WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological solid state

  1. Structural biology applications of solid state MAS DNP NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbey, Ümit; Oschkinat, Hartmut

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) has long been an aim for increasing sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, delivering spectra in shorter experiment times or of smaller sample amounts. In recent years, it has been applied in magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR to a large range of samples, including biological macromolecules and functional materials. New research directions in structural biology can be envisaged by DNP, facilitating investigations on very large complexes or very heterogeneous samples. Here we present a summary of state of the art DNP MAS NMR spectroscopy and its applications to structural biology, discussing the technical challenges and factors affecting DNP performance.

  2. Solid state structural and theoretical investigations of a biologically active chalcone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Asghar; Gökce, Halil; Bahceli, Semiha; Bolte, Michael; Naseer, Muhammad Moazzam

    2016-05-01

    The computational methods are presently emerging as an efficient and reliable tool for predicting structural properties of biologically important compounds. In the present manuscript, the solid state structural and theoretical investigations of a biologically active chalcone i-e (E)-3-(4-(hexyloxy)phenyl)-1-phenylprop-2-en-1-one (6c) have been reported. The solid state structure of 6c was measured by X-ray crystallographic technique whereas the optimized molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, the simulated UV-vis spectra (in gas and in methanol solvent), 1H and 13C NMR chemical shift (in gas and in chloroform solvent) values, HOMO-LUMO analysis, the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surface and thermodynamic parameters were calculated by using DFT/B3LYP method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set in ground state. The results of the theoretical investigations were found to be in good agreement with experimental data.

  3. Controlling potassium selectivity and proton blocking in a hybrid biological/solid-state polymer nanoporous membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balme, Sébastien; Picaud, Fabien; Kraszewski, Sebastian; Déjardin, Philippe; Janot, Jean Marc; Lepoitevin, Mathilde; Capomanes, Jhon; Ramseyer, Christophe; Henn, François

    2013-04-01

    Specific separations of protons and cations are usually performed by electromembrane processes, which require external electric energy. An easier process would be using a membrane able to separate both entities by passive diffusion. Presently, such synthetic nanoporous membranes do not exist. Here, we report the production of a robust hybrid biological/artificial solid-state membrane, which allows selective permeation of alkali metal cations without competing or concurrent permeation of protons. This membrane is simple to prepare and is based on the hydrophobic nature of the polymeric pore walls, and the confined gramicidin A molecules within. This work opens a new route for separation in the domain of nanobiofiltration, especially for tunable nanodevices based on differential ion conduction, with a fundamental understanding of the confinement mechanism.Specific separations of protons and cations are usually performed by electromembrane processes, which require external electric energy. An easier process would be using a membrane able to separate both entities by passive diffusion. Presently, such synthetic nanoporous membranes do not exist. Here, we report the production of a robust hybrid biological/artificial solid-state membrane, which allows selective permeation of alkali metal cations without competing or concurrent permeation of protons. This membrane is simple to prepare and is based on the hydrophobic nature of the polymeric pore walls, and the confined gramicidin A molecules within. This work opens a new route for separation in the domain of nanobiofiltration, especially for tunable nanodevices based on differential ion conduction, with a fundamental understanding of the confinement mechanism. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00564j

  4. Deep-UV solid state light sources in the tactical biological sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabalo, Jerry; De Lucia, Marla; Narayanan, Fiona; Poldmae, Aime; Sickenberger, David

    2006-05-01

    A number of strategies to meet the need for a small and inexpensive biosensor that mitigates military and civilian vulnerabilities to biological weapons are currently being pursued. Among them is UV induced biological fluorescence. UV induced biofluorescence is a potentially successful strategy because it involves no chemical consumables and it is an "on-line" detection method where particles can be interrogated without impaction onto a substrate or into a liquid. Indeed, there are already existing fluorescence based sensors already in place, yet these are limited by the cost and power consumption of the laser based UV excitation sources. Fortunately, inexpensive and low power solid state UV sources arising from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA) Semiconductor UV Optical Sources (SUVOS) project have become commercially available in wavelengths capable of exciting aromatic amino acids (e.g. tryptophan) and metabolic products (e.g. NADH). The TAC-Bio Sensor is capable of exploiting either source wavelength and will ultimately include both source wavelengths within a single sensor. Initial work with the deep UV sources involves the correct optical filtering for the devices. The primary emission from both the 280 nm and 340 nm devices occurs at the design wavelength and is about 20 nm FWHM, however, there is a tail extending to the longer wavelengths that interferes with the fluorescence signal. A system of optical filters that sufficiently removes the long wavelength component from the UV source is designed and tested for the deep UV sources. Ongoing work with the sensor has confirmed that sensitivity to small biological particles is enhanced with the deeper wavelengths. When the 340 nm sources are placed in the TAC-Bio, it is capable of detecting 4 micron diameter Bacillus globigii (BG, Dugway, washed 4X) spore agglomerates. The deep UV sources show an improvement in signal to noise of 2, permitting the detection of 3 micron diameter BG

  5. Hybrid integrated biological-solid-state system powered with adenosine triphosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Jared M.; Lin, Jianxun; Ramakrishnan, Siddharth; Rosenstein, Jacob K.; Shepard, Kenneth L.

    2015-12-01

    There is enormous potential in combining the capabilities of the biological and the solid state to create hybrid engineered systems. While there have been recent efforts to harness power from naturally occurring potentials in living systems in plants and animals to power complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuits, here we report the first successful effort to isolate the energetics of an electrogenic ion pump in an engineered in vitro environment to power such an artificial system. An integrated circuit is powered by adenosine triphosphate through the action of Na+/K+ adenosine triphosphatases in an integrated in vitro lipid bilayer membrane. The ion pumps (active in the membrane at numbers exceeding 2 × 106 mm-2) are able to sustain a short-circuit current of 32.6 pA mm-2 and an open-circuit voltage of 78 mV, providing for a maximum power transfer of 1.27 pW mm-2 from a single bilayer. Two series-stacked bilayers provide a voltage sufficient to operate an integrated circuit with a conversion efficiency of chemical to electrical energy of 14.9%.

  6. Exploitation of biological wastes for the production of value-added products under solid-state fermentation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Couto, Susana

    2008-07-01

    Biological wastes contain several reusable substances of high value such as soluble sugars and fibre. Direct disposal of such wastes to soil or landfill causes serious environmental problems. Thus, the development of potential value-added processes for these wastes is highly attractive. These biological wastes can be used as support-substrates in solid-state fermentation (SSF) to produce industrially relevant metabolites with great economical advantage. In addition, it is an environmentally friendly method of waste management. This paper reviews the reutilization of biological wastes for the production of value-added products using the SSF technique. PMID:18543242

  7. Lipid bilayer coated Al(2)O(3) nanopore sensors: towards a hybrid biological solid-state nanopore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Bala Murali; Polans, James; Comer, Jeffrey; Sridhar, Supriya; Wendell, David; Aksimentiev, Aleksei; Bashir, Rashid

    2011-08-01

    Solid-state nanopore sensors are highly versatile platforms for the rapid, label-free electrical detection and analysis of single molecules, applicable to next generation DNA sequencing. The versatility of this technology allows for both large scale device integration and interfacing with biological systems. Here we report on the development of a hybrid biological solid-state nanopore platform that incorporates a highly mobile lipid bilayer on a single solid-state Al(2)O(3) nanopore sensor, for the potential reconstitution of ion channels and biological nanopores. Such a system seeks to combine the superior electrical, thermal, and mechanical stability of Al(2)O(3) solid-state nanopores with the chemical specificity of biological nanopores. Bilayers on Al(2)O(3) exhibit higher diffusivity than those formed on TiO(2) and SiO(2) substrates, attributed to the presence of a thick hydration layer on Al(2)O(3), a key requirement to preserving the biological functionality of reconstituted membrane proteins. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that the electrostatic repulsion between the dipole of the DOPC headgroup and the positively charged Al(2)O(3) surface may be responsible for the enhanced thickness of this hydration layer. Lipid bilayer coated Al(2)O(3) nanopore sensors exhibit excellent electrical properties and enhanced mechanical stability (GΩ seals for over 50 h), making this technology ideal for use in ion channel electrophysiology, the screening of ion channel active drugs and future integration with biological nanopores such as α-hemolysin and MspA for rapid single molecule DNA sequencing. This technology can find broad application in bio-nanotechnology. PMID:21487665

  8. Solid State and Chemical Radiation Dosimetry in Medicine and Biology. Proceedings of a Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings of a Symposium organized by the IAEA and held in Vienna, 3-7 October 1966. The meeting was attended by 104 participants from 21 countries and three international organizations. Contents: Solid state dosimetry (17 papers); Chemical dosimetry (10 papers); Invited lectures (2 papers); General aspects and other methods of dosimetry (6 papers); Panel discussion on research and development needed in dosimetry. Each paper is in its original language (32 English, 2 French and 1 Spanish) and is preceded by an abstract in English and one in the original language, if this is not English. Discussions are in English. (author)

  9. Development of a low-cost sterilization biological indicator using Bacillus atrophaeus by solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Sandra Regina B R; Guizelini, Belquis P; Zanello, Pedro H; Vandenberghe, Luciana P S; Ribeiro, Ciro A O; Minozzo, João Carlos; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    The production of biological indicators involving bacterial sporulation and multi-step downstream processes has been described. The goal of the present work was to use fermented material as the final product in a biological indicator, thereby reducing processing steps and costs. The performance of three different inexpensive supports (vermiculite, sand, and sugarcane bagasse) was assessed by determining Bacillus atrophaeus sporulation during solid-state fermentation and by assessing the direct use of the fermentation products in the subsequent steps of the process. All three supports allowed spore production of between 10(7) and 10(9) CFU g(-1). Sand proved to be the best inert support enabling the direct use of the fermented product due to its easy homogenization, filling properties, and compatibility with recovery medium. Bacterial adhesion to the sand surface was supported by biofilm formation. The resistance to sterilization of the dried fermentation product was evaluated. For dry-heat resistance (160°C), the D value was 6.6 min, and for ethylene oxide resistance (650 mg/L), the D value was 6.5 min. The cost reduction of this process was at least 48%. No previous studies have been published on the application of sand as a support in solid-state fermentation for the production of biological indicators. PMID:21785930

  10. Biological conversion of biogas to methanol using methanotrophs isolated from solid-state anaerobic digestate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Johnathon P; Ge, Xumeng; Li, Yueh-Fen; Yu, Zhongtang; Li, Yebo

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to isolate methanotrophs (methane oxidizing bacteria) that can directly convert biogas produced at a commercial anaerobic digestion (AD) facility to methanol. A methanotrophic bacterium was isolated from solid-state anaerobic digestate. The isolate had characteristics comparable to obligate methanotrophs from the genus Methylocaldum. This newly isolated methanotroph grew on biogas or purified CH4 and successfully converted biogas from AD to methanol. Methanol production was achieved using several methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) inhibitors and formate as an electron donor. The isolate also produced methanol using phosphate with no electron donor or using formate with no MDH inhibitor. The maximum methanol concentration (0.43±0.00gL(-1)) and 48-h CH4 to methanol conversion (25.5±1.1%) were achieved using biogas as substrate and a growth medium containing 50mM phosphate and 80mM formate. PMID:26630583

  11. Solid-State Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity of the Bioinorganic Complex of Aspartic Acid and Arsenic Triiodide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qing Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The bioinorganic complex of aspartic acid and arsenic triiodide was synthesized by a solid-state reaction at room temperature. The formula of the complex is AsI3[HOOCCH2CH(NH2COOH]2.5. The crystal structure of the complex belongs to monoclinic system with lattice parameters: a=1.0019 nm, b=1.5118 nm, c=2.1971 nm, and β=100.28°. The infrared spectra can demonstrate the complex formation between the arsenic ion and aspartic acid, and the complex may be a dimer with bridge structure. The result of primary biological test indicates that the complex possesses better biological activity for the HL-60 cells of the leukemia than arsenic triiodide.

  12. Theoretical solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research activities at ORNL in theoretical solid state physics are described. Topics covered include: surface studies; particle-solid interactions; electronic and magnetic properties; and lattice dynamics

  13. Solid state NMR method development and studies of biological and biomimetic nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yanyan

    2011-02-07

    This thesis describes application and development of advanced solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques for complex materials, in particular organic-inorganic nanocomposites and thermoelectric tellurides. The apatite-collagen interface, essential for understanding the biomineralization process in bone and engineering the interface for controlled bio-mimetic synthesis and optimized mechanical properties, is buried within the nanocomposite of bone. We used multinuclear solid-state NMR to study the composition and structure of the interface. Citrate has been identified as the main organic molecule strongly bound to the apatite surface with a density of 1/(2 nm){sup 2}, covering 1/6 of the total surface area in bovine bone. Citrate provides more carboxylate groups, one of the key functional groups found to affect apatite nucleation and growth, than all the non-collagenous proteins all together in bone; thus we propose that citrate stabilizes apatite crystals at a very small thickness of {approx}3 nm (4 unit cells) to increase bone fracture tolerance. The hypothesis has been confirmed in vitro by adding citrate in the bio-mimetic synthesis of polymerhydroxyapatite nanocomposites. The results have shown that the size of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals decreases as increasing citrate concentration. With citrate concentrations comparable to that in body fluids, similar-sized nanocrystals as in bone have been produced. Besides the dimensions of the apatite crystals, the composition of bone also affects its biofunctional and macroscopic mechanical properties; therefore, our team also extended its effort to enhance the inorganic portion in our bio-mimetic synthesis from originally 15 wt% to current 50 wt% compared to 65 wt% in bovine bone, by using Lysine-Leucine hydroxyapatite nucleating diblock co-polypeptide, which forms a gel at very low concentration. In this thesis, various advanced solid state NMR techniques have been employed to characterize nanocomposites

  14. Levansucrase optimization using solid state fermentation and levan biological activities studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esawy, Mona A; Abdel-Fattah, Azza M; Ali, Mamdouh M; Helmy, Wafaa A; Salama, Bassem M; Taie, Hanan A A; Hashem, Amal M; Awad, Ghada E A

    2013-07-01

    Bacillus subtilis NRC1aza produced levansucrase under solid state fermentation using starch as support. A sequential optimization strategy, based on statistical experimental designs is employed to enhance enzyme productivity. First, a 2-level Plackett-Burman design was applied for bioprocess parameters screen that significantly increase levansucrase production. Second optimization step was performed using fractional factorial design in order to optimize the amounts of highest positive variables that had significant effect on levansucrase productivity. Maximal enzyme productivity of 170 U/gds was achieved in presence of glucose, yeast extract, and pH 8. In vitro, experiments confirmed that LevCR and LevQT had an antitumor activity against different animal and human cancer cell lines by demonstrating inhibitory effects on growth of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell line, human MCF-7 breast and liver HepG2 cancer cell lines, in particular LevQT was found to be efficacious compared to anticancer drug, cisplatin. Result focused in LevCR as strong fibrinolytic agent. PMID:23688489

  15. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics, International Edition covers the fundamentals and the advanced concepts of solid state physics. The book is comprised of 18 chapters that tackle a specific aspect of solid state physics. Chapters 1 to 3 discuss the symmetry aspects of crystalline solids, while Chapter 4 covers the application of X-rays in solid state science. Chapter 5 deals with the anisotropic character of crystals. Chapters 6 to 8 talk about the five common types of bonding in solids, while Chapters 9 and 10 cover the free electron theory and band theory. Chapters 11 and 12 discuss the effects of moveme

  16. Solid state video cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Cristol, Y

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  17. Theoretical solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i

  18. Solid State Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  19. Solid State Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces

  20. PRODUCTION OF FUNGAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS THROUGH SOLID STATE FERMENTATION: A CASE STUDY ON PAECILOMYCES LILACINUS AGAINST ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Brand

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes cause annual losses of about USD $100 billion worldwide. Development of natural resistance to nematicides by nematodes and the tendency to withdraw chemical pesticides/nematicides from the market led to the search for new methods of control. Biological control of root-knot nematodes with Paecilomyces lilacinus is being investigated thoroughly, but there is a lack of information on the production systems. Solid state fermentation is a suitable ecofriendly biological process for the mass production of biological control agents. Conidiospores produced are cost-effective and show good stability and viability for field applications on a commercial scale. Studies on bioreactor design are essential for scaling up solid-state fermentation processes, but they are scarce yet. We did an in-depth analysis on the production of fungal spores by solid state fermentation for commercial scale application against root-knot nematodes.

  1. An accelerated framework for the classification of biological targets from solid-state micropore data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Madiha; Hafeez, Abdul; Suleman, Yusuf; Mustafa Rafique, M; Butt, Ali R; Iqbal, Samir M

    2016-10-01

    Micro- and nanoscale systems have provided means to detect biological targets, such as DNA, proteins, and human cells, at ultrahigh sensitivity. However, these devices suffer from noise in the raw data, which continues to be significant as newer and devices that are more sensitive produce an increasing amount of data that needs to be analyzed. An important dimension that is often discounted in these systems is the ability to quickly process the measured data for an instant feedback. Realizing and developing algorithms for the accurate detection and classification of biological targets in realtime is vital. Toward this end, we describe a supervised machine-learning approach that records single cell events (pulses), computes useful pulse features, and classifies the future patterns into their respective types, such as cancerous/non-cancerous cells based on the training data. The approach detects cells with an accuracy of 70% from the raw data followed by an accurate classification when larger training sets are employed. The parallel implementation of the algorithm on graphics processing unit (GPU) demonstrates a speedup of three to four folds as compared to a serial implementation on an Intel Core i7 processor. This incredibly efficient GPU system is an effort to streamline the analysis of pulse data in an academic setting. This paper presents for the first time ever, a non-commercial technique using a GPU system for realtime analysis, paired with biological cluster targeting analysis. PMID:27480732

  2. Solid state structures of cadmium complexes with relevance for biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Rosa; Castiñeiras, Alfonso; Domínguez-Martín, Alicia; García-Santos, Isabel; Niclós-Gutiérrez, Juan

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides a review of the literature on structural information from crystal structures determined by X-ray diffractometry of cadmium(II) complexes containing ligands of potential biological interest. These ligands fall into three broad classes, (i) those containing N-donors such as purine or pyrimidine bases and derivatives of adenine, guanine or cytosine, (ii) those containing carboxylate groups such as α-amino acids, in particular the twenty essential ones, the water soluble vitamins (B-complex) or the polycarboxylates of EDTA type ligands, and (iii) S-donors such as thiols/thiolates or dithiocarbamates. A crystal and molecular structural analysis has been carried out for some representative complexes of these ligands, specifically addressing the coordination mode of ligands, the coordination environment of cadmium and, in some significant cases, the intermolecular interactions. PMID:23430774

  3. Solid-State and Biological Nanopore for Real-Time Sensing of Single Chemical and Sequencing of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Farzin; Li, Jinghong; Wu, Hai-Chen; Liang, Xing-Jie; Guo, Peixuan

    2013-02-01

    Sensitivity and specificity are two most important factors to take into account for molecule sensing, chemical detection and disease diagnosis. A perfect sensitivity is to reach the level where a single molecule can be detected. An ideal specificity is to reach the level where the substance can be detected in the presence of many contaminants. The rapidly progressing nanopore technology is approaching this threshold. A wide assortment of biomotors and cellular pores in living organisms perform diverse biological functions. The elegant design of these transportation machineries has inspired the development of single molecule detection based on modulations of the individual current blockage events. The dynamic growth of nanotechnology and nanobiotechnology has stimulated rapid advances in the study of nanopore based instrumentation over the last decade, and inspired great interest in sensing of single molecules including ions, nucleotides, enantiomers, drugs, and polymers such as PEG, RNA, DNA, and polypeptides. This sensing technology has been extended to medical diagnostics and third generation high throughput DNA sequencing. This review covers current nanopore detection platforms including both biological pores and solid state counterparts. Several biological nanopores have been studied over the years, but this review will focus on the three best characterized systems including α-hemolysin and MspA, both containing a smaller channel for the detection of single-strand DNA, as well as bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor connector that contains a larger channel for the passing of double stranded DNA. The advantage and disadvantage of each system are compared; their current and potential applications in nanomedicine, biotechnology, and nanotechnology are discussed. PMID:23504223

  4. PRODUCTION OF FUNGAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS THROUGH SOLID STATE FERMENTATION: A CASE STUDY ON PAECILOMYCES LILACINUS AGAINST ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, D; C. R. Soccol; A. Sabu; S. Roussos

    2010-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes cause annual losses of about USD $100 billion worldwide. Development of natural resistance to nematicides by nematodes and the tendency to withdraw chemical pesticides/nematicides from the market led to the search for new methods of control. Biological control of root-knot nematodes with Paecilomyces lilacinus is being investigated thoroughly, but there is a lack of information on the production systems. Solid state fermentation is a suitable ecofriendly biological process...

  5. Solid state phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrance, R

    1972-01-01

    Solid State Phenomena explores the fundamentals of the structure and their influence on the properties of solids. This book is composed of five chapters that focus on the electrical and thermal conductivities of crystalline solids. Chapter 1 describes the nature of solids, particularly metals and crystalline materials. This chapter also presents a model to evaluate crystal structure, the forces between atom pairs, and the mechanism of plastic and elastic deformation. Chapter 2 demonstrates random vibrations of atoms in a solid using a one-dimensional array, while Chapter 3 examines the resista

  6. The solid state maser

    CERN Document Server

    Orton, J W; Walling, J C; Ter Haar, D

    1970-01-01

    The Solid State Maser presents readings related to solid state maser amplifier from the first tentative theoretical proposals that appeared in the early 1950s to the successful realization of practical devices and their application to satellite communications and radio astronomy almost exactly 10 years later. The book discusses a historical account of the early developments (including that of the ammonia maser) of solid state maser; the properties of paramagnetic ions in crystals; the development of practical low noise amplifiers; and the characteristics of maser devices designed for communica

  7. Welding in solid state

    OpenAIRE

    Iordachescu, Mihaela; Scutelnicu, Elena; Iordachescu, Danut; Ocaña Moreno, Jose Luis

    2008-01-01

    The importance of the Solid State Processes (SSP) has increased in the last decade due to the industry demands of improved properties of joined/surfaced materials, combined with cost reduction and energy saving. New and/or micro-scale solid state processed materials are used by aerospace, automotive and electrotechnics industry. Nowadays, classic SSP are mainly applied to light materials, but progresses were also reported in steels. In this field, the tools design, the technology and practica...

  8. OPTIMISATION OF SOLID-STATE AND SOLUTION-BASED SERS SYSTEMS FOR USE IN THE DETECTION OF ANALYTES OF CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Bernard Mabbott

    2012-01-01

    AbstractThe University of ManchesterSamuel Bernard MabbottDoctor of PhilosophyOptimisation of Solid-State and Solution-Based SERS Systems for use in the Detection of Analytes of Chemical and Biological Significance13th September 2012Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has achieved much attention since its conception in 1974. The analytical technique overcomes many difficulties associated with conventional Raman whilst also increasing sensitivity. However, the increased interest and work ...

  9. Solid-state NMR enhanced by dynamic nuclear polarization as a novel tool for ribosome structural biology

    OpenAIRE

    Gelis, Ioannis; Vitzthum, Veronika; Dhimole, Neha; Caporini, Marc A.; Schedlbauer, Andreas; Carnevale, Diego; Connell, Sean R.; Fucini, Paola; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    The impact of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) on studies of large macromolecular complexes hinges on improvements in sensitivity and resolution. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) in the solid state can offer improved sensitivity, provided sample preparation is optimized to preserve spectral resolution. For a few nanomoles of intact ribosomes and an 800 kDa ribosomal complex we demonstrate that the combination of DNP and magic-angle spinning NMR (MAS-NMR) allows one to overcome current sensi...

  10. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  11. Solid state theory

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Walter A

    2011-01-01

    ""A well-written text . . . should find a wide readership, especially among graduate students."" - Dr. J. I. Pankove, RCA.The field of solid state theory, including crystallography, semi-conductor physics, and various applications in chemistry and electrical engineering, is highly relevant to many areas of modern science and industry. Professor Harrison's well-known text offers an excellent one-year graduate course in this active and important area of research. While presenting a broad overview of the fundamental concepts and methods of solid state physics, including the basic quantum theory o

  12. NMR Studies on Organic and Biological Solids

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Solid-state NMR (SSNMR) studies on biomolecules and organic molecular crystals are presented here. The biological part of the work is focused on improving resolution and sensitivity of SSNMR techniques for larger protein systems, while the studies on organic molecular crystals extend the application of SSNMR to determining the crystal structure of a photoreaction intermediate. First, a long-observation-window band-selective homonuclear decoupling scheme is introduced. The homonuclear decoupli...

  13. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brewster, Hilary D

    2009-01-01

    Solid state physics is an exhaustive introductory text for the students of physics. Keeping in mind, this book has been prepared to present the subject-matter in an easily understandable way without sacrificing the essential details and principles an yet avoiding redundant matter and unnecessary complications. This book is expected to meet adequately the need of the students for whom it is meant.

  14. A Solid state accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a solid state accelerator concept utilizing particle acceleration along crystal channels by longitudinal electron plasma waves in a metal. Acceleration gradients of order 100 GV/cm are theoretically possible, but channeling radiation limits the maximum attainable energy to 105 TeV for protons. Beam dechanneling due to multiple scattering is substantially reduced by the high acceleration gradient. Plasma wave dissipation and generation in metals are also discussed

  15. Solid state detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much has been charged particle detector radiation detector made by the industry, especially those engaged in the development of detection equipment and components. The development and further research will be made solid state detector with silicon material. To be able to detect charged particles (radiation), required the processing of silicon material into the detector material. The method used to make silicon detector material is a lithium evaporations. Having formed an intrinsic region contactor installation process, and with testing. (author)

  16. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Grosso, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics is a textbook for students of physics, material science, chemistry, and engineering. It is the state-of-the-art presentation of the theoretical foundations and application of the quantum structure of matter and materials. This second edition provides timely coverage of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the last decade (especially in low-dimensional systems and quantum transport). It helps build readers' understanding of the newest advances in condensed matter physics with rigorous yet clear mathematics. Examples are an integral part of the text, carefully de

  17. Solid-state NMR enhanced by dynamic nuclear polarization as a novel tool for ribosome structural biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelis, Ioannis; Vitzthum, Veronika; Dhimole, Neha; Caporini, Marc A; Schedlbauer, Andreas; Carnevale, Diego; Connell, Sean R; Fucini, Paola; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2013-06-01

    The impact of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) on studies of large macromolecular complexes hinges on improvements in sensitivity and resolution. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) in the solid state can offer improved sensitivity, provided sample preparation is optimized to preserve spectral resolution. For a few nanomoles of intact ribosomes and an 800 kDa ribosomal complex we demonstrate that the combination of DNP and magic-angle spinning NMR (MAS-NMR) allows one to overcome current sensitivity limitations so that homo- and heteronuclear (13)C and (15)N NMR correlation spectra can be recorded. Ribosome particles, directly pelleted and frozen into an NMR rotor, yield DNP signal enhancements on the order of ~25-fold and spectra that exhibit narrow linewidths, suitable for obtaining site-specific information. We anticipate that the same approach is applicable to other high molecular weight complexes. PMID:23689811

  18. Solid-state NMR enhanced by dynamic nuclear polarization as a novel tool for ribosome structural biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) on studies of large macromolecular complexes hinges on improvements in sensitivity and resolution. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) in the solid state can offer improved sensitivity, provided sample preparation is optimized to preserve spectral resolution. For a few nanomoles of intact ribosomes and an 800 kDa ribosomal complex we demonstrate that the combination of DNP and magic-angle spinning NMR (MAS-NMR) allows one to overcome current sensitivity limitations so that homo- and heteronuclear 13C and 15N NMR correlation spectra can be recorded. Ribosome particles, directly pelleted and frozen into an NMR rotor, yield DNP signal enhancements on the order of ∼25-fold and spectra that exhibit narrow linewidths, suitable for obtaining site-specific information. We anticipate that the same approach is applicable to other high molecular weight complexes.

  19. Solid state magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Crangle, John

    1991-01-01

    Solid state magnetism is important and attempts to understand magnetic properties have led to an increasingly deep insight into the fundamental make up of solids. Both experimental and theoretical research into magnetism continue to be very active, yet there is still much ground to cover before there can be a full understanding. There is a strong interplay between the developments of materials science and of magnetism. Hundreds of new materials have been dis­ covered, often with previously unobserved and puzzling magnetic prop­ erties. A large and growing technology exists that is based on the magnetic properties of materials. Very many devices used in everyday life involve magnetism and new applications are being invented all the time. Under­ standing the fundamental background to the applications is vital to using and developing them. The aim of this book is to provide a simple, up-to-date introduction to the study of solid state magnetism, both intrinsic and technical. It is designed to meet the needs a...

  20. Luminescence and the solid state

    CERN Document Server

    Ropp, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of the transistor in 1948, the study of the solid state has been burgeoning. Recently, cold fusion and the ceramic superconductor have given cause for excitement. There are two approaches possible to this area of science, namely, that of solid state physics and solid state chemistry, although both overlap extensively. The former is more concerned with electronic states in solids (including electromagnetics) whereas the latter is more concerned with interactions of atoms in solids. The area of solid state physics is well documented, however, there are very few texts which de

  1. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    The objective of Solid State Physics is to introduce college seniors and first-year graduate students in physics, electrical engineering, materials science, chemistry, and related areas to this diverse and fascinating field. I have attempted to present this complex subject matter in a coherent, integrated manner, emphasizing fundamental scientific ideas to give the student a strong understanding and ""feel"" for the physics and the orders of magnitude involved. The subject is varied, covering many important, sophisticated, and practical areas, which, at first, may appear unrelated but which ar

  2. sup 3 sup 1 P high resolution solid state NMR studies of phosphoorganic compounds of biological interest

    CERN Document Server

    Potrzebowski, M J; Kazmierski, S

    2001-01-01

    In this review several applications of sup 3 sup 1 P high resolution solid state NMR spectroscopy in structural studies of bioorganic samples is recorded. The problem of pseudopolymorphism of bis[6-O,6'-O-(1,2:3,4diisopropylidene-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl) phosphothionyl] disulfide (1) and application of sup 3 sup 1 P C/MAS experiment to investigate of this phenomenon is discussed. The influence of weak C-H--S intermolecular contacts on molecular packing of 1,6-anhydro-2-O-tosyl-4-S- (5,5-dimethyl-2-thioxa-1,3,2-dioxaphosphophorinan-2-= yl)-beta-D-glucopyranose (2) and S sub P , R sub P diastereomers of deoxyxylothymidyl-3'-O-acetylthymidyl (3',5')-O-(2-cyanoethyl) phosphorothioate (3) and their implication on sup 3 sup 1 P NMR spectra is shown. The final part of review describes the recent progress in structural studies of O-phosphorylated amino acids (serine, threonine, tyrosine), relationship between molecular structure and sup 3 sup 1 P chemical shift parameters delta sub i sub i and influence of hydrogen ...

  3. Solid state plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Manfredi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic fusion devices operate at regimes characterized by extremely high temperatures and low densities, for which the charged particles motion is well described by classical mechanics. This is not true, however, for solid-state metallic objects: their density approaches $10^{28} \\rm m^{-3}$, so that the average interparticle distance is shorter than the de Broglie wavelength, which characterizes the spread of the electron wave function. Under these conditions, the conduction electrons behave as a true quantum plasma even at room temperature. Here, we shall illustrate the impact of quantum phenomena on the electron dynamics in metallic objects of nanometric size, particularly thin metallic films excited by short laser pulses. Further, we will discuss more recent results on regimes that involve spin and relativistic effects.

  4. Solid state chemistry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, Lesley E

    2012-01-01

    ""Smart and Moore are engaging writers, providing clear explanations for concepts in solid-state chemistry from the atomic/molecular perspective. The fourth edition is a welcome addition to my bookshelves. … What I like most about Solid State Chemistry is that it gives simple clear descriptions for a large number of interesting materials and correspondingly clear explanations of their applications. Solid State Chemistry could be used for a solid state textbook at the third or fourth year undergraduate level, especially for chemistry programs. It is also a useful resource for beginning graduate

  5. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    The present volume 48 of the Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written version of a large number of the invited talks of the 2008 Spring Meeting of the DPG section Condensed Matter Physics (Sektion kondensierte Materie der DPG) which was held in Berlin, Germany, and gives a nice overview of the present status of condensed matter physics. Low-dimensional systems are dominating the field and especially nanowires and quantum dots. In recent years one learned how to produce nanowires directly during a growth process. Therefore, a number of articles is related to such nanowires. In nanoparticles and quantum dots, the dimensionality is further reduced and we learn more and more how to produce such systems in a defined way and what effects result from the confinement in all three dimensions. Spin effects and magnetism is another important field of present-day research in solid state physics. The third chapter covers this physics. The growing interest into organic materials and biological systems is reflec...

  6. A Solid State Pyranometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Anca Laura; Paulescu, Marius; Ercuta, Aurel

    2015-12-01

    The construction of a solid state device-based pyranometer designated to broadband irradiance measurements is presented in this paper. The device is built on the physical basis that the temperature difference between two bodies of identical shape and external surface area, identically exposed to the incident radiation, but having different absorption and heat transfer coefficients (e.g. one body is painted white and the other is painted black), is proportional to the incident irradiance. This proportionality may be put in evidence if the two bodies consisting of identical arrays of correspondingly painted semiconductor diodes, due to the thermal behaviour of their p-n junction. It is theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed that the voltage drop across a diode passed through a constant forward current linearly decreases with the temperature of the junction. In other words, a signal proportional to the irradiance of the light source may be obtained via conventional analog electronics. The calibration of the apparatus, as performed by means of a professional device (LP PYRA 03), indicates a good linearity.

  7. Solid state magnetic refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► One proposes a magnetic refrigerator not requiring the use of fluids. ► Materials whose thermal conductivities depend on an applied magnetic field are used. ► Numerical simulations show that the coefficient of performance attained reaches 1.5. ► The device can be triggered from cooler to heat source by varying the frequency. - Abstract: The viability and operation of a fully solid state magnetic refrigeration system with envisaged applications on chip, sensor and device cooling is here tested using numerical simulations. The proposed system relies on the combined use of materials displaying the magnetocaloric effect and of materials whose thermal conductivities are controlled by an external magnetic field. This allows the switching of the heat flow direction in sync with the temperature variation of the magnetocaloric material, removing the necessity to use fluids which has for long hindered the implementation of magnetic refrigeration. We have found the optimum operating conditions of the proposed refrigerator, for which a cooling power density of ∼2.75 W cm−2 was obtained for an operating temperature of ∼296 K, using Gadolinium as the magnetocaloric material and an applied magnetic field of 1 T. The coefficient of performance (COP) achieved by this refrigerator was found to be COP ∼1.5, making it a viable alternative to thermoelectric refrigeration.

  8. Radio Frequency Solid State Amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Jacob, J

    2015-01-01

    Solid state amplifiers are being increasingly used instead of electronic vacuum tubes to feed accelerating cavities with radio frequency power in the 100 kW range. Power is obtained from the combination of hundreds of transistor amplifier modules. This paper summarizes a one hour lecture on solid state amplifiers for accelerator applications.

  9. Solid State Structures of Alkali Metal Ion Complexes Formed by Low-Molecular-Weight Ligands of Biological Relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Katsuyuki; Murayama, Kazutaka; Hu, Ning-Hai

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides structural data, mainly metal binding sites/modes, observed in crystal structures of alkali metal ion complexes containing low-molecular-weight ligands of biological relevance, mostly obtained from the Cambridge Structural Database (the CSD version 5.35 updated to February 2014). These ligands include (i) amino acids and small peptides, (ii) nucleic acid constituents (excluding quadruplexes and other oligonucleotides), (iii) simple carbohydrates, and (iv) naturally occurring antibiotic ionophores. For some representative complexes of these ligands, some details on the environment of the metal coordination and structural characteristics are described. PMID:26860299

  10. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, laser materials, and nonlinear crystals. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  11. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1996-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, mode locking, ultrashort-pulse generation etc. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  12. Supersymmetric Valence Bond Solid States

    OpenAIRE

    Arovas, Daniel P.; Hasebe, Kazuki; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    In this work we investigate the supersymmetric version of the valence bond solid (SVBS) state. In one dimension, the SVBS states continuously interpolate between the valence bond states for integer and half-integer spin chains, and they generally describe superconducting valence bond liquid states. Spin and superconducting correlation functions can be computed exactly for these states, and their correlation lengths are equal at the supersymmetric point. In higher dimensions, the wave function...

  13. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1988-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering is written from an industrial perspective and discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction and practical problems of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations, with a phenomenological treatment using modelsbeing preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has been updated and revised to include important developments, concepts and technologies that have emerged since the publication of the first edition.

  14. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  15. Solid state physics for metallurgists

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Metal Physics and Physical Metallurgy, Volume 6: Solid State Physics for Metallurgists provides an introduction to the basic understanding of the properties that make materials useful to mankind. This book discusses the electronic structure of matter, which is the domain of solid state physics.Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the electronic structure of free atoms and the electronic structure of solids. This text then examines the basis of the Bloch theorem, which is the exact periodicity of the potential. Other chapters consider the fundamental assumption in

  16. Solid state electrolyte systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, B.L.; Armstrong, T.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-01

    Lanthanum gallates are a new family of solid electrolytes that exhibit high ionic conductivity and are stable to high temperatures. Compositions have been developed that are as much as a factor of two more conductive than yttria-stabilized zirconia at a given temperature, through partial replacement of lanthanum by calcium, strontium, and/or barium and through partial replacement of gallium by magnesium. Oxide powders were prepared using combustion synthesis techniques developed in this laboratory; these were sintered to >95% of theoretical density and consisted of a single crystalline phase. Electrical conductivities, electron and ion transference numbers, thermal expansion, and phase behavior were evaluated as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. A key advantage of the use of lanthanum gallate electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells is that the temperature of operation may be lowered to perhaps 800 C, yet provide approximately the same power density as zirconia-based cells operating at 1000 C. Ceramic electrolytes that conduct both oxygen ions and electrons are potentially useful to passively separate pure oxygen from an air source at low cost. In such materials, an oxygen ion flux in one direction is charge-compensated by an opposing electron flux. The authors have examined a wide range of mixed ion and electron conducting perovskite ceramics in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, where M = Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N = Pr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, as well as mixed conducting brownmillerite ceramics, and have characterized oxygen permeation behavior, defect chemistry, structural and phase stability, and performance as cathodes.

  17. Solid state physics at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Deicher, M; Wichert, T

    2003-01-01

    Radioactive atoms have been used in solid state physics and in materials science for decades. Besides their classical applications as tracers for diffusion studies, nuclear techniques such as Mossbauer spectroscopy, perturbed gamma gamma angular correlation, beta -NMR, and emission channeling make use of nuclear properties (via hyperfine interactions or emitted alpha or beta particles) to gain microscopic information on structural and dynamical properties of solids. During the last decade, the availability of many different radioactive isotopes as clean ion beams at ISOL facilities like ISOLDE/CERN has triggered a new era involving methods sensitive to the optical and electronic properties of solids, especially in the field of semiconductor physics. This overview will browse through ongoing solid state physics experiments with radioactive ion beams at ISOLDE. A wide variety of problems is under study, involving bulk properties, surfaces and interfaces in many different systems like semiconductors, superconduc...

  18. Solid State Theory An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Solid-State Theory - An Introduction is a textbook for graduate students of physics and material sciences. It stands in the tradition of older textbooks on this subject but takes up new developments in theoretical concepts and materials which are connected with such path breaking discoveries as the Quantum-Hall Effects, the high-Tc superconductors, and the low-dimensional systems realized in solids. Thus besides providing the fundamental concepts to describe the physics of electrons and ions of which the solid consists, including their interactions and the interaction with light, the book casts a bridge to the experimental facts and opens the view into current research fields.

  19. The Oxford solid state basics

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Steven H

    2013-01-01

    The study of solids is one of the richest, most exciting, and most successful branches of physics. While the subject of solid state physics is often viewed as dry and tedious this new book presents the topic instead as an exciting exposition of fundamental principles and great intellectual breakthroughs. Beginning with a discussion of how the study of heat capacity of solids ushered in the quantum revolution, the author presents the key ideas of the field while emphasizing the deepunderlying concepts. The book begins with a discussion of the Einstein/Debye model of specific heat, and the Drude

  20. Modern solid state laser materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains visual aids used in an invited talk entitled Modern Solid State Laser Materials, presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) held in Anaheim, California, on June 20, 1984. Interest at LLNL in solid state lasers focuses on evaluating the potential of solid state laser media for high average power applications, including inertial fusion power production. This talk identifies the relevant bulk material parameters characterizing average power capacity and uses chromium and neodymium co-doped gadolinium scandium gallium garnet (Nd:Cr:GSGG) as an example of a laser material with improved laser properties relative to Nd:YAG (plausible large-scale growth, more efficient spectral coupling to xenon flashlamp radiation, reduced stimulated emission cross section, adequate thermal shock and optical damage threshold parameters, etc.). Recently measured spectroscopic, kinetic, and thermo-mechanical properties of Nd:Cr:GSGG are given

  1. Solid-state lithium battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  2. Introduction to solid state electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, FFY

    1989-01-01

    This textbook is specifically tailored for undergraduate engineering courses offered in the junior year, providing a thorough understanding of solid state electronics without relying on the prerequisites of quantum mechanics. In contrast to most solid state electronics texts currently available, with their generalized treatments of the same topics, this is the first text to focus exclusively and in meaningful detail on introductory material. The original text has already been in use for 10 years. In this new edition, additional problems have been added at the end of most chapters. These proble

  3. Solid state physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Philip

    2015-01-01

    A must-have textbook for any undergraduate studying solid state physics. This successful brief course in solid state physics is now in its second edition. The clear and concise introduction not only describes all the basic phenomena and concepts, but also such advanced issues as magnetism and superconductivity. Each section starts with a gentle introduction, covering basic principles, progressing to a more advanced level in order to present a comprehensive overview of the subject. The book is providing qualitative discussions that help undergraduates understand concepts even if they can?t foll

  4. Two dimensional solid state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis illustrates, by discussing some existing and newly developed 2D solid state experiments, that two-dimensional NMR of solids is a useful and important extension of NMR techniques. Chapter 1 gives an overview of spin interactions and averaging techniques important in solid state NMR. As 2D NMR is already an established technique in solutions, only the basics of two dimensional NMR are presented in chapter 2, with an emphasis on the aspects important for solid spectra. The following chapters discuss the theoretical background and applications of specific 2D solid state experiments. An application of 2D-J resolved NMR, analogous to J-resolved spectroscopy in solutions, to natural rubber is given in chapter 3. In chapter 4 the anisotropic chemical shift is mapped out against the heteronuclear dipolar interaction to obtain information about the orientation of the shielding tensor in poly-(oxymethylene). Chapter 5 concentrates on the study of super-slow molecular motions in polymers using a variant of the 2D exchange experiment developed by us. Finally chapter 6 discusses a new experiment, 2D nutation NMR, which makes it possible to study the quadrupole interaction of half-integer spins. 230 refs.; 48 figs.; 8 tabs

  5. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1992-01-01

    This book is written from an industrial perspective and provides a detailed discussion of solid-state lasers, their characteristics, design and construction. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations. The book is aimed mainly at the practicing scientist or engineer who is interested in the design or use of solid-state lasers, but the comprehensive treatment of the subject will make the work useful also to students of laser physics who seek to supplement their theoretical knowledge with engineering information. In order to present the subject as clearly as possible, phenomenological descriptions using models have been used rather than abstract mathematical descriptions. This results in a simplified presentation. The descriptions are enhanced by the inclusion of numerical and technical data, tables and graphs. This new edition has been updated and revised to take account of important new developments, concepts, and technologies that have emerged since the publication of the first and second...

  6. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    The present volume 46 of Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written versions of selected invited lectures from the spring meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft which was held from 27 to 31 March 2006 in Dresden, Germany. Many topical talks given at the numerous symposia are included. Most of these were organized collaboratively by several of the divisions of the Arbeitskreis. The topis range from zero-dimensional physics in quantum dots, molecules and nanoparticles over one-dimensional physics in nanowires and 1d systems to more applied subjects like optoelectronics and materials science in thin films. The contributions span the whole width of solid-state physics from truly basic science to applications.

  7. Solid-state membrane module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard; Taylor, Dale M.

    2011-06-07

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  8. Solid-state electronic devices an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulos, Christo

    2014-01-01

    A modern and concise treatment of the solid state electronic devices that are fundamental to electronic systems and information technology is provided in this book. The main devices that comprise semiconductor integrated circuits are covered in a clear manner accessible to the wide range of scientific and engineering disciplines that are impacted by this technology. Catering to a wider audience is becoming increasingly important as the field of electronic materials and devices becomes more interdisciplinary, with applications in biology, chemistry and electro-mechanical devices (to name a few) becoming more prevalent. Updated and state-of-the-art advancements are included along with emerging trends in electronic devices and their applications. In addition, an appendix containing the relevant physical background will be included to assist readers from different disciplines and provide a review for those more familiar with the area. Readers of this book can expect to derive a solid foundation for understanding ...

  9. Division of solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report gives a survey of the present research projects at the division of solid state physics, Inst. of Technology, Uppsala University. The projects fall within the fields of magnetism, i.e. spin glasses, ordered magnetic structures and itinerant electron magnetism, and optics, i.e. properties of crystalline and amorphous materials for selective transmission and absorption in connection with energy-related research. (author)

  10. Modeling solid-state precipitation

    CERN Document Server

    Nebylov, AlexanderKozeschnik, Ernst

    2012-01-01

    Over recent decades, modeling and simulation of solid-state precipitation has attracted increased attention in academia and industry due to their important contributions in designing properties of advanced structural materials and in increasing productivity and decreasing costs for expensive alloying. In particular, precipitation of second phases is an important means for controlling the mechanical-technological properties of structural materials. However, profound physical modeling of precipitation is not a trivial task. This book introduces you to the classical methods of precipitation model

  11. Solid-State Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    A strategy for "Solid-State" Nuclear Power is proposed to guide development of technologies and systems into the second 50 years of nuclear spaceflight. The strategy emphasizes a simple and highly integrated system architecture with few moving parts or fluid loops; the leverage of modern advances in materials, manufacturing, semiconductors, microelectromechanical and nanotechnology devices; and the targeted advancement of high temperature nuclear fuels, materials and static power conversion to enable high performance from simple system topologies.

  12. Introduction to solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compact introduction to solid-state physics for students of physics, material,and engineering sciences - ideal for a one- to two-semestral course. In easily understable form the author introduces to phenomena and concepts. Thereby he avoids expensive mathematical derivations and refers to outgoing literature. The successful didactical preparation makes an easy access to the theme possible. Numerous illustrations clarify the connections and make the explained well understandable. With about 170 questions and exercise problems.

  13. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    The present volume 47 of the Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written version of a large number of the invited talks of the 2007 Spring Meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik which was held in Regensburg, Germany, from March 26 to 30, 2007 in conjunction with the 71st Annual Meeting of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.It gives an overview of the present status of solid state physics where low-dimensional systems such as quantum dots and quantum wires are dominating. The importance of magnetic materials is reflected by the large number of contributions in the part dealing with ferromagnetic films and particles. One of the most exciting achievements of the last couple of years is the successful application of electrical contacts to and the investigation of single layers of graphene. This exciting physics is covered in Part IV of this book. Terahertz physics is another rapidly moving field which is presented here by five contributions. Achievements in solid state physics are only rarely...

  14. New materials for solid state electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid state electrochemistry is an interdisciplinary area, undergoing nowadays a fast development. It is related on the one hand to chemistry, and on the other hand to crystallography, solid state physics and materials science. In this paper structural and electrical properties of some families of new materials interesting for solid state electrochemistry are reviewed. Attention is focused essentially on ceramic and crystalline materials, glasses and polymers, displaying high ionic conductivity and potentially suitable for various applications in solid state electrochemical devices. (orig.)

  15. Solar pumped solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented for direct solar pumping of a Nd:YAG rod laser. Stable CW output of more than 60 watts was obtained with slope efficiencies exceeding 2%. Results are consistent with predictions based on a simple solar laser model the authors have developed. Using this model, performance projections and design concepts for higher power and higher efficiency solar-pumped solid state lasers are presented. It is shown that existing laser materials with broadband absorption characteristics (e.g., alexandrite and Nd:Cr:GSGG) can have better than 10% overall conversion efficiencies when solar pumped. The utility of solar lasers for various laser applications in space is briefly discussed

  16. Solid-State Personal Dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.

    2005-01-01

    This document is a web site page, and a data sheet about Personal protection (i.e., space suits) presented to the Radiation and Micrometeoroid Mitigation Technology Focus Group meeting. The website describes the work of the PI to improve solid state personal radiation dosimetry. The data sheet presents work on the active personal radiation detection system that is to provide real-time local radiation exposure information during EVA. Should undue exposure occur, knowledge of the dynamic intensity conditions during the exposure will allow more precise diagnostic assessment of the potential health risk to the exposed individual.

  17. Solid-State Random Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Noginov, Mikhail A

    2005-01-01

    Random lasers are the simplest sources of stimulated emission without cavity, with the feedback provided by scattering in a gain medium. First proposed in the late 60’s, random lasers have grown to a large research field. This book reviews the history and the state of the art of random lasers, provides an outline of the basic models describing their behavior, and describes the recent advances in the field. The major focus of the book is on solid-state random lasers. However, it also briefly describes random lasers based on liquid dyes with scatterers. The chapters of the book are almost independent of each other. So, the scientists or engineers interested in any particular aspect of random lasers can read directly the relevant section. Researchers entering the field of random lasers will find in the book an overview of the field of study. Scientists working in the field can use the book as a reference source.

  18. IGBT: A solid state switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Copper Vapor Laser Power Supply has been designed using a solid state switch consisting in eighteen Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT), 1,200 volts, 400 Amps, each, in parallel. This paper presents the Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBTs) replaced in the Power Electronic components evolution, and describes the IGBT conduction mechanism, presents the parallel association of IGBTs, and studies the application of these components to a Copper Vapor Laser Power Supply. The storage capacitor voltage is 820 Volts, the peak current of the solid state switch is 17,000 Amps. The switch is connected on the primary of a step-up transformer, followed by a magnetic modulator. The reset of the magnetic modulator is provided by part of the laser reflected energy with a patented circuit. The charging circuit is a resonant circuit with a charge controlled by an IGBT switch. When the switch is open, the inductance energy is free-wheeled by an additional winding and does not extend the charging phase of the storage capacitor. The design allows the storage capacitor voltage to be very well regulated. This circuit is also patented. The electric pulse in the laser has 30,000 Volt peak voltage, 2,000 Amp peak current, and is 200 nanoseconds long, for a 200 Watt optical power Copper Vapor Laser

  19. Contamination and solid state welds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Bernice E.

    2007-05-01

    Since sensitivity to contamination is one of the verities of solid state joining, there is a need for assessing contamination of the part(s) to be joined, preferably nondestructively while it can be remedied. As the surfaces that are joined in pinch welds are inaccessible and thus provide a greater challenge, most of the discussion is of the search for the origin and effect of contamination on pinch welding and ways to detect and mitigate it. An example of contamination and the investigation and remediation of such a system is presented. Suggestions are made for techniques for nondestructive evaluation of contamination of surfaces for other solid state welds as well as for pinch welds. Surfaces that have good visual access are amenable to inspection by diffuse reflection infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. Although other techniques are useful for specific classes of contaminants (such as hydrocarbons), DRIFT can be used most classes of contaminants. Surfaces such as the interior of open tubes or stems that are to be pinch welded can be inspected using infrared reflection spectroscopy. It must be demonstrated whether or not this tool can detect graphite based contamination, which has been seen in stems. For tubes with one closed end, the technique that should be investigated is emission infrared spectroscopy.

  20. Solid-state array cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strull, G; List, W F; Irwin, E L; Farnsworth, D L

    1972-05-01

    Over the past few years there has been growing interest shown in the rapidly maturing technology of totally solid-state imaging. This paper presents a synopsis of developments made in this field at the Westinghouse ATL facilities with emphasis on row-column organized monolithic arrays of diffused junction phototransistors. The complete processing sequence applicable to the fabrication of modern highdensity arrays is described from wafer ingot preparation to final sensor testing. Special steps found necessary for high yield processing, such as surface etching prior to both sawing and lapping, are discussed along with the rationale behind their adoption. Camera systems built around matrix array photosensors are presented in a historical time-wise progression beginning with the first 50 x 50 element converter developed in 1965 and running through the most recent 400 x 500 element system delivered in 1972. The freedom of mechanical architecture made available to system designers by solid-state array cameras is noted from the description of a bare-chip packaged cubic inch camera. Hybrid scan systems employing one-dimensional line arrays are cited, and the basic tradeoffs to their use are listed. PMID:20119094

  1. IGBT: a solid state switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply has been designed using a solid state switch consisting in eighteen Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT), -1200 volts, 400 Amps, each-in parallel. This paper presents the Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBTs) replaced in the Power Electronic components evolution, and describes the IGBT conduction mechanism, presents the parallel association of IGBTs, and studies the application of these components to a Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply. The storage capacitor voltage is 820 volts, the peak current of the solid state switch is 17.000 Amps. The switch is connected on the primary of a step-up transformer, followed by a magnetic modulator. The reset of the magnetic modulator is provided by part of the laser reflected energy with a patented circuit. The charging circuit is a resonant circuit with a charge controlled by an IGBT switch. When the switch is open, the inductance energy is free-wheeled by an additional winding and does not extend the charging phase of the storage capacitor. The design allows the storage capacitor voltage to be very well regulated. This circuit is also patented. The electric pulse in the laser has 30.000 Volt peak voltage, 2000 Amp peak current, and is 200 nanoseconds long, for a 200 Watt optical power Copper Vapour Laser

  2. Solid state chemistry and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    West, Anthony R

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Chemistry and its Applications, 2nd Edition: Student Edition is an extensive update and sequel to the bestselling textbook Basic Solid State Chemistry, the classic text for undergraduate teaching in solid state chemistry worldwide. Solid state chemistry lies at the heart of many significant scientific advances from recent decades, including the discovery of high-temperature superconductors, new forms of carbon and countless other developments in the synthesis, characterisation and applications of inorganic materials. Looking forward, solid state chemistry will be crucial for the

  3. Solid State Lighting Program (Falcon)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, Steven

    2012-06-30

    Over the past two years, KLA-Tencor and partners successfully developed and deployed software and hardware tools that increase product yield for High Brightness LED (HBLED) manufacturing and reduce product development and factory ramp times. This report summarizes our development effort and details of how the results of the Solid State Light Program (Falcon) have started to help HBLED manufacturers optimize process control by enabling them to flag and correct identified killer defect conditions at any point of origin in the process manufacturing flow. This constitutes a quantum leap in yield management over current practice. Current practice consists of die dispositioning which is just rejection of bad die at end of process based upon probe tests, loosely assisted by optical in-line monitoring for gross process deficiencies. For the first time, and as a result of our Solid State Lighting Program, our LED manufacturing partners have obtained the software and hardware tools that optimize individual process steps to control killer defects at the point in the processes where they originate. Products developed during our two year program enable optimized inspection strategies for many product lines to minimize cost and maximize yield. The Solid State Lighting Program was structured in three phases: i) the development of advanced imaging modes that achieve clear separation between LED defect types, improves signal to noise and scan rates, and minimizes nuisance defects for both front end and back end inspection tools, ii) the creation of defect source analysis (DSA) software that connect the defect maps from back-end and front-end HBLED manufacturing tools to permit the automatic overlay and traceability of defects between tools and process steps, suppress nuisance defects, and identify the origin of killer defects with process step and conditions, and iii) working with partners (Philips Lumileds) on product wafers, obtain a detailed statistical correlation of automated

  4. Porous Organic Nanolayers for Coating of Solid-state Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Asghar Waseem; Vidyala Sri D; Iqbal Samir M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Highly hydrophobic surfaces can have very low surface energy and such low surface energy biological interfaces can be obtained using fluorinated coatings on surfaces. Deposition of biocompatible organic films on solid-state surfaces is attained with techniques like plasma polymerization, biomineralization and chemical vapor deposition. All these require special equipment or harsh chemicals. This paper presents a simple vapor-phase approach to directly coat solid-state surf...

  5. Solid freeform fabrication of biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiwen

    This thesis investigates solid freeform fabrication of biological materials for dental restoration and orthopedic implant applications. The basic approach in this study for solid freeform fabrication of biological materials is micro-extrusion of single or multiple slurries for 3D components and inkjet color printing of multiple suspensions for functionally graded materials (FGMs). Common issues associated with micro-extrusion and inkjet color printing are investigated. These common issues include (i) formulation of stable slurries with a pseudoplastic property, (ii) cross-sectional geometry of the extrudate as a function of the extrusion parameters, (iii) fabrication path optimization for extrusion process, (iv) extrusion optimization for multi-layer components, (v) composition control in functionally graded materials, and (vi) sintering optimization to convert the freeform fabricated powder compact to a dense body for biological applications. The present study clearly shows that the rheological and extrusion behavior of dental porcelain slurries depend strongly on the pH value of the slurry and extrusion conditions. A slurry with pseudoplastic properties is a basic requirement for obtaining extruded lines with rectangular cross-sections. The cross-sectional geometry of the extrudate is also strongly affected by extrusion parameters including the extrusion nozzle height, nozzle moving speed, extrusion rate, and critical nozzle height. Proper combinations of these extrusion parameters are necessary in order to obtain single line extrudates with near rectangular cross-sections and 3D objects with dimensional accuracy, uniform wall thickness, good wall uprightness, and no wall slumping. Based on these understandings, single-wall, multi-wall, and solid teeth have been fabricated via micro-extrusion of the dental slurry directly from a CAD digital model in 30 min. Inkjet color printing using stable Al2O3 and ZrO 2 aqueous suspensions has been developed to fabricate

  6. Study of solid state photomultiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, K. M.; Laviolette, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    Available solid state photomultiplier (SSPM) detectors were tested under low-background, low temperature conditions to determine the conditions producing optimal sensitivity in a space-based astronomy system such as a liquid cooled helium telescope in orbit. Detector temperatures varied between 6 and 9 K, with background flux ranging from 10 to the 13th power to less than 10 to the 6th power photons/square cm-s. Measured parameters included quantum efficiency, noise, dark current, and spectral response. Experimental data were reduced, analyzed, and combined with existing data to build the SSPM data base included herein. The results were compared to analytical models of SSPM performance where appropriate models existed. Analytical models presented here were developed to be as consistent with the data base as practicable. Significant differences between the theory and data are described. Some models were developed or updated as a result of this study.

  7. Inside Solid State Drives (SSDs)

    CERN Document Server

    Micheloni, Rino; Eshghi, Kam

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Drives (SSDs) are gaining momentum in enterprise and client applications, replacing Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) by offering higher performance and lower power. In the enterprise, developers of data center server and storage systems have seen CPU performance growing exponentially for the past two decades, while HDD performance has improved linearly for the same period. Additionally, multi-core CPU designs and virtualization have increased randomness of storage I/Os. These trends have shifted performance bottlenecks to enterprise storage systems. Business critical applications such as online transaction processing, financial data processing and database mining are increasingly limited by storage performance. In client applications, small mobile platforms are leaving little room for batteries while demanding long life out of them. Therefore, reducing both idle and active power consumption has become critical. Additionally, client storage systems are in need of significant performance improvement as well ...

  8. Solid-state track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention has been aimed at a solid-state track detector on the basis of cellulose nitrate with an improved signal-to-noise ratio for the ionizing corpuscular radiation detection in a neutron field. The detector can be applied in particular to the local radiation field imaging, to induced autoradiography, e.g. on geological samples, semiconducting materials or metals, to nuclear physics and nuclear engineering, to radiometry and dosimetry. The new detector consists of cellulose nitrate in which the nitrogen with a natural isotopic composition has been replaced by the isotope 15N either completely or partly. It is suitable for a neutron dosimeter by combining foils of varying 15N content

  9. Nitride phosphors and solid-state lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Rong-Jun; Hirosaki, Naoto

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Solid-State LightingBasics of Solid-State LightingBasics of White Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs)Applications of Solid-State LightingIntroduction to LuminescenceClassification of Optical ProcessesFundamentals of LuminescenceLuminescent CentersMeasurement of LuminescenceTraditional Phosphors in White LEDsRequirements for Phosphors in White LEDsClassification of PhosphorsPhotoluminescent Properties of Traditional PhosphorsNitride Phosphors i

  10. Solid-state rechargeable magnesium battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun; Liu, Tianbiao; Li, Guosheng

    2016-09-06

    Embodiments of a solid-state electrolyte comprising magnesium borohydride, polyethylene oxide, and optionally a Group IIA or transition metal oxide are disclosed. The solid-state electrolyte may be a thin film comprising a dispersion of magnesium borohydride and magnesium oxide nanoparticles in polyethylene oxide. Rechargeable magnesium batteries including the disclosed solid-state electrolyte may have a coulombic efficiency .gtoreq.95% and exhibit cycling stability for at least 50 cycles.

  11. Equation of state for inert gas solids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kamal Devlal; B R K Gupta

    2007-08-01

    The equation of state is a fundamental relation to analyse the thermophysical properties of different class of solids and it plays a key role in basic and applied condensed matter physics research. A lot of work has been done in the field of ionic solids, minerals and metals but a very little work is done in the field of inert gas solids. Most of the equations of state failed to explain the properties of inert gas solid because of their abnormal behavior in the low temperature range. In the present paper, Singh–Gupta equation of state has been used to study the properties of these solids. The results obtained using these equations have shown a good agreement with available experimental results. Thus it is shown that these equations of states successfully explain the behavior of inert gas solids.

  12. Solid-state polymeric dye lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, S; Sridhar, G; Muthuswamy, V; Raja, K

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the organic solid-state polymer materials, which have become established as a new laser media. The photostability of these materials is discussed. Different types of solid-state lasers built around these materials are also reviewed.

  13. Nylon 6 polymerization in the solid state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaymans, Reinoud J.; Amirtharaj, John; Kamp, Henk

    1982-01-01

    The postcondensation of nylon 6 in the solid state was studied. The reactions were carried out on fine powder in a fluidized bed reactor in a stream of dry nitrogen in the temperature range 110-205°C and during 1-24 h. The solid-state polymerization (SSP) did not follow melt kinetics, but was found

  14. Quantum Computing in Solid State Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggiero, B; Granata, C

    2006-01-01

    The aim of Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems is to report on recent theoretical and experimental results on the macroscopic quantum coherence of mesoscopic systems, as well as on solid state realization of qubits and quantum gates. Particular attention has been given to coherence effects in Josephson devices. Other solid state systems, including quantum dots, optical, ion, and spin devices which exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence are also discussed. Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems discusses experimental implementation of quantum computing and information processing devices, and in particular observations of quantum behavior in several solid state systems. On the theoretical side, the complementary expertise of the contributors provides models of the various structures in connection with the problem of minimizing decoherence.

  15. Studies in solid state ionics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies performed over 10 years by the high temperature chemistry group are reviewed. Attention was paid to different aspects of ionic solids from the point of view of practical as well as theoretical needs of nuclear technology. Thus ceramic fuel compound like uranates, urania-thoria system, solid electrolytes based on oxides and ionics transformations were studied under reactor irradiation. (author) 13 figs., 3 tabs., 46 refs

  16. Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnun, Jacob J.; Leftin, Avigdor; Brown, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy finds growing application to inorganic and organic materials, biological samples, polymers, proteins, and cellular membranes. However, this technique is often neither included in laboratory curricula nor typically covered in undergraduate courses. On the other hand, spectroscopy and…

  17. Solid State Reactor Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, G.T.

    2004-03-10

    The Solid State Reactor (SSR) is an advanced reactor concept designed to take advantage of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) recently developed graphite foam that has enhanced heat transfer characteristics and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, to provide an inherently safe, self-regulated, source of heat for power and other potential applications. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program (Project No. 99-064) from August 1999 through September 30, 2002. The initial concept of utilizing the graphite foam as a basis for developing an advanced reactor concept envisioned that a suite of reactor configurations and power levels could be developed for several different applications. The initial focus was looking at the reactor as a heat source that was scalable, independent of any heat removal/power conversion process. These applications might include conventional power generation, isotope production and destruction (actinides), and hydrogen production. Having conducted the initial research on the graphite foam and having performed the scoping parametric analyses from neutronics and thermal-hydraulic perspectives, it was necessary to focus on a particular application that would (1) demonstrate the viability of the overall concept and (2) require a reasonably structured design analysis process that would synthesize those important parameters that influence the concept the most as part of a feasible, working reactor system. Thus, the application targeted for this concept was supplying power for remote/harsh environments and a design that was easily deployable, simplistic from an operational standpoint, and utilized the new graphite foam. Specifically, a 500-kW(t) reactor concept was pursued that is naturally load following, inherently safe, optimized via neutronic studies to achieve near-zero reactivity change with burnup, and proliferation resistant. These four major areas

  18. Nanographite Films for Solid State Electronic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lebedev, Sergey G.

    2013-01-01

    The structure and properties of nanographite films useful for applications in solid state devices are described. The possibility to use low conducting state of nanographite film for detecting radiation in the segmented solid state detectors is considered. Other interesting phenomena include the field effect conductivity switching which can be used in contactless current limiters and circuit breakers, the rf-to-dc conversion which can be utilized in microwave and photo detectors, and light emi...

  19. Laser diode pumped solid state laser driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical and economical feasibility of a diode pumped solid state laser driver for the fusion reactor is presented. Nd-doped solid state laser materials of lasing wavelengths at 1 μm are selected. We discuss the total efficiency of the laser driver in detail and then show that a total efficiency of 12 % can be achieved in the diode pumped solid state laser driver. We design the diode pumped solid state laser drivers with five typical solid state materials using a conceptual design technique. Designing conditions are the output energy of 4MJ per pulse at the wavelength of 0.35 μm, total efficiency of 12 % and repetition rate of 12 Hz. From the results of design, it is concluded the some diode pumped solid state laser drivers have large potentiality from both technical and economical points of view. Based on the conclusion, the items to be investigated for the quicker realization of the diode pumped solid state laser driver are also presented. (author)

  20. Solid State Lighting Reliability Components to Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, XJ

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Lighting Reliability: Components to Systems begins with an explanation of the major benefits of solid state lighting (SSL) when compared to conventional lighting systems including but not limited to long useful lifetimes of 50,000 (or more) hours and high efficacy. When designing effective devices that take advantage of SSL capabilities the reliability of internal components (optics, drive electronics, controls, thermal design) take on critical importance. As such a detailed discussion of reliability from performance at the device level to sub components is included as well as the integrated systems of SSL modules, lamps and luminaires including various failure modes, reliability testing and reliability performance. This book also: Covers the essential reliability theories and practices for current and future development of Solid State Lighting components and systems Provides a systematic overview for not only the state-of-the-art, but also future roadmap and perspectives of Solid State Lighting r...

  1. Solid-state devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Rhys

    1971-01-01

    Solid-State Devices and Applications is an introduction to the solid-state theory and its devices and applications. The book also presents a summary of all major solid-state devices available, their theory, manufacture, and main applications. The text is divided into three sections. The first part deals with the semiconductor theory and discusses the fundamentals of semiconductors; the kinds of diodes and techniques in their manufacture; the types and modes of operation of bipolar transistors; and the basic principles of unipolar transistors and their difference with bipolar transistors. The s

  2. Silicon solid state devices and radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, Claude

    2012-01-01

    This book addresses the fundamental principles of interaction between radiation and matter, the principles of working and the operation of particle detectors based on silicon solid state devices. It covers a broad scope with respect to the fields of application of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices from low to high energy physics experiments including in outer space and in the medical environment. This book covers stateof- the-art detection techniques in the use of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices and their readout electronics, including the latest developments on pixelated silicon radiation detector and their application.

  3. Small-angle neutron scattering instrument of Institute for Solid State Physics, the Univeristy of Tokyo (SANS-U) and its application to biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Yuji; Imai, Masayuki; Takahashi, Shiro [Univ. of Tokyo, Tokai Naka Ibaraki (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    A small-angle neutron spectrometer (SANS-U) suitable for the study of mesoscopic structure in the field of polymer chemistry and biology, has been constructed at the guide hall of JRR-3M reactor at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The instrument is 32m long and utilizes a mechanical velocity selector and pinhole collimation to provide a continuous beam with variable wavelength in the range from 5 to 10{Angstrom}. The neutron detector is a 65 x 65cm{sup 2} 2D position sensitive proportional counter. The practical Q range of SANS-U is 0.0008 to 0.45{Angstrom}{sup -1}. The design, characteristics and performance of SANS-U are described with some biological studies using SANS-U.

  4. Small-angle neutron scattering instrument of Institute for Solid State Physics, the Univeristy of Tokyo (SANS-U) and its application to biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A small-angle neutron spectrometer (SANS-U) suitable for the study of mesoscopic structure in the field of polymer chemistry and biology, has been constructed at the guide hall of JRR-3M reactor at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The instrument is 32m long and utilizes a mechanical velocity selector and pinhole collimation to provide a continuous beam with variable wavelength in the range from 5 to 10 Angstrom. The neutron detector is a 65 x 65cm2 2D position sensitive proportional counter. The practical Q range of SANS-U is 0.0008 to 0.45 Angstrom -1. The design, characteristics and performance of SANS-U are described with some biological studies using SANS-U

  5. Solid state and materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford backscattering spectrometry is being used for determining the thickness, uniformity and stoichiometry of anti-reflection coatings and for investigating thin-film semiconductor structures. Resonant alpha depth profiling at 3.04 MeV is also used to determine oxygen profiles. During the past year the elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) technique has been developed for the determination of hydrogen and deuterium depth profiles in solids. 1 fig., 2 refs

  6. Solid-state diffusion in amorphous zirconolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.; Dove, M. T.; Trachenko, K. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Zarkadoula, E. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6138 (United States); Todorov, I. T. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 1EP (United Kingdom); Geisler, T. [Steinmann-Institut für Geologie, Mineralogie und Paläontologie, University of Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Brazhkin, V. V. [Institute for High Pressure Physics, RAS, 142190 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-14

    We discuss how structural disorder and amorphization affect solid-state diffusion, and consider zirconolite as a currently important case study. By performing extensive molecular dynamics simulations, we disentangle the effects of amorphization and density, and show that a profound increase of solid-state diffusion takes place as a result of amorphization. Importantly, this can take place at the same density as in the crystal, representing an interesting general insight regarding solid-state diffusion. We find that decreasing the density in the amorphous system increases pre-factors of diffusion constants, but does not change the activation energy in the density range considered. We also find that atomic species in zirconolite are affected differently by amorphization and density change. Our microscopic insights are relevant for understanding how solid-state diffusion changes due to disorder and for building predictive models of operation of materials to be used to encapsulate nuclear waste.

  7. Green's functions for solid state physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is aimed at graduate students of solid-state physics. The application of Green's function methods to various problems including electrical resistance, interacting electron gases, magnetic systems, Kondo problems and superconductivity is dealt with

  8. Nanorod Array Solid State Neutron Detectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase I SBIR project, Synkera proposes to develop and commercialize solid-state neutron detectors of a unique architecture that will enable sensor modules...

  9. An overview of welding in solid state

    OpenAIRE

    Iordachescu, Mihaela; Scutelnicu, Elena

    2008-01-01

    The importance of the Solid State Processes (SSP) has increased in the last decade due to the industry demands of improved properties of joined/surfaced materials, combined with cost reduction and energy saving. New and/or micro-scale solid state processed materials are used by aerospace, automotive and electrotechnics industry. Nowadays, classic SSP are mainly applied to light materials, but progresses were also reported in steels. In this field, the tools design, the technology and practica...

  10. Solid state physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Written by the 2011 Gaede Award Winner Filling a gap in the literature for a brief course in solid sate physics, this is a clear and concise introduction that not only describes all the basic phenomena and concepts, but also discusses such advanced issues as magnetism and superconductivity. This textbook assumes only basic mathematical knowledge on the part of the reader and includes more than 100 discussion questions and some 70 problems with solutions as well as further supplementary material available for free to lecturers from the Wiley-VCH website. From the Contents:Chemical Bonding in So

  11. Ultrasonic methods in solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Truell, John; Elbaum, Charles

    1969-01-01

    Ultrasonic Methods in Solid State Physics is devoted to studies of energy loss and velocity of ultrasonic waves which have a bearing on present-day problems in solid-state physics. The discussion is particularly concerned with the type of investigation that can be carried out in the megacycle range of frequencies from a few megacycles to kilomegacycles; it deals almost entirely with short-duration pulse methods rather than with standing-wave methods. The book opens with a chapter on a classical treatment of wave propagation in solids. This is followed by separate chapters on methods and techni

  12. Physics of Nanostructured Solid State Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo

    2012-01-01

    Physics of Nanostructured Solid State Devices introduces readers to theories and concepts such as semi-classical and quantum mechanical descriptions of electron transport, methods for calculations of band structures in solids with applications in calculation of optical constants, and other advanced concepts.  The information presented here will equip readers with the necessary tools to carry out cutting edge research in modern solid state nanodevices. This book also: Covers sophisticated models of charge transport including the drift-diffusion model, Boltzmann transport model and various quantum transport models Discusses the essential elements of quantum mechanics necessary for an understanding of nanostructured solid state devices Presents band structure calculation methods based on time-independent perturbation theory Discusses theory of optical transitions and optical devices employing quantum-confined structures such as quantum wells,wires and dots Elucidates quantum mechanics of electrons in a magneti...

  13. Solid State Laser Rangefinders: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mansharamani

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Describes the development of solid-state laser rangefinders, during the last thirty years. The laser rangefinders using solid-state laser materials operating in visible, near and mid-infrared spectrum of light are in use. Considering the cost, efficiency, atmospheric transmission and detection capability, neodymium laser rangefinders operating in near-infrared region are still the state-of-the-art and are more in use as compared to rangefinders using other solid-state materials. The neodymium laser rangefinders in different configurations and use, developed in this Establishment are also described. The neodymium and diode lasers with improved detection capability in multiple pulse operation with pulse correlation techniques are under development to make these rangefinders eyesafe.

  14. Solid-state NMR of polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirau, P

    2001-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has emerged as one of the most important methods for the solid-state characterisation of polymers. The popularity of NMR is due to the fact that many molecular level features can be measured from the NMR spectra, including the polymer chain conformation, the morphology and the dynamics. The spectral features and relaxation times are affected by local interactions, so they provide information about the structure of polymers on a length scale (2-200 A) that is difficult to measure by other methods. In favourable cases, the NMR experiments provide a molecular-level explanation for the transitions observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and other methods, and the NMR properties can often be related to the bulk properties. Solid-state NMR has long been of interest in polymer science, and the first solid-state NMR studies of polymers were reported approximately a year after the discovery of nuclear resonance in bulk matter. It was reported in this initial study that the proton line width for natural rubber at room temperature is more like that of a mobile liquid than of a solid, but that the resonance broadens near the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}). This was recognised as being related to a change in chain dynamics above and below the T{sub g}. NMR methods developed rapidly after these initial observations, first for polymers in solution and, more recently, for polymers in the solid-state. Solid-state NMR studies of polymers were developed more slowly than their solution-state counterparts because solid-state NMR requires more specialised equipment. Solid-state NMR is now such an important tool that most modern spectrometers are capable of performing these studies. The interest in the NMR of solid polymers is due in part to the fact that most polymers are used in the solid state, and in many cases the NMR properties can be directly related to the macroscopic properties. Polymers have restricted mobility

  15. Solid-state NMR of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has emerged as one of the most important methods for the solid-state characterisation of polymers. The popularity of NMR is due to the fact that many molecular level features can be measured from the NMR spectra, including the polymer chain conformation, the morphology and the dynamics. The spectral features and relaxation times are affected by local interactions, so they provide information about the structure of polymers on a length scale (2-200 A) that is difficult to measure by other methods. In favourable cases, the NMR experiments provide a molecular-level explanation for the transitions observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and other methods, and the NMR properties can often be related to the bulk properties. Solid-state NMR has long been of interest in polymer science, and the first solid-state NMR studies of polymers were reported approximately a year after the discovery of nuclear resonance in bulk matter. It was reported in this initial study that the proton line width for natural rubber at room temperature is more like that of a mobile liquid than of a solid, but that the resonance broadens near the glass transition temperature (Tg). This was recognised as being related to a change in chain dynamics above and below the Tg. NMR methods developed rapidly after these initial observations, first for polymers in solution and, more recently, for polymers in the solid-state. Solid-state NMR studies of polymers were developed more slowly than their solution-state counterparts because solid-state NMR requires more specialised equipment. Solid-state NMR is now such an important tool that most modern spectrometers are capable of performing these studies. The interest in the NMR of solid polymers is due in part to the fact that most polymers are used in the solid state, and in many cases the NMR properties can be directly related to the macroscopic properties. Polymers have restricted mobility in solids

  16. Electrochemical processes and solid state properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most characteristic trends in recent fundamental electrochemical research are described, including: the application and development of spectroscopic techniques for the study of the solid - electrolyte interface and the application of solid state concepts for the description and analysis of processes occurring at this interface. Examples based on experiments about: double layer structure at metals and semiconductors, adsorbed monolayers on metals, and kinetic processes on single crystal surfaces of metals and semiconductors are discussed. (C.L.B.)

  17. Solid state division progress report, period ending February 29, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research is reported concerning theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; crystal growth and characterization; and isotope research materials

  18. Solid state division progress report, period ending February 29, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Research is reported concerning theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; crystal growth and characterization; and isotope research materials.

  19. The beginnings of solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of solid state electronics on our society has been enormous. This is a record of the reminiscences of some scientists who were concerned with the early days of solid state physics. Twenty six memoranda cover the years 1900 -1926, the first applications of quantum mechanics in the 1930's and the observations of the motion of dislocations in the mid-1950's. The successes and failures are remembered and the interaction between the scientists involved recounted. The electron theory of metals, quantum theory of ferromagnetism, superconductivity, the heat capacity of crystals and the vibrational spectrum, lattice dynamics and X-ray diffraction, radiation damage, dislocations in metals and other problems in solid state physics are all discussed in the context of time, place and personalities. (UK)

  20. Driver circuit for solid state light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Fred; Denvir, Kerry; Allen, Steven

    2016-02-16

    A driver circuit for a light source including one or more solid state light sources, a luminaire including the same, and a method of so driving the solid state light sources are provided. The driver circuit includes a rectifier circuit that receives an alternating current (AC) input voltage and provides a rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a switching converter circuit coupled to the light source. The switching converter circuit provides a direct current (DC) output to the light source in response to the rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a mixing circuit, coupled to the light source, to switch current through at least one solid state light source of the light source in response to each of a plurality of consecutive half-waves of the rectified AC voltage.

  1. Process Calorimetry on Solid-state Fermentation of Vinegar Wastes in Bioreactor with Air Pressure Pulsation

    OpenAIRE

    Jian, Liu; Yang, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) of vinegar wastes saves environmental resources and helps to recover valuable material for lignocellulose purposes. The development of solid-state fermentation technology is very important for the production of cellulase and ultimately for utilization of natural cellulose. However, inadequate dissipation of heat generated by biological activities has prevented solid-state fermentation from large-scale applications. The thermal pattern of internal heat generat...

  2. Handbook of Applied Solid State Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Vij, D. R

    2006-01-01

    Solid-State spectroscopy is a burgeoning field with applications in many branches of science, including physics, chemistry, biosciences, surface science, and materials science. Handbook of Applied Solid-State Spectroscopy brings together in one volume information about various spectroscopic techniques that is currently scattered in the literature of these disciplines. This concise yet comprehensive volume covers theory and applications of a broad range of spectroscopies, including NMR, NQR, EPR/ESR, ENDOR, scanning tunneling, acoustic resonance, FTIR, auger electron emission, x-ray photoelectron emission, luminescence, and optical polarization, and more. Emphasis is placed on fundamentals and current methods and procedures, together with the latest applications and developments in the field.

  3. Physical Acoustics in the Solid State

    CERN Document Server

    Lüthi, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Suitable for researchers and graduate students in physics and material science, "Physical Acoustics in the Solid State" reviews the modern aspects in the field, including many experimental results, especially those involving ultrasonics. Practically all fields of solid-state physics are covered: metals, semiconductors, magnetism, superconductivity, different kinds of phase transitions, low-dimensional systems, and the quantum Hall effect. After a review of the relevant experimental techniques and an introduction to the theory of elasticity, emphasizing the symmetry aspects, applications in the various fields of condensed matter physics are presented. Also treated are Brillouin-scattering results and results from thermodynamic investigations, such as thermal expansion and specific heat.

  4. Physical Acoustics in the Solid State

    CERN Document Server

    Lüthi, B

    2006-01-01

    Suitable for researchers and graduate students in physics and material science, "Physical Acoustics in the Solid State" reviews the modern aspects in the field, including many experimental results, especially those involving ultrasonics. Practically all fields of solid-state physics are covered: metals, semiconductors, magnetism, superconductivity, different kinds of phase transitions, low-dimensional systems, and the quantum Hall effect. After a review of the relevant experimental techniques and an introduction to the theory of elasticity, emphasizing the symmetry aspects, applications in the various fields of condensed matter physics are presented. Also treated are Brillouin-scattering results and results from thermodynamic investigations, such as thermal expansion and specific heat.

  5. An introduction to solid state diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Borg, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    The energetics and mechanisms of diffusion control the kinetics of such diverse phenomena as the fabrication of semiconductors and superconductors, the tempering of steel, geological metamorphism, the precipitation hardening of nonferrous alloys and corrosion of metals and alloys. This work explains the fundamentals of diffusion in the solid state at a level suitable for upper-level undergraduate and beginning graduate students in materials science, metallurgy, mineralogy, and solid state physics and chemistry. A knowledge of physical chemistry such as is generally provided by a one-year under

  6. Characteristics of Solid State Cathodoluminescence of PPV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲崇; 徐征; 滕枫; 徐叙瑢

    2003-01-01

    Based on our previous discovery [Chem. Phys. Lett. 325 (2000) 420] of the solid-state cathodoluminescence from organic luminescent materials in inorganic/organic heterojunction, we study characteristics of this new kind of electric-field-induced luminescence by means of examining its oscillogram. We prepared three devices with different structures in which PPV was used as luminescent layer, and SiO2 was used as accelerating layer. The experimental results might be understood only by means of the existence of solid-state cathodoluminescence.This new kind of luminescence makes it possible to produce new type of flat panel display.

  7. Recent Results of Solid-State Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Jäger, Cornelia; Mutschke, Harald; Zeidler, Simon; Tamanai, Akemi; de Vries, Bernard L; 10.1017/S1743921311025166

    2012-01-01

    Solid state spectroscopy continues to be an important source of information on the mineralogical composition and physical properties of dust grains both in space and on planetary surfaces. With only a few exceptions, artificially produced or natural terrestrial analog materials, rather than 'real' cosmic dust grains, are the subject of solid state astrophysics. The Jena laboratory has provided a large number of data sets characterizing the UV, optical and infrared properties of such cosmic dust analogs. The present paper highlights recent developments and results achieved in this context, focussing on 'non-standard conditions' such as very low temperatures, very high temperatures and very long wavelengths.

  8. Specialized nets of solid-state sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostenko V. L.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The research of the specialized networks based on solid-state sensors with automatic tuning of parameters was carried out. The construction peculiarities of such nets and sensors design used in them were examined. The ways of costs reduction for nets firmware were offered.

  9. Solid state, S-band, power amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digrindakis, M.

    1973-01-01

    The final design and specifications for a solid state, S-band, power amplifier is reported. Modifications from a previously proposed design were incorporated to improve efficiency and meet input overdrive and noise floor requirements. Reports on the system design, driver amplifier, power amplifier, and voltage and current limiter are included along with a discussion of the testing program.

  10. Solid State Electrochemical DeNOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2010-01-01

    The literature on direct electrochemical reduction of NOx in a solid state cell has been reviewed. It is shown that that the reduction of nitric oxide either occurs on the electrode or on the electrolyte if F-centers are formed. It is also shown that some oxide based electrodes has a high apparent...

  11. Solid state fermentation for foods and beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    The book systematically describes the production of solid-state fermented food and beverage in terms of the history and development of SSF technology and SSF foods, bio-reactor design, fermentation process, various substrate origins and sustainable development. It emphasizes Oriental traditional foo

  12. Nanoscale solid-state cooling: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziabari, Amirkoushyar; Zebarjadi, Mona; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Shakouri, Ali

    2016-09-01

    The recent developments in nanoscale solid-state cooling are reviewed. This includes both theoretical and experimental studies of different physical concepts, as well as nanostructured material design and device configurations. We primarily focus on thermoelectric, thermionic and thermo-magnetic coolers. Particular emphasis is given to the concepts based on metal–semiconductor superlattices, graded materials, non-equilibrium thermoelectric devices, Thomson coolers, and photon assisted Peltier coolers as promising methods for efficient solid-state cooling. Thermomagnetic effects such as magneto–Peltier and Nernst–Ettingshausen cooling are briefly described and recent advances and future trends in these areas are reviewed. The ongoing progress in solid-state cooling concepts such as spin-calorimetrics, electrocalorics, non-equilibrium/nonlinear Peltier devices, superconducting junctions and two-dimensional materials are also elucidated and practical achievements are reviewed. We explain the thermoreflectance thermal imaging microscopy and the transient Harman method as two unique techniques developed for characterization of thermoelectric microrefrigerators. The future prospects for solid-state cooling are briefly summarized.

  13. Thermal management of solid state lighting module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, H.

    2014-01-01

    Solid-State Lighting (SSL), powered by Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs), is an energy-efficient technology for lighting systems. In contrast to incandescent lights which obtain high efficiency at high temperatures, the highest efficiency of LEDs is reached at low temperatures. The thermal management in

  14. Energy balance in solid state fermentation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, L.J.A.; Torres, A.; Echevarria, J.; Saura, G. (Instituto Cubano de Investigaciones de los Derivados de la Cana de Azucar (ICIDCA), La Habana (Cuba))

    1991-01-01

    It was applied a macroscopic energy balance to a solid state fermentation process and an electron balance in order to estimate the temperature and the heat evolved in the process. There were employed several equations that describe the development of the system and offer the possibility to design or control such fermentations. (orig.).

  15. Solid state lasers - The next 10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1988-10-01

    Major advances in solid state laser technology historically have been preceded by advances in pumping technology. The helical lamp used to pump the early ruby lasers was superseded by the linear flashlamp now used to pump Nd:YAG lasers. The next advance in pumping technology is the diode laser array. The improvements in power and efficiency of the diode laser coupled with the fortuitous spectral overlap of the diode laser emission wavelength with the Nd ion absorption bands near 805 nm have led to a revolution in solid state laser capability. Progress has been rapid with new ions and wavelengths reported in the near infrared from 946 nm to 2010 nm. Frequency extension via nonlinear interactions has led to green and blue sources of coherent radiation. Linewidths of less than 10 kHz have been demonstrated. Overall electrical efficiencies of greater than 10% have been achieved. As diode laser sources decrease in cost, high average power diode laser pumped solid state laser sources will become available. Power levels exceeding 1 kW appear possible. Potential applications of these compact all solid state laser sources to spectroscopy, quantum noise limited sensors, astronomy, and materials processing will be discussed.

  16. Entanglement in Solid-State Nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodoky, F.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to investigate theoretically the generation and behaviour of multipartite entanglement for solid-state nanosystems, in particular electron spin quantum bits (so-called 'qubits') in quantum dots. A quantum dot is a tiny potential well where a single electron can be trapped.

  17. Bright Solid State Source of Photon Triplets

    CERN Document Server

    Khoshnegar, Milad; Predojević, Ana; Dalacu, Dan; Prilmüller, Maximilian; Lapointe, Jean; Wu, Xiaohua; Tamarat, Philippe; Lounis, Brahim; Poole, Philip; Weihs, Gregor; Majedi, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Producing advanced quantum states of light is a priority in quantum information technologies. While remarkable progress has been made on single photons and photon pairs, multipartite correlated photon states are usually produced in purely optical systems by post-selection or cascading, with extremely low efficiency and exponentially poor scaling. Multipartite states enable improved tests of the foundations of quantum mechanics as well as implementations of complex quantum optical networks and protocols. It would be favorable to directly generate these states using solid state systems, for better scaling, simpler handling, and the promise of reversible transfer of quantum information between stationary and flying qubits. Here we use the ground states of two optically active coupled quantum dots to directly produce photon triplets. The wavefunctions of photogenerated excitons localized in these ground states are correlated via molecular hybridization and Coulomb interactions. The formation of a triexciton leads...

  18. Solid-State Spectroscopy An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzmany, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Spectroscopic methods have opened up a new horizon in our knowledge of solid-state materials. Numerous techniques using electromagnetic radiation or charged and neutral particles have been invented and worked out to a high level in order to provide more detailed information on the solids. The text presented here is an updated description of such methods as they were originally presented in the first edition. It covers linear response of solids to electromagnetic radiation in a frequency range extending from megahertz or gigahertz as used in spin resonance spectroscopy, to infrared spectroscopy and various forms of spectroscopy in the visible and near visible spectral range. It extends to spectroscopy in the UV and x-ray spectral range and eventually several spectroscopic methods are addressed in the frequency range of g radiation. Likewise linear response to irradiation with particles such as electrons, positrons, muons, neutrons, and atoms is discussed. Instrumental and technical background is provided as we...

  19. Solid state NMR of biopolymers and synthetic polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid state NMR has been invaluable in evaluating the structure, phase separation, and dynamics of polymers. Because polymers are generally used in the solid state, solid state NMR is especially powerful because it provides information about the materials in their native state. This review gives a general overview of solid state NMR, concentrating on solid state 13 C and 2 H NMR. It then focuses on two examples: the biopolymer spider silka and the engineering material polyurethane. It illustrates how solid state NMR can provide new information about synthetic and bio-polymers. (author)

  20. A High Power Linear Solid State Pulser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle Accelerators require high voltage and often high power. Typically the high voltage/power generation utilizes a topology with an extra energy store and a switching means to extract that stored energy. The switches may be active or passive devices. Active switches are hard or soft vacuum tubes, or semiconductors. When required voltages exceed tens of kilovolts, numerous semiconductors are stacked to withstand that potential. Such topologies can use large numbers of critical parts that, when in series, compromise the system reliability and performance. This paper describes a modular, linear, solid state amplifier which uses a parallel array of semiconductors, coupled with transmission line transformers. Such a design can provide output signals with voltages exceeding 10kV (into 50-ohms), and with rise and fall times (10-90 % amplitude) that are less than 1--ns. This compact solid state amplifier is modular, and has both hot-swap and soft fail capabilities

  1. Development of Solid State Laser Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Byung Heon; Kwon, Seong Ok; Kim, Yong Ki (and others)

    2007-04-15

    Recently, diode-pumped solid state lasers(DPSSL) have been developed to have a diffraction limited beam quality and high average output powers beyond kW. The lifetime extends to have several thousand hours. Due to such merits, the DPSSLs are now replacing previous application fields of CO{sub 2} laser, lamp-pumped solid-state lasers, Excimer laser, etc. The DPSSLs have broad application fields, such as laser spectroscopy and analysis, laser micromachining, precision measurement, laser range findings, laser pump sources, medical lasers, etc. In this project, various DPSSLs are developed for use in laser isotope production. Many new laser modules are designed and used to develop high power pulsed IR lasers and green lasers. In addition, a quasi CW driven compact DPSSL is developed to have high pulse energy DPSSL technologies.

  2. Research on IGBT solid state switch

    CERN Document Server

    Gan Kong Yin; Wang Xiao Feng; Wang Lang Ping; Wang Song Yan; Chu, P K; Wu Hong Chen

    2002-01-01

    The experiments on the IGBT solid state switch for induction accelerator was carried out with two series 1.2 kV, 75 A IGBT (GA75TS120U). The static and dynamic balancing modules were carried out with metal oxide varistors, capacities and diodes in order to suppress the over-voltage during IGBT on and off. Experimental results show that IGBT solid state switch works very stable under the different conditions. It can output peak voltage 1.8 kV, rise time 300 ns, fall time 1.64 mu s waveforms on the loads. The simulation data using OrCAD are in accord with experimental results except the rise time

  3. Phosphate Phosphors for Solid-State Lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Kartik N; Swart, H C; Park, Kyeongsoon

    2012-01-01

    The idea for this book arose out of the realization that, although excellent surveys and a phosphor handbook are available, there is no single source covering the area of phosphate based phosphors especially for lamp industry. Moreover, as this field gets only limited attention in most general books on luminescence, there is a clear need for a book in which attention is specifically directed toward this rapidly growing field of solid state lighting and its many applications. This book is aimed at providing a sound introduction to the synthesis and optical characterization of phosphate phosphor for undergraduate and graduate students as well as teachers and researchers. The book provides guidance through the multidisciplinary field of solid state lighting specially phosphate phosphors for beginners, scientists and engineers from universities, research organizations, and especially industry. In order to make it useful for a wide audience, both fundamentals and applications are discussed, together.

  4. Development of Solid State Laser Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, diode-pumped solid state lasers(DPSSL) have been developed to have a diffraction limited beam quality and high average output powers beyond kW. The lifetime extends to have several thousand hours. Due to such merits, the DPSSLs are now replacing previous application fields of CO2 laser, lamp-pumped solid-state lasers, Excimer laser, etc. The DPSSLs have broad application fields, such as laser spectroscopy and analysis, laser micromachining, precision measurement, laser range findings, laser pump sources, medical lasers, etc. In this project, various DPSSLs are developed for use in laser isotope production. Many new laser modules are designed and used to develop high power pulsed IR lasers and green lasers. In addition, a quasi CW driven compact DPSSL is developed to have high pulse energy DPSSL technologies

  5. Pulsed solid state lasers for medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertesz, Ivan; Danileiko, A. Y.; Denker, Boris I.; Kroo, Norbert; Osiko, Vyacheslav V.; Prokhorov, Alexander M.

    1994-02-01

    The effect on living tissues of different pulsed solid state lasers: Nd:YAG ((lambda) equals 1.06 micrometers ) Er:glass (1.54 micrometers ), Ho:YAG (2.1 micrometers ) and Er:YAG (2.94 micrometers ) is compared with the continuous wave Nd:YAG- and CO2-lasers used in operating theaters. Portable Er:glass- and Er:YAG-lasers are developed for surgery/cosmetics and HIV-safe blood testing.

  6. Phosphate phosphors for solid-state lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, Kartik N. [N.S. Science and Arts College, Bhadrawati (India). Dept. of Physics; Swart, H.C. [University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa). Dept. of Physics; Dhoble, S.J. [R.T.M. Nagpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics; Park, Kyeongsoon [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering

    2012-07-01

    Essential information for students in researchers working towards new and more efficient solid-state lighting. Comprehensive survey based on the authors' long experience. Useful both for teaching and reference. The idea for this book arose out of the realization that, although excellent surveys and a phosphor handbook are available, there is no single source covering the area of phosphate based phosphors especially for lamp industry. Moreover, as this field gets only limited attention in most general books on luminescence, there is a clear need for a book in which attention is specifically directed toward this rapidly growing field of solid state lighting and its many applications. This book is aimed at providing a sound introduction to the synthesis and optical characterization of phosphate phosphor for undergraduate and graduate students as well as teachers and researchers. The book provides guidance through the multidisciplinary field of solid state lighting specially phosphate phosphors for beginners, scientists and engineers from universities, research organizations, and especially industry. In order to make it useful for a wide audience, both fundamentals and applications are discussed, together.

  7. Solid-state ring laser gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, S.

    The ring laser gyroscope is a rotation sensor used in most kinds of inertial navigation units. It usually consists in a ring cavity filled with a mixture of helium and neon, together with high-voltage pumping electrodes. The use of a gaseous gain medium, while resulting naturally in a stable bidirectional regime enabling rotation sensing, is however the main industrially limiting factor for the ring laser gyroscopes in terms of cost, reliability and lifetime. We study in this book the possibility of substituting for the gaseous gain medium a solid-state medium (diode-pumped Nd-YAG). For this, a theoretical and experimental overview of the lasing regimes of the solid-state ring laser is reported. We show that the bidirectional emission can be obtained thanks to a feedback loop acting on the states of polarization and inducing differential losses proportional to the difference of intensity between the counterpropagating modes. This leads to the achievement of a solid-state ring laser gyroscope, whose frequency response is modified by mode coupling effects. Several configurations, either mechanically or optically based, are then successively studied, with a view to improving the quality of this frequency response. In particular, vibration of the gain crystal along the longitudinal axis appears to be a very promising technique for reaching high inertial performances with a solid-state ring laser gyroscope. Gyrolaser à état solide. Le gyrolaser est un capteur de rotation utilisé dans la plupart des centrales de navigation inertielle. Dans sa forme usuelle, il est constitué d'une cavité laser en anneau remplie d'un mélange d'hélium et de néon pompé par des électrodes à haute tension. L'utilisation d'un milieu amplificateur gazeux, si elle permet de garantir naturellement le fonctionnement bidirectionnel stable nécessaire à la mesure des rotations, constitue en revanche la principale limitation industrielle des gyrolasers actuels en termes de coût, fiabilit

  8. BOOK REVIEW: Solid State Physics: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakoby, Bernhard

    2009-07-01

    There's a wealth of excellent textbooks on solid state physics. The author of the present book is well aware of this fact and does not attempt to write just another one. Rather, he has provided a very compact introduction to solid state physics for third-year students. As we are faced with the continuous appearance interdisciplinary fields and associated study curricula in natural and engineering sciences (biophysics, mechatronics, etc), a compact text in solid state physics would be appreciated by students of these disciplines as well. The book features 11 chapters where each is provided with supplementary discussion questions and problems. The first chapters deal with a review of chemical bonding mechanisms, crystal structures and mechanical properties of solids, which are brief but by no means superficial. The following, somewhat more detailed chapter on thermal properties of lattices includes a nice introduction to phonons. The foundations of solid state electronics are treated in the next three chapters. Here the author first discusses the classical treatment of electronic behaviour in metals (Drude model) and continues with a quantum-theoretical approach starting with the free-electron model and leading to the band structures in conductive solids. The next chapter is devoted to semiconductors and ends with a brief but, with respect to the topical scope, adequate discussion of semiconductor devices. The classical topics of magnetic and dielectric behaviour are treated in the sequel. The book closes with a chapter on superconductivity and a brief chapter covering the modern topics of quantum confinement and aspects of nanoscale physics. In my opinion, the author has succeeded in creating a very concise yet not superficial textbook. The account presented often probes subjects deep enough to lay the basis for a thorough understanding, preparing the reader for more specialized textbooks. For instance, I think that this book may serve as an excellent first

  9. Supramolecular interactions in the solid state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Resnati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, supramolecular chemistry has been at the forefront of chemical research, with the aim of understanding chemistry beyond the covalent bond. Since the long-range periodicity in crystals is a product of the directionally specific short-range intermolecular interactions that are responsible for molecular assembly, analysis of crystalline solids provides a primary means to investigate intermolecular interactions and recognition phenomena. This article discusses some areas of contemporary research involving supramolecular interactions in the solid state. The topics covered are: (1 an overview and historical review of halogen bonding; (2 exploring non-ambient conditions to investigate intermolecular interactions in crystals; (3 the role of intermolecular interactions in morphotropy, being the link between isostructurality and polymorphism; (4 strategic realisation of kinetic coordination polymers by exploiting multi-interactive linker molecules. The discussion touches upon many of the prerequisites for controlled preparation and characterization of crystalline materials.

  10. Ionic conduction in the solid state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Padma Kumar; S Yashonath

    2006-01-01

    Solid state ionic conductors are important from an industrial viewpoint. A variety of such conductors have been found. In order to understand the reasons for high ionic conductivity in these solids, there have been a number of experimental, theoretical and computational studies in the literature. We provide here a survey of these investigations with focus on what is known and elaborate on issues that still remain unresolved. Conductivity depends on a number of factors such as presence of interstitial sites, ion size, temperature, crystal structure etc. We discuss the recent results from atomistic computer simulations on the dependence of conductivity in NASICONs as a function of composition, temperature, phase change and cation among others. A new potential for modelling of NASICON structure that has been proposed is also discussed.

  11. Solid-state rechargeable magnesium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chusid, O.; Gofer, Y.; Gizbar, H.; Vestfrid, Y.; Levi, E.; Aurbach, D. [Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Riech, I. [Ortal Magnesium Diecasting Ltd, Kibbutz Neve Ur 10875 (Israel)

    2003-04-17

    The development of all solid-state rechargeable magnesium battery systems is reported, with components that are environmentally friendly and relatively simple in their structure and preparation. As anodes, magnesium alloys containing Zn and Al are used, and the cathode is the chevrel phase, Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8}, which can insert two magnesium atoms per unit (Mg{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8}, 122 mA h g{sup -1}). The solid electrolyte is a gel comprising polyvinylidene difluoride, Mg(AlCl{sub 2}EtBt){sub 2} complex salt, and tetraglyme as a plasticizer. These batteries are found to function well in a temperature range of 0-80 C with a voltage range of 1.3-0.8V. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Solid state nuclear track detection : theory and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid state nuclear track detection (SSNTD) technique is simple and inexpensive in nature. The two main steps involved in SSNTD are the formation of latent tracks and their subsequent development (visualisation) by chemical or other means. These are discussed in detail. Applications of SSNTD in the fields of nuclear physics, dosimetry, biology and for determination of contents of an element and its spatial distribution are described. The monograph is intended to serve both beginners and specialists. It also gives a list of simple experiments that can be conveniently introduced at the undergraduate/postgraduate level. (M.G.B.). 20 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Efficient solid state memories for quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long distance quantum cryptography requires quantum repeaters which use quantum memories. The latter are designed to store and retrieve photon quantum states on demand. Although quantum memories have been demonstrated in atomic vapors and ultra cold gases, a solid state alternative may better fulfill quantum memories requirements. Rare earth based crystals, which exhibit long coherence lifetimes, are actively studied for this purpose. Memory efficiency, i.e. the probability to retrieve a photon after storage, should be close to unity for practical applications. This can be achieved in highly doped crystals. Although Pr-Pr interactions could be detrimental in this case, we show that in a 3% Pr3+ doped La2(WO4)3 crystal ground state hyperfine coherence lifetime is still close to that measured at low Pr concentration. Since the latter determines the memory storage time, this result suggests that highly doped crystals may be useful for efficient quantum memories.

  14. Progress and prospective of solid-state lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of lithium-ion batteries has energized studies of solid-state batteries, because the non-flammability of their solid electrolytes offers a fundamental solution to safety concerns. Since poor ionic conduction in solid electrolytes is a major drawback in solid-state batteries, such studies have been focused on the enhancement of ionic conductivity. The studies have identified some high performance solid electrolytes; however, some disadvantages have remained hidden until their use in batteries. This paper reviews the development of solid electrolytes and their application to solid-state lithium batteries

  15. Co-operativity in a nanocrystalline solid-state transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah L.; Smith, Jeremy G.; Behl, Mayank; Jain, Prashant K.

    2013-12-01

    Co-operativity is a remarkable phenomenon mostly seen in biology, where initial reaction events significantly alter the propensity of subsequent reaction events, giving rise to a nonlinear tightly regulated synergistic response. Here we have found unique evidence of atomic level co-operativity in an inorganic material. A thousand-atom nanocrystal (NC) of the inorganic solid cadmium selenide exhibits strong positive co-operativity in its reaction with copper ions. A NC doped with a few copper impurities becomes highly prone to be doped even further, driving an abrupt transition of the entire NC to the copper selenide phase, as manifested by a strongly sigmoidal response in optical spectroscopy and electron diffraction measurements. The examples presented here suggest that cooperative phenomena may have an important role in the solid state, especially in the nucleation of new chemical phases, crystal growth, and other materials’ transformations.

  16. The 60 GHz solid state power amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclymonds, J.

    1991-01-01

    A new amplifier architecture was developed during this contract that is superior to any other solid state approach. The amplifier produced 6 watts with 4 percent efficiency over a 2 GHz band at 61.5 GHz. The unit was 7 x 9 x 3 inches in size, 5.5 pounds in weight, and the conduction cooling through the baseplate is suitable for use in space. The amplifier used high efficiency GaAs IMPATT diodes which were mounted in 1-diode circuits, called modules. Eighteen modules were used in the design, and power combining was accomplished with a proprietary passive component called a combiner plate.

  17. Space groups for solid state scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Glazer, Michael; Glazer, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    This Second Edition provides solid state scientists, who are not necessarily experts in crystallography, with an understandable and comprehensive guide to the new International Tables for Crystallography. The basic ideas of symmetry, lattices, point groups, and space groups are explained in a clear and detailed manner. Notation is introduced in a step-by-step way so that the reader is supplied with the tools necessary to derive and apply space group information. Of particular interest in this second edition are the discussions of space groups application to such timely topics as high-te

  18. Solid state transport-based thermoelectric converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhiyu

    2010-04-13

    A solid state thermoelectric converter includes a thermally insulating separator layer, a semiconducting collector and an electron emitter. The electron emitter comprises a metal nanoparticle layer or plurality of metal nanocatalyst particles disposed on one side of said separator layer. A first electrically conductive lead is electrically coupled to the electron emitter. The collector layer is disposed on the other side of the separator layer, wherein the thickness of the separator layer is less than 1 .mu.m. A second conductive lead is electrically coupled to the collector layer.

  19. Programmable solid state atom sources for nanofabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Han; Imboden, Matthias; Stark, Thomas; Del Corro, Pablo G.; Pardo, Flavio; Bolle, Cristian A.; Lally, Richard W.; Bishop, David J.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we discuss the development of a MEMS-based solid state atom source that can provide controllable atom deposition ranging over eight orders of magnitude, from ten atoms per square micron up to hundreds of atomic layers, on a target ~1 mm away. Using a micron-scale silicon plate as a thermal evaporation source we demonstrate the deposition of indium, silver, gold, copper, iron, aluminum, lead and tin. Because of their small sizes and rapid thermal response times, pulse width modulation techniques are a powerful way to control the atomic flux. Pulsing the source with precise voltages and timing provides control in terms of when and how many atoms get deposited. By arranging many of these devices into an array, one has a multi-material, programmable solid state evaporation source. These micro atom sources are a complementary technology that can enhance the capability of a variety of nano-fabrication techniques.In this paper we discuss the development of a MEMS-based solid state atom source that can provide controllable atom deposition ranging over eight orders of magnitude, from ten atoms per square micron up to hundreds of atomic layers, on a target ~1 mm away. Using a micron-scale silicon plate as a thermal evaporation source we demonstrate the deposition of indium, silver, gold, copper, iron, aluminum, lead and tin. Because of their small sizes and rapid thermal response times, pulse width modulation techniques are a powerful way to control the atomic flux. Pulsing the source with precise voltages and timing provides control in terms of when and how many atoms get deposited. By arranging many of these devices into an array, one has a multi-material, programmable solid state evaporation source. These micro atom sources are a complementary technology that can enhance the capability of a variety of nano-fabrication techniques. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: A document containing further information about device characterization

  20. High Speed Solid State Circuit Breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesak, Thomas F.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Fort Monmouth, NJ, has developed and is installing two 3.3 MW high speed solid state circuit breakers at the Army's Pulse Power Center. These circuit breakers will interrupt 4160V three phase power mains in no more than 300 microseconds, two orders of magnitude faster than conventional mechanical contact type circuit breakers. These circuit breakers utilize Gate Turnoff Thyristors (GTO's) and are currently utility type devices using air cooling in an air conditioned enclosure. Future refinements include liquid cooling, either water or two phase organic coolant, and more advanced semiconductors. Each of these refinements promises a more compact, more reliable unit.

  1. Solid State Marx Modulators for Emerging Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emerging linear accelerator applications increasingly push the boundaries of RF system performance and economics. The power modulator is an integral part of RF systems whose characteristics play a key role in the determining parameters such as efficiency, footprint, cost, stability, and availability. Particularly within the past decade, solid-state switch based modulators have become the standard in high-performance, high power modulators. One topology, the Marx modulator, has characteristics which make it particularly attractive for several emerging applications. This paper is an overview of the Marx topology, some recent developments, and a case study of how this architecture can be applied to a few proposed linear accelerators.

  2. Theoretical solid state physics, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 2 deals with the electron-lattice interaction and the effect of lattice imperfections. Conductivity, semiconductors, and luminescence are discussed, with emphasis on the basic physical problems and the various phenomena derived from them. The theoretical basis of interaction between electrons and lattices is considered, along with basic concepts of conduction theory, scattering of electrons by imperfections, and radiationless transitions. This volume is comprised of 19 chapters and begins with an overview of the coupling of electrons and the crystal latt

  3. Tunable Solid State and Flexible Graphene Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Arunandan; Tyagi, Priyanka; Srivastava, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate tunable solid state and flexible graphene field effect devices (FEDs) fabricated using a poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) and lithium fluoride (LiF) composite dielectric. Increasing the concentration of LiF in the composite dielectric reduces the operating gate voltages significantly from 10 V to 1 V required leading to a decrease in resistance. Electron and hole mobility of 350 and 310 cm2/Vs at VD = -5 V are obtained for graphene FEDs with 10 % LiF concentration in the composi...

  4. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy of protein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shangjin; Han, Yun; Paramasivam, Sivakumar; Yan, Si; Siglin, Amanda E; Williams, John C; Byeon, In-Ja L; Ahn, Jinwoo; Gronenborn, Angela M; Polenova, Tatyana

    2012-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are vital for many biological processes. These interactions often result in the formation of protein assemblies that are large in size, insoluble, and difficult to crystallize, and therefore are challenging to study by structure biology techniques, such as single crystal X-ray diffraction and solution NMR spectroscopy. Solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy is emerging as a promising technique for studies of such protein assemblies because it is not limited by molecular size, solubility, or lack of long-range order. In the past several years, we have applied magic angle spinning SSNMR-based methods to study several protein complexes. In this chapter, we discuss the general SSNMR methodologies employed for structural and dynamics analyses of protein complexes with specific examples from our work on thioredoxin reassemblies, HIV-1 capsid protein assemblies, and microtubule-associated protein assemblies. We present protocols for sample preparation and characterization, pulse sequences, SSNMR spectra collection, and data analysis. PMID:22167681

  5. Solid state NMR study of cumbaru flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polysaccharide obtained by seed of Dipteryx alata Vog, has been characterised by 13C solid state, using the basic routine techniques, like MAS and CPMAS and by the proton spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame parameter (T1Hρ). Knowing that the chemical structure and molecular dynamic are extremely necessary route to obtain information on the polysaccharides, this work contributes to the classification of the seed containing in the cumbaru fruit to get response on its application. To obtain the initial responses for our purposes some solid state NMR techniques were chosen. The CPMAS 13C NMR spectrum of the polysaccharide was investigated to know if it has some crystallinity. The MAS 13C NMR spectrum showed the presence of domains with distinct molecular mobility, because these domains will differ basically in the distribution size and chain packing. The variable contact time experiment was used to analyse the distribution form of 13C decays, which give us more information about sample heterogeneity. The T1HρHr values were obtained from the variable contact time and by delayed contact time experiment, because these parameter indicate the order of polysaccharides. From the values of this parameter, we found that this polysaccharide is completely non-ordered. (author)

  6. Nuclear-driven solid-state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total system efficiency of 3% is calculated for very high average power active mirror solid-state laser amplifiers of co-doped material, such as Nd:Cr: GSGG, pumped by visible nuclear-driven alkali metal excimer fluorescence. The fluorescence is transported around a radiation shield, separating the fluorescer and the laser, by a large diameter-to-length ratio hollow lightpipe. Parameters for a system with peak power of 6 MW for 1 ms pulses at 1 Hz for an average power output of 6 kW are presented. This type of system would require the development of a small 200 kW thermal nuclear reactor (similar in size to small university research reactors). A much larger system can be developed as well

  7. High-efficiency solid state power amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Robert E. (Inventor); Cheng, Sheng (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A high-efficiency solid state power amplifier (SSPA) for specific use in a spacecraft is provided. The SSPA has a mass of less than 850 g and includes two different X-band power amplifier sections, i.e., a lumped power amplifier with a single 11-W output and a distributed power amplifier with eight 2.75-W outputs. These two amplifier sections provide output power that is scalable from 11 to 15 watts without major design changes. Five different hybrid microcircuits, including high-efficiency Heterostructure Field Effect Transistor (HFET) amplifiers and Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) phase shifters have been developed for use within the SSPA. A highly efficient packaging approach enables the integration of a large number of hybrid circuits into the SSPA.

  8. A solid state pulsed NMR spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 10 MHz pulsed NMR spectrometer, built using mostly solid state devices, is described. The pulse programmer provides 2-pulse, 3-pulse, saturation burst and Carr-Purcell sequences both in repetitive and manual modes of operation. The transmitter has a maximum power output of approximately 2 kW with a 75Ω output impedance termination. The total gain of the receiver system is around 120 dB with a minimum band width of 2 MHz. The recovery time of the receiver is approximately 7μsec. A two-channel boxcar integrator capable of working in the single channel, differential and double boxcar modes provides signal to noise ratio improvement. The sensitivity and the linearity of the boxcar integrator are approximately 2 mV and approximately 0.1% respectively. (auth.)

  9. Hyperbranched polymers from polymerization in solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The macroscopic properties of polymers are directly related to the chemical characteristics of the monomeric units and also with the geometric arrangement of polymer chains. Thus, polymers were synthesized from two well-known chelators EDTA and EDA. We evaluated the conditions for the polymerization of the precursors in the solid state. The polymerization was carried out varying the proportions of reagents, aiming the polymers with different degrees of chain branching and the materials were characterized by FTIR. The materials obtained from the best condition for synthesis were purified by size-exclusion chromatography of and were subjected to characterization by FTIR and NMR of 1H and 13C. The content of end groups in these samples was determined by back titration. (author)

  10. Solid-state curved focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael (Inventor); Jones, Todd (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to curved focal plane arrays. More specifically, the present invention relates to a system and method for making solid-state curved focal plane arrays from standard and high-purity devices that may be matched to a given optical system. There are two ways to make a curved focal plane arrays starting with the fully fabricated device. One way, is to thin the device and conform it to a curvature. A second way, is to back-illuminate a thick device without making a thinned membrane. The thick device is a special class of devices; for example devices fabricated with high purity silicon. One surface of the device (the non VLSI fabricated surface, also referred to as the back surface) can be polished to form a curved surface.

  11. Efficient scalable solid-state neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on scalable solid-state neutron detector system that is specifically designed to yield high thermal neutron detection sensitivity. The basic detector unit in this system is made of a 6Li foil coupled to two crystalline silicon diodes. The theoretical intrinsic efficiency of a detector-unit is 23.8% and that of detector element comprising a stack of five detector-units is 60%. Based on the measured performance of this detector-unit, the performance of a detector system comprising a planar array of detector elements, scaled to encompass effective area of 0.43 m2, is estimated to yield the minimum absolute efficiency required of radiological portal monitors used in homeland security

  12. Efficient scalable solid-state neutron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, Daniel, E-mail: moses@cpos.ucsb.edu [Center for Polymers and Organic Solids, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5090 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We report on scalable solid-state neutron detector system that is specifically designed to yield high thermal neutron detection sensitivity. The basic detector unit in this system is made of a {sup 6}Li foil coupled to two crystalline silicon diodes. The theoretical intrinsic efficiency of a detector-unit is 23.8% and that of detector element comprising a stack of five detector-units is 60%. Based on the measured performance of this detector-unit, the performance of a detector system comprising a planar array of detector elements, scaled to encompass effective area of 0.43 m{sup 2}, is estimated to yield the minimum absolute efficiency required of radiological portal monitors used in homeland security.

  13. Solid-State Spectral Light Source System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffione, Robert; Dana, David

    2011-01-01

    A solid-state light source combines an array of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with advanced electronic control and stabilization over both the spectrum and overall level of the light output. The use of LEDs provides efficient operation over a wide range of wavelengths and power levels, while electronic control permits extremely stable output and dynamic control over the output. In this innovation, LEDs are used instead of incandescent bulbs. Optical feedback and digital control are used to monitor and regulate the output of each LED. Because individual LEDs generate light within narrower ranges of wavelengths than incandescent bulbs, multiple LEDs are combined to provide a broad, continuous spectrum, or to produce light within discrete wavebands that are suitable for specific radiometric sensors.

  14. Solid-state lighting technology perspective.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Coltrin, Michael Elliott

    2006-08-01

    Solid-State Lighting (SSL) uses inorganic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) to convert electricity into light for illumination. SSL has the potential for enormous energy savings and accompanying environmental benefits if its promise of 50% (or greater) energy efficiencies can be achieved. This report provides a broad summary of the technologies that underlie SSL. The applications for SSL and potential impact on U.S. and world-wide energy consumption, and impact on the human visual experience are discussed. The properties of visible light and different technical metrics to characterize its properties are summarized. The many factors contributing to the capital and operating costs for SSL and traditional lighting sources (incandescent, fluorescent, and high-intensity discharge lamps) are discussed, with extrapolations for future SSL goals. The technologies underlying LEDs and OLEDs are also described, including current and possible alternative future technologies and some of the present limitations.

  15. Nanoengineering for solid-state lighting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, E. Fred (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy, NY); Koleske, Daniel David; Wetzel, Christian (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy, NY); Lee, Stephen Roger; Missert, Nancy A.; Lin, Shawn-Yu (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy, NY); Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Fischer, Arthur Joseph

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes results from a 3-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project performed in collaboration with researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Our collaborative effort was supported by Sandia's National Institute for Nanoengineering and focused on the study and application of nanoscience and nanoengineering concepts to improve the efficiency of semiconductor light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting applications. The project explored LED efficiency advances with two primary thrusts: (1) the study of nanoscale InGaN materials properties, particularly nanoscale crystalline defects, and their impact on internal quantum efficiency, and (2) nanoscale engineering of dielectric and metal materials and integration with LED heterostructures for enhanced light extraction efficiency.

  16. Bonding, structure and solid-state chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Ladd, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This book is aimed at undergraduate students in both chemistry and those degree subjects in which chemistry forms a significant part. It does not reflect any particular academic year, and so finds a place during the normal span of degree studies in the physical sciences. An A-level standard in science and mathematics is presumed; additional mathematical treatments are discussed in Appendices. An introductory first chapter leads into the main subject matter, which is treated through four chapters in terms of the principle bonding forces of cohesion in the solid state; a further chapter discusses nanosize materials. Important applications of the study topics are interspersed at appropriate points within the text. Each chapter is provided with a set of problems of varying degrees of difficulty, so as to assist the reader in gaining a facility with the subject matter and its applications. The problems are supplemented by detailed tutorial solutions, some of which present additional relevant material that indicate...

  17. Solid-state NMR studies of supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, John M; Forse, Alexander C; Grey, Clare P

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical double-layer capacitors, or 'supercapacitors' are attracting increasing attention as high-power energy storage devices for a wide range of technological applications. These devices store charge through electrostatic interactions between liquid electrolyte ions and the surfaces of porous carbon electrodes. However, many aspects of the fundamental mechanism of supercapacitance are still not well understood, and there is a lack of experimental techniques which are capable of studying working devices. Recently, solid-state NMR has emerged as a powerful tool for studying the local environments and behaviour of electrolyte ions in supercapacitor electrodes. In this Trends article, we review these recent developments and applications. We first discuss the basic principles underlying the mechanism of supercapacitance, as well as the key NMR observables that are relevant to the study of supercapacitor electrodes. We then review some practical aspects of the study of working devices using ex situ and in situ methodologies and explain the key advances that these techniques have allowed on the study of supercapacitor charging mechanisms. NMR experiments have revealed that the pores of the carbon electrodes contain a significant number of electrolyte ions in the absence of any charging potential. This has important implications for the molecular mechanisms of supercapacitance, as charge can be stored by different ion adsorption/desorption processes. Crucially, we show how in situ NMR experiments can be used to quantitatively study and characterise the charging mechanism, with the experiments providing the most detailed picture of charge storage to date, offering the opportunity to design enhanced devices. Finally, an outlook for future directions for solid-state NMR in supercapacitor research is offered. PMID:26974032

  18. New Applications of Solid State Ionics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEN Zhao-Yin, LI Jing-Ze

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During the past four decades, Solid State Ionics (SSI field has attracted numerous researchers and engineers to cultivate new technologies which plays important roles in the development of sustainable energy utilization and clean transportation tools. The commercialization of lithium ion battery, sodium sulfur battery, sodium chloride battery, solid oxygen sensors have illustrated the success of SSI's theories and technologies. The discovery and successful applications of ionic or mixed conductive materials, such as LiCoO2 and LiFePO4 as active materials of lithium ion battery cathode, Na-β/β'-Al2O3 ceramics as solid electrolytes and separators for sodium based batteries, ZrO2 as electrolytes for SOFC and oxygen sensors, and the newly developed Li10GeP2S12[1] and Li7La3Zr2O12[2] as lithium ion conductor, laid a solid foundation for the development of SSI technologies. Recently, rechargeable lithium metal anode based batteries have become hot research topics in the field of SSI due to their extremely high specific capacity suitable for future generation of power sources in portable electronic devices, electric vehicles and energy storage systems. Among all the Li anode based batteries, Li-S and Li-air battery systems are the two most attractive candidates because of the low cost and abundance of sulfur and air as cathode active materials, especially the characteristics of easy access of active O2 from the surrounding air for Li-air batteries. Breakthroughs have been made recently with these batteries. SION Power's Li-S cells reached the highest practical specific energy as high as 350 Wh/kg, with a pack of 576 cells engineering the QinetiQ Zephyr Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV more than 336 h (14 d of continuous flight, significantly surpassing the previous official record[3]. Their energy densities are higher than 500 Wh/kg for more than 500 cycles[3] and commercialization in the near future[4] are expected. Many Chinese institutions

  19. State of the art of solid state dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passive solid-state detectors still dominate the personal dosimetry field. This article provides state of the art in this field and summarizes the most recent works presented on TL, OSL and RPL during the 17th International Conference on Solid State Dosimetry held in Recife in September 2013. The Article contains in particular the techniques Thermoluminescence (TL), Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL), radio photoluminescence (RPL). Thermoluminescence has the biggest advantage of the wide availability of commercial materials for dosimetry, and the nature tissue-equivalent of several of these materials. The limitation of the TL dosimetry presents fading luminance signal and the need for high temperatures to obtain the signal. The Optically Stimulated Luminescence has the advantages of high sensitivity, the possibility of multiple reading, while its limit is the need to use response compensating filters in addition to the high cost of equipment and dosimeters still restricted very few options trading . The radio photoluminescence has a reading that is completely non-destructive, but their dosimeters present lack of tissue-equivalent and a high cost. Presents the details of the techniques and the advantages and limitations of each of these will be discussed

  20. Solid state proton conductors properties and applications in fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Knauth, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Proton conduction can be found in many different solid materials, from organic polymers at room temperature to inorganic oxides at high temperature. Solid state proton conductors are of central interest for many technological innovations, including hydrogen and humidity sensors, membranes for water electrolyzers and, most importantly, for high-efficiency electrochemical energy conversion in fuel cells. Focusing on fundamentals and physico-chemical properties of solid state proton conductors, topics covered include: Morphology and Structure of Solid Acids Diffusion in Soli

  1. Secondary Metabolites Production by Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrios-González, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial secondary metabolites are useful high value products with an enormous range of biological activities. Moreover, the past two decades have been a phase of rapid discovery of new activities and development of major compounds for use in different industrial fields, mainly pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food, agriculture and farming. Many of these metabolites could be produced advantageously in industry by solid–state fermentation (SSF. Two types of SSF can be distinguished, depending on the nature of the solid phase used: 1 Solid cultures of one support-substrate phase in which solid phase is constituted by a material that assumes, simultaneously, the functions of support and of nutrients source; and 2 Solid cultures of two substrate-support phases: solid phase is constituted by an inert support impregnated with a liquid medium. Besides good production performance, two phases systems have provided a convenient model for basic studies. Studies in our laboratory, as well as in others, have shown that physiology of idiophase (production phase in SSF share several similarities with the physiology in liquid medium, so similar strategies must be adapted for efficient production processes. However, our studies indicate the need to develop special strains for SSF since overproducing strains, generated for liquid fermentation, cannot be relied upon to perform well in SSF. On the other hand, there are important parameters, specific for SSF, that have to be optimized (pretreatment, initial moisture content, medium concentration and aeration. Respiration studies of secondary metabolites SSF, performed in our laboratory, have shown more subtle aspects of efficient production in SSF. This indicates that there are certain particularities of physiology in SSF that represent the point that needs a better understanding, and that promise to generate knowledge that will be the basis for efficient processes development and control strategies, as well as for

  2. Electron correlations in solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exactly solvable models of electron correlations in solid state physics are presented. These models include the spinless Falicov- Kimball model, the t-t'-J model, and the Hubbard model. The spinless Falicov-Kimball model is analyzed in one-dimension. Perturbation theory and numerical techniques are employed to determine the phase diagram at zero temperature. A fractal structure is found where the ground-state changes (discontinuously) at each rational electron filling. The t-t'-J model (strongly interacting limit of a Hubbard model) is studied on eight-site small clusters in the simple-cubic, body-centered-cubic, face-centered-cubic, and square lattices. Symmetry is used to simplify the problem and determine the exact many-body wavefunctions. Ground states are found that exhibit magnetic order or heavy-fermionic character. Attempts to extrapolate to the thermodynamic limit are also made. The Hubbard model is examined on an eight-site square-lattice cluster in the presence of and in the absence of a ''magnetic field'' that couples only to orbital motion. A new magnetic phase is discovered for the ordinary Hubbard model at half-filling. In the ''magnetic field'' case, it is found that the strongly frustrated Heisenberg model may be studied from adiabatic continuation of a tight-binding model (from weak to strong coupling) at one point. The full symmetries of the Hamiltonian are utilized to make the exact diagonalization feasibile. Finally, the presence of ''hidden'' extra symmetry for finite size clusters with periodic boundary conditions is analyzed for a variety of clusters. Moderately sized systems allow nonrigid transformations that map a lattice onto itself preserving its neighbor structure; similar operations are not present in smaller or larger systems. The additional symmetry requires particular representations of the space group to stick together explaining many puzzling degeneracies found in exact diagonalization studies

  3. Potential of solid state fermentation for production of ergot alkaloids

    OpenAIRE

    Trejo Hernandez, M.R.; Raimbault, Maurice; Roussos, Sevastianos; Lonsane, B. K.

    1992-01-01

    Production of total ergot alkaloids by #Claviceps fusiformis$ in solid state fermentation was 3.9 times higher compared to that in submerged fermentation. Production was equal in the case of #Claviceps purpurea$ but the spectra of alkaloids were advantageous with the use of solid state fermentation. The data establish potential of solid state fermentation which was not explored earlier for production of ergot alkaloids. (Résumé d'auteur)

  4. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 4 covers articles on single crystal compound semiconductors and complex polycrystalline materials. The book discusses narrow gap semiconductors and solid state batteries. The text then describes the advantages of hot-pressed microcrystalline compacts of oxygen-octahedra ferroelectrics over single crystal materials, as well as heterostructure junction lasers. Solid state physicists, materials scientists, electrical engineers, and graduate students studying the subjects being discussed will find the book invaluable.

  5. Porous Organic Nanolayers for Coating of Solid-state Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Waseem

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly hydrophobic surfaces can have very low surface energy and such low surface energy biological interfaces can be obtained using fluorinated coatings on surfaces. Deposition of biocompatible organic films on solid-state surfaces is attained with techniques like plasma polymerization, biomineralization and chemical vapor deposition. All these require special equipment or harsh chemicals. This paper presents a simple vapor-phase approach to directly coat solid-state surfaces with biocompatible films without any harsh chemical or plasma treatment. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers were used for reaction and deposition of nanolayer films. The monomers were characterized and showed a very consistent coating of 3D micropore structures. Results The coating showed nano-textured surface morphology which can aid cell growth and provide rich molecular functionalization. The surface properties of the obtained film were regulated by varying monomer concentrations, reaction time and the vacuum pressure in a simple reaction chamber. Films were characterized by contact angle analysis for surface energy and with profilometer to measure the thickness. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR analysis revealed the chemical composition of the coated films. Variations in the FTIR results with respect to different concentrations of monomers showed the chemical composition of the resulting films. Conclusion The presented approach of vapor-phase coating of solid-state structures is important and applicable in many areas of bio-nano interface development. The exposure of coatings to the solutions of different pH showed the stability of the coatings in chemical surroundings. The organic nanocoating of films can be used in bio-implants and many medical devices.

  6. Solid-state Raman image amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmes, Lonnie Kirkland

    Amplification of low-light-level optical images is important for extending the range of lidar systems that image and detect objects in the atmosphere and underwater. The use of range-gating to produce images of particular range bins is also important in minimizing the image degradation due to light that is scattered backward from aerosols, smoke, or water along the imaging path. For practical lidar systems that must be operated within sight of unprotected observers, eye safety is of the utmost importance. This dissertation describes a new type of eye-safe, range-gated lidar sensing element based on Solid-state Raman Image Amplification (SSRIA) in a solid- state optical crystal. SSRIA can amplify low-level images in the eye-safe infrared at 1.556 μm with gains up to 106 with the addition of only quantum- limited noise. The high gains from SSRIA can compensate for low quantum efficiency detectors and can reduce the need for detector cooling. The range-gate of SSRIA is controlled by the pulsewidth of the pump laser and can be as short as 30-100 cm, using pump pulses of 2-6.7 nsec FWHM. A rate equation theoretical model is derived to help in the design of short pulsed Raman lasers. A theoretical model for the quantum noise properties of SSRIA is presented. SSRIA results in higher SNR images throughout a broad range of incident light levels, in contrast to the increasing noise factor with reduced gain in image intensified CCD's. A theoretical framework for the optical resolution of SSRIA is presented and it is shown that SSRIA can produce higher resolution than ICCD's. SSRIA is also superior in rejecting unwanted sunlight background, further increasing image SNR. Lastly, SSRIA can be combined with optical pre-filtering to perform optical image processing functions such as high-pass filtering and automatic target detection/recognition. The application of this technology to underwater imaging, called Marine Raman Image Amplification (MARIA) is also discussed. MARIA

  7. An isothermal equation of state for solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An isothermal equation of state (EOS) for solids, recently suggested by the authors in the realistic form, V/V0=f(P), with relative volume as the dependent and the pressure as the independent variable, was shown to have an advantage for some close-packed materials in that it allows B'∞=(∂Bs/∂P)s(P→∞) to be fitted, and this is where the usual standard equations fail. In the present study, our EOS is applied to a number of inorganic as well as organic solids, including alloys, glasses, rubbers and plastics; varying widely in their bonding and structural characteristics, as well as in their bulk modulus values. A very good agreement is observed between the data and fits. The results obtained are compared with those from two well-known equations, expressible in the realistic form, proposed by Murnaghan and Luban. Further, the results are also compared with those from the widely used two- and three-parameter EOSs, expressible in the unrealistic form only, P=f(V/V0), proposed by Birch--and also with those from the EOS model of Keane in which B'∞ is explicitly expressed as an equation of state parameter. The results obtained from our model compare well to these EOSs. Our EOS, in general, yields the smallest mean-squared deviations between data and fits. The values of B'∞calculated from our EOS are compared with those from Keane's model. Further, we have studied the variation of B'∞with temperature using the experimental isotherms of Mo and W at 10 different temperatures ranging from 100 to 1000 K, and observed that the values of B'∞ yielded by our model and that of Keane vary, as expected, within a narrow range. Furthermore, our EOS is applied to study the stability of the fit parameters with variation in the pressure ranges with reference to the isothermal compression data on Mo and W--and also to study the variation of isothermal bulk modulus with pressure, with reference to the ultrasonic data on NaCl and noted a very good agreement with experiment

  8. NASA developments in solid state power amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Regis F.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last ten years, NASA has undertaken an extensive program aimed at development of solid state power amplifiers for space applications. Historically, the program may be divided into three phases. The first efforts were carried out in support of the advanced communications technology satellite (ACTS) program, which is developing an experimental version of a Ka-band commercial communications system. These first amplifiers attempted to use hybrid technology. The second phase was still targeted at ACTS frequencies, but concentrated on monolithic implementations, while the current, third phase, is a monolithic effort that focusses on frequencies appropriate for other NASA programs and stresses amplifier efficiency. The topics covered include: (1) 20 GHz hybrid amplifiers; (2) 20 GHz monolithic MESFET power amplifiers; (3) Texas Instruments' (TI) 20 GHz variable power amplifier; (4) TI 20 GHz high power amplifier; (5) high efficiency monolithic power amplifiers; (6) GHz high efficiency variable power amplifier; (7) TI 32 GHz monolithic power amplifier performance; (8) design goals for Hughes' 32 GHz variable power amplifier; and (9) performance goals for Hughes' pseudomorphic 60 GHz power amplifier.

  9. Radiation-Hardened Solid-State Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    A method is provided for a radiationhardened (rad-hard) solid-state drive for space mission memory applications by combining rad-hard and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) non-volatile memories (NVMs) into a hybrid architecture. The architecture is controlled by a rad-hard ASIC (application specific integrated circuit) or a FPGA (field programmable gate array). Specific error handling and data management protocols are developed for use in a rad-hard environment. The rad-hard memories are smaller in overall memory density, but are used to control and manage radiation-induced errors in the main, and much larger density, non-rad-hard COTS memory devices. Small amounts of rad-hard memory are used as error buffers and temporary caches for radiation-induced errors in the large COTS memories. The rad-hard ASIC/FPGA implements a variety of error-handling protocols to manage these radiation-induced errors. The large COTS memory is triplicated for protection, and CRC-based counters are calculated for sub-areas in each COTS NVM array. These counters are stored in the rad-hard non-volatile memory. Through monitoring, rewriting, regeneration, triplication, and long-term storage, radiation-induced errors in the large NV memory are managed. The rad-hard ASIC/FPGA also interfaces with the external computer buses.

  10. Solid state photomultiplier for astronomy, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, P. J.; Hays, K. M.; Laviolette, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    Epitaxial layers with varying donor concentration profiles were grown on silicon substrate wafers using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques, and solid state photomultiplier (SSPM) devices were fabricated from the wafers. Representative detectors were tested in a low background photon flux, low temperature environment to determine the device characteristics for comparison to NASA goals for astronomical applications. The SSPM temperatures varied between 6 and 11 K with background fluxes in the range from less than 5 x 10 to the 6th power to 10 to the 13th power photons/square cm per second at wavelengths of 3.2 and 20 cm. Measured parameters included quantum efficiency, dark count rate and bias current. Temperature for optimal performance is 10 K, the highest ever obtained for SSPMs. The devices exhibit a combination of the lowest dark current and highest quantum efficiency yet achieved. Experimental data were reduced, analyzed and used to generate recommendations for future studies. The background and present status of the microscopic theory of SSPM operation were reviewed and summarized. Present emphasis is on modeling of the avalanche process which is the basis for SSPM operation. Approaches to the solution of the Boltzmann transport equation are described and the treatment of electron scattering mechanisms is presented. The microscopic single-electron transport theory is ready to be implemented for large-scale computations.

  11. Solid state crystallisation of oligosaccharide ester derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, E A

    2002-01-01

    An investigation of the solid state properties of oligosaccharide ester derivatives (OEDs) with potential applications in drug delivery has been carried out. The amorphous form of two OEDs, trehalose octa-acetate (TOAC) and 6:6'-di-(beta-tetraacetyl glucuronyl)-hexaacetyl trehalose (TR153), was investigated as a matrix for the sustained release of active ingredients. The matrices showed a tendency to crystallise and so polymorph screens were performed to provide crystalline samples for structural analysis. The crystal structures of TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate have been determined by single-crystal laboratory X-ray diffraction. TOAC methanolate crystallises in the orthorhombic space group P2 sub 1 2 sub 1 2 sub 1 with a = 15.429(18) A, b = 17.934(19) A and c = 13.518(4) A at 123 K. The structure is isomorphous with the previously reported structure of TOAC monohydrate form II. TR153 acetonitrile solvate crystallises in the monoclinic spacegroup C2 with a = 30:160(6) A, b = 11.878(3) A, c 20...

  12. High-average-power solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1987, a broad-based, aggressive R ampersand D program aimed at developing the technologies necessary to make possible the use of solid state lasers that are capable of delivering medium- to high-average power in new and demanding applications. Efforts were focused along the following major lines: development of laser and nonlinear optical materials, and of coatings for parasitic suppression and evanescent wave control; development of computational design tools; verification of computational models on thoroughly instrumented test beds; and applications of selected aspects of this technology to specific missions. In the laser materials areas, efforts were directed towards producing strong, low-loss laser glasses and large, high quality garnet crystals. The crystal program consisted of computational and experimental efforts aimed at understanding the physics, thermodynamics, and chemistry of large garnet crystal growth. The laser experimental efforts were directed at understanding thermally induced wave front aberrations in zig-zag slabs, understanding fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and optical interactions in gas-cooled slabs, and conducting critical test-bed experiments with various electro-optic switch geometries. 113 refs., 99 figs., 18 tabs

  13. A New Solid State Tritium Surface Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally the amount of tritium on a surface is determined by swiping the surface with a material such as filter paper and counting the removed tritium by scintillation. While effective, this method can be time consuming, can alter the surface, only measures removable tritium and produces radioactive waste. For a given application each of these considerations may or may not be a disadvantage. A solid state monitor, on the other hand, has the potential to provide rapid analysis, not alter the surface, measure all tritium on a surface and produce little or not radioactive waste. This allure has promoted open wall ion chamber and PIN diode-based tritium surface monitor development, and these techniques have enjoyed certain success. Recently the first tests were performed with an avalanche photodiode (APD) for surface tritium measurement. While quite similar in concept to PIN diode based measurements, side-by-side testing showed that the APD provided substantially better counting efficiency. Considerations included count rate, background, sensitivity, stability and effect of ambient light. Of particular importance in the US, the APD was able to measure concentrations down to the 'free release' limit, i.e., the concentration below which items can be removed from radiological control areas

  14. SOLID-STATE CERAMIC LIGHTING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne D. Brown

    2003-06-01

    Meadow River Enterprises, Inc. (MRE) and the New York State College of Ceramics at Alfred University (NYSCC) received a DOE cooperative agreement award in September 1999 to develop an energy-efficient Solid-State Ceramic Lamp (SSCL). The program spanned a nominal two(2) year period ending in February of 2002. The federal contribution to the program totaled $1.6 million supporting approximately 78% of the program costs. The SSCL is a rugged electroluminescent lamp designed for outdoor applications. MRE has filed a provisional patent for this ''second generation'' technology and currently produces and markets blue-green phosphor SSCL devices. White phosphor SSCL devices are also available in prototype quantities. In addition to reducing energy consumption, the ceramic EL lamp offers several economic and societal advantages including lower lifecycle costs and reduced ''light pollution''. Significant further performance improvements are possible but will require a dramatic change in device physical construction related to the use of micro-powder materials and processes. The subject ''second-generation'' program spans a 27 month period and combines the materials and processing expertise of NYSCC, the manufacturing expertise of Meadow River Enterprises, and the phosphor development expertise of OSRAM Sylvania to develop an improved SSCL system. The development plan also includes important contributions by Marshall University (a part of the West Virginia University system). All primary development objectives have been achieved with the exception of improved phosphor powders. The performance characteristics of the first generation SSCL devices were carefully analyzed in year 1 and a second generation lamp was defined and optimized in year 2. The provisional patent was ''perfected'' through a comprehensive patent application filed in November 2002. Lamp efficiency was improved more than 2:1.

  15. Solid-State Physics Introduction to the Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, James

    2010-01-01

    Learning Solid State Physics involves a certain degree of maturity, since it involves tying together diverse concepts from many areas of physics. The objective is to understand, in a basic way, how solid materials behave. To do this one needs both a good physical and mathematical background. One definition of Solid State Physics is it is the study of the physical (e.g. the electrical, dielectric, magnetic, elastic, and thermal) properties of solids in terms of basic physical laws. In one sense, Solid State Physics is more like chemistry than some other branches of physics because it focuses on common properties of large classes of materials. It is typical that Solid State Physics emphasizes how physics properties link to electronic structure. We have retained the term Solid Modern solid state physics came of age in the late thirties and forties and is now is part of condensed matter physics which includes liquids, soft materials, and non-crystalline solids. This solid state/condensed matter physics book begin...

  16. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; John Noetzel; Larry Chick

    2003-12-08

    The objective of Phase I under this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from January 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; and Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate.

  17. Solid-state optical refrigeration to sub-100 Kelvin regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgaard, Seth D.; Albrecht, Alexander R.; Hehlen, Markus P.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2016-02-01

    Since the first demonstration of net cooling twenty years ago, optical refrigeration of solids has progressed to outperform all other solid-state cooling processes. It has become the first and only solid-state refrigerator capable of reaching cryogenic temperatures, and now the first solid-state cooling below 100 K. Such substantial progress required a multi-disciplinary approach of pump laser absorption enhancement, material characterization and purification, and thermal management. Here we present the culmination of two decades of progress, the record cooling to ≈ 91 K from room temperature.

  18. Solid state nuclear track detection principles, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Durrani, S A; ter Haar, D

    1987-01-01

    Solid State Nuclear Track Detection: Principles, Methods and Applications is the second book written by the authors after Nuclear Tracks in Solids: Principles and Applications. The book is meant as an introduction to the subject solid state of nuclear track detection. The text covers the interactions of charged particles with matter; the nature of the charged-particle track; the methodology and geometry of track etching; thermal fading of latent damage trails on tracks; the use of dielectric track recorders in particle identification; radiation dossimetry; and solid state nuclear track detecti

  19. Preparation of RNA samples with narrow line widths for solid state NMR investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Bardaro, Michael F.; Varani, Gabriele; Drobny, Gary P.

    2012-10-01

    Solid state NMR can provide detailed structural and dynamic information on biological systems that cannot be studied under solution conditions, and can investigate motions which occur with rates that cannot be fully studied by solution NMR. This approach has successfully been used to study proteins, but the application of multidimensional solid state NMR to RNA has been limited because reported line widths have been too broad to execute most multidimensional experiments successfully. A reliable method to generate spectra with narrow line widths is necessary to apply the full range of solid state NMR spectroscopic approaches to RNA. Using the HIV-1 transactivation response (TAR) RNA as a model, we present an approach based on precipitation with polyethylene glycol that improves the line width of 13C signals in TAR from >6 ppm to about 1 ppm, making solid state 2D NMR studies of selectively enriched RNAs feasible at ambient temperature.

  20. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; Larry Chick

    2004-05-07

    The objective of this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from July 1, 2003 to December 31, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate; and Task 10 Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program. In this reporting period, unless otherwise noted Task 6--System Fabrication and Task 7--System Testing will be reported within Task 1 System Design and Integration. Task 8--Program Management, Task 9--Stack Testing with Coal Based Reformate, and Task 10--Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program will be reported on in the Executive Summary section of this report.

  1. A new temperature-dependent equation of state of solids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kamal Kapoor; Anuj Kumar; Narsingh Dass

    2014-03-01

    In the present paper, a temperature-dependent equation of state (EOS) of solids is discussed which is found to be applicable in high-pressure and high-temperature range. Present equation of state has been applied in 18 solids. The calculated data are found in very good agreement with the data available from other sources.

  2. Harwell's atomic, molecular and solid state computer programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is intended to introduce the computational facilities available in the fields of atomic, molecular the solid state theory on the IBM370/165 at Harwell. The programs have all been implemented and thoroughly tested by the Theory of Solid State Materials Group. (author)

  3. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance Delphi SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Shaffer; Gary Blake; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; Karl Haltiner; Larry Chick; David Schumann; Jeff Weissman; Gail Geiger; Ralphi Dellarocco

    2006-12-31

    The following report details the results under the DOE SECA program for the period July 2006 through December 2006. Developments pertain to the development of a 3 to 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. This report details technical results of the work performed under the following tasks for the SOFC Power System: Task 1 SOFC System Development; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant Components; Task 5 Project Management; and Task 6 System Modeling & Cell Evaluation for High Efficiency Coal-Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Hybrid System.

  4. Solid State Joining of Dissimilar Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Todd W.

    Solid state joining of titanium via friction stir welding and diffusion bonding have emerged as enablers of efficient monolithic structural designs by the eliminations fasteners for the aerospace industry. As design complexity and service demands increase, the need for joints of dissimilar alloys has emerged. Complex thermomechanical conditions in friction stir weld joints and high temperature deformation behavior differences between alloys used in dissimilar joints gives rise to a highly variable flow pattern within a stir zone. Experiments performed welding Ti-6Al-4V to beta21S show that mechanical intermixing of the two alloys is the primary mechanism for the generation of the localized chemistry and microstructure, the magnitude of which can be directly related to pin rotation and travel speed weld parameters. Mechanical mixing of the two alloys is heavily influenced by strain rate softening phenomena, and can be used to manipulate weld nugget structure by switching which alloy is subjected to the advancing side of the pin. Turbulent mixing of a weld nugget and a significant reduction in defects and weld forces are observed when the beta21S is put on the advancing side of the weld where higher strain rates are present. Chemical diffusion driven by the heat of weld parameters is characterized using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and is shown to be a secondary process responsible for generating short-range chemical gradients that lead to a gradient of alpha particle structures. Diffusion calculations are inconsistent with an assumption of steady-state diffusion and show that material interfaces in the weld nugget evolve through the break-down of turbulent interface features generated by material flows. A high degree of recrystallization is seen throughout the welds, with unique, hybrid chemistry grains that are generated at material interfaces in the weld nugget that help to unify the crystal structure of dissimilar alloys. The degree of

  5. Solid state high power RF system for superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid State High Power RF System is proposed for XFEL and ILC. It includes individual RF power supply for each SC cavity and common control system. Each RF power supply includes Solid State Generator, circulator and Q-tuner. Triggering, synchronization, output power and phase of each Solid State Generator are controlled from the common control system through fiber-optic lines. Main parameters of Solid State Generator are: frequency 1.3 GHz, peak power 128 kW, pulse length 1.4 msec, repetition rate 10 Hz, average power 1.8 kW, CW power 2.5 kW. Advantages of Solid State High Power RF System are: simple triggering, synchronization, output power and phase adjustment for all cavities separately, operation both in pulse and in CW modes, unlimited lifetime, no high voltage, no oil-tank, compactness.

  6. IFE Power Plant design principles. Drivers. Solid state laser drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present status of solid state laser drivers for an inertial confinement thermonuclear fusion power plant is discussed. In particular, the feasibility of laser diode pumped solid state laser drivers from both the technical and economic points of view is briefly reviewed. Conceptual design studies showed that they can, in principle, satisfy the design requirements. However, development of new solid state materials with long fluorescence lifetimes and good thermal characteristics is a key issue for laser diode pumped solid state lasers. With the advent of laser diode pumping many materials which were abandoned in the past can presently be reconsidered as viable candidates. It is also concluded that it is important to examine the technical requirements for solid state lasers in relation to target performance criteria. The progress of laser diode pumped lasers in industrial applications should also be closely watched to provide additional information on the economic feasibility of this type of driver. 15 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Preliminary field evaluation of solid state cameras for security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in solid state imager technology have resulted in a series of compact, lightweight, all-solid-state closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Although it is widely known that the various solid state cameras have less light sensitivity and lower resolution than their vacuum tube counterparts, the potential for having a much longer Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) for the all-solid-state cameras is generating considerable interest within the security community. Questions have been raised as to whether the newest and best of the solid state cameras are a viable alternative to the high maintenance vacuum tube cameras in exterior security applications. To help answer these questions, a series of tests were performed by Sandia National Laboratories at various test sites and under several lighting conditions. The results of these tests as well as a description of the test equipment, test sites, and procedures are presented in this report

  8. Differentiation of Short Single-Stranded DNA Homopolymers in Solid-State Nanopores

    OpenAIRE

    Venta, Kimberly; Shemer, Gabriel; Puster, Matthew; Rodríguez-Manzo, Julio A.; Balan, Adrian; Rosenstein, Jacob K.; Shepard, Ken; Drndić, Marija

    2013-01-01

    In the last two decades, new techniques that monitor ionic current modulations as single molecules pass through a nanoscale pore have enabled numerous single-molecule studies. While biological nanopores have recently shown the ability to resolve single nucleotides within individual DNA molecules, similar developments with solid-state nanopores have lagged, due to challenges both in fabricating stable nanopores of similar dimensions as biological nanopores and in achieving sufficiently low-noi...

  9. Probing Membrane Protein Structure Using Water Polarization Transfer Solid-State NMR

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Jonathan K.; Hong, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Water plays an essential role in the structure and function of proteins, lipid membranes and other biological macromolecules. Solid-state NMR heteronuclear-detected 1H polarization transfer from water to biomolecules is a versatile approach for studying water-protein, water-membrane, and water-carbohydrate interactions in biology. We review radiofrequency pulse sequences for measuring water polarization transfer to biomolecules, the mechanisms of polarization transfer, and the application of ...

  10. Cellular solid-state NMR on large prokaryotic and eukaryotic membrane protein complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaplan, M.

    2015-01-01

    Unraveling the structure and dynamics of biomolecules is pivotal to understand their function. Hitherto, structural biology has been dependent on data obtained under in-vitro circumstances thereby neglecting the influence of the natural environment. Here, we developed a solid-state Nuclear Magnetic

  11. The Galileo Solid-State Imaging experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, M.J.S.; Klaasen, K.P.; Clary, M.C.; Anderson, J.L.; Anger, C.D.; Carr, M.H.; Chapman, C.R.; Davies, M.E.; Greeley, R.; Anderson, D.; Bolef, L.K.; Townsend, T.E.; Greenberg, R.; Head, J. W., III; Neukum, G.; Pilcher, C.B.; Veverka, J.; Gierasch, P.J.; Fanale, F.P.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Masursky, H.; Morrison, D.; Pollack, James B.

    1992-01-01

    The Solid State Imaging (SSI) experiment on the Galileo Orbiter spacecraft utilizes a high-resolution (1500 mm focal length) television camera with an 800 ?? 800 pixel virtual-phase, charge-coupled detector. It is designed to return images of Jupiter and its satellites that are characterized by a combination of sensitivity levels, spatial resolution, geometric fiedelity, and spectral range unmatched by imaging data obtained previously. The spectral range extends from approximately 375 to 1100 nm and only in the near ultra-violet region (??? 350 nm) is the spectral coverage reduced from previous missions. The camera is approximately 100 times more sensitive than those used in the Voyager mission, and, because of the nature of the satellite encounters, will produce images with approximately 100 times the ground resolution (i.e., ??? 50 m lp-1) on the Galilean satellites. We describe aspects of the detector including its sensitivity to energetic particle radiation and how the requirements for a large full-well capacity and long-term stability in operating voltages led to the choice of the virtual phase chip. The F/8.5 camera system can reach point sources of V(mag) ??? 11 with S/N ??? 10 and extended sources with surface brightness as low as 20 kR in its highest gain state and longest exposure mode. We describe the performance of the system as determined by ground calibration and the improvements that have been made to the telescope (same basic catadioptric design that was used in Mariner 10 and the Voyager high-resolution cameras) to reduce the scattered light reaching the detector. The images are linearly digitized 8-bits deep and, after flat-fielding, are cosmetically clean. Information 'preserving' and 'non-preserving' on-board data compression capabilities are outlined. A special "summation" mode, designed for use deep in the Jovian radiation belts, near Io, is also described. The detector is 'preflashed' before each exposure to ensure the photometric linearity

  12. Solid State Ionic Materials - Proceedings of the 4th Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Yahaya, M.; Talib, I. A.; Salleh, M. M.

    1994-07-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * I. INVITED PAPERS * Diffusion of Cations and Anions in Solid Electrolytes * Silver Ion Conductors in the Crystalline State * NMR Studies of Superionic Conductors * Hall Effect and Thermoelectric Power in High Tc Hg-Ba-Ca-Cu-O Ceramics * Solid Electrolyte Materials Prepared by Sol-Gel Chemistry * Preparation of Proton-Conducting Gel Films and their Application to Electrochromic Devices * Thin Film Fuel Cells * Zirconia based Solid Oxide Ion Conductors in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells * The Influence of Anion Substitution on Some Phosphate-based Ion Conducting Glasses * Lithium Intercalation in Carbon Electrodes and its Relevance in Rocking Chair Batteries * Chemical Sensors using Proton Conducting Ceramics * NMR/NQR Studies of Y-Ba-Cu-O Superconductors * Silver Molybdate Glasses and Battery Systems * New Highly Conducting Polymer Ionics and their Application in Electrochemical Devices * Study of Li Electrokinetics on Oligomeric Electrolytes using Microelectrodes * Calculation of Conductivity for Mixed-Phase Electrolytes PEO-MX-Immiscible Additive by Means of Effective Medium Theory * II. CONTRIBUTED PAPERS * Phase Relationship and Electrical Conductivity of Sr-V-O System with Vanadium Suboxide * Amorphous Li+ Ionic Conductors in Li2SO4-Li2O-P2O5 System * Fast Ion Transport in KCl-Al2O3 Composites * The Effect of the Second Phase Precipitation on the Ionic Conductivity of Zr0.85Mg0.15O1.85 * Conductivity Measurements and Phase Relationships in CaCl2-CaHCl Solid Electrolyte * Relationships Between Crystal Structure and Sodium Ion Conductivity in Na7Fe4(AsO4)6 and Na3Al2(AsO4)3 * Electrical Conductivity and Solubility Limit of Ti4+ Ion in Na1+x TiyZr2-ySixP3-xO12 System * Study on Sodium Fast Ion Conductors of Na1+3xAlxTi2-xSi2xP3-2xO12 System * Influences of Zirconia on the Properties of β''-Alumina Ceramics * Decay of Luminescence from Cr3+ Ions in β-Alumina * Lithium Ion Conductivity in the Li4XO4-Li2

  13. Local solid-state modification of nanopore surface charges

    CERN Document Server

    Kox, Ronald; Chen, Chang; Arjmandi, Nima; Lagae, Liesbet; Borghs, Gustaaf; 10.1088/0957-4484/21/33/335703

    2012-01-01

    The last decade, nanopores have emerged as a new and interesting tool for the study of biological macromolecules like proteins and DNA. While biological pores, especially alpha-hemolysin, have been promising for the detection of DNA, their poor chemical stability limits their use. For this reason, researchers are trying to mimic their behaviour using more stable, solid-state nanopores. The most successful tools to fabricate such nanopores use high energy electron or ions beams to drill or reshape holes in very thin membranes. While the resolution of these methods can be very good, they require tools that are not commonly available and tend to damage and charge the nanopore surface. In this work, we show nanopores that have been fabricated using standard micromachning techniques together with EBID, and present a simple model that is used to estimate the surface charge. The results show that EBID with a silicon oxide precursor can be used to tune the nanopore surface and that the surface charge is stable over a...

  14. Solid state crystallisation of oligosaccharide ester derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Elaine Ann

    2002-07-01

    An investigation of the solid state properties of oligosaccharide ester derivatives (OEDs) with potential applications in drug delivery has been carried out. The amorphous form of two OEDs, trehalose octa-acetate (TOAC) and 6:6'-di-({beta}-tetraacetyl glucuronyl)-hexaacetyl trehalose (TR153), was investigated as a matrix for the sustained release of active ingredients. The matrices showed a tendency to crystallise and so polymorph screens were performed to provide crystalline samples for structural analysis. The crystal structures of TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate have been determined by single-crystal laboratory X-ray diffraction. TOAC methanolate crystallises in the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} with a = 15.429(18) A, b = 17.934(19) A and c = 13.518(4) A at 123 K. The structure is isomorphous with the previously reported structure of TOAC monohydrate form II. TR153 acetonitrile solvate crystallises in the monoclinic spacegroup C2 with a = 30:160(6) A, b = 11.878(3) A, c 20.6645(5) A and {beta} = 115.027 (10) deg at 123 K. The crystal structures of both TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate are stabilised by complex networks of intermolecular C--H...O contacts. Two model compounds were selected for dissolution studies: diltiazem hydrochloride, as a water- soluble organic salt, and ketoprofen as a poorly water-soluble organic compound. Dissolution of both compounds from amorphous TOAC and TR153 matrices was investigated. The release of both drugs was more rapid and complete from TOAC matrices than from TR153 matrices, with both matrices showing a tendency to crystallise (devitrify) during the course of the dissolution experiments. This tendency was greater for the TOAC matrix, which transformed to the extent of ca. 100% within 48 hours. The available evidence suggests that devitrification of the matrix in contact with water produces a polycrystalline, non-monolithic structure rich in microscopic cracks and pores

  15. Solid state crystallisation of oligosaccharide ester derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of the solid state properties of oligosaccharide ester derivatives (OEDs) with potential applications in drug delivery has been carried out. The amorphous form of two OEDs, trehalose octa-acetate (TOAC) and 6:6'-di-(β-tetraacetyl glucuronyl)-hexaacetyl trehalose (TR153), was investigated as a matrix for the sustained release of active ingredients. The matrices showed a tendency to crystallise and so polymorph screens were performed to provide crystalline samples for structural analysis. The crystal structures of TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate have been determined by single-crystal laboratory X-ray diffraction. TOAC methanolate crystallises in the orthorhombic space group P212121 with a = 15.429(18) A, b = 17.934(19) A and c = 13.518(4) A at 123 K. The structure is isomorphous with the previously reported structure of TOAC monohydrate form II. TR153 acetonitrile solvate crystallises in the monoclinic spacegroup C2 with a = 30:160(6) A, b = 11.878(3) A, c 20.6645(5) A and β = 115.027 (10) deg at 123 K. The crystal structures of both TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate are stabilised by complex networks of intermolecular C--H...O contacts. Two model compounds were selected for dissolution studies: diltiazem hydrochloride, as a water- soluble organic salt, and ketoprofen as a poorly water-soluble organic compound. Dissolution of both compounds from amorphous TOAC and TR153 matrices was investigated. The release of both drugs was more rapid and complete from TOAC matrices than from TR153 matrices, with both matrices showing a tendency to crystallise (devitrify) during the course of the dissolution experiments. This tendency was greater for the TOAC matrix, which transformed to the extent of ca. 100% within 48 hours. The available evidence suggests that devitrification of the matrix in contact with water produces a polycrystalline, non-monolithic structure rich in microscopic cracks and pores which allows diffusion of the

  16. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance: investigating the spins of nuclear related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reviews his successive research works: his research thesis work on the Multiple Quantum Magic Angle Spinning (MQMAS) which is a quadric-polar nucleus multi-quanta correlation spectroscopy method, the modelling of NMR spectra of disordered materials, the application to materials of interest for the nuclear industry (notably the glasses used for nuclear waste containment). He presents the various research projects in which he is involved: storing glasses, nuclear magnetic resonance in paramagnetism, solid hydrogen storing matrices, methodological and instrument developments in high magnetic field and high resolution solid NMR, long range distance measurement by solid state Tritium NMR (observing the structure and dynamics of biological complex systems at work)

  17. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 1 presents articles about junction electroluminescence; metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) physics; ion implantation in semiconductors; and electron transport through insulating thin films. The book describes the basic physics of carrier injection; energy transfer and recombination mechanisms; state of the art efficiencies; and future prospects for light emitting diodes. The text then discusses solid state spectroscopy, which is the pair spectra observed in gallium phosphide photoluminescence. The extensive studies

  18. High-powered, solid-state RF systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past two years, the requirement to supply megawatts of rf power for space-based applications at UHF and L-band frequencies has caused dramatic increases in silicon solid-state power capabilities in the frequency range from 10 to 3000 MHz. Radar and communications requirements have caused similar increases in gallium arsenide solid-state power capabilities in the frequency range from 3000 to 10000 MHz. This paper reviews the present state of the art for solid-state rf amplifiers for frequencies from 10 to 10000 MHz. Technical specifications regarding phase and amplitude stability, efficiency, and system architecture are discussed. Solid-state rf amplifier susceptibility to radiation damage has been examined

  19. Design and Characterisation of Solid Electrolytes for All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn

    The development of all-solid-state lithium batteries, in which the currently used liquid electrolytes are substituted for solid electrolyte materials, could lead to safer batteries offering higher energy densities and longer cycle lifetimes. Designing suitable solid electrolytes with sufficient...... chemical and electrochemical stability, high lithium ion conduction and negligible electronic conduction remains a challenge. The highly lithium ion conducting LiBH4-LiI solid solution is a promising solid electrolyte material. Solid solutions with a LiI content of 6.25%-50% were synthesised by planetary......-rich microstructures during ball milling is found to significantly influence the conductivity of the samples. The long-range diffusion of lithium ions was measured using quasi-elastic neutron scattering. The solid solutions are found to exhibit two-dimensional conduction in the hexagonal plane of the crystal structure...

  20. High Extraction Phosphors for Solid State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, Chris [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States); Menkara, Hisham [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States); Wagner, Brent [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States)

    2011-09-01

    We have developed high-index, high efficiency bulk luminescent materials and novel nano-sized phosphors for improved solid-state white LED lamps. These advances can potentially contribute to reducing the loss in luminous efficiencies due to scattering, re-absorption, and thermal quenching. The bulk and nanostructured luminescent materials investigated are index matched to GaN and have broad and size-tunable absorption bands, size and impurity tuned emission bands, size-driven elimination of scattering effects, and a separation between absorption and emission bands. These innovations were accomplished through the use of novel synthesis techniques suitable for high volume production for LED lamp applications. The program produced a full-color set of high quantum yield phosphors with high chemical stability. In the bulk phosphor study, the ZnSeS:Cu,Ag phosphor was optimized to achieve >91% efficiency using erbium (Er) and other activators as sensitizers. Detailed analysis of temperature quenching effects on a large number of ZnSeS:Cu,Ag,X and strontium- and calcium-thiogallate phosphors lead to a breakthrough in the understanding of the anti-quenching behavior and a physical bandgap model was developed of this phenomena. In a follow up to this study, optimized phosphor blends for high efficiency and color performance were developed and demonstrated a 2-component phosphor system with good white chromaticity, color temperature, and high color rendering. By extending the protocols of quantum dot synthesis, large nanocrystals, greater than 20 nm in diameter were synthesized and exhibited bulk-like behavior and blue light absorption. The optimization of ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors achieved ~85% QE The limitations of core-shell nanocrystal systems were addressed by investigating alternative deltadoped structures. To address the manufacturability of these systems, a one-pot manufacturing protocol was developed for ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors. To enhance the stability of these material

  1. Solid state NMR and DFT study of polymer electrolytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spěváček, Jiří; Brus, Jiří; Dybal, Jiří; Kang, Y. S.

    Linz : Institut für Organische Chemie, Johannes Kepler Universität, 2004 - (Müller, N.). s. 28 [Central European NMR Symposium /6./. 27.09.2004, Linz] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4050209 Keywords : solid polymer electrolytes * solid state NMR * quantum-chemical DFT calculation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  2. High-powered, solid-state rf systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past two years, the requirement to supply megawatts of rf power for space-based applications at uhf and L-band frequencies has caused dramatic increases in silicon solid-state power capabilities in the frequency range from 10 to 3000 MHz. Radar and communications requirements have caused similar increases in gallium arsenide solid-state power capabilities in the frequency ranges from 3000 to 10,000 MHz. This paper reviews the present state of the art for solid-state rf amplifiers for frequencies from 10 to 10,000 MHz. Information regarding power levels, size, weight, and cost will be given. Technical specifications regarding phase and amplitude stability, efficiency, and system architecture will be discussed. Solid-stage rf amplifier susceptibility to radiation damage will also be examined

  3. Solid state conformational classification of eight-membered rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez, J.; García, L.; Kessler, M.;

    2005-01-01

    A statistical classification of the solid state conformation in the title complexes using data retrieved from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) has been made. Phosphate and phosphinate complexes show a chair conformation preferably. In phosphonate complexes, the most frequent conformations...

  4. Solid-State Synthesis of a Thermochromic Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changyun, Chen; Zhihua, Zhou; Yiming, Zhou; Jiangyan, Du

    2000-09-01

    Bis(diethylammonium) tetrachloronickelate(II) was prepared by solid-state reaction at mild temperature. Classroom demonstration of the synthesis and discussions of thermochromic mechanism of the compound prepared were described.

  5. A Solid State Tissue Equivalent Detector for Microdosimetry Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — QEL proposes to construct a tissue equivalent microdosimeter using a solid state tissue equivalent detector (SSTED). The Phase I study will produce the working...

  6. Novel All Solid-state Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Jiang; Shibi Fang

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction All solid-state polymer electrolytes for lithium battery was proved to be an attractive direction. Compared with prevenient polymer electrolytes all solid-state polymer electrolytes were superiority in more broad electrochemical window, more stable/low interfacial resistance especially when situ-polymerization utilized, excellent mechanical properties and dissepiment free. A lithium secondary battery using all solid-state polymer electrolyte meet the challenge of energy source for both portable electronic devices and electric vehicles (EV) or engine/battery hybrid vehicles (HEV). All solid-state comb-like network polymer electrolytes (CNPE) based on polysiloxane with internal plasticizing chain (IPC) has been designed and synthesized. See Fig. 1.

  7. Electronic aperture control devised for solid state imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, R. A.; Callahan, D. E.; Mc Cann, D. H.

    1968-01-01

    Electronic means of performing the equivalent of automatic aperture control has been devised for the new class of television cameras that incorporates a solid state imaging device in the form of phototransistor mosaic sensors.

  8. ASAS = NASA's Advanced Solid-state Array Spectroradiometer: 1988 -2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Solid-State Array Spectroradiometer (ASAS) data collection contains data collected by the ASAS sensor flown aboard NASA aircraft. A fundamental use of...

  9. THERMOTROPIC LIQUID CRYSTALLINE COPOLYESTERS-SOLID STATE POLYMORPHISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE ping; LU Daohui; BAO Jingsheng

    1988-01-01

    This paper offers some new evidence on the polymorphism of solid state of liquid crystalline aromatic copolyesters which were prepared in our laboratory. The effects of different treatment conditions(quenching and annealing) on solid structure have been examined mainly by DSC and X-ray diffraction. The discussion focuses on the supercooled mesophase and low temperature solid-solid transition, the shifting of double melting peaks of annealed samples and the changing of their △H data depending on the treatment temperature, time and thermal scanning rate.

  10. Characterizing structure and dynamics in phasmaceutical solids by solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reutzel-Edens, S. M.; Bush, J. K.; Brus, Jiří

    Tychy: Assa International, 2006 - (Zakrzewski, A.; Zakrzewski, M.), s. 326-358 ISBN 83-920584-5-3 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : solid state NMR * NMR crystallography * pharmaceuticals Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  11. High average power solid state laser power conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power conditioning system for the High Average Power Laser program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is described. The system has been operational for two years. It is high voltage, high power, fault protected, and solid state. The power conditioning system drives flashlamps that pump solid state lasers. Flashlamps are driven by silicon control rectifier (SCR) switched, resonant charged, (LC) discharge pulse forming networks (PFNs). The system uses fiber optics for control and diagnostics. Energy and thermal diagnostics are monitored by computers

  12. Friction Regimes in the Lubricants Solid-State Regime

    OpenAIRE

    Schipper, D.J.; Maathuis, O.; Dowson, D; Taylor, C.M.; Childs, T.H.C.; Dalmaz, G.

    1995-01-01

    Friction measurements were performed in the lubricant's solid-state regime to study the transition from full-film lubrication, in which the separation is maintained by a solidified lubricant, to mixed lubrication. Special attention is paid to the influence of temperature (inlet viscosity) and roughness on this transition. The friction measurements showed that in the lubricants solid-state region three lubrication modes can be distinguished: A) full-film lubrication; separation is maintained b...

  13. Perspectives on a Solid State NMR Quantum Computer

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, E B; Fel'dman, Edward B.; Lacelle, Serge

    2001-01-01

    A quantum information processing device, based on bulk solid state NMR of the quasi-one dimensional material hydroxyapatite, is proposed following the magnetic resonance force microscopy work of Yamamoto et al (quant-ph/0009122). In a macroscopic sample of hydroxyapatite, our solid state NMR model yields a limit of 10^8 qubits imposed by physics, while development of current technological considerations should allow an upper bound in the range of hundreds to thousands of qubits.

  14. Solid State Division progress report, September 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-04-01

    Progress made during the 19 months from March 1, 1980, through September 30, 1981, is reported in the following areas: theoretical solid state physics (surfaces, electronic and magnetic properties, particle-solid interactions, and laser annealing); surface and near-surface properties of solids (plasma materials interactions, ion-solid interactions, pulsed laser annealing, and semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion); defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, and defects and impurities in insulating crystals); transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, and physical properties of insulating materials); neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, and magnetic properties); crystal growth and characterization (nuclear waste forms, ferroelectric mateirals, high-temperature materials, and special materials); and isotope research materials. Publications and papers are listed. (WHK)

  15. Solid State Division progress report, September 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress made during the 19 months from March 1, 1980, through September 30, 1981, is reported in the following areas: theoretical solid state physics (surfaces, electronic and magnetic properties, particle-solid interactions, and laser annealing); surface and near-surface properties of solids (plasma materials interactions, ion-solid interactions, pulsed laser annealing, and semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion); defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, and defects and impurities in insulating crystals); transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, and physical properties of insulating materials); neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, and magnetic properties); crystal growth and characterization (nuclear waste forms, ferroelectric mateirals, high-temperature materials, and special materials); and isotope research materials. Publications and papers are listed

  16. Preliminary field evaluation of solid state cameras for security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in solid state imager technology have resulted in a series of compact, lightweight, all-solid-state closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Although it is widely known that the various solid state cameras have less light sensitivity and lower resolution than their vacuum tube counterparts, the potential for having a much longer Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) for the all-solid-state cameras is generating considerable interest within the security community. Questions have been raised as to whether the newest and best of the solid state cameras are a viable alternative to the high maintenance vacuum tube cameras in exterior security applications. To help answer these questions, a series of tests were performed by Sandia National Laboratories at various test sites and under several lighting conditions. In general, all-solid-state cameras need to be improved in four areas before they can be used as wholesale replacements for tube cameras in exterior security applications: resolution, sensitivity, contrast, and smear. However, with careful design some of the higher performance cameras can be used for perimeter security systems, and all of the cameras have applications where they are uniquely qualified. Many of the cameras are well suited for interior assessment and surveillance uses, and several of the cameras are well designed as robotics and machine vision devices

  17. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; H. Skip Mieney

    2003-06-09

    The objective of Phase I under this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with piped-in water (Demonstration System A); and Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from July through December 2002 under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246 for the 5 kW mass-market automotive (gasoline) auxiliary power unit. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks for the automotive 5 kW system: Task 1--System Design and Integration; Task 2--Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3--Reformer Developments; Task 4--Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5--Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6--System Fabrication; and Task 7--System Testing.

  18. Lithium-ion transport in inorganic solid state electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Gao; Yu-Sheng, Zhao; Si-Qi, Shi; Hong, Li

    2016-01-01

    An overview of ion transport in lithium-ion inorganic solid state electrolytes is presented, aimed at exploring and designing better electrolyte materials. Ionic conductivity is one of the most important indices of the performance of inorganic solid state electrolytes. The general definition of solid state electrolytes is presented in terms of their role in a working cell (to convey ions while isolate electrons), and the history of solid electrolyte development is briefly summarized. Ways of using the available theoretical models and experimental methods to characterize lithium-ion transport in solid state electrolytes are systematically introduced. Then the various factors that affect ionic conductivity are itemized, including mainly structural disorder, composite materials and interface effects between a solid electrolyte and an electrode. Finally, strategies for future material systems, for synthesis and characterization methods, and for theory and calculation are proposed, aiming to help accelerate the design and development of new solid electrolytes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51372228), the Shanghai Pujiang Program, China (Grant No. 14PJ1403900), and the Shanghai Institute of Materials Genome from the Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Commission, China (Grant No. 14DZ2261200).

  19. Solid state NMR study calcium phosphate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-resolution 31P and 1H NMR spectra at 40 and 121 MHz 31P and 300 MHz 1H of synthetic and biological samples of calcium phosphates have been obtained by magic angle spinning (MAS) at spinning speeds up to 6.5 kHz, and high power proton decoupling. The samples include crystalline hydroxyapatite, a deficient hydroxyapatite characterized by a Ca/P atomic ratio of 1.5, a poorly crystallized hydroxyapatite, monetite, brushite, octacalcium phosphate, β-tricalcium phosphate and rabbit femoral bone. The interactions between nuclei in unlike structures and the mobility of acid protons are discussed. (author). 11 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  20. Universal features of the equation of state of solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinet, Pascal; Rose, James H.; Ferrante, John; Smith, John R.

    1989-01-01

    A study of the energetics of solids leads to the conclusion that the equation of state for all classes of solids in compression can be expressed in terms of a universal function. The form of this universal function is determined by scaling experimental compression data for measured isotherms of a wide variety of solids. The equation of state is thus known (in the absence of phase transitions), if zero-pressure volume and isothermal compression and its pressure derivative are known. The discovery described in this paper has two immediate consequences: first, despite the well known differences in the microscopic energetics of the various classes of solids, there is a single equation of state for all classes in compression; and second, a new method is provided for analyzing measured isotherms and extrapolating high-pressure data from low-pressure (e.g. acoustic) data.

  1. Solid state fermentation of Achras zapota lignocellulose by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh Kumar, A; Sekaran, G; Krishnamoorthy, Sarayu

    2006-09-01

    The biological transformation of lignocellulose of Achras zapota by white rot fungi, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, in solid state fermentation (SSF) was studied for 28 days. The kinetic transformation of lignocellulose was monitored through the determination of acid soluble and acid insoluble lignin content, total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The lignolytic enzymes, lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) were quantified on weekly intervals. The degradation of lignin and other structural moieties of A. zapota lignocellulose were confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The degradation of lignin was increased after 7 days of fermentation with the release of water soluble and fermentable products. The LiP and MnP activities were increased in the first week of SSF and lignin degradation was also set to increase. This was accompanied with increase in COD by 94.6% and TOC by 80% and lignin content was decreased by 76%. The maximum activities of the enzymes LiP and MnP in extracellular fluid of SSF under nitrogen limitation, at pH 5.0, at temperature 37 degrees C and at 60% humidity were 2100 U/L and 1200 U/L. PMID:16122921

  2. Solid-State Cloud Radar System (CRS) Upgrade and Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, Matt; Heymsfield, Gerald; Li, Lihua; Racette, Paul; Coon, Michael; Venkatesh, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The recent decade has brought rapid development in solid-state power amplifier (SSPA) technology. This has enabled the use of solid-state precipitation radar in place of high-power and high-voltage systems such as those that use Klystron or Magnetron transmitters. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has recently completed a comprehensive redesign of the 94 gigahertz Cloud Radar System (CRS) to incorporate a solid-state transmitter. It is the first cloud radar to achieve sensitivity comparable to that of a high-voltage transmitter using solid-state. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Cloud Radar System (CRS) is a 94 gigahertz Doppler radar that flies on the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. The upgraded CRS system utilizes a state-of-the-art solid-state 94 gigahertz power amplifier with a peak transmit power of 30 watts. The modernized CRS system is detailed here with data results from its deployment during the 2014 Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEX).

  3. Cellulolytic Enzymes Production by Solid State Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Medina-Morales

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Great interest in the use of lignocellulosic biomass is increasing in order to diminish the accumulation of residues, such as pecan nut shells. One of the alternatives is the fungal degradation of these residues. Approach: The capacity of Trichoderma (coded as T1, T2 and T3 strains to produce cellulase and xylonite was evaluated. Results: Pecan nut shell fibers were used as sole carbon source. The fiber characterization study showed that cellulose levels were of 0.1% while hemicellulose was up to 25 %. Three Trichoderma strains were used on solid fungal cultures using the fibers as sole carbon and inductor source for the production of cellulolytic enzymes. The behavior of the sugars liberated by the fungi showed that the strain T2 is able to accumulate more monomeric reducing sugars than the other two strains, this could be attributed at this strain has a higher sugar liberation rate and slower sugar consumption rate. This strain also expressed more cellulase and xylanase activity. The low quantity of cellulose registered in the fibers can still be used to induce cellulase activity. Conclusion: The T2 strain had the highest level of enzymatic activity both cellulase and xylanase.

  4. Quantum technologies for solid state physics using cold trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantum states of ions are perfectly controlled, and may be used for fundamental research in quantum physics, as highlighted by the Nobel Prize given to Dave Wineland in 2012. Two directions of quantum technologies, followed by the Mainz group, have high impact on solid state physics: I) The delivery of single cold ions on demand for the deterministic doping of solid state materials with nm spatial precision to generate design-structures optimized for quantum processors. II) The simulation of solid state relevant Hamiltonians with AMO systems of one or two dimensional arrays of trapped ions. I will talk about the recent progress in both fields. http://www.quantenbit.de/#Number Sign#/publications/(author)

  5. Solid state and electrochemical properties of polyselenophene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemically synthesized polyheterocycles constitute an important class of conducting polymers for modifying semiconductor electrodes. Accordingly, the authors have investigated polyselenophene film grown on the surface of electrodes by electropolymerization of selenophene. The polymer was characterized in both the oxidized electrolyte-doped and the neutral-undoped state by infrared and UV-visible spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, dc conductivity, and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The basic selenophene ring is retained within the polylmeric structure. The IR bands of the doped material are broadened and shifted to lower frequencies with respect to those of the undoped polymer. Virbronic coupling of delocalized positive changes in the oxidized polymer with the skeletal stretching vibrations of the backbone accounts for this effect. From the UV-visible absorption spectra, the authors calculated a band-gap of 2.0 eV for the undoped state. In the doped state, the absorption extends into the IR region and its characteristic of free-carriers. The surface morphology depends on the thickness of the film. Thin films appear homogeneous, whereas thick films exhibit irregularities. With increasing film thickness the rate of cross linking also increases. The asymmetry of the cone-level spectra of the carbon C (ls) indicates structural disorder. The spectra also suggest the removal of electron density from selenium during the oxidation of the polymer

  6. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF LEACHATES FROM COAL SOLID WASTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of the chemical and mineralogical characterization of coal solid wastes. The wastes included three Lurgi gasification ashes, mineral residues from the SRC-1 and H-Coal liquefaction processes, two chars, two coal-cleaning residues, and a fly-ash-and-water-...

  7. Biological Production of Methane from Lunar Mission Solid Waste: An Initial Feasibility Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Richard; Garland, Jay; Janine, Captain

    A preliminary assessment was made of the potential for biological production of methane from solid waste generated during an early planetary base mission to the moon. This analysis includes: 1) estimation of the amount of biodegradable solid waste generated, 2) background on the potential biodegradability of plastics given their significance in solid wastes, and 3) calculation of potential methane production from the estimate of biodegradable waste. The completed analysis will also include the feasibility of biological methane production costs associated with the biological processing of the solid waste. NASA workshops and Advanced Life Support documentation have estimated the projected amount of solid wastes generated for specific space missions. From one workshop, waste estimates were made for a 180 day transit mission to Mars. The amount of plastic packaging material was not specified, but our visual examination of trash returned from stocktickerSTS missions indicated a large percentage would be plastic film. This plastic, which is not biodegradable, would amount to 1.526 kgdw crew-1 d-1 or 6.10 kgdw d-1 for a crew of 4. Over a mission of 10 days this would amount to 61 kgdw of plastics and for an 180 day lunar surface habitation it would be nearly 1100 kgdw . Approx. 24 % of this waste estimate would be biodegradable (human fecal waste, food waste, and paper), but if plastic packaging was replaced with biodegradable plastic, then 91% would be biodegradable. Plastics are man-made long chain polymeric molecules, and can be divided into two main groups; thermoplastics and thermoset plastics. Thermoplastics comprise over 90% of total plastic use in the placecountry-regionUnited States and are derived from polymerization of olefins via breakage of the double bond and subsequent formation of additional carbon to carbon bonds. The resulting sole-carbon chain polymers are highly resistant to biodegradation and hydrolytic cleavage. Common thermoplastics include low

  8. Albert Einstein as the father of solid state physics

    OpenAIRE

    Cardona, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Einstein is usually revered as the father of special and general relativity. In this article I demonstrate that he is also the father of Solid State Physics, or even his broader version known as Condensed Matter Physics (including liquids). His 1907 article on the specific heat of solids introduces, for the first time, the effect of lattice vibrations on the thermodynamic properties of crystals, in particular the specific heat. His 1905 article on the photoelectric effect and photoluminescenc...

  9. Abstracts of the 7. workshop solid state chemistry and ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    79 contributions have been presented as titles with abstracts. They deal with preparation, investigation, and properties of ceramic powders, sintered materials, metal oxides, oxide minerals, nitrides, solid electrolytes, glass ceramics, composite materials, and ceramic superconductors of the type Y-Ba-Cu-O. Phase studies of mixed oxide systems and different chemical processes of the solid state are included. 11 of them are in INIS scope and are processed individually

  10. Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2008-04-01

    Porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, such as solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), are low-cost, mechanically strong and highly electronically conductive. Some preferred structures have a thin layer of an electrocatalytically active material (e.g., Ni--YSZ) coating a porous high-strength alloy support (e.g., SS-430) to form a porous SOFC fuel electrode. Electrode/electrolyte structures can be formed by co-firing or constrained sintering processes.

  11. Reaction diffusion and solid state chemical kinetics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Dybkov, V I

    2010-01-01

    This monograph deals with a physico-chemical approach to the problem of the solid-state growth of chemical compound layers and reaction-diffusion in binary heterogeneous systems formed by two solids; as well as a solid with a liquid or a gas. It is explained why the number of compound layers growing at the interface between the original phases is usually much lower than the number of chemical compounds in the phase diagram of a given binary system. For example, of the eight intermetallic compounds which exist in the aluminium-zirconium binary system, only ZrAl3 was found to grow as a separate

  12. SOLID STATE PHYSICS OF IMPACT CRATER FORMATION: FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Celebonovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact craters exist on solid surface planets, their satellites and many asteroids. The aim of this paper is to propose a theoretical expression for the product ρr3 v2 1 , where the three symbols denote the mass density, radius and speed of the impactor. The expression is derived using well known results of solid state physics, and it can be used in estimating parameters of impactors which have led to formation of craters on various solid bodies in the Solar System.

  13. Solid State Quantum Computing Using Spectral Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Shahriar, M. S.; Hemmer, P. R.; Lloyd, S.; Bowers, J. A.; Craig, A. E.

    2000-01-01

    A quantum computer that stores information on two-state systems called quantum bits or qubits must be able to address and manipulate individual qubits, to effect coherent interactions between pairs of qubits, and to read out the value of qubits.1,2 Current methods for addressing qubits are divided up into spatial methods, as when a laser beam is focused on an individual qubit3,4,5 or spectral methods, as when a nuclear spin in a molecule is addressed using NMR.6,7 The density of qubits addres...

  14. Solid-state physics for electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Describing the fundamental physical properties of materials used in electronics, the thorough coverage of this book will facilitate an understanding of the technological processes used in the fabrication of electronic and photonic devices. The book opens with an introduction to the basic applied physics of simple electronic states and energy levels. Silicon and copper, the building blocks for many electronic devices, are used as examples. Next, more advanced theories are developed to better account for the electronic and optical behavior of ordered materials, such as diamond, and disordered ma

  15. Solid substrate mediated changes in ergot alkaloid spectra in solid state fermentation system

    OpenAIRE

    Trejo Hernandez, M.R.; Lonsane, B.K.; Raimbault, Maurice; Roussos, Sevastianos

    1993-01-01

    Use of different solid substrates resulted in minor alterations in total alkaloid production by #Claviceps purpurea$ 1029c in solid state fermentation system but the changes in the spectra of ergot alkaloids were of significantly higher magnitudes. Ergonovine accounted for 93% of the total alkaloid production in wheat grain medium while lysergic acid derivatives and ergonovine comprised of 66% and 32% of total alkaloids in rye grain medium. In contrast, ergonovine, ergotamine, and lysergic ac...

  16. All-solid-state lithium batteries with inorganic solid electrolytes: Review of fundamental science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiayin, Yao; Bingxin, Huang; Jingyun, Yin; Gang, Peng; Zhen, Huang; Chao, Gao; Deng, Liu; Xiaoxiong, Xu

    2016-01-01

    The scientific basis of all-solid-state lithium batteries with inorganic solid electrolytes is reviewed briefly, touching upon solid electrolytes, electrode materials, electrolyte/electrode interface phenomena, fabrication, and evaluation. The challenges and prospects are outlined as well. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2013AA050906), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51172250 and 51202265), the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDA09010201), and Zhejiang Province Key Science and Technology Innovation Team, China (Grant No. 2013PT16).

  17. Surface modification of solid state gas sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, L

    2000-01-01

    mechanism of the room temperature CO response of SnO sub 2 decorated with small Pt particles was refined. In this case Pt was applied by common impregnation techniques. The conductivity was shown to be controlled by the surface state of the Pt. The CO response at room temperature was found to be specific to the presence of Pt(ll) species. The mechanism was assigned to CO chemisorption onto Pt(ll), resulting in charge transfer, measured as conductivity increase. The samples were characterized by XPS, TPD, SEM, mass spectrometry and electrical measurements. Comparison of the results presented for Pt decorated BaSn sub 0 sub . sub 9 sub 7 Sb sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 3 O sub 3 and BaFeO sub 3 demonstrated the phenomenon to be general providing that Pt particles act as surface traps, controlling the conductivity. The phenomenon of electrical conductivity being controlled by the chemical state of a surface grafted reactive centre, resulting in a room temperature gas response, is demonstrated. The reactive centres can ...

  18. Solid State Division Progress Report for period ending March 31, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1986-08-01

    This report is divided into: theoretical solid-state physics, surface and near-surface properties of solids, defects in solids, transport properties of solids, neutron scattering, and synthesis and properties of novel materials. (DLC)

  19. Solid State Division Progress Report for period ending March 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is divided into: theoretical solid-state physics, surface and near-surface properties of solids, defects in solids, transport properties of solids, neutron scattering, and synthesis and properties of novel materials

  20. Preliminary Analysis of a Fully Solid State Magnetocaloric Refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Magnetocaloric refrigeration is an alternative refrigeration technology with significant potential energy savings compared to conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology. Most of the reported active magnetic regenerator (AMR) systems that operate based on the magnetocaloric effect use heat transfer fluid to exchange heat, which results in complicated mechanical subsystems and components such as rotating valves and hydraulic pumps. In this paper, we propose an alternative mechanism for heat transfer between the AMR and the heat source/sink. High-conductivity moving rods/sheets (e.g. copper, brass, iron, graphite, aluminum or composite structures from these) are utilized instead of heat transfer fluid significantly enhancing the heat transfer rate hence cooling/heating capacity. A one-dimensional model is developed to study the solid state AMR. In this model, the heat exchange between the solid-solid interfaces is modeled via a contact conductance, which depends on the interface apparent pressure, material hardness, thermal conductivity, surface roughness, surface slope between the interfaces, and material filled in the gap between the interfaces. Due to the tremendous impact of the heat exchange on the AMR cycle performance, a sensitivity analysis is conducted employing a response surface method, in which the apparent pressure, effective surface roughness and grease thermal conductivity are the uncertainty factors. COP and refrigeration capacity are presented as the response in the sensitivity analysis to reveal the important factors influencing the fully solid state AMR and optimize the solid state AMR efficiency. The performances of fully solid state AMR and traditional AMR are also compared and discussed in present work. The results of this study will provide general guidelines for designing high performance solid state AMR systems.

  1. Entanglement in a Valence-Bond-Solid State

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Heng; Korepin, Vladimir; Roychowdhury, Vwani

    2004-01-01

    We study entanglement in Valence-Bond-Solid state. It describes the ground state of Affleck, Kennedy, Lieb and Tasaki quantum spin chain. The AKLT model has a gap and open boundary conditions. We calculate an entropy of a subsystem (continuous block of spins). It quantifies the entanglement of this block with the rest of the ground state. We prove that the entanglement approaches a constant value exponentially fast as the size of the subsystem increases. Actually we proved that the density ma...

  2. Tunable solid-state fluorescent materials for supramolecular encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xisen; Ke, Chenfeng; Bruns, Carson J.; McGonigal, Paul R.; Pettman, Roger B.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2015-01-01

    Tunable solid-state fluorescent materials are ideal for applications in security printing technologies. A document possesses a high level of security if its encrypted information can be authenticated without being decoded, while also being resistant to counterfeiting. Herein, we describe a heterorotaxane with tunable solid-state fluorescent emissions enabled through reversible manipulation of its aggregation by supramolecular encapsulation. The dynamic nature of this fluorescent material is based on a complex set of equilibria, whose fluorescence output depends non-linearly on the chemical inputs and the composition of the paper. By applying this system in fluorescent security inks, the information encoded in polychromic images can be protected in such a way that it is close to impossible to reverse engineer, as well as being easy to verify. This system constitutes a unique application of responsive complex equilibria in the form of a cryptographic algorithm that protects valuable information printed using tunable solid-state fluorescent materials. PMID:25901677

  3. Perspectives of Solid State Fermentation for Production of Food Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristobal Noe Aguilar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Food industry represents one of the economic sectors where microbial metabolites have found a wide variety of applications. This is the case of some enzymes, such as amylases, cellulases, pectinases and proteases which have played a very important role as food additives. Most of these enzymes have been produced by submerged cultures at industrial level. Many works in the literature present detailed aspects involved with those enzymes and their importance in the food industry. However, the production and application studies of those enzymes produced by solid state fermentations are scarce in comparison with submerged fermentation. This review involves production aspects of the seven enzymes: tannases, pectinases, caffeinases, mannanases, phytases, xylanases and proteases, which can be produced by solid state fermentation showing attractive advantages. Additionally, process characteristics of solid state fermentation are considered.

  4. Future Solid State Lighting using LEDs and Diode Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Paul Michael

    2014-01-01

    significant savings. Solid state lighting (SSL) based on LEDs is today the most efficient light source for generation of high quality white light. Diode lasers, however, have the potential of being more efficient than LEDs for the generation of white light. A major advantage using diode lasers for solid state...... of diode laser based lighting, high luminous flux levels and high efficiency can be available at the same time. Laser diodes operate in a fundamentally different regime using stimulated emission for light generation as opposed to spontaneous emission in LEDs The recent progress in solid state......Lighting accounts for 20% of all electrical energy usage. Household lighting and commercial lighting such as public and street lighting are responsible for significant greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, currently many research initiatives focus on the development of new light sources which shows...

  5. Solid-State 2MW Klystron Power Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Kempkes, Michael; Gaudreau, Marcel; Hawkey, Timothy; Roth, Ian

    2005-01-01

    Under an SBIR effort for the DOE, Diversified Technologies, Inc. designed, built, and installed a solid state power control system for the Advanced Light Source klystrons at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This system consists of two major elements - a 100 kV, 20 A CW solid state series switch, and a solid state voltage regulator for the mod-anode of the klystron. The series switch replaces the existing mercury ignitron crowbar, eliminating these environmentally hazardous components while providing enhanced arc protection and faster return to transmit. The mod-anode voltage regulator uses series IGBTs, operating in the linear regime, to provide highly rapid and accurate control of the mod-anode voltage, and therefore the output power from the klystron. Results from the installation and testing of this system at ANL will be presented.

  6. Solid-state lighting-a benevolent technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid-state light sources are in the process of profoundly changing the way humans generate light for general lighting applications. Solid-state light sources possess two highly desirable features, which set them apart from most other light sources: (i) they have the potential to create light with essentially unit power efficiency and (ii) the properties of light, such as spectral composition and temporal modulation, can be controlled to a degree that is not possible with conventional light sources such as incandescent and fluorescent lamps. The implications are enormous and, as a consequence, many positive developments are to be expected including a reduction in global energy consumption, reduction of global-warming-gas and pollutant emissions and a multitude of new functionalities benefiting numerous applications. This review will assess the impact of solid-state lighting technology on energy consumption, the environment and on emerging application fields that make use of the controllability afforded by solid-state sources. The review will also discuss technical areas that fuel continued progress in solid-state lighting. Specifically, we will review the use of novel phosphor distributions in white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and show the strong influence of phosphor distribution on efficiency. We will also review the use of reflectors in LEDs with emphasis on 'perfect' reflectors, i.e. reflectors with highly reflective omni-directional characteristics. Finally, we will discuss a new class of thin-film materials with an unprecedented low refractive index. Such low-n materials may strongly contribute to the continuous progress in solid-state lighting

  7. Solid State Quantum Computing Using Spectral Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Shahriar, M S; Lloyd, S; Bowers, J A; Craig, A E

    2002-01-01

    A quantum computer that stores information on two-state systems called quantum bits or qubits must be able to address and manipulate individual qubits, to effect coherent interactions between pairs of qubits, and to read out the value of qubits.1,2 Current methods for addressing qubits are divided up into spatial methods, as when a laser beam is focused on an individual qubit3,4,5 or spectral methods, as when a nuclear spin in a molecule is addressed using NMR.6,7 The density of qubits addressable spatially is limited by the wavelength of light, and the number of qubits addressable spectrally is limited by spin linewidths. Here, we propose a method for addressing qubits using a method that combines spatial and spectral selectivity. The result is a design for quantum computation that provides the potential for a density of quantum information storage and processing many orders of magnitude greater than that afforded by ion traps or NMR. Specifically, this method uses an ensemble of spectrally resolved atoms in...

  8. High power RF solid state power amplifier system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, III, William Herbert (Inventor); Chavers, Donald Gregory (Inventor); Richeson, James J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A high power, high frequency, solid state power amplifier system includes a plurality of input multiple port splitters for receiving a high-frequency input and for dividing the input into a plurality of outputs and a plurality of solid state amplifier units. Each amplifier unit includes a plurality of amplifiers, and each amplifier is individually connected to one of the outputs of multiport splitters and produces a corresponding amplified output. A plurality of multiport combiners combine the amplified outputs of the amplifiers of each of the amplifier units to a combined output. Automatic level control protection circuitry protects the amplifiers and maintains a substantial constant amplifier power output.

  9. Solid-State Modulators for RF and Fast Kickers

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, Edward; Brooksby, Craig A; Cassel, Richard; De Lamare, Jeffrey E; Gower, Edward J; Hawkins, Steven; Hickman, Bradley C; Nguyen, Minh N; Pappas, Chris

    2005-01-01

    As the capabilities of solid-state devices increase, these devices are being incorporated into modulator designs for high voltage accelerator applications. Solid-state modulators based on inductive adder circuit topology have demonstrated great versatility with regard to pulse width and pulse repetition rate while maintaining fast pulse rise and fall times. Additionally, these modulators are capable of being scaled to higher output voltage and power levels. An explanation of the basic circuit operation will be presented as well as test data of several different hardware systems.

  10. Concept of a solid-state drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of a solid state drift chamber is described, and its use in a high rate, high multiplicity environment is discussed. The Solid State Drift Chamber (SSDCH) is a thin wafer of a high purity n-type silicon (few cm2 x a few hundreds μm thick) with a single small-area, small-capacitance anode readout. The drift voltage is supplied to an array of drift electrodes on both sides of the wafer to produce a uniform drift field parallel to the surface of the wafer and to ensure the complete depletion of the wafer

  11. Diode-pumped solid state laser for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluate the prospect for development of a diode-pumped solid-state-laser in an inertial fusion energy power plant. Using a computer code, we predict that our 1 GWe design will offer electricity at 8.6 cents/kW.hr with the laser operating at 8.6 % efficiency and the recycled power level at 32%. The results of our initial sub-scale experimental test-bed of a diode-pumped solid state laser are encouraging, demonstrating good efficiencies and robustness. (Authors). 11 refs., 14 figs

  12. Lessons in solid-state kinetics from nuclear energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field of research on solid-state kinetics grew enormously, along with the rest of materials research, in the decades following World War II. The author discusses how research on kinetics in the U.S., the United Kingdom, France and the U.S.S.R. is linked to the reactor development program. This is due to material problems in reactors caused by solid-state reactions or diffusion, the availability of reactor-produced radiotracers, and the early realization of the close connections among radiation behavior, point defects and diffusion

  13. Tritium contaminated surface monitoring with a solid-state device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low energy of betas makes tritium difficult to detect. However, there are several methods used in tritium detection, such as liquid scintillation and ionization chambers. Tritium on or near a surface can be also detected using proportional counter and, recently, solid state devices. The paper presents our results in the design and achievement of a surface tritium monitor using a PIN photodiode as a solid state charged particle detector to count betas emitted from the surface. That method allows continuous, real-time and non-destructively measuring of tritium. (author)

  14. What would Edison do with solid state lighting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Ian T.; Melton, Andrew; Xu, Tianming; Jamil, Muhammad; Fenwick, Will

    2010-08-01

    Thomas Edison is widely regarded as the greatest inventor in history and the most prominent individual behind the invention of the electric light. His impressive characteristics as an individual that led to his amazing success as an innovator continue to be an inspiration for researchers today. This paper considers how Edison might proceed in developing solid state lighting into a technology capable of displacing incumbent light sources, including his own incandescent lamps, then reviews some of the "Edison-like" contributions made to solid state lighting by the Next Generation Lighting research program at Georgia Tech.

  15. Solid State Welding Development at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Robert J.; Walker, Bryant

    2012-01-01

    What is TSW and USW? TSW is a solid state weld process consisting of an induction coil heating source, a stir rod, and non-rotating containment plates Independent heating, stirring and forging controls Decouples the heating, stirring and forging process elements of FSW. USW is a solid state weld process consisting of an induction coil heating source, a stir rod, and a non-rotating containment plate; Ultrasonic energy integrated into non-rotating containment plate and stir rod; Independent heating, stirring and forging controls; Decouples the heating, stirring and forging process elements of FSW.

  16. Solid-state characterization of the HIV protease inhibitor

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y A

    2002-01-01

    The LB71350, (3S, 4R)-Epoxy-(5S)-[[N-(1-methylethoxy) carbonyl]-3-(methylsulfonyl)-L-valinyl]amin= o]-N-[2-methyl-(1R)-[(phenyl)carbonyl]propyl-6-phenylhexanamide, is a novel HIV protease inhibitor. Its equilibrium solubility at room temperature was less than 40 mu g/mL. It was speculated that the low aqueous solubility might be due to the high crystalline lattice energy resulting from intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The present study was carried out to learn the solid-state characteristics of LB71350 using analytical methods such as NMR, FT-IR and XRD. sup 1 sup 3 C Solid-state NMR, solution NMR, and FT-IR spectra of the various solid forms of LB71350 were used to identify the conformation and structure of the solid forms. The chemical shifts of sup 1 sup 3 C solid-state NMR spectra suggest that the crystalline form might have 3 intermolecular hydrogen bondings between monomers.

  17. Heterogeneous Ferroelectric Solid Solutions Phases and Domain States

    CERN Document Server

    Topolov, Vitaly

    2012-01-01

    The book deals with perovskite-type ferroelectric solid solutions for modern materials science and applications, solving problems of complicated heterophase/domain structures near the morphotropic phase boundary and applications to various systems with morphotropic phases. In this book domain state–interface diagrams are presented for the interpretation of heterophase states in perovskite-type ferroelectric solid solutions. It allows to describe the stress relief in the presence of polydomain phases, the behavior of unit-cell parameters of coexisting phases and the effect of external electric fields. The novelty of the book consists in (i) the first systematization of data about heterophase states and their evolution in ferroelectric solid solutions (ii) the general interpretation of heterophase and domain structures at changing temperature, composition or electric field (iii) the complete analysis of interconnection domain structures, unit-cell parameters changes, heterophase structures and stress relief.

  18. A New All Solid State Approach to Gaseous Pollutant Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, V.; Tamstorf, K.

    1971-01-01

    Recent efforts in our laboratories have concentrated on the development of an all solid state gas sensor, by combining solid electrolyte (ion exchange membrane) technology with advanced thin film deposition processes. With the proper bias magnitude and polarity these miniature electro-chemical,cells show remarkable current responses for many common pollution gases. Current activity is now focused on complementing a multiple array (matrix) of these solid state sensors, with a digital electronic scanner device possessing "scan-compare-identify-alarm: capability. This innovative approach to multi-component pollutant gas analysis may indeed be the advanced prototype for the "third generation" class of pollution analysis instrumentation so urgently needed in the decade ahead.

  19. Theory of solid-state decomposition reactions: A historical essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of the formation and development of the theory of solid-state decomposition reactions, based on the mechanism of congruent dissociative vaporization of a solid with simultaneous condensation of the supersaturated vapor of the low-volatility product, is described here in the form of recollections. The review covers a 30-year period (1981-2010), beginning with basic experimental studies in the decomposition process by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) and quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) and ending with measurements of the decomposition kinetics by thermogravimetric analysis. Some remarks and recommendations based on the author's participation in two long-term projects, the development of the ETAAS method and that of the theory of solid-state reactions, are formulated in the conclusion.

  20. Rheological and solid-state NMR assessments of copovidone/clotrimazole model solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fengyuan; Su, Yongchao; Zhu, Lei; Brown, Chad D; Rosen, Lawrence A; Rosenberg, Kenneth J

    2016-03-16

    This study aims to assess several model solid dispersions by using dynamic oscillatory rheology, solid-state NMR and other solid phase characterization techniques, and correlate their viscoelastic responses with processing methods and microstructures. A model active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), clotrimazole, was compounded with copovidone to form solid dispersions via various techniques with different mixing capabilities. Physicochemical characterizations of the resulting solid dispersions demonstrated that simple physical mixing led to a poorly mixed blend manifested by existence of large API crystalline content and heterogeneous distribution. Cryogenic milling significantly improved mixing of two components as a result of reduced particle size and increased contact surface area, but produced limited amorphous content. In contrast, hot melt extrusion (HME) processing resulted in a homogenous amorphous solid dispersion because of its inherent mixing efficiency. Storage modulus and viscosities versus frequency of different solid dispersions indicated that the incorporation of API into the polymer matrix resulted in a plasticizing effect which reduced the viscosity. The crystalline/aggregated forms of API also exhibited more elastic response than its amorphous/dispersed counterpart. Temperature ramps of the physical mixture with high API concentration captured a critical temperature, at which a bump was observed in damping factor. This bump was attributed to the dissolution of crystalline API into the polymer. In addition, heating-cooling cycles of various solid dispersions suggested that cryomilling and HME processing could form a homogeneous solid dispersion at low API content, whereas high drug concentration led to a relatively unstable dispersion due to supersaturation of API in the polymer. PMID:26780122

  1. Cryogenic solid state NMR studies of fibrils of the Alzheimer’s disease amyloid-β peptide: perspectives for DNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization solid-state NMR holds the potential to enable a dramatic increase in sensitivity by exploiting the large magnetic moment of the electron. However, applications to biological solids are hampered in uniformly isotopically enriched biomacromolecules due to line broadening which yields a limited spectral resolution at cryogenic temperatures. We show here that high magnetic fields allow to overcome the broadening of resonance lines often experienced at liquid nitrogen temperatures. For a fibril sample of the Alzheimer’s disease β-amyloid peptide, we find similar line widths at low temperature and at room temperature. The presented results open new perspectives for structural investigations in the solid-state

  2. Solid state phase detector replaces bulky transformer circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberly, C. L.

    1967-01-01

    Miniature solid state phase detector using MOSFETs is used in a phase lock loop with a sun-bit detector in an integrated data-link circuit. This replaces bulky transformer circuits. It uses an inverter amplifier, a modulator switch, and a buffer amplifier.

  3. TL and TSC Solid State Detectors in Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirrone, G.A.P.; Sabini, M.G.; Bruzzi, M.; Bucciolini, M.; Cuttone, G.; Guasti, A.; Lo Nigro, S.; Mazzocchi, S.; Pirollo, S.; Raffaele, L.; Sciortino, S.

    2000-12-31

    The necessity to develop methods and techniques for a better determination of absorbed dose in the radiotherapy field stimulates new clinical applications of solid state detectors. In this work we have studied the possibility to use of TLD-100 and synthetic CVD diamond detectors as dosimeters for high-energy proton beams.

  4. Solid-state interactions between trimethoprim and parabens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S.; Kristensen, H. G.; Cornett, Claus

    1994-01-01

    Solid-state interactions between trimethoprim and the esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (parahydroxybenzoates or parabens) used for anti-microbial preservation are investigated. The formation of a crystalline 1/1 molecular compound between trimethoprim and methyl parahydroxybenzoate is demonstrated...

  5. Two-particle model of anaerobic solid state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyuzhnyi, S.; Veeken, A.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2000-01-01

    A structured mathematical model of anaerobic solid state fermentation (ASSF) has been developed. Since a stable ASSF requires addition of significant quantities of methanogenic seed sludge and mass-transfer limitation becomes important, the model postulates the existence of two different types of pa

  6. TL and TSC solid state detectors in proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The necessity to develop methods and techniques for a better determination of absorbed dose in the radiotherapy field stimulates new clinical applications of solid state detectors. In this work we have studied the possibility to use of TLD-100 and synthetic CVD diamond detectors as dosimeters for high-energy proton beams

  7. TL and TSC Solid State Detectors in Proton Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The necessity to develop methods and techniques for a better determination of absorbed dose in the radiotherapy field stimulates new clinical applications of solid state detectors. In this work we have studied the possibility to use of TLD-100 and synthetic CVD diamond detectors as dosimeters for high-energy proton beams

  8. Chinese vinegar and its solid-state fermentation process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Dengru,; Yang Zhu, Yang; Beeftink, H.H.; Ooijkaas, L.P.; Rinzema, A.; Jian Chen,; Tramper, J.

    2004-01-01

    China uses solid-state fermentation (SSF) processes on a large scale for products such as vinegar, Chinese distilled spirit, soy sauce, Furu, and other national foods that are consumed around the world. In this article, the typical SSF process is discussed, with a focus on Chinese vinegars, especial

  9. Solid-State and Solution Characterization of Myricetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Stephen J; Myrdal, Paul B

    2015-12-01

    Myricetin (MYR) is a natural compound that has been investigated as a chemopreventative agent. MYR has been shown to suppresses ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression and reduce the incidence of UVB-induced skin tumors in mice. Despite MYR's promise as a therapeutic agent, minimal information is available to guide the progression of formulations designed for future drug development. Here, data is presented describing the solid-state and solution characterization of MYR. Investigation into the solid-state properties of MYR identified four different crystal forms, two hydrates (MYR I and MYR II) and two metastable forms (MYR IA and MYR IIA). From solubility studies, it was evident that all forms are very insoluble (antioxidants to the solution. MYR was found to have good stability following exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), which is a consideration for topical applications. Finally, a partitioning study indicated that MYR possess a log P of 2.94 which, along with its solid-state properties, contributes to its poor aqueous solubility. Both the solid-state properties and solution stability of MYR are important to consider when developing future formulations. PMID:25986594

  10. Development of diode-pumped medical solid-state lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk

    2000-09-01

    Two thirds of human body consists of water and the absorption of laser by water is an important factor in medical laser treatment. Er medical lasers have been used in the dermatology, ophthalmology and dental treatments due to its highest absorption by water. However, 2.9 um Er laser can not be transmitted through an optical fiber. On the other hand, Tm laser can be transmitted through an fiber and also has very high absorption by water. Therefore, Tm lasers are used in ophthalmology and heart treatment wherein the fiber delivery is very important for the treatment. Until now, mainly lamp-pumped solid-state lasers have been used in medical treatments, but the lamp-pumped solid-state lasers are being replaced with the diode-pumped solid-state lasers because the diode-pumped solid-state lasers are more compact and much easier to maintain. Following this trend, end-pumped Er and side-pumped Tm lasers have been developed and the output power of 1 W was obtained for Er and Tm respectively.

  11. Friction Regimes in the Lubricants Solid-State Regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, D.J.; Maathuis, O.; Dowson, D.; Taylor, C.M.; Childs, T.H.C.; Dalmaz, G.

    1995-01-01

    Friction measurements were performed in the lubricant's solid-state regime to study the transition from full-film lubrication, in which the separation is maintained by a solidified lubricant, to mixed lubrication. Special attention is paid to the influence of temperature (inlet viscosity) and roughn

  12. Solid state physics advances in research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrenreich, Henry

    1994-01-01

    The latest volume in the world renowned Solid State Physics series marks the fruition of Founding Editor David Turnbull''s outstanding tenure as series editor. Volume 47 presents five articles written by leadingexperts on areas including crystal-melt interfacial tension, order-disorder transformation in alloys, brittle matrix composites, surfaces and interfaces, and magnetoresistance.

  13. Ultrafast laser spectroscopy in complex solid state materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tianqi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This thesis summarizes my work on applying the ultrafast laser spectroscopy to the complex solid state materials. It shows that the ultrafast laser pulse can coherently control the material properties in the femtosecond time scale. And the ultrafast laser spectroscopy can be employed as a dynamical method for revealing the fundamental physical problems in the complex material systems.

  14. International survey on solid state nuclear track detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the 1990 international survey on solid state nuclear track detection are presented. The survey was performed in collaboration with the International Nuclear Track Society (INTS). These results include the data on principal investigator(s), collaborator(s), institution, field of application(s), material(s), and method(s) of track observation from 28 countries. (author)

  15. Development of diode-pumped medical solid-state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two thirds of human body consists of water and the absorption of laser by water is an important factor in medical laser treatment. Er medical lasers have been used in the dermatology, ophthalmology and dental treatments due to its highest absorption by water. However, 2.9 um Er laser can not be transmitted through an optical fiber. On the other hand, Tm laser can be transmitted through an fiber and also has very high absorption by water. Therefore, Tm lasers are used in ophthalmology and heart treatment wherein the fiber delivery is very important for the treatment. Until now, mainly lamp-pumped solid-state lasers have been used in medical treatments, but the lamp-pumped solid-state lasers are being replaced with the diode-pumped solid-state lasers because the diode-pumped solid-state lasers are more compact and much easier to maintain. Following this trend, end-pumped Er and side-pumped Tm lasers have been developed and the output power of 1 W was obtained for Er and Tm respectively

  16. Real-Time Time-Frequency Two-Dimensional Imaging of Ultrafast Transient Signals in Solid-State Organic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Takeda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we demonstrate a real-time time-frequency two-dimensional (2D pump-probe imaging spectroscopy implemented on a single shot basis applicable to excited-state dynamics in solid-state organic and biological materials. Using this technique, we could successfully map ultrafast time-frequency 2D transient absorption signals of β-carotene in solid films with wide temporal and spectral ranges having very short accumulation time of 20 ms per unit frame. The results obtained indicate the high potential of this technique as a powerful and unique spectroscopic tool to observe ultrafast excited-state dynamics of organic and biological materials in solid-state, which undergo rapid photodegradation.

  17. Correlated quantum measurement of a solid-state qubit

    OpenAIRE

    Korotkov, Alexander N.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a solid-state experiment to study the process of continuous quantum measurement of a qubit state. The experiment would verify that an individual qubit stays coherent during the process of measurement (in contrast to the gradual decoherence of the ensemble-averaged density matrix) thus confirming the possibility of the qubit purification by continuous measurement. The experiment can be realized using quantum dots, single-electron transistors, or SQUIDs.

  18. Ultrafast Excited-State Dynamics in Biological Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Fürstenberg, Alexandre; Vauthey, Eric

    2007-01-01

    We discuss and illustrate by several examples how the ultrafast excited-state dynamics of a chromophore can be altered when changing its environment from a homogenous solution to a biological molecule such as proteins or nucleic acids.

  19. Toxicity evaluation of leachate of solid waste after biological and photocatalitical treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Ronaldo Teixeira Pelegrini; José Euclides Stipp Paterniani; Núbia Natália de Brito Pelegrini; Simoni Micheti Geraldo; Juliana Graciani Carniato

    2007-01-01

    The final disposition of urban solid wastes is a practice that still causes serious environmental impacts generating several pollutant subproducts, such as the landfill leachate. The toxicity tests are used in the pollution control with the scope of finding the permissive concentrations of a chemical agent for the development survival of particular alive organisms. This work aims the toxicity evaluation study in leachate samples of in natura solid wastes, after biological treatment through sl...

  20. Solid recovered fuel production through the mechanical-biological treatment of wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Velis, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the production of solid recovered fuel (SRF) from municipal solid waste using mechanical biological treatment (MBT) plants. It describes the first in-depth analysis of a UK MBT plant and addresses the fundamental research question: are MBT plants and their unit operations optimised to produce high quality SRF in the UK? A critical review of the process science and engineering of MBT provides timely insights into the quality management and standa...

  1. Molecularly Imprinted Solid-Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography for Biological Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Möller, Kristina

    2006-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the use of molecularly imprinted polymers as selective sorbents for solid-phase extraction (MISPE). The MISPE methods developed were mainly intended for use with biological samples, such as human urine and blood plasma. These body fluids are complex samples, which often need an effective clean-up step before analysis to reduce the levels of possible interfering substances from the matrix, especially if the analytes are present in trace amounts. Solid-phase extraction (S...

  2. Determination of element concentrations in biological reference materials by solid sampling and other analytical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schauenburg, H.; Weigert, P. (Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany). Centre for Surveillance and Health Evaluation of Environmental Chemicals (ZEBS))

    1992-04-01

    Using solid sampling with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS), values for cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in six biological reference materials were obtained from up to four laboratories participating in three collaborative studies. These results are compared with those obtained with other methods used in routine analysis from laboratories of official food control. Under certain conditions solid sampling with GFAAS seems to be suitable for routine analysis as well as conventional methods. (orig.).

  3. TYPICAL MEXICAN AGROINDUSTRIAL RESIDUES AS SUPPORTS FOR SOLID-STATE FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce A. Flores-Maltos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological wastes contain several reusable substances of high value such as soluble sugars and fiber. Direct disposal of such wastes to soil or landfill causes serious environmental problems. Thus, the development of potential value-added processes for these wastes is highly attractive. These biological wastes can be used as support-substrates in Solid-State Fermentation (SSF to produce industrially relevant metabolites with great economical advantage. In addition, it is an environment friendly method of waste management. In this study were analyzed six different Mexican agro industrial residues to evaluate their suitability as support-substrate in SSF, between physicochemical properties that have included Water Absorption Index (WAI, Critical Moisture Point (CHP and Packing Density (PD. The selection of an appropriate solid substrate plays an important role in the development of an efficient SSF process. The results provided important knowledge about the characteristics of these materials revealing their potential for use in fermentation processes.

  4. How to control solid state dewetting: A short review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, F.; Borowik, Ł.; Cheynis, F.; Almadori, Y.; Curiotto, S.; Trautmann, M.; Barbé, J. C.; Müller, P.

    2016-06-01

    In the past decade there have been many theoretical and experimental efforts to study the mechanisms of solid state dewetting, that means the spontaneous agglomeration of a thin solid film on a substrate into an assembly of 3D islands. The dewetting studies of solid films on solid substrates have not yet reached the degree of maturity achieved for liquids but there is now enough experimental data to consider the possibility of a future "dewetting engineering". By dewetting engineering we mean all the ways to tune and/or control the kinetics of dewetting as well as the morphology of the final dewetted state. The ultimate goal is to avoid dewetting when it complicates the fabrication of thin film-based devices or to use it for the spontaneous production of an assembly of nanoscaled islands on solid substrates. For this purpose we review the different parameters that influence the dewetting then illustrate how the dewetted state may be tuned by varying the thickness of the film, the annealing temperature, or the state of strain in the film. Moreover, adsorbed or absorbed species (by deposition or ionic impingement/ion bombardment) may modify the surface properties of the film or the mobility properties of the contact line film/substrate and thus the dewetting properties. Anisotropic properties of the film may also be used to initiate the dewetting from perfectly oriented edge fronts, leading to highly ordered 3D islands. New approaches using substrate pre-patterning or film patterning are very promising to achieve the dewetting engineering. Ideal systems for studying solid state dewetting are single crystalline films deposited or bonded on amorphous substrates, so that, among the numerous dewetting systems reported in the literature, ultra-thin crystalline silicon-on-insulator (SOI) film (a Si film bonded on an amorphous SiO2 substrate) is considered as a model system for studying how to control solid state dewetting. Other systems, as Ni epitaxially grown on MgO, are

  5. Development of the Los Alamos solid-state optical refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-induced cooling of a solid by net anti-Stokes fluorescence, first experimentally demonstrated in 1995, can be the basis of a new type of cryocooler, an optical refrigerator. This article describes the physics and design issues of a practical optical refrigerator for operation at 77 K. In particular, the Los Alamos Solid-State Optical Refrigerator (LASSOR) which we are developing would have an operating efficiency comparable to commercial small cryocoolers, be completely vibration-free and operate for years without maintenance

  6. Barocaloric effect and the pressure induced solid state refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current refrigerators are based on the heating and cooling of fluids under external pressure variation. The great inconvenience of this refrigeration technology is the damage caused to the environment by the refrigerant fluids. In this paper, we discuss the magnetic barocaloric effect, i.e., the heating or cooling of magnetic materials under pressure variation and its application in the construction of refrigerators using solid magnetic compounds as refrigerant materials and pressure as the external agent. The discussion presented in this paper points out that such a pressure induced solid state refrigerator can be very interesting because it is not harmful to the environment and can exhibit a good performance.

  7. Quantum theory of the solid state part B

    CERN Document Server

    Callaway, Joseph

    1974-01-01

    Quantum Theory of the Solid State, Part B describes the concepts and methods of the central problems of the quantum theory of solids. This book discusses the developed machinery applied to impurities, disordered systems, effects of external fields, transport phenomena, and superconductivity. The representation theory, low field diamagnetic susceptibility, electron-phonon interaction, and Landau theory of fermi liquids are also deliberated. This text concludes with an introduction to many-body theory and some applications. This publication is a suitable textbook for students who have completed

  8. The 1989 progress report: Solid-state Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1989 progress report of the laboratory of Solid-state Mechanics of the Polytechnic School (France) is presented. The investigations are focused on the study of strain and failure of solids and structures. The results reported concern the fields of: stability and bifurcation of elastic or inelastic systems, damage and fatigue (resistance improvement, failure risks on pipe systems, crack propagation), the development of a computer code for soil strengthening by using linear inclusions, mechanical behavior of several rocks for the safety of underground works, expert systems. The published papers, the conferences and the Laboratory staff are listed

  9. Interface investigations on all solid state thin film batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacke, S.; Song, J.; Cherkashinin, G.; Jaegermann, W. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Fachbereich Materialwissenschaft

    2010-07-01

    An All-Solid-State battery consisting of LiCoO{sub 2} as cathode, Lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) as solid electrolyte and LiAl as anode was fabricated. The thickness of the battery was 1.3{mu}m. An investigation of the structural composition of the materials relevant for the conductivity was carried out on the LiPON material by XPS core level analysis under UHV transfer. These analyses were then compared to the properties of the cathode-electrolyte interface using the same experimental methods. (orig.)

  10. Proceedings of the solid state physics symposium. Vol. 34C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Solid State Physics Symposium held at Varanasi during December 21 to 24, 1991. The topics discussed in the symposium were : (a) Phonon physics, (b) Electron states and electronic properties, (c) Magnetism and magnetic properties, (d) Semiconductor physics, (e) Physics of defects and disordered materials, (f) Transport properties, (g) Superconductivity and superfluidity, (h) Liquid crystals and plastic crystals, (i) Phase transitions and critical phenomena, (j) Surface and interface physics, (k) Non-linear dynamics, instabilities and chaos, (l) Resonance studies and relaxation phenomena, (m) Solid state devices, techniques and instrumentation. Three seminars on topics : (i) High Tc superconductors, (ii) Soft matter, and (iii) Physics and technology of interfaces were also held during the symposium. (M.K.V.N.)

  11. Atomic layer deposition of lithium phosphates as solid-state electrolytes for all-solid-state microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been shown as a powerful technique to build three-dimensional (3D) all-solid-state microbattery, because of its unique advantages in fabricating uniform and pinhole-free thin films in 3D structures. The development of solid-state electrolyte by ALD is a crucial step to achieve the fabrication of 3D all-solid-state microbattery by ALD. In this work, lithium phosphate solid-state electrolytes were grown by ALD at four different temperatures (250, 275, 300, and 325 °C) using two precursors (lithium tert-butoxide and trimethylphosphate). A linear dependence of film thickness on ALD cycle number was observed and uniform growth was achieved at all four temperatures. The growth rate was 0.57, 0.66, 0.69, and 0.72 Å/cycle at deposition temperatures of 250, 275, 300, and 325 °C, respectively. Furthermore, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the compositions and chemical structures of lithium phosphates deposited by ALD. Moreover, the lithium phosphate thin films deposited at 300 °C presented the highest ionic conductivity of 1.73 × 10−8 S cm−1 at 323 K with ∼0.51 eV activation energy based on the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The ionic conductivity was calculated to be 3.3 × 10−8 S cm−1 at 26 °C (299 K). (paper)

  12. Thermochemical Pretreatments of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste from a Mechanical-Biological Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos José Alvarez-Gallego; Luis Alberto Fdez-Güelfo; María de los Angeles Romero Aguilar; Luis Isidoro Romero García

    2015-01-01

    The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) usually contains high lignocellulosic and fatty fractions. These fractions are well-known to be a hard biodegradable substrate for biological treatments and its presence involves limitations on the performance of anaerobic processes. To avoid this, thermochemical pretreatments have been applied on the OFMSW coming from a full-scale mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plant, in order to pre-hydrolyze the waste and improve the organic matt...

  13. Solid-supported synthesis: From pharmacologically relevant heterocycles to biologically active surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komnatnyy, Vitaly V.

    The present PhD thesis consists of an introduction part and two separate parts covering selected research projects during the PhD study. The introduction part describes the concept of solid-supported synthesis and combinatorial chemistry. The chapter covers recent achievements in materials...... for solid-phase synthesis, methods for on - and off-bead screening of combinatorial libraries and their applic ation to various biological targets. The first part of the thesis is dedicated to the development of methodology for the synthesis of structurally diverse heterocyclic scaffolds via N......-acyliminium intermediates on solid support. In Chapter 1.1, an intermolecular Mannich -type reaction of solid-supported N- acyliminium ions is reported. The method is useful for the solid -supported synthesis of substituted ?-lactames , which constitute a class of pharmacologically relevant small molecule scaffolds...

  14. The Current State and Perspectives of Systems Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tielui Shi; Yixue Li

    2006-01-01

    Emerging as a new field in biology recently, Systems Biology provides a branch new way to study the biological activities in organisms. In order to decode the complexity of life systematically,systems biology integrates the "-omics" and uses the high throughput methods from transcriptomics,protomics and metabonomics to detect the dynamic activities in cell; and then, it incorporates bioinformatics methods to integrate and analyze those data, and simulate the biological processes based on the model built from those integrated data. In this paper, the current state, the research field and the methods for the Systems Biology are introduced briefly, and then, several ideas about future development in this field are also proposed.

  15. Novel Order Parameter to Characterize Valence-Bond-Solid States

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Masaaki; Todo, Synge

    2002-01-01

    We propose an order parameter to characterize valence-bond-solid (VBS) states in quantum spin chains, given by the ground-state expectation value of a unitary operator appearing in the Lieb-Schultz-Mattis argument. We show that the order parameter changes the sign according to the configuration of the valence bonds. This allows us to determine the phase transition point in between different VBS states accurately. We demonstrate this theory in the bond-alternating Heisenberg chain and in the f...

  16. Solid State Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research activities are reported in programs on theoretical solid state physics, physical properties of solids, radiation effects in metals, neutron scattering, research materials, and isotope research materials

  17. Solid State Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, M.K.; Young, F.W. Jr.

    1976-05-01

    Research activities are reported in programs on theoretical solid state physics, physical properties of solids, radiation effects in metals, neutron scattering, research materials, and isotope research materials. (JRD)

  18. An overview of Engineering Aspects of Solid State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid substrate cultivation (SSC or solid state fermentation (SSF is envisioned as a prominent bio conversion technique to transform natural raw materials into a wide variety of chemical as well as bio-chemical products. This process involves the fermentation of solid substrate medium with microorganism in the absence of free flowing water. Recent developments and concerted focus on SSF enabled it to evolve as a potential bio- technology as an alternative to thetraditional chemical synthesis. SSF is being successfully exploited for food production, fuels, enzymes, antibiotics, animal feeds and also for dye degradation. This paper discusses the various micro and macro level engineering problems associated with SSF and some possible solutions for its full commercial realization.

  19. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) solid-state NMR spectroscopy, a new approach to study humic material?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knicker, Heike; Lange, Sascha; van Rossum, Barth; Oschkinat, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    Compared to solution NMR spectroscopy, solid-state NMR spectra suffer from broad resonance lines and low resolution. This could be overcome by the use of 2-dimenstional solid-state NMR pulse sequences. Until recently, this approach has been unfeasible as a routine tool in soil chemistry, mainly because of the low NMR sensitivity of the respective samples. A possibility to circumvent those sensitivity problems represents high-field Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) solid-state NMR spectroscopy (Barnes et al., 2008), allowing considerable signal enhancements (Akbey et al., 2010). This is achieved by a microwave-driven transfer of polarization from a paramagnetic center to nuclear spins. Application of DNP to MAS spectra of biological systems (frozen solutions) showed enhancements of the factor 40 to 50 (Hall et al., 1997). Enhancements of this magnitude, thus may enable the use of at least some of the 2D solid-state NMR techniques that are presently already applied for pure proteins but are difficult to apply to soil peptides in their complex matrix. After adjusting the required acquisition parameters to the system "soil organic matter", lower but still promising enhancement factors were achieved. Additional optimization was performed and allowed the acquisition of 2D 13C and 15N solid-state NMR spectra of humified 13C and 15N enriched plant residues. Within the present contribution, the first solid-state DNP NMR spectra of humic material are presented. Those data demonstrate the great potential of this approach which certainly opens new doors for a better understanding of biochemical processes in soils, sediments and water. Akbey, Ü., Franks, W.T., Linden, A., Lange, S., Griffin, R.G., van Rossum, B.-J., Oschkinat, H., 2010. Dynamic nuclear polarization of deuterated proteins. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 49, 7803-7806. Barnes, A.B., De Paëpe, G., van der Wel, P.C.A., Hu, K.N., Joo, C.G., Bajaj, V.S., Mak-Jurkauskas, M.L., Sirigiri, J.R., Herzfeld, J

  20. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE (SECA) SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2003-06-01

    This report summarizes the progress made during the September 2001-March 2002 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program''. The program focuses on the development of a low-cost, high-performance 3-to-10-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system suitable for a broad spectrum of power-generation applications. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate a modular SOFC system that can be configured to create highly efficient, cost-competitive, and environmentally benign power plants tailored to specific markets. When fully developed, the system will meet the efficiency, performance, life, and cost goals for future commercial power plants.

  1. New methodological approaches in solid-state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Spectacular advances in solid-state NMR methodology, instrumentation and sample preparation have made possible studies of structure and dynamics on increasingly complex molecular systems, such as proteins that cannot be investigated by X-ray, or solution-state NMR (amyloid fibrils, membrane proteins embedded in native environments, protein aggregates), other large biomolecular systems (DNA, RNA, carbohydrates), functionalized polymeric materials, selfassembled and inclusion molecular complexes, molecular nano-devices, etc. Many of these applications rely on the development of solid-state NMR techniques tailored to specifically address characteristic structural and dynamical features of larger and larger molecules, where often the dynamics of abundant spins, for instance, 1H, or 13C(15N) in uniformly labeled samples, represents a major challenge. To account for a broad range of multi-spin processes in such systems that may influence the efficiency of the proposed experimental scheme, or the reliability of the extracted parameters from the measured data, adequate theoretical tools are also highly desirable. In this context, here, we present some of our recent developments that address exactly these issues, namely: (i) elaboration of viable approaches for symbolic algebra computation of dynamics in extended spin networks, within a framework called SD-CAS (Spin Dynamics by Computer Algebra System), and (ii) development of new solid-state NMR methods for structural investigation of complex molecular systems. (author)

  2. All conducting polymer electrodes for asymmetric solid-state supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we report the fabrication of solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) based on conducting polymer electrodes on a plastic substrate. Nanostructured conducting polymers of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT, and polyaniline (PANI) are deposited electrochemically over Au-coated polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) plastic substrates. Due to the electron donating nature of the oxygen groups in the PEDOT, reduction potentials are higher, allowing it to be used as a negative electrode material. In addition, the high stability of PEDOT in its oxidised state makes it capable to exhibit electrochemical activity in a wide potential window. This can qualify PEDOT to be used as a negative electrode in fabricating asymmetric solid state supercapacitors with PANI as a positive electrode while employing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/H2SO4 gel electrolyte. The ASCs exhibit a maximum power density of 2.8 W cm-3 at an energy density of 9 mW h cm-3, which is superior to the carbonaceous and metal oxide based ASC solid state devices. Furthermore, the tandem configuration of asymmetric supercapacitors is shown to be capable of powering a red light emitting diode for about 1 minute after charging for 10 seconds. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  3. All conducting polymer electrodes for asymmetric solid-state supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra

    2015-02-16

    In this study, we report the fabrication of solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) based on conducting polymer electrodes on a plastic substrate. Nanostructured conducting polymers of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT, and polyaniline (PANI) are deposited electrochemically over Au-coated polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) plastic substrates. Due to the electron donating nature of the oxygen groups in the PEDOT, reduction potentials are higher, allowing it to be used as a negative electrode material. In addition, the high stability of PEDOT in its oxidised state makes it capable to exhibit electrochemical activity in a wide potential window. This can qualify PEDOT to be used as a negative electrode in fabricating asymmetric solid state supercapacitors with PANI as a positive electrode while employing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/H2SO4 gel electrolyte. The ASCs exhibit a maximum power density of 2.8 W cm−3 at an energy density of 9 mW h cm−3, which is superior to the carbonaceous and metal oxide based ASC solid state devices. Furthermore, the tandem configuration of asymmetric supercapacitors is shown to be capable of powering a red light emitting diode for about 1 minute after charging for 10 seconds.

  4. GFT projection NMR spectroscopy for proteins in the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recording of four-dimensional (4D) spectra for proteins in the solid state has opened new avenues to obtain virtually complete resonance assignments and three-dimensional (3D) structures of proteins. As in solution state NMR, the sampling of three indirect dimensions leads per se to long minimal measurement time. Furthermore, artifact suppression in solid state NMR relies primarily on radio-frequency pulse phase cycling. For an n-step phase cycle, the minimal measurement times of both 3D and 4D spectra are increased n times. To tackle the associated 'sampling problem' and to avoid sampling limited data acquisition, solid state G-Matrix Fourier Transform (SS GFT) projection NMR is introduced to rapidly acquire 3D and 4D spectral information. Specifically, (4,3)D (HA)CANCOCX and (3,2)D (HACA)NCOCX were implemented and recorded for the 6 kDa protein GB1 within about 10% of the time required for acquiring the conventional congeners with the same maximal evolution times and spectral widths in the indirect dimensions. Spectral analysis was complemented by comparative analysis of expected spectral congestion in conventional and GFT NMR experiments, demonstrating that high spectral resolution of the GFT NMR experiments enables one to efficiently obtain nearly complete resonance assignments even for large proteins.

  5. The solid state lighting initiative: An industry/DOE collaborativeeffort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Steve

    2000-10-01

    A new era of technology is emerging in lighting. It is being propelled by the dramatic improvements in performance of solid state light sources. These sources offer an entirely new array of design aspects not achievable with current light sources. At the same time, their performance characteristics continue to improve and are expected to eclipse those of the most common light sources within the near future. High efficiency is one of these performance attributes motivating the Department of Energy (DOE) to work with the manufacturers of this new technology to create a program plan sufficiently comprehensive to support an industry-driven Solid State Lighting Initiative before Congress. The purpose of the initiative is to educate Congress about the potential of this technology to reduce the electric lighting load within the United States and, consequently, to realize the associated environmental benefits. The initiative will solicit congressional support to accelerate the development of solid state technology through investment in the research and development necessary to overcome the technical barriers that currently limit the products to niche markets. While there are multiple technologies being developed as solid state light sources, the two technologies which hold the most promise for application to general illumination are Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs). The form of these sources can be quite different from current sources, allowing exciting new design uses for the products. Being diffuse sources, OLEDs are much lower in intensity per unit area than LEDs. The manufacturing process for OLEDs lends itself to shapes that can be formed to different geometries, making possible luminous panels or flexible luminous materials. Conversely, LEDs are very intense point sources which can be integrated into a small space to create an intense source or used separately for less focused applications. Both OLED and LED sources are expected

  6. Solid state laser media driven by remote nuclear powered fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes an apparatus for driving solid state laser media by a remote nuclear-powered source. It comprises a nuclear reaction chamber producing diffuse fluorescence in the visible to infrared range, the reaction chamber including an aperture containing a lens capable of collecting the diffuse fluorescence from the reaction chamber, and further wherein the reaction chamber has an interior surface coated with material which is reflective and transmissive to visible to near infrared light such that the diffuse fluorescence collected in the reaction chamber by the lens is in the absorption bands of the remote solid state laser; channeling means for channeling the fluorescence from the reaction chamber to the remote laser; the channeling means including a waveguide adjacent to the lens for channeling the collected fluorescence from the lens to the remotely located laser and, coupling means for coupling the fluorescence to the laser such that the fluorescence is absorbed into the laser and pumps the laser

  7. Cooling of solid-state amplifiers with supercritical hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study addresses the thermal management of microwave solid-state amplifiers which are potential candidates for power systems at 425 and 850 MHz. Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory have investigated the cooling of extremely high density packaging of RF amplifier modules with a heat removal requirement of about 200 W/cm2. The technique uses water as a coolant which flows into the microchannels directly imbedded in the chips. The microchannel concept was first proposed by Tuckerman and Pease in 1981 and is capable of removing up to 1 kW/cm2 from silicon integrated circuits using water as the coolant. Previous studies, have demonstrated that on-board supercritical hydrogen can be used to cool solid-state amplifiers. Even though the heat transfer coefficient is lower for hydrogen compared to water, this deficiency is recouped by having a colder heat sink which is hydrogen at cryogenic temperatures

  8. Solid-State Nanopore-Based DNA Sequencing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewen Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid-state nanopore-based DNA sequencing technology is becoming more and more attractive for its brand new future in gene detection field. The challenges that need to be addressed are diverse: the effective methods to detect base-specific signatures, the control of the nanopore’s size and surface properties, and the modulation of translocation velocity and behavior of the DNA molecules. Among these challenges, the realization of the high-quality nanopores with the help of modern micro/nanofabrication technologies is a crucial one. In this paper, typical technologies applied in the field of solid-state nanopore-based DNA sequencing have been reviewed.

  9. Optical Bistability And Hysteresis In A Solid State Ring Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, L. S.; Kravtsov, N. S.; Shelaev, A. N.

    1985-01-01

    The phenomena of optical bistability, hysteresis and memory under the interaction of oppositely directed (OD) light waves in a CW YAG:Nd3+ solid state ring laser (SRL) have been experimentally discovered. The possibilities of spontaneous or forced (with modulated SRL parameters) commutation of the radiation direction without transients at the relaxation frequency (typical for solid state lasers) have been established both in the single-mode and in the mode-locking regimes with various feedback circuits. The mode-locking band was found to be substantially broadened by more than an order of magnitude when OD light waves primarily diffracted on a standing ultrasonic wave were returned into the acousto-optical modulator. With such acousto-optical feedback the mode-locking regime has been obtained using a modulator on a running ultrasonic wave.

  10. PLGA and PHBV Microsphere Formulations and Solid-State Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Chiming; Plackett, David; Needham, David;

    2009-01-01

    To develop and characterize the solid-state properties of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric acid) (PHBV) microspheres for the localized and controlled release of fusidic acid (FA). The effects of FA loading and polymer composition on the mean...... diameter, encapsulation efficiency and FA released from the microspheres were determined. The solid-state and phase separation properties of the microspheres were characterized using DSC, XRPD, Raman spectroscopy, SEM, laser confocal and real time recording of single microspheres formation. Above a loading...... of 1% (w/w) FA phase separated from PLGA polymer and formed distinct spherical FA-rich amorphous microdomains throughout the PLGA microsphere. For FA-loaded PLGA microspheres, encapsulation efficiency and cumulative release increased with initial drug loading. Similarly, cumulative release from FA-loaded...

  11. Solid-State Ultracapacitor for Improved Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a solid-state ultracapacitor using a novel nanocomposite, dielectric material. The material's design is based on the internal barrier layer capacitance (IBLC) concept, and it uses novel dielectric and metallic conductive ink formulations. Novel processing methods developed by NASA provide for unique dielectric properties at the grain level. Nanoscale raw material powders are tailored using a variety of techniques and then formulated into a special ink. This dielectric ink is used with novel metallic conductive ink to print a capacitor layer structure into any design necessary to meet a range of technical requirements. The innovation is intended to replace current range safety batteries that NASA uses to power the systems that destroy off-course space vehicles. A solid-state design provides the needed robustness and safety for this demanding application.

  12. Performance of a 229Thorium solid-state nuclear clock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 7.8 eV nuclear isomer transition in 229thorium has been suggested as a clock transition in a new type of optical frequency standard. Here we discuss the construction of a ‘solid-state nuclear clock’ from thorium nuclei implanted into single crystals transparent in the vacuum ultraviolet range. We investigate crystal-induced line shifts and broadening effects for the specific system of calcium fluoride. At liquid nitrogen temperatures, the clock performance will be limited by decoherence due to magnetic coupling of the thorium nuclei to neighboring nuclear moments, ruling out the commonly used Rabi or Ramsey interrogation schemes. We propose clock stabilization based on a fluorescence spectroscopy method and present optimized operation parameters. Taking advantage of the large number of quantum oscillators under continuous interrogation, a fractional instability level of 10−19 might be reached within the solid-state approach. (paper)

  13. Solid state amorphization kinetic of alpha lactose upon mechanical milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Vincent; Willart, Jean-François; Lefort, Ronan; Derollez, Patrick; Danède, Florence; Descamps, Marc

    2011-11-29

    It has been previously reported that α-lactose could be totally amorphized by ball milling. In this paper we report a detailed investigation of the structural and microstructural changes by which this solid state amorphization takes place. The investigations have been performed by Powder X-ray Diffraction, Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((13)C CP-MAS) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The results reveal the structural complexity of the material in the course of its amorphization so that it cannot be considered as a simple mixture made of a decreasing crystalline fraction and an increasing amorphous fraction. Heating this complexity can give rise to a fully nano-crystalline material. The results also show that chemical degradations upon heating are strongly connected to the melting process. PMID:21983262

  14. Enhanced amylase production by fusarium solani in solid state fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study illustrates the investigation carried out on the production of amylase by Fusarium species under solid state fermentation. All the tested Fusarium species were capable of producing amylase. A selected F. solani isolate SY7, showed the highest amylase production in solid state fermentation. Different substrates were screened for enzyme production. Among the several agronomic wastes, wheat bran supported the highest yield of amylase (141.18 U/g of dry substrate) after 3 days of incubation. Optimisation of the physical parameters revealed the optimum pH, temperature and moisture level for amylase production by the isolate as 8.0, 25 C and 70%, respectively. The above results indicate that the production of amylase by F. solani isolate SY7 could be improved by a further optimisation of the medium and culture conditions. (author)

  15. Introduction to solid state physics and crystalline nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Iadonisi, Giuseppe; Chiofalo, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This textbook provides conceptual, procedural, and factual knowledge on solid state and nanostructure physics. It is designed to acquaint readers with key concepts and their connections, to stimulate intuition and curiosity, and to enable the acquisition of competences in general strategies and specific procedures for problem solving and their use in specific applications. To these ends, a multidisciplinary approach is adopted, integrating physics, chemistry, and engineering and reflecting how these disciplines are converging towards common tools and languages in the field. Each chapter discusses essential ideas before the introduction of formalisms and the stepwise addition of complications. Questions on everyday manifestations of the concepts are included, with reasoned linking of ideas from different chapters and sections and further detail in the appendices. The final section of each chapter describes experimental methods and strategies that can be used to probe the phenomena under discussion. Solid state...

  16. 2006 Fundamental Research Underlying Solid-State Lighting: Contractors Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzsimmons, Tim [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering; Kini, Arvind [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering; Kelley, Dick [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering

    2006-02-01

    This volume highlights the scientific content of the 2006 Fundamental Research Underlying Solid-State Lighting Contractors Meeting sponsored by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering (DMS&E) in the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). This meeting is the second in a series of research theme-based Contractors Meetings and will focus on BES/DMS&E-funded research that underpins solid-state lighting technology. The meeting will feature research that cuts across several DMS&E core research program areas. The major programmatic emphasis is on developing a fundamental scientific base, in terms of new concepts and new materials that could be used or mimicked in designing novel materials, processes or devices.

  17. Raman Cooling of Solids through Photonic Density of States Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yin-Chung

    2015-01-01

    The laser cooling of vibrational states of solids has been achieved through photoluminescence in rare-earth elements, optical forces in optomechanics, and the Brillouin scattering light-sound interaction. The net cooling of solids through spontaneous Raman scattering, and laser refrigeration of indirect band gap semiconductors, both remain unsolved challenges. Here, we analytically show that photonic density of states (DoS) engineering can address the two fundamental requirements for achieving spontaneous Raman cooling: suppressing the dominance of Stokes (heating) transitions, and the enhancement of anti-Stokes (cooling) efficiency beyond the natural optical absorption of the material. We develop a general model for the DoS modification to spontaneous Raman scattering probabilities, and elucidate the necessary and minimum condition required for achieving net Raman cooling. With a suitably engineered DoS, we establish the enticing possibility of refrigeration of intrinsic silicon by annihilating phonons from ...

  18. Solid state dosimeters used in medical physics 'A review'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many solid-state detectors have been successfully used to perform the quality control and in vivo dosimetry in medical physics, both in diagnostic radiology and radiotherapy, as they have high sensitivity in a small volume; most of them do not require electrical connection and have dosimetric characteristics of interest such as: good accuracy and reproducibility, as well as a response independent of the energy of radiation, some of them. For this reason, the selection of an appropriate detector for use in medical physics must take into account the energy mass absorption coefficient relative to water for photon sources and the mass stopping power relative to water for beta emitters and electron beams in the energy range of interest in medical physics, as well as the effective atomic number of materials that constitute them. This paper presents a review of the dosimetric characteristics of the solid state dosimeters most suitable for use in medical physics.

  19. Peakr: simulating solid-state NMR spectra of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When analyzing solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of proteins, assignment of resonances to nuclei and derivation of restraints for 3D structure calculations are challenging and time-consuming processes. Simulated spectra that have been calculated based on, for example, chemical shift predictions and structural models can be of considerable help. Existing solutions are typically limited in the type of experiment they can consider and difficult to adapt to different settings. Here, we present Peakr, a software to simulate solid-state NMR spectra of proteins. It can generate simulated spectra based on numerous common types of internuclear correlations relevant for assignment and structure elucidation, can compare simulated and experimental spectra and produces lists and visualizations useful for analyzing measured spectra. Compared with other solutions, it is fast, versatile and user friendly. (authors)

  20. Conductors, semiconductors, superconductors an introduction to solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Huebener, Rudolf P

    2016-01-01

    This undergraduate textbook provides an introduction to the fundamentals of solid state physics, including a description of the key people in the field and the historic context. The book concentrates on the electric and magnetic properties of materials. It is written for students up to the bachelor level in the fields of physics, materials science, and electric engineering. Because of its vivid explanations and its didactic approach, it can also serve as a motivating pre-stage and supporting companion in the study of the established and more detailed textbooks of solid state physics. The textbook is suitable for a quick repetition prior to examinations. This second edition is extended considerably by detailed mathematical treatments in many chapters, as well as extensive coverage of magnetic impurities.

  1. Structural characterization of pure and doped calcium phosphate bioceramics prepared by simple solid state method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium Phosphate based bioceramic materials, in pure and doped forms have been successfully synthesized from egg shells by using solid-state method for the first time. Considering the diverse role of zinc and fluoride in biological functions, these two ions were chosen to develop the substituted bioceramic materials. Structural characterizations of these developed bioceramics were performed by using FTIR, XRD, SEM and EDS techniques. The results revealed that the fluoride doped apatite was formed in single phase containing hydroxyapatite while pure and Zinc doped apatites contained -TCP with hydroxyapatite. Experimental results and the crystallographic parameters matched well with the literature values indicating that the present experimental protocol favoured the formation of the desired bioceramics. However, to synthesize the (Ca (PO)) based bioceramic materials, such a simple solid-state approach would obviously be very helpful, not only in making the process economically feasible, but also in creating an effective material recycling technology for waste-management. (author)

  2. Photoluminescence study of Tb3+ doped CaCO3 synthesized by solid state metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muke, A. M.; Ugemuge, N. S.; Moharil, S. V.

    2016-05-01

    Conventional solid-state reaction or simple solution precipitation techniques suffer from several limitations, i.e. a high processing temperature, relatively high preparation cost and more time of preparation, highly complicated synthesis, in-stoichiometric compositions and poor crystallinity. Preparation of inorganic phosphors by microwave assisted Solid state metathesis is one of the superior methods of synthesis. Time duration required for synthesis by microwave assisted synthesis is relatively low. The required reaction temperature can be attempted using domestic microwave oven with consumption of relatively low energy. CaCO3 is one of the most abundant biological minerals in nature and has found many important applications in industry, such as pigments, paper makings, plastics, rubbers, and so on.

  3. Solid state photon upconversion utilizing thermally activated delayed fluorescence molecules as triplet sensitizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Tony C.; Congreve, Daniel N.; Baldo, Marc A., E-mail: baldo@mit.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    The ability to upconvert light is useful for a range of applications, from biological imaging to solar cells. But modern technologies have struggled to upconvert incoherent incident light at low intensities. Here, we report solid state photon upconversion employing triplet-triplet exciton annihilation in an organic semiconductor, sensitized by a thermally activated-delayed fluorescence (TADF) dye. Compared to conventional phosphorescent sensitizers, the TADF dye maximizes the wavelength shift in upconversion due to its small singlet-triplet splitting. The efficiency of energy transfer from the TADF dye is 9.1%, and the conversion yield of sensitizer exciton pairs to singlet excitons in the annihilator is 1.1%. Our results demonstrate upconversion in solid state geometries and with non-heavy metal-based sensitizer materials.

  4. Annual report 1983/1984. Division of Solid State Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report gives a survey of the present research projects at the division of solid state physics, Inst. of Technology, Uppsala University. The projects fall within the fields of magnetism, i.e. spin glasses, ordered magnetic structures and itinerant electron magnetism, as well as optics, i.e. properties of crystalline and amorphous materials for selective transmission and absorption in connection with energy-related research. (author)

  5. Solid-state radiation detectors technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The book discusses the current solid state material used in advance detectors manufacturing and their pros and cons and how one can tailor them using different techniques, to get the maximum performance. The book is application oriented to radiation detectors for medical, X and gamma rays application, and good reference with in-depth discussion of detector's physics as it relates to medical application tailored for engineers and scientists.

  6. Radiation protection of hyaluronic acid in the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of γ irradiation on hyaluronic acid (HA) and its molecular complex with cetyl pyridinium cations have been examined in the solid state. On the basis of the nature of the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra, radical yields, and physical chemical data, there is good evidence that protectin of hyaluronic acid occurs when irradiated in a complex with cetyl pyridinium cations. The radiation protection conferred on the polyanion by the cetyl pyridinium cations is discussed in terms of energy transfer processes

  7. Solid-state Terahertz Sources for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiwald, Frank; Pearson, John C.; Ward, John S.; Schlecht, Erich; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Gill, John J.; Ferber, R.; Tsang, Raymond; Lin, Robert H.; Peralta, Alejandro; Finamore, B.; Chun, William W.; Baker, John J.; Dengler, Robert J.; Javadi, Hamid H.; Siegel, Peter H.; Mehdi, Imran

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the construction of solid-state frequency multiplier chains utilized far teraherz receiver applications such as the Herschel Space Observatory . Emphasis will he placed on the specific requirements to be met and challenges that were encountered. The availability of high power amplifiers at 100 GHz makes it possible to cascade frequency doublers and triplers with sufficient RF power to pump heterodyne receivers at THz frequencies. The environmental and mechanical constraints will be addressed as well as reliability issues.

  8. Gas cooled disk amplifier approach to solid state average power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disk amplifiers have been used on almost all solid state laser systems of high energy, and, in principle, one simply has to cool the device to operate it at average power. To achieve the desired waste heat removal, gas is flowed across the disk surface. The authors show the basic gas flow geometry. They computationally and experimentally characterize the flow and its optical implications over regimes which far exceed the envisioned operating requirements of a working amplifier

  9. Oxygen production using solid-state zirconia electrolyte technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suitor, Jerry W.; Clark, Douglas J.

    1991-01-01

    High purity oxygen is required for a number of scientific, medical, and industrial applications. Traditionally, these needs have been met by cryogenic distillation or pressure swing adsorption systems designed to separate oxygen from air. Oxygen separation from air via solid-state zirconia electrolyte technology offers an alternative to these methods. The technology has several advantages over the traditional methods, including reliability, compactness, quiet operation, high purity output, and low power consumption.

  10. Performance of Several Solid State Photomultipliers with CLYC Scintillator

    CERN Document Server

    Mesick, Katherine E; Morrell, Jonathan T; Coupland, Daniel D S

    2015-01-01

    $Cs_2LiYCl_6:Ce^{3+}$ (CLYC) is an inorganic scintillator that has recently garnered attention for its ability to detect and discriminate between gammas and thermal neutrons. We investigate several important performance parameters of three different solid state photomultipliers (SSPMs) when reading out CLYC crystals: linearity, energy resolution, and pulse shape and discrimination ability. These performance parameters are assessed at a variety of temperatures between -20$^{\\circ}$C and +50$^{\\circ}$C.

  11. Solid-state NMR studies of nucleic acid components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dračínský, Martin; Hodgkinson, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 16 (2015), s. 12300-12310. ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-24880S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : NMR spectroscopy * nucleic acids * solid-state NMR Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.840, year: 2014 http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlepdf/2015/ra/c4ra14404j

  12. Solid-state NMR studies of polysaccharide systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spěváček, Jiří; Brus, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 265, č. 1 (2008), s. 69-76. ISSN 1022-1360. [European Symposium on Polymer Spectroscopy /17./. Seggauberg Leibnitz, 09.9.2007-12.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/05/0273 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : biodegradable polymers * chitin/glucan complex * polysaccharides * solid-state NMR Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  13. Solid-state NMR studies of polysaccharide systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spěváček, Jiří; Brus, Jiří

    Tarragona : Institute de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, 2007. s. 140. [Euromar Magnetic Resonance Conference. 01.06.2007-05.06.2007, Tarragona] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/05/0273 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polysaccharide * chain/glucan complex * starch /polycaprolactone blend * solid-state NMR Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  14. Innovative Materials and Systems for Solid State Hydrogen Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Capurso, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The research presented in this doctoral thesis concerns with the development of novel materials and systems for solid state hydrogen storage. The first group of works presented is on alkaline and alkaline-earth borohydrides. The possibility to enhance their properties with the help of nanosupports has been widely explored. An attempt to improve the dehydrogenation kinetics of lithium borohydride has been made dispersing this material on the surface of modified nanotubes and gra...

  15. 13C NMR spectra in the liquid and solid states

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabal, R.; Brus, Jiří; Madronová, L.; Novák, František

    New York : Nova Science Publisher, 2011 - (Madronová, L.), s. 35-46 ISBN 978-1-61668-965-0. - ( Chemistry Research and Applications ) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : solid-state NMR * humic acids * soil Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=14700

  16. The solid-state synthesis of tritium labelled heterocyclic bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorov, G.V.; Myasoedov, N.F. (AN SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Molekulyarnoj Genetiki)

    1994-04-01

    The results of a study of the solid-state catalytic hydrogenation and the synthesis of tritium labelled native heterocyclic bases are presented. The effect of different palladium catalysts and reaction conditions on yield and molar radioactivity of final compounds was investigated. For some compounds, data on the intramolecular distribution of tritium were obtained by using the isotope exchange reaction and tritium NMR. Tritium labelled purine and pyrimidine bases (25-180 Ci/mmol.) were synthesized. (Author).

  17. Preparation of Solid State Detectors by High-Temperature Diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a view to the preparation of solid state detectors that could be used for the dosimetry of electrons of a wide energy region, the diffusion of phosphorus in single crystals of p-type silicon was studied for various diffusion times, thus modifying the curve representing the concentration of impurities in the detector. From these curves operational characteristics can be inferred that may be valuable in the above-mentioned manufacturing process. (author)

  18. Detection of DNA hybridizations using solid-state nanopores

    OpenAIRE

    Balagurusamy, Venkat S K; Weinger, Paul; Ling, Xinsheng Sean

    2010-01-01

    We report an experimental study of using DNA translocation through solid-state nanopores to detect the sequential arrangement of two double-stranded 12-mer hybridization segments on a single-stranded DNA molecule. The sample DNA is a trimer molecule formed by hybridizing three single-stranded oligonucleotides. A polystyrene bead is attached to the end of the trimer DNA, providing a mechanism in slowing down the translocation and suppressing the thermal diffusion, thereby allowing the detectio...

  19. Colour-rendition properties of solid-state lamps

    OpenAIRE

    Žukauskas, A.; Vaicekauskas, R; Shur, M. S.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The applicability of colour quality metrics to solid-state light sources is validated and the results of the assessment of colour rendition characteristics of various lamps are presented. The standard colour rendering index metric (CRI) or a refined colour quality scale metric (CQS) fail to distinguish between two principle colour rendition properties of illumination: the ability to render object colours with high fidelity and the ability to increase chromatic contrast, especially...

  20. Nodal Quantum Numbers for Two-Electron States in Solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of construction and physical labelling of singlet and triplet zero total momentum two-electron states in solids is considered. It is shown that the wavefunctions belonging to repeating multi-dimensional irreducible representations can be labelled making use of theorem of induction transitivity. The intermediate group in this classification can be chosen depending on experimental nodal structure of superconducting order parameter. The application of the results to unconventional superconductors is discussed. (author)

  1. Solid state capacitor discharge pulsed power supply for railguns

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Jesse H.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents a solid state thyristor switched power supply capable of providing 50 kJ from a high voltage capacitor to a railgun. The efficiency with which energy is transferred from a power supply to a projectile depends strongly on power supply characteristics. This design will provide a better impedance match to the railgun than power supplies utilizing spark gap switches. This supply will cost less and take up less volume than a similar supply using spark gap switches; it wil...

  2. All solid state pulsed power system for water discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Sakugawa, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Kunihiro; Kiyan, Tsuyoshi; Namihira, Takao; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori; サクガワ, タカシ; ヤマグチ, タカヒロ; ヤマモト, クニヒロ; キヤン, ツヨシ; ナミヒラ, タカオ; カツキ, スナオ; アキヤマ, ヒデノリ; 佐久川, 貴志

    2005-01-01

    Pulsed power has been used to produce non-thermal plasmas in gases that generate a high electric field at the tip of streamer discharges, where high energy electrons, free radicals, and ozone are produced. Recently, all solid state pulsed power generators, which are operated with high repetition rate, long lifetime and high reliability, have been developed for industrial applications, such as high repetition rate pulsed gas lasers, high energy density plasma (EUV sources) and water discharges...

  3. Solid-State NMR Characterization of Gas Vesicle Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Sivertsen, Astrid C.; Bayro, Marvin J.; Belenky, Marina; Griffin, Robert G.; Herzfeld, Judith

    2010-01-01

    Gas vesicles are gas-filled buoyancy organelles with walls that consist almost exclusively of gas vesicle protein A (GvpA). Intact, collapsed gas vesicles from the cyanobacterium Anabaena flos-aquae were studied by solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and most of the GvpA sequence was assigned. Chemical shift analysis indicates a coil-α-β-β-α-coil peptide backbone, consistent with secondary-structure-prediction algorithms, and complementary information about mobility and solvent exposure yields a pi...

  4. Solid-state oxidation of aniline hydrochloride with various oxidants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šeděnková, Ivana; Konyushenko, Elena; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava; Prokeš, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 161, 13/14 (2011), s. 1353-1360. ISSN 0379-6779 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100500902; GA AV ČR IAA400500905; GA ČR GA203/08/0686 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : conducting polymer * polyaniline * solid-state polymerization Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.829, year: 2011

  5. Molecular Structure of Humin and Melanoidin via Solid State NMR

    OpenAIRE

    Herzfeld, Judith; Rand, Danielle; Matsuki, Yoh; Daviso, Eugenio; Mak-Jurkauskas, Melody; Mamajanov, Irena

    2011-01-01

    Sugar-derived humins and melanoidins figure significantly in food chemistry, agricultural chemistry, biochemistry and prebiotic chemistry. Despite wide interest and significant experimental attention, the amorphous and insoluble nature of the polymers has made them resistant to conventional structural characterization. Here we make use of solid-state NMR methods, including selective 13C substitution, 1H-dephasing, and double quantum filtration. The spectra, and their interpretation, are simpl...

  6. Solid State Fermentation of Mexican Oregano (Lippia Berlandieri Schauer Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Melendez-Renteria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Mexican oregano is recognized for their aromatic characteristics and flavor quality. Principal products obtained from the plant and marketing are the leaves and essential oil; however the extraction of the essential oil generates large amounts of agro industrial wastes; that can be used as support-substrates in Solid-State Fermentations (SSF. Approach: In this study a fungal bioprocess, as solid state fermentation using Mexican oregano wastes as support, for the use of these residues to obtain adds value products and/or molecules were developed. The fungal strain was selects by its adaptability to the support. The aqueous and non polar extracts were obtained kinetically until 120 h and then it was partially characterized (hydrolysable tannins, total sugar and proteins contents, antioxidant activity, tymol and carvacrol concentration. Results: Solid state fermentation of oregano wastes, with Aspergillus niger PSH, allowed the accumulation of a phenolic compound with catechin similar characteristics and could be responsible of the biotransformation of small amounts of carvacrol to thymol. Conclusion: These results could give an add value to Mexican oregano wastes and with more investigation the obtained products can be used in several industries.

  7. Interface Limited Lithium Transport in Solid-State Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanagopalan, Dhamodaran; Qian, Danna; McGilvray, Thomas; Wang, Ziying; Wang, Feng; Camino, Fernando; Graetz, Jason; Dudney, Nancy; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2014-01-16

    Understanding the role of interfaces is important for improving the performance of all-solid-state lithium ion batteries. To study these interfaces, we present a novel approach for fabrication of electrochemically active nanobatteries using focused ion beams and their characterization by analytical electron microscopy. Morphological changes by scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging and correlated elemental concentration changes by electron energy loss spectroscopy mapping are presented. We provide first evidence of lithium accumulation at the anode/current collector (Si/Cu) and cathode/electrolyte (LixCoO2/LiPON) interfaces, which can be accounted for the irreversible capacity losses. Interdiffusion of elements at the Si/LiPON interface was also witnessed with a distinct contrast layer. These results highlight that the interfaces may limit the lithium transport significantly in solid-state batteries. Fabrication of electrochemically active nanobatteries also enables in situ electron microscopy observation of electrochemical phenomena in a variety of solid-state battery chemistries. PMID:26270703

  8. Conductors, semiconductors, superconductors an introduction to solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Huebener, Rudolf P

    2015-01-01

    In the second half of the last century solid state physics and materials science experienced a great advance and established itself as an important and independent new field. This book provides an introduction to the fundamentals of solid state physics, including a description of the key people in the field and the historic context. The book concentrates on the electric and magnetic properties of materials. It is written for students up to the bachelor in the fields of physics, materials science, and electric engineering. Because of its vivid explanations and its didactic approach, it can also serve as a motivating pre-stage and supporting companion in the study of the established and more detailed textbooks of solid state physics. The book is suitable for a quick repetition prior to examinations. For his scientific accomplishments, in 1992 the author received the Max-Planck Research Price and in 2001 the Cryogenics Price. He studied physics and mathematics at the University of Marburg, as well at the Technic...

  9. Phosphorus 31 solid state NMR characterization of oligonucleotides covalently bound to a solid support.

    OpenAIRE

    Macdonald, P M; Damha, M J; Ganeshan, K; Braich, R; Zabarylo, S V

    1996-01-01

    31P cross polarization (CP) magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were acquired for various linear and branched di- and tri-nucleotides attached to a controlled pore glass (CPG) solid support. The technique readily distinguishes the oxidation state of the phosphorus atom (phosphate versus phosphate), the presence or absence of a protecting group attached directly to phosphorus (cyanoethyl), and other large changes in the phosphorus chemistry (phosphate versus pho...

  10. Interstitial growth and remodeling of biological tissues: tissue composition as state variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kristin; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2014-01-01

    Growth and remodeling of biological tissues involves mass exchanges between soluble building blocks in the tissue's interstitial fluid and the various constituents of cells and the extracellular matrix. As the content of these various constituents evolves with growth, associated material properties, such as the elastic modulus of the extracellular matrix, may similarly evolve. Therefore, growth theories may be formulated by accounting for the evolution of tissue composition over time in response to various biological and mechanical triggers. This approach has been the foundation of classical bone remodeling theories that successfully describe Wolff's law by establishing a dependence between Young's modulus and bone apparent density and by formulating a constitutive relation between bone mass supply and the state of strain. The goal of this study is to demonstrate that adding tissue composition as state variables in the constitutive relations governing the stress-strain response and the mass supply represents a very general and straightforward method to model interstitial growth and remodeling in a wide variety of biological tissues. The foundation for this approach is rooted in the framework of mixture theory, which models the tissue as a mixture of multiple solid and fluid constituents. A further generalization is to allow each solid constituent in a constrained solid mixture to have its own reference (stress-free) configuration. Several illustrations are provided, ranging from bone remodeling to cartilage tissue engineering and cervical remodeling during pregnancy. PMID:23562499

  11. Solid State KA-Band, Solid State W-Band and TWT Amplifiers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase I of the proposal describes plans to develop a state of the art transmitter for the W-Band and KA -Band Cloud Radar system. Our focus will be concentrated in...

  12. Ion production from solid state laser ion sources

    CERN Document Server

    Gottwald, T; Wendt, K; Raeder, S; Mattolat, C; Rothe, S; Liu, Y; Lassen, J

    2010-01-01

    Laser ion sources based on resonant excitation and ionization of atoms are well-established tools for selective and efficient production of radioactive ion beams. Recent developments are focused on the use of the state-of-the-art all solid-state laser systems. To date, 35 elements of the periodic table are available from laser ion sources based on tunable Ti:sapphire lasers. Recent progress in this field regarding the establishment of suitable optical excitation schemes for Ti:sapphire lasers are reported.

  13. Physico-chemical studies on samarium soaps in solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physico-chemical characteristics of samarium soaps (caproate and caprate) in solid state were investigated by IR, X-ray diffraction and TGA measurements. The IR results revealed that the fatty acids exist in dimeric state through hydrogen bonding and samarium soaps possess partial ionic character. The X-ray diffraction measurements were used to calculate the long spacings and the results confirmed the double layer structure of samarium soaps. The decomposition reaction was found kinetically of zero order and the values of energy of activation for the decomposition process for caproate and caprate were found to be 8,0 and 7,8 kcal mol-1, respectively. (Authors)

  14. Modeling of positron states and annihilation in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical models and computational aspects to describe positron states and to predict positron annihilation characteristics in solids are discussed. The comparison of the calculated positron lifetimes, core annihilation lineshapes, and two-dimensional angular correlation maps with experimental results are used in identifying the structure (including the chemical composition) of vacancy-type defects and their development e.g. during thermal annealing. The basis of the modeling is the two-component density-functional theory. The ensuing approximations and the state-of-the-art electronic-structure computation methods enable practical schemes with a quantitative predicting power. (author)

  15. PEO nanocomposite polymer electrolyte for solid state symmetric capacitors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nirbhay K Singh; Mohan L Verma; Manickam Minakshi

    2015-10-01

    Physical and electrochemical properties of polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based nanocomposite solid polymer electrolytes (NPEs) were investigated for symmetric capacitor applications. Nanosize fillers, i.e., Al2O3 and SiO2 incorporated polymer electrolyte exhibited higher ionic conductivity than those with filler-free composites. The composites have been synthesized by the completely dry (solution-free) hot-press method. The addition of filler in fractional amount to the solid polymer matrix at room temperature further enhances the ionic conductivity. Nature of the NPEs were studied using X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive spectra analyses. Thermal stability of the resulting electrolyte was analysed by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetric studies. Morphology changes occurred during the addition of fillers was evidenced by scanning electronic microscope images. Solid polymer electrolytes exhibiting these parameters was found to be suitable for solid state capacitors. The results obtained from the electrolytes with an optimum compositions (PEO70AgI30)93 (Al2O3)7 and (PEO70AgI30)95 (SiO2)5 used in the (PEO70AgI30)70 (AC)30 electrodes for symmetric capacitor applications and their performances were analysed by impedance spectroscopic, Bode plot, cyclic voltammetry, discharge characteristics and leakage current profile.

  16. 40 CFR 256.02 - Scope of the State solid waste management plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF STATE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS Purpose, General Requirements, Definitions § 256.02 Scope of the State solid waste management plan. (a)(1) The... plan shall consider the following aspects of solid waste management: (i) Resource conservation;...

  17. SOLID-STATE SENSORS FOR CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION ON SMALL WIND TURBINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two different solid-state sensor packages were evaluated for use on small wind turbines (data acquisition. The two solid-state sensor packages were compared to three mechanical sensor packages that have been used to measure small turbine performance parameters. The solid-s...

  18. Biological treatment of soils contaminated with hydrophobic organics using slurry and solid phase techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both slurry-phase and solid-phase bioremediation are effective ex situ soil decontamination methods. Slurry is energy intensive relative to solid-phase treatment, but provides homogenization and uniform nutrient distribution. Limited contaminant bioavailability at concentrations above the required cleanup level reduces biodegradation rates and renders solid phase bioremediation more cost effective than complete treatment in a bioslurry reactor. Slurrying followed by solid-phase bioremediation combines the advantages and minimizes the weaknesses of each treatment method when used alone. A biological treatment system consisting of slurrying followed by aeration in solid phase bioreactors was developed and tested in the laboratory using a silty clay load contaminated with diesel fuel. The first set of experiments was designed to determine the impact of the water content and mixing time during slurrying on the ate and extent of contaminant removal in continuously aerated solid phase bioreactors. The second set of experiments compared the volatile and total diesel fuel removal in solid phase bioreactors using periodic and continuous aeration strategies

  19. Solid state and aqueous behavior of uranyl peroxide cage clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Kristi Lynn

    Uranyl peroxide cage clusters include a large family of more than 50 published clusters of a variety of sizes, which can incorporate various ligands including pyrophosphate and oxalate. Previous studies have reported that uranyl clusters can be used as a method to separate uranium from a solid matrix, with potential applications in reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel. Because of the potential applications of these novel structures in an advanced nuclear fuel cycle and their likely presence in areas of contamination, it is important to understand their behavior in both solid state and aqueous systems, including complex environments where other ions are present. In this thesis, I examine the aqueous behavior of U24Pp 12, as well as aqueous cluster systems with added mono-, di-, and trivalent cations. The resulting solutions were analyzed using dynamic light scattering and ultra-small angle X-ray scattering to evaluate the species in solution. Precipitates of these systems were analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and Raman spectroscopy. The results of these analyses demonstrate the importance of cation size, charge, and concentration of added cations on the aqueous behavior of uranium macroions. Specifically, aggregates of various sizes and shapes form rapidly upon addition of cations, and in some cases these aggregates appear to precipitate into an X-ray amorphous material that still contains U24Pp12 clusters. In addition, I probe aggregation of U24Pp12 and U60, another uranyl peroxide cage cluster, in mixed solvent water-alcohol systems. The aggregation of uranyl clusters in water-alcohol systems is a result of hydrogen bonding with polar organic molecules and the reduction of the dielectric constant of the system. Studies of aggregation of uranyl clusters also allow for comparison between the newer uranyl polyoxometalate family and century-old transition metal polyoxometalates. To complement the solution studies of uranyl

  20. Secondary Metabolites Production by Solid-State Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Barrios-González, J.; Fernández, F J; Tomasini, A.; Mejía, A.

    2005-01-01

    Microbial secondary metabolites are useful high value products with an enormous range of biological activities. Moreover, the past two decades have been a phase of rapid discovery of new activities and development of major compounds for use in different industrial fields, mainly pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food, agriculture and farming. Many of these metabolites could be produced advantageously in industry by solid–state fermentation (SSF). Two types of SSF can be distinguished, depending on ...

  1. Excited-State Properties of Molecular Solids from First Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronik, Leeor; Neaton, Jeffrey B

    2016-05-27

    Molecular solids have attracted attention recently in the context of organic (opto)electronics. These materials exhibit unique charge carrier generation and transport phenomena that are distinct from those of conventional semiconductors. Understanding these phenomena is fundamental to optoelectronics and requires a detailed description of the excited-state properties of molecular solids. Recent advances in many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) and density functional theory (DFT) have made such description possible and have revealed many surprising electronic and optical properties of molecular crystals. Here, we review this progress. We summarize the salient aspects of MBPT and DFT as well as various properties that can be described by these methods. These properties include the fundamental gap and its renormalization, hybridization and band dispersion, singlet and triplet excitations, optical spectra, and excitonic properties. For each, we present concrete examples, a comparison to experiments, and a critical discussion. PMID:27090844

  2. Solid state low power pulsed NMR spectrometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer system is described for relaxation time studies on solid and liquid samples. The spectrometer design is fully solid state and a special microcomputer interface is incorporated for automatic evaluation of the relaxation times. The prototype system has been designed to operate at 9 MHz, but the modular concept used in the construction permits operation at any frequency in the range 5-10 MHz. The system has a recovery time of 15 micro seconds at 9 MHz. The range of measurement for the spin-lattice relaxation time is 0.1 millisecond to 1000 seconds; for spin-spin relaxation time, the range is 14μ seconds to 100 milliseconds. (author)

  3. Thermodynamic R-diagrams reveal solid-like fluid states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluate the thermodynamic curvature R for fluid argon, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and water. For these fluids, R is mostly negative, but we also find significant regimes of positive R, which we interpret as indicating solid-like fluid properties. Regimes of positive R are present in all four fluids at very high pressure. Water has, in addition, a narrow slab of positive R in the stable liquid phase near its triple point. Also, water is the only fluid we found having R decrease on cooling into the metastable liquid phase, consistent with a possible second critical point. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic curvature is evaluated for argon, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and water. • Thermodynamic curvature reveals solid-like states in liquids, including water. • Thermodynamic curvature is a thermodynamic measure of interactions

  4. Solid state microcavity dye lasers fabricated by nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Nielsen, Theodor; Kristensen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    propagating TE–TM modes. The laser cavity has the lateral shape of a trapezoid, supporting lasing modes by reflection on the vertical cavity walls. The solid polymer dye lasers emit laterally through one of the vertical cavity walls, when pumped optically through the top surface by means of a frequency...... doubled, pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Lasing in the wavelength region from 560 to 570 nm is observed from a laser with a side-length of 50 µm. In this proof of concept, the lasers are multimode with a mode wavelength separation of approximately 1.6 nm, as determined by the waveguide propagation constant(s) and......We present a solid state polymer microcavity dye laser, fabricated by thermal nanoimprint lithography (NIL) in a dye-doped thermoplast. The thermoplast poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) is used due to its high transparency in the visible range and its robustness to laser radiation. The laser dye is...

  5. Excited-State Properties of Molecular Solids from First Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronik, Leeor; Neaton, Jeffrey B.

    2016-05-01

    Molecular solids have attracted attention recently in the context of organic (opto)electronics. These materials exhibit unique charge carrier generation and transport phenomena that are distinct from those of conventional semiconductors. Understanding these phenomena is fundamental to optoelectronics and requires a detailed description of the excited-state properties of molecular solids. Recent advances in many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) and density functional theory (DFT) have made such description possible and have revealed many surprising electronic and optical properties of molecular crystals. Here, we review this progress. We summarize the salient aspects of MBPT and DFT as well as various properties that can be described by these methods. These properties include the fundamental gap and its renormalization, hybridization and band dispersion, singlet and triplet excitations, optical spectra, and excitonic properties. For each, we present concrete examples, a comparison to experiments, and a critical discussion.

  6. Solid-state microscale lithium batteries prepared with microfabrication processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jie; Yang, Xi; Zeng, Shuang-Shuang; Cai, Min-Zhen; Zhang, Liang-Tang; Dong, Quan-Feng; Zheng, Ming-Sen; Wu, Sun-Tao; Wu, Qi-Hui

    2009-04-01

    The miniaturization of power sources is important for meeting the requirements of low power, mass and volume for nano- or microelectronics and MEMS devices. In this paper a dexterous microfabrication process was developed for preparing microscale solid-state lithium batteries. The active size of a single microbattery is 500 µm × 500 µm and its thickness is 1.5 µm. LiCoO2 films prepared by RF sputtering, then annealed at moderate temperature (500 °C), were employed as a cathode electrode, and LiPON and Al films were used as a solid electrolyte and an anode electrode, respectively. An individual microbattery delivers a capacity of about 17 nAh at a current of 5 nA at the initial cycles, and can be operated at as high as 40 nA discharge current.

  7. Solid-state microscale lithium batteries prepared with microfabrication processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The miniaturization of power sources is important for meeting the requirements of low power, mass and volume for nano- or microelectronics and MEMS devices. In this paper a dexterous microfabrication process was developed for preparing microscale solid-state lithium batteries. The active size of a single microbattery is 500 µm × 500 µm and its thickness is 1.5 µm. LiCoO2 films prepared by RF sputtering, then annealed at moderate temperature (500 °C), were employed as a cathode electrode, and LiPON and Al films were used as a solid electrolyte and an anode electrode, respectively. An individual microbattery delivers a capacity of about 17 nAh at a current of 5 nA at the initial cycles, and can be operated at as high as 40 nA discharge current

  8. Zirconia-based solid state chemical gas sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuiykov, S

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of chemical gas sensors, based on solid state technology, that are sensitive to environmental gases, such as O sub 2 , SO sub x , NO sub x , CO sub 2 and hydrocarbons. The paper is focussed on performance of electrochemical gas sensors that are based on zirconia as a solid electrolyte. The paper considers sensor structures and selection of electrode materials. Impact of interfaces on sensor performance is discussed. This paper also provides a brief overview of electrochemical properties of zirconia and their effect on sensor performance. Impact of auxiliary materials on sensors performance characteristics, such as sensitivity, selectivity, response time and recovery time, is also discussed. Dual gas sensors that can be applied for simultaneous monitoring of the concentration of both oxygen and other gas phase components, are briefly considered

  9. Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, Nuclear and Solid State Research Project, University of Tsukuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the academic year of 1978 to 1979, the 12 UD pelletron tandem accelerator has operated successfully. Ion species used were polarized p, polarized d, α(from the polarized ion source), p, d, 16O and 18O (from the direct extraction ion source), and C, O, Cu and Au (from the sputtering ion source). Improvements were made in the detector and data acquisition system. The data handling system 'SHINE' was completed and is in full operation. Research works are reported in individual summaries under the following chapters: accelerator and beam transport system, general equipments nuclear physics, atomic and solid-state physics, and biological and medical science and others. (Mori, K.)

  10. 15N Solid-State NMR as a Probe of Flavin H-bonding

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Dongtao; Koder, Ronald L.; Dutton, P. Leslie; Miller, Anne-Frances

    2011-01-01

    Flavins mediate a wide variety of different chemical reactions in biology. To learn how one cofactor can be made to execute different reactions in different enzymes, we are developing solid-state NMR (SSNMR) to probe the flavin electronic structure, via the 15N chemical shift tensor principal values (δii). We find that SSNMR has superior responsiveness to H-bonds, compared to solution NMR. H-bonding to a model of the flavodoxin active site produced an increase of 10 ppm in the δ11 of N5 altho...

  11. Solar Pumped High Power Solid State Laser for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fork, Richard L.; Laycock, Rustin L.; Green, Jason J. A.; Walker, Wesley W.; Cole, Spencer T.; Frederick, Kevin B.; Phillips, Dane J.

    2004-01-01

    Highly coherent laser light provides a nearly optimal means of transmitting power in space. The simplest most direct means of converting sunlight to coherent laser light is a solar pumped laser oscillator. A key need for broadly useful space solar power is a robust solid state laser oscillator capable of operating efficiently in near Earth space at output powers in the multi hundred kilowatt range. The principal challenges in realizing such solar pumped laser oscillators are: (1) the need to remove heat from the solid state laser material without introducing unacceptable thermal shock, thermal lensing, or thermal stress induced birefringence to a degree that improves on current removal rates by several orders of magnitude and (2) to introduce sunlight at an effective concentration (kW/sq cm of laser cross sectional area) that is several orders of magnitude higher than currently available while tolerating a pointing error of the spacecraft of several degrees. We discuss strategies for addressing these challenges. The need to remove the high densities of heat, e.g., 30 kW/cu cm, while keeping the thermal shock, thermal lensing and thermal stress induced birefringence loss sufficiently low is addressed in terms of a novel use of diamond integrated with the laser material, such as Ti:sapphire in a manner such that the waste heat is removed from the laser medium in an axial direction and in the diamond in a radial direction. We discuss means for concentrating sunlight to an effective areal density of the order of 30 kW/sq cm. The method integrates conventional imaging optics, non-imaging optics and nonlinear optics. In effect we use a method that combines some of the methods of optical pumping solid state materials and optical fiber, but also address laser media having areas sufficiently large, e.g., 1 cm diameter to handle the multi-hundred kilowatt level powers needed for space solar power.

  12. Solid-state laser driver for IFE power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present a concept of a diode-pumped solid-state laser driver in the context of a power plant for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) based on the cost and efficiency analyses published for Sombrero. Although existing flashlamp-pumped lasers such as Nova have low efficiency and performance, a viable architecture of a diode-pumped solid-state-laser IFE driver is now possible as a consequence of five important technology advances: (a) the advent of efficient laser-diode pump sources that have been recognized to scale to low costs at power-plant-level volumes; (b) the development of the gas-cooled slab geometry, which allows for appropriate thermal management to avoid significant optical distortion of the laser output beam; (c) the recognition of a conceptual approach to the so-called final-optic problem, where the optic that must encounter neutron irradiation is maintained at > 300 C to rapidly anneal out any light-absorbing color center; (d) the discovery of a new solid-state laser medium that possesses a sufficiently long storage time; and (e) the realization of a large-area Pockels cell, which permits a compact regenerative amplifier configuration. They describe a systems-analysis computer code that they wrote and used to optimize the design parameters in selecting the best driver configuration. The development of this configuration poses significantly lower risks than that for other driver options, for three reasons. First, up-front costs and final technical performance risk can be significantly reduced because the system is modular and can be tested at dramatically reduced scale. Second, as a consequence of the experience gleaned from Nova and other large fusion lasers, much of the fundamental physics is already well understood. Third, many of the novel laser technologies envisioned for the IFE driver are inherently of interest to various scientific and industrial communities

  13. Solid-state NMR in the analysis of drugs and naturally occurring materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska, Katarzyna; Wawer, Iwona

    2014-05-01

    This article presents some of the solid-state NMR (SSNMR) techniques used in the pharmaceutical and biomedical research. Solid-state magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR provides structural information on powder amorphous solids for which single-crystal diffraction structures cannot be obtained. NMR is non-destructive; the powder sample may be used for further studies. Quantitative results can be obtained, although solid-state NMR spectra are not normally quantitative. As compared with other techniques, MAS NMR is insensitive and requires a significant amount of the powder sample (2-100mg) to fill the 1.3-7 mm ZrO2 rotor. This is its main drawback, since natural compounds isolated from plants, microorganisms or cell cultures are difficult to obtain in quantities higher than a few milligrams. Multinuclear MAS NMR routinely uses (1)H and (13)C nuclei, less frequently (15)N, (19)F, (31)P, (77)Se, (29)Si, (43)Ca or (23)Na. The article focuses on the pharmaceutical applications of SSNMR, the studies were aimed to control over manufacturing processes (e.g. crystallization and milling) investigation of chemical and physical stability of solid forms both as pure drug and in a formulated product. SSNMR is used in combination with some other analytical methods (DSC, XRD, FT-IR) and theoretical calculations of NMR parameters. Biologically active compounds, such as amino acids and small peptides, steroids and flavonoids were studied by SSNMR methods (part 4) providing valuable structural information. The SSNMR experiments performed on biopolymers and large natural products like proteins, cellulose and lipid layers are commented upon briefly in part 5. PMID:24173236

  14. Solid state tautomerism in 2-((phenylimino)methyl)naphthalene-1-ol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedeltcheva, Daniela; Kamounah, Fadhil S.; Mirolo, Laurent;

    2009-01-01

    The solid state tautomerism of 2-((phenylimino)methyl)naphthalene-1-ol was studied using X-ray measurements and absorption spectroscopy. In the solid state, the keto tautomer predominates. The observed shift in the equilibrium from the enol (dilute solution) to the keto (solid state) forms is exp...... explained by the formation of dye aggregates using ab initio quantum chemical calculations...

  15. Solid state batteries (SSBs) prepared with powder metallurgy route

    OpenAIRE

    Hu J.; Zhao J; Ren J.J.

    2013-01-01

    The solid state batteries (SSBs) were prepared by powder metallurgy route. For making SSBs, a special die was designed. LiNiO2 and face centre cubic (fcc) TiB powders [1] were used to make cathodes for SSBs while such metals as Zn or Mg were used to make anodes. The SSBs made with LiNiO2 powder generated relatively low currents (1 to 2 μA) and voltage (0.4~0.9 V) at room temperature. The SSBs made with fcc-TiB cathode generated more power than do the SSBs made with LiNiO2 powder.

  16. FTIR spectrometer with solid-state drive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajic, Slobodan; Seals, Roland D.; Egert, Charles M.

    1999-01-01

    An FTIR spectrometer (10) and method using a solid-state drive system with thermally responsive members (27) that are subject to expansion upon heating and to contraction upon cooling. Such members (27) are assembled in the device (10) so as to move an angled, reflective surface (22) a small distance. The sample light beam (13) is received at a detector (24) along with a reference light beam (13) and there it is combined into a resulting signal. This allows the "interference" between the two beams to occur for spectral analysis by a processor (29).

  17. Application of solid state nuclear track detectors in nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief summary of current and projected techniques based on utilization of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors at the J. Stefan Institute is presented. Possibilities of the application of these techniques in numerous fields of nuclear program such as prospecting for uranium and thorium ore deposits, analytical chemistry in nuclear fuel cycle, characterization and quality control of nuclear fuels, surveillance of nuclear reactor pressure vessel embrittlement and fuel element integrity, neutron and alpha dosimetry, nuclear reactor physics problems and nuclear safeguards are discussed and illustrated by some selected experimental and theoretical results. (author)

  18. New polymers for solid state nuclear track detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two novel polymers have been prepared from a monomer N-allyloxycarbonyl diethanolamine-bis(allyl carbonate) i.e., NADAC by cast polymerization and were successfully used as solid state nuclear track detectors for α particles and fission fragments. The homopolymer PNADAC was prepared by IPP catalyzed polymerization of NADAC. A copolymer of NADAC with allyl diglycol carbonate (ADC) called poly-[(NADAC)-co-(ADC)] was also prepared similarly. A preliminary study on the etching conditions and track detection characteristics of the newly developed materials was carried out. It was found that the copolymer is more sensitive to α particles as compared to commercially available PM-250(TM) track detector

  19. Solid-state detectors trends, developments, and operational experiences

    CERN Document Server

    Bortoletto, Daniela

    2004-01-01

    Silicon detectors are at the heart of many high-energy physics experiments. Intense research and development is taking place to improve the radiation hardness of solid-state detectors for future upgrades of the Large Hadron Collider. New integrated technologies which promise to achieve the excellent resolution needed for precision measurements of the Higgs couplings at the Linear Collider are under development. Prospects for these future projects and the experience gained in the operation and the construction of large silicon detectors will be presented.

  20. Radon detection in soils by solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solid state nuclear track detector technique was developed to be used in radon detection, by alpha particles tracks, and has been applied in uranium prospecting on the ground. The sensitive films to alpha particles used were the cellulose nitrate films LR 115 and CA 8015. Several simulation experiments and field measurements were carried out to varify the possibilities of the method. Maps of some anomalies in Caetite City (Bahia, Brazil) were made with the densities of tracks obtained. The results were compared with scintillation counter measurements. (Author)

  1. TESTING AND SIMULATION OF SOLID STATE HEATING AND COOLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHAKIB ALAOUI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The latest model of solid state Peltier thermoelectric pumps was reviewed and improved. A heating-cooling chamber was designed and fabricated by using the Peltier modules, and its equivalent circuit was extracted and simulated. This chamber was tested under various values of input power in both cooling and heating modes of operations. The experimental results were compared with the proposed model. This model is proven to be accurate and can be extend to any Peltier based thermoelectric system for simulation, and can be used to simulated thermoelectric systems based on these modules.

  2. Solid-State Recorders Enhance Scientific Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Goddard Space Flight Center, SEAKR Engineering Inc., of Centennial, Colorado, crafted a solid-state recorder (SSR) to replace the tape recorder onboard a Spartan satellite carrying NASA's Inflatable Antenna Experiment. Work for that mission and others has helped SEAKR become the world leader in SSR technology for spacecraft. The company has delivered more than 100 systems, more than 85 of which have launched onboard NASA, military, and commercial spacecraft including imaging satellites that provide much of the high-resolution imagery for online mapping services like Google Earth.

  3. Solid-state Synthesis of Carbon-nanostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.Wilhelm; A.Winkel; D.Jain

    2007-01-01

    1 Results In addition to single wall and multiwall carbon nanotubes[1], several structures,which are more or less related to fullerenes,including carbon nanohorns[2a], carbon nanospheres[2b] and onion like carbon structures[2c] have been reported.A new simple straight forward method to access some of these structures is the solid-state pyrolysis of different organometallic complexes in a sealed vessel,which led so far to carbon nanotubes[3a,b], carbon nanocables[3c] and onions[3d].

  4. Molecular electronics with single molecules in solid-state devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    The ultimate aim of molecular electronics is to understand and master single-molecule devices. Based on the latest results on electron transport in single molecules in solid-state devices, we focus here on new insights into the influence of metal electrodes on the energy spectrum of the molecule, and on how the electron transport properties of the molecule depend on the strength of the electronic coupling between it and the electrodes. A variety of phenomena are observed depending on whether this coupling is weak, intermediate or strong. PMID:19734925

  5. Solid-State Excitation Laser for Laser-Ultrasonics

    OpenAIRE

    Schnars, U.; Platz, W.; Mahnke, P.; A. Fix; Frede, M; Neumann, J.; Peuser, P.

    2010-01-01

    The inspection speed of laser-ultrasonics compared with conventional ultrasonic testing is limited by the pulse repetition rate of the excitation laser. The maximum pulse repetition rate reported up to now for CO2-lasers, which are presently used for nearly all systems, is in the range of 400 Hz. In this paper a new approach based on a diode-pumped solid-state laser is discussed, which is currently being developed. This new excitation laser is designed for a repetition rate of 1 kHz and will ...

  6. Stable solid state reference electrodes for high temperature water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solid state electrode capable of providing a stable reference potential under a wide range of temperatures and chemical conditions has been demonstrated. The electrode consists of a zirconia or yttria-stabilized zirconia tube packed with an inorganic polymer electrolyte and a silver/silver chloride sensing element. The sensing element is maintained near room temperature by a passive cooling heat sink. The electrode stability was demonstrated by testing it in high temperature (280 C) aqueous solutions over extended periods of time. This reference electrode is useful in many applications, particularly for monitoring the chemistry in nuclear and fossil power plants

  7. Optimization of dopants in CSR solid state nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors have been cast with methyl methacrylate, diallyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate but without additive. After irradiated with 5.15 MeV α particles, the responses of the detectors were found to be significantly different for each kind of additive. The performance was reported of a new CSR (China Shanghai Resin) solid state nuclear track detector, the CR-39 (DPA). The sheets with 1% addition of DPA of CR-39 monomer were more sensitive than those of pure CR-39

  8. A solid state Marx generator for TEL2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamerdzhiev, V.; Pfeffer, H.; Saewert, G.; Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The solid-state Marx generator modulates the anode of the electron gun to produce the electron beam pulses in the second Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL2). It is capable of driving the 60 pF terminal with 600 ns pulses of up to 6 kV with a p.r.r. of 50 kHz. The rise and fall times are 150 ns. Stangenes Industries developed the unit and is working on a second version which will go to higher voltage and have the ability to vary its output in 396 ns intervals over a 5 {micro}s pulse.

  9. Birefringence compensation in single solid-state rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various methods for compensating birefringence depolarization in solid-state rods are theoretically and experimentally analyzed and compared. Gaussian and flat top beam profiles are investigated. The efficiency in depolarization loss reduction using different techniques is discussed in terms of beam profile, rod fill factor, and thermal heat load. In Nd:yttrium-aluminum-garnet, the depolarization loss can be efficiently reduced below 5% with a compensating quarter-waveplate, up to 20 W heat load for a flat top beam and up to 70 W for a gaussian beam. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  10. Molecular electronics with single molecules in solid-state devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The ultimate aim of molecular electronics is to understand and master single-molecule devices. Based on the latest results on electron transport in single molecules in solid-state devices, we focus here on new insights into the influence of metal electrodes on the energy spectrum of the molecule......, and how the electron transport properties of the molecule depend on the strength of the electronic coupling between it and the electrodes. A variety of phenomena are observed depending on whether this coupling is weak, intermediate or strong....

  11. Rare earth doped solid state laser gain medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the rare earths, Nd has been one of the most popular laser active ions, however in recent times there is lot of interest on other ions like Yb as it has low quantum defect. This talk shall focus mainly on the growth of rare earth doped YVO4 single crystals by optical floating zone technique. Single crystals of YVO4 doped with rare earth is widely used for compact diode pumped solid state lasers as it offers several advantages like high slope efficiency, low laser threshold, wide pumping bandwidth and linearly polarized emission

  12. The ABC exporter MsbA probed by solid state NMR – challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Hundeep; Lakatos, Andrea; Spadaccini, Roberta; Vogel, Ramona; Hoffmann, Christian; Becker-Baldus, Johanna; Ouari, Olivier; Tordo, Paul; Mchaourab, Hassane; Glaubitz, Clemens

    2015-09-01

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters form a superfamily of integral membrane proteins involved in translocation of substrates across the membrane driven by ATP hydrolysis. Despite available crystal structures and extensive biochemical data, many open questions regarding their transport mechanisms remain. Therefore, there is a need to explore spectroscopic techniques such as solid state NMR in order to bridge the gap between structural and mechanistic data. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of using Escherichia coli MsbA as a model ABC transporter for solid state NMR studies. We show that optimised solubilisation and reconstitution procedures enable preparing stable and homogenous protein samples. Depending on the duration of solubilisation, MsbA can be obtained in either an apo- or in a native lipid A bound form. Building onto these optimisations, the first promising MAS-NMR spectra with narrow lines have been recorded. However, further sensitivity improvements are required so that complex NMR experiments can be recorded within a reasonable amount of time. We therefore demonstrate the usability of paramagnetic doping for rapid data acquisition and explore dynamic nuclear polarisation as a method for general signal enhancement. Our results demonstrate that solid state NMR provides an opportunity to address important biological questions related to complex mechanisms of ABC transporters. PMID:25849794

  13. Membrane structure and dynamics as viewed by solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, M

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of the present study is the investigation of the structure and dynamics of biological membranes using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Two approaches are used in our laboratory. The first involves the measurement of high-resolution 13C and 1H spectra obtained by the magic angle spinning (MAS) technique while the second approach involves the measurement of 31P and 2H powder spectra in static samples. This paper will present some recent results obtained by high-resolution solid-state 1H NMR on the conformation of gramicidin A incorporated in a phosphatidylcholine bilayers. More specifically, we were able to observe changes in the gramicidin spectra as a function of the cosolubilization solvent initially used to prepare the samples. The interaction between lipid bilayers and an anticancer drug derived from chloroethylurea was also investigated using proton NMR spectroscopy. Finally, we have studied the interaction between cardiotoxin, a toxic protein extracted from snake venom, and negatively charged lipid bilayers using 31P solid-state NMR spectroscopy. PMID:9468622

  14. Solid-phase synthesis and biological evaluation of Joro spider toxin-4 from Nephila clavata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Anne Fuglsang; Poulsen, Mette Homann; Bach, Tinna Brøbech;

    2011-01-01

    exploited in biological studies. Here, we have used solid-phase synthetic methodology for the efficient synthesis of Joro spider toxin-4 (JSTX-4) (1) from Nephila clavata, providing sufficient amounts of the toxin for biological evaluation at iGlu receptor subtypes using electrophysiology. Biological...

  15. Investigation of structure and disorder in inorganic solids using solid-state NMR

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Martin R.

    2013-01-01

    The use of solid-state NMR and DFT calculations to study Y₂Sn[subscript(x)]Ti[subscript(2-x)]O₇, Y₂Sn[subscript(x)]Zr[subscript(2-x)]O₇ and Y₂Ti[subscript(x)]Zr[subscript(2-x)]O₇, materials with applications for the safe encapsulation of radioactive actinides is investigated. As a result of cation or anion disorder in these materials, NMR spectra are often complex and difficult to interpret. Therefore, an investigation using a range of NMR active nuclei and measurement of a variety of NMR par...

  16. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Minh

    2006-07-31

    This report summarizes the work performed for Phase I (October 2001 - August 2006) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled 'Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program'. The program focuses on the development of a low-cost, high-performance 3-to-10-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system suitable for a broad spectrum of power-generation applications. During Phase I of the program significant progress has been made in the area of SOFC technology. A high-efficiency low-cost system was designed and supporting technology developed such as fuel processing, controls, thermal management, and power electronics. Phase I culminated in the successful demonstration of a prototype system that achieved a peak efficiency of 41%, a high-volume cost of $724/kW, a peak power of 5.4 kW, and a degradation rate of 1.8% per 500 hours. . An improved prototype system was designed, assembled, and delivered to DOE/NETL at the end of the program. This prototype achieved an extraordinary peak efficiency of 49.6%.

  17. Standardized Testing Program for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Michael A. [Southwest Research Institute; Page, Richard A. [Southwest Research Institute

    2012-07-30

    In the US and abroad, major research and development initiatives toward establishing a hydrogen-based transportation infrastructure have been undertaken, encompassing key technological challenges in hydrogen production and delivery, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage. However, the principal obstacle to the implementation of a safe, low-pressure hydrogen fueling system for fuel-cell powered vehicles remains storage under conditions of near-ambient temperature and moderate pressure. The choices for viable hydrogen storage systems at the present time are limited to compressed gas storage tanks, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage tanks, chemical hydrogen storage, and hydrogen absorbed or adsorbed in a solid-state material (a.k.a. solid-state storage). Solid-state hydrogen storage may offer overriding benefits in terms of storage capacity, kinetics and, most importantly, safety.The fervor among the research community to develop novel storage materials had, in many instances, the unfortunate consequence of making erroneous, if not wild, claims on the reported storage capacities achievable in such materials, to the extent that the potential viability of emerging materials was difficult to assess. This problem led to a widespread need to establish a capability to accurately and independently assess the storage behavior of a wide array of different classes of solid-state storage materials, employing qualified methods, thus allowing development efforts to focus on those materials that showed the most promise. However, standard guidelines, dedicated facilities, or certification programs specifically aimed at testing and assessing the performance, safety, and life cycle of these emergent materials had not been established. To address the stated need, the Testing Laboratory for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies was commissioned as a national-level focal point for evaluating new materials emerging from the designated Materials Centers of Excellence (MCoE) according to

  18. Assignment strategies for aliphatic protons in the solid-state in randomly protonated proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy developed rapidly in the past two decades and emerged as an important tool for structural biology. Resonance assignment is an essential prerequisite for structure determination and the characterization of motional properties of a molecule. Experiments, which rely on carbon or nitrogen detection, suffer, however, from low sensitivity. Recently, we introduced the RAP (Reduced Adjoining Protonation) labeling scheme, which allows to detect backbone and sidechain protons with high sensitivity and resolution. We present here a 1H-detected 3D (H)CCH experiment for assignment of backbone and sidechain proton resonances. Resolution is significantly improved by employing simultaneous 13CO and 13Cβ J-decoupling during evolution of the 13Cα chemical shift. In total, ∼90% of the 1Hα-13Cα backbone resonances of chicken α-spectrin SH3 could be assigned.

  19. Assignment strategies for aliphatic protons in the solid-state in randomly protonated proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asami, Sam; Reif, Bernd, E-mail: reif@tum.de [Leibniz-Institut fuer Molekulare Pharmakologie (FMP) (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Biological solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy developed rapidly in the past two decades and emerged as an important tool for structural biology. Resonance assignment is an essential prerequisite for structure determination and the characterization of motional properties of a molecule. Experiments, which rely on carbon or nitrogen detection, suffer, however, from low sensitivity. Recently, we introduced the RAP (Reduced Adjoining Protonation) labeling scheme, which allows to detect backbone and sidechain protons with high sensitivity and resolution. We present here a {sup 1}H-detected 3D (H)CCH experiment for assignment of backbone and sidechain proton resonances. Resolution is significantly improved by employing simultaneous {sup 13}CO and {sup 13}C{beta} J-decoupling during evolution of the {sup 13}C{alpha} chemical shift. In total, {approx}90% of the {sup 1}H{alpha}-{sup 13}C{alpha} backbone resonances of chicken {alpha}-spectrin SH3 could be assigned.

  20. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say “the most important emerging energy technology” is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner’s cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  1. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartini, Evvy; Manawan, Maykel

    2016-02-01

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say "the most important emerging energy technology" is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner's cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  2. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartini, Evvy [Center for Science and Technology of Advanced Materials – National Nuclear Energy Agency, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang Selatan15314, Banten (Indonesia); Manawan, Maykel [Post Graduate Program of Materials Science, University of Indonesia, Jl.Salemba Raya No.4, Jakarta 10430 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say “the most important emerging energy technology” is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner’s cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  3. Introduction to solid state electronics. 2. revised ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is intended as a textbook for undergraduate engineering students in their junior year. It can also be used as a supplementary text or a self-educational aid for those who use a textbook on solid state electronics. It is meant for those who did not take a course in quantum mechanics or who are studying it concurrently. The scope of this book is restricted very narrowly to those topics which have a direct bearing on the functions of transitors and integrated circuits. An effort has been made to present the material in as concise a manner as possible without omitting any important pedagogical steps. The necessary assumed conditions for each equation are explicitly stated in the text

  4. Application of solid state lighting in aerial refueling operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangum, Scott; Singer, Jeffrey; Walker, Richard; Ferguson, Joseph; Kemp, Richard

    2005-09-01

    Operating at altitude and often in turbulent, low visibility conditions, in-flight refueling of aircraft is a challenging endeavor, even for seasoned aviators. The receiving aircraft must approach a large airborne tanker; take position within a "reception window" beneath and/or behind the tanker and, dependent upon the type of receiving aircraft, mate with an extended refueling boom or hose and drogue. Light is used to assist in the approach, alignment and refuel process of the aircraft. Robust solid state light emitting diodes (LEDs) are an appropriate choice for use in the challenging environments that these aircraft operate within. This paper examines how LEDs are incorporated into several unique lighting applications associated with such aerial refueling operations. We will discuss the design requirements, both environmental and photometric that defined the selection of different LED packages for use in state-of-the-art airborne refueling aircraft Formation Lights, Hose Drum/Drogue Unit lights and Pilot Director Lights.

  5. Solid-State Calculation of Crystalline Color Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Gaoqing; Zhuang, Pengfei

    2015-01-01

    It is generally believed that the inhomogeneous Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrell (LOFF) phase appears in a color superconductor when the pairing between different quark flavors is under the circumstances of mismatched Fermi surfaces. However, the real crystal structure of the LOFF phase is still unclear because an exact treatment of 3D crystal structures is rather difficult. In this work we calculate the ground-state energy of the body-centered cubic (BCC) structure for two-flavor pairing by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian matrix in the Bloch space, in analogy to the \\emph{ab initio} calculations in solid-state physics. We develop a computational scheme to overcome the difficulties in diagonalizing huge matrices. Our results show that the BCC structure is energetically more favorable than the 1D modulation in a narrow window around the conventional LOFF-normal phase transition point, which indicates the significance of the higher-order terms in the Ginzburg-Landau approach.

  6. Diode-pumped all-solid-state lasers and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Parsons-Karavassilis, D

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes research carried out by the within the Physics Department at Imperial College that was aimed at developing novel all-solid-state laser sources and investigating potential applications of this technology. A description of the development, characterisation and application of a microjoule energy level, diode-pumped all-solid-state Cr:LiSGAF femtosecond oscillator and regenerative amplifier system is presented. The femtosecond oscillator was pumped by two commercially available laser diodes and produced an approx 80 MHz pulse train of variable pulse duration with approx 30 mW average output power and a tuning range of over approx 60 nm. This laser oscillator was used to seed a regenerative amplifier, resulting in adjustable repetition rate (single pulse to 20 kHz) approx 1 mu J picosecond pulses. These pulses were compressed to approx 150 fs using a double-pass twin-grating compressor. The amplifier's performance was investigated with respect to two different laser crystals and different pul...

  7. Solid-state high voltage, DC power distribution and control

    CERN Document Server

    Gaudreau, M P J; Hawkey, T J; Kempkes, M A; Mulvaney, J M; Ver Planck, P

    1999-01-01

    Future high voltage, high power systems in the early stages of planning include U.S. large accelerator programs such as the Next Linear Collider (NLC), Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), and international systems at DESY, CERN and KEK. There are also many nuclear fusion and multi-megawatt systems proposed for construction or upgrade. Each of these programs faces the challenge of distributing and controlling the high power required by tens to hundreds of RF amplifier tubes (e.g., klystrons) cost effectively. In this paper, we present a new approach for distributing and modulating power based upon recent technological developments in high voltage, high power, solid state switching. DTI's development of fast, high voltage, opening and closing solid state switches enable, for the first time at high voltage, a nearly lossless "DC transformer". With this DC transformer (i.e., down converter or buck regulator), it is now possible to distribute unregulated high voltage DC power in a large facility, and regulate and con...

  8. Design and development of 1 KW solid state RF amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since low power tube based RF amplifiers are complicated, occupy a large space and are bulky, the efforts are on to develop indigenously 1 KW solid state technology based RF Power amplifier. A power level of 1KW is chosen for the initial design because RF power Mosfets upto 250 watt are easily available and by clubbing 3-4 stages the power level of 1 KW can be made. Presently design and testing of 100-watt stage is in progress. The first 2 stages are designed to give 5 Watt RF power using bipolar transistors and are operated in CE, Class A to provide low noise level at the output of the system. The 3rd stage will be MOSFET based MRF 174, which is ideally suited for class A operation and is designed for 100 Watt RF power. The last stage will be MOSFET based ARF446 power MOSFET in TO-247 plastic package. This amplifier will be used in the classical push- pull configuration. This paper describes the design aspects as well as the test results of 100 watt amplifier on 50 Ohm dummy load along with the specifications, design criteria, circuit used, operating parameters of 1 KW Solid State RF power amplifier to be used as driver for 91.2 MHz, 1.5 MW stage for ICRH experiments on SST-1 tokamak .

  9. Status of solid-state power amplifiers development in BARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various solid-state power amplifiers have been developed to meet the requirements of accelerator needs for BARC and its collaboration projects. These are mainly 352 and 325 MHz RF power amplifiers. The 352 MHz, RF power amplifier have been developed to feed the buncher cavity of the Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA). Whereas 325 MHz 3 kW and 7 kW solid- state power amplifiers have been designed under the IIFC-Fermilab collaboration. The same technologies will also be used for 200 MeV superconducting accelerator of ADS program. The paper present the technology details of the power amplifier modules, power combiners, dividers and sensors etc. The developed SSPAs are of 3 kW, 325 MHz and 10 kW 352 MHz. Both the power amplifiers have been tested on a 50 ohm load. The 3 kW SSPA has the drain efficiency of 65.3%. The four modules have the power output of 850 W each. This SSPA has the figure of merit of SSPAs (number of modules per kW) is 1.2. The 10 kW SSPA is mainly required to feed the buncher cavity of the LEHIPA. It is combination of 16 power modules of 800 W each at 352 MHz. (author)

  10. Aberrations and focusability in large solid-state-laser systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, W.W.

    1981-01-01

    Solid state lasers for fusion experiments must reliably deliver maximum power to small (approximately .5 mm) targets from stand-off focal distances of 1 m or more. This requirement places stringent limits upon the optical quality of the several major components - amplifiers, Faraday isolators, spatial filters - in each amplifier train. Residual static aberrations in optical components are transferred to the beam as it traverses the optical amplifier chain. Although individual components are typically less than lambda/20 for components less than 10 cm clear aperture; and less than lambda/10 for components less than 20 cm clear aperture; the large number of such components in optical series results in a wavefront error that may exceed one wave for modern solid state lasers. For pulse operation, the focal spot is additionally broadened by intensity dependent nonlinearities. Specific examples of the performance of large aperture components will be presented within the context of the Argus and Shiva laser systems, which are presently operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Design requirements upon the larger aperture Nova laser components, up to 74 cm in clear aperture, will also be discussed; these pose a significant challenge to the optical industry.

  11. Structural characterisation of amorphous materials by solid state NMR

    CERN Document Server

    Mollison, N B

    2002-01-01

    Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a structural elucidation technique that is ideal as a probe in the investigation of atomic structure of highly complex amorphous materials. In this study, NMR is employed in the structural characterisation of a series of sodium-lithium disilicate glasses. These so-called 'mixed-alkali' glasses are of great scientific interest, since they exhibit non-linear ionic transport related properties; the theory of which is not understood, but is thought to be related to the cation distribution in the disilicate network. This project attempts to utilise solid state NMR to its fullest potential, by combining several techniques, including the novel MQMAS experiment and a series of double resonance measurements. The double resonance techniques TRAPDOR and SEDOR have been attempted to measure sup 2 sup 9 Si-left brace sup 2 sup 3 Na right brace and sup 6 sup , sup 7 Li-left brace sup 7 sup , sup 6 Li right brace interactions respectively. Since these experiments rely on the d...

  12. Aberrations and focusability in large solid-state-laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid state lasers for fusion experiments must reliably deliver maximum power to small (approximately .5 mm) targets from stand-off focal distances of 1 m or more. This requirement places stringent limits upon the optical quality of the several major components - amplifiers, Faraday isolators, spatial filters - in each amplifier train. Residual static aberrations in optical components are transferred to the beam as it traverses the optical amplifier chain. Although individual components are typically less than lambda/20 for components less than 10 cm clear aperture; and less than lambda/10 for components less than 20 cm clear aperture; the large number of such components in optical series results in a wavefront error that may exceed one wave for modern solid state lasers. For pulse operation, the focal spot is additionally broadened by intensity dependent nonlinearities. Specific examples of the performance of large aperture components will be presented within the context of the Argus and Shiva laser systems, which are presently operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Design requirements upon the larger aperture Nova laser components, up to 74 cm in clear aperture, will also be discussed; these pose a significant challenge to the optical industry

  13. Solid state dye lasers: rhodamines in silica-zirconia materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheiss, Silke; Yariv, Eli; Reisfeld, Renata; Breuer, Hans Dieter

    2002-05-01

    Silica-zirconia materials as well as silica-zirconia ormosils prepared by the sol-gel technique were doped with the laser dyes Rhodamine B and Rhodamine 6G and used as solid state dye lasers. The photostability and efficiency of the solid state laser samples were measured in a transverse pumping configuration by either a nitrogen laser or the second harmonic of a Nd-YAG laser. Under the excitation of a nitrogen laser the photostability of Rhodamine B in silica-zirconia materials was low and decreased with a growing amount of zirconia. The photophysical properties of the incorporated dyes were studied by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence lifetimes of both dyes increased when the matrix was modified by organic compounds Furthermore, the threshold energy of Rhodamine 6G in two ormosils containing 3 and 50% methylsilica was measured. The results revealed that the threshold energy was lower for the matrix with a higher amount of ormosil while the slope efficiency was higher in the matrix containing 30% ormosil. PMID:12653469

  14. Genomic Pathogen Typing Using Solid-State Nanopores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison H Squires

    Full Text Available In clinical settings, rapid and accurate characterization of pathogens is essential for effective treatment of patients; however, subtle genetic changes in pathogens which elude traditional phenotypic typing may confer dangerous pathogenic properties such as toxicity, antibiotic resistance, or virulence. Existing options for molecular typing techniques characterize the critical genomic changes that distinguish harmful and benign strains, yet the well-established approaches, in particular those that rely on electrophoretic separation of nucleic acid fragments on a gel, have room for only incremental future improvements in speed, cost, and complexity. Solid-state nanopores are an emerging class of single-molecule sensors that can electrophoretically characterize charged biopolymers, and which offer significant advantages in terms of sample and reagent requirements, readout speed, parallelization, and automation. We present here the first application of nanopores for single-molecule molecular typing using length based "fingerprints" of critical sites in bacterial genomes. This technique is highly adaptable for detection of different types of genetic variation; as we illustrate using prototypical examples including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and methicillin-resistant Streptococcus aureus, the solid-state nanopore diagnostic platform may be used to detect large insertions or deletions, small insertions or deletions, and even single-nucleotide variations in bacterial DNA. We further show that Bayesian classification of test samples can provide highly confident pathogen typing results based on only a few tens of independent single-molecule events, making this method extremely sensitive and statistically robust.

  15. Perovskite enhanced solid state ZnO solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will report on the design, fabrication and testing of a solid-state perovskite enhanced ZnO solar cell. The p-type perovskite material used is bismuth ferrite (BFO) which has an absorption range within the blue range of the visible light spectrum. The solid state solar cell, was sensitized with N719 dye and used a CuSCN hole conductor. A disadvantage of ZnO is its poor chemical stability in acidic and corrosive environments. As chemical solution techniques were used in depositing BFO, a buffer method using an aminosilane ((3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane or H2N(CH2)3Si(OCH3)3)) coating was used to provide a protective coating on the ZnO nanorods before the BFO film was spin coated onto the ZnO nanorods. The photovoltaic performance of the solar cells were tested using a Keithley 2400 source meter under 100mW/cm2, AM 1.5G simulated sunlight, where improvements in Jsc and efficiency were observed. The BFO was able to harness more electrons and also acted as a buffer from electron recombination

  16. Solid state frequency conversion technology for remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long range remote sensing from airborne or other highly mobile platforms will require high average power tunable radiation from very compact and efficient laser systems. The solid state laser pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) has emerged as a leading candidate for such high average power, widely tunable sources. In contrast to laboratory systems, efficiency and simplicity can be the decisive issues which determine the practicality of a particular airborne remote sensing application. The recent advent of diode laser pumped solid state lasers has produced high average power OPO pump sources which are themselves both compact and efficient. However, parametric oscillator technology which can efficiently convert the average powers provided by these pump sources remains to be demonstrated. In addition to the average power requirement, many airborne long range sensing tasks will require a high degree of frequency multiplexing to disentangle data from multiple chemical species. A key advantage in system simplicity can be obtained, for example, if a single OPO can produce easily controlled multispectral output. In this paper the authors address several topics pertaining to the conversion efficiency, power handling, and multispectral capabilities of OPOs which they are currently investigating. In Section 2, single pulse conversion efficiency issues are addressed, while average power effects are treated in Section 3. Section 4 is concerned with multispectral performance of a single OPO. The last section contains a short summary and some concluding remarks

  17. Development of Ceramic Solid-State Laser Host Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Trivedi, Sudhir; Kutcher, Susan; Wang, Chen-Chia; Kim, Joo-Soo; Hommerich, Uwe; Shukla, Vijay; Sadangi, Rajendra

    2009-01-01

    Polycrystalline ceramic laser materials are gaining importance in the development of novel diode-pumped solid-state lasers. Compared to single-crystals, ceramic laser materials offer advantages in terms of ease of fabrication, shape, size, and control of dopant concentrations. Recently, we have developed Neodymium doped Yttria (Nd:Y2O3) as a solid-state ceramic laser material. A scalable production method was utilized to make spherical non agglomerated and monodisperse metastable ceramic powders of compositions that were used to fabricate polycrystalline ceramic material components. This processing technique allowed for higher doping concentrations without the segregation problems that are normally encountered in single crystalline growth. We have successfully fabricated undoped and Neodymium doped Yttria material up to 2" in diameter, Ytterbium doped Yttria, and erbium doped Yttria. We are also in the process of developing other sesquioxides such as scandium Oxide (Sc2O3) and Lutesium Oxide (Lu2O3) doped with Ytterbium, erbium and thulium dopants. In this paper, we present our initial results on the material, optical, and spectroscopic properties of the doped and undoped sesquioxide materials. Polycrystalline ceramic lasers have enormous potential applications including remote sensing, chem.-bio detection, and space exploration research. It is also potentially much less expensive to produce ceramic laser materials compared to their single crystalline counterparts because of the shorter fabrication time and the potential for mass production in large sizes.

  18. HIGH-EFFICIENCY NITRIDE-BASED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Paul T. Fini; Prof. Shuji Nakamura

    2002-09-01

    In this annual report we summarize the progress obtained in the first year with the support of DoE contract No.DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has made significant progress in the development of GaN vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as well as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV). The Rensselaer team has developed target specifications for some of the key parameters for the proposed solid-state lighting system, including a luminous flux requirement matrix for various lighting applications, optimal spectral power distributions, and the performance characteristics of currently available commercial LEDs for eventual comparisons to the devices developed in the scope of this project.

  19. HIGH-EFFICIENCY NITRIDE-BASED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Paul T. Fini; Prof. Shuji Nakamura

    2002-04-30

    In this semiannual report we summarize the progress obtained in the first six months with the support of DoE contract No.DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has made significant progress in the development of GaN vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as well as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV). The Rensselaer team has developed target specifications for some of the key parameters for the proposed solid-state lighting system, including a luminous flux requirement matrix for various lighting applications, optimal spectral power distributions, and the performance characteristics of currently available commercial LEDs for eventual comparisons to the devices developed in the scope of this project.

  20. In-Situ Creation of Solid State Nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Kyle; Kwok, Harold; Tabard-Cossa, Vincent

    2013-03-01

    Recent advances in nanopore technology have demonstrated that they are a powerful tool for single biomolecule analysis, and great progress has been made toward the promise of nanopore-based DNA sequencing devices. A limiting factor in solid-state nanopore science is the complexity, throughput and cost of current fabrication methods, based on focused ion or election beam drilling, which require sophisticated equipment and highly trained personnel. Our laboratory at the University of Ottawa has demonstrated a simple and extremely low cost method to fabricate individual nanopores on thin solid-state membranes. By controlling an applied voltage across the membrane in aqueous salt solution, we are able to routinely create sub-5nm pores in dielectric membranes. In addition, the method can easily be extended to tune nanopore size with sub-nm precision. We will describe the fabrication method in detail, and present the effects of electric field strength, membrane material, solution salt composition, concentration and pH on the pore creation time and size distribution. These results allow us to elucidate the physical mechanisms responsible for nanopore formation.

  1. Magnetic resonance force microscopy and a solid state quantum computer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelekhov, D. V. (Denis V.); Martin, I. (Ivar); Suter, A. (Andreas); Reagor, D. W. (David W.); Hammel, P. C. (P. Chris)

    2001-01-01

    A Quantum Computer (QC) is a device that utilizes the principles of Quantum Mechanics to perform computations. Such a machine would be capable of accomplishing tasks not achievable by means of any conventional digital computer, for instance factoring large numbers. Currently it appears that the QC architecture based on an array of spin quantum bits (qubits) embedded in a solid-state matrix is one of the most promising approaches to fabrication of a scalable QC. However, the fabrication and operation of a Solid State Quantum Computer (SSQC) presents very formidable challenges; primary amongst these are: (1) the characterization and control of the fabrication process of the device during its construction and (2) the readout of the computational result. Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (MRFM)--a novel scanning probe technique based on mechanical detection of magnetic resonance-provides an attractive means of addressing these requirements. The sensitivity of the MRFM significantly exceeds that of conventional magnetic resonance measurement methods, and it has the potential for single electron spin detection. Moreover, the MRFM is capable of true 3D subsurface imaging. These features will make MRFM an invaluable tool for the implementation of a spin-based QC. Here we present the general principles of MRFM operation, the current status of its development and indicate future directions for its improvement.

  2. Characterization of compost-like outputs from mechanical biological treatment of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Sally M; Bateson, Thomas; Gronow, Jan R; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2010-06-01

    Throughout the world, most municipal solid waste consists of biodegradable components. The most abundant biological component is cellulose, followed by hemicellulose and lignin. Recycling of these components is important for the carbon cycle. In an attempt to reduce the environmental impacts of biodegradable wastes, mechanical biological treatments (MBTs) are being used as a waste management process in many countries. MBT plants attempt to mechanically separate the biodegradable and nonbiodegradable components. The nonbiodegradable components are then sent for reprocessing or landfilled, whereas the biodegradable components are reduced in biological content through composting or anaerobic digestion, leaving a compost-like output (CLO). The further use of these partially degraded residues is uncertain, and in many cases it is likely that they will be landfilled. The implications of this for the future of landfill management are causing some concern because there is little evidence that the long-term emissions tail will be reduced. In this study, the CLOs from four different biological treatment processes were characterized for physical contamination through visual inspection and for biological content using a sequential digestion analysis. The results indicate that the composition of the incoming waste, dependent on the way the waste was collected/segregated, was the factor that influenced biological content most, with length of treatment process the second most important. PMID:20564995

  3. The Childhood Solid Tumor Network: A new resource for the developmental biology and oncology research communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Elizabeth; Federico, Sara; Karlstrom, Asa; Shelat, Anang; Sablauer, Andras; Pappo, Alberto; Dyer, Michael A

    2016-03-15

    Significant advances have been made over the past 25 years in our understanding of the most common adult solid tumors such as breast, colon, lung and prostate cancer. Much less is known about childhood solid tumors because they are rare and because they originate in developing organs during fetal development, childhood and adolescence. It can be very difficult to study the cellular origins of pediatric solid tumors in developing organs characterized by rapid proliferative expansion, growth factor signaling, developmental angiogenesis, programmed cell death, tissue reorganization and cell migration. Not only has the etiology of pediatric cancer remained elusive because of their developmental origins, but it also makes it more difficult to treat. Molecular targeted therapeutics that alter developmental pathway signaling may have devastating effects on normal organ development. Therefore, basic research focused on the mechanisms of development provides an essential foundation for pediatric solid tumor translational research. In this article, we describe new resources available for the developmental biology and oncology research communities. In a companion paper, we present the detailed characterization of an orthotopic xenograft of a pediatric solid tumor derived from sympathoadrenal lineage during development. PMID:26068307

  4. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambone, Fulvia, E-mail: fulvia.tambone@unimi.it; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO{sub 2} kg V S{sup −1} h{sup −1}. Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS {sup 13}C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)

  5. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO2 kg V S−1 h−1. Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS 13C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)

  6. An efficient method and device for transfer of semisolid materials into solid-state NMR spectroscopy rotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisao, Grant S; Harland, Michael A; Brown, Robert A; Berthold, Deborah A; Wilson, Thomas E; Rienstra, Chad M

    2016-04-01

    The study of mass-limited biological samples by magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR spectroscopy critically relies upon the high-yield transfer of material from a biological preparation into the MAS rotor. This issue is particularly important for maintaining biological activity and hydration of semi-solid samples such as membrane proteins in lipid bilayers, pharmaceutical formulations, microcrystalline proteins and protein fibrils. Here we present protocols and designs for rotor-packing devices specifically suited for packing hydrated samples into Pencil-style 1.6 mm, 3.2 mm standard, and 3.2 mm limited speed MAS rotors. The devices are modular and therefore readily adaptable to other rotor and/or ultracentrifugation tube geometries. PMID:26905816

  7. An efficient method and device for transfer of semisolid materials into solid-state NMR spectroscopy rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisao, Grant S.; Harland, Michael A.; Brown, Robert A.; Berthold, Deborah A.; Wilson, Thomas E.; Rienstra, Chad M.

    2016-04-01

    The study of mass-limited biological samples by magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR spectroscopy critically relies upon the high-yield transfer of material from a biological preparation into the MAS rotor. This issue is particularly important for maintaining biological activity and hydration of semi-solid samples such as membrane proteins in lipid bilayers, pharmaceutical formulations, microcrystalline proteins and protein fibrils. Here we present protocols and designs for rotor-packing devices specifically suited for packing hydrated samples into Pencil-style 1.6 mm, 3.2 mm standard, and 3.2 mm limited speed MAS rotors. The devices are modular and therefore readily adaptable to other rotor and/or ultracentrifugation tube geometries.

  8. Colour-rendition properties of solid-state lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zukauskas, A [Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9, bldg. III, Vilnius, LT-10222 (Lithuania); Vaicekauskas, R [Department of Computer Science, Vilnius University, Naugarduko g. 24, Vilnius, LT-03225 (Lithuania); Shur, M S, E-mail: arturas.zukauskas@ff.vu.l [Department of Electrical, Computer, and System Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2010-09-08

    The applicability of colour-quality metrics to solid-state light sources is validated and the results of the assessment of colour-rendition characteristics of various lamps are presented. The standard colour-rendering index metric or a refined colour-quality scale metric fails to distinguish between two principle colour-rendition properties of illumination: the ability to render object colours with high fidelity and the ability to increase chromatic contrast, especially when the spectra of light sources contain a few narrow-band electroluminescence components. Supplementing these metrics by the known figures of merit that measure the gamut area of a small number of test colour samples does not completely resolve this issue. In contrast, the statistical approach, which is based on sorting a very large number of test colour samples in respect of just-perceivable colour distortions of several kinds, offers a comprehensive assessment of colour-rendition properties of solid-state light sources. In particular, two statistical indices, colour-fidelity index (CFI) and colour-saturation index (CSI), which are the relative numbers of object colours rendered with high fidelity and increased saturation, respectively, are sufficient to reveal and assess three distinct types of solid-state light sources. These are (i) high-fidelity lamps, which cover the entire spectrum with the spectral components present in the wavelength ranges of both 530-610 nm and beyond 610 nm (e.g. trichromatic warm white phosphor-converted (pc) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), red-amber-green-blue LED clusters, complementary clusters of white and coloured LEDs); (ii) colour-saturating lamps, which lack power in the 530-610 nm wavelength range (e.g. red-green-blue or red-cyan-blue LED clusters) and (iii) colour-dulling lamps, which lack power for wavelengths longer than 610 nm (dichromatic daylight pc LEDs and amber-green-blue LED clusters). Owing to a single statistical format, CSI and CFI can be used for

  9. Colour-rendition properties of solid-state lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applicability of colour-quality metrics to solid-state light sources is validated and the results of the assessment of colour-rendition characteristics of various lamps are presented. The standard colour-rendering index metric or a refined colour-quality scale metric fails to distinguish between two principle colour-rendition properties of illumination: the ability to render object colours with high fidelity and the ability to increase chromatic contrast, especially when the spectra of light sources contain a few narrow-band electroluminescence components. Supplementing these metrics by the known figures of merit that measure the gamut area of a small number of test colour samples does not completely resolve this issue. In contrast, the statistical approach, which is based on sorting a very large number of test colour samples in respect of just-perceivable colour distortions of several kinds, offers a comprehensive assessment of colour-rendition properties of solid-state light sources. In particular, two statistical indices, colour-fidelity index (CFI) and colour-saturation index (CSI), which are the relative numbers of object colours rendered with high fidelity and increased saturation, respectively, are sufficient to reveal and assess three distinct types of solid-state light sources. These are (i) high-fidelity lamps, which cover the entire spectrum with the spectral components present in the wavelength ranges of both 530-610 nm and beyond 610 nm (e.g. trichromatic warm white phosphor-converted (pc) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), red-amber-green-blue LED clusters, complementary clusters of white and coloured LEDs); (ii) colour-saturating lamps, which lack power in the 530-610 nm wavelength range (e.g. red-green-blue or red-cyan-blue LED clusters) and (iii) colour-dulling lamps, which lack power for wavelengths longer than 610 nm (dichromatic daylight pc LEDs and amber-green-blue LED clusters). Owing to a single statistical format, CSI and CFI can be used for

  10. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance investigations of advanced energy materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George D.

    In order to better understand the physical electrochemical changes that take place in lithium ion batteries and asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been useful to probe and identify changes on the atomic and molecular level. NMR is used to characterize the local environment and investigate the dynamical properties of materials used in electrochemical storage devices (ESD). NMR investigations was used to better understand the chemical composition of the solid electrolyte interphase which form on the negative and positive electrodes of lithium batteries as well as identify the breakdown products that occur in the operation of the asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors. The use of nano-structured particles in the development of new materials causes changes in the electrical, structural and other material properties. NMR was used to investigate the affects of fluorinated and non fluorinated single wall nanotubes (SWNT). In this thesis three experiments were performed using solid state NMR samples to better characterize them. The electrochemical reactions of a lithium ion battery determine its operational profile. Numerous means have been employed to enhance battery cycle life and operating temperature range. One primary means is the choice and makeup of the electrolyte. This study focuses on the characteristics of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that is formed on the electrodes surface during the charge discharge cycle. The electrolyte in this study was altered with several additives in order to determine the influence of the additives on SEI formation as well as the intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium ions in the electrodes. 7Li NMR studies where used to characterize the SEI and its composition. Solid state NMR studies of the carbon enriched acetonitrile electrolyte in a nonaqueous asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor were performed. Magic angle spinning (MAS) coupled with cross polarization NMR

  11. 76 FR 76625 - Association of State and Territorial Solid Waste Management Officials; Denial of Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 32 Association of State and Territorial Solid Waste Management... rulemaking (PRM-32-6) submitted by the Association of State and Territorial Solid Waste Management Officials... exit signs are disposed of in solid waste landfills where they become potential sources of...

  12. Solid State Division: Progress report for period ending September 30, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1988-03-01

    This paper contains a collection of articles on research done at the Solid State Division of ORNL. General topics covered are: theoretical solid state physics; neutron scattering; physical properties of superconductors and ceramics; synthesis and characterization of solids; ion beam and laser processing; and surface and defect studies. (LSP)

  13. Solid State Division: Progress report for period ending September 30, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper contains a collection of articles on research done at the Solid State Division of ORNL. General topics covered are: theoretical solid state physics; neutron scattering; physical properties of superconductors and ceramics; synthesis and characterization of solids; ion beam and laser processing; and surface and defect studies

  14. Solid-state RF power amplifiers development at BARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the recent developments on solid- RF power amplifiers (SSRFPA) at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). Recent developments on solid-state RF power amplifier modules using LDMOS devices higher power output (>800) per module, high power gain (∼20 dB), and moderate DC to RF conversion efficiency (>65%). RF power combiners at various outputs (1-10 kW) at arbitrary input ports have developed. Integral power amplifiers at 325 and 352 MHz have been designed for 1, 3, 5 and 7 kW output. It also includes the 270 W, 352 MHz driver of 1 MW klystron based high power RF system. This SSRFPA has power gain of 22 dB and drain efficiency of 63%. Another RF generator of 300 W, 100 MHz has been specifically developed for RF ion-source of 14 MeV generator. The RF generator has 71 % efficiency. The paper presents details and test results of all the SSRFPA developments. (author)

  15. High-Pressure Equation of State for Partially Ionic Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Herbert; Ferrante, John

    1993-01-01

    Recently, we showed that the cohesive energy of partially ionic solids may be characterized by a two-term energy relationship consisting of a Coulomb term arising from the valence-charge transfer delta Z between the atoms, and a scaled universal energy function E(sup *)(a(sup *)), which accounts for the partially covalent character of the bond and for the repulsion between the atomic cores for small R; a(sup *) is a scaled length. Normalized cohesive-energy curves of alkali halide crystals and of Ti and Ag halide crystals were obtained, and the cohesive-energy-curve parameters were used to generate theoretical equation-of-state (EOS) curves for the Li, Na, K, Cs, and Ag halides. Good agreement was obtained with the experimental isothermal compression curves over a wide pressure range (0-90 kbar). In this paper we verify that the cohesive-energy relationship is valid for divalent partially ionic solids; physically reasonable charge-transfer values (1.80 less than delta Z less than 2.0) are obtained for MgO, CaO, and CaS. Next, EOS curves for LiF, NaF, Nal, CsCl, Csl, MgO, CaO, and CaS are generated in terms of the cohesive-energy parameters. These EOS's yield excellent fits to experimental isothermal-compression data and to shock-wave data to very high pressures (P(sub max)= 250-1350 kbar).

  16. Solid-state effects in d+d fusion reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Czerski, K; Heide, P; Schiwietz, G

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear fusion reactions sup 2 H(d,p) sup 3 H and sup 2 H(d,n) sup 3 He have been measured at projectile energies between 5 and 60 keV using deuteron-implanted solid targets (C, Al, Zr and Ta). An exponential-like enhancement of the reaction cross-section compared to the bare nuclei fusion could be observed for energies below 20 keV. This effect may be interpreted as a result of the electron screening of the Coulomb barrier between reacting deuterons and described by a screening energy U sub e. The experimentally determined U sub e values show a clear target-material dependence and reach for heavier materials values being one order of magnitude larger than the value achieved in a gas target experiment and significantly larger than the theoretical predictions. Specific solid-state contributions to the enhancement of the fusion cross-sections arising from the channeling of projectiles in the crystal lattice and some other related effects will be discussed.

  17. Solid polymer electrolytes: materials designing and all-solid-state battery applications: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymer electrolytes are promising materials for electrochemical device applications, namely, high energy density rechargeable batteries, fuel cells, supercapacitors, electrochromic displays, etc. The area of polymer electrolytes has gone through various developmental stages, i.e. from dry solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) systems to plasticized, gels, rubbery to micro/nano-composite polymer electrolytes. The polymer gel electrolytes, incorporating organic solvents, exhibit room temperature conductivity as high as ∼10-3 S cm-1, while dry SPEs still suffer from poor ionic conductivity lower than 10-5 S cm-1. Several approaches have been adopted to enhance the room temperature conductivity in the vicinity of 10-4 S cm-1 as well as to improve the mechanical stability and interfacial activity of SPEs. In this review, the criteria of an ideal polymer electrolyte for electrochemical device applications have been discussed in brief along with presenting an overall glimpse of the progress made in polymer electrolyte materials designing, their broad classification and the recent advancements made in this branch of materials science. The characteristic advantages of employing polymer electrolyte membranes in all-solid-state battery applications have also been discussed. (topical review)

  18. Solid-state thin-film supercapacitor with ruthenium oxide and solid electrolyte thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Y. S.; Cho, W. I.; Lim, J. H.; Choi, D. J.

    Direct current reactive sputtering deposition of ruthenium oxide thin films (bottom and top electrodes) at 400°C are performed to produce a solid-state thin-film supercapacitor (TFSC). The supercapacitor has a cell structure of RuO 2/Li 2.94PO 2.37N 0.75 (Lipon)/RuO 2/Pt. Radio frequency, reactive sputtering deposition of an Li 2.94PO 2.37N 0.75 electrolyte film is performed on the bottom RuO 2 film at room temperature to separate the bottom and top RuO 2 electrodes electrically. The stoichiometry of the RuO 2 thin film is investigated by Rutherford back-scattering spectrometry (RBS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the as-deposited RuO 2 thin film is an amorphous phase. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements reveal that the RuO 2/Lipon/RuO 2 hetero-interfaces have no inter-diffusion problems. Charge-discharge measurements with constant current at room temperature clearly reveal typical supercapacitor behaviour for a RuO 2/Lipon/RuO 2/Pt cell structure. Since the electrolyte thin film has low ionic mobility, the capacity and cycle performance are inferior to those of a bulk type of supercapacitor. These results indicate that a high performance, TFSC can be fabricated by a solid electrolyte thin film with high ionic conductivity.

  19. Thermal noise in a solid state quantum computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kane proposal for the construction of a solid state quantum computer calls for the placement of a metallic A-gate above each nuclear qubit. Voltage biases applied to these A-gates are to be used to control the evolution of the qubits. In this paper, we consider the decohering effect of thermal fluctuations, the so-called Johnson noise, in the A-gate biases, on the average evolution of qubits undergoing single qubit rotations, as well as those that are not undergoing any operation at all. We find that although the errors introduced are of a different nature for each case, phase errors for the static qubits and both phase and bit-flip errors for qubits undergoing operations, the net error probability is similar for both, and low enough when compared to the timescale of single qubit operations for them to be corrected efficiently

  20. Elements of informatics for combinatorial solid-state materials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, S.; Ohnishi, T.; Lippmaa, M.; Koinuma, H.

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of using combinatorial techniques for materials science studies is to achieve higher experimental throughput than what is possible when samples are synthesized and characterized one at a time. The instrumentation needed for performing high-throughput synthesis and characterization has seen rapid development in recent years. The software tools needed to connect all parts of the materials development process are still largely lacking. In this paper we discuss the requirements of a combinatorial informatics system for materials science experiments. Specifically, we focus on solid-state thin film synthesis. We also describe an implementation of such a system that is based on widely-available open-source software. The system offers features such as remote access via a Web browser, an electronic notebook-style Web interface, automatic upload of new measurement or processing results and rapid preview of experimental data.

  1. Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer Array on NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Shinohara; D.S. Darrow; A.L. Roquemore; S.S. Medley; F.E. Cecil

    2004-05-13

    A Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer (SSNPA) array has been installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The array consists of four chords viewing through a common vacuum flange. The tangency radii of the viewing chords are 60, 90, 100, and 120 cm. They view across the three co-injection neutral beam lines (deuterium, 80 keV (typ.) with tangency radii 48.7, 59.2, and 69.4 cm) on NSTX and detect co-going energetic ions. A silicon photodiode used was calibrated by using a mono-energetic deuteron beam source. Deuterons with energy above 40 keV can be detected with the present setup. The degradation of the performance was also investigated. Lead shots and epoxy are used for neutron shielding to reduce handling any hazardous heavy metal. This method also enables us to make an arbitrary shape to be fit into the complex flight tube.

  2. High brightness diode-pumped organic solid-state laser

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Zhuang; Nafa, Malik; Chénais, Sébastien; Forget, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    High-power, diffraction-limited organic solid-state laser operation has been achieved in a vertical external cavity surface-emitting organic laser (VECSOL), pumped by a low-cost compact blue laser diode. The diode-pumped VECSOLs were demonstrated with various dyes in a polymer matrix, leading to laser emissions from 540 nm to 660 nm. Optimization of both the pump pulse duration and output coupling leads to a pump slope efficiency of 11% for a DCM based VECSOLs. We report output pulse energy up to 280 nJ with 100 ns long pump pulses, leading to a peak power of 3.5 W in a circularly symmetric, diffraction-limited beam.

  3. Solid state laser driver for an ICF reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conceptual design is presented of the main power amplifier of a multi-beamline, multi-megawatt solid state ICF reactor driver. Simultaneous achievement of useful beam quality and high average power is achieved by a proper choice of amplifier geometry. An amplifier beamline consists of a sequence of face-pumped rectangular slab gain elements, oriented at the Brewster angle relative to the beamline axis, and cooled on their large faces by helium gas that is flowing subsonically. The infrared amplifier output radiation is shifted to an appropriately short wavelength (10% (including all flow cooling input power) when the amplifiers are pumped by efficient high-power AlGaAs semiconductor laser diode arrays. 11 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  4. Optimized control strategy for crowbarless solid state modular power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid state modular power supply with series connected IGBT based power modules have been employed as high voltage bias power supply of klystron amplifier. Auxiliary compensation of full wave inverter bridge with ZVS/ZCS operations of all IGBTs over entire operating range is incorporated. An optimized control strategy has been adopted for this power supply needing no output filter, making this scheme crowbarless and is presented in this paper. DSP based fully digital control with same duty cycle for all power modules, have been incorporated for regulating this power supply along with adequate protection features. Input to this power supply is taken directly from 11 kV line and the input system is intentionally made 24 pulsed to reduce the input harmonics, improve the input power factor significantly, there by requiring no line filters. Various steps have been taken to increase the efficiency of major subsystems, so as to improve the overall efficiency of this power supply significantly. (author)

  5. Solid state laser driver for an ICF reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conceptual design is presented of the main power amplifier of a multi-beamline, multi-megawatt solid state ICF reactor driver. Simultaneous achievement of useful beam quality and high average power is achieved by a proper choice of amplifier geometry. An amplifier beamline consists of a sequence of face-pumped rectangular slab gain elements, oriented at the Brewster angle relative to the beamline axis, and cooled on their large faces by helium gas that is flowing subsonically. The infrared amplifier output radiation is shifted to an appropriately short wavelength (10% (including all flow cooling input power) when the amplifiers are pumped by efficient high-power AlGaAs semiconductor laser diode arrays

  6. Diallyl phthalate (DAP) solid state nuclear track detector

    CERN Document Server

    Koguchi, Y; Ashida, T; Tsuruta, T

    2003-01-01

    Diallyl phthalate (DAP) solid state nuclear track detector is suitable for detecting heavy ions such as fission fragments, because it is insensitive to right ions such as alpha particles and protons. Detection efficiency of fission tracks is about 100%, which is unaffected under conditions below 240degC lasting for 1h or below 1 MGy of gamma-ray irradiation. Optimum etching condition for the DAP detector for detection of fission fragments is 2-4 h using 30% KOH aqueous solution at 90degC or 8-15 min using PEW-65 solution at 60degC. DAP detector is useful in detecting induced fission tracks for dating of geology or measuring intense heavy ions induced by ultra laser plasma. The fabrication of copolymers of DAP and CR-39 makes it possible to control the discrimination level for detection threshold of heavy ions. (author)

  7. Solid-state thin-film rechargeable batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin-film solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries are ideal micropower sources for many applications requiring high energy and power densities, good capacity retention for thousands of discharge/charge cycles, and an extremely low self-discharge rate. Batteries fabricated using the crystalline LiCoO2 cathode consistently provide the maximum power levels up to 30 mW/cm2, long cycle life, negligible self-discharge and rapid charge rates. Similarly promising results have also been obtained with crystalline LiMn2O4 cathodes, although good reproducibility has not been achieved. These fully lithiated cathodes can be used with Li-free or Li-ion thin-film anodes to produce batteries that can withstand high temperature solder bonding processes

  8. High efficiency solid-state sensitized heterojunction photovoltaic device

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Mingkui

    2010-06-01

    The high molar extinction coefficient heteroleptic ruthenium dye, NaRu(4,4′-bis(5-(hexylthio)thiophen-2-yl)-2,2′-bipyridine) (4-carboxylic acid-4′-carboxylate-2,2′-bipyridine) (NCS) 2, exhibits certified 5% electric power conversion efficiency at AM 1.5 solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2) in a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-pmethoxyphenylamine)-9, 9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as the organic hole-transporting material. This demonstration elucidates a class of photovoltaic devices with potential for low-cost power generation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Solid state laser driver for an ICF reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupke, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented of the main power amplifier of a multi-beamline, multi-megawatt solid state ICF reactor driver. Simultaneous achievement of useful beam quality and high average power is achieved by a proper choice of amplifier geometry. An amplifier beamline consists of a sequence of face-pumped rectangular slab gain elements, oriented at the Brewster angle relative to the beamline axis, and cooled on their large faces by helium gas that is flowing subsonically. The infrared amplifier output radiation is shifted to an appropriately short wavelength (<500 nm) using nonlinear crystals that are also gas cooled. We project an overall driver efficiency >10% (including all flow cooling input power) when the amplifiers are pumped by efficient high-power AlGaAs semiconductor laser diode arrays. 11 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. PRODUCTION OF AN EXTRACELLULAR CELLOBIASE IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Agrawal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass has attracted wide interest globally in last decade. One of the main reasons for the high cost of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass is the expensive enzymes involved in enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose (cellulase. The utilization of agro-industrial waste as a potential substrate for producing enzymes may serve a dual purpose of reducing the environmental pollution along with producing a high value commercial product. Twelve different agro-industrial wastes were evaluated for extracellular cellobiose or β-glucosidase production by a mutant of Bacillus subtilis on solid state fermentations (SSF. The Citrus sinensis peel waste was found to be the most suitable substrate with highest BGL titre (35 U/gds. Optimum incubation time, inoculum size, moisture content and volume of buffer for enzyme extraction were 72 h, 40 % v/w, 10 mL and 20 mL respectively.

  11. Solid-state dewetting of magnetic binary multilayer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterina, Ria; Liu, X. M.; Adeyeye, A. O.; Ross, C. A.; Choi, W. K.

    2015-10-01

    We examined solid-state dewetting behavior of magnetic multilayer thin film in both miscible (CoPd) and immiscible (CoAu) systems and found that CoPd and CoAu dewetting stages follow that of elemental materials. We established that CoPd alloy morphology and dewetting rate lie in between that of the elemental materials. Johnson-Mehl-Avrami analysis was utilized to extract the dewetting activation energy of CoPd. For CoAu, Au-rich particles and Co-rich particles are distinguishable and we are able to predict the interparticle spacings and particle densities for the particles that agree well with the experimental results. We also characterized the magnetic properties of CoPd and CoAu nanoparticles.

  12. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance 2nd Annual Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-03-30

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are pleased to provide the proceedings of the second annual Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Workshop held on March 29-30, 2001 in Arlington. The package includes the presentations made during the workshop, a list of participants, and the results of the breakout sessions. Those sessions covered stack materials and processes, power electronics, balance of plant and thermal integration, fuel processing technologies, and stack and system performance modeling. The breakout sessions have been reported as accurately as possible; however, due to the recording and transcription process errors may have occurred. If you note any significant omissions or wish to provide additional information, we welcome your comments and hope that all stakeholder groups will use the enclosed information in their planning endeavors.

  13. Solid-state sintering of tungsten heavy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid-state sintering is a technologically important step in the fabrication of tungsten heavy alloys. This work addresses practical variables affecting the sinterability: powder particle size, powder mixing, and sintering temperature and time. Compositions containing 1 to 10 micrometer (μM) tungsten (W) powders can be fully densified at temperatures near the matrix solidus. Blending with an intensifier bar provided good dispersion of elemental powders and good as-sintered mechanical properties under adequate sintering conditions. Additional ball milling increases powder bulk density which primarily benefits mold and die filling. Although fine, 1 μm W powder blends have high sinterability, higher as-sintered ductilities are reached in shorter sintering times with coarser, 5 μm W powder blends; 10μm W powder blends promise the highest as-sintered ductilities due to their coarse microstructural W

  14. Diffuse-light all-solid-state invisibility cloak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schittny, Robert; Niemeyer, Andreas; Kadic, Muamer; Bückmann, Tiemo; Naber, Andreas; Wegener, Martin

    2015-09-15

    An ideal invisibility cloak makes arbitrary macroscopic objects within the cloak indistinguishable from its surrounding—for all directions, illumination patterns, polarizations, and colors of visible light. Recently, we have approached such an ideal cloak for the diffusive regime of light propagation using a core-shell geometry and a mixture of water and white wall paint as the surrounding. Here, we present an all-solid-state version based on polydimethylsiloxane doped with titania nanoparticles for the surrounding/shell and on a high-reflectivity microporous ceramic for the core. By virtue of reduced effects of absorption, especially from the core, the cloaking performance and the overall light throughput are improved significantly. PMID:26371896

  15. Solid-state NMR on defects in lead titanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Failure of ferroelectrics is not well understood. In our approach, we employ various solid-state NMR techniques to characterize and quantify chemical structures that arise from crystallographic defects. Especially, the existence and distributions of 1H as water or other species is a primary goal in our research. 1H spectra are known to be often of low resolution due to the strong homonuclear dipolar coupling. With sophisticated NMR techniques, e. g. echo methods and multiple quantum transitions, we want to get more insight into the defect structures. This enables both improvement in spectral resolution as well as to obtain information about the dynamics of present chemical structures such as water. Additionally, all nuclei present in lead titanates are accessible by NMR with different degree of sensitivity. Especially, with self-built equipment we are able to increase the abundance of the 17O nuclei and therefore allow for detection

  16. Solid state physics advances in research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Turnbull, David

    1991-01-01

    The explosion of the science of mesoscopic structures is having a great impact on physics and electrical engineering because of the possible applications of these structures in microelectronic and optoelectronic devices of the future. This volume of Solid State Physics consists of two comprehensive and authoritative articles that discuss most of the physical problems that have so far been identified as being of importance in semiconductor nanostructures. Much of the volume is tutorial in characture--while at the same time time presenting current and vital theoretical and experimental results and a copious reference list--so it will be essential reading to all those taking a part in the research and development of this emerging technology.

  17. Solid state cloaking for electrical charge carrier mobility control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Liao, Bolin; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang

    2015-07-07

    An electrical mobility-controlled material includes a solid state host material having a controllable Fermi energy level and electrical charge carriers with a charge carrier mobility. At least one Fermi level energy at which a peak in charge carrier mobility is to occur is prespecified for the host material. A plurality of particles are distributed in the host material, with at least one particle disposed with an effective mass and a radius that minimize scattering of the electrical charge carriers for the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy of peak charge carrier mobility. The minimized scattering of electrical charge carriers produces the peak charge carrier mobility only at the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy, set by the particle effective mass and radius, the charge carrier mobility being less than the peak charge carrier mobility at Fermi level energies other than the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy.

  18. Solid state track recorder measurements in the poolside critical assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission rate measurements using solid state track recorders (SSTR) have been performed at the PCA. A schematic representation of a cross-section of the PCA is shown. Fission rates were measured in the pressure vessel simulator at the T/4, T/2 and 3T/4 positions and in the void box (VB). SSTR measurements were carried out with 232Th, 235U (bare and cadmium covered), 238U and 237Np fissionable deposits. Midplane only measurements were carried out for 235U and 237Np, while 5 axial locations at 1/4T and 1/2T and 3 axial locations at 3/4T and in the VB were sampled for 232Th and 238U. The HEDL SSTR fission rate measurements reported herein for both configurations together with NBS and CEN/SCK fission chamber measurements will be used to establish absolute and relative fission reaction rates, and ratios for the PCA pressure vessel Benchmark Facility

  19. Microwave interferometer using 94-GHz solid-state sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 94-GHz microwave interferometer has been designed for the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade and the Mirror Fusion Test Facility to replace the 140-GHz system. The new system is smaller and has modular single-channel units designed for high reliability. It is magnetically shielded and can be mounted close to the machine, which allows the use of lower power solid-state sources. Test results of the 94-GHz prototype indicate that the phase resolution is better than 10, the Impatt FM noise is 5 MHz wide, and the Gunn FM noise is 6 kHz wide. This paper presents the antenna designs along with the test results and discusses the unique problems associated with diagnosing a high electron temperature plasma in the presence of electron cyclotron resonant heating

  20. Solid State Laser Technology Development for Atmospheric Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, James C.

    1998-01-01

    NASA atmospheric scientists are currently planning active remote sensing missions that will enable global monitoring of atmospheric ozone, water vapor, aerosols and clouds as well as global wind velocity. The measurements of these elements and parameters are important because of the effects they have on climate change, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, atmospheric transport and, in general, the health of the planet. NASA will make use of Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) and backscatter lidar techniques for active remote sensing of molecular constituents and atmospheric phenomena from advanced high-altitude aircraft and space platforms. This paper provides an overview of NASA Langley Research Center's (LaRC's) development of advanced solid state lasers, harmonic generators, and wave mixing techniques aimed at providing the broad range of wavelengths necessary to meet measurement goals of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise.

  1. Trends of studies in some aspects of solid state plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of late, there is a discernible trend to study solid state plasmas. Such a study, by itself, constitutes a broad class of problems but those with dominantly utilitarian aspects have not hitherto been studied in abundance. The utility stems from the nature of media, namely, piezoelectric media or strictly speaking, piezoelectric semiconducting media, in which amplification of waves or otherwise has to be reckoned for wothwhile pursuits in regard to energy conversions. There are both theoretical and experimental dimensions to such studies. The present study restricts itself only to theoretical work. A chronological sequence of extent studies enables one to get at the right perspective. Basic equations along with formulations are set forth. Thermopiezosemiconducting media are also considered on the above lines. Salients and snags of erstwhile studies are pointed out. Possible directions of developments of such studies together with techniques to which they may become amenable are also indicated. (author)

  2. Solid-state Slit Camera (SSC) on Board MAXI

    CERN Document Server

    Tomida, Hiroshi; Kimura, Masashi; Kitayama, Hiroki; Matsuoka, Masaru; Ueno, Shiro; Kawasaki, Kazuyoshi; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Miyaguchi, Kazuhisa; Maeda, Kentaro; Daikyuji, Arata; Isobe, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    Solid-state Slit Camera (SSC) is an X-ray camera onboard the MAXI mission of the International Space Station. Two sets of SSC sensors view X-ray sky using charge-coupled devices (CCDs) in 0.5--12\\,keV band. The total area for the X-ray detection is about 200\\,cm$\\rm ^2$ which is the largest among the missions of X-ray astronomy. The energy resolution at the CCD temperature of $-$70 \\degc is 145\\,eV in full width at the half maximum (FWHM) at 5.9\\,keV, and the field of view is 1\\deg .5 (FWHM) $\\times$ 90\\deg for each sensor. The SSC could make a whole-sky image with the energy resolution good enough to resolve line emissions, and monitor the whole-sky at the energy band of $<$ 2\\,keV for the first time in these decades.

  3. Fast neutron detection using solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CR-39 and Makrofol-E solid state nuclear track detectors were studied aiming their application to fast neutron detection. Optimum etching conditions of those two kinds of materials were determined the followings - the Makrofol-E detector is electrochemically etched in a PEW solution (15% KOH, 40% ethilic alcohol and 45% water) for 2 h., with an applied electric field strength of 30 kV/cm (r/m/s/) and frequency of 2 kHz, at room temperature; - the CR-39 detector is chemically pre-etched during 1 h in a 20% (w/v) NaOH solution at 70 sup(0)C, followed by 13 h electrochemical etch using the same solution at room temperature and an electric field strength of 30 kV/cm (r.m.s.) and frequency of 2 kHz.(E.G.)

  4. Solid State Ionics Advanced Materials for Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Careem, M. A.; Dissanayake, M. A. K. L.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.; Seneviratne, V. A.

    2006-06-01

    Keynote lecture. Challenges and opportunities of solid state ionic devices / W. Weppner -- pt. I. Ionically conducting inorganic solids. Invited papers. Multinuclear NMR studies of mass transport of phosphoric acid in water / J. R. P. Jayakody ... [et al.]. Crystalline glassy and polymeric electrolytes: similarities and differences in ionic transport mechanisms / J.-L. Souquet. 30 years of NMR/NQR experiments in solid electrolytes / D. Brinkmann. Analysis of conductivity and NMR measurements in Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] fast Li[symbol] ionic conductor: evidence for correlated Li[symbol] motion / O. Bohnké ... [et al.]. Transport pathways for ions in disordered solids from bond valence mismatch landscapes / S. Adams. Proton conductivity in condensed phases of water: implications on linear and ball lightning / K. Tennakone -- Contributed papers. Proton transport in nanocrystalline bioceramic materials: an investigative study of synthetic bone with that of natural bone / H. Jena, B. Rambabu. Synthesis and properties of the nanostructured fast ionic conductor Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Hydrogen production: ceramic materials for high temperature water electrolysis / A. Hammou. Influence of the sintering temperature on pH sensor ability of Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol]. Relationship between potentiometric and impedance spectroscopy measurements / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Microstructure chracterization and ionic conductivity of nano-sized CeO[symbol]-Sm[symbol]O[symbol] system (x=0.05 - 0.2) prepared by combustion route / K. Singh, S. A. Acharya, S. S. Bhoga. Red soil in Northern Sri Lanka is a natural magnetic ceramic / K. Ahilan ... [et al.]. Neutron scattering of LiNiO[symbol] / K. Basar ... [et al.]. Preparation and properties of LiFePO[symbol] nanorods / L. Q. Mai ... [et al.]. Structural and electrochemical properties of monoclinic and othorhombic MoO[symbol] phases / O. M. Hussain ... [et al.]. Preparation of Zircon (Zr

  5. Solid-state gyrotron body power supply, test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santinelli, M. [Association Euratom-ENEA, ENEA CR Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy)], E-mail: santinelli@frascati.enea.it; Claesen, R.; Coletti, A. [Association Euratom-ENEA, ENEA CR Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Bonicelli, T.; Mondino, P.L. [EFDA, EFDA CSU Garching, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Pretelli, M.; Rinaldi, L.; Sita, L.; Taddia, G. [OCEM SpA, Via 2 Agosto 1980 no. 11, 40016 San Giorgio di Piano (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    A 170 GHz, 2 MW, steady-state gyrotron is being developed in collaboration between European research associations and industries to be used for the electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) system of ITER, the gyrotron is presently in the prototype state. EFDA entrusted ENEA with the design of a new power supply for the gyrotron's body; in which, the traditional power vacuum tubes are replaced with solid-state components (IGBT); furthermore ENEA had the task of developing the new body power supply (BPS), following the initial conceptual design. The BPS is formed by 50 identical bidirectional (in current) modules, connected in series; the BPS's control system regulates the output voltage by changing the modulation index. OCEM Spa, under ENEA's supervision, has manufactured the BPS. Tests, done at the start of this year, showed the substantial agreement between the initial technical specifications and the values achieved. Particularly the ramp-up/down-emergency time (50-10 {mu}s), the accuracy ({+-}0.5%), the sine wave modulation (45-20 kV at 5 kHz) and the maximum phase shift (<10 deg.) have been tested. In the article, the new stair-way modulation (SWM) scheme will be sketched and the test results will be described in detail.

  6. Life Cycle Assessment of mechanical biological pre-treatment of Municipal Solid Waste: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylot, Antoine; Vaxelaire, Stéphane; Zdanevitch, Isabelle; Auvinet, Nicolas; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2015-05-01

    The environmental performance of mechanical biological pre-treatment (MBT) of Municipal Solid Waste is quantified using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), considering one of the 57 French plants currently in operation as a case study. The inventory is mostly based on plant-specific data, extrapolated from on-site measurements regarding mechanical and biological operations (including anaerobic digestion and composting of digestate). The combined treatment of 46,929 tonnes of residual Municipal Solid Waste and 12,158 tonnes of source-sorted biowaste (as treated in 2010 at the plant) generates 24,550 tonnes CO2-eq as an impact on climate change, 69,943kg SO2-eq on terrestrial acidification and 19,929kg NMVOC-eq on photochemical oxidant formation, in a life-cycle perspective. On the contrary MBT induces environmental benefits in terms of fossil resource depletion, human toxicity (carcinogenic) and ecotoxicity. The results firstly highlight the relatively large contribution of some pollutants, such as CH4, emitted at the plant and yet sometimes neglected in the LCA of waste MBT. Moreover this study identifies 4 plant-specific operation conditions which drive the environmental impact potentials induced by MBT: the conditions of degradation of the fermentable fraction, the collection of gaseous flows emitted from biological operations, the abatement of collected pollutants and NOx emissions from biogas combustion. Finally the results underline the relatively large influence of the operations downstream the plant (in particular residuals incineration) on the environmental performance of waste MBT. PMID:25708404

  7. High average power diode pumped solid state lasers for CALIOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diode pumping of solid state media offers the opportunity for very low maintenance, high efficiency, and compact laser systems. For remote sensing, such lasers may be used to pump tunable non-linear sources, or if tunable themselves, act directly or through harmonic crystals as the probe. The needs of long range remote sensing missions require laser performance in the several watts to kilowatts range. At these power performance levels, more advanced thermal management technologies are required for the diode pumps. The solid state laser design must now address a variety of issues arising from the thermal loads, including fracture limits, induced lensing and aberrations, induced birefringence, and laser cavity optical component performance degradation with average power loading. In order to highlight the design trade-offs involved in addressing the above issues, a variety of existing average power laser systems are briefly described. Included are two systems based on Spectra Diode Laboratory's water impingement cooled diode packages: a two times diffraction limited, 200 watt average power, 200 Hz multi-rod laser/amplifier by Fibertek, and TRW's 100 watt, 100 Hz, phase conjugated amplifier. The authors also present two laser systems built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) based on their more aggressive diode bar cooling package, which uses microchannel cooler technology capable of 100% duty factor operation. They then present the design of LLNL's first generation OPO pump laser for remote sensing. This system is specified to run at 100 Hz, 20 nsec pulses each with 300 mJ, less than two times diffraction limited, and with a stable single longitudinal mode. The performance of the first testbed version will be presented. The authors conclude with directions their group is pursuing to advance average power lasers. This includes average power electro-optics, low heat load lasing media, and heat capacity lasers

  8. X-Band, 17-Watt Solid-State Power Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittskus, Anthony; Stone, Ernest; Boger, William; Burgess, David; Honda, Richard; Nuckolls, Carl

    2005-01-01

    An advanced solid-state power amplifier that can generate an output power of as much as 17 W at a design operating frequency of 8.4 GHz has been designed and constructed as a smaller, lighter, less expensive alternative to traveling-wave-tube X-band amplifiers and to prior solid-state X-band power amplifiers of equivalent output power. This amplifier comprises a monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifier module and a power-converter module integrated into a compact package (see Figure 1). The amplifier module contains an input variable-gain amplifier (VGA), an intermediate driver stage, a final power stage, and input and output power monitors (see Figure 2). The VGA and the driver amplifier are 0.5-m GaAs-based metal semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs). The final power stage contains four parallel high-efficiency, GaAs-based pseudomorphic high-electron-mobility transistors (PHEMTs). The gain of the VGA is voltage-variable over a range of 10 to 24 dB. To provide for temperature compensation of the overall amplifier gain, the gain-control voltage is generated by an operational-amplifier circuit that includes a resistor/thermistor temperature-sensing network. The driver amplifier provides a gain of 14 dB to an output power of 27 dBm to drive the four parallel output PHEMTs, each of which is nominally capable of putting out as much as 5 W. The driver output is sent to the input terminals of the four parallel PHEMTs through microstrip power dividers; the outputs of these PHEMTs are combined by microstrip power combiners (which are similar to the microstrip power dividers) to obtain the final output power of 17 W.

  9. Toward Practical Solid-State Based Quantum Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshami, Khabat

    Quantum information processing promises to have transformative impacts on information and communication science and technology. Photonic implementation of quantum information processing is among successful candidates for implementation of quantum computation and is an essential part of quantum communication. Linear optical quantum computation, specifically the KLM scheme [1], and quantum repeaters [2, 3] are prominent candidates for practical photonic quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication. Quantum memories for photons are key elements for any practical implementation of these schemes. Practical quantum memories require theoretical and experimental investigations into quantum memory protocols and physical systems for implementations. The present thesis is focused on studying new approaches toward practical solid-state based quantum memories. First, I present a proposal for a new quantum memory protocol called the controllable-dipole quantum memory [4]. It represents a protocol, in a two-level system, without any optical control that is shown to be equivalent to the Raman type-quantum memory. Then I include our studies on the quantum memory based on the refractive index modulation of the host medium [5]. It is shown that it can resemble the gradient echo quantum memory without a spatial gradient in the external field. These two protocols can be implemented in rare-earth doped crystals. With regards to using new physical systems, I present a proposal based on nitrogen vacancy centers [6]. This may pave the way toward micron-scale on-chip quantum memories that may contribute to the implementation of integrated quantum photonics. Finally, I studied the precision requirements for the spin echo technique [7]. This technique is necessary to extend the storage time in solid-state quantum memories, in which the coherence times are limited by spin inhomogeneous broadening.

  10. The NSLS 100 element solid state array detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray absorption studies of dilute samples require fluorescence detection techniques. Since signal-to-noise ratios are governed by the ratio of fluorescent to scattered photons counted by a detector, solid state detectors which can discriminate between fluorescence and scattered photons have become the instruments of choice for trace element measurements. Commercially available 13 element Ge array detectors permitting total count rates < 500 000 counts per second are now in routine use. Since X-ray absorption beamlines at high brightness synchrotron sources can already illuminate most dilute samples with enough flux to saturate the current generation of solid state detectors, the development of next-generation instruments with significantly higher total count rates is essential. We present the design and current status of the 100 elements Si array detector being developed in a collaboration between the NSLS and the Instrumentation Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The detecting array consists of a 10 x 10 matrix of 4 mm x 4 mm elements laid out on a single piece of ultrahigh purity silicon mounted at the front end of a liquid nitrogen dewar assembly. A matrix of charge sensitive integrating preamplifiers feed signals to an array of shaping amplifiers, single channel analyzers, and scalers. An electronic switch, delay amplifier, linear gate, digital scope, peak sensing A/D converter, and histogramming memory module provide for complete diagnostics and channel calibration. The entrie instrument is controlled by a LabView 2 application on a MacII ci; the software also provides full control over beamline hardware and performs the data collection. (orig.)

  11. Direct Solid-State Conversion of Recyclable Metals and Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran Manchiraju

    2012-03-27

    Friction Stir Extrusion (FSE) is a novel energy-efficient solid-state material synthesis and recycling technology capable of producing large quantity of bulk nano-engineered materials with tailored, mechanical, and physical properties. The novelty of FSE is that it utilizes the frictional heating and extensive plastic deformation inherent to the process to stir, consolidate, mechanically alloy, and convert the powders, chips, and other recyclable feedstock materials directly into useable product forms of highly engineered materials in a single step (see Figure 1). Fundamentally, FSE shares the same deformation and metallurgical bonding principles as in the revolutionary friction stir welding process. Being a solid-state process, FSE eliminates the energy intensive melting and solidification steps, which are necessary in the conventional metal synthesis processes. Therefore, FSE is highly energy-efficient, practically zero emissions, and economically competitive. It represents a potentially transformational and pervasive sustainable manufacturing technology for metal recycling and synthesis. The goal of this project was to develop the technological basis and demonstrate the commercial viability of FSE technology to produce the next generation highly functional electric cables for electricity delivery infrastructure (a multi-billion dollar market). Specific focus of this project was to (1) establish the process and material parameters to synthesize novel alloys such as nano-engineered materials with enhanced mechanical, physical, and/or functional properties through the unique mechanical alloying capability of FSE, (2) verifying the expected major energy, environmental, and economic benefits of FSE technology for both the early stage 'showcase' electric cable market and the anticipated pervasive future multi-market applications across several industry sectors and material systems for metal recycling and sustainable manufacturing.

  12. Polymorphs of Aspirin Solid-state IR-LD spectroscopic and quantitative determination in solid mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, Bojidarka B.

    2006-12-01

    Solid-state linear-dichroic infrared (IR-LD) spectroscopy, using an orientation technique as a suspension in nematic liquid crystal, has been carried out of Aspirin polymorphs (forms I and II). Reducing-difference procedure for polarized IR-spectra interpretation has been applied for structural analysis of both modifications and the data have been compared with known crystallographic ones. A vibration assignment of forms I and II has been included and on this basis, a quantitative determination by FT-IR spectra for form I in mixtures with second one has been presented, using intensity ratio of 1606 cm -1 peak (characteristic for both forms) to 599 cm -1 one (attributed to form I). The obtained reliability is 99.78%.

  13. The anomalous solid state decomposition of ammonium dinitramide: a matter of surface polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahm, Martin; Brinck, Tore

    2009-05-28

    Polarized dinitramide anions on the surface of solid ammonium dinitramide (ADN) have a decomposition barrier that is reduced by 16 kcal mol(-1) and explain the anomalous solid state decomposition of ADN. PMID:19436902

  14. Predicting biological system objectives de novo from internal state measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maranas Costas D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimization theory has been applied to complex biological systems to interrogate network properties and develop and refine metabolic engineering strategies. For example, methods are emerging to engineer cells to optimally produce byproducts of commercial value, such as bioethanol, as well as molecular compounds for disease therapy. Flux balance analysis (FBA is an optimization framework that aids in this interrogation by generating predictions of optimal flux distributions in cellular networks. Critical features of FBA are the definition of a biologically relevant objective function (e.g., maximizing the rate of synthesis of biomass, a unit of measurement of cellular growth and the subsequent application of linear programming (LP to identify fluxes through a reaction network. Despite the success of FBA, a central remaining challenge is the definition of a network objective with biological meaning. Results We present a novel method called Biological Objective Solution Search (BOSS for the inference of an objective function of a biological system from its underlying network stoichiometry as well as experimentally-measured state variables. Specifically, BOSS identifies a system objective by defining a putative stoichiometric "objective reaction," adding this reaction to the existing set of stoichiometric constraints arising from known interactions within a network, and maximizing the putative objective reaction via LP, all the while minimizing the difference between the resultant in silico flux distribution and available experimental (e.g., isotopomer flux data. This new approach allows for discovery of objectives with previously unknown stoichiometry, thus extending the biological relevance from earlier methods. We verify our approach on the well-characterized central metabolic network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusion We illustrate how BOSS offers insight into the functional organization of biochemical networks

  15. VANILLIN PRODUCTION BY PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM GROWN ON GREEN COCONUT AGRO-INDUSTRIAL HUSK IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabete dos Santos Barbosa; Daniel Perrone; Ana Lúcia do Amaral Vendramini; Selma Gomes Ferreira Leite

    2008-01-01

    Agro-industrial residues have become an important source for the production of chemical compounds using biological pathways, contributing to preservation of the environment and making the overall process economically supportable. Vanillin is a very important aromatic compound for the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical industries. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the vanillin production by solid-state fermentation on green coconut residue using the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrys...

  16. Effects of Solid Retention Time (SRT) on Sludge Characteristics in Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Li, N.; X Wang; N Ren; Zhang, K.; Kang, H; You, S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of solid retention time (SRT) on sludge characteristics and operational performance in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) reactor. The results showed that the reactor operated at SRT of τ = 8.3 d could achieve phosphate removal efficiency η > 90 % and SVI < 100 mL g–1. In comparison, increasing SRT to τ = 16.6 d led to a decrease of phosphate removal (η < 85 %) and an increase of SVI value (160 mL g–1), implying a performance degradation and wors...

  17. Characterization of solid UV cross-linked PEGDA for biological applications

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, David

    2013-10-20

    This paper reports on solid UV cross-linked Poly(ethylene)-glycol-diacrylate (PEGDA) as a material for microfluidic devices for biological applications. We have evaluated biocompatibility of PEGDA through two separate means: 1) by examining cell viability and attachment on cross-linked PEGDA surfaces for cell culture applications, and 2) by determining if cross-linked PEGDA inhibits the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) processes for on-chip PCR. Through these studies a correlation has been found between degree of curing and cell viability, attachment, as well as on PCR outcome.

  18. Effect of solids retention time and wastewater characteristics on biological phosphorus removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Mogens; Aspegren, H.; Jansen, J.l.C.;

    2002-01-01

    The paper deals with the effect of wastewater, plant design and operation in relation to biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal and the possibilities to model the processes. Two Bio-P pilot plants were operated for 2.5 years in parallel receiving identical wastewater. The plants had SRT of 4...... in the wastewater, and less by the plant lay-out. The phosphorus removal is mainly dependent on availability in the wastewater of fatty acids but also by the suspended solids in the effluent, which is higher in the plant with nitrificationdenitrification, probably due to a higher SVI or denitrification...... with time which has importance in relation to modelling. The overall conclusion of the comparison between the two plants is that the biological phosphorus removal efficiency under practical operating conditions is affected by the SRT in the plant and the wastewater composition. Thus great care should...

  19. Criticality monitoring with digital systems and solid state neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A commercially available system for criticality monitoring combines the well established technology of digital radiation monitoring with state-of-the art detector systems capable of detecting criticality excursions of varying length and intensity with a high degree of confidence. The field microcomputer servicing the detector clusters contains hardware and software to acquire detector information in both the digital count rate and bit sensing modes supported by the criticality detectors. In both cases special criticality logic in the field microcomputer is used to determine the validity of the criticality event. The solid-state neutron detector consists of a 6LiF wafer coupled to a diffused-junction charged particle detector. Alpha particles resulting from (n,α) interactions within the lithium wafer produce a pulsed signal corresponding to neutron intensity. Special detector circuitry causes the setting of a criticality bit recognizable by the microcomputer should neutron field intensities either exceed a hardware selectable frequency or saturate the detector resulting in a high current condition. These two modes of criticality sensing, in combination with the standard method of comparing an operator selectable alarm setpoint with the detector count rate, results in a criticality system capable of effective operation under the most demanding criticality monitoring conditions

  20. Charge state distribution of light ions at glancing collision with solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many experimental results have suggested that the charge state distribution of ions have penetrated through solid is different from that inside the solid. It is important to clarify the physical process taking place at solid surface in order to know the states of ions inside the solid from those observed outside the solid. In the present paper, we report our measurement of charge state distributions of He+ and H2+ ions having been scattered in small angles (less than 40) at surfaces of Au, Ag and C. One of the advantages of the use of the glancing collision of ions at solid surface for the study of ion-surface interaction is that the dwell time of ion near solid surface can be made more than 100 times longer than that in normal transmission experiments. The longer dwell times may alter any contribution of solid surface to electron capture and loss of ions