tested against 5 ng of closely related Bacillus and Serratia nontarget DNA from 21 organisms. Several spore lysis methods that include a combination of one or more of freeze-thaw cycles, chemical lysis, hot detergent treatment, bead beat homogenization, and sonication were evaluated. All methods tested showed similar threshold cycle values. The limit of detection of the developed Q-PCR assays was determined using DNA extracted from a pure bacterial culture and DNA extracted from sterile water, leachate, and SBD samples spiked with increasing quantities of surrogates. The limit of detection for B. atrophaeus genomic DNA using the ITS and B. atrophaeus recA Q-PCR assays was 7.5 fg per PCR. The limits of detection of S. marcescens genomic DNA using the gyrB, wzm, and S. marcescens recA Q-PCR assays were 7.5 fg, 75 fg, and 7.5 fg per PCR, respectively. Quantification of B. atrophaeus vegetative cells and spores was linear (R2 > 0.98) over a 7-log-unit dynamic range down to 101 B. atrophaeus cells or spores. Quantification of S. marcescens (R2 > 0.98) was linear over a 6-log-unit dynamic range down to 102 S. marcescens cells. The developed Q-PCR assays are highly specific and sensitive and can

  2. Defining cyber warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan D. Mladenović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyber conflicts represent a new kind of warfare that is technologically developing very rapidly. Such development results in more frequent and more intensive cyber attacks undertaken by states against adversary targets, with a wide range of diverse operations, from information operations to physical destruction of targets. Nevertheless, cyber warfare is waged through the application of the same means, techniques and methods as those used in cyber criminal, terrorism and intelligence activities. Moreover, it has a very specific nature that enables states to covertly initiate attacks against their adversaries. The starting point in defining doctrines, procedures and standards in the area of cyber warfare is determining its true nature. In this paper, a contribution to this effort was made through the analysis of the existing state doctrines and international practice in the area of cyber warfare towards the determination of its nationally acceptable definition.

  3. Expeditionary Warfare- Force Protection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higgins, Eric

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, the Systems Engineering and Analysis students were tasked to develop a system of systems conceptual solution to provide force protection for the Sea Base conceptualized in the 2002 Expeditionary Warfare study...

  4. Cyber Warfare/Cyber Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Hara, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    Section 1 of this paper provides an overview of cyber warfare as an element of information warfare, starting with the general background of the current strategic environment the United States is operating...

  5. Chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuca, Kamil; Pohanka, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents are compounds of different chemical structures. Simple molecules such as chlorine as well as complex structures such as ricin belong to this group. Nerve agents, vesicants, incapacitating agents, blood agents, lung-damaging agents, riot-control agents and several toxins are among chemical warfare agents. Although the use of these compounds is strictly prohibited, the possible misuse by terrorist groups is a reality nowadays. Owing to this fact, knowledge of the basic properties of these substances is of a high importance. This chapter briefly introduces the separate groups of chemical warfare agents together with their members and the potential therapy that should be applied in case someone is intoxicated by these agents.

  6. Chemical warfare agents. Classes and targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Michael

    2018-09-01

    Synthetic toxic chemicals (toxicants) and biological poisons (toxins) have been developed as chemical warfare agents in the last century. At the time of their initial consideration as chemical weapon, only restricted knowledge existed about their mechanisms of action. There exist two different types of acute toxic action: nonspecific cytotoxic mechanisms with multiple chemo-biological interactions versus specific mechanisms that tend to have just a single or a few target biomolecules. TRPV1- and TRPA-receptors are often involved as chemosensors that induce neurogenic inflammation. The present work briefly surveys classes and toxicologically relevant features of chemical warfare agents and describes mechanisms of toxic action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Physics of Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, I was tasked with the creation and execution of a new themed general education physics class called The Physics of Warfare. In the past, I had used the theme of a class, such as the physics of sports medicine, as a way to create homework and in-class activities, generate discussions, and provide an application to demonstrate that physics…

  8. Information Warfare and International Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenberg, Lawrence T; Goodman, Seymour E; Soo Hoo, Kevin J

    1998-01-01

    .... Some legal constraints will certainly apply to information warfare, either because the constraints explicitly regulate particular actions, or because more general principles of international law...

  9. Electronic Warfare Signature Measurement Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electronic Warfare Signature Measurement Facility contains specialized mobile spectral, radiometric, and imaging measurement systems to characterize ultraviolet,...

  10. Implications of Network Centric Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Alvin

    2004-01-01

    .... These areas of dependence also provide numerous vulnerabilities. This paper will focus specifically on Network Centric Warfare's vulnerabilities in terms of sensors cyberterrorism/ Electro-Magnetic Pulse (EMP...

  11. Antifragile Electronic Warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtman, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This letter introduces the concept of antifragile electronic warfare (EW), which we define as the ability to allow a communications link to improve performance due to the presence of a jammer. This concept should not be confused with jamming countermeasures (a.k.a. anti-jamming or electronic protection). Rather, antifragile EW can be thought of as the next step beyond simply avoiding or mitigating jamming. After introducing the concept we narrow down the subset of jammers this concept can be ...

  12. Identification of the factors that govern the ability of therapeutic antibodies to provide postchallenge protection against botulinum toxin: a model for assessing postchallenge efficacy of medical countermeasures against agents of bioterrorism and biological warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleem, Fetweh H; Nasser, Zidoon; Olson, Rebecca M; Cao, Linsen; Simpson, Lance L

    2011-08-01

    Therapeutic antibodies are one of the major classes of medical countermeasures that can provide protection against potential bioweapons such as botulinum toxin. Although a broad array of antibodies are being evaluated for their ability to neutralize the toxin, there is little information that defines the circumstances under which these antibodies can be used. In the present study, an effort was made to quantify the temporal factors that govern therapeutic antibody use in a postchallenge scenario. Experiments were done involving inhalation administration of toxin to mice, intravenous administration to mice, and direct application to murine phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations. As part of this study, several pharmacokinetic characteristics of botulinum toxin and neutralizing antibodies were measured. The core observation that emerged from the work was that the window of opportunity within which postchallenge administration of antibodies exerted a beneficial effect increased as the challenge dose of toxin decreased. The critical factor in establishing the window of opportunity was the amount of time needed for fractional redistribution of a neuroparalytic quantum of toxin from the extraneuronal space to the intraneuronal space. This redistribution event was a dose-dependent phenomenon. It is likely that the approach used to identify the factors that govern postchallenge efficacy of antibodies against botulinum toxin can be used to assess the factors that govern postchallenge efficacy of medical countermeasures against any agent of bioterrorism or biological warfare.

  13. Psychological effects of nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickley, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    This report is divided into five parts. (1) Discussion of the psychological milieu before a nuclear confrontation. (2) Acute psychological reactions to nuclear warfare (some of which may reflect, in part, direct radiogenic alteration of nervous system functions). (3) Chronic psychological effects of a nuclear confrontation. (4) Issues concerning treatment of these psychological changes. (5) Prevention of adverse psychological reactions to nuclear warfare

  14. Cyber warfare and electronic warfare integration in the operational environment of the future: cyber electronic warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askin, Osman; Irmak, Riza; Avsever, Mustafa

    2015-05-01

    For the states with advanced technology, effective use of electronic warfare and cyber warfare will be the main determining factor of winning a war in the future's operational environment. The developed states will be able to finalize the struggles they have entered with a minimum of human casualties and minimum cost thanks to high-tech. Considering the increasing number of world economic problems, the development of human rights and humanitarian law it is easy to understand the importance of minimum cost and minimum loss of human. In this paper, cyber warfare and electronic warfare concepts are examined in conjunction with the historical development and the relationship between them is explained. Finally, assessments were carried out about the use of cyber electronic warfare in the coming years.

  15. Hybrid Maritime Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John; Murphy, Martin; Hoffman, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Russia’s use of hybrid warfare techniques has raised concerns about the security of the Baltic States. Gary Schaub, Jr, Martin Murphy and Frank G Hoffman recommend a series of measures to augment NATO’s Readiness Action Plan in the Baltic region, including increasing the breadth and depth of naval...... exercises, and improving maritime domain awareness through cooperative programmes. They also suggest unilateral and cooperative measures to develop a sound strategic communications strategy to counter Moscow’s information operations, reduce dependence on Russian energy supplies and build the resilience...

  16. Establishing Cyber Warfare Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Colarik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several decades, advances in technology have transformed communications and the ability to acquire, disseminate, and utilize information in a range of environments. Modern societies and their respective militaries have taken advantage of a robust information space through network-centric systems. Because military and commercial operations have increasingly converged, communication and information infrastructures are now high-priority military objectives in times of war. This article examines the theoretical underpinning of current cyber warfare research, what we have learned so far about its application, and some of the emerging themes to be considered; it also postulates the development of a (national cyber warfare doctrine (CWD. An endeavor of this scale requires lots of considerations and preparation for its development if it is to be cooperatively embraced. This article considers why information technology systems and their supporting infrastructures should be considered legitimate military targets in conflicts, and offers several events that support this supposition. In addition, it identifies the various forms of doctrine that will become the basis for developing a CWD, discusses a CWD's possible components, and proposes a national collaborative and discussion framework for obtaining a nation's stakeholder buy-in for such an endeavor.

  17. Cyber Warfare/Cyber Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Hara, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    .... Section 1 concludes with a review of offensive and defensive cyber warfare concepts. Section 2 presents a general overview of cyber terrorism, including definitions of cyber terrorism and cyber terrorism support...

  18. Attrition in Network Centric Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erbetta, John

    2003-01-01

    .... Information warfare means that positive attacks on systems themselves compound the problem. Emerging technologies applicable to NCW as a force multiplier need to be recognized as counter to the impediments to progress...

  19. The ethics of information warfare

    CERN Document Server

    Floridi, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    This book offers an overview of the ethical problems posed by Information Warfare, and of the different approaches and methods used to solve them, in order to provide the reader with a better grasp of the ethical conundrums posed by this new form of warfare.The volume is divided into three parts, each comprising four chapters. The first part focuses on issues pertaining to the concept of Information Warfare and the clarifications that need to be made in order to address its ethical implications. The second part collects contributions focusing on Just War Theory and its application to the case of Information Warfare. The third part adopts alternative approaches to Just War Theory for analysing the ethical implications of this phenomenon. Finally, an afterword by Neelie Kroes - Vice President of the European Commission and European Digital Agenda Commissioner - concludes the volume. Her contribution describes the interests and commitments of the European Digital Agenda with respect to research for the developme...

  20. Warfare, genocide, and ethnic conflict: a Darwinian approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dimijian, Gregory G.

    2010-01-01

    As the 21st century dawns, I reflect on the history of humankind with growing concern about the need to understand the underlying biological and cultural roots of ethnic conflict and warfare. In the many studies of human conflict, innate biological predispositions have been neglected. This article is the third part of a series of seminars for medical residents at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School at Dallas (see http://adarwinstudygroup.org/). The series starts with in-depth ...

  1. Reflections on nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The author looks back on his more than 70 years of familiarity with Americans involved in warfare, noting their loyal support for our country's objectives. Drawing on the Einstein equation, his own visits to Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and current literature, he, as a physician, belatedly concurs with those who look on the use of nuclear weapons as irrational and untenable. Their employment under present circumstances would create a ''final epidemic'' to be avoided only by prevention. He suggests that medical perceptions must be considered by our national leaders in assessing the many factors that he hopes will lead to rational answers to this urgent, highly complex, and vital enigma. He cites physicians' efforts to help in finding answers and asks that his colleagues consider the issues with attention to the gravity of the situation and act according to their best judgment

  2. Intelligence Strategy for Fourth Generation Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jamison, Edward P

    2006-01-01

    ...." They have named this new era of war "fourth generation warfare." Currently the Department of Defense's intelligence strategy is designed to defeat conventional adversaries vise a fourth generation warfare opponent...

  3. The ethics of drone warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatić Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the compatibility of the modern technologies of warfare, specifically the use of offensive drones, with traditional military ethics and suggests that the new technologies radically change the value system of the military in ways which make large parts of the traditional military ethics inapplicable. The author suggests that Agamben’s concept of ‘effectivity’ through ‘special actions’ which mark one’s belonging to a particular community or profession is a useful conceptual strategy to explore the compatibility of drone warfare with traditional military ethics; this strategy shows mixed results at best.

  4. The doctor and nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    At the 34th World Medical Assembly in Lisbon in 1981 the World Medical Association adopted a motion proposed by the American Medical Association that national medical associations should develop programs to educate the civilian population on the medical consequences of nuclear war. This article discusses the attitude the medical professions should have, should nuclear warfare in some form confront them in the future. The conclusion is drawn that defence against nuclear warfare is only a part of civil defence against any disaster, including the natural disasters such as flood and fire and the man-made disasters of transport accidents, even of problems at nuclear plants designed to supply energy

  5. Tissue-based standoff biosensors for detecting chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias; Sanders, Charlene A.

    2003-11-18

    A tissue-based, deployable, standoff air quality sensor for detecting the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent, includes: a cell containing entrapped photosynthetic tissue, the cell adapted for analyzing photosynthetic activity of the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; means for introducing an air sample into the cell and contacting the air sample with the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; a fluorometer in operable relationship with the cell for measuring photosynthetic activity of the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; and transmitting means for transmitting analytical data generated by the fluorometer relating to the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent in the air sample, the sensor adapted for deployment into a selected area.

  6. Laboratory Aspects of Biological Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Brucella IgM and IgA bound to milk fat globules in cow or goat milk . False positives may occur with this test in colostrum, milk at the end of a lactation...is typically via aerosolization of infectious particles, by ingesting contaminated raw milk and cheese, and by tick vectors. The infectious dose is...such as amplification of the infectious agent’s nucleic acids or an immunoassay targeted toward the infectious agent’s proteins . Direct

  7. Chemical and Biological Warfare: A Manageable Problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donahoo, Brian

    2003-01-01

    ... (Desert Storm 1991 and Desert Storm 2003). The intent is to provide combat forces with a logical and realistic framework to accurately assess the CB threat enabling a proper balance of force protection and mission accomplishment...

  8. Information Management and the Biological Warfare Threat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinez, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    ...: the scientific paradigm, the business paradigm and the security paradigm. The findings of this thesis demonstrate an information sharing paradigm favoring full and open access to scientific data currently being practiced by the U.S...

  9. Conflict Without Casualties: Non-Lethal Weapons in Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    the body,” and the Geneva Protocol of 1925, bans the use of chemical and biological weapons .11 On 8 April 1975, President Ford issued Executive...E Funding – PE 63851M) (accessed 15 December 2006). The American Journal of Bioethics . “Medical Ethics and Non-Lethal Weapons .” Bioethics.net...CASUALTIES: NON-LETHAL WEAPONS IN IRREGULAR WARFARE by Richard L. Scott September 2007 Thesis Advisor: Robert McNab Second Reader

  10. European Curricula, Xenophobia and Warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulby, David

    1997-01-01

    Examines school and university curricula in Europe and the extent of their influence on xenophobia. Considers the pluralistic nature of the European population. Discusses the role of curriculum selection and language policy in state efforts to promote nationalism. Assesses the role of curricular systems in the actual encouragement of warfare,…

  11. The Anatomy of Counterinsurgency Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Lars; Pedersen, Kenneth; Thruelsen, Peter Dahl

    Since the beginning of the new millennium, the West has been increasingly involved in a tiresome and rather particular type of conflict: insurgency warfare. The bloody and shocking terrorist attacks on New York and Washington in September 2001 marked the beginning of a new era, and the introducti...

  12. Strategic Analysis of Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    the same mathematical equations used by Lanchester .10 Irregular Warfare Theory and Doctrine It is time to develop new analytical methods and models...basis on which to build, similar to what Lanchester provided almost 100 years ago. Figure 9 portrays both Lanchester’s approach and an irregular 17

  13. Roots of Russian Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xiii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Crissy, your encouragement throughout my career and especially during this project has been...all of the Russian disinformation techniques in Ukraine came directly “from Soviet toolkits .” Maria Snegovaya, “Putin’s Information Warfare In

  14. Technology Transition for Hybrid Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-16

    and Iraq. At the same time, the science and technology base must provide the disruptive technologies to defeat future conventional enemies. This... disruptive technologies will be needed to retain long-term technological superiority in conventional warfare. Incremental improvement is the most...technology to be missed. Disruptive technologies are the second type of technological change and involve revolutionary concepts involving large technological

  15. Unconventional Cyber Warfare: Cyber Opportunities in Unconventional Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Internet service provider IW irregular warfare MCO major combat operations MySQL open-source relational database management system NATO North...today, often with no regard for legal or ethical constraints. A better course of action would be to conduct operations in cyberspace within the precepts...built in feature of MySQL that 97 John Markoff, “Before the Gunfire, Cyberattacks,” York Times, August 13, 2008, sec. Technology, 1, http

  16. Hybrid Warfare: the 21st Century Russian Way of Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    to wage information operations— from television, to the Internet, to unconventional forces on the ground spreading the message word -of- mouth ...adversarial vulnerabilities. Many of the peculiarities of hybrid warfare described herein are inextricably linked to Russia’s social , political, and...the US election. Then they utilized various means of media to distribute that information with the goal to discredit the US political process and

  17. 2008 13th Expeditionary Warfare Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-23

    platforms – Emphasize a mixed fleet approach that spans the “iron triangle” – Integrate MRAP into the fleet mix – Transition to a fleet of tactical...Urban Warfare Mountain Warfare Desert Warfare Jungle Riverine Special Skills Recon LOG CSS ENG MT HS Ord Maint EOD Pers Retrival ...Detection (Specialized Platform FLGPR)Stand-off (60M) Scaleable Neutralization (Area coverage) ABV Delivery Ground Cueing Stand-off (800M) Scaleable

  18. Military medicine and the ethics of war: British colonial warfare during the Seven Years War (1756-63).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charters, Erica

    2010-01-01

    This article examines 18th-century European warfare, tracing the first formal codifications of conventions of war, frequently introduced by military physicians and initially regarding the treatment of the sick and wounded. It outlines to what extent these conventions were followed in practice, particularly in the challenging environment of American irregular warfare, with a focus on the most well-known incident of "biological warfare" in the period: the deliberate spread of smallpox by British officers among Amerindians in 1763. More broadly, it demonstrates that the history of military medicine provides a fruitful method with which to uncover assumptions about the ethics of war.

  19. Tissue-based water quality biosensors for detecting chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias [Oak Ridge, TN; Sanders, Charlene A [Knoxville, TN

    2003-05-27

    A water quality sensor for detecting the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent includes: a cell; apparatus for introducing water into the cell and discharging water from the cell adapted for analyzing photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms in water; a fluorometer for measuring photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms drawn into the cell; and an electronics package that analyzes raw data from the fluorometer and emits a signal indicating the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent in the water.

  20. Information Warfare in the Cyber Domain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takemoto, Glenn

    2001-01-01

    ...). This paper lays a foundation by defining the terminology associated with Information Warfare in the Cyber Domain, reviews the threat and illustrates the vulnerabilities of our information systems...

  1. MEANS AND METHODS OF CYBER WARFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Iulian VOITAȘEC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Declaration of Saint Petersburg of 1868 “the only legitimate object which States should endeavor to accomplish during war is to weaken the military forces of the enemy”. Thus, International Humanitarian Law prohibits or limits the use of certain means and methods of warfare. The rapid development of technology has led to the emergence of a new dimension of warfare. The cyber aspect of armed conflict has led to the development of new means and methods of warfare. The purpose of this paper is to study how the norms of international humanitarian law apply to the means and methods of cyber warfare.

  2. Cyber warfare building the scientific foundation

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Subrahmanian, VS; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    This book features a wide spectrum of the latest computer science research relating to cyber warfare, including military and policy dimensions. It is the first book to explore the scientific foundation of cyber warfare and features research from the areas of artificial intelligence, game theory, programming languages, graph theory and more. The high-level approach and emphasis on scientific rigor provides insights on ways to improve cyber warfare defense worldwide. Cyber Warfare: Building the Scientific Foundation targets researchers and practitioners working in cyber security, especially gove

  3. Shadow Wars: An Analysis of Counterinsurgency Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dogan, Osman

    2005-01-01

    ... of the current strategic approaches to counterinsurgency warfare. Toward this end, a systems model approach, which views insurgent organizations as open systems, is adapted to the insurgent environment...

  4. The ethics of drone warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Fatić Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates the compatibility of the modern technologies of warfare, specifically the use of offensive drones, with traditional military ethics and suggests that the new technologies radically change the value system of the military in ways which make large parts of the traditional military ethics inapplicable. The author suggests that Agamben’s concept of ‘effectivity’ through ‘special actions’ which mark one’s belonging to a particular communit...

  5. Radioecological aspects of nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edvardson, Kay

    1977-01-01

    Radioactive fallout, one of the major effects of nuclear warfare, will cause acute radiation sickness within the close-in or intermediate areas downwind from surface bursts. Global fallout from high yield explosions will be fairly evenly distributed in the hemisphere where the explosions occur, and will cause irradiation from ground deposit, inhaled material and contaminated food. Estimates of collective doses and the approximate number of late casualties from the global contamination are presented for a given total explosion yield. (author)

  6. Hybrid Warfare: Preparing for Future Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    ciceromagazine.com/?s=getting+behind+hybrid+warfare. Brown , Col Leslie F. “Twenty-First Century Warfare Will be Hybrid.” Carlisle Barracks, PA...Lebanon and Gaza.” Rand Corporation Occasional Paper. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 2010. Jones, Gareth and Darya Korsunskaya. “U.S., EU

  7. Reactivity of Dual-Use Decontaminants with Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    REACTIVITY OF DUAL-USE DECONTAMINANTS WITH CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS ECBC-TR-1384... Decontaminants with Chemical Warfare Agents 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Willis, Matthew P...extraction) of chemical warfare agents from materials. 15. SUBJECT TERMS GD HD Decontamination Hazard mitigation VX Chemical warfare agent Liquid-phase

  8. The Information Warfare Life Cycle Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett van Niekerk

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Information warfare (IW is a dynamic and developing concept, which constitutes a number of disciplines. This paper aims to develop a life cycle model for information warfare that is applicable to all of the constituent disciplines. The model aims to be scalable and applicable to civilian and military incidents where information warfare tactics are employed. Existing information warfare models are discussed, and a new model is developed from the common aspects of these existing models. The proposed model is then applied to a variety of incidents to test its applicability and scalability. The proposed model is shown to be applicable to multiple disciplines of information warfare and is scalable, thus meeting the objectives of the model.

  9. The Information Warfare Life Cycle Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett van Niekerk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Information warfare (IW is a dynamic and developing concept, which constitutes a number of disciplines. This paper aims to develop a life cycle model for information warfare that is applicable to all of the constituent disciplines. The model aims to be scalable and applicable to civilian and military incidents where information warfare tactics are employed. Existing information warfare models are discussed, and a new model is developed from the common aspects of these existing models. The proposed model is then applied to a variety of incidents to test its applicability and scalability. The proposed model is shown to be applicable to multiple disciplines of information warfare and is scalable, thus meeting the objectives of the model.

  10. Radioecological aspects of nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edvarson, K.

    1975-01-01

    The radioactive fallout from nuclear explosions is one of the major effects of nuclear warfare. Those levels causing acute radiation sickness are to be expected only within the close-in or intermediate areas downwind from surface bursts. Global fallout from high yield explosions will be fairly evenly distributed in the hemisphere where the explosions occurred and cause irradiation from ground deposit, inhaled material and contaminated food. The collective doses and the order of magnitude of late casualties from this global contamination are estimated for a given total explosion yield. (auth)

  11. Laboratory analysis of chemical warfare agents, adducts, and metabolites in biomedial samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, M.J. van der

    2015-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) are the most toxic compounds ever produced. To develop medical countermeasures against the effects of these agents, analytical procedures to analyze these agents in biological matrices are essential for a better understanding of the toxicological process. The need for

  12. Diagnosis of exposure to chemical warfare agents: An essential tool to counteract chemical terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Schans, M.J. van der; Bikker, F.J.; Benschop, H.P.

    2009-01-01

    Methods to analyze chemical warfare agents (CW-agents) and their decomposition products in environmental samples were developed over the last decades. In contrast herewith, procedures for analysis in biological samples have only recently been developed. Retrospective detection of exposure to

  13. Warfare in biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Thor; Brooks, Thomas M; Da Fonseca, Gustavo A B; Hoffmann, Michael; Lamoreux, John F; Machlis, Gary; Mittermeier, Cristina G; Mittermeier, Russell A; Pilgrim, John D

    2009-06-01

    Conservation efforts are only as sustainable as the social and political context within which they take place. The weakening or collapse of sociopolitical frameworks during wartime can lead to habitat destruction and the erosion of conservation policies, but in some cases, may also confer ecological benefits through altered settlement patterns and reduced resource exploitation. Over 90% of the major armed conflicts between 1950 and 2000 occurred within countries containing biodiversity hotspots, and more than 80% took place directly within hotspot areas. Less than one-third of the 34 recognized hotspots escaped significant conflict during this period, and most suffered repeated episodes of violence. This pattern was remarkably consistent over these 5 decades. Evidence from the war-torn Eastern Afromontane hotspot suggests that biodiversity conservation is improved when international nongovernmental organizations support local protected area staff and remain engaged throughout the conflict. With biodiversity hotspots concentrated in politically volatile regions, the conservation community must maintain continuous involvement during periods of war, and biodiversity conservation should be incorporated into military, reconstruction, and humanitarian programs in the world's conflict zones. ©2009 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Information warfare technologies in political discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpova Anna Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We attempt to examine the technology of «information warfare» in this paper. The dominant theme of the paper is that the outcome of the information warfare is important not only for the future of a state itself but for the future of the world balance of forces. The main task of geopolitical actors in information warfare is to introduce ideas corresponding to their interests into mass consciousness. All participants of political conflicts have common features in technologies of Information warfare. The information anomie is the indicator of the great geopolitical actors’ personified interests on the stage of «information warfare» - the process resulted in destroying the communicative line: report-information understanding and disrupting the social order in society. In this paper authors describe the following Information Warfare technologies: "Political volcano" technology; "SPIN" technology; "Widening media resource" technology; "specific gravity" technology; "Cold War 2.0" technology and Information cleaningup technology. It is assumed that in the future there will be new instructions on applying technologies of information warfare. To impart perspective to the paper we consider examples, opinions and trends.

  15. Moltke as a Model for Information Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallagher, Daniel P

    1998-01-01

    ... with late 20th century Information Warfare (IW). Clausewitz, with his emphasis on concentrating forces for a decisive battle, or Sun Tzu, with his focus on an indirect approach and subduing the enemy without battle, might appear to be more...

  16. Gas Warfare in World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flintham, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    The effectiveness of gas warfare during World War I was increased by the lack of a basic understanding of the behavior of gases on the part of the soldiers. This was a result of deficiencies in science education. (BB)

  17. Prehistoric ceremonial warfare: beginning of institutionalized violence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2017), s. 535-548 ISSN 1555-8622 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : human aggression * ceremonial warfare * archery symbolism * Neolithic * Chalcolithic * Europe Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology

  18. On Cyber Warfare Command and Control Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howes, Norman R; Mezzino, Michael; Sarkesain, John

    2004-01-01

    .... Cyber warfare then becomes a one-sided battle where the attacker makes all the strikes and the target of the attack responds so slowly that the attacker usually gets away without being identified...

  19. Enzymatic Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raushel, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of this research program is the development of a versatile enzyme-based system that is fully optimized for the decontamination, destruction, and detection of know chemical warfare agents...

  20. Mountain Warfare: The Need for Specialist Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malik, Muhammad

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on the need for specialist training for mountain warfare. It analyzes the special characteristics of mountain and high altitude terrain which affect conduct of military operations...

  1. Warfare, genocide, and ethnic conflict: a Darwinian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimijian, Gregory G

    2010-07-01

    As the 21st century dawns, I reflect on the history of humankind with growing concern about the need to understand the underlying biological and cultural roots of ethnic conflict and warfare. In the many studies of human conflict, innate biological predispositions have been neglected. This article is the third part of a series of seminars for medical residents at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School at Dallas (see http://adarwinstudygroup.org/). The series starts with in-depth coverage of Darwinian natural and sexual selection, with examples from the domestication of animals and plants and the crisis of antibiotic resistance. The series strives to show how biology has been neglected in the study of the we-they orientation of human behavior, with its devastating consequences. The subject material is profoundly disturbing, as it looks at "human nature" and contrasts the "dark side" of human behavior with the opposite, profoundly caring and loving side.

  2. Insurgent Uprising: An Unconventional Warfare Wargame

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Cleveland, Charles T. Connett, and Will Irwin. “Unconventional Warfare in the Gray Zone.” Joint Forces Quarterly 80, no. 1 (2016). Work, Robert O...CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Today, and in the future, unconventional solutions will present U.S. policymakers with options for dealing...training objectives and will complement existing training exercises. 14. SUBJECT TERMS unconventional warfare, foreign internal defense, direct

  3. Distributed computing environment for Mine Warfare Command

    OpenAIRE

    Pritchard, Lane L.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The Mine Warfare Command in Charleston, South Carolina has been converting its information systems architecture from a centralized mainframe based system to a decentralized network of personal computers over the past several years. This thesis analyzes the progress Of the evolution as of May of 1992. The building blocks of a distributed architecture are discussed in relation to the choices the Mine Warfare Command has made to date. Ar...

  4. Route survey periodicity for mine warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Coke, Hartwell F.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited One of the Navy's most long standing challenges has been conquering the mine warfare threat. As mines and mine warfare techniques evolve and become more sophisticated, so does the United States' ability to counter the threat. The United States newest technique for countering a potential mined harbor, or route, is a process known as "change detection." This concept uses previous side scan sonar images of the area prior to a mining event an...

  5. On the Probability of Predicting and Mapping Traditional Warfare Measurements to the Cyber Warfare Domain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyber warfare is a contentious topic, with no agreement on whether this is a real possibility or an unrealistic extension of the physical battlefield. This article will not debate the validity and legality of the concept of cyber warfare...

  6. The Impact of Irregular Warfare on the US Army

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDonald, III, Roger L

    2006-01-01

    Although the U.S. Army has yet to clearly define irregular warfare, it is imperative that the Army take near-term action to enhance the ability of Soldiers and units to operate effectively in an irregular warfare environment...

  7. Dilemmas of Warfare in Densely Populated Civilian Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Moshe Tamir

    2012-01-01

    This essay attempts to present operational perspectives on conducting warfare in densely populated areas. It also distinguishes between three types of combat within this general category, with the goal of shedding light on this complex type of warfare.

  8. Cyber Attacks, Information Attacks, and Postmodern Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valuch Jozef

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate and differentiate between the phenomena of cyberwarfare and information warfare, as manifestations of what we perceive as postmodern warfare. We describe and analyse the current examples of the use the postmodern warfare and the reactions of states and international bodies to these phenomena. The subject matter of this paper is the relationship between new types of postmodern conflicts and the law of armed conflicts (law of war. Based on ICJ case law, it is clear that under current legal rules of international law of war, cyber attacks as well as information attacks (often performed in the cyberspace as well can only be perceived as “war” if executed in addition to classical kinetic warfare, which is often not the case. In most cases perceived “only” as a non-linear warfare (postmodern conflict, this practice nevertheless must be condemned as conduct contrary to the principles of international law and (possibly a crime under national laws, unless this type of conduct will be recognized by the international community as a “war” proper, in its new, postmodern sense.

  9. ISIL's Hybrid Warfare in Syria & Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Heine

    2016-01-01

    of and ability to synchronize various instruments of power with a view to achieving their end-state. With regards to the second part of the problem statement, the analysis demonstrates how ISIL employed horizontal escalation and ambiguity initially, but later on turned to vertical escalation, within the military......The case study specifically seeks to answer the following problem statement: Does ISIL qualify as an actor using hybrid warfare and if so what characterizes their particular use of this type of warfare? Based on an analysis of ISIL’s warfare from August 2012 to August 2016 the chapter argues......, that it is possible to answer the first part of the problem statement in an affirmative way. Hence, ISIL is not only theoretically prone to hybridity by organizational setup, and by the people comprising the organization, but has in fact continuously acted according to a hybrid logic in its prioritization...

  10. Survey on Urban Warfare Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong You

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban warfare has become one of the main forms of modern combat in the twenty-first century. The main reason why urban warfare results in hundreds of casualties is that the situational information of the combatant is insufficient. Accessing information via an Augmented Reality system can elevate combatants’ situational awareness to effectively improve the efficiency of decision-making and reduce the injuries. This paper begins with the concept of Urban Warfare Augmented Reality (UWAR and illuminates the objectives of developing UWAR, i.e., transparent battlefield, intuitional perception and natural interaction. Real-time outdoor registration, information presentation and natural interaction are presented as key technologies of a practical UWAR system. Then, the history and current research state of these technologies are summarized and their future developments are highlighted from three perspectives, i.e., (1 Better integration with Geographic Information System and Virtual Geographic Environment; (2 More intelligent software; (3 More powerful hardware.

  11. Mongol Warfare in the Pre-Dissolution Period »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy May

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the Mongols used many of the tactics and strategies that steppe nomads had used for centuries, the Mongols refined steppe warfare so that this style of warfare reached its apogee during the Mongol Empire. Furthermore, the Mongols developed a style of warfare that made them possibly the greatest military force in history. This work examines several facets of the pre-dissolution period (1200–1260. With the dissolution of the Mongol Empire, Mongol warfare once again changed. In some areas it remained complex while in others it regressed to traditional forces of steppe warfare, still potent but not as effective as the pre-dissolution period.

  12. Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestenskov, David; Drewes, Line

    The conference report Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace constitutes the primary outcome of the conference It is based on excerpts from the conference presenters and workshop discussions. Furthermore, the report contains policy recommendations and key findings, with the ambition of develo......The conference report Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace constitutes the primary outcome of the conference It is based on excerpts from the conference presenters and workshop discussions. Furthermore, the report contains policy recommendations and key findings, with the ambition...... of developing best practices in the education and implementation of IHL in capacity building of security forces....

  13. Toward Operational Art in Special Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-23

    combatant commanders develop special warfare cam- paign options for their theaters that can be integral parts of the national approach. Getting buy -in at...the resistance spawning franchise operations at home or abroad? – Is the resistance attracting funding or other forms of assistance (indigenous

  14. Warfare and the Teaching of History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salevouris, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Maintains that history teachers must challenge simplistic romantic notions about war. Proposes two approaches to teaching about war: the use of personal war narratives; and examining the relationship between warfare and society. Discusses literature related to these approaches. Contends that only through realistic assessments of war can peace be…

  15. The technical Dimensions of Nuclear Warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1977-01-01

    This text, written by Engelbert Broda in 1977 is about the dimensions of nuclear warfare. Broda describes the devastating effects of the nuclear bombs dropped in 1945 in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and compares these effects with the explosive power of Hydrogen weapons. He also expresses his concerns about another nuclear ware and analyses possible worsening situations like change in the military doctrine. (nowak)

  16. Book Review COMPOSITE WARFARE: THE CONDUCT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    COMPOSITE WARFARE: THE CONDUCT OF. SUCCESSFUL GROUND FORCE. OPERATIONS IN AFRICA. Eeben Barlow. Abel Esterhuyse, PhD. Stellenbosch University. Pinetown: 30 Degrees South Publishers. 2015, 576 pages. ISBN 9781928211761. Africa is still one of the most conflict-ridden places on earth – from ...

  17. MOSES, development of an Underwater Warfare Testbed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentze, S.G.

    2001-01-01

    The TNO underwater warfare (UWW) research programme results in a large number of models used in operational research projects. To enhance the accessibility and re-use of these models for new projects, TNO-FEL has developed the modelling environment ‘MOSES - Maritime Operations Simulation and

  18. Biomonitoring of exposure to chemical warfare agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Schans, M.J. van der; Benschop, H.P.

    2006-01-01

    An overview is presented of the major methods that are presently available for biomonitoring of exposure to chemical warfare agents, i.e., nerve agents and sulfur mustard. These methods can be applied for a variety of purposes such as diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure of casualties, verification

  19. New Developments in Chinese Strategic Psychological Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Taoism , which coupled hardness with softness in warfare, was not the only influence on the theory of psychological operations in ancient China. Other...portraying Islamic martyrs who appear to speak to soldiers from the clouds.38 In contemporary wars, such as the Gulf War, the first targets attacked have

  20. Chemical warfare protection for the cockpit of future aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickl, William C.

    1988-01-01

    Currently systems are being developed which will filter chemical and biological contaminants from crew station air. In order to maximize the benefits of these systems, a method of keeping the cockpit contaminant free during pilot ingress and egress is needed. One solution is to use a rectangular plastic curtain to seal the four edges of the canopy frame to the canopy sill. The curtain is stored in a tray which is recessed into the canopy sill and unfolds in accordion fashion as the canopy is raised. A two way zipper developed by Calspan could be used as an airlock between the pilot's oversuit and the cockpit. This system eliminates the pilot's need for heavy and restrictive CB gear because he would never be exposed to the chemical warfare environment.

  1. A Predictive Model of Surface Warfare Officer Retention: Factors Affecting Turnover

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gjurich, Gregory

    1999-01-01

    Junior Surface Warfare Officer retention is in a crisis. The Surface Warfare Officer community anticipates an inability to fill Department Head billets due to the number of junior Surface Warfare Officers leaving military service...

  2. Nanoplatforms for Detection, Remediation and Protection Against Chem-Bio Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkbaş, E. B.; Bayram, C.; Kavaz, D.; Çirak, T.; Demirbilek, M.

    Chemical and biological substances have been used as warfare agents by terrorists by varying degree of sophistication. It is critical that these agents be detected in real-time with high level of sensitively, specificity, and accuracy. Many different types of techniques and systems have been developed to detect these agents. But there are some limitations in these conventional techniques and systems. Limitations include the collection, handling and sampling procedures, detection limits, sample transfer, expensive equipment, personnel training, and detection materials. Due to the unique properties such as quantum effect, very high surface/volume ratio, enhanced surface reactivity, conductivity, electrical and magnetic properties of the nanomaterials offer great opportunity to develop very fast, sensitive, accurate and cost effective detection techniques and systems to detect chemical and biological (chem.-bio) warfare agents. Furthermore, surface modification of the materials is very easy and effective way to get functional or smart surfaces to be used as nano-biosensor platform. In that respect many different types of nanomaterials have been developed and used for the detection, remediation and protection, such as gold and silver nanoparticles, quantum dots, Nano chips and arrays, fluorescent polymeric and magnetic nanoparticles, fiber optic and cantilever based nanobiosensors, nanofibrillar nanostructures etc. This study summarizes preparation and characterization of nanotechnology based approaches for the detection of and remediation and protection against chem.-bio warfare agents.

  3. Information operation/information warfare modeling and simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Buettner, Raymond

    2000-01-01

    Information Operations have always been a part of warfare. However, this aspect of warfare is having ever-greater importance as forces rely more and more on information as an enabler. Modern information systems make possible very rapid creation, distribution, and utilization of information. These same systems have vulnerabilities that can be exploited by enemy forces. Information force-on-force is important and complex. New tools and procedures are needed for this warfare arena. As these t...

  4. Military Engineers and Chemical Warfare Troops (Inzhenernye Voiska Khimicheskie Voiska),

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), *MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS, MILITARY ENGINEERING , INFANTRY, AMPHIBIOUS OPERATIONS, MINELAYING, ARMORED VEHICLES, NUCLEAR...RADIATION, DOSIMETERS, CHEMICAL WARFARE, PROTECTIVE CLOTHING, DECONTAMINATION, HEALTH PHYSICS.

  5. Electronic Warfare: Comprehensive Strategy Needed for Suppressing Enemy Air Defenses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... To achieve this suppression, the services use specialized aircraft designed to neutralize, destroy, or temporarily degrade enemy air defense systems through either physical attack or electronic warfare...

  6. Are Current Psychological Operations Procedures Adequate in Information Warfare?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duff, Murray

    1997-01-01

    .... While some aspects of information warfare are conducted domestically, many are executed on foreign soil and involve extensive interaction with other governments, their population, non-governmental...

  7. Computational models of intergroup competition and warfare.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letendre, Kenneth (University of New Mexico); Abbott, Robert G.

    2011-11-01

    This document reports on the research of Kenneth Letendre, the recipient of a Sandia Graduate Research Fellowship at the University of New Mexico. Warfare is an extreme form of intergroup competition in which individuals make extreme sacrifices for the benefit of their nation or other group to which they belong. Among animals, limited, non-lethal competition is the norm. It is not fully understood what factors lead to warfare. We studied the global variation in the frequency of civil conflict among countries of the world, and its positive association with variation in the intensity of infectious disease. We demonstrated that the burden of human infectious disease importantly predicts the frequency of civil conflict and tested a causal model for this association based on the parasite-stress theory of sociality. We also investigated the organization of social foraging by colonies of harvester ants in the genus Pogonomyrmex, using both field studies and computer models.

  8. Handbook of toxicology of chemical warfare agents

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    This groundbreaking book covers every aspect of deadly toxic chemicals used as weapons of mass destruction and employed in conflicts, warfare and terrorism. Including findings from experimental as well as clinical studies, this one-of-a-kind handbook is prepared in a very user- friendly format that can easily be followed by students, teachers and researchers, as well as lay people. Stand-alone chapters on individual chemicals and major topics allow the reader to easily access required information without searching through the entire book. This is the first book that offers in-depth coverage of individual toxicants, target organ toxicity, major incidents, toxic effects in humans, animals and wildlife, biosensors, biomarkers, on-site and laboratory analytical methods, decontamination and detoxification procedures, prophylactic, therapeutic and countermeasures, and the role of homeland security. Presents a comprehensive look at all aspects of chemical warfare toxicology in one reference work. This saves research...

  9. Mapping the Spread of Mounted Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Turchin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Military technology is one of the most important factors affecting the evolution of complex societies. In particular, mounted warfare, the use of horse-riders in military operations, revolutionized war as it spread to different parts of Eurasia and Africa during the Ancient and Medieval eras, and to the Americas during the Early Modern period. Here we use a variety of sources to map this spread.

  10. UML modelling of network warfare examples

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available ] Affects both civilian and military domains [8] [9] Related to the concepts of infowar, information operations, hacking, hackivism, cyberterrorism and cybotage depending on motivations and techniques [10] Encompasses both technological solutions...]. In addition, Williers as well as Qingbao and Anwar discuss more offensive aspects of information security and Network Warfare like Hacking, Vulnerability Injection, Network Attacks, Denial of Capability, Interception and Blockage [6] [18] [19]. Various...

  11. Maritime Trade Warfare Against a Modern Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    Malaysian and Singaporean support. Operational Environment The previous sections have assessed that an oil embargo would be effective at influencing...will be addressed. The first approach is to stop the trade at its source. This approach forms the foundation of many contemporary sanctions. Under...antisubmarine warfare capable ships, could be sufficient to defend against forces attempting to break a blockade, and a carrier battle group in the Indian Ocean

  12. Navy Operational Planner - Undersea Warfare Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    concepts are considered in NOP–USW that are not in previous research: time phasing of missions, mutually exclusive missions, and asset availability...operational planning efforts. NOP–USW suggests the correct allocation of assets across a wide theater of operation to accomplish missions in the...Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NAVY OPERATIONAL PLANNER – UNDERSEA WARFARE MODULE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Guy A. Molina 7

  13. Toward Operational Art in Special Warfare: Appendixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    language, proficiency in small-unit tactics, and the ability to build and fight alongside indigenous combat formations in a permissive, uncertain, or...counterinsurgency through and with indigenous forces or personnel.”1 The report has four aims: (1) to adapt conventional operational art to the unique...perfect near-real-time situational awareness,” at least at the tactical level of land warfare in complex terrain. But the idea of leveraging information

  14. NATO Advanced Research Workshop, 19-22 May 1997: Rapid Method for Monitoring the Environment for Biological Hazards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The NATO Advanced Research Workshop met for the purpose of bringing to light rapid methods for monitoring the environment for biological hazards such as biological warfare agents, naturally occurring...

  15. The Cycle of Warfare - Analysis of an Analytical Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mikkel Storm

    2016-01-01

    by its economic, political and ideological characteristics. With the single assumption of economic rationality in human behaviour, Cycle of Warfare is not only coherent, it is applicable to all entities engaged in competition anywhere in the world at any point in history. The Cycle of Warfare can be used...

  16. Surface Warfare Officers Initial Training For Future Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    9 A school is initial rating specific technical training that is given to sailors. 14 Figure 4. Less...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT SURFACE WARFARE OFFICERS— INITIAL TRAINING FOR FUTURE SUCCESS March 2018...professional report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SURFACE WARFARE OFFICERS—INITIAL TRAINING FOR FUTURE SUCCESS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Arron J

  17. Anti-Air Warfare Research for Naval Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, A.A.F.; Witberg, R.

    2000-01-01

    AAW is a warfare area with wide-spread spectrum. Command and Control Systems, sensors, effectors and electronic warfare are integrated to a system, they influence each other and must eventually be effective in coordinated action. This complexity asks for Operations Research methods to measure

  18. Chemical profiling of chemical warfare agents for forensic purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Reuver, L.P.J. de; Fidder, A.; Tromp, M.; Verschraagen, M.

    2010-01-01

    A program has been initiated towards the chemical profiling of chemical warfare agents, in order to support forensic investigations towards synthesis routes, production sites and suspect chemical suppliers. Within the first stage of the project various chemical warfare agents (VX, sulfur mustard,

  19. Destruction of chemical warfare surrogates using a portable atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škoro, Nikola; Puač, Nevena; Živković, Suzana; Krstić-Milošević, Dijana; Cvelbar, Uroš; Malović, Gordana; Petrović, Zoran Lj.

    2018-01-01

    Today's reality is connected with mitigation of threats from the new chemical and biological warfare agents. A novel investigation of cold plasmas in contact with liquids presented in this paper demonstrated that the chemically reactive environment produced by atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is potentially capable of rapid destruction of chemical warfare agents in a broad spectrum. The decontamination of three different chemical warfare agent surrogates dissolved in liquid is investigated by using an easily transportable APPJ. The jet is powered by a kHz signal source connected to a low-voltage DC source and with He as working gas. The detailed investigation of electrical properties is performed for various plasmas at different distances from the sample. The measurements of plasma properties in situ are supported by the optical spectrometry measurements, whereas the high performance liquid chromatography measurements before and after the treatment of aqueous solutions of Malathion, Fenitrothion and Dimethyl Methylphosphonate. These solutions are used to evaluate destruction and its efficiency for specific neural agent simulants. The particular removal rates are found to be from 56% up to 96% during 10 min treatment. The data obtained provide basis to evaluate APPJ's efficiency at different operating conditions. The presented results are promising and could be improved with different operating conditions and optimization of the decontamination process.

  20. Hybrid Warfare Studies and Russia’s Example in Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Seyfettin EROL

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although Hybrid Warfare is an old concept, theoretical studies in the western countries mainly began in the post-Col War era, focusing on asymmetrical threats against conventional superiority of western countries such as USA or Israel. September 11th attacks and 2006 Israel-Lebanon war played important roles for the evolution of hybrid warfare theories. However, there has not any consensus among scholars on a exact or unique definition of hybrid warfare. Hybrid warfare became one of the main security issues for the West and especially for NATO after the Russia-Ukraine crisis. Russian military strategies, called “hybrid warfare” by the western countries, resulted in the successful annexation of Crimea and, caused a serious security problem for the West resulting important structural and functional changes for the military system of NATO. Russian activities, which have been based on surprise, ambiguity and deniability, presented a unique example for hybrid warfare studies.

  1. War and Medicine in a Culture of Peace. 2. Synopsis of Biological Weapons

    OpenAIRE

    Pierard, Gérald

    2001-01-01

    Biological warfare has a long history. Despite the 1972 international convention and several attempts at biological weapon eradication, some countries and non governmental groups still retain some of these agents. According to their potential use, they belong to bioterrorism or to massive destruction weapons. Any biological warfare put the civilian medical and paramedical assets at the frontline and at high risk for being rapidly contaminated. The prompt recognition of a bioterrorist attack a...

  2. Optimization of Graphene Sensors to Detect Biological Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    variations that use detection elements such as glucose, cholesterol, NADH, hydrogen peroxide, nitrites , nitrous oxide and aptamers (such as ssDNA...electrical current [34]. The sensor materials and detection limits listed in Table 1 illustrate the types of processed graphene that can be used to...and a 1% mortality rate for those treated[28]. Gastrointestinal anthrax results when B. anthracis enters the body by eating infected meat and has

  3. Selfishness, warfare and economics; or integration, cooperation and biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Jesus Salvucci

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The acceptance of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is not complete and it has been pointed out its limitation to explain the complex processes that constitute the transformation of species. The darwinian paradigm had its origin in the free market theories and concepts of Malthus and Spencer. Nature was explained on the basis of market theories moving away from an accurate explanation of natural phenomena. It is common that new discoveries bring about contradictions that are intended to be overcome by adjusting results to the dominant reductionist paradigm using all sorts of gradations and combinations that are admitted for each case. Modern findings represent a challenge to the interpretation of the observations with the Darwinian view of competition and struggle for life as theoretical basis. New holistic interpretations are emerging related with the Net of Life, in which the interconnection of ecosystems constitutes a dynamic and self-regulating biosphere: Viruses are recognized as a macroorganism with a huge collection of genes, most unknown, that constitute the major planet's gene pool with a fundamental role in evolution. The hologenome theory considers an organism and all of its associated symbiotic microbes as a result of symbiopoiesis. Microbes, helmints, that normally are understood as parasites, are cohabitants and they have cohabited with their host and drives the evolution and existence of the partners. Each organism is a result of integration of complex systems. The eukaryotic organism is the result of combination of bacterial, virus and eukaryotic DNA and the interaction of its own genome with the genome of its microbiota resulting in an intertwined metabolism (a superorganism along evolution. These new interpretations are remarkable points to be considered in order to construct a solid theory adjusted to the facts and with less speculations and tortuous semantic traps.

  4. OFFICER AND COMMANDER IN ASYMMETRIC WARFARE OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe CAFORIO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the data of a field research conducted among soldiers with asymmetric warfare experiences from nine different countries, the author seeks to identify and shed light on the various problems that officers with command responsibilities had to face during their missions. A picture emerges of feelings and experiences relating to their first impression upon arriving in the theatre, relations with local armed forces, relations with the local population and local authorities, relations with NGOs, relations with other armies, the impact of the rules of engagement (ROEs, training and education, and operational experiences. The paper ends with a discussion of the lessons learned.

  5. Axial Vircator for Electronic Warfare Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Drazan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a high power microwave generator with virtual cathode – vircator in axial release for electronic warfare applications. The classification of directed energy weapons microwave (DEWM is introduced together with basic block diagrams of a particular class of DEWM. In the paper, methods for designing vircator pulsed power supply, axial vircator structure, measurement methods and experimental results are presented. The vircator in electromagnetic ammunition is powered by magneto-cumulative generator and in weapons for defense of objects (WDO, it is powered by Marx generator. The possible applications of a vircator in the DEWM area are discussed.

  6. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o

  7. Use of In Situ-Generated Dimethyldioxirane for Inactivation of Biological Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wallace, William H; Bushway, Karen E; Miller, Susan D; Delcomyn, Carrie A; Renard, Jean J; Henley, Michael V

    2005-01-01

    ...) at neutral pH, was investigated for inactivation of biological warfare agent simulants. The DMDO solution inactivated bacterial spores, fungal spores, vegetative bacterial cells, viruses, and protein by 7 orders of magnitude in less than 10 min...

  8. Information Warfare: Defining the Legal Response to An Attack

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pottorff, James

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the difficulty in determining whether an information warfare attack, such as a computer virus, can be treated as an "armed attack" for purposes of national defense under the United Nations charter. As the U.S...

  9. Irregular Warfare: Impact on Future Professional Military Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paschal, David G

    2006-01-01

    ... to operate effectively in an irregular warfare environment. The utility of a decisive war between nation states continues to decline and will eventually reach critical mass based upon the extreme imbalance of military power and a U.S. monopoly...

  10. FFT Based VLSI Digital One Bit Electronic Warfare Receiver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chien-In, Henry

    1998-01-01

    ... (1 GHz) digital receiver designed for electronic warfare applications. The receiver can process two simultaneous signals and has the potential for fabrication on a single multi-chip module (MCM...

  11. Back to the Basics: An Aviation Solution to Counterinsurgent Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Arthur D

    2005-01-01

    .... By examining past examples of the use of air power in counterinsurgent warfare, this study sheds light on the United States' current failings in both equipment and doctrine as it wages this type of war...

  12. Precision Warfare Enables Interdependent Fires and Maneuver in 2010

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, John

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Army is in the midst of a revolution in military affairs (RMA). Significant advancements in informational technologies and precision weapons are providing unprecedented potential for future warfare...

  13. Irregular Warfare: Special Operations Joint Professional Military Education Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cannady, Bryan H

    2008-01-01

    ... on today's battlefront in Afghanistan and Iraq and in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). At the forefront of the GWOT and irregular warfare are the United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM...

  14. Irregular Warfare: New Challenges for Civil-Military Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cronin, Patrick M

    2008-01-01

    .... Irregular warfare introduces new complications to what Eliot Cohen has called an unequal dialogue between civilian and military leaders in which civilian leaders hold the true power but must modulate...

  15. Echoes of Chechnya Warfare Resound in Moscow, Quantico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ackerman, Robert

    2000-01-01

    .... thinking about urban warfare. After suffering stunning public defeats just a few years ago, Russian forces applied painful lessons learned then to drive Chechen forces out of their capital city, Grozny, this year...

  16. zero day exploits and national readiness for cyber-warfare

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    A zero day vulnerability is an unknown exploit that divulges security flaws in software before such a flaw is publicly ... Keywords: exploits, zero day, vulnerability, cyberspace, cyber-warfare. 1. ..... industries and companies across the globe. The.

  17. The Role of Airpower in Urban Warfare. An Airman's Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saffold, Timothy

    1998-01-01

    .... This emphasis on surface force employment stifles innovative thought as to how military forces can achieve operational and strategic effects by employing airpower as the key instrument of force in urban warfare...

  18. Fourth Generation Warfare: The Need for a Comprehensive Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benton, LeRoy D

    2008-01-01

    .... A definition of Fourth Generation Warfare is developed, based on Col. Thomas X. Hammes' writings. The definition is further developed to show relevance and applicability to current operations in the Long War on Terrorism...

  19. Towards a framework for a network warfare capability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available . These include the legal issues, ethical dilemmas, technical solutions, financial impact and skill/manpower investment. Logical constraints/implications have been grouped together in the discussion that follows. 5.1.1 Legal Ethical Issues As network warfare... but the underlying causes of crime also needs to be understood. Ethics and morals play a significant role in determining the personality traits of an individual. Users will need to balance ethical dilemmas before engaging in offensive network warfare. Computers...

  20. Structuring Naval Special Warfare junior officer professional military education

    OpenAIRE

    Donovan, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    Naval Special Warfare does not currently have a designated career path for an officer that requires professional military education (PME) for SEAL junior officers after the rank of Ensign (O-1) and before the rank of Lieutenant Commander (O-4). There currently is interest in this subject matter at the Naval Special Warfare Command and Center. SEAL officers increasingly hold key leadership positions and influence critical decisions in the execution of national strategy. This growing respo...

  1. Strategy in the Robotic Age: A Case for Autonomous Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    enabling technology that augments human performance, such as exoskeleton suits, and other complementary fields that make robotics function...philosophy of maneuver warfare with new technologies from the Robotic Age, such as unmanned systems and exoskeleton suits, to present a new warfighting...and Brimley, “20YY,” 12. 49 the exoskeleton suit, but rather that the full benefit of autonomous warfare will be achieved by leveraging mass and

  2. The Impacts of Modern Warfare on Freshwater Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Robert A.

    2011-11-01

    There is increasing recognition and concern regarding the impacts of modern industrial warfare on the environment. Freshwater ecosystems are perhaps the most vulnerable to warfare-related impacts, which is of concern given that they provide so many essential environmental resources and services to society. Despite this, there has been little work to establish and quantify the types of impacts (both negative and positive) that warfare may have on such systems. This paper firstly highlights why rivers and lakes may be susceptible to warfare-related impacts, before synthesizing the available literature to explore the following main themes: intensification of wartime resource acquisition, use of water as an offensive or defensive weapon, direct and indirect effects of explosive ordnance, increased pollution, introduction of invasive alien species, and positive ecological impacts. This is then followed by a discussion of the implications of such impacts in relation to future warfare, including a consideration of the efficacy of existing legal instruments to protect the environment during conflict, and the trend for war to become more localized and `informal', and therefore less regulated. Finally, the paper identifies key research foci for understanding and mitigating the effects of warfare on freshwater ecosystems.

  3. The Manipulation of Human Behavior in Guerrilla Warfare: Can It Enhance U.S. Army Special Forces Guerrilla Warfare Operations?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harris, William

    1997-01-01

    .... Proper integration of psychological communications to manipulate behavior in guerrilla warfare may facilitate the recruiting1 motivation, morale, sustainment and popular support for a guerrilla movement and its cause...

  4. Information Warfare, Threats and Information Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Nikolaevich Bespalov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the opposite, but dependent on each other's reality - Revolutionary War information,information security goals and objectives of their study within the scheme "challenge-response", methodological and analytical support, the role of elites and the information society in promoting information security. One of the features of contemporaneityis the global spread of ICT, combined with poor governance and other difficulties in the construction of innovation infrastructures that are based on them in some countries. This leads to the reproduction of threats, primarily related to the ability to use ICT for purposes that are inconsistent with the objectives of maintaining international peace and security, compliance with the principles of non-use of force, non-interference in the internal affairs of states, etc. In this regard, include such terms as "a threat of information warfare", "information terrorism" and so forth. Information warfare, which stay in the policy declared the struggle for existence, and relationships are defined in terms of "friend-enemy", "ours-foreign". Superiority over the opponent or "capture of its territory" is the aim of political activity. And information security, serving activities similar process of political control, including a set of components, is a technology until their humanitarian. From the context and the decision itself is the ratio of the achieved results of information and political influence to the target - a positive image of Russia. Bringing its policy in line with the demands of a healthy public opinion provides conductivity of theauthorities initiatives in the country and increases the legitimacy of the Russian Federation actions in the world.

  5. Using Agent Based Distillation to Explore Issues Related to Asymmetric Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    official definition of asymmetric warfare , considering that its use was redundant to irregular warfare [30]. 2 Such as the Lanchester Equations...RTP-MP-MSG-069 23 - 1 Using Agent Based Distillation to Explore Issues Related to Asymmetric Warfare Martin Adelantado, Jean-Michel Mathé...shows that both conventional and asymmetric warfare are characterised by nonlinear behaviours and that engagement is a Complex Adaptive System (CAS

  6. Nuclear radiation in warfare. A SIPRI publication. Strahlungswirkungen beim Einsatz von Kernwaffen. Eine SIPRI-Publikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotblat, J.

    1986-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios; biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion.

  7. Transport and Reactivity of Decontaminants to Provide Hazard Mitigation of Chemical Warfare Agents from Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Transport and Reactivity of Decontaminants to Provide Hazard Mitigation of Chemical Warfare Agents from Materials 5a...directions for future decontamination formulation approaches. 15. SUBJECT TERMS GD HD Decontamination Hazard mitigation VX Chemical warfare agent... DECONTAMINANTS TO PROVIDE HAZARD MITIGATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS FROM MATERIALS 1. INTRODUCTION Decontamination of materials is the

  8. Russian New Art of Hybrid Warfare in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusnáková Soňa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to analyse the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation. For the purposes of the paper, the theory of hybrid warfare was chosen as an analytical category. Throughout the paper, the concept of hybrid warfare is examined and applied on case study of Crimean annexation. Hybrid warfare, especially in connection with Russian actions in Crimea has been an intensely debated concept. There is an ongoing debate among scholars concerning the meaning of the concept, its existence and employment by the Russian Federation. This paper showed that the article of Valeriy Gerasimov – the incumbent Chief of the General Staff of the Russian Federation-invoked a new warfare strategy for the Russian Federation which was consequently for the very first time in its full spectre and effectivity employed on case of Crimean annexation in March 2014. Observing the application of the hybrid warfare in practice serves the purposes of countering its further potential application in post-Soviet space and Russian ‘near abroad’.

  9. Nondestructive inspection of chemical warfare based on API-TOF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinhua; Zheng Pu; He Tie; An Li; Yang Jie; Fan Yu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Real-time, fast, accurate, nondestructive inspection (NDI) and quantitative analysis for chemical warfare are very imperative for chemical defense, anti-terror and nation security. Purpose: Associated Particles Technique (APT)/Neutron Time of Flight (TOF) has been developed for non-invasive inspection of sealed containers with chemical warfare agents. Methods: A prototype equipment for chemical warfare is consisted of an APT neutron generator with a 3×3 matrix of semiconductor detectors of associated alpha-particles, the shielding protection of neutron and gamma-ray, arrayed NaI(Tl)-based detectors of gamma-rays, fully-digital data acquisition electronics, data analysis, decision-making software, support platform and remote control system. Inelastic scattering gamma-ray pulse height spectra of sarin, VX, mustard gas and adamsite induced by 14-MeV neutron are measured. The energies of these gamma rays are used to identify the inelastic scattering elements, and the intensities of the peaks at these energies are used to reveal their concentrations. Results: The characteristic peaks of inelastic scattering gamma-ray pulse height spectra show that the prototype equipment can fast and accurately inspect chemical warfare. Conclusion: The equipment can be used to detect not only chemical warfare agents but also other hazardous materials, such as chemical/toxic/drug materials, if their chemical composition is in any way different from that of the surrounding materials. (authors)

  10. Numerical simulation of RCS for carrier electronic warfare airplanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Kuizhi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the radar cross section (RCS of carrier electronic warfare airplanes. Under the typical naval operations section, the mathematical model of the radar wave’s pitch angle incidence range analysis is established. Based on the CATIA software, considering dynamic deflections of duck wing leading edge flaps, flaperons, horizontal tail, and rudder, as well as aircraft with air-to-air missile, anti-radiation missile, electronic jamming pod, and other weapons, the 3D models of carrier electronic warfare airplanes Model A and Model B with weapons were established. Based on the physical optics method and the equivalent electromagnetic flow method, by the use of the RCSAnsys software, the characteristics of carrier electronic warfare airplanes’ RCS under steady and dynamic flights were simulated under the UHF, X, and S radar bands. This paper researches the detection probability of aircraft by radars under the condition of electronic warfare, and completes the mathematical statistical analysis of the simulation results. The results show that: The Model A of carrier electronic warfare airplane is better than Model B on stealth performance and on discover probability by radar detection effectively.

  11. [Decontamination of chemical warfare agents by photocatalysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Tsutomu; Mera, Nobuaki; Sano, Taizo; Negishi, Nobuaki; Takeuchi, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Photocatalysis has been widely applied to solar-energy conversion and environmental purification. Photocatalyst, typically titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), produces active oxygen species under irradiation of ultraviolet light, and can decompose not only conventional pollutants but also different types of hazardous substances at mild conditions. We have recently started the study of photocatalytic decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) under collaboration with the National Research Institute of Police Science. This article reviews environmental applications of semiconductor photocatalysis, decontamination methods for CWAs, and previous photocatalytic studies applied to CWA degradation, together with some of our results obtained with CWAs and their simulant compounds. The data indicate that photocatalysis, which may not always give a striking power, certainly helps detoxification of such hazardous compounds. Unfortunately, there are not enough data obtained with real CWAs due to the difficulty in handling. We will add more scientific data using CWAs in the near future to develop useful decontamination systems that can reduce the damage caused by possible terrorism.

  12. A review of multi-threat medical countermeasures against chemical warfare and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Fred M; Broomfield, Clarence A; Stojiljkovic, Milos P; Smith, William J

    2004-11-01

    The Multi-Threat Medical Countermeasure (MTMC) hypothesis has been proposed with the aim of developing a single countermeasure drug with efficacy against different pathologies caused by multiple classes of chemical warfare agents. Although sites and mechanisms of action and the pathologies caused by different chemical insults vary, common biochemical signaling pathways, molecular mediators, and cellular processes provide targets for MTMC drugs. This article will review the MTMC hypothesis for blister and nerve agents and will expand the scope of the concept to include other chemicals as well as briefly consider biological agents. The article will also consider how common biochemical signaling pathways, molecular mediators, and cellular processes that contribute to clinical pathologies and syndromes may relate to the toxicity of threat agents. Discovery of MTMC provides the opportunity for the integration of diverse researchers and clinicians, and for the exploitation of cutting-edge technologies and drug discovery. The broad-spectrum nature of MTMC can augment military and civil defense to combat chemical warfare and chemical terrorism.

  13. Lanchester-Type Models of Warfare, Volume II

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, James G.

    1980-01-01

    This monograph is a comprehensive treatist on Lanchester-type models of warfare, i.e. differential-equation models of attrition in force-on-force combat operations. Its goal is to provide both an introduction to and current-state-of-the-art overview of Lanchester-type models of warfare as well as a comprehensive and unified in-depth treatment of them. Both deterministic as well as stochastic models are considered. Such models have been widely used in the United States and elsewhere for the...

  14. Theory of information warfare: basic framework, methodology and conceptual apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Васильович Курбан

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is conducted a comprehensive theoretical study and determine the basic provisions of the modern theory of information warfare in on-line social networks. Three basic blocks, which systematized the theoretical and methodological basis of the topic, are established. There are information and psychological war, social off-line and on-line network. According to the three blocks, theoretical concepts are defined and methodological substantiation of information processes within the information warfare in the social on-line networks is formed

  15. Hybrid warfare of the USA in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Budaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Washington’s hybrid warfare in Latin American region differs by its inventive and sophisticated methods and in fact represents a complex and multidimensional phenomenon including symbiosis of the “soft” and “hard” power as well as their combination in the form of the “smart power”. The increasing importance of hybrid warfare technologies in the US foreign policy in Latin America predetermines the necessity of thorough studies and analysis of this phenomenon for providing Russian interests.

  16. IMS software developments for the detection of chemical warfare agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepel, ST.; Graefenhain, U.; Lippe, R.; Stach, J.; Starrock, V.

    1995-01-01

    Interference compounds like gasoline, diesel, burning wood or fuel, etc. are presented in common battlefield situations. These compounds can cause detectors to respond as a false positive or interfere with the detector's ability to respond to target compounds such as chemical warfare agents. To ensure proper response of the ion mobility spectrometer to chemical warfare agents, two special software packages were developed and incorporated into the Bruker RAID-1. The programs suppress interferring signals caused by car exhaust or smoke gases resulting from burning materials and correct the influence of variable sample gas humidity which is important for detection and quantification of blister agents like mustard gas or lewisite.

  17. Nanostructured Metal Oxides for Stoichiometric Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Janos, P.; Skoumal, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 236, č. 2016 (2016), s. 239-258 ISSN 0179-5953 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/1116 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : chemical warfare agent * metal nanoparticle * unique surface- chemistry * mesoporous manganese oxide Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.930, year: 2016

  18. The Role of Civil Affairs in Unconventional Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    neighbor to the west, and secured the eastern border of Laos 32 Mao Tse -Tung, On Guerrilla Warfare...INTRODUCTION..........................................................................................19  B.  BRIEF HISTORY OF LAOS ...Royal Lao Army SCA Support to Civil Administration SCIRI Supreme Council of Iraq SG Shadow Government SOF Special Operations Forces TAI Targeted

  19. Management information systems for electronic warfare command and decision support

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, B

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available information to allow them to manage their own spectrum, to identify threats, and to deny adversaries’ use of the spectrum. In this paper, the concepts of integrated electronic warfare and spectrum battle management are introduced, and the relevant information...

  20. Manoeuvre warfare analysis of South Africa's 1914-1915 German ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study reported in this article explored the nexus between military theory and history. Military theory attempts to quantify, qualify and illuminate the often unpredictable phenomenon of war. The article consists of two parts: the theory of manoeuvre warfare and the history of the 1914-1915 South African campaign in ...

  1. blitzkrieg to desert storm: the evolution of operational warfare

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a_nabb

    disease of stalemates infecting militaries before the Second World War. The invasion did not change the world; instead, it brought about an increased awareness of the importance of the operational level of war, a dimension of warfare previously neglected. The German operational effectiveness represented an evolution ...

  2. A identification system for chemical warfare agents with PGNAA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bairong; Yin Guanghua; Yang Zhongping

    2006-01-01

    The principle and the experimental commanding of Chemical warfare Agents Identification with PGNAA method are discussed in this paper. The choosing of Detector, neutron source and the data processing method are detailed. Finally, a set of experimental instruments composed of Cf-232 and BGO detector is developed based on the theory discussed above. (authors)

  3. Identification system for chemical warfare agents with PGNAA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bairong; Yin Guanghua; Yang Zhongpin

    2007-01-01

    The principle and the experimental commanding of Chemical warfare Agents Identification with PGNAA method are discussed in this paper. The choosing of detector, neutron source and the data processing method are detailed. Finally, a set of experimental instruments composed of Cf-232 and BGO detector is developed based on this theory discussed above. (authors)

  4. Biomonitoring of exposure to chemical warfare agents: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Benschop, H.P.; Black, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this report an overview of the methods currently available for detection of exposure to a number of chemical warfare agents (CWA), i.e., sulfur mustard, lewisite and nerve agents, is presented. Such methods can be applied for various purposes, e.g., diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure of

  5. Recent canadian experience in chemical warfare agent destruction. An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAndless, J.M.

    1995-09-01

    A Canadian chemical warfare agent destruction project (Swiftsure) was recently completed in which stockpiles of aged mustard, lewisite, nerve agents and contaminated scrap metal were incinerated or chemically neutralized in a safe, environmentally-responsible manner. The project scope, destruction technologies, environmental monitoring and public consultation programs are described.

  6. Simulating cyber warfare and cyber defenses: information value considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2011-06-01

    Simulating cyber warfare is critical to the preparation of decision-makers for the challenges posed by cyber attacks. Simulation is the only means we have to prepare decision-makers for the inevitable cyber attacks upon the information they will need for decision-making and to develop cyber warfare strategies and tactics. Currently, there is no theory regarding the strategies that should be used to achieve objectives in offensive or defensive cyber warfare, and cyber warfare occurs too rarely to use real-world experience to develop effective strategies. To simulate cyber warfare by affecting the information used for decision-making, we modify the information content of the rings that are compromised during in a decision-making context. The number of rings affected and value of the information that is altered (i.e., the closeness of the ring to the center) is determined by the expertise of the decision-maker and the learning outcome(s) for the simulation exercise. We determine which information rings are compromised using the probability that the simulated cyber defenses that protect each ring can be compromised. These probabilities are based upon prior cyber attack activity in the simulation exercise as well as similar real-world cyber attacks. To determine which information in a compromised "ring" to alter, the simulation environment maintains a record of the cyber attacks that have succeeded in the simulation environment as well as the decision-making context. These two pieces of information are used to compute an estimate of the likelihood that the cyber attack can alter, destroy, or falsify each piece of information in a compromised ring. The unpredictability of information alteration in our approach adds greater realism to the cyber event. This paper suggests a new technique that can be used for cyber warfare simulation, the ring approach for modeling context-dependent information value, and our means for considering information value when assigning cyber

  7. History of the Chemical Warfare Service in World War II. Biological Warfare Research in the United States, Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1947-11-01

    regarded as a pos- itive test. No individual, however, with a known history of brucell - osis or skin sensitivity was given either Brucellergen...investigation made of the organism and toxin. Brucell - osis caused the greatest tiaie loss per case, averaging 177 days; glanders was next with 121 days...Eeningopneumonitis viruses, brucel - losis, tularemia, end melioido3is. Studies were also made using this type chamber on the employment of a dye as a tracer in

  8. Defending Our Satellites: The Need for Electronic Warfare Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    intercept Allied bombers attacking at night.9 As a result of the electronic warfare advantage that systems like Window and Airborne Cigar be- stowed...74 | Air & Space Power Journal Defending Our Satellites The Need for Electronic Warfare Education and Training Lt Col E. Lincoln Bonner, USAF...expanding education and training in the use of electronic warfare to defend US satellites and improve their survivability. The following discussion

  9. Cultural Competence and the Operational Commander: Moving Beyond Cultural Awareness into Culture-Centric Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karcanes, James A

    2007-01-01

    .... Understanding the different levels of cultural awareness -- cultural consideration, cultural understanding, and cultural competence -- will help usher in a new focus on culture-centric warfare...

  10. Ending the Debate: Unconventional Warfare, Foreign Internal Defense, and Why Words Matter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, D

    2006-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate within the Special Forces community whether unconventional warfare and foreign internal defense are applicable in the contemporary and future Special Operations environments...

  11. Mass Spectrometric Determination of Chemical Warfare Agents in Indoor Sample Media Typically Collected During Forensic Investigations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Agostino, P. A; Hancock, J. R; Chenier, C. L

    2005-01-01

    .... DRDC Suffield, in collaboration with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, identified a need for analytical methods for chemical warfare agent identification in media, including flooring, wall surfaces...

  12. Redefining Hybrid Warfare: Russia's Non-linear War against the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tad Schnaufer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The term hybrid warfare fails to properly describe Russian operations in Ukraine and elsewhere. Russia has undertaken unconventional techniques to build its influence and test the boundaries of a shaken international system. Notably, Russia’s actions in Ukraine display an evolved style of warfare that goes beyond its initial label of hybrid warfare. The term non-linear war (NLW will be defined in this article to encompass Russia’s actions and allow policymakers the correct framework to discuss and respond to Russia. NLW plays to the advantage of countries like Russia and constitute the future of warfare.

  13. Decontamination and Detoxification of Toxic Chemical Warfare Agents Using Polyurethane Sponges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gordon, Richard K; Gunduz, Alper T; Askins, LaTawnya Y; Strating, Simon J; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Clarkson, Edward D; Mitchelree, Larry W; Lukey, Brian; Railer, Roy; Schulz, Susan

    2003-01-01

    .... Another serious problem that may be encountered while caring for personnel contaminated with organophosphorus chemical warfare nerve agents is the possibility that there will be cross-contamination...

  14. Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare (2/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The first part of the lecture is devoted to the description of the Stuxnet worm, the first cyber-weapon whose existence has been made public, discovered in 2010 and targeting a specific industrial control system; the worm is responsible for the damaging of many centrifuges at an uranium enrichment facility, with the goal of sabotaging Iran's nuclear program. In the second part, the main features of cyber-warfare in conflict and pre-conflict activities will be discussed and compared to the conventional warfare domains, with also a general view at the international political debate on this topic.   Check the http://pugwash.org web site, an organisation that seeks a world free of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction. The lecturer invites comments via email to Gian.Piero.Siroli@cern.ch NB! All Academic Training lectures are recorded and are publicly available. There is no live webcast.

  15. Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare (1/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The first part of the lecture is devoted to the description of the Stuxnet worm, the first cyber-weapon whose existence has been made public, discovered in 2010 and targeting a specific industrial control system; the worm is responsible for the damaging of many centrifuges at an uranium enrichment facility, with the goal of sabotaging Iran's nuclear program. In the second part, the main features of cyber-warfare in conflict and pre-conflict activities will be discussed and compared to the conventional warfare domains, with also a general view at the international political debate on this topic. Check the http://pugwash.org web site, an organisation that seeks a world free of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction.   NB! All Academic Training lectures are recorded and are publicly available. There is no live webcast.

  16. Identification of chemical warfare agent with radiological measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Boxue; Li Yun; Ai Xianyun

    2000-01-01

    There are three non-destructive radiological methods for identification of warfare agents and TNT. Their principles and problems related were discussed. Portable isotopic neutron spectroscopy is based on the assay of key elemental composition (such as Cl, P, H, As, S, N) in chemical agents by neutron induced prompt gamma ray analysis. Hydrogen concentration measurement by means of using thermal neutron can be employed to identify chemical warfare agents and TNT that contains different hydrogen fraction. The calibration curves of thermal neutron count rate against hydrogen concentration were measured. X ray imagination system can be used to determine the internal structure of chemical bombs, there by to identify them. The radiological methods are very useful for identification of old chemical weapons abandoned by Japan Army during World War 2

  17. Just War and Postmodern Warfare: A German Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    warfare construct, Germany is shaping a military concept based on recent conflicts and unfettered by biases of conventional strategies, organizations...remain sovereign while subconsciously evolving toward liberal democratic ideas. In respecting each country’s political sensitivities, Germany’s...before exhausting all diplomatic, economic and information instruments. Whereas the term AU/ACSC/PINSON/AY15 13 “interests” may bias the United

  18. Nodes and Codes: The Reality of Cyber Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    respectively. The avionics in Boeing’s 787 Dreamliner require approximately 6.5 million lines of code while the current S-Class Mercedes Benz requires over 20...leaders (demonstrated through outdated policy, theory, and doctrine) and the reality of warfare in 1914 (dictated by innovation, technology , and...or the guidelines to military action codified in doctrine? How are states using the latest technological innovations as violent instruments of

  19. Attacking the infrastructure: exploring potential uses of offensive information warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Elam, Donald Emmett.

    1996-01-01

    The world has entered the Third Wave; it has entered the Information Age. One of the fundamentals of this paradigm shift is the fact that information is power. The side that controls information more effectively will be victorious. Thus, countries and militaries must change their mentality in order to survive. A new form of conflict, Information Warfare, has been born. This new discipline is large, dynamic, and complex. The need exists for education among military officers and other concerned...

  20. Built to Outlast: Operational Approaches to Hybrid Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    29Robert T. Ames, Sun Tzu: The Art of War (New York: Ballantine Books, 1993), 78-80; Mao Tse -Tung, On Guerrilla Warfare, trans. Samuel B. Griffith...Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1961), 25, 42.The works of Sun Tzu and Mao Tse -Tung both illustrate aspects of this concept. In a work...toreador’s cape, not the toreador himself. - Norman B. Hannah, The Key to Failure: Laos and the Vietnam War114 Against the backdrop of the Cold

  1. Numerical simulation of RCS for carrier electronic warfare airplanes

    OpenAIRE

    Yue Kuizhi; Liu Wenlin; Li Guanxiong; Ji Jinzu; Yu Dazhao

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the radar cross section (RCS) of carrier electronic warfare airplanes. Under the typical naval operations section, the mathematical model of the radar wave’s pitch angle incidence range analysis is established. Based on the CATIA software, considering dynamic deflections of duck wing leading edge flaps, flaperons, horizontal tail, and rudder, as well as aircraft with air-to-air missile, anti-radiation missile, electronic jamming pod, and other weapons, the 3D models of carr...

  2. Annihilation Prediction for Lanchester-Type Models of Modern Warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, G.G.; Taylor, J.

    1983-01-01

    Operations Research, 31, p.752. This paper introduces important new functions for analytic solution of Launch-ester-type equations of modern warfare for combat between two homogeneous forces modeled by power attrtition-rate coefficients with "no offset". Tabulations of these Lanchester-Clifford-Schlatii (or LCS) functions allow one to study this particular variable-coefficient model almost as easily and thoroughly as Lanchester's classic constant-coefficient one. LCS functions allow one ...

  3. Inside the Wire: American Security and Cyber Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Roberts, Kerry V. " SUN TZU and The Art of Cyber Warfare." Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International 19, no. 1(Spring 2013): 12-4...12. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01-03-2017 Bibliography 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Inside the Wire: American Security...MCDERMOTT LIBRARY U.S. AIR FORCE ACADEMY 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT USAF ACADEMY CO 80840-6214 NUMBER(S) Special Bibliography Series # 119 12

  4. Hungarys Alternative to Counter Hybrid Warfare - Small States Weaponized Citizenry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    said “Resilience as a terminological and operational factor, will become the newest ‘ brand ’ and communication name for the Alliance.”70 He also...audiences to influence their emotions , motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of foreign governments, organizations, groups, and...so-called influence warfare. His study pinpointed the importance of emotion over rational facts in messages. Second, Edward Lucas and Ben Nimmo on

  5. Recent Advances in Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Wadood Khan; Sabna Kotta; Shahid Husain Ansari; Javed Ali; Rakesh Kumar Sharma

    2013-01-01

    The recent turmoil and volatile situation in many countries and the increased risk of terrorist activities have raised alarm bells for the field of defense against toxic chemical/materials. These situations poses threats to society as terrorists can take advantage of such situations to strike and cause public mayhem. A number of chemicals have the potential of being used as chemical warfare (CW) agents. CW agents could immediately kill or incapacitate the affected individuals even when they a...

  6. Cyber warfare:terms, issues, laws and controversies

    OpenAIRE

    Seviş, Kamile Nur; Şeker, Ensar

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have shown us the importance of cybersecurity. Especially, when the matter is national security, it is even more essential and crucial. Increasing cyber attacks, especially between countries in governmental level, created a new term cyber warfare. Creating some rules and regulations for this kind of war is necessary therefore international justice systems are working on it continuously. In this paper, we mentioned fundamental terms of cyber...

  7. Littoral Combat Ship Open Ocean Anti-Submarine Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    maintain stealth and its defense in order to properly conduct an attack on a surface vessel (Sternhell and Thorndike 2014, 102). This statement...its target, the surface combatants can counter by increasing their speed (Sternhell and Thorndike 2014). While the maximum speed of the current...120316_PS.pdf Sternhell, Charles M, and Alan M Thorndike . 2014. “Antisubmarine Warfare in World War II.” CNA Analysis & Solutions. Accessed April 14, 2014

  8. Russian and Chinese Information Warfare: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Integral neurolinguistic programming •Placing essential programs into the conscious or sub- conscious mind •Subconscious suggestions that modify human...Generators of special rays •Optical systems • Neurolinguistic programming •Computer psychotechnology •The mass media •Audiovisual effects •Special effects...Information Warfare: Theory and Practice 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  9. Special Forces and the Art of Influence: A Grassroots Approach to Psychological Operations in an Unconventional Warfare Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, II, Joel W

    2006-01-01

    This thesis researches the intricacies of the art of influence in an unconventional warfare environment to develop a model of influence that can be utilized by Special Forces conducting unconventional warfare...

  10. Chemical warfare agents identification by thermal neutron detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Boxue; Ai Xianyun; Tan Daoyuan; Zhang Dianqin

    2000-01-01

    The hydrogen concentration determination by thermal neutron detection is a non-destructive, fast and effective method to identify chemical warfare agents and TNT that contain different hydrogen fraction. When an isotropic neutron source is used to irradiate chemical ammunition, hydrogen atoms of the agent inside shell act as a moderator and slow down neutrons. The number of induced thermal neutrons depends mainly upon hydrogen content of the agent. Therefore measurement of thermal neutron influence can be used to determine hydrogen atom concentration, thereby to determine the chemical warfare agents. Under a certain geometry three calibration curves of count rate against hydrogen concentration were measured. According to the calibration curves, response of a chemical agent or TNT could be calculated. Differences of count rate among chemical agents and TNT for each kind of shells is greater than five times of standard deviations of count rate for any agent, so chemical agents or TNT could be identified correctly. Meanwhile, blast tube or liquid level of chemical warfare agent could affect the response of thermal neutron count rate, and thereby the result of identification. (author)

  11. Quality of Life in Iranian Chemical Warfare Veteran's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Abbas; Moradian, Tayeb; Mollahadi, Mohsen; Saeed, Yaser; Refahi, Ali Akbar

    2014-05-01

    Mustard gas has different effects on different body systems such as respiratory tract, blood, gastrointestinal, skin, eye, endocrine and peripheral nervous system. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of life in chemical warfare veterans due to sulfur mustard exposure. In a cross-sectional and analytic study, 242 patients who had a chemical injury during the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1983) and their lung damage was proven were investigated in our study. The quality of life was measured in these patients using an extensively validated Iranian version of SF-36. The mean age of veterans was 44.12 ± 4.9 ranging from 22 to 62 years. Our results showed that chemical warfare had a decreased quality of life in all subscales of the SF-36. The lowest scores in SF-36 subscales were related to role physical and general health. The data also showed a significant relationship between the number of organs involved and the quality of life in these patients (P chemical warfare survivors suffering from late complications have a low health related quality of life.

  12. Chemically-functionalized microcantilevers for detection of chemical, biological and explosive material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A [Knoxville, TN; Thundat, Thomas G [Knoxville, TN; Brown, Gilbert M [Knoxville, TN; Hawk, John Eric [Olive Branch, MS; Boiadjiev, Vassil I [Knoxville, TN

    2007-04-24

    A chemically functionalized cantilever system has a cantilever coated on one side thereof with a reagent or biological species which binds to an analyte. The system is of particular value when the analyte is a toxic chemical biological warfare agent or an explosive.

  13. 78 FR 55326 - Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria Under the Chemical and Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8460] Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991 AGENCY: Bureau of... Government has determined on August 2, pursuant to Section 306(a) of the Chemical and Biological Weapons...

  14. Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and High-Yield Explosives Consequences Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-02

    protective measures associated with such offensive operations. Since riot control agents and herbicides are not considered to be chemical warfare agents...control. Procedures to avoid, reduce, remove, or render harmless (temporarily or permanently) nuclear, radiological, biological, and chemical...destroying, neutralizing, making harmless , or removing chemical or biological agents, or by removing radioactive material clinging to or around it. (JP 1

  15. Synthetic biology and biosecurity: challenging the "myths".

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferson, C; Lentzos, F; Marris, C

    2014-01-01

    15.10.14 KB. Ok to add published version to spiral, OA paper under cc by Synthetic biology, a field that aims to make biology easier to engineer, is routinely described as leading to an increase in the dual-use threat, i.e., the potential for the same scientific research to be used for peaceful purposes or misused for warfare or terrorism. Fears have been expressed that the de-skilling of biology, combined with online access to the genomic DNA sequences of pathogenic organisms an...

  16. United States Coast Guard Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW) in the Maritime Defense Zone (MDZ) - A Strategic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    RIC ILE COPY AIR WAR COLLGE REEAC R~pCR UNITED STATES COAST GUARD ANTISUBMARINE WARFARE (ASW) IN THE MARITIME DEFENSE ZONE (MDZ) -A STRATEGIC...going to perform in these MDZs. Those tasks identified so far include: port and coastal physical security & preventive safety, mine warfare

  17. The Utility of Freedom: A Principal-Agent Model for Unconventional Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Lanchester Model of Guerrilla Warfare,‖ Operations Research 10, no. 6 (December 1962): 818–827; William A. Niskanen, ―Review: The Economics of Insurgency...http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/DDRS?locID=navalps. Deitchman, S. J. ―A Lanchester Model of Guerrilla Warfare.‖ Operations Research 10, no

  18. Understanding the elementary considerations in a network warfare environment: an introductory framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available . It seeks to offer a better introductory understanding to the field of network warfare. This paper addresses the requirements for a network warfare capability and will look at the high-level approach, constraints, focus areas, levels, techniques...

  19. Metal organic frameworks for the catalytic detoxification of chemical warfare nerve agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.; Katz, Michael J.; Mondloch, Joseph E.

    2017-04-18

    A method of using a metal organic framework (MOF) comprising a metal ion and an at least bidendate organic ligand to catalytically detoxify chemical warfare nerve agents including exposing the metal-organic-framework (MOF) to the chemical warfare nerve agent and catalytically decomposing the nerve agent with the MOF.

  20. Study on the identification method of chemical warfare agents with spectroscopy of neutron induced γ rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Boxue; Li Yun; Li Xiangbao

    1996-01-01

    The paper briefly describes some non-destructive verification technologies of chemical warfare agents in-site, and some application of neutron induced gamma ray analysis, such as multi-elements analysis of coal, hidden explosive detection and identification of chemical agents. It also describes some problems in developing the portable isotopic neutron spectroscopy for non-destructive evaluation of chemical warfare agents

  1. Antidotes and treatments for chemical warfare/terrorism agents: an evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, G C; Condurache, C T

    2010-09-01

    This article reviews the evidence supporting the efficacy of antidotes used or recommended for the potential chemical warfare agents of most concern. Chemical warfare agents considered include cyanide, vesicants, pulmonary irritants such as chlorine and phosgene, and nerve agents. The strength of evidence for most antidotes is weak, highlighting the need for additional research in this area.

  2. Status of dental health in chemical warfare victims: The case of Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mottaghi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Chemical warfare victims have relatively poor dental/oral health. Chemical injury might cause a dysfunction in saliva secretion, with decrease in saliva secretion increasing the risk for tooth decay and periodontal disorders. Further research is required to find out the exact underlying mechanisms and the factors associated with poor dental/oral health in chemical warfare victims.

  3. 75 FR 6642 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection; Naval Special Warfare Recruiting Directorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... Information Collection; Naval Special Warfare Recruiting Directorate AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Naval Special Warfare (NSW) Recruiting Directorate announces the submission... any of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov . Follow the...

  4. Analysis of the Precursors, Simulants and Degradation Products of Chemical Warfare Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkiewicz, Zygfryd; Neffe, Slawomir; Sliwka, Ewa; Quagliano, Javier

    2018-09-03

    Recent advances in analysis of precursors, simulants and degradation products of chemical warfare agents (CWA) are reviewed. Fast and reliable analysis of precursors, simulants and CWA degradation products is extremely important at a time, when more and more terrorist groups and radical non-state organizations use or plan to use chemical weapons to achieve their own psychological, political and military goals. The review covers the open source literature analysis after the time, when the chemical weapons convention had come into force (1997). The authors stated that during last 15 years increased number of laboratories are focused not only on trace analysis of CWA (mostly nerve and blister agents) in environmental and biological samples, but the growing number of research are devoted to instrumental analysis of precursors and degradation products of these substances. The identification of low-level concentration of CWA degradation products is often more important and difficult than the original CWA, because of lower level of concentration and a very large number of compounds present in environmental and biological samples. Many of them are hydrolysis products and are present in samples in the ionic form. For this reason, two or three instrumental methods are used to perform a reliable analysis of these substances.

  5. Cybersecurity protecting critical infrastructures from cyber attack and cyber warfare

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    The World Economic Forum regards the threat of cyber attack as one of the top five global risks confronting nations of the world today. Cyber attacks are increasingly targeting the core functions of the economies in nations throughout the world. The threat to attack critical infrastructures, disrupt critical services, and induce a wide range of damage is becoming more difficult to defend against. Cybersecurity: Protecting Critical Infrastructures from Cyber Attack and Cyber Warfare examines the current cyber threat landscape and discusses the strategies being used by governments and corporatio

  6. Getting the Next War Right: Beyond Population-centric Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    respectively: Che Guevara and Mao Tse -tung. Che’s foco theory, as we have discussed, advocates mobilizing from the top. The armed challenger chooses an...example, Thomas A. Marks, “Guerrillas in the Mist: Hmong Resistance Continues in Laos ,” Combat and Survival 8, no. 5 (August 1996), 4–11. 12 Theory and...Mao Tse -tung, On Guerrilla Warfare, trans. and ed. Samuel B. Grif!th (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 2005). The book is available from a wide

  7. Environmental assessments of sea dumped chemical warfare agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik

    This is a report on the information gathered during work related to sea dumped chemical warfare agents. It mainly reviews the work conducted in relation to the installation of the two Nord Stream gas pipeline from 2008-2012. The focus was on the weight-of-evidence risk assessment of disturbed CWA...... residues in connection with the installation of the pipelines. Novel exposure and toxicity assessments are presented and the risk is assessed. The overall conclusion is that there is a negligible acute added CWA risk towards the fish community from the installation of the pipelines....

  8. Ultraviolet Raman scattering from persistent chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullander, Fredrik; Wästerby, Pär.; Landström, Lars

    2016-05-01

    Laser induced Raman scattering at excitation wavelengths in the middle ultraviolet was examined using a pulsed tunable laser based spectrometer system. Droplets of chemical warfare agents, with a volume of 2 μl, were placed on a silicon surface and irradiated with sequences of laser pulses. The Raman scattering from V-series nerve agents, Tabun (GA) and Mustard gas (HD) was studied with the aim of finding the optimum parameters and the requirements for a detection system. A particular emphasis was put on V-agents that have been previously shown to yield relatively weak Raman scattering in this excitation band.

  9. Status of dental health in chemical warfare victims: the case of Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaghi, Ahmad; Hoseinzade, Abolfath; Zamani, Elham; Araghizade, Habib Allah

    2012-01-01

    Little evidence is available regarding the dental health of victims of chemical warfare in Iran. Therefore, in this study, we examined the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (DMFT), community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN), and saliva secretion rate of chemical warfare victims living in the province of Isfahan in Iran. This case-control study was conducted with 300 chemical warfare victims as the treatment group and 300 age-matched individuals without exposure to chemical warfare as the control group. DMFT and CPITN indices and saliva secretion rate were measured and compared between the two groups. Chemical warfare victims had significantly higher scores than the control group for decayed teeth (4.25 ± 3.88 vs 3.52 ± 2.81; P=0.009), missing teeth (8.79 ± 9.3 vs 6.15 ± 8.43; Pwarfare victims was significantly lower than that in the control group (1.71 ± 0.05 vs 3.85 ± 1.95 cc/5 min; PChemical warfare victims have relatively poor dental/oral health. Chemical injury might cause a dysfunction in saliva secretion, with decrease in saliva secretion increasing the risk for tooth decay and periodontal disorders. Further research is required to find out the exact underlying mechanisms and the factors associated with poor dental/oral health in chemical warfare victims.

  10. Enhanced formulations for neutralization of chemical, biological and industrial toxants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D [Albuqueque, NM

    2008-06-24

    An enhanced formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The enhanced formulation according to the present invention is non-toxic and non-corrosive and can be delivered by a variety of means and in different phases. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator and water.

  11. [Principles of management in biological infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płusa, Tadeusz

    2012-11-01

    The effectiveness of the management in respiratory infection is depending on the nature of the biological pathogen and the immune status of the patient. For this reason, providing assistance to victims the organ function support, similarly as defining the pathogen and targeted antibiotic therapy should be applied. Available diagnostic tests provide rapid ability to identify the pathogen and antibiotics are able to control infection. Lack of efficacy of treatment may indicate the diversity of the pathogen than previously known and raises suspicion of biological warfare pathogen.

  12. Punishment sustains large-scale cooperation in prestate warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Sarah; Boyd, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Understanding cooperation and punishment in small-scale societies is crucial for explaining the origins of human cooperation. We studied warfare among the Turkana, a politically uncentralized, egalitarian, nomadic pastoral society in East Africa. Based on a representative sample of 88 recent raids, we show that the Turkana sustain costly cooperation in combat at a remarkably large scale, at least in part, through punishment of free-riders. Raiding parties comprised several hundred warriors and participants are not kin or day-to-day interactants. Warriors incur substantial risk of death and produce collective benefits. Cowardice and desertions occur, and are punished by community-imposed sanctions, including collective corporal punishment and fines. Furthermore, Turkana norms governing warfare benefit the ethnolinguistic group, a population of a half-million people, at the expense of smaller social groupings. These results challenge current views that punishment is unimportant in small-scale societies and that human cooperation evolved in small groups of kin and familiar individuals. Instead, these results suggest that cooperation at the larger scale of ethnolinguistic units enforced by third-party sanctions could have a deep evolutionary history in the human species. PMID:21670285

  13. China's Use of Cyber Warfare: Espionage Meets Strategic Deterrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Hjortdal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents three reasons for states to use cyber warfare and shows that cyberspace is—and will continue to be—a decisive element in China's strategy to ascend in the international system. The three reasons are: deterrence through infiltration of critical infrastructure; military technological espionage to gain military knowledge; and industrial espionage to gain economic advantage. China has a greater interest in using cyberspace offensively than other actors, such as the United States, since it has more to gain from spying on and deterring the United States than the other way around. The article also documents China's progress in cyber warfare and shows how it works as an extension of its traditional strategic thinking and the current debate within the country. Several examples of cyber attacks traceable to China are also presented. This includes cyber intrusions on a nuclear arms laboratory, attacks on defense ministries (including the Joint Strike Fighter and an airbase and the U.S. electric grid, as well as the current Google affair, which has proved to be a small part of a broader attack that also targeted the U.S. Government. There are, however, certain constraints that qualify the image of China as an aggressive actor in cyberspace. Some believe that China itself is the victim of just as many attacks from other states. Furthermore, certain actors in the United States and the West have an interest in overestimating China's capabilities in cyberspace in order to maintain their budgets.

  14. Biodiversity conservation and armed conflict: a warfare ecology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Thor

    2018-04-23

    The activities involved in preparing for, executing, and recovering from armed conflict are globally pervasive and consequential, with significant impacts on natural systems. Effects on biodiversity are predominantly negative, produced by direct and indirect battlefield impacts, as well as the general breakdown of social, economic, and governance systems during wartime. Certain conservation opportunities do occur, however, particularly on lands set aside for training exercises, buffer zones, and peace parks. Here, the relationship between armed conflict and biodiversity is reviewed using the temporal framework of warfare ecology, which defines warfare as an ongoing process of three overlapping stages: preparations, war (armed conflict), and postwar activities. Several themes emerge from recent studies, including a heightened awareness of biodiversity conservation on military lands, the potential for scientific and conservation engagement to mitigate negative biodiversity impacts in war zones, and the importance of the postwar period for incorporating biodiversity priorities into reconstruction and recovery efforts. Research limitations and knowledge gaps are also discussed. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Comparison of Three Sample Preparation Methods for Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agent Stimulants in Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandro Sassolini

    2015-01-01

    Analytical chemistry in CBRNe (Chemical Biological Radiological Nuclear explosive) context requires not only high quality data; quickness, ruggedness and robustness are also mandatory. In this work, three samples preparation methods were compared using several organophosphorus pesticides as test compounds, used as stimulants of nerve CWA (Chemical Warfare Agents) to choose the one with best characteristics. Result was obtained better with the Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Micro Extraction (DLLME), relatively new in CBRNe field, obtaining uncertainty for different simulants between 8 and 15 % while a quantification limit between 0.01 and 0.08 μg/ l. To optimize this extraction method, different organo chlorinated solvents also tested but not relevant difference in these tests was obtained. In this work, all samples were analyzed by using a gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and also with Gas Chromatograph coupled with Nitrogen Phosphorous Detector (NPD) for DLLME samples to evaluate a low cost and rugged instrument adapt to field analytical methods with good performance in terms of uncertainty and sensibility even if poorer respect to the mass spectrometry. (author)

  16. Information Warfare: Issues Associated with the Defense of DOD Computers and Computer Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Franklin, Derek

    2002-01-01

    ... that may threaten the critical information pathways of the armed forces An analysis of the history of computer information warfare reveals that there was an embarrassing lack of readiness and defense...

  17. Cerium oxide for the destruction of chemical warfare agents: A comparison of synthetic routes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janos, P.; Henych, Jiří; Pelant, O.; Pilařová, V.; Vrtoch, L.; Kormunda, M.; Mazanec, K.; Štengl, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 304, MAR (2016), s. 259-268 ISSN 0304-3894 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Cerium oxide * Chemical warfare agents * Organophosphate compounds * Decontamination Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 6.065, year: 2016

  18. From Douhet to drones, air warfare, and the evolution of targeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, F.P.B.; Roorda, M.P.; Ducheine, P.A.L.; Schmitt, M.N.; Osinga, F.P.B.

    2016-01-01

    Through the prism of the experience of air warfare, this chapter identifies key factors that have shaped targeting. These include technological developments, organizational structures, and processes and inter-service competition for scarce resources. Moreover, targeting is informed by perspectives

  19. Defense Base Closure and Realignment Budget Data for the Naval Surface Warfare Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    ... and realignment military construction projects. This report provides the results of the audit related to the realignment of Naval Surface Warfare Centers elements in White Oak, Maryland, and Panama City, Florida, to Dahlgren, Virginia...

  20. CRUSER's Warfare Innovation Workshop Focused on Hybrid War in the Urban Littorals

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrlich, Michael

    2017-01-01

    News Stories Archive The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) Consortium for Robotics and Unmanned Systems Education and Research, CRUSER, hosted its annual Warfare Innovation Workshop (WIW) in Glasgow Hall, Sept. 18-21.

  1. The Army Ground Forces Training for Mountain and Winter Warfare - Study No. 23

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Govan, Thomas

    1946-01-01

    This general study of the experiments in mountain and winter warfare training from 1940 to 1944 is designed as an introduction to the histories of the Mountain Training Center and The 10th Mountain...

  2. Electronic Warfare: Towed Decoys Could Improve Survivability of Current Navy Aircraft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aiken, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, DOD'S combat aircraft have used on-board electronic warfare devices called jammers for self-protection against radar-controlled weapons, including missiles and anti-aircraft artillery...

  3. Optimizing Armed Forces Capabilities for Hybrid Warfare – New Challenge for Slovak Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter PINDJÁK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the optimization of military capabilities of the Slovak Armed Forces for conducting operations in a hybrid conflict, which represents one of the possible scenarios of irregular warfare. Whereas in the regular warfare adversaries intend to eliminate the centers of gravity of each other, most often command and control structures, in irregular conflicts, the center of gravity shifts towards the will and cognitive perception of the target population. Hybrid warfare comprises a thoroughly planned combination of conventional military approaches and kinetic operations with subversive, irregular activities, including information and cyber operations. These efforts are often accompanied by intensified activities of intelligence services, special operation forces, and even mercenary and other paramilitary groups. The development of irregular warfare capabilities within the Slovak Armed Forces will require a progressive transformation process that may turn the armed forces into a modern and adaptable element of power, capable of deployment in national and international crisis management operations.

  4. Surface Warfare Officer Retention: Analysis of Individual Ready Reserve Survey Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stoker, Carol; Crawford, Alice

    2008-01-01

    ... (including morale and lack of mentoring), push both men and women out of the Navy. Nonetheless, the Navy s primary effort to improve retention has been to introduce the Surface Warfare Officer Continuation Pay (SWOCP...

  5. Understanding "Understanding" Flow for Network-Centric Warfare: Military Knowledge-Flow Mechanics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nissen, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Network-centric warfare (NCW) emphasizes information superiority for battlespace efficacy, but it is clear that the mechanics of how knowledge flows are just as important as those pertaining to the networks and communication...

  6. DRES Database of Methods for the Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Agostino, Paul

    1997-01-01

    .... Update of the database continues as an ongoing effort and the DRES Database of Methods for the Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents is available panel in hardcopy form or as a softcopy Procite or Wordperfect file...

  7. The Rapier or the Club: The Relationship between Attrition and Maneuver Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Springman, Jeffrey A

    2006-01-01

    ...? This project compares the relationship between attrition and maneuver warfare. The study considers whether there are times when wars of attrition should be fought, and whether there are conditions that force wars of attrition...

  8. Diagnosis of Exposure to Chemical Warfare Agents: A Comprehensive Literature Survey 1990-2005

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Noort, D

    2006-01-01

    This report is an update of TNO report PML 2003-A63. In this report an overview is presented of the methods currently available for detection of exposure to a number of chemical warfare agents (CWA), i.e...

  9. Anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress in Iranian survivors of chemical warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, Farnoosh; Khoshnood, Kaveh; Desai, Mayur M; Falahati, Farahnaz; Kasl, Stanislav; Southwick, Steven

    2006-08-02

    In the 1980-1988 Iran-Iraq War, extensive use of chemical weapons resulted in high rates of morbidity and mortality. While much is known about the physical consequences of chemical warfare, there is a paucity of information about the long-term effects of chemical attacks on mental health. To assess the long-term psychological impact of chemical warfare on a civilian population. Cross-sectional randomized survey conducted in July 2004 of 153 civilians in 3 towns exposed to warfare in northwestern Iran: Oshnaviyeh (low-intensity conventional warfare), Rabat (high-intensity conventional warfare), and Sardasht (both high-intensity conventional warfare and chemical weapons). Full or partial posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms were assessed using Farsi versions of the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, Hamilton Scale for Anxiety, and Beck Depression Inventory, respectively. Overall participation rate was 93%. Respondents had a mean age of 45 years and were all of Kurdish ethnicity. Among individuals exposed to both high-intensity warfare and chemical weapons, prevalence rates for lifetime PTSD, current PTSD, major anxiety symptoms, and severe depressive symptoms were 59%, 33%, 65%, and 41%, respectively. Among the low-intensity warfare group, the corresponding rates were 8%, 2%, 18%, and 6%, respectively, while intermediate rates were found among those exposed to high-intensity warfare but not to chemical weapons (31%, 8%, 26%, and 12%, respectively). Compared with individuals exposed to low-intensity warfare, those exposed to both high-intensity warfare and chemical weapons were at higher risk for lifetime PTSD (odds ratio [OR], 18.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.8-59.4), current PTSD (OR, 27.4; 95% CI, 3.4-218.2), increased anxiety symptoms (OR, 14.6; 95% CI, 6.0-35.6), and increased depressive symptoms (OR, 7.2; 95% CI, 3.3-15.9). Exposure to high-intensity warfare but not to chemical weapons was also

  10. Improving Blood Monitoring of Enzymes as Biomarkers of Risk from Anticholinergic Pesticides and Chemical Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Barry W

    2006-01-01

    Blood biomarkers are an important way to monitor exposure to anticholinergic pesticides and chemical warfare agents and to establish whether some personnel are at greater risk than others from exposure...

  11. Second NATO/SIBCA Exercise on Sampling of Chemical Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wils, E

    1999-01-01

    In order to practise the sampling of chemical warfare agents under realistic conditions, the Netherlands participated successfully in the second NATO/SIBCA sampling exercise conducted in Poland on 1-3...

  12. The Third World War? In The Cyberspace. Cyber Warfare in the Middle East.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide a brief and comprehensive introduction to the issue of cyber warfare and to display the recent development in this area. Geographically, it focuses on the Middle East region, since the vast majority of the most important recent cyber attacks appeared just in there or were connected to it. The first part of the article tries to define the key notion of cyber warfare, compares it to the standard warfare and presents different types of cyber weapons that are known today. The second part points out examples of the most striking recent cyber attacks and uses them as evidences to demonstrate today's importance and dissemination of cyber warfare. Finally, the article sums up pros and cons of the cyber weapons and, in view of these, predicts a significant increase in their use in any future war conflicts.

  13. Improving Blood Monitoring of Enzymes as Biomarkers of Risk from Anticholinergic Pesticides and Chemical Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Barry W

    2005-01-01

    Blood biomarkers are an important way to monitor exposure to anticholinergic pesticides and chemical warfare agents and to establish whether some personnel are at greater risk than others from exposure...

  14. Special Operations Forces: C-130 Upgrade Plan Could Help Fix Electronic Warfare Deficiencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    In response to a concern that threats to the U.S. Special Operations Command's (USSOCOM) aircraft are increasing, while funds available for electronic warfare are decreasing, the General Accounting Office...

  15. Combinatorial Auction Theory Applied to the Selection of Surface Warfare Officer Retention Incentives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denmond, Constance M; Johnson, Derek N; Lewis, Chavius G; Zegley, Christopher R

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the potential retention and cost impacts of offering combinations of retention base incentives to members of the Surface Warfare Officer (SWO) community...

  16. Cyber crime and cyber warfare with international cyber collaboration for RSA – preparing communities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available aspects come into play that may have an influence on the manner in which the military reacts to cyber attacks (Wilson 2007): ? new national security policy issues; ? consideration of psychological operations used to affect friendly nations... relationship between modern cyber space, cyber warfare and traditional legislation. As a starting point, cyber warfare is defined for the purpose of this article as the use of exploits in cyber space as a way to intentionally cause harm to people, assets...

  17. Modeling Anti-Air Warfare With Discrete Event Simulation and Analyzing Naval Convoy Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    W., & Scheaffer, R. L. (2008). Mathematical statistics with applications . Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning. 118 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK...WARFARE WITH DISCRETE EVENT SIMULATION AND ANALYZING NAVAL CONVOY OPERATIONS by Ali E. Opcin June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Arnold H. Buss Co...REPORT DATE June 2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MODELING ANTI-AIR WARFARE WITH DISCRETE EVENT

  18. Drone Warfare: Is the United States Violating the Law of Armed Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    NOTE AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY DRONE WARFARE: IS THE UNITED STATES VIOLATING THE LAW OF ARMED CONFLICT? by Barbara E. Shestko, Col...Base, Alabama. 1 Introduction The United States has become increasingly dependent upon the use of unmanned aircraft systems (UASs) or “ drones ” to...kill targeted members of al-Qaeda and the Taliban.1 Due to the success of drone warfare, we can expect the United States to continue its current

  19. Information Warfare on Social Media: A Brand Management Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpokas Ignas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Employing a perspective informed by brand management, this article aims at understanding information warfare operations in social media. The state, seen as brand, must project an image of itself to both internal and foreign audiences to unite the domestic audience and/or attract global support. However, in constructing a brand, states are vulnerable to ‘sofa warriors’ – ordinary individuals who have been unwittingly recruited by hostile actors to disseminate (over social media or other platforms a counter-brand, harmful to the state concerned. These new threats are investigated in light of recent tendencies in online branding, elucidating their status as a national security threat, with the potential to significantly disrupt life in political communities.

  20. Book Review: Conquest in Cyberspace: National Security and Information Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary C. Kessler

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Libicki, M.C. (2007. Conquest in Cyberspace: National Security and Information Warfare. New York: Cambridge University Press. 323 pages, ISBN: 978-0-521-69214-4 (paper, US$80Reviewed by Gary C. Kessler (gary.kessler@champlain.eduMany books -- and even movies ("Live Free or Die Hard" -- are based upon the premise of an impending information war. In these scenarios -- made all too plausible by the increased frequency with which we read about and experience major information security incidents -- a Bad Guy exploits known computer security vulnerabilities in order to control major national infrastructures via the Internet so as to reap financial, economic, and/or personal power.(see PDF for full review

  1. Nanostructured Metal Oxides for Stoichiometric Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Janoš, Pavel; Skoumal, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxides have very important applications in many areas of chemistry, physics and materials science; their properties are dependent on the method of preparation, the morphology and texture. Nanostructured metal oxides can exhibit unique characteristics unlike those of the bulk form depending on their morphology, with a high density of edges, corners and defect surfaces. In recent years, methods have been developed for the preparation of metal oxide powders with tunable control of the primary particle size as well as of a secondary particle size: the size of agglomerates of crystallites. One of the many ways to take advantage of unique properties of nanostructured oxide materials is stoichiometric degradation of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) pollutants on their surfaces.

  2. [Cutaneous and systemic toxicology of vesicants used in warfare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, R; Vidal-Asensi, S

    2010-01-01

    Vesicants are a group of chemicals used in warfare. The most representative agent is yperite, also known as mustard gas. The blisters that appeared on those exposed to yperite during combat in the First World War are responsible for the current name--vesicants--for this group of chemicals. Their affects are produced mainly through localized action of liquid or vapor forms on the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. However, the high absorption of the liquid form through the skin or the vapor form on inhalation may cause substantial systemic effects. Here we analyze these effects, treatment of intoxication, and long-term sequelae, drawing on our experience and a review of the literature.

  3. An Open Architecture Framework for Electronic Warfare Based Approach to HLA Federate Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HyunSeo Kang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of electronic warfare models are developed in the Electronic Warfare Research Center. An Open Architecture Framework for Electronic Warfare (OAFEw has been developed for reusability of various object models participating in the electronic warfare simulation and for extensibility of the electronic warfare simulator. OAFEw is a kind of component-based software (SW lifecycle management support framework. This OAFEw is defined by six components and ten rules. The purpose of this study is to construct a Distributed Simulation Interface Model, according to the rules of OAFEw, and create Use Case Model of OAFEw Reference Conceptual Model version 1.0. This is embodied in the OAFEw-FOM (Federate Object Model for High-Level Architecture (HLA based distributed simulation. Therefore, we design and implement EW real-time distributed simulation that can work with a model in C++ and MATLAB API (Application Programming Interface. In addition, OAFEw-FOM, electronic component model, and scenario of the electronic warfare domain were designed through simple scenarios for verification, and real-time distributed simulation between C++ and MATLAB was performed through OAFEw-Distributed Simulation Interface.

  4. A Survey of Game Theoretic Approaches to Modelling Decision-Making in Information Warfare Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Merrick

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our increasing dependence on information technologies and autonomous systems has escalated international concern for information- and cyber-security in the face of politically, socially and religiously motivated cyber-attacks. Information warfare tactics that interfere with the flow of information can challenge the survival of individuals and groups. It is increasingly important that both humans and machines can make decisions that ensure the trustworthiness of information, communication and autonomous systems. Subsequently, an important research direction is concerned with modelling decision-making processes. One approach to this involves modelling decision-making scenarios as games using game theory. This paper presents a survey of information warfare literature, with the purpose of identifying games that model different types of information warfare operations. Our contribution is a systematic identification and classification of information warfare games, as a basis for modelling decision-making by humans and machines in such scenarios. We also present a taxonomy of games that map to information warfare and cyber crime problems as a precursor to future research on decision-making in such scenarios. We identify and discuss open research questions including the role of behavioural game theory in modelling human decision making and the role of machine decision-making in information warfare scenarios.

  5. Using cheminformatics to find simulants for chemical warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavoie, J.; Srinivasan, Sree [Molecular Sciences and Engineering Team, U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center, 15 Kansas Street, Natick, MA 01760 (United States); Nagarajan, R., E-mail: Ramanathan.Nagarajan@us.army.mil [Molecular Sciences and Engineering Team, U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center, 15 Kansas Street, Natick, MA 01760 (United States)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} Summary of chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants in current use. {yields} Application of method of molecular similarity to CWA and simulants. {yields} Quantitative metric for CWA-simulant similarity. {yields} Rank ordering of simulants in current use. {yields} Potential of method to identify simulants for emerging agents. - Abstract: Direct experimentation with chemical warfare agents (CWA) to study important problems such as their permeation across protective barrier materials, decontamination of equipment and facilities, or the environmental transport and fate of CWAs is not feasible because of the obvious toxicity of the CWAs and associated restrictions on their laboratory use. The common practice is to use 'simulants,' namely, analogous chemicals that closely resemble the CWAs but are less toxic, with the expectation that the results attained for simulants can be correlated to how the CWAs would perform. Simulants have been traditionally chosen by experts, by means of intuition, using similarity in one or more physical properties (such as vapor pressure or aqueous solubility) or in the molecular structural features (such as functional groups) between the stimulant and the CWA. This work is designed to automate the simulant identification process backed by quantitative metrics, by means of chemical similarity search software routinely used in pharmaceutical drug discovery. The question addressed here is: By the metrics of such software, how similar are traditional simulants to CWAs? That is, what is the numerical 'distance' between each CWA and its customary simulants in the quantitative space of molecular descriptors? The answers show promise for finding close but less toxic simulants for the ever-increasing numbers of CWAs objectively and fast.

  6. Using cheminformatics to find simulants for chemical warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavoie, J.; Srinivasan, Sree; Nagarajan, R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Summary of chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants in current use. → Application of method of molecular similarity to CWA and simulants. → Quantitative metric for CWA-simulant similarity. → Rank ordering of simulants in current use. → Potential of method to identify simulants for emerging agents. - Abstract: Direct experimentation with chemical warfare agents (CWA) to study important problems such as their permeation across protective barrier materials, decontamination of equipment and facilities, or the environmental transport and fate of CWAs is not feasible because of the obvious toxicity of the CWAs and associated restrictions on their laboratory use. The common practice is to use 'simulants,' namely, analogous chemicals that closely resemble the CWAs but are less toxic, with the expectation that the results attained for simulants can be correlated to how the CWAs would perform. Simulants have been traditionally chosen by experts, by means of intuition, using similarity in one or more physical properties (such as vapor pressure or aqueous solubility) or in the molecular structural features (such as functional groups) between the stimulant and the CWA. This work is designed to automate the simulant identification process backed by quantitative metrics, by means of chemical similarity search software routinely used in pharmaceutical drug discovery. The question addressed here is: By the metrics of such software, how similar are traditional simulants to CWAs? That is, what is the numerical 'distance' between each CWA and its customary simulants in the quantitative space of molecular descriptors? The answers show promise for finding close but less toxic simulants for the ever-increasing numbers of CWAs objectively and fast.

  7. Guerra e desenvolvimento biológico: o caso da biotecnologia e da genômica na segunda metade do século XX Warfare and biological development: the case of biotechnology and genomics during the second half of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eneida de Almeida

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Desde a década de 1980, a Biotecnologia vem assumindo um papel cada vez mais importante dentro do planejamento estratégico das Grandes Potências, como elemento central para um novo tipo de arma ofensiva de destruição em massa e como paradigma para o planejamento de defesa e proteção de suas populações nacionais. Para defender esta tese, nosso estudo se orientou exatamente na história do deslocamento da Biologia para o centro do planejamento de defesa americano. Nosso objetivo foi investigar a existência de uma estreita relação entre o Desenvolvimento Biotecnológico, da ciência Genômica em particular, e a questão da guerra. Nossa hipótese é que a Biotecnologia se afirmou no campo da guerra, quando foram atingidos um ponto de condensação de fatos políticos e uma confluência de possibilidades biotécnicas que estimularam acentuadamente o interesse político-militar. A metodologia para a investigação desta conexão deu-se por dois caminhos: uma análise teórica, onde encontramos as origens e o mecanismo da Big Science desde a II Guerra Mundial, quando a Física assumiu o eixo central da ciência de ponta na era atômica, e desde a década de 1980, quando a Biologia passou a ocupar um lugar central; e uma análise historiográfica, acompanhando duas trajetórias convergentes que, para a nossa tese, formam o nervo central do Desenvolvimento Biotecnológico, da Guerra Biológica e do Projeto Genoma Humano.Since the 1980's, biotechnology has played an increasingly predominant role in the strategic planning of the super-powers, as the central element of a new type of mass destruction weapon as well as a model for defense planning and protection of their national populations. This study aims to demonstrate the path taken by Biology towards the core of American defense planning and also to investigate the close relationship between biotechnological development, in particular that of Genome Science and war. The specific hypothesis

  8. The Abbott and Costello Effect: Who's on What, and What's Where When? A Human-Centered Method to Investigate Network Centric Warfare Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reed, Derek W

    2007-01-01

    ...), fundamentally changing how warfare is being conducted. Network centric warfare (NCW) systems are being rushed to the field and are offered as a solution for the fog of war and as a way to reduce manpower costs...

  9. Rain-Induced Wash-Off of Chemical Warfare Agent (VX) from Foliar Surfaces of Living Plants Maintained in a Surety Hood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    RAIN-INDUCED WASH-OFF OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENT (VX) FROM FOLIAR SURFACES OF LIVING PLANTS MAINTAINED IN A...Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) May 2014 – Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Rain-Induced Wash-Off of Chemical Warfare Agent (VX) from Foliar...galli Foliage Chemical warfare agent (CWA) O-ethyl-S-(2

  10. Guerilla Warfare & Law Enforcement: Combating the 21st Century Terrorist Cell within the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major Richard Hughbank

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Both domestic and international terrorist organizations employ guerrilla warfare tactics, techniques, and procedures. Thus, the ability to identify and defeat the members of these organizations, cripple their infrastructures, and disrupt their financial resources lies in the understanding of modern guerrilla warfare as it develops in the twenty-first century within the United States.3 The forms of asymmetric warfare4 adopted by domestic and international terrorist groups alike is no longer intended to gain simple media exposure or governmental manipulation; they want to make an overpowering impact by causing massive loss of life and severe damage to infrastructure and are often motivated by religious imperatives and political goals. As terrorism analyst Stephen Flynn has observed, "Throughout the 20th century [Americans] were able to treat national security as essentially an out-of-body experience. When confronted by threats, [America] dealt with them on the turf of our allies or our adversaries. Aside from the occasional disaster and heinous crime, civilian life [in the United States] has been virtually terror-free." With the turn of the twenty-first century, terrorist operations have become more prevalent in the United States and are taking shape in the form of modern guerrilla warfare, thus creating new challenges for federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies. After reviewing the origin and nature of these challenges, this article will offer some suggestions for countering guerilla warfare in the United States.

  11. Developing Navy Capability to Recover Forces in Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Hazard Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    damage control; LHD flight deck and well deck operations; fleet surgical team; Afloat Training Group; Assault Craft Unit; Naval Surface Warfare Center ...Biological, Radiological and Nuclear School, and U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center , Guidelines for Mass Casualty Decontamination During a HAZMAT...Policy Center of the RAND National Defense Research Institute, a federally funded research and development center sponsored by OSD, the Joint Staff

  12. Advances in toxicology and medical treatment of chemical warfare nerve agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorous (OP) Nerve agents (NAs) are known as the deadliest chemical warfare agents. They are divided into two classes of G and V agents. Most of them are liquid at room temperature. NAs chemical structures and mechanisms of actions are similar to OP pesticides, but their toxicities are higher than these compounds. The main mechanism of action is irreversible inhibition of Acetyl Choline Esterase (AChE) resulting in accumulation of toxic levels of acetylcholine (ACh) at the synaptic junctions and thus induces muscarinic and nicotinic receptors stimulation. However, other mechanisms have recently been described. Central nervous system (CNS) depression particularly on respiratory and vasomotor centers may induce respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Intermediate syndrome after NAs exposure is less common than OP pesticides poisoning. There are four approaches to detect exposure to NAs in biological samples: (I) AChE activity measurement, (II) Determination of hydrolysis products in plasma and urine, (III) Fluoride reactivation of phosphylated binding sites and (IV) Mass spectrometric determination of cholinesterase adducts. The clinical manifestations are similar to OP pesticides poisoning, but with more severity and fatalities. The management should be started as soon as possible. The victims should immediately be removed from the field and treatment is commenced with auto-injector antidotes (atropine and oximes) such as MARK I kit. A 0.5% hypochlorite solution as well as novel products like M291 Resin kit, G117H and Phosphotriesterase isolated from soil bacterias, are now available for decontamination of NAs. Atropine and oximes are the well known antidotes that should be infused as clinically indicated. However, some new adjuvant and additional treatment such as magnesium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate, gacyclidine, benactyzine, tezampanel, hemoperfusion, antioxidants and bioscavengers have recently been used for OP NAs poisoning. PMID:23351280

  13. Potential Science and Technology Game Changers for the Ground Warfare of 2050: Selected Projections Made in 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    ARL-TR-8283 ● FEB 2018 US Army Research Laboratory Potential Science and Technology Game Changers for the Ground Warfare of 2050...Science and Technology Game Changers for the Ground Warfare of 2050: Selected Projections Made in 2017 by Alexander Kott Office of the Director...Brian Sadler Vehicle Technology Directorate, ARL Ananthram Swami Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL Approved for

  14. Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport utilities metering, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, D.M.

    1992-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed this report for the US Navy`s Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport, Rhode Island (NUWC). The purpose of the report was to review options for metering electricity and steam used in the NUWC compound, and to make recommendations to NUWC for implementation under a follow-on project. An additional NUWC concern is a proposed rate change by the servicing utility, Newport Electric, which would make a significant shift from consumption to demand billing, and what effect that rate change would have on the NUWC utility budget. Automated, remote reading meters are available which would allow NUWC to monitor its actual utility consumption and demand for both the entire NUWC compound and by end-use in individual buildings. Technology is available to perform the meter reads and manipulate the data using a personal computer with minimal staff requirement. This is not meant to mislead the reader into assuming that there is no requirement for routine preventive maintenance. All equipment requires routine maintenance to maintain its accuracy. While PNL reviewed the data collected during the site visit, however, it became obvious that significant opportunities exist for reducing the utility costs other than accounting for actual consumption and demand. Unit costs for both steam and electricity are unnecessarily high, and options are presented in this report for reducing them. Additionally, NUWC has an opportunity to undertake a comprehensive energy resource management program to significantly reduce its energy demand, consumption, and costs.

  15. Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport utilities metering, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, D.M.

    1992-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed this report for the US Navy's Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport, Rhode Island (NUWC). The purpose of the report was to review options for metering electricity and steam used in the NUWC compound, and to make recommendations to NUWC for implementation under a follow-on project. An additional NUWC concern is a proposed rate change by the servicing utility, Newport Electric, which would make a significant shift from consumption to demand billing, and what effect that rate change would have on the NUWC utility budget. Automated, remote reading meters are available which would allow NUWC to monitor its actual utility consumption and demand for both the entire NUWC compound and by end-use in individual buildings. Technology is available to perform the meter reads and manipulate the data using a personal computer with minimal staff requirement. This is not meant to mislead the reader into assuming that there is no requirement for routine preventive maintenance. All equipment requires routine maintenance to maintain its accuracy. While PNL reviewed the data collected during the site visit, however, it became obvious that significant opportunities exist for reducing the utility costs other than accounting for actual consumption and demand. Unit costs for both steam and electricity are unnecessarily high, and options are presented in this report for reducing them. Additionally, NUWC has an opportunity to undertake a comprehensive energy resource management program to significantly reduce its energy demand, consumption, and costs.

  16. Simulation-based planning for theater air warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popken, Douglas A.; Cox, Louis A., Jr.

    2004-08-01

    Planning for Theatre Air Warfare can be represented as a hierarchy of decisions. At the top level, surviving airframes must be assigned to roles (e.g., Air Defense, Counter Air, Close Air Support, and AAF Suppression) in each time period in response to changing enemy air defense capabilities, remaining targets, and roles of opposing aircraft. At the middle level, aircraft are allocated to specific targets to support their assigned roles. At the lowest level, routing and engagement decisions are made for individual missions. The decisions at each level form a set of time-sequenced Courses of Action taken by opposing forces. This paper introduces a set of simulation-based optimization heuristics operating within this planning hierarchy to optimize allocations of aircraft. The algorithms estimate distributions for stochastic outcomes of the pairs of Red/Blue decisions. Rather than using traditional stochastic dynamic programming to determine optimal strategies, we use an innovative combination of heuristics, simulation-optimization, and mathematical programming. Blue decisions are guided by a stochastic hill-climbing search algorithm while Red decisions are found by optimizing over a continuous representation of the decision space. Stochastic outcomes are then provided by fast, Lanchester-type attrition simulations. This paper summarizes preliminary results from top and middle level models.

  17. Back to the future: aerial warfare in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Nunes Vicente

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A century after the first air bomb mission, a new intervention in the same geographic space has made evident the changes in Airpower. The Aerial Warfare in Libya has radically changed the civil war, complying with a UN mission to protect Libyan population, imposing a no-fly zone and an arms embargo. Therefore, Operation Unified Protector became one of the most successful campaigns in the history of NATO. We aim to assess the operational efficiency of Airpower in the conflict in Libya, focusing on the challenges of a War essentially Aerial. Despite the military results and the fact that some political objectives were met, we can identify some concerning trends that, if not shifted, may negatively influence future NATO operations. We do not aim to draw general and universal conclusions on the strategic value of Airpower based on the analysis of a specific case. Above all, we focus on identifying some lessons which have influenced OUP operational efficiency. Thus, we must analyze some factors, such as the scope of objectives, the type of opposing action and aerial strategy used by the coalition and then focus on the challenges arising from the OUP.

  18. Drone Warfare: Twenty-First Century Empire and Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Howley

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper, part of a larger project that examines drones from a social-construction of technology perspective, considers drone warfare in light of Harold Innis’s seminal work on empire and communication. Leveraging leading-edge aeronautics with advanced optics, data processing, and networked communication, drones represent an archetypal “space-biased” technology. Indeed, by allowing remote operators and others to monitor, select, and strike targets from half a world away, and in real-time, these weapon systems epitomize the “pernicious neglect of time” Innis sought to identify and remedy in his later writing. With Innis’s time-space dialectic as a starting point, then, the paper considers drones in light of a longstanding paradox of American culture: the impulse to collapse the geographical distance between the United States and other parts of the globe, while simultaneously magnifying the cultural difference between Americans and other peoples and societies. In the midst of the worldwide proliferation of drones, this quintessentially sublime technology embodies this (disconnect in important, profound, and ominous ways.

  19. Prevalence of Asthma in Children of Chemical Warfare Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsadraee, Majid; Mozaffari, Abolfazl; Attaran, Davood

    2011-01-01

    Objective Exposure of DNA to sulfur mustard gas may increase the inheritance of asthma in chemical warfare victims' (CWV) offspring. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma in children of CWV and compare it to asthmatic children in the general population. Methods Four hundred and nine children from 130 CWV fathers and 440 children from 145 asthmatic parents from two cities in Iran participated in this study. The prevalence of asthma was determined by standard questionnaire released for epidemiological survey of asthma in children and compared between two groups. Findings The prevalence of asthma in the CWV group was 15%; this was not significantly different from the control group (12.5%). The children of the CWV group reported a significantly greater incidence of wheezing (1.2±3.1 attacks) per year, but the control group reported more severe attacks leading to speech difficulties (3%) and coughing (7%). Regression analysis showed that with increasing family size in the control group, the number of subjects suffering from asthmatic symptoms decreases significantly (r=0.86, P=0.001). Conclusion Chemical agents may increase the prevalence of asthma in the offspring of CWV. PMID:23056804

  20. Studies on residue-free decontaminants for chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, George W

    2015-03-17

    Residue-free decontaminants based on hydrogen peroxide, which decomposes to water and oxygen in the environment, are examined as decontaminants for chemical warfare agents (CWA). For the apparent special case of CWA on concrete, H2O2 alone, without any additives, effectively decontaminates S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), pinacolyl methylphosphorofluoridate (GD), and bis(2-choroethyl) sulfide (HD) in a process thought to involve H2O2 activation by surface-bound carbonates/bicarbonates (known H2O2 activators for CWA decontamination). A plethora of products are formed during the H2O2 decontamination of HD on concrete, and these are characterized by comparison to synthesized authentic compounds. As a potential residue-free decontaminant for surfaces other than concrete (or those lacking adsorbed carbonate/bicarbonate) H2O2 activation for CWA decontamination is feasible using residue-free NH3 and CO2 as demonstrated by reaction studies for VX, GD, and HD in homogeneous solution. Although H2O2/NH3/CO2 ("HPAC") decontaminants are active for CWA decontamination in solution, they require testing on actual surfaces of interest to assess their true efficacy for surface decontamination.

  1. Effects of lactoferrin derived peptides on simulants of biological warfare agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbrandij, T.; Ligtenberg, Antoon J.; Nazmi, K.; Veerman, Enno C. I.; Bolscher, Jan G. M.; Bikker, Floris J.

    2017-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is an important immune protein in neutrophils and secretory fluids of mammals. Bovine LF (bLF) harbours two antimicrobial stretches, lactoferricin and lactoferampin, situated in close proximity in the N1 domain. To mimic these antimicrobial domain parts a chimeric peptide

  2. Effects of lactoferrin derived peptides on simulants of biological warfare agents

    OpenAIRE

    Sijbrandij, Tjitske; Ligtenberg, Antoon J.; Nazmi, Kamran; Veerman, Enno C. I.; Bolscher, Jan G. M.; Bikker, Floris J.

    2016-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is an important immune protein in neutrophils and secretory fluids of mammals. Bovine LF (bLF) harbours two antimicrobial stretches, lactoferricin and lactoferampin, situated in close proximity in the N1 domain. To mimic these antimicrobial domain parts a chimeric peptide (LFchimera) has been constructed comprising parts of both stretches (LFcin17–30 and LFampin265–284). To investigate the potency of this construct to combat a set of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria w...

  3. Biological Warfare Improved Response Program (BW-IRP) CDC/DoD Smallpox Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    attack. In April 2000, the container of virus is smuggled across the boarder, overland from Mexico . It is released on April 15th aboard Fat Chance...them give a firm history of childhood chicken pox, she becomes concerned and sends specimens to a lab to rule out varicella (Chicken Pox). She checks...hands and notes the students history of childhood chickenpox. Laboratory testing to rule out varicella is also ordered. When that result is negative

  4. Distinct human antibody response to the biological warfare agent Burkholderia mallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, John J; Vigil, Adam; DeShazer, David; Waag, David M; Felgner, Philip; Goldberg, Joanna B

    2012-10-01

    The genetic similarity between Burkholderia mallei (glanders) and Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis) had led to the general assumption that pathogenesis of each bacterium would be similar. In 2000, the first human case of glanders in North America since 1945 was reported in a microbiology laboratory worker. Leveraging the availability of pre-exposure sera for this individual and employing the same well-characterized protein array platform that has been previously used to study a large cohort of melioidosis patients in southeast Asia, we describe the antibody response in a human with glanders. Analysis of 156 peptides present on the array revealed antibodies against 17 peptides with a > 2-fold increase in this infection. Unexpectedly, when the glanders data were compared with a previous data set from B. pseudomallei infections, there were only two highly increased antibodies shared between these two infections. These findings have implications in the diagnosis and treatment of B. mallei and B. pseudomallei infections.

  5. Chicken cathelicidin-2-derived peptides with enhanced immunomodulatory and antibacterial activities against biological warfare agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molhoek, E.M.; Dijk, A. van; Veldhuizen, E.J.A.; Dijk-Knijnenburg, H.; Mars-Groenendijk, R.H.; Boele, L.C.L.; Kaman-van Zanten, W.E.; Haagsman, H.P.; Bikker, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Host defence peptides (HDPs) are considered to be excellent candidates for the development of novel therapeutic agents. Recently, it was demonstrated that the peptide C1-15, an N-terminal segment of chicken HDP cathelicidin-2, exhibits potent antibacterial activity while lacking cytotoxicity towards

  6. The DTIC Review: Volume 2, Number 4, Surviving Chemical and Biological Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-01

    formulated with PA strategic defeat. plus Monophosphoryl Lipid A (MPL) in a Squalenel Lecithin / Tween 80 emulsion (SLT) and PA plus the saponin QS-21...PIGS, LYOPHILIZATION, IMMUNOGENS, LECITHIN . IDENTIFIERS: (U) MPL (MONOPHOSPHORYL LIPID A), SLT(SQUELENEL LECITHIN /TWEEN) + Included in The DTIC Review...mass spectrometric methods have and expressed in E. coli, and has been shown to hydrolyze the been developed as independent highly sensitive techniques

  7. Reduced weight decontamination formulation for neutralization of chemical and biological warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D.

    2014-06-03

    A reduced weight DF-200 decontamination formulation that is stable under high temperature storage conditions. The formulation can be pre-packed as an all-dry (i.e., no water) or nearly-dry (i.e., minimal water) three-part kit, with make-up water (the fourth part) being added later in the field at the point of use.

  8. Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, H.W.; Henins, I.; Park, J.; Selwyn, G.S.

    1999-01-01

    The atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) [A. Schuetze et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 26, 1685 (1998)] is a nonthermal, high pressure, uniform glow plasma discharge that produces a high velocity effluent stream of highly reactive chemical species. The discharge operates on a feedstock gas (e.g., He/O 2 /H 2 O), which flows between an outer, grounded, cylindrical electrode and an inner, coaxial electrode powered at 13.56 MHz rf. While passing through the plasma, the feedgas becomes excited, dissociated or ionized by electron impact. Once the gas exits the discharge volume, ions and electrons are rapidly lost by recombination, but the fast-flowing effluent still contains neutral metastable species (e.g., O 2 * , He * ) and radicals (e.g., O, OH). This reactive effluent has been shown to be an effective neutralizer of surrogates for anthrax spores and mustard blister agent. Unlike conventional wet decontamination methods, the plasma effluent does not cause corrosion and it does not destroy wiring, electronics, or most plastics, making it highly suitable for decontamination of sensitive equipment and interior spaces. Furthermore, the reactive species in the effluent rapidly degrade into harmless products leaving no lingering residue or harmful by-products. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  9. Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, H. W.; Henins, I.; Park, J.; Selwyn, G. S.

    1999-05-01

    The atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) [A. Schütze et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 26, 1685 (1998)] is a nonthermal, high pressure, uniform glow plasma discharge that produces a high velocity effluent stream of highly reactive chemical species. The discharge operates on a feedstock gas (e.g., He/O2/H2O), which flows between an outer, grounded, cylindrical electrode and an inner, coaxial electrode powered at 13.56 MHz rf. While passing through the plasma, the feedgas becomes excited, dissociated or ionized by electron impact. Once the gas exits the discharge volume, ions and electrons are rapidly lost by recombination, but the fast-flowing effluent still contains neutral metastable species (e.g., O2*, He*) and radicals (e.g., O, OH). This reactive effluent has been shown to be an effective neutralizer of surrogates for anthrax spores and mustard blister agent. Unlike conventional wet decontamination methods, the plasma effluent does not cause corrosion and it does not destroy wiring, electronics, or most plastics, making it highly suitable for decontamination of sensitive equipment and interior spaces. Furthermore, the reactive species in the effluent rapidly degrade into harmless products leaving no lingering residue or harmful by-products.

  10. Decontamination of Chemical/Biological Warfare (CBW) Agents Using an Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Hans W.

    1998-11-01

    The atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is a non-thermal, high pressure, uniform glow discharge that produces a high velocity effluent stream of highly reactive chemical species. The discharge operates on a feedstock gas (e.g. He/O_2/H_2O) which flows between an outer, grounded, cylindrical electrode and an inner, coaxial electrode powered at 13.56 MHz RF. While passing through the plasma, the feedgas becomes excited, dissociated or ionized by electron impact. Once the gas exits the discharge volume, ions and electrons are rapidly lost by recombination, but the fast-flowing effluent still contains metastables (e.g. O2*, He*) and radicals (e.g. O, OH). These reactive species have been shown to be effective neutralizers of surrogates for anthrax spores, mustard blister agent and VX nerve gas. Unlike conventional, wet decontamination methods, the plasma effluent does not cause corrosion of most surfaces and does not damage wiring, electronics, nor most plastics. This makes it highly suitable for decontamination of high value sensitive equipment such as is found in vehicle interiors (i.e. tanks, planes...) for which there is currently no good decontamination technique. Furthermore, the reactive species rapidly degrade into harmless products leaving no lingering residue or harmful byproducts. Physics of the APPJ will be discussed and results of surface decontamination experiments using simulant and actual CBW agents will be presented.

  11. Identification of Biological Warfare (BW) Threat Agents Using Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Microarrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schaudies, Paul R

    2005-01-01

    ...) antibiotic resistance genes, 4) virulence plasmid sequences and 5) ribosomal genes, we are in a unique position to develop a novel method for the identification and characterization of microorganism...

  12. Is the U.S. Navy Prepared to Counter Biological Warfare Threats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Unit 731 set up flea “nurseries” for the production of 135 million plague-infested fleas every four months. As a delivery system, porcelain bombs...operations is important, naval doctrine and TTPs should allow NSF to conduct CM alone in an emergency.141 The Chinese have an ancient saying, “kill

  13. Integrated Biological Warfare Technology Platform (IBWTP). Intelligent Software Supporting Situation Awareness, Response, and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    phases of the technology, QLI used a common software development and maintenance environment, called the Quantum Leap Uber Build System (QLUBS). QLI...May be used in internal tools and application. Using internally developed code on internal application ( Eating your own dogfood) provides

  14. SiGe-based re-engineering of electronic warfare subsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Lambrechts, Wynand

    2017-01-01

    This book equips readers with a thorough understanding of the applicability of new-generation silicon-germanium (SiGe) electronic subsystems for the military purposes of electronic warfare and defensive countermeasures. The theoretical and technical background is extensively explained and all aspects of the integration of SiGe as an enabling technology for maritime, land, and airborne (including space) electronic warfare are addressed, including research, design, development, and implementation. The coverage is supported by mathematical derivations, informative illustrations, practical examples, and case studies. While SiGe technology provides speed, performance, and price advantages in many markets, sharing of information on its use in electronic warfare systems has to date been limited, especially in developing nations. This book will therefore be warmly welcomed as an engineering guideline that focuses especially on the speed and reliability of current-generation SiGe circuits and highlights emerging innov...

  15. THE CYBER DIMENSION OF MODERN HYBRID WARFARE AND ITS RELEVANCE FOR NATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin DUCARU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The technological development and the instant communication possibilities advanced not only economic and social developments, but also evolving threats from those who exploit the vulnerabilities of communication and information systems. The cyber threat landscape points to a significant increase of the frequency, intensity, duration and sophistication of cyber-attacks. One of the new and concerning trends is the use of cyber capabilities in relation with military of hybrid operations – the so-called cyber dimension of hybrid warfare. NATO’s strategy on countering hybrid warfare is based on the triad: prepare-deter-defend, which also applies to cyber. Nations represent the first line of defence in countering hybrid strategies. International cooperation is also a key factor in this sense. It is in this context that NATO’s response to cyber-attacks in the context of hybrid warfare must be further refined.

  16. An evolutionary theory of large-scale human warfare: Group-structured cultural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zefferman, Matthew R; Mathew, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    When humans wage war, it is not unusual for battlefields to be strewn with dead warriors. These warriors typically were men in their reproductive prime who, had they not died in battle, might have gone on to father more children. Typically, they are also genetically unrelated to one another. We know of no other animal species in which reproductively capable, genetically unrelated individuals risk their lives in this manner. Because the immense private costs borne by individual warriors create benefits that are shared widely by others in their group, warfare is a stark evolutionary puzzle that is difficult to explain. Although several scholars have posited models of the evolution of human warfare, these models do not adequately explain how humans solve the problem of collective action in warfare at the evolutionarily novel scale of hundreds of genetically unrelated individuals. We propose that group-structured cultural selection explains this phenomenon. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Changing the Scale and Efficiency of Chemical Warfare Countermeasure Discovery Using the Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Randall T.; MacRae, Calum A.

    2013-01-01

    As the scope of potential chemical warfare agents grows rapidly and as the diversity of potential threat scenarios expands with non-state actors, so a need for innovative approaches to countermeasure development has emerged. In the last few years, the utility of the zebrafish as a model organism that is amenable to high-throughput screening has become apparent and this system has been applied to the unbiased discovery of chemical warfare countermeasures. This review summarizes the in vivo screening approach that has been pioneered in the countermeasure discovery arena, and highlights the successes to date as well as the potential challenges in moving the field forward. Importantly, the establishment of a zebrafish platform for countermeasure discovery would offer a rapid response system for the development of antidotes to the continuous stream of new potential chemical warfare agents. PMID:24273586

  18. Skeletal evidence for Inca warfare from the Cuzco region of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrushko, Valerie A; Torres, Elva C

    2011-11-01

    This article addresses the bioarchaeological evidence for Inca warfare through an analysis of 454 adult skeletons from 11 sites in the Inca capital region of Cuzco, Peru. These 11 sites span almost 1000 years (AD 600-1532), which allows for a comparison of the evidence for warfare before the Inca came to power (Middle Horizon AD 600-1000), during the time of Inca ascendency in the Late Intermediate Period (AD 1000-1400), and after the Inca came to power and expanded throughout the Cuzco region and beyond (Inca Imperial Period, AD 1400-1532). The results indicate that 100 of 454 adults (22.0%) showed evidence of cranial trauma. Of these, 23 individuals had major cranial injuries suggestive of warfare, consisting of large, complete, and/or perimortem fractures. There was scant evidence for major injuries during the Middle Horizon (2.8%, 1/36) and Late Intermediate Period (2.5%, 5/199), suggesting that warfare was not prevalent in the Cuzco region before and during the Inca rise to power. Only in the Inca Imperial Period was there a significant rise in major injuries suggestive of warfare (7.8%, 17/219). Despite the significant increase in Inca times, the evidence for major cranial injuries was only sporadically distributed at Cuzco periphery sites and was entirely absent at Cuzco core sites. These findings suggest that while the Inca used warfare as a mechanism for expansion in the Cuzco region, it was only one part of a complex expansion strategy that included economic, political, and ideological means to gain and maintain control. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Blaptica dubia as sentinels for exposure to chemical warfare agents - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worek, Franz; Seeger, Thomas; Neumaier, Katharina; Wille, Timo; Thiermann, Horst

    2016-11-16

    The increased interest of terrorist groups in toxic chemicals and chemical warfare agents presents a continuing threat to our societies. Early warning and detection is a key component for effective countermeasures against such deadly agents. Presently available and near term solutions have a number of major drawbacks, e.g. lack of automated, remote warning and detection of primarily low volatile chemical warfare agents. An alternative approach is the use of animals as sentinels for exposure to toxic chemicals. To overcome disadvantages of vertebrates the present pilot study was initiated to investigate the suitability of South American cockroaches (Blaptica dubia) as warning system for exposure to chemical warfare nerve and blister agents. Initial in vitro experiments with nerve agents showed an increasing inhibitory potency in the order tabun - cyclosarin - sarin - soman - VX of cockroach cholinesterase. Exposure of cockroaches to chemical warfare agents resulted in clearly visible and reproducible reactions, the onset being dependent on the agent and dose. With nerve agents the onset was related to the volatility of the agents. The blister agent lewisite induced signs largely comparable to those of nerve agents while sulfur mustard exposed animals exhibited a different sequence of events. In conclusion, this first pilot study indicates that Blaptica dubia could serve as a warning system to exposure of chemical warfare agents. A cockroach-based system will not detect or identify a particular chemical warfare agent but could trigger further actions, e.g. specific detection and increased protective status. By designing appropriate boxes with (IR) motion sensors and remote control (IR) camera automated off-site warning systems could be realized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Efikasnost sistema PVO u uslovima elektronskih dejstava / Efficiency of antiaircraft system in electronic warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Šepec

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available U radu je primenjena teorija masovnog opsluživanja u analizi efikasnosti sistema protivvazduhoplovne odbrane (sistema PVO u uslovima elektronskih dejstava protivnika. Prikazan je model za ocenu efikasnosti sistema PVO i predstavljeni su izrazi za procenu efikasnosti sistema PVO u uslovima elektronskih dejstava. / In this article the theory of mass servicing is used in the analysis of efficiency of antiaircraft system in the conditions of electronic warfare. The model for analysis of the antiaircraft system efficiency has been shown and formulas for qualitative analysis of antiaircraft system efficiency have been presented in the conditions of electronic warfare.

  1. Particle Swarm Social Adaptive Model for Multi-Agent Based Insurgency Warfare Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    To better understand insurgent activities and asymmetric warfare, a social adaptive model for modeling multiple insurgent groups attacking multiple military and civilian targets is proposed and investigated. This report presents a pilot study using the particle swarm modeling, a widely used non-linear optimal tool to model the emergence of insurgency campaign. The objective of this research is to apply the particle swarm metaphor as a model of insurgent social adaptation for the dynamically changing environment and to provide insight and understanding of insurgency warfare. Our results show that unified leadership, strategic planning, and effective communication between insurgent groups are not the necessary requirements for insurgents to efficiently attain their objective.

  2. Chemical and biological weapons: new questions, new answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, E

    1999-01-01

    The words "chemical and biological weapons" (CBW) send a shiver down most spines these days. With the end of the Cold War, the possibility of a massive nuclear confrontation appears remote, so today many popular doomsday scenarios center on the aggressive use of chemical or biological warfare by rogue nations or terrorist groups. As exaggerated as some of the accounts are, with CBW cast as the latest unseen, unstoppable enemy, the threat posed by these weapons is all too real, and growing. Images p931-a PMID:10585899

  3. A review of research on common biological agents and their impact on environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashiatullah, A.; Qureshi, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    Biological agents are unique class of microorganisms which can be used to produce the disease in large populations of humans, animals and plants. If used for hostile purposes, any disease-causing microorganism could be considered a weapon. The use of biological agents is not a new concept and history is replete with examples of biological weapon use. Before the twenty century, biological warfare took on three main forms by deliberate poisoning of food and water with infectious material, use of microorganisms or toxins in some form of weapon system, and use of biologically inoculated fabrics. Four kinds of biological warfare agents are bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae, fungi. These are distinguished by being living organisms, that reproduce within their host victims, who then become contagious with a deadly multiplier effect, bacteria, viruses, or fungi or toxin found in nature can be used to kill or injure people. Biological agents may be used for an isolated assassination, as well as to cause incapacitation or death to thousands. These biological agents represent a dangerous military threat because they are alive, and are therefore unpredictable and uncontrollable once released. The act of bioterrorism can range from a simple hoax to the actual use of biological weapons. Biological agents have the potential to make an environment more dangerous over time. If the environment is contaminated, a long-term threat to the population could be created. This paper discusses common biological agents, their mode of action in living organisms and possible impact on the environment. (author)

  4. Efficacy Evaluation of Current and Future Naval Mine Warfare Neutralization Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    ENGINEERING APPROACH Numerous systems engineering process models were considered for this study including the Waterfall , Spiral, and “Vee” models . Given the... model based systems engineering, design of experiments, requirements analysis, mine warfare, MIW, mine countermeasures, MCM, littoral combat ship, LCS...E. IMPLEMENTATION IN SIMULATION MODEL .............................47 VII. MODELING AND SIMULATION ARCHITECTURE ..................................49

  5. (Review of) Reno, William. 2011. Warfare in Independent Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Warfare in Independent Africa is Reno’s bold attempt to analyze the modern history of African insurgencies. The book tackles this task through the prism of five generations of rebel, which left their mark on the continent; anti-colonial rebels, majority rule rebels, reform rebels, warlord rebels ...... and parochial rebels....

  6. 11th Annual Mine Warfare Technology Symposium, May 6-8, 2014 - Monterey, CA

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS), the Office of Naval Research (ONR), the Program Executive Office Littoral Combat Ships (PEO LCS), OPNAV (N95), and The Consortium for Robotics and Unmanned Systems Education and Research (CRUSER) are pleased to announce the ELEVENTH International Mine Warfare Technology Symposium in Monterey, California, May 6-8, 2014.

  7. A Communitarian Critique of the Warfare State: Implications for the Twenty-First-Century University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Paul; Knotwell, Jim

    2007-01-01

    This article contends that the relatively recent academic movement known as communitarianism can serve as a policy guide that could work catalytically on American cultural development of the sort that would loosen the tight military-industrial connection and in so doing aid the dismantling of the "warfare state." After chronicling the development…

  8. An Empirical Examination of the Warfare Metaphor with Respect to Pre-Service Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobern, William W.; Loving, Cathleen C.; Davis, Edward B.; Terpstra, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Since its origination in the late nineteenth century, the warfare metaphor has been used to characterize the relationship between science and religion, especially orthodox Christianity. Though thoroughly discredited by historians of science, the ideological descendants of Thomas Huxley, who spoke of science in quasi-religious terms, have kept the…

  9. The influence of the Ratel infantry fighting vehicle on mobile warfare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article traces the story of how the author and a number of daring young commanders and soldiers had cast aside military textbooks in developing their own military doctrine for mobile warfare, South African style. It is clear that the Ratel infantry fighting vehicle had wielded huge influence on the development and ...

  10. Above the Influence: The Strategic Effects of Airpower in Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    INDOCHINA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 APPENDIX B: MAP OF LAOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 APPENDIX...perspectives. These perspectives involve the use of airpower in North Vietnam, South Vietnam, and Laos . The overarching political endstate or...Nagl, ―Principles, Imperatives, and Paradoxes of Counterinsurgency,‖ 50; Mao Tse -Tung, Problems of Strategy in Guerrilla Warfare, 215-216; Gray

  11. Emerging Threat to America: Non-State Entities Fighting Fourth Generation Warfare in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    warfare in Juarez, Mexico contrasts with the “peaceful” cities of Ciudad Acuña and Piedras Negras controlled by the Zetas who demonstrate 4GW tactics...Vulliamy, 2009). Within the cities of Acuna and Piedra Negras where one Pack Virus (the Zetas) has effective control of these limited geographic

  12. Electronic Warfare (EW) Historical Perspectives and Its Relationship to Information Operations (IO) - Considerations for Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Information Operations IW Information Warfare JDAM Joint Direct Attack Munition JRFL Joint Restricted Frequency List JSTARS Joint...through the preparation of the joint restricted frequency list (JRFL), which includes taboo, guarded and protected frequencies. The EC-130H Compass Call

  13. Fluorescent discrimination between traces of chemical warfare agents and their mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz de Greñu, Borja; Moreno, Daniel; Torroba, Tomás; Berg, Alexander; Gunnars, Johan; Nilsson, Tobias; Nyman, Rasmus; Persson, Milton; Pettersson, Johannes; Eklind, Ida; Wästerby, Pär

    2014-03-19

    An array of fluorogenic probes is able to discriminate between nerve agents, sarin, soman, tabun, VX and their mimics, in water or organic solvent, by qualitative fluorescence patterns and quantitative multivariate analysis, thus making the system suitable for the in-the-field detection of traces of chemical warfare agents as well as to differentiate between the real nerve agents and other related compounds.

  14. On modeling of the evaporation of chemical warfare agents on the ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westin, S.N.; Winter, S.; Karlsson, E.; Hin, A.; Oeseburg, F.

    1998-01-01

    A model for evaporation of chemical warfare agents on the ground has been developed. The process of evaporation is described in three steps: (1) the immediate drop enlargement due to impact momentum is modeled using an empirical correlation from technical literature; (2) further enlargement caused

  15. Zirconium doped nano-dispersed oxides of Fe, Al and Zn for destruction of warfare agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Houšková, Vendula; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Murafa, Nataliya; Maříková, Monika; Opluštil, F.; Němec, T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 11 (2010), s. 1080-1088 ISSN 1044-5803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : warfare agents * nano-dispersed oxides * homogeneous hydrolysis Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.496, year: 2010

  16. Ge 4+ doped TiO 2 for stoichiometric degradation of warfare agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Opluštil, F.; Němec, T.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 227, AUGUST (2012), s. 62-67 ISSN 0304-3894 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/1116 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : germanium * homogeneous hydrolysis * titania * urea * warfare agent degradation Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.925, year: 2012

  17. Evolution of war and cyber attacks in the concept of conventional warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Kuru

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Humanity have witnessed many confrontations of states whose interests challenge at some points and their struggle to neutralize problems in battlefield. While war was perceived as a way of eliminating deadlocks for some parties, some considered it as one of the international policy materials. The definition and content of conventional warfare have been subject to change for centuries, while the new weapons and technologies have been developed by human beings that it has brought constant change in the law of war and at the same time more lethal and devastating consequences. The struggle for superiority in international relations played an impulsive role in the development of weapons used in the battlefield. Countries have used their labor and financial resources to improve their military skills. Beginning with stones and sticks in the battlefield, this struggle has reached the point of using the next generation satellite controlled unmanned and armed aircrafts and having nuclear weapons has become more deterrent than using them. The struggle between strong countries and the limited countries in terms of technology and armed groups that do not have enough technology and skills completely changed the definition of conventional warfare. This fight has led Asymmetric warfare born which can turn commercial airline planes full of innocent people into a weapon like September-11 attacks. In this study, the historical development and the change in the content of the warfare were briefly explained and then cyber-attacks in the concept of the fourth generation warfare was analyzed taking into account of prominent attacks.

  18. Dynamics of positional warfare malaria: Finland and Korea compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huldén, Lena; Huldén, Larry

    2008-09-08

    A sudden outbreak of vivax malaria among Finnish troops in SE-Finland and along the front line in Hanko peninsula in the southwest occurred in 1941 during World War II. The common explanation has been an invasion of infective Anopheles mosquitoes from the Russian troops crossing the front line between Finland and Soviet Union. A revised explanation is presented based on recent studies of Finnish malaria. The exact start of the epidemic and the phenology of malaria cases among the Finnish soldiers were reanalyzed. The results were compared with the declining malaria in Finland. A comparison with a corresponding situation starting in the 1990's in Korea was performed. The malaria cases occurred in July in 1941 when it was by far too early for infective mosquitoes to be present. The first Anopheles mosquitoes hatched at about the same time as the first malaria cases were observed among the Finnish soldiers. It takes about 3-6 weeks for the completion of the sporogony in Finland. The new explanation is that soldiers in war conditions were suddenly exposed to uninfected mosquitoes and those who still were carriers of hypnozoites developed relapses triggered by these mosquitoes. It is estimated that about 0.5% of the Finnish population still were carriers of hypnozoites in the 1940's. A corresponding outbreak of vivax malaria in Korea in the 1990's is similarly interpreted as relapses from activated hypnozoites among Korean soldiers. The significance of the mosquito induced relapses is emphasized by two benefits for the Plasmodium. There is a synchronous increase of gametocytes when new mosquitoes emerge. It also enables meiotic recombination between different strains of the Plasmodium. The malaria peak during the positional warfare in the 1940's was a short outbreak during the last phase of declining indigenous malaria in Finland. The activation of hypnozoites among a large number of soldiers and subsequent medication contributed to diminishing the reservoir of malaria

  19. From energy-rich phosphate compounds to warfare agents: A review on the chemistry of organic phosphate compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Albino Giusti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemistry of the phosphorus-oxygen bond is widely used in biological systems in many processes, such as energy transduction and the storage, transmission and expression of genetic information, which are essential to living beings in relation to a wide variety of functions. Compounds containing this bond have been designed for many purposes, ranging from agricultural defense systems, in order to increase food production, to nerve agents, for complaining use in warfare. In this review, features related to the chemistry of organic phosphate compounds are discussed, with particular emphasis on the role of phosphate compounds in biochemical events and in nerve agents. To this aim, the energy-rich phosphate compounds are focused, particularly the mode of their use as energy currency in cells. Historical and recent studies carried out by research groups have tried to elucidate the mechanism of action of enzymes responsible for energy transduction through the use of biochemical studies, enzyme models, and artificial enzymes. Finally, recent studies on the detoxification of nerve agents based on phosphorous esters are presented, and on the utilization of chromogenic and fluorogenic chemosensors for the detection of these phosphate species.

  20. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of the "Sea to SWOS" Training Initiative on the Surface Warfare Officer Qualification Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gavino, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    ... (combat effectiveness) while the quantitative analysis shows additional costs to the Navy Personnel Command and savings in training costs for the Naval Education and Training Command and OPNAV N76, the Surface Warfare Resource Sponsor...

  1. An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Computer-based Training for Newly Commissioned Surface Warfare Division Officers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bowman, William R; Crawford, Alice M; Mehay, Stephen; Stoker, Carol; Paynter, Robert

    2008-01-01

    ...) on-board an officer's ship. The study relied on a variety of analytical techniques, including a literature review of CBT and OJT training, interviews and focus groups with junior and senior surface warfare officers...

  2. Bench-Scale Investigation of Composting for Remediation of Explosives-Contaminated Soils from Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane, Indiana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Preston, Kurt

    1998-01-01

    ...), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7- tetrazocine (HMX). The Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Crane, Indiana, provides material and logistic support to the Navy's weapon systems, including expendable and nonexpendable ordnance items...

  3. Special Forces and the Art of Influence: A Grassroots Approach to Psychological Operations in an Unconventional Warfare Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, II, Joel W

    2006-01-01

    .... The research was based on several premises: (1) the strategic utility of Special Forces (SF) lies in its ability to influence a target audience in an unconventional warfare (UW) environment; (2...

  4. Chromatography and mass spectrometry of chemical warfare agents, toxins and related compounds: state of the art and future prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kientz, C.E.

    1998-01-01

    Methods for the identification of chemical warfare agents, toxins, bioregulators and related products are frequently reported in literature. These methods are often based on instrumental analysis using chromatography (gas and liquid) and mass spectrometry. Here, these instrumental techniques are

  5. The Need for a USAF Information Warfare(IW) Strategy for Military Operations Other Than War (MOOTW)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Butler, Bradley

    1996-01-01

    .... Two areas having an impact on the answer to this question but not normally examined together are information warfare and the broad area of military operations short of large scale conventional combat...

  6. Modeling and Optimal Control of a Class of Warfare Hybrid Dynamic Systems Based on Lanchester (n,1) Attrition Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiangyong; Zhang, Ancai

    2014-01-01

    For the particularity of warfare hybrid dynamic process, a class of warfare hybrid dynamic systems is established based on Lanchester equation in a (n,1) battle, where a heterogeneous force of n different troop types faces a homogeneous force. This model can be characterized by the interaction of continuous-time models (governed by Lanchester equation), and discrete event systems (described by variable tactics). Furthermore, an expository discussion is presented on an optimal variable tact...

  7. Feasibility Study for the Use of Green, Bio-Based, Efficient Reactive Sorbent Material to Neutralize Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    REPORT Feasibility study for the use of green, bio-based, efficient reactive sorbent material to neutralize chemical warfare agents 14. ABSTRACT 16...way cellulose, lignin and hemicelluloses interact as well as whole wood dissolution occurs in ILs. The present project was conducted to 1. REPORT...Feasibility study for the use of green, bio-based, efficient reactive sorbent material to neutralize chemical warfare agents Report Title ABSTRACT Over the

  8. A Comparison of Predictive Thermo and Water Solvation Property Prediction Tools and Experimental Data for Selected Traditional Chemical Warfare Agents and Simulants II: COSMO RS and COSMOTherm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    SELECTED TRADITIONAL CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND SIMULANTS II: COSMO-RS AND COSMOTHERM ECBC-TR-1454 Jerry B. Cabalo RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY...Traditional Chemical Warfare Agents and Simulants II: COSMO-RS and COSMOTherm 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER CB10115...in the ADF 2012 suite of programs for the physico- chemical properties of a set of traditional chemical warfare agents and selected simulants. To

  9. Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E-Tools Safety and Health Topics / Biological Agents Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... 202) 693-2300 if additional assistance is required. Biological Agents Menu Overview In Focus: Ebola Frederick A. ...

  10. Structure and behavior as determinants: United States nuclear test ban and chemical and biological arms control policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    US efforts to control chemical and biological warfare and nuclear testing are examined with the aim of explaining the paucity of US backed agreements in these areas. Two theoretical perspectives, the behavioral and structural approaches, are used to explore US arms control outcomes. In the behavioral approach, the effects of governmental organization and the bargaining dynamics of policy-making elites with different cognitive styles are posited as important influences on US nuclear test ban and chemical and biological arms control policy outcomes. The behavioral perspective accounts for the timing of all US failed and successful entries (with one exception) into nuclear test bans and chemical and biological warfare restraints. A shortcoming of the behavior approach, however, is that it tends to overemphasize the chances for successful US entry into nuclear test and chemical and biological warfare limitations. Analysis of the same events from the structural perspective helps to correct for expectations generated by behavioral variables for a higher success rate than ultimately resulted. In the structural approach, the focus is on the effect of the organization of international politics on US nuclear test ban and chemical and biological arms control policy outcomes

  11. How Power-Laws Re-Write The Rules Of Cyber Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Bibighaus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All warfare contains and element of randomness. This article will argue that, the kind uncertainty encountered in cyber warfare (Power-Law randomness is fundamentally different from the uncertainty the military has evolved to deal with in the physical world (Gaussian-Randomness. The article will explain the difference between these two kinds of randomness, and how cyber weapons appear to operate under Power-Law randomness. It then will show how in cyberspace, key aspects of strategic thought are based on a flaws assumption of randomness. Finally, this article shall argue that if the American military is going to be effective in cyberspace, it must re-examine the way the military assumes risk, recruits is forces, plans for war and maintains the peace.

  12. Reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL) for the decontamination of chemical warfare agent (CWA) dermal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, M D; Hurst, C G; Kirk, M A; Reedy, S J D; Braue, E H

    2012-08-01

    Rapid decontamination of the skin is the single most important action to prevent dermal absorption of chemical contaminants in persons exposed to chemical warfare agents (CWA) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) as a result of accidental or intentional release. Chemicals on the skin may be removed by mechanical means through the use of dry sorbents or water. Recent interest in decontamination systems which both partition contaminants away from the skin and actively neutralize the chemical has led to the development of several reactive decontamination solutions. This article will review the recently FDA-approved Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) and will summarize the toxicity and efficacy studies conducted to date. Evidence of RSDL's superior performance against vesicant and organophosphorus chemical warfare agents compared to water, bleach, and dry sorbents, suggests that RSDL may have a role in mass human exposure chemical decontamination in both the military and civilian arenas.

  13. MOFwich: Sandwiched Metal-Organic Framework-Containing Mixed Matrix Composites for Chemical Warfare Agent Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Gregory W; Lu, Annie X; Hall, Morgan G; Browe, Matthew A; Tovar, Trenton; Epps, Thomas H

    2018-02-28

    This work describes a new strategy for fabricating mixed matrix composites containing layered metal-organic framework (MOF)/polymer films as functional barriers for chemical warfare agent protection. Through the use of mechanically robust polymers as the top and bottom encasing layers, a high-MOF-loading, high-performance-core layer can be sandwiched within. We term this multifunctional composite "MOFwich". We found that the use of elastomeric encasing layers enabled core layer reformation after breakage, an important feature for composites and membranes alike. The incorporation of MOFs into the core layer led to enhanced removal of chemical warfare agents while simultaneously promoting moisture vapor transport through the composite, showcasing the promise of these composites for protection applications.

  14. Textile/metal-organic-framework composites as self-detoxifying filters for chemical-warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Maya, Elena; Montoro, Carmen; Rodríguez-Albelo, L Marleny; Aznar Cervantes, Salvador D; Lozano-Pérez, A Abel; Cenís, José Luis; Barea, Elisa; Navarro, Jorge A R

    2015-06-01

    The current technology of air-filtration materials for protection against highly toxic chemicals, that is, chemical-warfare agents, is mainly based on the broad and effective adsorptive properties of hydrophobic activated carbons. However, adsorption does not prevent these materials from behaving as secondary emitters once they are contaminated. Thus, the development of efficient self-cleaning filters is of high interest. Herein, we report how we can take advantage of the improved phosphotriesterase catalytic activity of lithium alkoxide doped zirconium(IV) metal-organic framework (MOF) materials to develop advanced self-detoxifying adsorbents of chemical-warfare agents containing hydrolysable P-F, P-O, and C-Cl bonds. Moreover, we also show that it is possible to integrate these materials onto textiles, thereby combining air-permeation properties of the textiles with the self-detoxifying properties of the MOF material. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Ultrasensitive detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents by low-pressure photoionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wanqi; Liang, Miao; Li, Zhen; Shu, Jinian; Yang, Bo; Xu, Ce; Zou, Yao

    2016-08-15

    On-spot monitoring of threat agents needs high sensitive instrument. In this study, a low-pressure photoionization mass spectrometer (LPPI-MS) was employed to detect trace amounts of vapor-phase explosives and chemical warfare agent mimetics under ambient conditions. Under 10-s detection time, the limits of detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene, nitrotoluene, nitrobenzene, and dimethyl methyl phosphonate were 30, 0.5, 4, and 1 parts per trillion by volume, respectively. As compared to those obtained previously with PI mass spectrometric techniques, an improvement of 3-4 orders of magnitude was achieved. This study indicates that LPPI-MS will open new opportunities for the sensitive detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Metal-organic frameworks for the removal of toxic industrial chemicals and chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbitt, N Scott; Mendonca, Matthew L; Howarth, Ashlee J; Islamoglu, Timur; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K; Snurr, Randall Q

    2017-06-06

    Owing to the vast diversity of linkers, nodes, and topologies, metal-organic frameworks can be tailored for specific tasks, such as chemical separations or catalysis. Accordingly, these materials have attracted significant interest for capture and/or detoxification of toxic industrial chemicals and chemical warfare agents. In this paper, we review recent experimental and computational work pertaining to the capture of several industrially-relevant toxic chemicals, including NH 3 , SO 2 , NO 2 , H 2 S, and some volatile organic compounds, with particular emphasis on the challenging issue of designing materials that selectively adsorb these chemicals in the presence of water. We also examine recent research on the capture and catalytic degradation of chemical warfare agents such as sarin and sulfur mustard using metal-organic frameworks.

  17. Assessing the Role of Surgical Strike Operations in Support of a Special Warfare Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    classic example of special warfare in action is the use of Special Forces soldiers to facilitate the Northern Alliance’s overthrow of the Taliban...Finally, the tempo of surgical strike operations must be taken into account. Renowned British counterinsurgent of the Boer War, Charles Callwell...December 2016, accessed 15 December 2016, http://edition.cnn.com/2010/ WORLD /asiapcf/10/09/ afghanistan.british.worker.death/index.html?hpt=T2. 43 camps

  18. Russian Perspectives on Network-Centric Warfare: The Key Aim of Serdyukov’s Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    has faced with its GLObal’naya NAvigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema —(GLONASS) system, and introducing advanced digitized communications in the armed...of targeting data will be accomplished by organizing virtual channels for data transmission or via a web -portal. The successful function- ing of the...Operations: Tactical Web Takes Shape,” Signal, November 2003; Col. Alan D. Campen, USAF (Ret.), “Look Closely At Network-Centric Warfare: Technology Can

  19. The Alpini Effect: Why the US Army Should Train Units for Mountain Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    practical knowledge of the ground, and are very little adapted for mountain warfare.”20 The concept of infantry forces trained in mountain combat was...spearheaded the word of mouth campaign as he said, “It is easier to train a skier to be a soldier than to train a soldier to be a skier .” 30...author’s knowledge from professional experience 51 at Camp Carson from 1942-1944 and the US

  20. Hybrid Warfare Dilemmas in the Middle Colonies during the American Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    north.51 Washington urged Lee “to push for Philadelphia. The force I have with me is infinitely ...would attend the passage of the River by a march through Jersey,” he wrote, “I propose to invade Pennsylvania by sea , and from this arrangement...Hybrid Warfare Dilemmas in the Middle Colonies during the American Revolution A Monograph by MAJ William C. Murray II US Army

  1. Cognitive Depth and Hybrid Warfare: Exploring the Nature of Unique Time, Space, and Logic Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    upon an earlier research monograph by William J. Nemeth at the Naval Post-Graduate School. In “Future War and Chechnya : A Case for Hybrid War,” Nemeth...8 William, Nemeth, Future War and Chechnya : A Case for Hybrid Warfare (Monterey: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2002) 2-3. 7...does.10 Yet, using Chechnya and the Chechnian Wars as an example of a hybrid society and hybrid wars, Nemeth’s view limits the concept in terms of

  2. The Equipment of Czech Firefighters for the Detection and Field Analyses of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Krykorkova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the requirements for the devices of detection, chemical reconnaissance and field analyses of chemical warfare agents (CWA and divides them into simple devices of detection, universal detectors, selective analyzers, multi-component analyzers and mobile laboratories. It also describes the devices of detection available within the Fire and Rescue Service of the Czech Republic (FRS CR and compares them with some prospective trends of further development.

  3. Weathering the Cyber Storm: The Military’s Resiliency to Cyber Attacks in Future Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    observation. While the ability to collect intelligence is important, it falls under a different rubric than warfare itself. 20 Another term worth...the use of antivirus programs, firewalls, and security policies. These measures also fall under the rubric of information assurance, or “measures that...specifying how it is to be accomplished.” of genetic diversity. 13 A complaint after Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) was that soldiers had to

  4. Evaluation of the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR) Cost and Performance Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Flavell, Drew G.; Dorwin, Timothy E.

    1999-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis examines the Cost and Performance Measurements within four Program Directorates at the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR). SPAWAR is the Navy's full-spectrum research, development, test and evaluation, engineering and fleet support center for Command, Control and Communications Systems, Ocean Surveillance Systems and the integration of those systems that overarch multiplatforms. In the era of lean military bu...

  5. Mass spectrometric study of selected precursors and degradation products of chemical warfare agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Papoušková, B.; Bednář, P.; Fryšová, I.; Stýskala, J.; Hlaváč, J.; Barták, P.; Ulrichová, J.; Jirkovský, Jaromír; Lemr, K.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 12 (2007), s. 1550-1561 ISSN 1076-5174 Grant - others:The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (NL) L/ICA/ICB/84322/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : mass spectrometry * chemical warfare agent * high performance liquid chromatography * LC/MS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.062, year: 2007

  6. From the Decomposition of Chemical Warfare Agents to the Decontamination of Cytostatics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Šťastný, Martin; Janoš, P.; Mazanec, K.; Perez-Diaz, J. L.; Štenglová Netíková, I. R.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 6 (2018), s. 2114-2122 ISSN 0888-5885 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 312804 - COUNTERFOG Grant - others:NATO(US) SPS984599 Program:Science for Peace and Security Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Chemical warfare agents * Degradation * Metal oxide sorbents Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 2.843, year: 2016

  7. On Pecuniary Resiliency, Early Warning, and Market Imitation under Unrestricted Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    combatants, and civilians. The term was first used by American analysts in 1989 as Lind et . al . [37] to describe the return of warfare to a decentralized...Century. New York: Free, 1988 . Print. [22] Gould , Stephen, and Eldredge Niles. “Punctuated Equilibria: The Tempo and Mode of Evolution Reconsidered...able to take a punch.” He specifically argues that Al Qaeda and other terrorist organizations have limited resources to plan and carry out attacks and

  8. Bits or Shots in Combat? The Generalized Deitchman Model of Guerrilla Warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Kress, Moshe; MacKay, Niall J.

    2013-01-01

    Operations Research Letters, accepted. We generalize Deitchman's guerrilla warfare model to account for trade-off between intelligence ('bits') and firepower ('shots'). Intelligent targeting leads to aimed fire, absence of intelligence leads to unaimed fire, dependent on targets' density. We propose a new Lanchester-type model that mixes aimed with unaimed fire, the balance between these being determined by quality of information. We derive the model's conserved quantity, and use it ...

  9. Forgeting Lessons Learned: The United States Army’s Inability To Embrace Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Revolutionary Development Support, commonly referred to as “CORDS”, was established in 1967 under Robert “Blowtorch” Komer. As the director of CORDS, Robert ...combat operations spanning the complete spectrum of warfare. As Robert Citino, the author of Blitzkrieg to Desert Storm wrote about the development of...US forces in Somalia. Haiti In 1915, Smedley Butler and 3,000 Marines invaded Haiti and quickly pacified the entire island. Eighty years

  10. Russia and hybrid warfare: identifying critical elements in successful applications of hybrid tactics

    OpenAIRE

    Neville, Seth B.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited With the Russian annexation of Crimea in 2014, hybrid war became a buzzword within political and academic circles. This thesis examines hybrid warfare applications using contemporary and historical examples. The analysis seeks to determine why a country was or was not successful in its execution of hybrid war, and it assesses the geo-political context of cost, benefit, and risk for an aggressor state contributing to its decision to eng...

  11. Immunohistopathology in the Guinea Pig Following Chronic Low-Level Exposure to Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense USAMRICD-TR-05-09 Immunohistopathology in the Guinea Pig Following Chronic Low...2005 2. REPORT TYPE Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) May 2003 to April 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Immunohistopathology in the Guinea Pig Following...release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Guinea pigs exposed repeatedly to low levels of chemical warfare nerve agents

  12. A cost and operational effectiveness analysis of alternative anti-surface warfare platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Skinner, Walter Mark.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. A Cost and Operational Effectiveness Analysis (COEA) is performed for three alternative anti-surface warfare (ASUW) platforms that will conduct operations in multi-service regional scenarios. Estimated program costs, historical cost variances, and measures of operational effectiveness are determined for each COEA alternative, and service life extension effects are examined. The data is merged in a mixed-integer optimization model, MPA...

  13. Fast neutron sensor for detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, Vladivoj; Sudac, Davorin; Matika, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Once the presence of the anomaly on the bottom of the shallow coastal sea water has been confirmed it is necessary to establish if it contains explosive or chemical warfare charge. We propose that this be performed by using neutron sensor installed within an underwater vessel. When positioned above the object, or to its side, the system can inspect the object for the presence of the threat materials by using alpha particle tagged neutrons from the sealed tube d+t neutron generator.

  14. Fast neutron sensor for detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valkovic, Vladivoj [A.C.T.d.o.o., Prilesje 4, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)], E-mail: valkovic@irb.hr; Sudac, Davorin [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Bijenicka c.54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Matika, Dario [Institute for Researches and Development of Defense Systems, Ilica 256b, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2010-04-15

    Once the presence of the anomaly on the bottom of the shallow coastal sea water has been confirmed it is necessary to establish if it contains explosive or chemical warfare charge. We propose that this be performed by using neutron sensor installed within an underwater vessel. When positioned above the object, or to its side, the system can inspect the object for the presence of the threat materials by using alpha particle tagged neutrons from the sealed tube d+t neutron generator.

  15. Comparison of Selected Methods for Individual Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas Capoun; Jana Krykorkova

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the individual decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) and other hazardous substances. The individual decontamination applies to contaminated body surfaces, protective clothing and objects immediately after contamination, performed individually or by mutual assistance using prescribed or improvised devices. The article evaluates the importance of individual decontamination, security level for Fire and Rescue Service Units of the Czech Republic (FRS CR) and demons...

  16. Analysis of chemical warfare using a transient semi-Markov formulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Kierzewski, Michael O.

    1988-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis proposes an analytical model to test various assumptions about conventional/chemical warfare. A unit's status in conventional/chemical combat is modeled as states in a semi-Markov chain with transient and absorbing states. The effects of differing chemical threat levels, availability of decontamination assets and assumed personnel degradation rates on expected unit life and capabilities are tested. The ...

  17. Chemical Warfare Agent Operational Exposure Hazard Assessment Research: FY07 Report and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    agent migration rates. As stated by Armour and Sturgeon (1992), the extent of the contact hazard depends on the initial degree of contamination, the...with a contaminated surface. 2.1.5 Literature Cited 1. Armour , S.J; Sturgeon, W.R. Liquid Hazard from Chemical Warfare Agents for Pilots of High...the neck area was clipped and prepped with betadine, and the animal covered with a sterile surgical drape . The planned incision areas in the

  18. Operational advantages of using Cyber Electronic Warfare (CEW) in the battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Nurgul; Yasar, Fatih M.; Topcu, Yucel

    2012-06-01

    While cyberspace is emerging as a new battlefield, conventional Electronic Warfare (EW) methods and applications are likely to change. Cyber Electronic Warfare (CEW) concept which merges cyberspace capabilities with traditional EW methods, is a new and enhanced form of the electronic attack. In this study, cyberspace domain of the battlefield is emphazised and the feasibility of integrating Cyber Warfare (CW) concept into EW measures is researched. The SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis method is used to state the operational advantages of using CEW concept in the battlefield. The operational advantages of CEW are assessed by means of its effects on adversary air defense systems, communication networks and information systems. Outstanding technological and operational difficulties are pointed out as well. As a result, a comparison of CEW concept and conventional EW applications is presented. It is concluded that, utilization of CEW concept is feasible at the battlefield and it may yield important operational advantages. Even though the computers of developed military systems are less complex than normal computers, they are not subjected to cyber threats since they are closed systems. This concept intends to show that these closed systems are also open to the cyber threats. As a result of the SWOT analysis, CEW concept provides Air Forces to be used in cyber operations effectively. On the other hand, since its Collateral Damage Criteria (CDC) is low, the usage of cyber electronic attack systems seems to grow up.

  19. Iron-montmorillonite clays as active sorbents for the decontamination of hazardous chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniato, F; Bisio, C; Evangelisti, C; Psaro, R; Dal Santo, V; Costenaro, D; Marchese, L; Guidotti, M

    2018-02-27

    A class of heterogeneous catalysts based on commercial bentonite from natural origin, containing at least 80 wt% of montmorillonite clay, was designed to transform selectively and under mild conditions toxic organosulfur and organophosphorus chemical warfare agents into non-noxious products with a reduced impact on health and environment. The bentonite from the natural origin was modified by introducing iron species and acid sites in the interlayer space, aiming to obtain a sorbent with strong catalytic oxidising and hydrolytic properties. The catalytic performance of these materials was evaluated in the oxidative abatement of (2-chloroethyl)ethyl sulfide (CEES), a simulant of sulfur mustard, in the presence of aqueous hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant. A new decontamination formulation was, moreover, proposed and obtained by mixing sodium perborate, as a solid oxidant, to iron-bentonite catalysts. Solid-phase decontamination tests, performed on a cotton textile support contaminated with organosulfide and organophosphonate simulant agents revealed the good activity of the solid formulation, especially in the in situ detoxification of blistering agents. Tests carried out on the real blistering warfare agent, sulfur mustard (HD agent), showed that, thanks to the co-presence of the iron-based clay together with the solid oxidant component, a good decontamination of the test surface from the real warfare agent could be achieved (80% contaminant degradation, under ambient conditions, in 24 h).

  20. Modeling the transport of chemical warfare agents and simulants in polymeric substrates for reactive decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Thomas; Mantooth, Brent; Varady, Mark; Willis, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Chemical warfare agent simulants are often used for environmental testing in place of highly toxic agents. This work sets the foundation for modeling decontamination of absorbing polymeric materials with the focus on determining relationships between agents and simulants. The correlations of agents to simulants must consider the three way interactions in the chemical-material-decontaminant system where transport and reaction occur in polymer materials. To this end, diffusion modeling of the subsurface transport of simulants and live chemical warfare agents was conducted for various polymer systems (e.g., paint coatings) with and without reaction pathways with applied decontamination. The models utilized 1D and 2D finite difference diffusion and reaction models to simulate absorption and reaction in the polymers, and subsequent flux of the chemicals out of the polymers. Experimental data including vapor flux measurements and dynamic contact angle measurements were used to determine model input parameters. Through modeling, an understanding of the relationship of simulant to live chemical warfare agent was established, focusing on vapor emission of agents and simulants from materials.

  1. Synthetic biology and biosecurity: challenging the "myths".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Catherine; Lentzos, Filippa; Marris, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology, a field that aims to "make biology easier to engineer," is routinely described as leading to an increase in the "dual-use" threat, i.e., the potential for the same scientific research to be "used" for peaceful purposes or "misused" for warfare or terrorism. Fears have been expressed that the "de-skilling" of biology, combined with online access to the genomic DNA sequences of pathogenic organisms and the reduction in price for DNA synthesis, will make biology increasingly accessible to people operating outside well-equipped professional research laboratories, including people with malevolent intentions. The emergence of do-it-yourself (DIY) biology communities and of the student iGEM competition has come to epitomize this supposed trend toward greater ease of access and the associated potential threat from rogue actors. In this article, we identify five "myths" that permeate discussions about synthetic biology and biosecurity, and argue that they embody misleading assumptions about both synthetic biology and bioterrorism. We demonstrate how these myths are challenged by more realistic understandings of the scientific research currently being conducted in both professional and DIY laboratories, and by an analysis of historical cases of bioterrorism. We show that the importance of tacit knowledge is commonly overlooked in the dominant narrative: the focus is on access to biological materials and digital information, rather than on human practices and institutional dimensions. As a result, public discourse on synthetic biology and biosecurity tends to portray speculative scenarios about the future as realities in the present or the near future, when this is not warranted. We suggest that these "myths" play an important role in defining synthetic biology as a "promissory" field of research and as an "emerging technology" in need of governance.

  2. Health-related quality of life of chemical warfare victims: an assessment with the use of a specific tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biat Saeed, Khaled; Parandeh, Akram; Alhani, Fatemeh; Salaree, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to chemical warfare gases significantly changes the quality of life (QoL) of victims and has significant chronic adverse effects. This study sought to assess the health-related QoL (HRQoL) of chemical victims by means of a tool specifically designed for this purpose. The correlation of their QoL with several demographic factors was evaluated as well. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 120 chemical warfare victims were selected from subjects presenting to selected medical centers in Tehran in 2012 using convenience sampling. Two questionnaires of demographic information and HRQoL of chemical warfare victims (specific tool) were used for data collection. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). The mean and standard deviation (mean ± SD) of scores obtained by chemical warfare victims in physical, psychosocial and spiritual domains was 39.6 ± 16.5, 42.1 ± 15.2 and 82.4 ± 15.4, respectively. Different age groups showed a significant difference in the psychosocial domain score (P chemical warfare victims, it can be used as strategically for these patients to help them cope with their injury and improve their physical and psychosocial health and QoL.

  3. International humanitarian law applied to cyber-warfare: Precautions, proportionality and the notion of ‘attack’ under the humanitarian law of armed conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gill, T.D.; Tsagourias, N.; Buchan, R.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the application of international humanitarian law to cyber warfare in the sense of rising to the level of an armed conflict. Building upon the work of the Tallinn Manual on the Application of International Law to Cyber Warfare, it places particular emphasis on the application

  4. Modern Biology

    OpenAIRE

    ALEKSIC, Branko

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this course is to learn the philosophy, principles, and techniques of modern biology. The course is particularly designed for those who have not learned biology previously or whose major is other than biology, and who may think that they do not need to know any biology at all. The topics are covered in a rather general, overview manner, but certain level of diligence in grasping concepts and memorizing the terminology is expected.

  5. Toxins as biological weapons for terror-characteristics, challenges and medical countermeasures: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Tamar; Eisenkraft, Arik; Bar-Haim, Erez; Kassirer, Michael; Aran, Adi Avniel; Fogel, Itay

    2016-01-01

    Toxins are hazardous biochemical compounds derived from bacteria, fungi, or plants. Some have mechanisms of action and physical properties that make them amenable for use as potential warfare agents. Currently, some toxins are classified as potential biological weapons, although they have several differences from classic living bio-terror pathogens and some similarities to manmade chemical warfare agents. This review focuses on category A and B bio-terror toxins recognized by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Botulinum neurotoxin, staphylococcal enterotoxin B, Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin, and ricin. Their derivation, pathogenesis, mechanism of action, associated clinical signs and symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment are discussed in detail. Given their expected covert use, the primary diagnostic challenge in toxin exposure is the early detection of morbidity clusters, apart from background morbidity, after a relatively short incubation period. For this reason, it is important that clinicians be familiar with the clinical manifestations of toxins and the appropriate methods of management and countermeasures.

  6. Biological restoration of major transportation facilities domestic demonstration and application project (DDAP): technology development at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, James L., Jr. (.,; .); Melton, Brad; Finley, Patrick; Brockman, John; Peyton, Chad E.; Tucker, Mark David; Einfeld, Wayne; Griffith, Richard O.; Brown, Gary Stephen; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Knowlton, Robert G.; Ho, Pauline

    2006-06-01

    The Bio-Restoration of Major Transportation Facilities Domestic Demonstration and Application Program (DDAP) is a designed to accelerate the restoration of transportation nodes following an attack with a biological warfare agent. This report documents the technology development work done at SNL for this DDAP, which include development of the BROOM tool, an investigation of surface sample collection efficiency, and a flow cytometry study of chlorine dioxide effects on Bacillus anthracis spore viability.

  7. Mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, James D

    1993-01-01

    The book is a textbook (with many exercises) giving an in-depth account of the practical use of mathematical modelling in the biomedical sciences. The mathematical level required is generally not high and the emphasis is on what is required to solve the real biological problem. The subject matter is drawn, e.g. from population biology, reaction kinetics, biological oscillators and switches, Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction, reaction-diffusion theory, biological wave phenomena, central pattern generators, neural models, spread of epidemics, mechanochemical theory of biological pattern formation and importance in evolution. Most of the models are based on real biological problems and the predictions and explanations offered as a direct result of mathematical analysis of the models are important aspects of the book. The aim is to provide a thorough training in practical mathematical biology and to show how exciting and novel mathematical challenges arise from a genuine interdisciplinary involvement with the biosci...

  8. Military chemical warfare agent human subjects testing: part 2--long-term health effects among participants of U.S. military chemical warfare agent testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Military chemical warfare agent testing from World War I to 1975 produced thousands of veterans with concerns about how their participation affected their health. A companion article describes the history of these experiments, and how the lack of clinical data hampers evaluation of long-term health consequences. Conversely, much information is available about specific agents tested and their long-term health effects in other populations, which may be invaluable for helping clinicians respond effectively to the health care and other needs of affected veterans. The following review describes tested agents and their known long-term health consequences. Although hundreds of chemicals were tested, they fall into only about a half-dozen pharmaceutical classes, including common pharmaceuticals; anticholinesterase agents including military nerve agents and pesticides; anticholinergic glycolic acid esters such as atropine; acetylcholine reactivators such as 2-PAM; psychoactive compounds including cannabinoids, phencyclidine, and LSD; and irritants including tear gas and riot control agents.

  9. Quality of life in chemical warfare survivors with ophthalmologic injuries: the first results form Iran Chemical Warfare Victims Health Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Batool; Soroush, Mohammad Reza; Montazeri, Ali

    2009-01-19

    Iraq used chemical weapons extensively against the Iranians during the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988). The aim of this study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQOL) in people who had ophthalmologic complications due to the sulfur mustard gas exposure during the war. The Veterans and Martyrs Affair Foundation (VMAF) database indicated that there were 196 patients with severe ophthalmologic complications due to chemical weapons exposure. Of these, those who gave consent (n = 147) entered into the study. Quality of life was measured using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and scores were compared to those of the general public. In addition logistic regression analysis was performed to indicate variables that contribute to physical and mental health related quality of life. The mean age of the patients was 44.8 (SD = 8.7) ranging from 21 to 75 years. About one-third of the cases (n= 50) reported exposure to chemical weapons more than once. The mean exposure duration to sulfur mustard gas was 21.6 years (SD = 1.2). The lowest scores on the SF-36 subscales were found to be: the role physical and the general health. Quality of life in chemical warfare victims who had ophthalmologic problems was significantly lower than the general public (P chemical warfare victims with ophthalmologic complications suffer from poor health related quality of life. It seems that the need for provision of health and support for this population is urgent. In addition, further research is necessary to measure health related quality of life in victims with different types of disabilities in order to support and enhance quality of life among this population.

  10. Quality of life in chemical warfare survivors with ophthalmologic injuries: the first results form Iran Chemical Warfare Victims Health Assessment Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroush Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iraq used chemical weapons extensively against the Iranians during the Iran-Iraq war (1980–1988. The aim of this study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQOL in people who had ophthalmologic complications due to the sulfur mustard gas exposure during the war. Methods The Veterans and Martyrs Affair Foundation (VMAF database indicated that there were 196 patients with severe ophthalmologic complications due to chemical weapons exposure. Of these, those who gave consent (n = 147 entered into the study. Quality of life was measured using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 and scores were compared to those of the general public. In addition logistic regression analysis was performed to indicate variables that contribute to physical and mental health related quality of life. Results The mean age of the patients was 44.8 (SD = 8.7 ranging from 21 to 75 years. About one-third of the cases (n= 50 reported exposure to chemical weapons more than once. The mean exposure duration to sulfur mustard gas was 21.6 years (SD = 1.2. The lowest scores on the SF-36 subscales were found to be: the role physical and the general health. Quality of life in chemical warfare victims who had ophthalmologic problems was significantly lower than the general public (P Conclusion The study findings suggest that chemical warfare victims with ophthalmologic complications suffer from poor health related quality of life. It seems that the need for provision of health and support for this population is urgent. In addition, further research is necessary to measure health related quality of life in victims with different types of disabilities in order to support and enhance quality of life among this population.

  11. The concept of guerrilla warfare in Lithuania in the 1920—1930s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokubauskas Vytautas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the military and tactical training of the members of the Lithuanian Riflemen’s Union for guerrilla warfare in the interwar period. Small nations, such as Lithuania and other Baltic states, being unable to build up military strength in order to ensure national security, were forced to seek for unconventional methods of warfare, including guerrilla strategies. The study places emphasis on the development of the guerrilla war concept in the Union periodicals. The author retraces a change in the intensity of the guerrilla warfare concept propagation amongst Lithuanian population and riflemen, in particular, through publications in the Trimitas — a periodical of the Lithuanian Riflemen’s Union. The author also identifies the narratives associated with the guerrilla matters employed for propaganda purposes in order to create an image of a guerrilla as a defender of the Homeland — Lithuania. Additionally, the structure and numbers of the Union are analysed through a comparison with similar organisations of the other «small nations» of the Baltic North-East. The author addresses the issue of military missions planned by the Lithuanian Army, as well as the way riflemen implemented them. Since the Union did not only offer military training, but was also engaged in the patriotic propaganda, the article focuses on the network of cultural institutions, homes of riflemen, orchestras, libraries, choirs, and athletic clubs used by the Union. The article sets out to establish whether the loss of Lithuanian sovereignty could have been possible without giving rise to a protracted guerrilla war.

  12. Differential Game for a Class of Warfare Dynamic Systems with Reinforcement Based on Lanchester Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the optimal reinforcement game problem between two opposing forces in military conflicts. With some moderate assumptions, we employ Lanchester equation and differential game theory to develop a corresponding optimization game model. After that, we establish the optimum condition for the differential game problem and give an algorithm to obtain the optimal reinforcement strategies. Furthermore, we also discuss the convergence of the algorithm. Finally, a numerical example illustrates the effectiveness of the presented optimal schemes. Our proposed results provide a theoretical guide for both making warfare command decision and assessing military actions.

  13. USN/USMC Antiair Warfare and Command, Control and Communications for Amphibious Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    NUMBERS W’Vf~ * ic0"W O plows k; to., W..ia 0;41 40A.YWfI 11 TITLE (Inclucle Securily CiaSsifkcaticin) U8N/U8SUC Antiuar Warflire and4 CommaskC~Ual...the CWC to be a manager of all the warfare areas and frees him from becoming entangled in one tactical problem while another grows undetected elsewhere...hostile enemy actions (i.e., jamming) the potential begins to decrease rapidly . [Ref. 19:pp. 185-194] F. MARINE CORPS PRINCIPLES OF AAW There are three

  14. Overview on Analysis of Free Metabolites for Detection of Exposure to Chemical Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoriu Nicoleta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical warfare agents (CWA’s induce complex toxicological effects with major adverse consequences for those exposed. For many chemical agents there is a need for research and development of analytical toxicological methods for a rapid and certain confirmation of those exposures. The certain methods will help for establishing the laboratory diagnosis for applying the proper therapy; the treatment of only contaminated people, decreasing the stress level in the medical community in management of crisis situations, increasing the survival rate of the population exposed to the contamination, supervision of professional exposure, judicial analysis in case of suspicious terrorist activities.

  15. Niobium(V) saponite clay for the catalytic oxidative abatement of chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniato, Fabio; Bisio, Chiara; Psaro, Rinaldo; Marchese, Leonardo; Guidotti, Matteo

    2014-09-15

    A Nb(V)-containing saponite clay was designed to selectively transform toxic organosulfur chemical warfare agents (CWAs) under extremely mild conditions into nontoxic products with reduced environmental impact. Thanks to the insertion of Nb(V) sites within the saponite framework, a bifunctional catalyst with strong oxidizing and acid properties was obtained. Remarkable activity and high selectivity were observed for the oxidative abatement of (2-chloroethyl)ethyl sulfide (CEES), a simulant of sulfur mustard, at room temperature with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. This performance was significantly better compared to a conventional commercial decontamination powder. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Laser mass spectrometry of chemical warfare agents using ultrashort laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weickhardt, C.; Grun, C.; Grotemeyer, J.

    1998-01-01

    Fast relaxation processes in excited molecules such as IC, ISC, and fragmentation are observed in many environmentally and technically relevant substances. They cause severe problems to resonance ionization mass spectrometry because they reduce the ionization yield and lead to mass spectra which do not allow the identification of the compound. By the use of ultrashort laser pulses these problems can be overcome and the advantages of REMPI over conventional ionization techniques in mass spectrometry can be regained. This is demonstrated using soil samples contaminated with a chemical warfare agent

  17. Supramolecular chemistry and chemical warfare agents: from fundamentals of recognition to catalysis and sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambrook, M R; Notman, S

    2013-12-21

    Supramolecular chemistry presents many possible avenues for the mitigation of the effects of chemical warfare agents (CWAs), including sensing, catalysis and sequestration. To-date, efforts in this field both to study fundamental interactions between CWAs and to design and exploit host systems remain sporadic. In this tutorial review the non-covalent recognition of CWAs is considered from first principles, including taking inspiration from enzymatic systems, and gaps in fundamental knowledge are indicated. Examples of synthetic systems developed for the recognition of CWAs are discussed with a focus on the supramolecular complexation behaviour and non-covalent approaches rather than on the proposed applications.

  18. Vesicants and nerve agents in chemical warfare. Decontamination and treatment strategies for a changed world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereaux, Asha; Amundson, Dennis E; Parrish, J S; Lazarus, Angeline A

    2002-10-01

    Vesicants and nerve agents have been used in chemical warfare for ages. They remain a threat in today's altered political climate because they are relatively simple to produce, transport, and deploy. Vesicants, such as mustard and lewisite, can affect the skin, eyes, respiratory system, and gastrointestinal system. They leave affected persons at risk for long-term effects. Nerve agents, such as tabun, sarin, soman, and VX, hyperstimulate the muscarinic and nicotinic receptors of the nervous system. Physicians need to familiarize themselves with the clinical findings of such exposures and the decontamination and treatment strategies necessary to minimize injuries and deaths.

  19. Biological therapeutics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenstein, Ben; Brook, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    This introductory textbook covers all the main categories of biological medicines, including vaccines, hormonal preparations, drugs for rheumatoid arthritis and other connective tissue diseases, drugs...

  20. Network Centric Warfare Case Study: U.S. V Corps and 3rd Infantry Division (Mechanized) During Operation Iraqi Freedom Combat Operations (Mar-Apr 2003). Volume 3. Network Centric Warfare Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    OPSEC), military deception, psychological operations (PSYOPS), special information operations (IO), information assurance, physical security...nonlethal effects, such as operational 8 Network Centric Warfare Case Study security (OPSEC), military deception, psychological operations (PSYOP...Support Operations Group ASR Alternate Supply Route; or, Ammunition Supply Rate ATACMS Army Tactical Missile System ATARS Advanced

  1. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  2. Computational biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    Computation via biological devices has been the subject of close scrutiny since von Neumann’s early work some 60 years ago. In spite of the many relevant works in this field, the notion of programming biological devices seems to be, at best, ill-defined. While many devices are claimed or proved t...

  3. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological ...

  4. Bioarchaeological investigation of ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland Northwest Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Stanley; Lope, Carlos Peraza; Uc González, Eunice

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates evidence of changes and continuities in ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland northwest Yucatan, Mexico from the Middle Preclassic (600-300 BC) to the Postclassic (AD 1050-1542) through bioarchaeological analysis of cranial and projectile trauma. It is hypothesized that the frequency of violence increases before the Classic Maya collapse and remains high during the Postclassic period. It is also hypothesized that the flat, open terrain was conducive to warfare and resulted in higher trauma frequencies than in other parts of the Maya area. Results show that the frequency of cranial trauma decreases before the Classic collapse and increases in the Postclassic, partially matching the expected chronological trends. The frequency of cranial trauma does not differ significantly from other Maya regions but the pattern does: for all periods, males have more healed injuries than females and they are concentrated on the left side of the anterior of the skull. Some injuries appear to be from small points hafted in wooden clubs. In addition, projectile trauma is evident in a scapula with an embedded arrowhead tip, the first such case reported in a Maya skeleton. Overall, these results suggest greater reliance on open combat and less on raids in this region compared with other parts of the Maya area, possibly due to the flat, open terrain, though the identification of perimortem trauma in both women and men indicates surprise raids on settlements were also practiced. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Next Generation Non-particulate Dry Nonwoven Pad for Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramkumar, S S; Love, A; Sata, U R; Koester, C J; Smith, W J; Keating, G A; Hobbs, L; Cox, S B; Lagna, W M; Kendall, R J

    2008-05-01

    New, non-particulate decontamination materials promise to reduce both military and civilian casualties by enabling individuals to decontaminate themselves and their equipment within minutes of exposure to chemical warfare agents or other toxic materials. One of the most promising new materials has been developed using a needlepunching nonwoven process to construct a novel and non-particulate composite fabric of multiple layers, including an inner layer of activated carbon fabric, which is well-suited for the decontamination of both personnel and equipment. This paper describes the development of a composite nonwoven pad and compares efficacy test results for this pad with results from testing other decontamination systems. The efficacy of the dry nonwoven fabric pad was demonstrated specifically for decontamination of the chemical warfare blister agent bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (H or sulfur mustard). GC/MS results indicate that the composite fabric was capable of significantly reducing the vapor hazard from mustard liquid absorbed into the nonwoven dry fabric pad. The mustard adsorption efficiency of the nonwoven pad was significantly higher than particulate activated carbon (p=0.041) and was similar to the currently fielded US military M291 kit (p=0.952). The nonwoven pad has several advantages over other materials, especially its non-particulate, yet flexible, construction. This composite fabric was also shown to be chemically compatible with potential toxic and hazardous liquids, which span a range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemicals, including a concentrated acid, an organic solvent and a mild oxidant, bleach.

  6. Academic Training Lectures | Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare | 13-14 January 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Please note that the next series of Academic Training Lectures will take place on 13 and 14 January 2016. The lectures will be given by Gian Piero Siroli (Università e INFN, Bologna (IT))   Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare (1/2)​ on Wednesday, 13 January from 11 a.m. to 12 p.m. http://indico.cern.ch/event/438525/ Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare (2/2) on Thursday, 14 January from 11 a.m. to 12 p.m. http://indico.cern.ch/event/438526/ at CERN, Council Chamber (503-1-001)  Description: The first part of the lecture is devoted to the description of the Stuxnet worm, the first cyber-weapon whose existence has been made public, discovered in 2010 and targeting a specific industrial control system; the worm is responsible for the damaging of many centrifuges at an uranium enrichment facility, with the goal of sabotaging Iran&...

  7. Modeling and Simulation for the Investigation of Radar Responses to Electronic Attacks in Electronic Warfare Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Ryoung Park

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An electronic warfare (EW simulator is presented to investigate and evaluate the tracking performance of radar system under the electronic attack situations. The EW simulator has the input section in which the characteristic parameters of radar threat, radar warning receiver, jammer, electromagnetic wave propagation, and simulation scenario can be set up. During the process of simulation, the simulator displays the situations of simulation such as the received signal and its spectrum, radar scope, and angle tracking scope and also calculates the transient and root-mean-squared tracking errors of the range and angle tracking system of radar. Using the proposed EW simulator, we analyze the effect of concealment according to the noise and signal powers under the noise jamming and also analyze the effect of deception by calculating errors between the desired value and the estimated one under the deceptive jamming. Furthermore, the proposed EW simulator can be used to figure out the feature of radar threats based on the information collected from the EW receiver and also used to carry out the electronic attacks efficiently in electronic warfare.

  8. Investigating the Relationship Between Drone Warfare and Civilian Casualties in Gaza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ann Rogers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, better known as drones, are increasingly touted as ‘humanitarian’ weapons that contribute positively to fighting just wars and saving innocent lives. At the same time, civilian casualties have become the most visible and criticized aspect of drone warfare. It is argued here that drones contribute to civilian casualties not in spite of, but because of, their unique attributes. They greatly extend war across time and space, pulling more potential threats and targets into play over long periods, and because they are low-risk and highly accurate, they are more likely to be used. The assumption that drones save lives obscures a new turn in strategic thinking that sees states such as Israel and the US rely on large numbers of small, highly discriminating attacks applied over time to achieve their objectives. This examination of Israel’s 2014 war in Gaza argues that civilian casualties are not an unexpected or unintended consequence of drone warfare, but an entirely predictable outcome.

  9. Zirconium doped nano-dispersed oxides of Fe, Al and Zn for destruction of warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stengl, Vaclav; Houskova, Vendula; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Murafa, Nataliya; Marikova, Monika; Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium doped nano dispersive oxides of Fe, Al and Zn were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of the respective sulfate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized metal oxide hydroxides were characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulfur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), soman (GD or (3,3'-Dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate) and VX agent (S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]-O-ethyl-methylphosphonothionate). The presence of Zr 4+ dopant can increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resulting doped oxides, decreases their crystallites' sizes thereby it may contribute in enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface thus it can accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. Addition of Zr 4+ converts the product of the reaction of ferric sulphate with urea from ferrihydrite to goethite. We found out that doped oxo-hydroxides Zr-FeO(OH) - being prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of ferric and zirconium oxo-sulfates mixture in aqueous solutions - exhibit a comparatively higher degradation activity towards chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Degradation of soman or VX agent on Zr-doped FeO(OH) containing ca. 8.3 wt.% of zirconium proceeded to completion within 30 min.

  10. The possible role of intravenous lipid emulsion in the treatment of chemical warfare agent poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arik Eisenkraft

    Full Text Available Organophosphates (OPs are cholinesterase inhibitors that lead to a characteristic toxidrome of hypersecretion, miosis, dyspnea, respiratory insufficiency, convulsions and, without proper and early antidotal treatment, death. Most of these compounds are highly lipophilic. Sulfur mustard is a toxic lipophilic alkylating agent, exerting its damage through alkylation of cellular macromolecules (e.g., DNA, proteins and intense activation of pro-inflammatory pathways. Currently approved antidotes against OPs include the peripheral anticholinergic drug atropine and an oxime that reactivates the inhibited cholinesterase. Benzodiazepines are used to stop organophosphate-induced seizures. Despite these approved drugs, efforts have been made to introduce other medical countermeasures in order to attenuate both the short-term and long-term clinical effects following exposure. Currently, there is no antidote against sulfur mustard poisoning. Intravenous lipid emulsions are used as a source of calories in parenteral nutrition. In recent years, efficacy of lipid emulsions has been shown in the treatment of poisoning by fat-soluble compounds in animal models as well as clinically in humans. In this review we discuss the usefulness of intravenous lipid emulsions as an adjunct to the in-hospital treatment of chemical warfare agent poisoning. Keywords: Intravenous lipid emulsion, Organophosphates, Sulfur mustard, Antidotes, Poisoning, Chemical Warfare agents

  11. Ge{sup 4+} doped TiO{sub 2} for stoichiometric degradation of warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@iic.cas.cz [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Grygar, Tomas Matys [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prepared nanodisperse Ge{sup 4+} doped titania by a novel synthesis method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis does not involve organic solvents, organometallics nor thermal processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The prepared materials are efficient in removal of chemical warfare agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ge{sup 4+} doping improves rate of removal of soman and agent VX by TiO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Germanium doped TiO{sub 2} was prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of aqueous solutions of GeCl{sub 4} and TiOSO{sub 4} with urea. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDS analysis, specific surface area (BET) and porosity determination (BJH). Ge{sup 4+} doping increases surface area and content of amorphous phase in prepared samples. These oxides were used in an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with chemical warfare agent, sulphur mustard, soman and agent VX. Ge{sup 4+} doping worsens sulphur mustard degradation and improves soman and agent VX degradation. The best degree of removal (degradation), 100% of soman, 99% of agent VX and 95% of sulphur mustard, is achieved with sample with 2 wt.% of germanium.

  12. Toxicity induced by chemical warfare agents: insights on the protective role of melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, René; Marco-Contelles, José; Ramos, Eva; Del Pino, Javier; Romero, Alejandro

    2013-11-25

    Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) are substances that can be used to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy in warfare, but also against civilian population in terrorist attacks. Many chemical agents are able to generate free radicals and derived reactants, excitotoxicity process, or inflammation, and as consequence they can cause neurological symptoms and damage in different organs. Nowadays, taking into account that total immediate decontamination after exposure is difficult to achieve and there are not completely effective antidotes and treatments against all CWAs, we advance and propose that medical countermeasures against CWAs poisoning would benefit from a broad-spectrum multipotent molecule. Melatonin, a versatile and ubiquitous antioxidant molecule, originally discovered as a hormone synthesized mainly in the pineal gland, has low toxicity and high efficacy in reducing oxidative damage, anti-inflammatory effects by regulation of multiple cellular pathways and properties to prevent excitotoxicity, among others. The purpose of this review is to show the multiple and diverse properties of melatonin, as a pleiotropic indole derivative, and its marked potential for improving human health against the most widely used chemical weapons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Zirconium doped nano-dispersed oxides of Fe, Al and Zn for destruction of warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@uach.cz [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Houskova, Vendula; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Murafa, Nataliya; Marikova, Monika [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2010-11-15

    Zirconium doped nano dispersive oxides of Fe, Al and Zn were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of the respective sulfate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized metal oxide hydroxides were characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulfur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), soman (GD or (3,3'-Dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate) and VX agent (S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]-O-ethyl-methylphosphonothionate). The presence of Zr{sup 4+} dopant can increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resulting doped oxides, decreases their crystallites' sizes thereby it may contribute in enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface thus it can accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. Addition of Zr{sup 4+} converts the product of the reaction of ferric sulphate with urea from ferrihydrite to goethite. We found out that doped oxo-hydroxides Zr-FeO(OH) - being prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of ferric and zirconium oxo-sulfates mixture in aqueous solutions - exhibit a comparatively higher degradation activity towards chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Degradation of soman or VX agent on Zr-doped FeO(OH) containing ca. 8.3 wt.% of zirconium proceeded to completion within 30 min.

  14. Computational enzymology for degradation of chemical warfare agents: promising technologies for remediation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical weapons are a major worldwide problem, since they are inexpensive, easy to produce on a large scale and difficult to detect and control. Among the chemical warfare agents, we can highlight the organophosphorus compounds (OP, which contain the phosphorus element and that have a large number of applications. They affect the central nervous system and can lead to death, so there are a lot of works in order to design new effective antidotes for the intoxication caused by them. The standard treatment includes the use of an anticholinergic combined to a central nervous system depressor and an oxime. Oximes are compounds that reactivate Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, a regulatory enzyme responsible for the transmission of nerve impulses, which is one of the molecular targets most vulnerable to neurotoxic agents. Increasingly, enzymatic treatment becomes a promising alternative; therefore, other enzymes have been studied for the OP degradation function, such as phosphotriesterase (PTE from bacteria, human serum paraoxonase 1 (HssPON1 and diisopropyl fluorophosphatase (DFPase that showed significant performances in OP detoxification. The understanding of mechanisms by which enzymes act is of extreme importance for the projection of antidotes for warfare agents, and computational chemistry comes to aid and reduce the time and costs of the process. Molecular Docking, Molecular Dynamics and QM/MM (quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics are techniques used to investigate the molecular interactions between ligands and proteins.

  15. Models, Analysis, and Recommendations Pertaining to the Retention of Naval Special Warfare s Mid-Level Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The Analytic Hierarch/Network Process,” in Rev. R. Acad. Cien. Serie A. Mat (RACSAM), submitted by Francisco Javier Giron (Real Academia de Ciencias ...Academia de Ciencias : Spain. Scott, Nathan. Naval Special Warfare Officer Retention Survey. Monterey, CA: NPS Press, September 2013. Whittenberger

  16. Modern sample preparation techniques for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of environmental markers of chemical warfare agents use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terzic, O.; de Voogt, P.; Banoub, J.

    2014-01-01

    The chapter introduces problematics of on-site chemical analysis in the investigations of past chemical warfare agents (CWA) events. An overview of primary environmental degradation pathways of CWA leading to formation of chemical markers of their use is given. Conventional and modern sample

  17. Reevaluation of 1999 Health-Based Environmental Screening Levels (HBESLs) for Chemical Warfare Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Dolislager, Fredrick G [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    This report evaluates whether new information and updated scientific models require that changes be made to previously published health-based environmental soil screening levels (HBESLs) and associated environmental fate/breakdown information for chemical warfare agents (USACHPPM 1999). Specifically, the present evaluation describes and compares changes that have been made since 1999 to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) risk assessment models, EPA exposure assumptions, as well as to specific chemical warfare agent parameters (e.g., toxicity values). Comparison was made between screening value estimates recalculated with current assumptions and earlier health-based environmental screening levels presented in 1999. The chemical warfare agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents and the vesicants sulfur mustard (agent HD) and Lewisite (agent L). In addition, key degradation products of these agents were also evaluated. Study findings indicate that the combined effect of updates and/or changes to EPA risk models, EPA default exposure parameters, and certain chemical warfare agent toxicity criteria does not result in significant alteration to the USACHPPM (1999) health-based environmental screening level estimates for the G-series and VX nerve agents or the vesicant agents HD and L. Given that EPA's final position on separate Tier 1 screening levels for indoor and outdoor worker screening assessments has not yet been released as of May 2007, the study authors find that the 1999 screening level estimates (see Table ES.1) are still appropriate and protective for screening residential as well as nonresidential sites. As such, risk management decisions made on the basis of USACHPPM (1999) recommendations do not require reconsideration. While the 1999 HBESL values are appropriate for continued use as general screening criteria, the updated '2007' estimates (presented below) that follow the new EPA protocols currently under development

  18. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  19. Biological desulfurisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, B.J. [UOP LLC (United States); Benschop, A.; Janssen, A. [Paques Natural Solutions (Netherlands); Kijlstra, S. [Shell Global Solutions (Netherlands)

    2001-03-01

    This article focuses on the biological THIOPAQ process for removing hydrogen sulphide from refinery gases and recovering elemental sulphur. Details are given of the process which absorbs hydrogen sulphide-containing gas in alkaline solution prior to oxidation of the dissolved sulphur to elemental sulphur in a THIOPAQ aerobic biological reactor, with regeneration of the caustic solution. Sulphur handling options including sulphur wash, the drying of the sulphur cake, and sulphur smelting by pressure liquefaction are described. Agricultural applications of the biologically recovered sulphur, and application of the THIOPAQ process to sulphur recovery are discussed.

  20. Systems Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    study and understand the function of biological systems, particu- larly, the response of such .... understand the organisation and behaviour of prokaryotic sys- tems. ... relationship of the structure of a target molecule to its ability to bind a certain ...

  1. Warfare Ecology on an Underwater Demolition Range: Acoustic Observations of Marine Life and Shallow Water Detonations in Hawai`i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Lee H.

    Most studies investigating the effects of military-associated anthropogenic noise concentrate on deep sea or open ocean propagation of sonar and its effect on marine mammals. In littoral waters, U.S. military special operations units regularly conduct shallow water explosives training, yet relatively little attention has been given to the potential impact on nearshore marine ecosystems from these underwater detonations. This dissertation research focused on the Pu'uloa Underwater Detonation Range off the coast of O`ahu, and examined multiple aspects of the surrounding marine ecosystem and the effects of detonations using acoustic monitoring techniques. The soundscape of a nearshore reef ecosystem adjacent to the UNDET range was characterized through analysis of passive acoustic recordings collected over the span of 6 years. Snapping shrimp were the predominant source of noise, and a diel pattern was present, with increased sound energy during the night hours. Results revealed a difference of up to 7dB between two Ecological Acoustic Recorder locations 2.5km apart along the 60ft isobath. Passive acoustic recording files were searched visually and aurally for odontocete whistles. Whistles were detected in only 0.6% of files analyzed, indicating this area is not frequently transited by coastal odontocete emitting social sounds. The study also opportunistically captured a humpback whale singing during a detonation event, during which the animal showed no obvious alteration of its singing behavior. Four separate underwater detonation events were recorded using a surface deployed F-42C transducer, and the resulting analysis showed no measurable drop in the biologically produced acoustic energy in reaction to the explosive events. Coral reef fishes were recorded visually and acoustically during detonation events at a known distance and bearing from a known explosive sound source. Individual fish behavioral responses to the explosion varied, and a sharp uptick in fish

  2. Global Survey of Research and Capabilities in Genetically Engineered Organisms That Could be Used in Biological Warfare or Bioterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    that allow producing GEOs without need for access of threat micro - organisms, making some of the Select Agents Rules regarding possession of...Hospital de Bellvitge, Universidad de Barcelona • Unidad de Medicina Tropical, Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid

  3. Sterilization and Decontamination of Surfaces Contaminated With Biological and Chemical Warfare Agents Using Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Discharges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garate, Eusebio

    1999-01-01

    ... based on the application of an atmospheric pressure plasma. We used both a DC corona and dielectric barrier discharge for the sterilization tests which were conducted on a variety of substrates including metals and chemically resistant fabrics...

  4. A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses. Volume 5. Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Augerson, William

    2000-01-01

    ..., chest pain, sleep disturbance, and hair loss. Surveys indicate that roughly 4 percent developed their symptoms before the war, 25 percent during the war, and 25 percent in the year following the war...

  5. Reduced weight decontamination formulation utilizing a solid peracid compound for neutralization of chemical and biological warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-09-20

    A reduced weight decontamination formulation that utilizes a solid peracid compound (sodium borate peracetate) and a cationic surfactant (dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride) that can be packaged with all water removed. This reduces the packaged weight of the decontamination formulation by .about.80% (as compared to the "all-liquid" DF-200 formulation) and significantly lowers the logistics burden on the warfighter. Water (freshwater or saltwater) is added to the new decontamination formulation at the time of use from a local source.

  6. Are Large Scale (Brigade Combat Team or Regimental Level and Above) United States Army Airborne Operations Effective in the Context of 21st Century Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Childress, Mark S

    2008-01-01

    Several recommendations, in regards to the use of large scale airborne operations in the context of 21st century warfare and identified shortfalls in airborne organization, are presented in this monograph...

  7. Domestic Preparedness Program: Evaluation of the Agilent Gas Chromatograph - Flame Photometric Detector/Mass Selective Detector (GC-FPD/MSD) System Against Chemical Warfare Agents Summary Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Longworth, Terri

    2003-01-01

    This report characterizes the chemical warfare agent (CWA) detection potential of the commercially available Agilent gas chromatograph-flame photometric detector/mass selective detector (GC-FPD/MSD...

  8. Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents: General Overview, LC-MS Review, In-House LC-ESI-MS Methods and Open Literature Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Agostino, Paul A; Chenier, C. L

    2006-01-01

    Ratification of the Chemical Weapons Convention by more than 165 States Parties has reduced the risk of chemical warfare agent use, but there still remains a concern that other parties may make use...

  9. Binding of chemical warfare agent simulants as guests in a coordination cage: contributions to binding and a fluorescence-based response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Christopher G P; Piper, Jerico R; Ward, Michael D

    2016-05-07

    Cubic coordination cages act as competent hosts for several alkyl phosphonates used as chemical warfare agent simulants; a range of cage/guest structures have been determined, contributions to guest binding analysed, and a fluorescent response to guest binding demonstrated.

  10. Trace Detection of Organophosphorus Chemical Warfare Agents in Wastewater and Plants by Luminescent UIO-67(Hf) and Evaluating the Bioaccumulation of Organophosphorus Chemical Warfare Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Xiao; Yan, Bing

    2018-05-02

    Organophosphorus chemical warfare agents (OPCWAs) are a group of organic pollutants characterized by high toxicity and chemical stability, and they are very difficult to be degraded. The trace quality of OPCWAs in water and food will cause great harm to the human body. Therefore, the detection of OPCWAs is a difficult challenge, which has become the research hotspot over the world. In this work, a Hf-based luminescent metal-organic framework (Eu@1) is prepared, and the reactivity of Hf 12 results in a methanephosphonic acid (MPA)-induced luminescence quenching and the charge transfer from MPA to Hf(IV) and generated exciplexes which are responsible for this quenching effect. The excellent performance of Eu@1 in the detection of MPA, with its finer selectivity, high sensitivity (LOD = 0.4 ppm), and large linear range (10 -7 to 10 -3 M), is encouraging for application in wastewater detection. Importantly, MPA is a pollutant that can be absorbed by plants and causes the bioaccumulation effect, and thus, the detection of MPA in real plant samples is a purposeful topic. Eu@1 also achieved satisfactory results in actual plant sample testing, and the bioaccumulation of MPA in onions, turnips, and cabbages is determined via our sensor. This fabricated detector provides a feasible path for the detection of ppm-level OPCWAs in a complex environment, which will help humans to avoid OPCWA-contaminated foods.

  11. Military chemical warfare agent human subjects testing: part 1--history of six-decades of military experiments with chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Military chemical warfare agent testing from World War I to 1975 produced thousands of veterans with concerns of possible long-term health consequences. Clinical and research evaluation of potential long-term health effects has been difficult because the exposures occurred decades ago, the identity of troops exposed and exposure magnitudes are uncertain, and acute effects during experiments poorly documented. In contrast, a companion article describes the large amount of information available about the specific agents tested and their long-term health effects. This short history describes U.S. military chemical-agent experiments with human subjects and identifies tested agents. Finally, the demonstrated need to anticipate future health concerns from military personnel involved in such military testing suggests current and future military researchers should be required, by law and regulation, to fully record the identity of those exposed, relevant exposure magnitude, and complete medical information for all subjects. New study protocols and institutional review board approvals for research involving military personnel should reflect this need.

  12. Fate of chemical warfare agents and toxic indutrial chemicals in landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartelt-Hunt, D.L.; Barlaz, M.A.; Knappe, D.R.U.

    2006-01-01

    One component of preparedness for a chemical attack is planning for the disposal of contaminated debris. To assess the feasibility of contaminated debris disposal in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, the fate of selected chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs......], and two TICs [furan and carbon disulfide] were studied. The effects of both infiltration (climate) and contaminant biodegradability on fate predictions were assessed. Model results showed that hydrolysis and gas-phase advection were the principal fate pathways for CWAs and TICs, respectively. Apart from...... CX and the TICs, none of the investigated compounds was predicted to persist in a landfill for more than 5 years. Climate had little impact on CWA/TIC fate, and biodegradability was only important for compounds with long hydrolysis halflives. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to assess...

  13. Sensitive fluorescence on-off probes for the fast detection of a chemical warfare agent mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Shar Jhahan; Wang, Ya-Wen; Senge, Mathias O; Peng, Yu

    2018-01-15

    Two highly sensitive probes bearing a nucleophilic imine moiety have been utilized for the selective detection of chemical warfare agent (CWA) mimics. Diethyl chlorophosphate (DCP) was used as mimic CWAs. Both iminocoumarin-benzothiazole-based probes not only demonstrated a remarkable fluorescence ON-OFF response and good recognition, but also exhibited fast response times (10s) along with color changes upon addition of DCP. Limits of detection for the two sensors 1 and 2 were calculated as 0.065μM and 0.21μM, respectively, which are much lower than most other reported probes. These two probes not only show high sensitivity and selectivity in solution, but can also be applied for the recognition of DCP in the gas state, with significant color changes easily observed by the naked eye. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Decontamination of adsorbed chemical warfare agents on activated carbon using hydrogen peroxide solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osovsky, Ruth; Kaplan, Doron; Nir, Ido; Rotter, Hadar; Elisha, Shmuel; Columbus, Ishay

    2014-09-16

    Mild treatment with hydrogen peroxide solutions (3-30%) efficiently decomposes adsorbed chemical warfare agents (CWAs) on microporous activated carbons used in protective garments and air filters. Better than 95% decomposition of adsorbed sulfur mustard (HD), sarin, and VX was achieved at ambient temperatures within 1-24 h, depending on the H2O2 concentration. HD was oxidized to the nontoxic HD-sulfoxide. The nerve agents were perhydrolyzed to the respective nontoxic methylphosphonic acids. The relative rapidity of the oxidation and perhydrolysis under these conditions is attributed to the microenvironment of the micropores. Apparently, the reactions are favored due to basic sites on the carbon surface. Our findings suggest a potential environmentally friendly route for decontamination of adsorbed CWAs, using H2O2 without the need of cosolvents or activators.

  15. Chemiresistor Devices for Chemical Warfare Agent Detection Based on Polymer Wrapped Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, John F; Hamaguchi, Hitoshi; Yoon, Bora; Swager, Timothy M

    2017-04-28

    Chemical warfare agents (CWA) continue to present a threat to civilian populations and military personnel in operational areas all over the world. Reliable measurements of CWAs are critical to contamination detection, avoidance, and remediation. The current deployed systems in United States and foreign militaries, as well as those in the private sector offer accurate detection of CWAs, but are still limited by size, portability and fabrication cost. Herein, we report a chemiresistive CWA sensor using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) wrapped with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) derivatives. We demonstrate that a pendant hexafluoroisopropanol group on the polymer that enhances sensitivity to a nerve agent mimic, dimethyl methylphosphonate, in both nitrogen and air environments to concentrations as low as 5 ppm and 11 ppm, respectively. Additionally, these PEDOT/SWCNT derivative sensor systems experience negligible device performance over the course of two weeks under ambient conditions.

  16. Comparison of the lethal effects of chemical warfare nerve agents across multiple ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Linnzi K M; Lee, Robyn B; Vincelli, Nicole M; Whalley, Christopher E; Lumley, Lucille A

    2016-01-22

    Children may be inherently more vulnerable than adults to the lethal effects associated with chemical warfare nerve agent (CWNA) exposure because of their closer proximity to the ground, smaller body mass, higher respiratory rate, increased skin permeability and immature metabolic systems. Unfortunately, there have only been a handful of studies on the effects of CWNA in pediatric animal models, and more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis. Using a stagewise, adaptive dose design, we estimated the 24h median lethal dose for subcutaneous exposure to seven CWNA in both male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at six different developmental times. Perinatal (postnatal day [PND] 7, 14 and 21) and adult (PND 70) rats were more susceptible than pubertal (PND 28 and 42) rats to the lethal effects associated with exposure to tabun, sarin, soman and cyclosarin. Age-related differences in susceptibility were not observed in rats exposed to VM, Russian VX or VX. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Adsorption and Desorption of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants on Silica Surfaces with Hydrophobic Coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Eun Ji; Kim, Young Dok

    2013-01-01

    Aim of our study is finding adsorbents suitable for pre-concentration of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). We considered Tenax, bare silica and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated silica as adsorbents for dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) and dipropylene glycol methyl ether (DPGME). Tenax showed lower thermal stability, and therefore, desorption of CWA simulants and decomposition of Tenax took place simultaneously. Silica-based adsorbents showed higher thermal stabilities than Tenax. A drawback of silica was that adsorption of CWA simulant (DMMP) was significantly reduced by pre-treatment of the adsorbents with humid air. In the case of PDMS-coated silica, influence of humidity for CWA simulant adsorption was less pronounced due to the hydrophobic nature of PDMS-coating. We propose that PDMS-coated silica can be of potential importance as adsorbent of CWAs for their pre-concentration, which can facilitate detection of these CWAs

  18. Investigation of Acute Toxicity of a Chemical Warfare Agent in Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Topal

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important chemical warfare agents, sulfur mustard (SM causes crucial acute and chronic toxic effects. Lung, skin, eye and kidneys are the most affected organs. In this work, it was investigated if increased nitric oxide (NO and peroxynitrite are involved in nitrogen mustard (NM induced kidney damage. In this experimen, aminoguanidine (AG as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS inhibitor and ebselen as peroxynitrite scavenger were used. NM administration resulted in important oxidant and antioxidant changes as well as tissue damage in kidneys. Therapeutic agents showed significant protection and reduced oxidant parameteres leading to tissue healing was observed. Results of this study suggest that drugs with similar properties can be used to protect kidney damage caused by NM. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 227-232

  19. Investigation of Acute Toxicity of a Chemical Warfare Agent in Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Topal

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important chemical warfare agents, sulfur mustard (SM causes crucial acute and chronic toxic effects. Lung, skin, eye and kidneys are the most affected organs. In this work, it was investigated if increased nitric oxide (NO and peroxynitrite are involved in nitrogen mustard (NM induced kidney damage. In this experimen, aminoguanidine (AG as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS inhibitor and ebselen as peroxynitrite scavenger were used. NM administration resulted in important oxidant and antioxidant changes as well as tissue damage in kidneys. Therapeutic agents showed significant protection and reduced oxidant parameteres leading to tissue healing was observed. Results of this study suggest that drugs with similar properties can be used to protect kidney damage caused by NM. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 227-232

  20. Chemical warfare agent detection: a review of current trends and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacsial-Ong, Eden Joy; Aguilar, Zoraida P

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends countries to create a public health system that can respond to the deliberate release of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Procedures for preparedness, response, decontamination protocols and medical countermeasures against CWA attacks are described. Known CWAs, including their properties and pharmacological consequences upon exposure, are tabulated and discussed. Requirements imposed on detection systems by various applications and environmental needs are presented in order to assess the devices for detection and identification of specific CWAs. The review surveys current and near-term detection technologies and equipments, as well as devices that are currently available to the military and civilian first responders. Brief technical discussions of several detection technologies are presented, with emphasis placed in the principles of detection. Finally, enabling technologies that form the basis for advanced sensing systems and devices are described.

  1. Setting up a mobile Lidar (DIAL) system for detecting chemical warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehrani, M Kavosh; Jaafari, E; Mobashery, A; Mohammad, M Malek

    2015-01-01

    The mobile light detection and ranging DIAL system of Malek Ashtar University of Technology has been developed for the detection of chemical warfare agents whose absorption wavelengths are in the range of 9.2–10.8 μm tunable CO 2 lasers of the system. In this paper, this system is first described and then ammonia detection is analyzed experimentally. Also, experimental results of detecting a sarin agent simulant, dimethyl–methyl phosphonate (DMMP), are presented. The power levels received from different ranges to detect specific concentrations of NH 3 and DMMP have been measured and debated. The primary test results with a 150 ns clipped pulse width by passive pinhole plasma shutter indicate that the system is capable of monitoring several species of pollutants in the range of about 1 km, with a 20 m spatial and 2 min temporal resolution. (paper)

  2. Possible Long Term Effects of Chemical Warfare Using Visual Evoked Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Riazi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Some studies have already addressed the effects of occupational organic solvent exposure on the visually evoked potentials (VEPs. Visual system is an important target for Sulphur Mustard (SM toxicity. A number of Iranian victims of Sulphur Mustard (SM agent were apprehensive about the delay effect of SM on their vision and a possible delay effect of SM on their visual cortex. This investigation was performed on 34 individuals with a history of chemical exposure and a control group of 15 normal people. The Toennies electro-diagnosis device was used and its signals were saved as the latencies. The mean of N75, N140 and P100 of victims of chemical warfare (VCWs and control group indicated no significant results (P>0.05. The VCWs did not show any visual symptoms and there was no clear deficit in their VEPs.

  3. Adsorption and Desorption of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants on Silica Surfaces with Hydrophobic Coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun Ji; Kim, Young Dok [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Aim of our study is finding adsorbents suitable for pre-concentration of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). We considered Tenax, bare silica and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated silica as adsorbents for dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) and dipropylene glycol methyl ether (DPGME). Tenax showed lower thermal stability, and therefore, desorption of CWA simulants and decomposition of Tenax took place simultaneously. Silica-based adsorbents showed higher thermal stabilities than Tenax. A drawback of silica was that adsorption of CWA simulant (DMMP) was significantly reduced by pre-treatment of the adsorbents with humid air. In the case of PDMS-coated silica, influence of humidity for CWA simulant adsorption was less pronounced due to the hydrophobic nature of PDMS-coating. We propose that PDMS-coated silica can be of potential importance as adsorbent of CWAs for their pre-concentration, which can facilitate detection of these CWAs.

  4. Biasing hydrogen bond donating host systems towards chemical warfare agent recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, Jennifer R; Wells, Neil J; Ede, Jayne A; Gale, Philip A; Sambrook, Mark R

    2016-10-12

    A series of neutral ditopic and negatively charged, monotopic host molecules have been evaluated for their ability to bind chloride and dihydrogen phosphate anions, and neutral organophosphorus species dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), pinacolyl methylphosphonate (PMP) and the chemical warfare agent (CWA) pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (GD, soman) in organic solvent via hydrogen bonding. Urea, thiourea and boronic acid groups are shown to bind anions and neutral guests through the formation of hydrogen bonds, with the urea and thiourea groups typically exhibiting higher affinity interactions. The introduction of a negative charge on the host structure is shown to decrease anion affinity, whilst still allowing for high stability host-GD complex formation. Importantly, the affinity of the host for the neutral CWA GD is greater than for anionic guests, thus demonstrating the potential for selectivity reversal based on charge repulsion.

  5. Comment on “Computed Tomography Imaging Findings in Chemical Warfare Victims with Pulmonary Complications”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dr.Mirsadraei and colleagues performed an interesting study about the lung HRCT findings in chemical warfare patients who suffering from long-term pulmonary complications. They found that air trapping and mosaic attenuation were the most common lung HRCT findings. Also they divided patients in different clinical entities according to the lung HRCT findings (Bronchiolitis Oblitrans, pulmonary fibrosis, bronchiectasis, asthma, and COPD. At present, GOLD and GINA recommend the diagnosis of COPD and asthma mainly on spirometry (1, 2. Although the HRCT may have valuable diagnostic points, but the diagnosis of COPD and asthma is according to the spirometry and relevant clinical symptoms. In this article, the authors relied only on clinical symptoms and corresponding lung HRCT findings that may have overlapping points in the diagnosis of asthma and COPD since normal lung HRCT with or without air trapping can be seen in COPD too (3. It has been proposed that saber-sheath trachea (tracheal index

  6. Environmental Decontamination of a Chemical Warfare Simulant Utilizing a Membrane Vesicle-Encapsulated Phosphotriesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Nathan J; Moore, Martin; Johnson, Brandy J; Dean, Scott N; Turner, Kendrick B; Medintz, Igor L; Walper, Scott A

    2018-05-09

    While technologies for the remediation of chemical contaminants continue to emerge, growing interest in green technologies has led researchers to explore natural catalytic mechanisms derived from microbial species. One such method, enzymatic degradation, offers an alternative to harsh chemical catalysts and resins. Recombinant enzymes, however, are often too labile or show limited activity when challenged with nonideal environmental conditions that may vary in salinity, pH, or other physical properties. Here, we demonstrate how phosphotriesterase encapsulated in a bacterial outer membrane vesicle can be used to degrade the organophosphate chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulant paraoxon in environmental water samples. We also carried out remediation assays on solid surfaces, including glass, painted metal, and fabric, that were selected as representative materials, which could potentially be contaminated with a CWA.

  7. Comparison of Selected Methods for Individual Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Capoun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the individual decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA and other hazardous substances. The individual decontamination applies to contaminated body surfaces, protective clothing and objects immediately after contamination, performed individually or by mutual assistance using prescribed or improvised devices. The article evaluates the importance of individual decontamination, security level for Fire and Rescue Service Units of the Czech Republic (FRS CR and demonstrates some of the devices. The decontamination efficiency of selected methods (sorbent, glove and sponge, two-chamber foam device and wiping with alcohol was evaluated for protective clothing and painted steel plate contaminated with O-ethyl-S-(diisopropylaminoethyl-methylthiophosphonate (VX, sulfur mustard, o-cresol and acrylonitrile. The methods were assessed from an economic point of view and with regard to specific user parameters, such as the decontamination of surfaces or materials with poor accessibility and vertical surfaces, the need for a water rinse as well as toxic waste and its disposal.

  8. Determination of trace amounts of chemical warfare agent degradation products in decontamination solutions with NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Harri; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Kuitunen, Marja-Leena; Vanninen, Paula

    2007-12-01

    Decontamination solutions are used for an efficient detoxification of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). As these solutions can be composed of strong alkaline chemicals with hydrolyzing and oxidizing properties, the analysis of CWA degradation products in trace levels from these solutions imposes a challenge for any analytical technique. Here, we present results of application of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for analysis of trace amounts of CWA degradation products in several untreated decontamination solutions. Degradation products of the nerve agents sarin, soman, and VX were selectively monitored with substantially reduced interference of background signals by 1D 1H-31P heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) spectrometry. The detection limit of the chemicals was at the low part-per-million level (2-10 microg/mL) in all studied solutions. In addition, the concentration of the degradation products was obtained with sufficient confidence with external standards.

  9. Naval electronic warfare simulation for effectiveness assessment and softkill programmability facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lançon, F.

    2011-06-01

    The Anti-ship Missile (ASM) threat to be faced by ships will become more diverse and difficult. Intelligence, rules of engagement constraints, fast reaction-time for effective softkill solution require specific tools to design Electronic Warfare (EW) systems and to integrate it onboard ship. SAGEM Company provides decoy launcher system [1] and its associated Naval Electronic Warfare Simulation tool (NEWS) to permit softkill effectiveness analysis for anti-ship missile defence. NEWS tool generates virtual environment for missile-ship engagement and counter-measure simulator over a wide spectrum: RF, IR, EO. It integrates EW Command & Control (EWC2) process which is implemented in decoy launcher system and performs Monte-Carlo batch processing to evaluate softkill effectiveness in different engagement situations. NEWS is designed to allow immediate EWC2 process integration from simulation to real decoy launcher system. By design, it allows the final operator to be able to program, test and integrate its own EWC2 module and EW library onboard, so intelligence of each user is protected and evolution of threat can be taken into account through EW library update. The objectives of NEWS tool are also to define a methodology for trial definition and trial data reduction. Growth potential would permit to design new concept for EWC2 programmability and real time effectiveness estimation in EW system. This tool can also be used for operator training purpose. This paper presents the architecture design, the softkill programmability facility concept and the flexibility for onboard integration on ship. The concept of this operationally focused simulation, which is to use only one tool for design, development, trial validation and operational use, will be demonstrated.

  10. Postural Stability of Special Warfare Combatant-Craft Crewmen With Tactical Gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul M; Williams, Valerie J; Sell, Timothy C

    The US Naval Special Warfare's Special Warfare Combatant-Craft Crewmen (SWCC) operate on small, high-speed boats while wearing tactical gear (TG). The TG increases mission safety and success but may affect postural stability, potentially increasing risk for musculoskeletal injury. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of TG on postural stability during the Sensory Organization Test (SOT). Eight SWCC performed the SOT on NeuroCom's Balance Manager with TG and with no tactical gear (NTG). The status of gear was performed in randomized order. The SOT consisted of six different conditions that challenge sensory systems responsible for postural stability. Each condition was performed for three trials, resulting in a total of 18 trials. Overall performance, each individual condition, and sensory system analysis (somatosensory, visual, vestibular, preference) were scored. Data were not normally distributed therefore Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to compare each variable (ρ = .05). No significant differences were found between NTG and TG tests. No statistically significant differences were detected under the two TG conditions. This may be due to low statistical power, or potentially insensitivity of the assessment. Also, the amount and distribution of weight worn during the TG conditions, and the SWCC's unstable occupational platform, may have contributed to the findings. The data from this sample will be used in future research to better understand how TG affects SWCC. The data show that the addition of TG used in our study did not affect postural stability of SWCC during the SOT. Although no statistically significant differences were observed, there are clinical reasons for continued study of the effect of increased load on postural stability, using more challenging conditions, greater surface perturbations, dynamic tasks, and heavier loads. 2016.

  11. Nanoparticle-based optical biosensors for the direct detection of organophosphate chemical warfare agents and pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonian, A.L.; Good, T.A.; Wang, S.-S.; Wild, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Neurotoxic organophosphates (OP) have found widespread use in the environment for insect control. In addition, there is the increasing threat of use of OP based chemical warfare agents in both ground based warfare and terrorist attacks. Together, these trends necessitate the development of simple and specific methods for discriminative detection of ultra low quantities of OP neurotoxins. In our previous investigations a new biosensor for the direct detection of organophosphorus neurotoxins was pioneered. In this system, the enzymatic hydrolysis of OP neurotoxins by organophosphate hydrolase (OPH) generated two protons in each hydrolytic turnover through reactions in which P-X bonds are cleaved. The sensitivity of this biosensor was limited due to the potentiometric method of detection. Recently, it was reported that a change in fluorescence properties of a fluorophore in the vicinity of gold nanoparticles might be used for detection of nanomolar concentrations of DNA oligonucleotides. The detection strategy was based on the fact that an enhancement or quenching of fluorescence intensity is a function of the distances between the gold nanoparticle and fluorophore. While these reports have demonstrated the use of nanoparticle-based sensors for the detection of target DNA, we observed that the specificity of enzyme-substrate interactions could be exploited in similar systems. To test the feasibility of this approach, OPH-gold nanoparticle conjugates were prepared, then incubated with a fluorescent enzyme inhibitor or decoy. The fluorescence intensity of the decoy was sensitive to the proximity of the gold nanoparticle, and thus could be used to indicate that the decoy was bound to the OPH. Then different paraoxon concentrations were introduced to the OPH-nanoparticle-conjugate-decoy mixtures, and normalized ratio of fluorescence intensities were measured. The greatest sensitivity to paraoxon was obtained when decoys and OPH-gold nanoparticle conjugates were present at

  12. [Biological agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Koichi

    2009-03-01

    There are two types of biological agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins. Among the latter, etanercept, a recombinant fusion protein of soluble TNF receptor and IgG was approved in 2005 in Japan. The post-marketing surveillance of 13,894 RA patients revealed the efficacy and safety profiles of etanercept in the Japanese population, as well as overseas studies. Abatacept, a recombinant fusion protein of CTLA4 and IgG, is another biological agent for RA. Two clinical trials disclosed the efficacy of abatacept for difficult-to-treat patients: the AIM for MTX-resistant cases and the ATTAIN for patients who are resistant to anti-TNF. The ATTEST trial suggested abatacept might have more acceptable safety profile than infliximab. These biologics are also promising for the treatment of RA for not only relieving clinical symptoms and signs but retarding structural damage.

  13. Biological preconcentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P [Albuquerque, NM; Bunker, Bruce C [Albuquerque, NM; Huber, Dale L [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-09-09

    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  14. Hybrid Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    nations: France and the U.S.12 The non- state actor in the 2006 Israel-Hezbollah War, Lebanese Hezbollah, combined the aspects of conventional and...served weapons systems.94 In terms of concurrent experience, the German Army successfully invaded Poland in 1939 and had successfully dominated France in...dominant ideology was that of the Communist Party as interpreted by Joseph Stalin. Generically interpreted, communism—Leninism/ Marxism — can be described

  15. Air Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    genus as its predecessor of pre-war days. It would, however, be erroneous to conclude from this that the military value of each new development was...the paucity of communications, its conduct, when acting alone, has of necessity to be somewhat stereotyped in nature, and to con- form to a pre...the air, the attack commander, provided his command be equipped with defensive air power, has a rôle to perform which is simple and stereotyped in

  16. Millennial Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    19-23. 45 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY To know your Enemy, you must become your Enemy. ― Sun Tzu , Published Source The Art of War...66 BIBLIOGRAPHY ..............................................................................................................69...17 Matejic. 69 BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Barrett, Richard. Foreign Fighters in Syria. New York: The Soufan Group, 2015. Galula, David

  17. Mobile Warfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SEBASTIAN COHEN

    2008-01-01

    @@ In 1984, US computer manufacturer Apple spent almost USD 1.5 million on a lavish, Ridley Scott-directed commercial for its new Macintosh 128k personal computer. A year later, Microsoft released Microsoft Windows for IBM PC, signaling the start of the battle for domi-nation of the personal computer market which has waged ever since.

  18. Nuclear warfare

    CERN Document Server

    Broda

    1981-01-01

    Le Prof.Broda a étudié à Vienne et Berlin et a travaillé pendant la dernière guerre mondiale en Grande Bretagne pour le conseil de la recherche médicale, notamment sur la chimie de la vision. Il est maintenant Prof. de la chimie, physique et radiochimie à l'Université de Vienne, où il concentre ses travaux sur les méchanisme de transport d'énergie à travers les cellules de membranes.

  19. Environmental biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschumi, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    Environmental biology illustrates the functioning of ecosystems and the dynamics of populations with many examples from limnology and terrestrial ecology. On this basis, present environmental problems are analyzed. The present environmental crisis is seen as a result of the failure to observe ecological laws. (orig.) [de

  20. Biological timekeeping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lloyd, David

    2016-01-01

    , the networks that connect differenttime domains and the oscillations, rhythms and biological clocks that coordinate andsynchronise the complexity of the living state.“It is the pattern maintained by this homeostasis, which is the touchstone ofour personal identity. Our tissues change as we live: the food we...

  1. Scaffolded biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology.

  2. Biological digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosevear, A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the biological degradation of non-radioactive organic material occurring in radioactive wastes. The biochemical steps are often performed using microbes or isolated enzymes in combination with chemical steps and the aim is to oxidise the carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur to their respective oxides. (U.K.)

  3. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  4. Synthetic biology and biosecurity: challenging the ‘myths’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eJefferson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology, a field that aims to ‘make biology easier to engineer’, is routinely described as leading to an increase in the ‘dual use’ threat, i.e. the potential for the same piece of scientific research to be ‘used’ for peaceful purposes or ‘misused’ for warfare or terrorism. Fears have been expressed that the ‘de-skilling’ of biology, combined with online access to the genomic DNA sequences of pathogenic organisms and the reduction in price for DNA synthesis, will make biology increasingly accessible to people operating outside well-equipped professional research laboratories, including people with malevolent intentions. The emergence of DIY biology communities and of the student iGEM competition has come to epitomize this supposed trend towards greater ease of access and the associated potential threat from rogue actors. In this article, we identify 5 ‘myths’ that permeate discussions about synthetic biology and biosecurity, and argue that they embody misleading assumptions about both synthetic biology and bioterrorism. We demonstrate how these myths are challenged by more realistic understandings of the scientific research currently being conducted in both professional and DIY laboratories, and by an analysis of historical cases of bioterrorism. We show that the importance of tacit knowledge is commonly overlooked in the dominant narrative: the focus is on access to biological materials and digital information, rather than on human practices and institutional dimensions. As a result, public discourse on synthetic biology and biosecurity tends to portray speculative scenarios about the future as realities in the present or the near future, when this is not warranted. We suggest that these ‘myths’ play an important role in defining synthetic biology as a ‘promissory’ field of research and as an ‘emerging technology’ in need of governance.

  5. Synthetic Biology and Biosecurity: Challenging the “Myths”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Catherine; Lentzos, Filippa; Marris, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology, a field that aims to “make biology easier to engineer,” is routinely described as leading to an increase in the “dual-use” threat, i.e., the potential for the same scientific research to be “used” for peaceful purposes or “misused” for warfare or terrorism. Fears have been expressed that the “de-skilling” of biology, combined with online access to the genomic DNA sequences of pathogenic organisms and the reduction in price for DNA synthesis, will make biology increasingly accessible to people operating outside well-equipped professional research laboratories, including people with malevolent intentions. The emergence of do-it-yourself (DIY) biology communities and of the student iGEM competition has come to epitomize this supposed trend toward greater ease of access and the associated potential threat from rogue actors. In this article, we identify five “myths” that permeate discussions about synthetic biology and biosecurity, and argue that they embody misleading assumptions about both synthetic biology and bioterrorism. We demonstrate how these myths are challenged by more realistic understandings of the scientific research currently being conducted in both professional and DIY laboratories, and by an analysis of historical cases of bioterrorism. We show that the importance of tacit knowledge is commonly overlooked in the dominant narrative: the focus is on access to biological materials and digital information, rather than on human practices and institutional dimensions. As a result, public discourse on synthetic biology and biosecurity tends to portray speculative scenarios about the future as realities in the present or the near future, when this is not warranted. We suggest that these “myths” play an important role in defining synthetic biology as a “promissory” field of research and as an “emerging technology” in need of governance. PMID:25191649

  6. Modeling and Optimal Control of a Class of Warfare Hybrid Dynamic Systems Based on Lanchester (n,1 Attrition Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyong Chen

    2014-01-01

    hybrid dynamic systems is established based on Lanchester equation in a (n,1 battle, where a heterogeneous force of n different troop types faces a homogeneous force. This model can be characterized by the interaction of continuous-time models (governed by Lanchester equation, and discrete event systems (described by variable tactics. Furthermore, an expository discussion is presented on an optimal variable tactics control problem for warfare hybrid dynamic system. The optimal control strategies are designed based on dynamic programming and differential game theory. As an example of the consequences of this optimal control problem, we take the (2, 1 case and solve the optimal strategies in a (2, 1 case. Simulation results show the feasibility of warfare hybrid system model and the effectiveness of the optimal control strategies designed.

  7. A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Material and High Explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabury, E. H.; Chichester, D. L.; Wharton, C. J.; Caffrey, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory's PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a 252 Cf isotopic neutron source, but recently a deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.

  8. The Soldier-Cyborg Transformation: A Framework for Analysis of Social and Ethical Issues of Future Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-26

    government agency. STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT THE SOLDIER- CYBORG TRANSFORMATION: A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES OF FUTURE...UNCLASSIFIED USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT THE SOLDIER- CYBORG TRANSFORMATION: A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES OF FUTURE...P) Donald A. Gagliano, M.D. TITLE: THE SOLDIER CYBORG TRANSFORMATION: A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES OF FUTURE WARFARE

  9. Metal Ion-Catalyzed Alcoholysis as a Strategy for the High Loading Destruction of Chemical Warfare Organophosphorus Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    agents (CWAs). Whether these inhibitors are used as pesticides or CWAs, all act in the same way by inhibiting an enzyme (a cholinesterase ), thereby...phosphinate, and phosphonate esters are potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors that are used as animal and crop protectants and chemical warfare...for these inhibitors are used annually, accounting for 70% of all insecticides used for agriculture, in homes and gardens, and for government

  10. Application of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) to Compare Legacy and Future Forces in Mine Warfare (MIW) Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    indicate that the satisfaction of these requirements had been addressed. 108 Table 8. MOP to Requirement Mapping Matrix MOP(s) REQUIREMENT 1.1...GUIs) to modify their behaviors. ExtendSim also has an equation editor for creating custom algorithms to add functionality not already present in the...Expeditionary Warfare Conference, Wyndham Bay Point Hotel , Panama City, FL, October 24. http://www.dtic.mil/ndia/2011expwar/MondayAmador.pdf. Bahr

  11. The Short-Term Effect of Chest Physiotherapy on Spirometric Indices in Chemical Warfare Victims Exposed to Mustard Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abedi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABCTRACT Introduction & Objective: Chronic respiratory diseases are the most prevalent late sequels of sulfur mustard gas injury among Iranian chemical warfare victims. Chest physiotherapy is one of the useful methods in care, cure and infection prevention of these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the short-term effect of chest physiotherapy on spirometric indices in chemical warfare victims exposed to sulfur mustard gas. Materials & Methods: In this study, 27 of the chemical warfare victims with respiratory diseases were selected. Chest physiotherapy including postural drainage percussion and vibration were used in four positions for all patients. Pulmonary function test (PFT was obtained before (baseline, immediately and 20 minute after the chest physiotherapy. The SPSS software was used for the data analysis of the collected data. Results: Results of this study showed the significant effect (p<0.01 of chest physiotherapy upon forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1 (baseline mean, 44.19 immediately after intervention mean 47.3 and 20 minute after intervention mean 48.3 and forced vital capacity (FVC (baseline mean, 69.37 immediately after intervention mean, 73.67 20 minute after intervention 75.74. Chest physiotherapy had significant effect (p<0.01 in asthmatic bronchitis group and also had significant effect (p<0.05 in both severe and moderate groups. Conclusion: Chest physiotherapy was able to improve pulmonary function test indices in chemical warfare victims suffering from respiratory problems. The effect on asthmatic bronchitis group, as well as both severe and moderate groups, was significant.

  12. The potential impact of developments in electronic technology on the future conduct of air warfare, volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    Advances in microelectronics have resulted in circuit densities many orders of magnitude greater than in current usage, making possible higher speed circuitry and greater storage capacity. RF techniques are also leading to monolithic microwave integrated circuits and microstrip antennas with corresponding reductions in size and weight. In addition, rapid advances are taking place in computer architecture and software that will provide improved information processing and control. This, coupled with progress in artificial intelligence and man-machine interface, offers promise of greatly improved battle management in the cockpit. The scale of changes is such that the nature of air warfare should be significantly affected over the next twenty years. This study examined the potential of electronic technology and potential benefits such as improvements in information processing, reduction in size and weight, increased reliability and maintainability; determined the applicability of such improvements to avionics and command and control systems and such functions as navigation and guidance, communications, surveillance, cockpit engineering and electronic warfare; and examined the impact on air warfare in the time period 2000 to 2010.

  13. Multifunctional ultra-high vacuum apparatus for studies of the interactions of chemical warfare agents on complex surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmsmeyer, Amanda R.; Morris, John R.; Gordon, Wesley O.; Mantooth, Brent A.; Lalain, Teri A.; Davis, Erin Durke

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of the surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents is needed to fully predict the interaction of these toxic molecules with militarily relevant materials, catalysts, and environmental surfaces. For example, rules for predicting the surface chemistry of agents can be applied to the creation of next generation decontaminants, reactive coatings, and protective materials for the warfighter. Here, we describe a multifunctional ultra-high vacuum instrument for conducting comprehensive studies of the adsorption, desorption, and surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents on model and militarily relevant surfaces. The system applies reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry to study adsorption and surface reactions of chemical warfare agents. Several novel components have been developed to address the unique safety and sample exposure challenges that accompany the research of these toxic, often very low vapor pressure, compounds. While results of vacuum-based surface science techniques may not necessarily translate directly to environmental processes, learning about the fundamental chemistry will begin to inform scientists about the critical aspects that impact real-world applications

  14. A model for warfare in stratified small-scale societies: The effect of within-group inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Sagar; van Schaik, Carel

    2017-01-01

    In order to predict the features of non-raiding human warfare in small-scale, socially stratified societies, we study a coalitionary model of war that assumes that individuals participate voluntarily because their decisions serve to maximize fitness. Individual males join the coalition if war results in a net economic and thus fitness benefit. Within the model, viable offensive war ensues if the attacking coalition of males can overpower the defending coalition. We assume that the two groups will eventually fuse after a victory, with ranks arranged according to the fighting abilities of all males and that the new group will adopt the winning group’s skew in fitness payoffs. We ask whether asymmetries in skew, group size and the amount of resources controlled by a group affect the likelihood of successful war. The model shows, other things being equal, that (i) egalitarian groups are more likely to defeat their more despotic enemies, even when these are stronger, (ii) defection to enemy groups will be rare, unless the attacked group is far more despotic than the attacking one, and (iii) genocidal war is likely under a variety of conditions, in particular when the group under attack is more egalitarian. This simple optimality model accords with several empirically observed correlations in human warfare. Its success underlines the important role of egalitarianism in warfare. PMID:29228014

  15. Multifunctional ultra-high vacuum apparatus for studies of the interactions of chemical warfare agents on complex surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmsmeyer, Amanda R; Gordon, Wesley O; Davis, Erin Durke; Mantooth, Brent A; Lalain, Teri A; Morris, John R

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of the surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents is needed to fully predict the interaction of these toxic molecules with militarily relevant materials, catalysts, and environmental surfaces. For example, rules for predicting the surface chemistry of agents can be applied to the creation of next generation decontaminants, reactive coatings, and protective materials for the warfighter. Here, we describe a multifunctional ultra-high vacuum instrument for conducting comprehensive studies of the adsorption, desorption, and surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents on model and militarily relevant surfaces. The system applies reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry to study adsorption and surface reactions of chemical warfare agents. Several novel components have been developed to address the unique safety and sample exposure challenges that accompany the research of these toxic, often very low vapor pressure, compounds. While results of vacuum-based surface science techniques may not necessarily translate directly to environmental processes, learning about the fundamental chemistry will begin to inform scientists about the critical aspects that impact real-world applications.

  16. Multifunctional ultra-high vacuum apparatus for studies of the interactions of chemical warfare agents on complex surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmsmeyer, Amanda R.; Morris, John R. [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Gordon, Wesley O.; Mantooth, Brent A.; Lalain, Teri A. [Research and Technology Directorate, U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010 (United States); Davis, Erin Durke [OptiMetrics, Inc., Abingdon, Maryland 21009 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    A fundamental understanding of the surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents is needed to fully predict the interaction of these toxic molecules with militarily relevant materials, catalysts, and environmental surfaces. For example, rules for predicting the surface chemistry of agents can be applied to the creation of next generation decontaminants, reactive coatings, and protective materials for the warfighter. Here, we describe a multifunctional ultra-high vacuum instrument for conducting comprehensive studies of the adsorption, desorption, and surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents on model and militarily relevant surfaces. The system applies reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry to study adsorption and surface reactions of chemical warfare agents. Several novel components have been developed to address the unique safety and sample exposure challenges that accompany the research of these toxic, often very low vapor pressure, compounds. While results of vacuum-based surface science techniques may not necessarily translate directly to environmental processes, learning about the fundamental chemistry will begin to inform scientists about the critical aspects that impact real-world applications.

  17. Applicability of federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs to waste chemical weapons and chemical warfare agents.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haffenden, R.; Kimmell, T.

    2002-01-01

    This report reviews federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs that govern the management of chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents. It addresses state programs in the eight states with chemical weapon storage facilities managed by the U.S. Army: Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Oregon, and Utah. It also includes discussions on 32 additional states or jurisdictions with known or suspected chemical weapons or chemical warfare agent presence (e.g., disposal sites containing chemical agent identification sets): Alaska, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Virginia, Washington, Washington, D.C., and Wyoming. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste programs are reviewed to determine whether chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents are listed hazardous wastes or otherwise defined or identified as hazardous wastes. Because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) military munitions rule specifically addresses the management of chemical munitions, this report also indicates whether a state has adopted the rule and whether the resulting state regulations have been authorized by EPA. Many states have adopted parts or all of the EPA munitions rule but have not yet received authorization from EPA to implement the rule. In these cases, the states may enforce the adopted munitions rule provisions under state law, but these provisions are not federally enforceable

  18. Biological radioprotector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ioan; Titescu, Gheorghe; Tamaian, Radu; Haulica, Ion; Bild, Walther

    2002-01-01

    According to the patent description, the biological radioprotector is deuterium depleted water, DDW, produced by vacuum distillation with an isotopic content lower than natural value. It appears as such or in a mixture with natural water and carbon dioxide. It can be used for preventing and reducing the ionizing radiation effects upon humans or animal organisms, exposed therapeutically, professionally or accidentally to radiation. The most significant advantage of using DDW as biological radioprotector results from its way of administration. Indeed no one of the radioprotectors currently used today can be orally administrated, what reduces the patients' compliance to prophylactic administrations. The biological radioprotector is an unnoxious product obtained from natural water, which can be administrated as food additive instead of drinking water. Dose modification factor is according to initial estimates around 1.9, what is a remarkable feature when one takes into account that the product is toxicity-free and side effect-free and can be administrated prophylactically as a food additive. A net radioprotective action of the deuterium depletion was evidenced experimentally in laboratory animals (rats) hydrated with DDW of 30 ppm D/(D+H) concentration as compared with normally hydrated control animals. Knowing the effects of irradiation and mechanisms of the acute radiation disease as well as the effects of administration of radiomimetic chemicals upon cellular lines of fast cell division, it appears that the effects of administrating DDW result from stimulation of the immunity system. In conclusion, the biological radioprotector DDW presents the following advantages: - it is obtained from natural products without toxicity; - it is easy to be administrated as a food additive, replacing the drinking water; - besides radioprotective effects, the product has also immunostimulative and antitumoral effects

  19. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  20. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Structural Biology Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area PDF Version (688 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is structural biology? Structural biology is the study of how biological ...

  1. Biology Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, W F

    1974-12-31

    Progress is reported on the following studies in biochemistry and molecular biology: study of long pyrimidine polynucleotides in DNA; isolation of thymine dimers from Schizosaccharomyces pombe; thermal stability of high molecular weight RNA; nucleases of Micrococcus radiodurans; effect of ionizing radiation on M. radiodurans cell walls and cell membranes; chemical modification of nucleotides; exonucleases of M. radiodurans; and enzymatic basis of repair of radioinduced damage in M. radiodurans. Genetics, development, and population studies include repair pathways and mutation induction in yeast; induction of pure mutant clones in yeast; radiosensitivity of bacteriophage T4; polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of bacteriophage T4; radiation genetics of Dahibominus; and radiation studies on bitting flies. (HLW)

  2. Biological biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  3. Chemical and biological weapons in the 'new wars'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilchmann, Kai; Revill, James

    2014-09-01

    The strategic use of disease and poison in warfare has been subject to a longstanding and cross-cultural taboo that condemns the hostile exploitation of poisons and disease as the act of a pariah. In short, biological and chemical weapons are simply not fair game. The normative opprobrium is, however, not fixed, but context dependent and, as a social phenomenon, remains subject to erosion by social (or more specifically, antisocial) actors. The cross cultural understanding that fighting with poisons and disease is reprehensible, that they are taboo, is codified through a web of interconnected measures, principal amongst these are the 1925 Geneva Protocol; the Biological Weapons Convention; and the Chemical Weapons Convention. Whilst these treaties have weathered the storm of international events reasonably well, their continued health is premised on their being 'tended to' in the face of contextual changes, particularly facing changes in science and technology, as well as the changed nature and character of conflict. This article looks at the potential for normative erosion of the norm against chemical and biological weapons in the face of these contextual changes and the creeping legitimization of chemical and biological weapons.

  4. China’s Three Warfares Strategy Mitigates Fallout From Cyber Espionage Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Iasiello

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available China is engaged in longstanding cyber espionage against the U.S., as well as other nations, to collect sensitive public and private information in support of national objectives laid out in its 12th Five Year Plan. Foreign governments citing China’s malfeasance have rebuked these activities, a claim vehemently denied by Beijing. In response, China is leveraging the “Three Warfares” an integrated three-prong information warfare strategy to combat these accusations by leveraging Media, Legal, and Psychological components designed to influence the international community. While the United States has threatened the imposition of economic sanctions, Beijing has successfully parried consequential actions by arresting U.S.-identified hackers, thereby demonstrating its commitment toward preserving a stable and peaceful cyberspace. These interrelated “Three Warfares” disciplines have targeted the cognitive processes of the U.S. leadership, as well as the international public’s perception of China as a global threat, thereby having successfully forestalled the implementation of any effective punitive or economic deterrence strategy to include the imposition of cyber sanctions.

  5. Virtual Warfare: Masculinity, Sexuality, and Propaganda in the Russo-Ukrainian War

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    Maryna Romanets

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the intersection of sexual and political discourses as a particular aspect of the body politics that Russia has employed, among other strategies, in its massive propaganda offensive during the hybrid warfare against Ukraine.While recognizing sexuality as one of the mainstream concepts in political analysis, the paper draws on sexually explicit imagery and idiom used in Russian social media, and public discursive space in general, as propaganda techniques, and maps their “genealogy” within wider sociocultural and political contexts. Being conceptualized in terms of Russian hegemonic masculinity in relation to subordinated femininity and non-hegemonic masculinities of its adversarial others, these setups reveal how sexuality constitutes uneven and contradictory nexuses of power once being co-opted by Putin’s propaganda machine. It is noteworthy that Russia’s neo-imperial discursive tactics of homologizing sexual and political dominance—when supplemented with the official rhetoric of restituting Russia as a great power, Orthodox Christian fundamentalism as an integral part of Russian unique “state-civilization,” state-sanctioned homophobia, and traditional macho gender ideology—contribute quite effectively to sustaining public support in Russia for aggression against Ukraine in the process of Russian reimperialization of the former Soviet space.

  6. On-Site Detection as a Countermeasure to Chemical Warfare/Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Y

    2014-01-01

    On-site monitoring and detection are necessary in the crisis and consequence management of wars and terrorism involving chemical warfare agents (CWAs) such as sarin. The analytical performance required for on-site detection is mainly determined by the fatal vapor concentration and volatility of the CWAs involved. The analytical performance for presently available on-site technologies and commercially available on-site equipment for detecting CWAs interpreted and compared in this review include: classical manual methods, photometric methods, ion mobile spectrometry, vibrational spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, sensors, and other methods. Some of the data evaluated were obtained from our experiments using authentic CWAs. We concluded that (a) no technologies perfectly fulfill all of the on-site detection requirements and (b) adequate on-site detection requires (i) a combination of the monitoring-tape method and ion-mobility spectrometry for point detection and (ii) a combination of the monitoring-tape method, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry with counterflow introduction, and gas chromatography with a trap and special detectors for continuous monitoring. The basic properties of CWAs, the concept of on-site detection, and the sarin gas attacks in Japan as well as the forensic investigations thereof, are also explicated in this article. Copyright © 2014 Central Police University.

  7. Trade, Diplomacy, and Warfare: The Quest for Elite Rhizobia Inoculant Strains

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    Alice Checcucci

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rhizobia form symbiotic nitrogen-fixing nodules on leguminous plants, which provides an important source of fixed nitrogen input into the soil ecosystem. The improvement of symbiotic nitrogen fixation is one of the main challenges facing agriculture research. Doing so will reduce the usage of chemical nitrogen fertilizer, contributing to the development of sustainable agriculture practices to deal with the increasing global human population. Sociomicrobiological studies of rhizobia have become a model for the study of the evolution of mutualistic interactions. The exploitation of the wide range of social interactions rhizobia establish among themselves, with the soil and root microbiota, and with the host plant, could constitute a great advantage in the development of a new generation of highly effective rhizobia inoculants. Here, we provide a brief overview of the current knowledge on three main aspects of rhizobia interaction: trade of fixed nitrogen with the plant; diplomacy in terms of communication and possible synergistic effects; and warfare, as antagonism and plant control over symbiosis. Then, we propose new areas of investigation and the selection of strains based on the combination of the genetic determinants for the relevant rhizobia symbiotic behavioral phenotypes.

  8. Concentrations and speciation of arsenic in groundwater polluted by warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daus, Birgit; Hempel, Michael; Wennrich, Rainer; Weiss, Holger

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater polluted with phenylarsenicals from former warfare agent deposits and their metabolites was investigated with respect to the behavior of relevant arsenic species. Depth profiles at the estimated source and at about 1 km downgradient from the source zone were sampled. The source zone is characterized by high total arsenic concentrations up to 16 mg L -1 and is dominated by organic arsenic compounds. The concentrations in the downgradient region are much lower (up to 400 μg L -1 ) and show a high proportion of inorganic arsenic species. Iron precipitation seems to be an effective mechanism to prevent dispersion of inorganic arsenic as well as phenylarsonic acid. Reductive conditions were observed in the deeper zone with predominant occurrence of trivalent arsenic species. The inorganic species are in redox equilibrium, whereas the phenylarsenic compounds have variable proportions. Methylphenylarsinic acid was identified in groundwater in traces which indicates microbial degradation activity. - The environmental fate and behavior of phenylarsenicals in groundwater are influenced by the geochemical environment.

  9. Extraordinary Measures: Drone Warfare, Securitization, and the “War on Terror”

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    Romaniuk Scott Nicholas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of unmanned aerial vehicles or “drones,” as part of the United States’ (US targeted killing (TK program dramatically increased after the War on Terror (WoT was declared. With the ambiguous nature and parameters of the WoT, and stemming from the postulation of numerous low-level, niche-, and other securitizations producing a monolithic threat, US drone operations now constitute a vital stitch in the extensive fabric of US counterterrorism policy. This article employs the theories of securitization and macrosecuritization as discussed by Buzan (1991, 2006, and Buzan and Wæver (2009 to understand targeted killing, by means of weaponized drones, as an extraordinary measure according to the Copenhagen School’s interpretation. An overarching securitization and the use of the “security” label warrants the emergency action of targeted killing through the use of drones as an extraordinary measure. We argue that the WoT serves as a means of securitizing global terrorism as a threat significant enough to warrant the use of drone warfare as an extraordinary use of force. By accepting the WoT as a securitization process we can reasonably accept that the US’ response(s against that threat are also securitized and therefore become extraordinary measures.

  10. Transmissivity and storage coefficient estimates from slug tests, Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Alex R.

    2014-01-01

    Slug tests were conducted on 56 observation wells open to bedrock at the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) in West Trenton, New Jersey. Aquifer transmissivity (T) and storage coefficient (S) values for most wells were estimated from slug-test data using the Cooper-Bredehoeft-Papadopulos method. Test data from three wells exhibited fast, underdamped water-level responses and were analyzed with the Butler high-K method. The range of T at NAWC was approximately 0.07 to 10,000 square feet per day. At 11 wells, water levels did not change measurably after 20 minutes following slug insertion; transmissivity at these 11 wells was estimated to be less than 0.07 square feet per day. The range of S was approximately 10-10 to 0.01, the mode being 10-10. Water-level responses for tests at three wells fit poorly to the type curves of both methods, indicating that these methods were not appropriate for adequately estimating T and S from those data.

  11. Social networks as a new tool of information warfare in the modern world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Kovalevych

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of information technologies, especially the Internet, people are becoming increasingly dependent on information that surrounds them. And social networks, where a person spends most of their time, become the ideal instruments of influence on the people consciousness and information warfare. Due to psychological factors ( such as ‘spiral of silence’, the herd instinct, the entire credibility of published information, opinion leaders, the desire for self­realization or replacement of reality that influence the human behavior in the network and the use of models of influence (model of network attack, model of involving users as volunteers, total block model, social networks become a platform for the dissemination of political ideas, ideologies and implementation of the ‘color revolutions’. However, social media play a positive role, especially in the establishment of civil society and the free flow of information. Positive or negative impact of networks primary depends on the purpose of use of social networking tools.

  12. Healthcare and warfare. Medical space, mission and apartheid in twentieth century northern Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Catharina

    2014-07-01

    In the year 1966, the first government hospital, Oshakati hospital, was inaugurated in northern South-West Africa. It was constructed by the apartheid regime of South Africa which was occupying the territory. Prior to this inauguration, Finnish missionaries had, for 65 years, provided healthcare to the indigenous people in a number of healthcare facilities of which Onandjokwe hospital was the most important. This article discusses these two agents' ideological standpoints. The same year, the war between the South-West African guerrillas and the South African state started, and continued up to 1988. The two hospitals became involved in the war; Oshakati hospital as a part of the South African war machinery, and Onandjokwe hospital as a 'terrorist hospital' in the eyes of the South Africans. The missionary Onandjokwe hospital was linked to the Lutheran church in South-West Africa, which became one of the main critics of the apartheid system early in the liberation war. Warfare and healthcare became intertwined with apartheid policies and aggression, materialised by healthcare provision based on strategic rationales rather than the people's healthcare needs. When the Namibian state took over a ruined healthcare system in 1990, the two hospitals were hubs in a healthcare landscape shaped by missionary ambitions, war and apartheid logic.

  13. Chemical warfare agent simulants for human volunteer trials of emergency decontamination: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Thomas; Wyke, Stacey; Marczylo, Tim; Collins, Samuel; Gaulton, Tom; Foxall, Kerry; Amlôt, Richard; Duarte-Davidson, Raquel

    2018-01-01

    Incidents involving the release of chemical agents can pose significant risks to public health. In such an event, emergency decontamination of affected casualties may need to be undertaken to reduce injury and possible loss of life. To ensure these methods are effective, human volunteer trials (HVTs) of decontamination protocols, using simulant contaminants, have been conducted. Simulants must be used to mimic the physicochemical properties of more harmful chemicals, while remaining non-toxic at the dose applied. This review focuses on studies that employed chemical warfare agent simulants in decontamination contexts, to identify those simulants most suitable for use in HVTs of emergency decontamination. Twenty-two simulants were identified, of which 17 were determined unsuitable for use in HVTs. The remaining simulants (n = 5) were further scrutinized for potential suitability according to toxicity, physicochemical properties and similarities to their equivalent toxic counterparts. Three suitable simulants, for use in HVTs were identified; methyl salicylate (simulant for sulphur mustard), diethyl malonate (simulant for soman) and malathion (simulant for VX or toxic industrial chemicals). All have been safely used in previous HVTs, and have a range of physicochemical properties that would allow useful inference to more toxic chemicals when employed in future studies of emergency decontamination systems. © 2017 Crown Copyright. Journal of Applied Toxicology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Ultra-Fast Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents Using MOF-Nanofiber Kebabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junjie; Lee, Dennis T; Yaga, Robert W; Hall, Morgan G; Barton, Heather F; Woodward, Ian R; Oldham, Christopher J; Walls, Howard J; Peterson, Gregory W; Parsons, Gregory N

    2016-10-10

    The threat associated with chemical warfare agents (CWAs) motivates the development of new materials to provide enhanced protection with a reduced burden. Metal-organic frame-works (MOFs) have recently been shown as highly effective catalysts for detoxifying CWAs, but challenges still remain for integrating MOFs into functional filter media and/or protective garments. Herein, we report a series of MOF-nanofiber kebab structures for fast degradation of CWAs. We found TiO 2 coatings deposited via atomic layer deposition (ALD) onto polyamide-6 nanofibers enable the formation of conformal Zr-based MOF thin films including UiO-66, UiO-66-NH 2 , and UiO-67. Cross-sectional TEM images show that these MOF crystals nucleate and grow directly on and around the nanofibers, with strong attachment to the substrates. These MOF-functionalized nanofibers exhibit excellent reactivity for detoxifying CWAs. The half-lives of a CWA simulant compound and nerve agent soman (GD) are as short as 7.3 min and 2.3 min, respectively. These results therefore provide the earliest report of MOF-nanofiber textile composites capable of ultra-fast degradation of CWAs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Cameron S; Day, Brian J

    2016-01-15

    The continuing horrors of military conflicts and terrorism often involve the use of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Many CWA and TIC exposures are difficult to treat due to the danger they pose to first responders and their rapid onset that can produce death shortly after exposure. While the specific mechanism(s) of toxicity of these agents are diverse, many are associated either directly or indirectly with increased oxidative stress in affected tissues. This has led to the exploration of various antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC exposures. Studies have been performed across a wide array of agents, model organisms, exposure systems, and antioxidants, looking at an almost equally diverse set of endpoints. Attempts at treating CWAs/TICs with antioxidants have met with mixed results, ranging from no effect to nearly complete protection. The aim of this commentary is to summarize the literature in each category for evidence of oxidative stress and antioxidant efficacy against CWAs and TICs. While there is great disparity in the data concerning methods, models, and remedies, the outlook on antioxidants as medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC management appears promising. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Concentrations and speciation of arsenic in groundwater polluted by warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daus, Birgit, E-mail: birgit.daus@ufz.d [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Groundwater Remediation, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Hempel, Michael [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Groundwater Remediation, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Wennrich, Rainer [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Weiss, Holger [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Groundwater Remediation, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Groundwater polluted with phenylarsenicals from former warfare agent deposits and their metabolites was investigated with respect to the behavior of relevant arsenic species. Depth profiles at the estimated source and at about 1 km downgradient from the source zone were sampled. The source zone is characterized by high total arsenic concentrations up to 16 mg L{sup -1} and is dominated by organic arsenic compounds. The concentrations in the downgradient region are much lower (up to 400 {mu}g L{sup -1}) and show a high proportion of inorganic arsenic species. Iron precipitation seems to be an effective mechanism to prevent dispersion of inorganic arsenic as well as phenylarsonic acid. Reductive conditions were observed in the deeper zone with predominant occurrence of trivalent arsenic species. The inorganic species are in redox equilibrium, whereas the phenylarsenic compounds have variable proportions. Methylphenylarsinic acid was identified in groundwater in traces which indicates microbial degradation activity. - The environmental fate and behavior of phenylarsenicals in groundwater are influenced by the geochemical environment.

  17. Explosives and chemical warfare agents - detection and analysis with PTR-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulzer, Philipp; Juerschik, Simone; Jaksch, Stefan; Jordan, Alfons; Hanel, Gernot; Hartungen, Eugen; Seehauser, Hans; Maerk, Lukas; Haidacher, Stefan; Schottkowsky, Ralf [IONICON Analytik GmbH, Innsbruck (Austria); Petersson, Fredrik [Institut fuer Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, Leopold-Franzens Universitaet Innsbruck (Austria); Maerk, Tilmann [IONICON Analytik GmbH, Innsbruck (Austria); Institut fuer Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, Leopold-Franzens Universitaet Innsbruck (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    We utilized a recently developed high sensitivity PTR-MS instrument equipped with a high resolution time-of-flight mass analyzer for detailed investigations on explosives and chemical warfare agents (CWAs). We show that with this so called PTR-TOF 8000 it is possible to identify solid explosives (RDX, TNT, HMX, PETN and Semtex A) by analyzing the headspace above small quantities of samples at room temperature and from trace quantities not visible to the naked eye placed on surfaces. As the mentioned solid explosives possess very low vapor pressures, the main challenge for detecting them in the gas phase is to provide an instrument with a sufficient sensitivity. CWAs on the other side have very high vapor pressures but are difficult to identify unambiguously as their nominal molecular masses are usually comparably small and therefore hard to distinguish from harmless everyday-compounds (e.g. mustard gas: 159 g/mol). In the present work we demonstrate that we can detect a broad range of dangerous substances, ranging from the CWA mustard gas to the explosive HMX.

  18. Chiral separation of G-type chemical warfare nerve agents via analytical supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasten, Shane A; Zulli, Steven; Jones, Jonathan L; Dephillipo, Thomas; Cerasoli, Douglas M

    2014-12-01

    Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs) are extremely toxic organophosphorus compounds that contain a chiral phosphorus center. Undirected synthesis of G-type CWNAs produces stereoisomers of tabun, sarin, soman, and cyclosarin (GA, GB, GD, and GF, respectively). Analytical-scale methods were developed using a supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) system in tandem with a mass spectrometer for the separation, quantitation, and isolation of individual stereoisomers of GA, GB, GD, and GF. Screening various chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for the capacity to provide full baseline separation of the CWNAs revealed that a Regis WhelkO1 (SS) column was capable of separating the enantiomers of GA, GB, and GF, with elution of the P(+) enantiomer preceding elution of the corresponding P(-) enantiomer; two WhelkO1 (SS) columns had to be connected in series to achieve complete baseline resolution. The four diastereomers of GD were also resolved using two tandem WhelkO1 (SS) columns, with complete baseline separation of the two P(+) epimers. A single WhelkO1 (RR) column with inverse stereochemistry resulted in baseline separation of the GD P(-) epimers. The analytical methods described can be scaled to allow isolation of individual stereoisomers to assist in screening and development of countermeasures to organophosphorus nerve agents. © 2014 The Authors. Chirality published by John Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Magnetic hydrophilic-lipophilic balance sorbent for efficient extraction of chemical warfare agents from water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Varoon; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Goud D, Raghavender; Tak, Vijay; Pardasani, Deepak; Shrivastava, Anchal Roy; Dubey, Devendra Kumar

    2016-02-19

    Magnetic hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (MHLB) hybrid resin was prepared by precipitation polymerization using N-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and divinylbenzene (DVB) as monomers and Fe2O3 nanoparticles as magnetic material. These resins were successfully applied for the extraction of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and their markers from water samples through magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction (MDSPE). By varying the ratios of monomers, resin with desired hydrophilic-lipophilic balance was prepared for the extraction of CWAs and related esters of varying polarities. Amongst different composites Fe2O3 nanoparticles coated with 10% PVP+90% DVB exhibited the best recoveries varying between 70.32 and 97.67%. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiencies, such as extraction time, desorption time, nature and volume of desorption solvent, amount of extraction sorbent and the effect of salts on extraction were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, linearity was obtained in the range of 0.5-500 ng mL(-1) with correlation ranging from 0.9911-0.9980. Limits of detection and limits of quantification were 0.5-1.0 and 3.0-5.0 ng mL(-1) respectively with RSDs varying from 4.88-11.32% for markers of CWAs. Finally, the developed MDSPE method was employed for extraction of analytes from water samples of various sources and the OPCW proficiency test samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Metabolic Syndrome in Chemical Warfare Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad M. Lari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction: Sulfur mustard (SM, a toxic alkylating gas, can cause serious long-term pulmonary complications such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Metabolic syndrome (MetS is one of the important comorbidities of COPD. This study was designed to evaluate the frequency of metabolic syndrome in Iranian chemical warfare patients (CWPs with COPD. Materials and Methods: Thirty CWPs with a mean age of 46.93± 6.8 were enrolled in this study. The following parameters were studied in: complete pulmonary function tests, health-related quality of life, serum triglycerides (TG, high density lipoprotein (HDL and fasting blood sugar (FBS levels. Additionally, 32 COPD patients and 56 healthy persons were considered as control groups who were matched to CWPs. Results: We found a statistically significant difference in the frequency of MetS between the COPD patients and the healthy control group (p=0.04. Additionally, we observed a statistically significant difference in the mean HDL levels among these groups (p=