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Sample records for biological processes involved

  1. A comparison of form processing involved in the perception of biological and nonbiological movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Steven M; Lu, Hongjing

    2016-01-01

    Although there is evidence for specialization in the human brain for processing biological motion per se, few studies have directly examined the specialization of form processing in biological motion perception. The current study was designed to systematically compare form processing in perception of biological (human walkers) to nonbiological (rotating squares) stimuli. Dynamic form-based stimuli were constructed with conflicting form cues (position and orientation), such that the objects were perceived to be moving ambiguously in two directions at once. In Experiment 1, we used the classification image technique to examine how local form cues are integrated across space and time in a bottom-up manner. By comparing with a Bayesian observer model that embodies generic principles of form analysis (e.g., template matching) and integrates form information according to cue reliability, we found that human observers employ domain-general processes to recognize both human actions and nonbiological object movements. Experiments 2 and 3 found differential top-down effects of spatial context on perception of biological and nonbiological forms. When a background does not involve social information, observers are biased to perceive foreground object movements in the direction opposite to surrounding motion. However, when a background involves social cues, such as a crowd of similar objects, perception is biased toward the same direction as the crowd for biological walking stimuli, but not for rotating nonbiological stimuli. The model provided an accurate account of top-down modulations by adjusting the prior probabilities associated with the internal templates, demonstrating the power and flexibility of the Bayesian approach for visual form perception.

  2. Diurnal rhythmicity in biological processes involved in bioavailability of functional food factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurusaki, Takashi; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Aoshima, Yoshiki; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Sakono, Masanobu; Shimoi, Kayoko

    2013-05-01

    In the past few decades, many types of functional factors have been identified in dietary foods; for example, flavonoids are major groups widely distributed in the plant kingdom. However, the absorption rates of the functional food factors are usually low, and many of these are difficult to be absorbed in the intact forms because of metabolization by biological processes during absorption. To gain adequate beneficial effects, it is therefore mandatory to know whether functional food factors are absorbed in sufficient quantity, and then reach target organs while maintaining beneficial effects. These are the reasons why the bioavailability of functional food factors has been well investigated using rodent models. Recently, many of the biological processes have been reported to follow diurnal rhythms recurring every 24 h. Therefore, absorption and metabolism of functional food factors influenced by the biological processes may vary with time of day. Consequently, the evaluation of the bioavailability of functional food factors using rodent models should take into consideration the timing of consumption. In this review, we provide a perspective overview of the diurnal rhythm of biological processes involved in the bioavailability of functional food factors, particularly flavonoids.

  3. Comparison of Learner Involvement in Biology Laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance in the biology practical paper has been poor at Kenya national examinations in the past five years (1998-2002). This may imply a lack of emphasis on the teaching of biology through the process-based approach. This study investigated the level of learner involvement in biology practical investigations in ...

  4. Biological process linkage networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikla Dotan-Cohen

    Full Text Available The traditional approach to studying complex biological networks is based on the identification of interactions between internal components of signaling or metabolic pathways. By comparison, little is known about interactions between higher order biological systems, such as biological pathways and processes. We propose a methodology for gleaning patterns of interactions between biological processes by analyzing protein-protein interactions, transcriptional co-expression and genetic interactions. At the heart of the methodology are the concept of Linked Processes and the resultant network of biological processes, the Process Linkage Network (PLN.We construct, catalogue, and analyze different types of PLNs derived from different data sources and different species. When applied to the Gene Ontology, many of the resulting links connect processes that are distant from each other in the hierarchy, even though the connection makes eminent sense biologically. Some others, however, carry an element of surprise and may reflect mechanisms that are unique to the organism under investigation. In this aspect our method complements the link structure between processes inherent in the Gene Ontology, which by its very nature is species-independent. As a practical application of the linkage of processes we demonstrate that it can be effectively used in protein function prediction, having the power to increase both the coverage and the accuracy of predictions, when carefully integrated into prediction methods.Our approach constitutes a promising new direction towards understanding the higher levels of organization of the cell as a system which should help current efforts to re-engineer ontologies and improve our ability to predict which proteins are involved in specific biological processes.

  5. Investigation on thiosulfate-involved organics and nitrogen removal by a sulfur cycle-based biological wastewater treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jin; Lu, Hui; Cui, Yanxiang; Wei, Li; Liu, Rulong; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2015-02-01

    Thiosulfate, as an intermediate of biological sulfate/sulfite reduction, can significantly improve nitrogen removal potential in a biological sulfur cycle-based process, namely the Sulfate reduction-Autotrophic denitrification-Nitrification Integrated (SANI(®)) process. However, the related thiosulfate bio-activities coupled with organics and nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment lacked detailed examinations and reports. In this study, S2O3(2-) transformation during biological SO4(2-)/SO3(2-) co-reduction coupled with organics removal as well as S2O3(2-) oxidation coupled with chemolithotrophic denitrification were extensively evaluated under different experimental conditions. Thiosulfate is produced from the co-reduction of sulfate and sulfite through biological pathway at an optimum pH of 7.5 for organics removal. And the produced S2O3(2-) may disproportionate to sulfide and sulfate during both biological S2O3(2-) reduction and oxidation most possibly carried out by Desulfovibrio-like species. Dosing the same amount of nitrate, pH was found to be the more direct factor influencing the denitritation activity than free nitrous acid (FNA) and the optimal pH for denitratation (7.0) and denitritation (8.0) activities were different. Spiking organics significantly improved both denitratation and denitritation activities while minimizing sulfide inhibition of NO3(-) reduction during thiosulfate-based denitrification. These findings in this study can improve the understanding of mechanisms of thiosulfate on organics and nitrogen removal in biological sulfur cycle-based wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. TF-finder: A software package for identifying transcription factors involved in biological processes using microarray data and existing knowledge base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Xiaoqi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of transcription factors (TFs involved in a biological process is the first step towards a better understanding of the underlying regulatory mechanisms. However, due to the involvement of a large number of genes and complicated interactions in a gene regulatory network (GRN, identification of the TFs involved in a biology process remains to be very challenging. In reality, the recognition of TFs for a given a biological process can be further complicated by the fact that most eukaryotic genomes encode thousands of TFs, which are organized in gene families of various sizes and in many cases with poor sequence conservation except for small conserved domains. This poses a significant challenge for identification of the exact TFs involved or ranking the importance of a set of TFs to a process of interest. Therefore, new methods for recognizing novel TFs are desperately needed. Although a plethora of methods have been developed to infer regulatory genes using microarray data, it is still rare to find the methods that use existing knowledge base in particular the validated genes known to be involved in a process to bait/guide discovery of novel TFs. Such methods can replace the sometimes-arbitrary process of selection of candidate genes for experimental validation and significantly advance our knowledge and understanding of the regulation of a process. Results We developed an automated software package called TF-finder for recognizing TFs involved in a biological process using microarray data and existing knowledge base. TF-finder contains two components, adaptive sparse canonical correlation analysis (ASCCA and enrichment test, for TF recognition. ASCCA uses positive target genes to bait TFS from gene expression data while enrichment test examines the presence of positive TFs in the outcomes from ASCCA. Using microarray data from salt and water stress experiments, we showed TF-finder is very efficient in recognizing

  7. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  8. Profiling of Candida albicans gene expression during intra-abdominal candidiasis identifies biologic processes involved in pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shaoji; Clancy, Cornelius J; Xu, Wenjie; Schneider, Frank; Hao, Binghua; Mitchell, Aaron P; Nguyen, M Hong

    2013-11-01

    The pathogenesis of intra-abdominal candidiasis is poorly understood. Mice were intraperitoneally infected with Candida albicans (1 × 10(6) colony-forming units) and sterile stool. nanoString assays were used to quantitate messenger RNA for 145 C. albicans genes within the peritoneal cavity at 48 hours. Within 6 hours after infection, mice developed peritonitis, characterized by high yeast burdens, neutrophil influx, and a pH of 7.9 within peritoneal fluid. Organ invasion by hyphae and early abscess formation were evident 6 and 24 hours after infection, respectively; abscesses resolved by day 14. nanoString assays revealed adhesion and responses to alkaline pH, osmolarity, and stress as biologic processes activated in the peritoneal cavity. Disruption of the highly-expressed gene RIM101, which encodes an alkaline-regulated transcription factor, did not impact cellular morphology but reduced both C. albicans burden during early peritonitis and C. albicans persistence within abscesses. RIM101 influenced expression of 49 genes during intra-abdominal candidiasis, including previously unidentified Rim101 targets. Overexpression of the RIM101-dependent gene SAP5, which encodes a secreted protease, restored the ability of a rim101 mutant to persist within abscesses. A mouse model of intra-abdominal candidiasis is valuable for studying pathogenesis and C. albicans gene expression. RIM101 contributes to persistence within intra-abdominal abscesses, at least in part through activation of SAP5.

  9. A novel theory: biological processes mostly involve two types of mediators, namely general and specific mediators Endogenous small radicals such as superoxide and nitric oxide may play a role of general mediator in biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jian

    2005-01-01

    A great number of papers have shown that free radicals as well as bioactive molecules can play a role of mediator in a wide spectrum of biological processes, but the biological actions and chemical reactivity of the free radicals are quite different from that of the bioactive molecules, and that a wide variety of bioactive molecules can be easily modified by free radicals due to having functional groups sensitive to redox, and the significance of the interaction between the free radicals and the bioactive molecules in biological processes has been confirmed by the results of some in vitro and in vivo studies. Based on these evidence, this article presented a novel theory about the mediators of biological processes. The essentials of the theory are: (a) mediators of biological processes can be classified into general and specific mediators; the general mediators include two types of free radicals, namely superoxide and nitric oxide; the specific mediators include a wide variety of bioactive molecules, such as specific enzymes, transcription factors, cytokines and eicosanoids; (b) a general mediator can modify almost any class of the biomolecules, and thus play a role of mediator in nearly every biological process via diverse mechanisms; a specific mediator always acts selectively on certain classes of the biomolecules, and may play a role of mediator in different biological processes via a same mechanism; (c) biological processes are mostly controlled by networks of their mediators, so the free radicals can regulate the last consequence of a biological process by modifying some types of the bioactive molecules, or in cooperation with these bioactive molecules; the biological actions of superoxide and nitric oxide may be synergistic or antagonistic. According to this theory, keeping the integrity of these networks and the balance between the free radicals and the bioactive molecules as well as the balance between the free radicals and the free radical scavengers

  10. Contextualizing the Genes Altered in Bladder Neoplasms in Pediatric andTeen Patients Allows Identifying Two Main Classes of Biological ProcessesInvolved and New Potential Therapeutic Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrello, A; Piergentili, R B

    2016-02-01

    Research on bladder neoplasms in pediatric and teen patients (BNPTP) has described 21 genes, which are variously involved in this disease and are mostly responsible for deregulated cell proliferation. However, due to the limited number of publications on this subject, it is still unclear what type of relationships there are among these genes and which are the chances that, while having different molecular functions, they i) act as downstream effector genes of well-known pro- or anti- proliferative stimuli and/or interplay with biochemical pathways having oncological relevance or ii) are specific and, possibly, early biomarkers of these pathologies. A Gene Ontology (GO)-based analysis showed that these 21 genes are involved in biological processes, which can be split into two main classes: cell regulation-based and differentiation/development-based. In order to understand the involvement/overlapping with main cancer-related pathways, we performed a meta-analysis dependent on the 189 oncogenic signatures of the Molecular Signatures Database (OSMSD) curated by the Broad Institute. We generated a binary matrix with 53 gene signatures having at least one hit; this analysis i) suggests that some genes of the original list show inconsistencies and might need to be experimentally re- assessed or evaluated as biomarkers (in particular, ACTA2) and ii) allows hypothesizing that important (proto)oncogenes (E2F3, ERBB2/HER2, CCND1, WNT1, and YAP1) and (putative) tumor suppressors (BRCA1, RBBP8/CTIP, and RB1-RBL2/p130) may participate in the onset of this disease or worsen the observed phenotype, thus expanding the list of possible molecular targets for the treatment of BNPTP.

  11. Mathematical modeling of biological processes

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2014-01-01

    This book on mathematical modeling of biological processes includes a wide selection of biological topics that demonstrate the power of mathematics and computational codes in setting up biological processes with a rigorous and predictive framework. Topics include: enzyme dynamics, spread of disease, harvesting bacteria, competition among live species, neuronal oscillations, transport of neurofilaments in axon, cancer and cancer therapy, and granulomas. Complete with a description of the biological background and biological question that requires the use of mathematics, this book is developed for graduate students and advanced undergraduate students with only basic knowledge of ordinary differential equations and partial differential equations; background in biology is not required. Students will gain knowledge on how to program with MATLAB without previous programming experience and how to use codes in order to test biological hypothesis.

  12. DHA involvement in neurotransmission process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vancassel Sylvie

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The very high enrichment of the nervous system in the polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic (AA, 20: 4n-6 and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA, 22: 6n-3, is dependant of the dietary availability of their respective precursors, linoleic (18: 2n-6 and_-linolenic acids (18: 3n-3. Inadequate amounts of DHA in brain membranes have been linked to a wide variety of abnormalities ranging from visual acuity and learning irregularities, to psychopathologies. However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown. Several years ago, we hypothesized that a modification of DHA contents of neuronal membranes by dietary modulation could change the neurotransmission function and then underlie inappropriate behavioural response. We showed that, in parallel to a severe loss of brain DHA concomitant to a compensatory substitution by 22:5n-6, the dietary lack of α-linolenic acid during development induced important changes in the release of neurotransmitters (dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine in cerebral areas specifically involved in learning, memory and reward processes. Data suggested alteration of presynaptic storage process and dysregulations of reciprocal functional interactions between monoaminergic and cholinergic pathways. Moreover, we showed that recovery of these neurochemical changes was possible when the deficient diet was switched to a diet balanced in n-3 and n-6 PUFA before weaning. The next step is to understand the mechanism involved. Particularly, we focus on the study of the metabolic cooperation between the endothelial cell, the astrocyte and the neuron which regulate synaptic transmission.These works could contribute to the understanding of the link between some neuropsychiatric disorders and the metabolism of n-3 PUFA, through their action on neurotransmission.

  13. Stochastic processes in cell biology

    CERN Document Server

    Bressloff, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    This book develops the theory of continuous and discrete stochastic processes within the context of cell biology.  A wide range of biological topics are covered including normal and anomalous diffusion in complex cellular environments, stochastic ion channels and excitable systems, stochastic calcium signaling, molecular motors, intracellular transport, signal transduction, bacterial chemotaxis, robustness in gene networks, genetic switches and oscillators, cell polarization, polymerization, cellular length control, and branching processes. The book also provides a pedagogical introduction to the theory of stochastic process – Fokker Planck equations, stochastic differential equations, master equations and jump Markov processes, diffusion approximations and the system size expansion, first passage time problems, stochastic hybrid systems, reaction-diffusion equations, exclusion processes, WKB methods, martingales and branching processes, stochastic calculus, and numerical methods.   This text is primarily...

  14. Transcript and hormone analyses reveal the involvement of ABA-signalling, hormone crosstalk and genotype-specific biological processes in cold-shock response in wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalapos, S.; Dobrev, Petre; Nagy, T.; Vítámvás, P.; Gyorgyey, J.; Kocsy, G.; Marincs, F.; Galiba, G.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 253, DEC (2016), s. 86-97 ISSN 0168-9452 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : complex phytohormone responses * abscisic-acid biosynthesis * frost-resistance * stress responses * gene-expression * chromosome 5a * triticum-monococcum * regulatory network * basal resistance * abiotic stresses * ABA-Signalling * Carbon metabolism * Freezing-tolerance * Gene ontology * Plant hormones * Short-term cold-shock * Triticum aestivum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.437, year: 2016

  15. [Placebo effect: clinical, biological and therapeutical involvements in depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourion, D; Mouchabac, S

    2016-02-01

    The placebo effect is an excellent model for understanding the mechanisms underlying the interaction between a subjective and complex mental activity (beliefs, expectations, hopes, learning, patient-physician relationship, socio-cultural context .) with different neural and biological systems. Initially, research on the placebo effect has focused on the mechanisms of pain and analgesia. The cognitive processes of conditioning and reward anticipation (hope of a relief) were highlighted. The involvement of different neurobiological pathways has been clearly shown: endogenous opioids, CCK, dopaminergic pathways, endocannabinoids, immunological factors... More recently, the field has open towards new perspectives: depression and anxiety, motor disorders, immune system, endocrine system. Intensive research in the field emerges because of its fundamental implications in neuroscience research but also because of the ethical, clinical and therapeutical issues. Moreover, the placebo effect is considered as a main methodological mean issue in clinical trials that allows the demonstration of the efficacy and tolerance of new drugs. In the field of psychiatry, depression is a placebo highly-sensitive disorder: placebo response rates in clinical trials are of the order of 30 % to 40 %. The identification of biological markers of placebo response, such as neuroimaging and quantitative electroencephalography may lead to develop more efficient models in clinical research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Getting Involved in the IEP Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Ellen; Lieberman, Lauren J.; Daggett, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Although, in many districts, physical educators are integral members of the Individualized Education Program (designed for students with disabilities such as Down syndrome and autism), in other districts, physical educators are only partially involved in the process or are not given the opportunity to be involved at all. However, the physical…

  17. Occupational accidents involving biological material among public health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodi, Mônica Bonagamba; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz

    2007-01-01

    This descriptive research aimed to recognize the occurrence of work accidents (WA) involving exposure to biological material among health workers at Public Health Units in Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil. A quantitative approach was adopted. In 2004, 155 accidents were notified by means of the Work Accident Communication (WAC). Sixty-two accidents (40%) involved exposure to biological material that could cause infections like Hepatitis and Aids. The highest number of victims (42 accidents) came from the category of nursing aids and technicians. Needles were responsible for 80.6% of accidents and blood was the biological material involved in a majority of occupational exposure cases. This subject needs greater attention, so that prevention measures can be implemented, which consider the peculiarities of the activities carried out by the different professional categories.

  18. Spin versus helicity in processes involving transversity

    CERN Document Server

    Mekhfi, Mustapha

    2011-01-01

    We construct the spin formalism in order to deal in a direct and natural way with processes involving transversity which are now of increasing popularity. The helicity formalism which is more appropriate for collision processes of definite helicity has been so far used also to manage processes with transversity, but at the price of computing numerous helicity amplitudes generally involving unnecessary kinematical variables.In a second step we work out the correspondence between both formalisms and retrieve in another way all results of the helicity formalism but in simpler forms.We then compute certain processes for comparison.A special process:the quark dipole magnetic moment is shown to be exclusively treated within the spin formalism as it is directly related to the transverse spin of the quark inside the baryon.

  19. Piecewise deterministic processes in biological models

    CERN Document Server

    Rudnicki, Ryszard

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a concise introduction to piecewise deterministic Markov processes (PDMPs), with particular emphasis on their applications to biological models. Further, it presents examples of biological phenomena, such as gene activity and population growth, where different types of PDMPs appear: continuous time Markov chains, deterministic processes with jumps, processes with switching dynamics, and point processes. Subsequent chapters present the necessary tools from the theory of stochastic processes and semigroups of linear operators, as well as theoretical results concerning the long-time behaviour of stochastic semigroups induced by PDMPs and their applications to biological models. As such, the book offers a valuable resource for mathematicians and biologists alike. The first group will find new biological models that lead to interesting and often new mathematical questions, while the second can observe how to include seemingly disparate biological processes into a unified mathematical theory, and...

  20. Soft-Bodied Fossils Are Not Simply Rotten Carcasses – Toward a Holistic Understanding of Exceptional Fossil Preservation:Exceptional Fossil Preservation Is Complex and Involves the Interplay of Numerous Biological and Geological Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Parry, Luke A.; Smithwick, Fiann; Nordén, Klara K.; Saitta, Evan T.; Lozano-Fernandez, Jesus; Tanner, Alastair R.; Caron, Jean Bernard; Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Briggs, Derek E.G.; Vinther, Jakob

    2018-01-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossils are the product of complex interplays of biological and geological processes including burial, autolysis and microbial decay, authigenic mineralization, diagenesis, metamorphism, and finally weathering and exhumation. Determining which tissues are preserved and how biases affect their preservation pathways is important for interpreting fossils in phylogenetic, ecological, and evolutionary frameworks. Although laboratory decay experiments reveal important aspect...

  1. Stochastic Simulation of Process Calculi for Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Phillips

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological systems typically involve large numbers of components with complex, highly parallel interactions and intrinsic stochasticity. To model this complexity, numerous programming languages based on process calculi have been developed, many of which are expressive enough to generate unbounded numbers of molecular species and reactions. As a result of this expressiveness, such calculi cannot rely on standard reaction-based simulation methods, which require fixed numbers of species and reactions. Rather than implementing custom stochastic simulation algorithms for each process calculus, we propose to use a generic abstract machine that can be instantiated to a range of process calculi and a range of reaction-based simulation algorithms. The abstract machine functions as a just-in-time compiler, which dynamically updates the set of possible reactions and chooses the next reaction in an iterative cycle. In this short paper we give a brief summary of the generic abstract machine, and show how it can be instantiated with the stochastic simulation algorithm known as Gillespie's Direct Method. We also discuss the wider implications of such an abstract machine, and outline how it can be used to simulate multiple calculi simultaneously within a common framework.

  2. Systems analysis of gene ontology and biological pathways involved in post-myocardial infarction responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nguyen T; Lindsey, Merry L; Jin, Yu-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Pathway analysis has been widely used to gain insight into essential mechanisms of the response to myocardial infarction (MI). Currently, there exist multiple pathway databases that organize molecular datasets and manually curate pathway maps for biological interpretation at varying forms of organization. However, inconsistencies among different databases in pathway descriptions, frequently due to conflicting results in the literature, can generate incorrect interpretations. Furthermore, although pathway analysis software provides detailed images of interactions among molecules, it does not exhibit how pathways interact with one another or with other biological processes under specific conditions. We propose a novel method to standardize descriptions of enriched pathways for a set of genes/proteins using Gene Ontology terms. We used this method to examine the relationships among pathways and biological processes for a set of condition-specific genes/proteins, represented as a functional biological pathway-process network. We applied this algorithm to a set of 613 MI-specific proteins we previously identified. A total of 96 pathways from Biocarta, KEGG, and Reactome, and 448 Gene Ontology Biological Processes were enriched with these 613 proteins. The pathways were represented as Boolean functions of biological processes, delivering an interactive scheme to organize enriched information with an emphasis on involvement of biological processes in pathways. We extracted a network focusing on MI to demonstrate that tyrosine phosphorylation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) protein, positive regulation of collagen metabolic process, coagulation, and positive/negative regulation of blood coagulation have immediate impacts on the MI response. Our method organized biological processes and pathways in an unbiased approach to provide an intuitive way to identify biological properties of pathways under specific conditions. Pathways from different

  3. Charge exchange processes involving iron ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phaneuf, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    A review and evaluation is given of the experimental data which are available for charge exchange processes involving iron ions and neutral H, H 2 and He. Appropriate scaling laws are presented, and their accuracy estimated for these systems. A bibliography is given of available data sources, as well as of useful data compilations and review articles. A procedure is recommended for providing single approximate formulae to the fusion community to describe total cross sections for electron capture by partially-stripped Fe/sup q+/ ions in collisions with H, H 2 and He, based on the scaling relationships suggested by Janev and Hvelplund

  4. Innovative Pedagogical Processes Involving Educational Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitze, Charlotte Lærke

    This design-based research project investigates the elements, methods, processes and practices that can contribute to the creation of reflected, innovative and motivating learning designs for teachers and students in a hybrid synchronous video-mediated teaching context, with a focus on how...... about how design and learning processes can support continuous pedagogical innovation and competence development. The objective of the learning designs was to create motivating learning experiences for the students in the hybrid synchronous video-mediated learning environment, to which end...... it experimented with gamified learning designs. This involved the students designing digital games while implementing learning goals from their curriculum. The project thus created knowledge about which learning designs and competence development models were possible in this environment, which learning designs...

  5. Processes involved in solving mathematical problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrill, Masitah; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Zulkardi, Prahmana, Rully Charitas Indra

    2018-04-01

    This study examines one of the instructional practices features utilized within the Year 8 mathematics lessons in Brunei Darussalam. The codes from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study were applied and strictly followed, and from the 183 mathematics problems recorded, there were 95 problems with a solution presented during the public segments of the video-recorded lesson sequences of the four sampled teachers. The analyses involved firstly, identifying the processes related to mathematical problem statements, and secondly, examining the different processes used in solving the mathematical problems for each problem publicly completed during the lessons. The findings revealed that for three of the teachers, their problem statements coded as `using procedures' ranged from 64% to 83%, while the remaining teacher had 40% of his problem statements coded as `making connections.' The processes used when solving the problems were mainly `using procedures', and none of the problems were coded as `giving results only'. Furthermore, all four teachers made use of making the relevant connections in solving the problems given to their respective students.

  6. Graphics processing units in bioinformatics, computational biology and systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Marco S; Cazzaniga, Paolo; Tangherloni, Andrea; Besozzi, Daniela

    2017-09-01

    Several studies in Bioinformatics, Computational Biology and Systems Biology rely on the definition of physico-chemical or mathematical models of biological systems at different scales and levels of complexity, ranging from the interaction of atoms in single molecules up to genome-wide interaction networks. Traditional computational methods and software tools developed in these research fields share a common trait: they can be computationally demanding on Central Processing Units (CPUs), therefore limiting their applicability in many circumstances. To overcome this issue, general-purpose Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) are gaining an increasing attention by the scientific community, as they can considerably reduce the running time required by standard CPU-based software, and allow more intensive investigations of biological systems. In this review, we present a collection of GPU tools recently developed to perform computational analyses in life science disciplines, emphasizing the advantages and the drawbacks in the use of these parallel architectures. The complete list of GPU-powered tools here reviewed is available at http://bit.ly/gputools. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Biological Processes Associated with Impact Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles; Koeberl, Christian; Gilmour, Iain

    The diversity of papers presented in this volume attest to the fact that impact cratering is very much a biological process. This volume is the tenth in a series of books resulting from the activities of the scientific programme, "Response of the Earth System to Impact Processes" (IMPACT), by the European Science Foundation. The papers were presented at an international meeting at King's College, Cambridge in 2003. These papers investigate the effects of asteroid and comet impacts on a diversity of biological and evolutionary processes including the survival of organics and microbial ecosystems to the extinction of organisms.

  8. State of the art of biological hydrogen production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loubette, N.; Junker, M.

    2006-01-01

    Our report gives an overview of hydrogen production processes with bacteria or algae. 4 main processes are described: water biophotolysis, photo- fermentation biological CO conversion and dark fermentation. Chemical phenomena which lead to hydrogen generation are exp/aired. Performances, limits and outlook are given for each process. Main projects, programs and key players involved in this field of research have been listed. This paper resumes few results of this report. (authors)

  9. State of the art of biological hydrogen production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas Loubette; Michel Junker

    2006-01-01

    Our report gives an overview of hydrogen production processes with bacteria or algae. 4 main processes are described: water bio-photolysis, photo-fermentation biological CO conversion and dark fermentation. Chemical phenomena which lead to hydrogen generation are explained. Performances, limits and outlook are given for each process. Main projects, programs and key players involved in this field of research have been listed. This paper resumes few results of this report. (authors)

  10. Soft-Bodied Fossils Are Not Simply Rotten Carcasses - Toward a Holistic Understanding of Exceptional Fossil Preservation: Exceptional Fossil Preservation Is Complex and Involves the Interplay of Numerous Biological and Geological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Luke A; Smithwick, Fiann; Nordén, Klara K; Saitta, Evan T; Lozano-Fernandez, Jesus; Tanner, Alastair R; Caron, Jean-Bernard; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Briggs, Derek E G; Vinther, Jakob

    2018-01-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossils are the product of complex interplays of biological and geological processes including burial, autolysis and microbial decay, authigenic mineralization, diagenesis, metamorphism, and finally weathering and exhumation. Determining which tissues are preserved and how biases affect their preservation pathways is important for interpreting fossils in phylogenetic, ecological, and evolutionary frameworks. Although laboratory decay experiments reveal important aspects of fossilization, applying the results directly to the interpretation of exceptionally preserved fossils may overlook the impact of other key processes that remove or preserve morphological information. Investigations of fossils preserving non-biomineralized tissues suggest that certain structures that are decay resistant (e.g., the notochord) are rarely preserved (even where carbonaceous components survive), and decay-prone structures (e.g., nervous systems) can fossilize, albeit rarely. As we review here, decay resistance is an imperfect indicator of fossilization potential, and a suite of biological and geological processes account for the features preserved in exceptional fossils. © 2017 The Authors. BioEssays Published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Identification of Inhibitors of Biological Interactions Involving Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marasco

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein–protein interactions involving disordered partners have unique features and represent prominent targets in drug discovery processes. Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDPs are involved in cellular regulation, signaling and control: they bind to multiple partners and these high-specificity/low-affinity interactions play crucial roles in many human diseases. Disordered regions, terminal tails and flexible linkers are particularly abundant in DNA-binding proteins and play crucial roles in the affinity and specificity of DNA recognizing processes. Protein complexes involving IDPs are short-lived and typically involve short amino acid stretches bearing few “hot spots”, thus the identification of molecules able to modulate them can produce important lead compounds: in this scenario peptides and/or peptidomimetics, deriving from structure-based, combinatorial or protein dissection approaches, can play a key role as hit compounds. Here, we propose a panoramic review of the structural features of IDPs and how they regulate molecular recognition mechanisms focusing attention on recently reported drug-design strategies in the field of IDPs.

  12. Biological processes influencing contaminant release from sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reible, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of biological processes, including bioturbation, on the mobility of contaminants in freshwater sediments is described. Effective mass coefficients are estimated for tubificid oligochaetes as a function of worm behavior and biomass density. The mass transfer coefficients were observed to be inversely proportional to water oxygen content and proportional to the square root of biomass density. The sediment reworking and contaminant release are contrasted with those of freshwater amphipods. The implications of these and other biological processes for contaminant release and i n-situ remediation of soils and sediments are summarized. 4 figs., 1 tab

  13. BIOLOGY OF POLYPHOSPHATE-ACCUMULATING BACTERIA INVOLVED IN ENHANCED BIOLOGICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KORTSTEE, GJJ; APPELDOORN, KJ; BONTING, CFC; VANNIEL, EWJ; VANVEEN, HW

    1994-01-01

    Recent research on the process of biological phosphorus removal in lab-scale treatment systems has indicated that: (i) the development of an actively polyP-accumulating bacterial community after the introduction of an anaerobic period may take at least 4 months; (ii) up to 80% of all aerobic

  14. Towards distributed multiscale simulation of biological processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernsdorf, J.; Berti, G.; Chopard, B.; Hegewald, J.; Krafczyk, M.; Wang, D.; Lorenz, E.; Hoekstra, A.

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of biological processes, e.g. related to cardio-vascular disease and treatment, can significantly be improved by numerical simulation. In this paper, we present an approach for a multiscale simulation environment, applied for the prediction of in-stent re-stenos is. Our focus is on

  15. Biological pathways and genetic mechanisms involved in social functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordonana, J.R.; Bartels, M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Cella, D.; Mosing, M.; Oliveira, J.R.; Patrick, D.L.; Veenhoven, R.; Wagner, G.G.; Sprangers, M.A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the major findings in the literature regarding associations between biological and genetic factors and social functioning, paying special attention to: (1) heritability studies on social functioning and related concepts; (2) hypothesized biological pathways and genetic variants

  16. Customer Involvement in the Game Development Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Prystupa-Rządca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The creative industry is a fast developing sector of economy in many countries. Growing competition in this area has led many companies to implement strategy of users' involvement in product development in order to deliver products that are more aligned with customers’ needs. On the other hand, the attempt to align the customers’ expectations with artistic creativity may create tensions. Therefore, the aim of the research is to examine the methods of users’ involvement in product development and real impact of the users on project design. The obtained findings are based on two-year qualitative research project conducted in game development companies.

  17. Examination of Signatures of Recent Positive Selection on Genes Involved in Human Sialic Acid Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jiyun M; Aronoff, David M; Capra, John A; Abbot, Patrick; Rokas, Antonis

    2018-03-28

    Sialic acids are nine carbon sugars ubiquitously found on the surfaces of vertebrate cells and are involved in various immune response-related processes. In humans, at least 58 genes spanning diverse functions, from biosynthesis and activation to recycling and degradation, are involved in sialic acid biology. Because of their role in immunity, sialic acid biology genes have been hypothesized to exhibit elevated rates of evolutionary change. Consistent with this hypothesis, several genes involved in sialic acid biology have experienced higher rates of non-synonymous substitutions in the human lineage than their counterparts in other great apes, perhaps in response to ancient pathogens that infected hominins millions of years ago (paleopathogens). To test whether sialic acid biology genes have also experienced more recent positive selection during the evolution of the modern human lineage, reflecting adaptation to contemporary cosmopolitan or geographically-restricted pathogens, we examined whether their protein-coding regions showed evidence of recent hard and soft selective sweeps. This examination involved the calculation of four measures that quantify changes in allele frequency spectra, extent of population differentiation, and haplotype homozygosity caused by recent hard and soft selective sweeps for 55 sialic acid biology genes using publicly available whole genome sequencing data from 1,668 humans from three ethnic groups. To disentangle evidence for selection from confounding demographic effects, we compared the observed patterns in sialic acid biology genes to simulated sequences of the same length under a model of neutral evolution that takes into account human demographic history. We found that the patterns of genetic variation of most sialic acid biology genes did not significantly deviate from neutral expectations and were not significantly different among genes belonging to different functional categories. Those few sialic acid biology genes that

  18. Is metabolic rate a universal 'pacemaker' for biological processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazier, Douglas S

    2015-05-01

    A common, long-held belief is that metabolic rate drives the rates of various biological, ecological and evolutionary processes. Although this metabolic pacemaker view (as assumed by the recent, influential 'metabolic theory of ecology') may be true in at least some situations (e.g. those involving moderate temperature effects or physiological processes closely linked to metabolism, such as heartbeat and breathing rate), it suffers from several major limitations, including: (i) it is supported chiefly by indirect, correlational evidence (e.g. similarities between the body-size and temperature scaling of metabolic rate and that of other biological processes, which are not always observed) - direct, mechanistic or experimental support is scarce and much needed; (ii) it is contradicted by abundant evidence showing that various intrinsic and extrinsic factors (e.g. hormonal action and temperature changes) can dissociate the rates of metabolism, growth, development and other biological processes; (iii) there are many examples where metabolic rate appears to respond to, rather than drive the rates of various other biological processes (e.g. ontogenetic growth, food intake and locomotor activity); (iv) there are additional examples where metabolic rate appears to be unrelated to the rate of a biological process (e.g. ageing, circadian rhythms, and molecular evolution); and (v) the theoretical foundation for the metabolic pacemaker view focuses only on the energetic control of biological processes, while ignoring the importance of informational control, as mediated by various genetic, cellular, and neuroendocrine regulatory systems. I argue that a comprehensive understanding of the pace of life must include how biological activities depend on both energy and information and their environmentally sensitive interaction. This conclusion is supported by extensive evidence showing that hormones and other regulatory factors and signalling systems coordinate the processes of

  19. Stochastic transport processes in discrete biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Frehland, Eckart

    1982-01-01

    These notes are in part based on a course for advanced students in the applications of stochastic processes held in 1978 at the University of Konstanz. These notes contain the results of re­ cent studies on the stochastic description of ion transport through biological membranes. In particular, they serve as an introduction to an unified theory of fluctuations in complex biological transport systems. We emphasize that the subject of this volume is not to introduce the mathematics of stochastic processes but to present a field of theoretical biophysics in which stochastic methods are important. In the last years the study of membrane noise has become an important method in biophysics. Valuable information on the ion transport mechanisms in membranes can be obtained from noise analysis. A number of different processes such as the opening and closing of ion channels have been shown to be sources of the measured current or voltage fluctuations. Bio­ logical 'transport systems can be complex. For example, the tr...

  20. Diffusion processes and related topics in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Ricciardi, Luigi M

    1977-01-01

    These notes are based on a one-quarter course given at the Department of Biophysics and Theoretical Biology of the University of Chicago in 1916. The course was directed to graduate students in the Division of Biological Sciences with interests in population biology and neurobiology. Only a slight acquaintance with probability and differential equations is required of the reader. Exercises are interwoven with the text to encourage the reader to play a more active role and thus facilitate his digestion of the material. One aim of these notes is to provide a heuristic approach, using as little mathematics as possible, to certain aspects of the theory of stochastic processes that are being increasingly employed in some of the population biol­ ogy and neurobiology literature. While the subject may be classical, the nov­ elty here lies in the approach and point of view, particularly in the applica­ tions such as the approach to the neuronal firing problem and its related dif­ fusion approximations. It is a ple...

  1. Is nanotechnology the key to unravel and engineer biological processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Melba; Planell, Josep A

    2012-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is an emerging field aiming to the development of new reparative strategies to treat degenerative diseases, injury, and trauma through developmental pathways in order to rebuild the architecture of the original injured organ and take over its functionality. Most of the processes and interactions involved in the regenerative process take place at subcellular scale. Nanotechnology provides the tools and technology not only to detect, to measure, or to image the interactions between the different biomolecules and biological entities, but also to control and guide the regenerative process. The relevance of nanotechnology for the development of regenerative medicine as well as an overview of the different tools that contribute to unravel and engineer biological systems are presented in this chapter. In addition, general data about the social impact and global investment in nanotechnology are provided.

  2. Image processing and recognition for biological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Seiichi

    2013-05-01

    This paper reviews image processing and pattern recognition techniques, which will be useful to analyze bioimages. Although this paper does not provide their technical details, it will be possible to grasp their main tasks and typical tools to handle the tasks. Image processing is a large research area to improve the visibility of an input image and acquire some valuable information from it. As the main tasks of image processing, this paper introduces gray-level transformation, binarization, image filtering, image segmentation, visual object tracking, optical flow and image registration. Image pattern recognition is the technique to classify an input image into one of the predefined classes and also has a large research area. This paper overviews its two main modules, that is, feature extraction module and classification module. Throughout the paper, it will be emphasized that bioimage is a very difficult target for even state-of-the-art image processing and pattern recognition techniques due to noises, deformations, etc. This paper is expected to be one tutorial guide to bridge biology and image processing researchers for their further collaboration to tackle such a difficult target. © 2013 The Author Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2013 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  3. Processing laboratory of radio sterilized biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre H, Paulina; Zarate S, Herman; Silva R, Samy; Hitschfeld, Mario

    2005-01-01

    The nuclear development applications have also reached those areas related to health. The risk of getting contagious illnesses through applying biological tissues has been one of the paramount worries to be solved since infectious illnesses might be provoked by virus, fungis or bacterias coming from donors or whether they have been introduced by means of intermediate stages before the use of these tissues. Therefore it has been concluded that the tissue allografts must be sterilized. The sterilization of medical products has been one of the main applications of the ionizing radiations and that it is why the International Organization of Atomic Energy began in the 70s promoting works related to the biological tissue sterilization and pharmaceutical products. The development of different tissue preservation methods has made possible the creation of tissue banks in different countries, to deal with long-term preservation. In our country, a project was launched in 1998, 'Establishment of a Tissue Bank in Latino america', this project was supported by the OIEA through the project INT/ 6/ 049, and was the starting of the actual Processing Laboratory of Radioesterilized Biological Tissues (LPTR), leaded by the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN). This first organization is part of a number of entities compounding the Tissue Bank in Chile, organizations such as the Transplantation Promotion Corporation hospitals and the LPTR. The working system is carried out by means of the interaction between the hospitals and the laboratory. The medical professionals perform the procuring of tissues in the hospitals, then send them to the LPTR where they are processed and sterilized with ionizing radiation. The cycle ends up with the tissues return released to the hospitals, where they are used, and then the result information is sent to the LPTR as a form of feedback. Up to now, human skin has been processed (64 donors), amniotic membranes (35 donors) and pig skin (175 portions

  4. A Friendly-Biological Reactor SIMulator (BioReSIM for studying biological processes in wastewater treatment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Molina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological processes for wastewater treatments are inherently dynamic systems because of the large variations in the influent wastewater flow rate, concentration composition and the adaptive behavior of the involved microorganisms. Moreover, the sludge retention time (SRT is a critical factor to understand the bioreactor performances when changes in the influent or in the operation conditions take place. Since SRT are usually in the range of 10-30 days, the performance of biological reactors needs a long time to be monitored in a regular laboratory demonstration, limiting the knowledge that can be obtained in the experimental lab practice. In order to overcome this lack, mathematical models and computer simulations are useful tools to describe biochemical processes and predict the overall performance of bioreactors under different working operation conditions and variations of the inlet wastewater composition. The mathematical solution of the model could be difficult as numerous biochemical processes can be considered. Additionally, biological reactors description (mass balance, etc. needs models represented by partial or/and ordinary differential equations associated to algebraic expressions, that require complex computational codes to obtain the numerical solutions. Different kind of software for mathematical modeling can be used, from large degree of freedom simulators capable of free models definition (as AQUASIM, to closed predefined model structure programs (as BIOWIN. The first ones usually require long learning curves, whereas the second ones could be excessively rigid for specific wastewater treatment systems. As alternative, we present Biological Reactor SIMulator (BioReSIM, a MATLAB code for the simulation of sequencing batch reactors (SBR and rotating biological contactors (RBC as biological systems of suspended and attached biomass for wastewater treatment, respectively. This BioReSIM allows the evaluation of simple and complex

  5. Involvement of external stakeholders in local health policymaking process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund Karlsson, Leena; Jakobsen, Mette Winge; Winblad Heiberg, Malin

    2017-01-01

    Collaboration between research and policy is an essential element for knowledge-based public health. However, only half of the Danish municipalities have experience with collaborating with researchers or other stakeholders. Through content analysis of interviews and policy documents the study...... explores the involvement of external stakeholders in local health policymaking and public officials’ perceptions on involving them. Main involvement was through a personal contact or through a regular hearing. The purpose of involvement was mostly tactical or to solve problems. Politicians had substantial...... influence on the involvement of external stakeholders, allowing only a few to contribute in a closed policymaking process....

  6. Adoption: biological and social processes linked to adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotevant, Harold D; McDermott, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Children join adoptive families through domestic adoption from the public child welfare system, infant adoption through private agencies, and international adoption. Each pathway presents distinctive developmental opportunities and challenges. Adopted children are at higher risk than the general population for problems with adaptation, especially externalizing, internalizing, and attention problems. This review moves beyond the field's emphasis on adoptee-nonadoptee differences to highlight biological and social processes that affect adaptation of adoptees across time. The experience of stress, whether prenatal, postnatal/preadoption, or during the adoption transition, can have significant impacts on the developing neuroendocrine system. These effects can contribute to problems with physical growth, brain development, and sleep, activating cascading effects on social, emotional, and cognitive development. Family processes involving contact between adoptive and birth family members, co-parenting in gay and lesbian adoptive families, and racial socialization in transracially adoptive families affect social development of adopted children into adulthood.

  7. Dimeric ligands for GPCRs involved in human reproduction : synthesis and biological evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonger, Kimberly Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Dimeric ligands for G-protein coupled receptors that are involved in human reproduction, namely the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor, the luteinizing hormone receptor and the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, were synthesized and biologically evaluated.

  8. Functional annotation of chemical libraries across diverse biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Jeff S; Li, Sheena C; Deshpande, Raamesh; Simpkins, Scott W; Nelson, Justin; Yashiroda, Yoko; Barber, Jacqueline M; Safizadeh, Hamid; Wilson, Erin; Okada, Hiroki; Gebre, Abraham A; Kubo, Karen; Torres, Nikko P; LeBlanc, Marissa A; Andrusiak, Kerry; Okamoto, Reika; Yoshimura, Mami; DeRango-Adem, Eva; van Leeuwen, Jolanda; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Baryshnikova, Anastasia; Brown, Grant W; Hirano, Hiroyuki; Costanzo, Michael; Andrews, Brenda; Ohya, Yoshikazu; Osada, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Minoru; Myers, Chad L; Boone, Charles

    2017-09-01

    Chemical-genetic approaches offer the potential for unbiased functional annotation of chemical libraries. Mutations can alter the response of cells in the presence of a compound, revealing chemical-genetic interactions that can elucidate a compound's mode of action. We developed a highly parallel, unbiased yeast chemical-genetic screening system involving three key components. First, in a drug-sensitive genetic background, we constructed an optimized diagnostic mutant collection that is predictive for all major yeast biological processes. Second, we implemented a multiplexed (768-plex) barcode-sequencing protocol, enabling the assembly of thousands of chemical-genetic profiles. Finally, based on comparison of the chemical-genetic profiles with a compendium of genome-wide genetic interaction profiles, we predicted compound functionality. Applying this high-throughput approach, we screened seven different compound libraries and annotated their functional diversity. We further validated biological process predictions, prioritized a diverse set of compounds, and identified compounds that appear to have dual modes of action.

  9. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: BIOLOGICAL DENITRIFICATION PROCESS, ECOMAT, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EcoMat, Inc. of Hayward, CA has developed a two-stage ex situ anoxic biofilter biodenitrification process. The process is a fixed film bioremediation, using biocarriers and specific bacteria to treat nitrate-contaminated water. Unique to EcoMat's process is a patented mixed bed r...

  10. ECOMAT INC. BIOLOGICAL DENITRIFICATION PROCESS, ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    EcoMat, Inc. of Hayward, California (EcoMat) has developed an ex situ anoxic biofilter biodenitrification (BDN) process. The process uses specific biocarriers and bacteria to treat nitrate-contaminated water and employs a patented reactor that retains biocarrier within the syste...

  11. Stakeholders involvement in the decommissioning processes in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionisi, Mario

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the situation about stakeholders involvement in Italy in the framework of the decommissioning process of the Italian nuclear installations, and in particular the specific experience of the Italian Regulatory Body APAT. Specific aspects and APAT initiatives for building confidence of stakeholders in the process of the release of solid material from the regulatory control are presented. Content: Decommissioning activities in Italy, Decommissioning licensing procedures (Site and material release, APAT - ARPA Partnership approach in the clearance process)

  12. Advanced Functional Nanomaterials for Biological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    regeneration based on HA, gold nanoparticles, and graphene. We devised a one- step method in which Au and hydroxyapatite were used as a catalytic system in a...detection of cancer cells/nanomaterials in circulation.  We showed that graphitic materials can increase the osteogenesis of bone cells.  We finished...GCNFs) were produced by a single- step reduction process and used for the growth and differentiation of human adult stem cells. The nanomaterials were

  13. Organizational influence on the occurrence of work accidents involving exposure to biological material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Rocha, Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz; Cenzi, Camila Maria; dos Santos, Heloisa Ehmke Cardoso; Trovó, Marli Elisa Mendes

    2013-01-01

    to analyze work accidents involving exposure to biological materials which took place among personnel working in nursing and to evaluate the influence of the organizational culture on the occurrence of these accidents. a retrospective, analytical study, carried out in two stages in a hospital that was part of the Network for the Prevention of Work Accidents. The first stage involved the analysis of the characteristics of the work accidents involving exposure to biological materials as recorded over a seven-year period by the nursing staff in the hospital studied, and registered in the Network databank. The second stage involved the analysis of 122 nursing staff members' perception of the institutional culture, who were allocated to the control group (workers who had not had an accident) and the case group (workers who had had an accident). 386 accidents had been recorded: percutaneous lesions occurred in 79% of the cases, needles were the materials involved in 69.7% of the accidents, and in 81.9% of the accident there was contact with blood. Regarding the influence of the organizational culture on the occurrence of accidents, the results obtained through the analysis of the two groups did not demonstrate significant differences between the average scores attributed by the workers in each organizational value or practice category. It is concluded that accidents involving exposure to biological material need to be avoided, however, it was not possible to confirm the influence of organizational values or practices on workers' behavior concerning the occurrence of these accidents.

  14. EARLY READING ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENTS: ABILITIES AND PROCESSES INVOLVED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia de Souza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the following early reading assessment instruments: “Bateria de Recepção e Produção da Linguagem Verbal” (SCLIAR-CABRAL, 2003a and “Teste de Competência de Leitura de Palavras e Pseudopalavras” (SEABRA; CAPOVILLA, 2010. The main research goal is to analyze in each one of these reading assessment instruments some of the multiple cognitive processes and basic low-level abilities involved in reading. In this sense, decoding, word recognition, lexical access, syntactic and textual processing, and comprehension are the cognitive processes taken into account. With regard to the basic reading abilities, accuracy and fluency (rhythm, prosody and speed are considered. The results indicate that each one of the analyzed reading assessment instruments assesses different aspects of the reading processes and abilities, mainly through off-line measures. ScliarCabral’s assessment battery allows the researcher or the teacher to evaluate the following processes: perception of the grapheme opposition in minimal pairs of words and in sentences, difficulties in sentence processing, skills in decoding the graphemic-phonemic relationship, and textual comprehension. In its turn, the reading assessment instrument proposed by Seabra e Capovilla allows one to evaluate student’s reading development level, by classifying the kind of processing as logographic, alphabetic or orthographic.

  15. Biological process of soil improvement in civil engineering: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Murtala Umar; Khairul Anuar Kassim; Kenny Tiong Ping Chiet

    2016-01-01

    The concept of using biological process in soil improvement which is known as bio-mediated soil improvement technique has shown greater potential in geotechnical engineering applications in terms of performance and environmental sustainability. This paper presents a review on the soil microorganisms responsible for this process, and factors that affect their metabolic activities and geometric compatibility with the soil particle sizes. Two mechanisms of biomineralization, i.e. biologically co...

  16. A literature-based similarity metric for biological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chagoyen Monica

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent analyses in systems biology pursue the discovery of functional modules within the cell. Recognition of such modules requires the integrative analysis of genome-wide experimental data together with available functional schemes. In this line, methods to bridge the gap between the abstract definitions of cellular processes in current schemes and the interlinked nature of biological networks are required. Results This work explores the use of the scientific literature to establish potential relationships among cellular processes. To this end we haveused a document based similarity method to compute pair-wise similarities of the biological processes described in the Gene Ontology (GO. The method has been applied to the biological processes annotated for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. We compared our results with similarities obtained with two ontology-based metrics, as well as with gene product annotation relationships. We show that the literature-based metric conserves most direct ontological relationships, while reveals biologically sounded similarities that are not obtained using ontology-based metrics and/or genome annotation. Conclusion The scientific literature is a valuable source of information from which to compute similarities among biological processes. The associations discovered by literature analysis are a valuable complement to those encoded in existing functional schemes, and those that arise by genome annotation. These similarities can be used to conveniently map the interlinked structure of cellular processes in a particular organism.

  17. Fathering and adolescents' psychological adjustment: the role of fathers' involvement, residence and biology status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, E

    2008-03-01

    Studies on fathering and child mental health are now increasingly looking for specificity in children's psychological adjustment, indicating whether the impact of fathering is diagnostically specific or non-specific. Data from 435 fathers of secondary school-aged children in Britain were used to explore the association between resident biological fathers', non-resident biological fathers' and stepfathers' involvement and children's total difficulties, prosocial behaviour, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity and peer problems (all measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) in adolescence. After controlling for child-, father- and family-related factors, fathers' involvement was negatively associated with children's total difficulties and hyperactivity, was positively associated with children's prosocial behaviour, and was unrelated with children's emotional symptoms, conduct problems and peer problems. There was no non-resident biological father effect. Compared with resident biological fathers, stepfathers reported more total difficulties, conduct problems and hyperactivity in their children even after adjusting for involvement. Whether this reflects stepfathers' low tolerance levels or biological fathers' complacency, as sociobiologists would argue, or whether this is due to pre-existing predispositions of children in families which separate and restructure, to the effects of these multiple family changes or to the high exposure of children in restructured families to parental risk factors, is, given the data available and the study design, unclear. However, this study showed that, compared with their peers in biological father families, adolescents in stepfather families are perceived to be at higher risk of behaviour problems, and that father involvement is related to specific aspects of child adjustment.

  18. Biological process of soil improvement in civil engineering: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtala Umar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of using biological process in soil improvement which is known as bio-mediated soil improvement technique has shown greater potential in geotechnical engineering applications in terms of performance and environmental sustainability. This paper presents a review on the soil microorganisms responsible for this process, and factors that affect their metabolic activities and geometric compatibility with the soil particle sizes. Two mechanisms of biomineralization, i.e. biologically controlled and biologically induced mineralization, were also discussed. Environmental and other factors that may be encountered in situ during microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP and their influences on the process were identified and presented. Improvements in the engineering properties of soil such as strength/stiffness and permeability as evaluated in some studies were explored. Potential applications of the process in geotechnical engineering and the challenges of field application of the process were identified.

  19. Stressful involvement in psychotherapeutic work: therapist, client and process correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeck, Almut; Orlinsky, David Elliot; Hermann, Sabine; Joos, Andreas; Wirsching, Michael; Weidmann, Werner; Hartmann, Armin

    2012-01-01

    We examined potential predictors of therapists' "Stressful Involvement" (SI) among variables reflecting the psychotherapy process, therapist characteristics, patients' symptom severity or context variables (treatment setting). Ninety-eight sequences from individual psychodynamic treatments conducted by 26 therapists were studied. Data were analyzed using mixed regression models. Between-therapist and within-therapist variance accounted for most of the difference in SI. SI was strongly associated with negative feelings of the therapist about patient and therapy in the time between sessions. Therapists with more 'unassertive' and 'vindictive' interpersonal styles were also more prone to experiencing SI. The strong association of SI with therapist rather than patient characteristics and process ratings indicates the importance of further study of the therapist as a person and participant in psychotherapy.

  20. Synthetic Biology: Tools to Design, Build, and Optimize Cellular Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Young

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The general central dogma frames the emergent properties of life, which make biology both necessary and difficult to engineer. In a process engineering paradigm, each biological process stream and process unit is heavily influenced by regulatory interactions and interactions with the surrounding environment. Synthetic biology is developing the tools and methods that will increase control over these interactions, eventually resulting in an integrative synthetic biology that will allow ground-up cellular optimization. In this review, we attempt to contextualize the areas of synthetic biology into three tiers: (1 the process units and associated streams of the central dogma, (2 the intrinsic regulatory mechanisms, and (3 the extrinsic physical and chemical environment. Efforts at each of these three tiers attempt to control cellular systems and take advantage of emerging tools and approaches. Ultimately, it will be possible to integrate these approaches and realize the vision of integrative synthetic biology when cells are completely rewired for biotechnological goals. This review will highlight progress towards this goal as well as areas requiring further research.

  1. Synthetic biology: tools to design, build, and optimize cellular processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eric; Alper, Hal

    2010-01-01

    The general central dogma frames the emergent properties of life, which make biology both necessary and difficult to engineer. In a process engineering paradigm, each biological process stream and process unit is heavily influenced by regulatory interactions and interactions with the surrounding environment. Synthetic biology is developing the tools and methods that will increase control over these interactions, eventually resulting in an integrative synthetic biology that will allow ground-up cellular optimization. In this review, we attempt to contextualize the areas of synthetic biology into three tiers: (1) the process units and associated streams of the central dogma, (2) the intrinsic regulatory mechanisms, and (3) the extrinsic physical and chemical environment. Efforts at each of these three tiers attempt to control cellular systems and take advantage of emerging tools and approaches. Ultimately, it will be possible to integrate these approaches and realize the vision of integrative synthetic biology when cells are completely rewired for biotechnological goals. This review will highlight progress towards this goal as well as areas requiring further research.

  2. An introduction to stochastic processes with applications to biology

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Linda J S

    2010-01-01

    An Introduction to Stochastic Processes with Applications to Biology, Second Edition presents the basic theory of stochastic processes necessary in understanding and applying stochastic methods to biological problems in areas such as population growth and extinction, drug kinetics, two-species competition and predation, the spread of epidemics, and the genetics of inbreeding. Because of their rich structure, the text focuses on discrete and continuous time Markov chains and continuous time and state Markov processes.New to the Second EditionA new chapter on stochastic differential equations th

  3. Restriction glycosylases: involvement of endonuclease activities in the restriction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingbiao; Matsuzaka, Tomoyuki; Yano, Hirokazu; Furuta, Yoshikazu; Nakano, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Ken; Fukuyo, Masaki; Takahashi, Noriko; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sugano, Sumio; Ide, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Ichizo

    2017-02-17

    All restriction enzymes examined are phosphodiesterases generating 3΄-OH and 5΄-P ends, but one restriction enzyme (restriction glycosylase) excises unmethylated bases from its recognition sequence. Whether its restriction activity involves endonucleolytic cleavage remains unclear. One report on this enzyme, R.PabI from a hyperthermophile, ascribed the breakage to high temperature while another showed its weak AP lyase activity generates atypical ends. Here, we addressed this issue in mesophiles. We purified R.PabI homologs from Campylobacter coli (R.CcoLI) and Helicobacter pylori (R.HpyAXII) and demonstrated their DNA cleavage, DNA glycosylase and AP lyase activities in vitro at 37°C. The AP lyase activity is more coupled with glycosylase activity in R.CcoLI than in R.PabI. R.CcoLI/R.PabI expression caused restriction of incoming bacteriophage/plasmid DNA and endogenous chromosomal DNA within Escherichia coli at 37°C. The R.PabI-mediated restriction was promoted by AP endonuclease action in vivo or in vitro. These results reveal the role of endonucleolytic DNA cleavage in restriction and yet point to diversity among the endonucleases. The cleaved ends are difficult to repair in vivo, which may indicate their biological significance. These results support generalization of the concept of restriction–modification system to the concept of self-recognizing epigenetic system, which combines any epigenetic labeling and any DNA damaging.

  4. Students' Learning Activities While Studying Biological Process Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students' learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each student completed three learning tasks. Verbal…

  5. Understanding the cognitive processes involved in writing to learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kathleen M; Umanath, Sharda; Thio, Kara; Reilly, Walter B; McDaniel, Mark A; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2017-06-01

    Writing is often used as a tool for learning. However, empirical support for the benefits of writing-to-learn is mixed, likely because the literature conflates diverse activities (e.g., summaries, term papers) under the single umbrella of writing-to-learn. Following recent trends in the writing-to-learn literature, the authors focus on the underlying cognitive processes. They draw on the largely independent writing-to-learn and cognitive psychology learning literatures to identify important cognitive processes. The current experiment examines learning from 3 writing tasks (and 1 nonwriting control), with an emphasis on whether or not the tasks engaged retrieval. Tasks that engaged retrieval (essay writing and free recall) led to better final test performance than those that did not (note taking and highlighting). Individual differences in structure building (the ability to construct mental representations of narratives; Gernsbacher, Varner, & Faust, 1990) modified this effect; skilled structure builders benefited more from essay writing and free recall than did less skilled structure builders. Further, more essay-like responses led to better performance, implicating the importance of additional cognitive processes such as reorganization and elaboration. The results highlight how both task instructions and individual differences affect the cognitive processes involved when writing-to-learn, with consequences for the effectiveness of the learning strategy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Hidden Markov processes theory and applications to biology

    CERN Document Server

    Vidyasagar, M

    2014-01-01

    This book explores important aspects of Markov and hidden Markov processes and the applications of these ideas to various problems in computational biology. The book starts from first principles, so that no previous knowledge of probability is necessary. However, the work is rigorous and mathematical, making it useful to engineers and mathematicians, even those not interested in biological applications. A range of exercises is provided, including drills to familiarize the reader with concepts and more advanced problems that require deep thinking about the theory. Biological applications are t

  7. Treatment of slaughter wastewater by coagulation sedimentation-anaerobic biological filter and biological contact oxidation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, M.; Yu, P. F.; Fu, J. X.; Ji, X. Q.; Jiang, T.

    2017-08-01

    The optimal process parameters and conditions for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater by coagulation sedimentation-AF - biological contact oxidation process were studied to solve the problem of high concentration organic wastewater treatment in the production of small and medium sized slaughter plants. The suitable water temperature and the optimum reaction time are determined by the experiment of precipitation to study the effect of filtration rate and reflux ratio on COD and SS in anaerobic biological filter and the effect of biofilm thickness and gas water ratio on NH3-N and COD in biological contact oxidation tank, and results show that the optimum temperature is 16-24°C, reaction time is 20 min in coagulating sedimentation, the optimum filtration rate is 0.6 m/h, and the optimum reflux ratio is 300% in anaerobic biological filter reactor. The most suitable biological film thickness range of 1.8-2.2 mm and the most suitable gas water ratio is 12:1-14:1 in biological contact oxidation pool. In the coupling process of continuous operation for 80 days, the average effluent’s mass concentrations of COD, TP and TN were 15.57 mg/L, 40 mg/L and 0.63 mg/L, the average removal rates were 98.93%, 86.10%, 88.95%, respectively. The coupling process has stable operation effect and good effluent quality, and is suitable for the industrial application.

  8. Motor cortical processing is causally involved in object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Motor activity during vicarious experience of actions is a widely reported and studied phenomenon, and motor system activity also accompanies observation of graspable objects in the absence of any actions. Such motor activity is thought to reflect simulation of the observed action, or preparation to interact with the object, respectively. Results Here, in an initial exploratory study, we ask whether motor activity during observation of object directed actions is involved in processes related to recognition of the object after initial exposure. Single pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) was applied over the thumb representation of the motor cortex, or over the vertex, during observation of a model thumb typing on a cell-phone, and performance on a phone recognition task at the end of the trial was assessed. Disrupting motor processing over the thumb representation 100 ms after the onset of the typing video impaired the ability to recognize the phone in the recognition test, whereas there was no such effect for TMS applied over the vertex and no TMS trials. Furthermore, this effect only manifested for videos observed from the first person perspective. In an additional control condition, there was no evidence for any effects of TMS to the thumb representation or vertex when observing and recognizing non-action related shape stimuli. Conclusion Overall, these data provide evidence that motor cortical processing during observation of object-directed actions from a first person perspective is causally linked to the formation of enduring representations of objects-of-action. PMID:24330638

  9. Motor cortical processing is causally involved in object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decloe, Rebecca; Obhi, Sukhvinder S

    2013-12-14

    Motor activity during vicarious experience of actions is a widely reported and studied phenomenon, and motor system activity also accompanies observation of graspable objects in the absence of any actions. Such motor activity is thought to reflect simulation of the observed action, or preparation to interact with the object, respectively. Here, in an initial exploratory study, we ask whether motor activity during observation of object directed actions is involved in processes related to recognition of the object after initial exposure. Single pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) was applied over the thumb representation of the motor cortex, or over the vertex, during observation of a model thumb typing on a cell-phone, and performance on a phone recognition task at the end of the trial was assessed. Disrupting motor processing over the thumb representation 100 ms after the onset of the typing video impaired the ability to recognize the phone in the recognition test, whereas there was no such effect for TMS applied over the vertex and no TMS trials. Furthermore, this effect only manifested for videos observed from the first person perspective. In an additional control condition, there was no evidence for any effects of TMS to the thumb representation or vertex when observing and recognizing non-action related shape stimuli. Overall, these data provide evidence that motor cortical processing during observation of object-directed actions from a first person perspective is causally linked to the formation of enduring representations of objects-of-action.

  10. Public involvement in the decision making process, Argentine experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clein, D.

    1999-01-01

    In the frame of a young participative democracy the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (C.N.E.A.), technical and legal responsible for radioactive waste management, is developing a plan for the close out of tailings facilities from past mining and milling operations and the environmental restoration of nine different sites in six provinces all over the country. In the first site, Malargue Facility, different activities have been developed promoting public involvement in the decision making process. The lessons learned and the experience acquired have given the background for the systematization of public consultation in the ongoing and future stages of the plan. Malargue's experience in this field will be analyzed stressing on different aspects considered of importance for the design of a communicational strategy adapted to the characteristics of a society without experience in this field. The influence of public concern on conservative bias of technical decisions will be evaluated. (author)

  11. Molecular processes involved in B cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouf, Camille; Ottersbach, Katrin

    2018-02-01

    B cell leukaemia is one of the most frequent malignancies in the paediatric population, but also affects a significant proportion of adults in developed countries. The majority of infant and paediatric cases initiate the process of leukaemogenesis during foetal development (in utero) through the formation of a chromosomal translocation or the acquisition/deletion of genetic material (hyperdiploidy or hypodiploidy, respectively). This first genetic insult is the major determinant for the prognosis and therapeutic outcome of patients. B cell leukaemia in adults displays similar molecular features as its paediatric counterpart. However, since this disease is highly represented in the infant and paediatric population, this review will focus on this demographic group and summarise the biological, clinical and epidemiological knowledge on B cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia of four well characterised subtypes: t(4;11) MLL-AF4, t(12;21) ETV6-RUNX1, t(1;19) E2A-PBX1 and t(9;22) BCR-ABL1.

  12. Boolean Models of Biological Processes Explain Cascade-Like Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Wang, Guanyu; Simha, Rahul; Du, Chenghang; Zeng, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Biological networks play a key role in determining biological function and therefore, an understanding of their structure and dynamics is of central interest in systems biology. In Boolean models of such networks, the status of each molecule is either “on” or “off” and along with the molecules interact with each other, their individual status changes from “on” to “off” or vice-versa and the system of molecules in the network collectively go through a sequence of changes in state. This sequence of changes is termed a biological process. In this paper, we examine the common perception that events in biomolecular networks occur sequentially, in a cascade-like manner, and ask whether this is likely to be an inherent property. In further investigations of the budding and fission yeast cell-cycle, we identify two generic dynamical rules. A Boolean system that complies with these rules will automatically have a certain robustness. By considering the biological requirements in robustness and designability, we show that those Boolean dynamical systems, compared to an arbitrary dynamical system, statistically present the characteristics of cascadeness and sequentiality, as observed in the budding and fission yeast cell- cycle. These results suggest that cascade-like behavior might be an intrinsic property of biological processes. PMID:26821940

  13. Advanced biologically plausible algorithms for low-level image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusakova, Valentina I.; Podladchikova, Lubov N.; Shaposhnikov, Dmitry G.; Markin, Sergey N.; Golovan, Alexander V.; Lee, Seong-Whan

    1999-08-01

    At present, in computer vision, the approach based on modeling the biological vision mechanisms is extensively developed. However, up to now, real world image processing has no effective solution in frameworks of both biologically inspired and conventional approaches. Evidently, new algorithms and system architectures based on advanced biological motivation should be developed for solution of computational problems related to this visual task. Basic problems that should be solved for creation of effective artificial visual system to process real world imags are a search for new algorithms of low-level image processing that, in a great extent, determine system performance. In the present paper, the result of psychophysical experiments and several advanced biologically motivated algorithms for low-level processing are presented. These algorithms are based on local space-variant filter, context encoding visual information presented in the center of input window, and automatic detection of perceptually important image fragments. The core of latter algorithm are using local feature conjunctions such as noncolinear oriented segment and composite feature map formation. Developed algorithms were integrated into foveal active vision model, the MARR. It is supposed that proposed algorithms may significantly improve model performance while real world image processing during memorizing, search, and recognition.

  14. Cancer systems biology: signal processing for cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Harja, Olli; Ylipää, Antti; Nykter, Matti; Zhang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    In this editorial we introduce the research paradigms of signal processing in the era of systems biology. Signal processing is a field of science traditionally focused on modeling electronic and communications systems, but recently it has turned to biological applications with astounding results. The essence of signal processing is to describe the natural world by mathematical models and then, based on these models, develop efficient computational tools for solving engineering problems. Here, we underline, with examples, the endless possibilities which arise when the battle-hardened tools of engineering are applied to solve the problems that have tormented cancer researchers. Based on this approach, a new field has emerged, called cancer systems biology. Despite its short history, cancer systems biology has already produced several success stories tackling previously impracticable problems. Perhaps most importantly, it has been accepted as an integral part of the major endeavors of cancer research, such as analyzing the genomic and epigenomic data produced by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. Finally, we show that signal processing and cancer research, two fields that are seemingly distant from each other, have merged into a field that is indeed more than the sum of its parts. PMID:21439242

  15. DEMONSTRATION OF AN INTEGRATED, PASSIVE BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESS FOR AMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    An innovative, cost-effective, biological treatment process has been designed by MSE Technology Applications, Inc. to treat acid mine drainage (AMD). A pilot-scale demonstration is being conducted under the Mine Waste Technology Program using water flowing from an abandoned mine ...

  16. The bacterial interlocked process ONtology (BiPON): a systemic multi-scale unified representation of biological processes in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Vincent J; Goelzer, Anne; Ferré, Arnaud; Fischer, Stephan; Dinh, Marc; Loux, Valentin; Froidevaux, Christine; Fromion, Vincent

    2017-11-23

    High-throughput technologies produce huge amounts of heterogeneous biological data at all cellular levels. Structuring these data together with biological knowledge is a critical issue in biology and requires integrative tools and methods such as bio-ontologies to extract and share valuable information. In parallel, the development of recent whole-cell models using a systemic cell description opened alternatives for data integration. Integrating a systemic cell description within a bio-ontology would help to progress in whole-cell data integration and modeling synergistically. We present BiPON, an ontology integrating a multi-scale systemic representation of bacterial cellular processes. BiPON consists in of two sub-ontologies, bioBiPON and modelBiPON. bioBiPON organizes the systemic description of biological information while modelBiPON describes the mathematical models (including parameters) associated with biological processes. bioBiPON and modelBiPON are related using bridge rules on classes during automatic reasoning. Biological processes are thus automatically related to mathematical models. 37% of BiPON classes stem from different well-established bio-ontologies, while the others have been manually defined and curated. Currently, BiPON integrates the main processes involved in bacterial gene expression processes. BiPON is a proof of concept of the way to combine formally systems biology and bio-ontology. The knowledge formalization is highly flexible and generic. Most of the known cellular processes, new participants or new mathematical models could be inserted in BiPON. Altogether, BiPON opens up promising perspectives for knowledge integration and sharing and can be used by biologists, systems and computational biologists, and the emerging community of whole-cell modeling.

  17. Cellular processes involved in human epidermal cells exposed to extremely low frequency electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, J-F; Hinsenkamp, M

    2015-05-01

    We observed on different tissues and organisms a biological response after exposure to pulsed low frequency and low amplitude electric or electromagnetic fields but the precise mechanism of cell response remains unknown. The aim of this publication is to understand, using bioinformatics, the biological relevance of processes involved in the modification of gene expression. The list of genes analyzed was obtained after microarray protocol realized on cultures of human epidermal explants growing on deepidermized human skin exposed to a pulsed low frequency electric field. The directed acyclic graph on a WebGestalt Gene Ontology module shows six categories under the biological process root: "biological regulation", "cellular process", "cell proliferation", "death", "metabolic process" and "response to stimulus". Enriched derived categories are coherent with the type of in vitro culture, the stimulation protocol or with the previous results showing a decrease of cell proliferation and an increase of differentiation. The Kegg module on WebGestalt has highlighted "cell cycle" and "p53 signaling pathway" as significantly involved. The Kegg website brings out interactions between FoxO, MAPK, JNK, p53, p38, PI3K/Akt, Wnt, mTor or NF-KappaB. Some genes expressed by the stimulation are known to have an exclusive function on these pathways. Analyses performed with Pathway Studio linked cell proliferation, cell differentiation, apoptosis, cell cycle, mitosis, cell death etc. with our microarrays results. Medline citation generated by the software and the fold change variation confirms a diminution of the proliferation, activation of the differentiation and a less well-defined role of apoptosis or wound healing. Wnt and DKK functional classes, DKK1, MACF1, ATF3, MME, TXNRD1, and BMP-2 genes proposed in previous publications after a manual analysis are also highlighted with other genes after Pathway Studio automatic procedure. Finally, an analysis conducted on a list of genes

  18. Introductory Biology Textbooks Under-Represent Scientific Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara B. Duncan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Attrition of undergraduates from Biology majors is a long-standing problem. Introductory courses that fail to engage students or spark their curiosity by emphasizing the open-ended and creative nature of biological investigation and discovery could contribute to student detachment from the field. Our hypothesis was that introductory biology books devote relatively few figures to illustration of the design and interpretation of experiments or field studies, thereby de-emphasizing the scientific process.To investigate this possibility, we examined figures in six Introductory Biology textbooks published in 2008. On average, multistep scientific investigations were presented in fewer than 5% of the hundreds of figures in each book. Devoting such a small percentage of figures to the processes by which discoveries are made discourages an emphasis on scientific thinking. We suggest that by increasing significantly the illustration of scientific investigations, textbooks could support undergraduates’ early interest in biology, stimulate the development of design and analytical skills, and inspire some students to participate in investigations of their own.

  19. Review of physicochemical processes involved in agrochemical spray retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massinon, M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review provides a broad view of the processes and parameters involved in applying agrochemicals to the leaves of field crops. Treatment efficiency is assessed using macroscopic and microscopic approaches to investigate spray retention. With the macroscopic approach, aspects related to spray coarseness, carrier volume, leaf wettability, plant architecture, crop density and additives are addressed. Comparative studies have highlighted the wide variability in spray retention as a function of these parameters. They have failed, however, to describe the underlying physical relationships clearly enough to generalize the results. These relationships are better investigated using a microscopic approach, where drop impact behavior is established in relation to target surface and fluid properties. The wetting regime (either Wenzel or Cassie-Baxter depends on the leaf surface microscopic roughness ratio (r and chemical nature, fluid dynamic surface tension and drop impact energy. Adhesion, rebound and disintegration have been observed successively with increasing drop impact energy. Transitions between impact outcomes are influenced by fluid rheology and the dynamic surface tension of the fluid. The effect of surface orientation remains poorly explored, but it seems to have a limited influence on retention. Recent fundamental studies on superhydrophobicity and wetting should help practitioners in their search for an ever more rational application of agrochemicals. They could also drive the development of new systematic retention testing methods.

  20. Impaired global, and compensatory local, biological motion processing in people with high levels of autistic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen J A Van Boxtel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD are hypothesized to have poor high-level processing but superior low-level processing, causing impaired social recognition, and a focus on non-social stimulus contingencies. Biological motion perception provides an ideal domain to investigate exactly how ASD modulates the interaction between low and high-level processing, because it involves multiple processing stages, and carries many important social cues. We investigated individual differences among typically developing observers in biological motion processing, and whether such individual differences associate with the number of autistic traits. In Experiment 1, we found that individuals with fewer autistic traits were automatically and involuntarily attracted to global biological motion information, whereas individuals with more autistic traits did not show this pre-attentional distraction. We employed an action adaptation paradigm in the second study to show that individuals with more autistic traits were able to compensate for deficits in global processing with an increased involvement in local processing. Our findings can be interpreted within a predictive coding framework, which characterizes the functional relationship between local and global processing stages, and explains how these stages contribute to the perceptual difficulties associated with ASD.

  1. Classical and spatial stochastic processes with applications to biology

    CERN Document Server

    Schinazi, Rinaldo B

    2014-01-01

    The revised and expanded edition of this textbook presents the concepts and applications of random processes with the same illuminating simplicity as its first edition, but with the notable addition of substantial modern material on biological modeling. While still treating many important problems in fields such as engineering and mathematical physics, the book also focuses on the highly relevant topics of cancerous mutations, influenza evolution, drug resistance, and immune response. The models used elegantly apply various classical stochastic models presented earlier in the text, and exercises are included throughout to reinforce essential concepts. The second edition of Classical and Spatial Stochastic Processes is suitable as a textbook for courses in stochastic processes at the advanced-undergraduate and graduate levels, or as a self-study resource for researchers and practitioners in mathematics, engineering, physics, and mathematical biology. Reviews of the first edition: An appetizing textbook for a f...

  2. iBiology: communicating the process of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Sarah S

    2014-08-01

    The Internet hosts an abundance of science video resources aimed at communicating scientific knowledge, including webinars, massive open online courses, and TED talks. Although these videos are efficient at disseminating information for diverse types of users, they often do not demonstrate the process of doing science, the excitement of scientific discovery, or how new scientific knowledge is developed. iBiology (www.ibiology.org), a project that creates open-access science videos about biology research and science-related topics, seeks to fill this need by producing videos by science leaders that make their ideas, stories, and experiences available to anyone with an Internet connection. © 2014 Goodwin. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  3. The chemistry-biology-medicine continuum and the drug discovery and development process in academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, K C

    2014-09-18

    Admirable as it is, the drug discovery and development process is continuously undergoing changes and adjustments in search of further improvements in efficiency, productivity, and profitability. Recent trends in academic-industrial partnerships promise to provide new opportunities for advancements of this process through transdisciplinary collaborations along the entire spectrum of activities involved in this complex process. This perspective discusses ways to promote the emerging academic paradigm of the chemistry-biology-medicine continuum as a means to advance the drug discovery and development process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biological signal processing with a genetic toggle switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hillenbrand

    Full Text Available Complex gene regulation requires responses that depend not only on the current levels of input signals but also on signals received in the past. In digital electronics, logic circuits with this property are referred to as sequential logic, in contrast to the simpler combinatorial logic without such internal memory. In molecular biology, memory is implemented in various forms such as biochemical modification of proteins or multistable gene circuits, but the design of the regulatory interface, which processes the input signals and the memory content, is often not well understood. Here, we explore design constraints for such regulatory interfaces using coarse-grained nonlinear models and stochastic simulations of detailed biochemical reaction networks. We test different designs for biological analogs of the most versatile memory element in digital electronics, the JK-latch. Our analysis shows that simple protein-protein interactions and protein-DNA binding are sufficient, in principle, to implement genetic circuits with the capabilities of a JK-latch. However, it also exposes fundamental limitations to its reliability, due to the fact that biological signal processing is asynchronous, in contrast to most digital electronics systems that feature a central clock to orchestrate the timing of all operations. We describe a seemingly natural way to improve the reliability by invoking the master-slave concept from digital electronics design. This concept could be useful to interpret the design of natural regulatory circuits, and for the design of synthetic biological systems.

  5. Biological signal processing with a genetic toggle switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillenbrand, Patrick; Fritz, Georg; Gerland, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Complex gene regulation requires responses that depend not only on the current levels of input signals but also on signals received in the past. In digital electronics, logic circuits with this property are referred to as sequential logic, in contrast to the simpler combinatorial logic without such internal memory. In molecular biology, memory is implemented in various forms such as biochemical modification of proteins or multistable gene circuits, but the design of the regulatory interface, which processes the input signals and the memory content, is often not well understood. Here, we explore design constraints for such regulatory interfaces using coarse-grained nonlinear models and stochastic simulations of detailed biochemical reaction networks. We test different designs for biological analogs of the most versatile memory element in digital electronics, the JK-latch. Our analysis shows that simple protein-protein interactions and protein-DNA binding are sufficient, in principle, to implement genetic circuits with the capabilities of a JK-latch. However, it also exposes fundamental limitations to its reliability, due to the fact that biological signal processing is asynchronous, in contrast to most digital electronics systems that feature a central clock to orchestrate the timing of all operations. We describe a seemingly natural way to improve the reliability by invoking the master-slave concept from digital electronics design. This concept could be useful to interpret the design of natural regulatory circuits, and for the design of synthetic biological systems.

  6. 100 years after Smoluchowski: stochastic processes in cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcman, D; Schuss, Z

    2017-01-01

    100 years after Smoluchowski introduced his approach to stochastic processes, they are now at the basis of mathematical and physical modeling in cellular biology: they are used for example to analyse and to extract features from a large number (tens of thousands) of single molecular trajectories or to study the diffusive motion of molecules, proteins or receptors. Stochastic modeling is a new step in large data analysis that serves extracting cell biology concepts. We review here Smoluchowski’s approach to stochastic processes and provide several applications for coarse-graining diffusion, studying polymer models for understanding nuclear organization and finally, we discuss the stochastic jump dynamics of telomeres across cell division and stochastic gene regulation. (topical review)

  7. Genes involved in complex adaptive processes tend to have highly conserved upstream regions in mammalian genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohane Isaac

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in genome sequencing suggest a remarkable conservation in gene content of mammalian organisms. The similarity in gene repertoire present in different organisms has increased interest in studying regulatory mechanisms of gene expression aimed at elucidating the differences in phenotypes. In particular, a proximal promoter region contains a large number of regulatory elements that control the expression of its downstream gene. Although many studies have focused on identification of these elements, a broader picture on the complexity of transcriptional regulation of different biological processes has not been addressed in mammals. The regulatory complexity may strongly correlate with gene function, as different evolutionary forces must act on the regulatory systems under different biological conditions. We investigate this hypothesis by comparing the conservation of promoters upstream of genes classified in different functional categories. Results By conducting a rank correlation analysis between functional annotation and upstream sequence alignment scores obtained by human-mouse and human-dog comparison, we found a significantly greater conservation of the upstream sequence of genes involved in development, cell communication, neural functions and signaling processes than those involved in more basic processes shared with unicellular organisms such as metabolism and ribosomal function. This observation persists after controlling for G+C content. Considering conservation as a functional signature, we hypothesize a higher density of cis-regulatory elements upstream of genes participating in complex and adaptive processes. Conclusion We identified a class of functions that are associated with either high or low promoter conservation in mammals. We detected a significant tendency that points to complex and adaptive processes were associated with higher promoter conservation, despite the fact that they have emerged

  8. Influence of different natural physical fields on biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashinsky, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    In space flight conditions gravity, magnetic, and electrical fields as well as ionizing radiation change both in size, and in direction. This causes disruptions in the conduct of some physical processes, chemical reactions, and metabolism in living organisms. In these conditions organisms of different phylogenetic level change their metabolic reactions undergo changes such as disturbances in ionic exchange both in lower and in higher plants, changes in cell morphology for example, gyrosity in Proteus ( Proteus vulgaris), spatial disorientation in coleoptiles of Wheat ( Triticum aestivum) and Pea ( Pisum sativum) seedlings, mutational changes in Crepis ( Crepis capillaris) and Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana) seedling. It has been found that even in the absence of gravity, gravireceptors determining spatial orientation in higher plants under terrestrial conditions are formed in the course of ontogenesis. Under weightlessness this system does not function and spatial orientation is determined by the light flux gradient or by the action of some other factors. Peculiarities of the formation of the gravireceptor apparatus in higher plants, amphibians, fish, and birds under space flight conditions have been observed. It has been found that the system in which responses were accompanied by phase transition have proven to be gravity-sensitive under microgravity conditions. Such reactions include also the process of photosynthesis which is the main energy production process in plants. In view of the established effects of microgravity and different natural physical fields on biological processes, it has been shown that these processes change due to the absence of initially rigid determination. The established biological effect of physical fields influence on biological processes in organisms is the starting point for elucidating the role of gravity and evolutionary development of various organisms on Earth.

  9. Interactive methods to involve users into workspace design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza da Conceição, Carolina; Broberg, Ole; Banke, Palle

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of whether the use of a combination of interactive methods involving workers can lead to a useful input to the (re)design of their workspace. The workbook and the layout design game methods were tested, and a comparison between their use and the ergonomic analysis...... for the workspace design, to be more easily applied by less experienced ergonomists....

  10. Parental Involvement and Children's School Achievement: Evidence for Mediating Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Maria A.; Theule, Jennifer; Ryan, Bruce A.; Adams, Gerald R.; Keating, Leo

    2009-01-01

    This study used path analytic techniques and an ecological framework to examine the association between children's perceptions of their parents' educational involvement, children's personal characteristics, and their school achievement. Fathers' academic pressure was predictive of lower achievement, whereas mothers' encouragement and support…

  11. Review on Physicochemical, Chemical, and Biological Processes for Pharmaceutical Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenchen; Yang, Ping

    2018-02-01

    Due to the needs of human life and health, pharmaceutical industry has made great progress in recent years, but it has also brought about severe environmental problems. The presence of pharmaceuticals in natural waters which might pose potential harm to the ecosystems and humans raised increasing concern worldwide. Pharmaceuticals cannot be effectively removed by conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) owing to the complex composition, high concentration of organic contaminants, high salinity and biological toxicity of pharmaceutical wastewater. Therefore, the development of efficient methods is needed to improve the removal effect of pharmaceuticals. This review provides an overview on three types of treatment technologies including physicochemical, chemical and biological processes and their advantages and disadvantages respectively. In addition, the future perspectives of pharmaceutical wastewater treatment are given.

  12. Radiation processing of biological tissues for nuclear disaster management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rita

    2012-01-01

    A number of surgical procedures require tissue substitutes to repair or replace damaged or diseased tissues. Biological tissues from human donor like bone, skin, amniotic membrane and other soft tissues can be used for repair or reconstruction of the injured part of the body. Tissues from human donor can be processed and banked for orthopaedic, spinal, trauma and other surgical procedures. Allograft tissues provide an excellent alternative to autografts. The use of allograft tissue avoids the donor site morbidity and reduces the operating time, expense and trauma associated with the acquisition of autografts. Further, allografts have the added advantage of being available in large quantities. This has led to a global increase in allogeneic transplantation and development of tissue banking. However, the risk of infectious disease transmission via tissue allografts is a major concern. Therefore, tissue allografts should be sterilized to make them safe for clinical use. Radiation processing has well appreciated technological advantages and is the most suitable method for sterilization of biological tissues. Radiation processed biological tissues can be provided by the tissue banks for the management of injuries due to a nuclear disaster. A nuclear detonation will result in a large number of casualties due to the heat, blast and radiation effects of the weapon. Skin dressings or skin substitutes like allograft skin, xenograft skin and amniotic membrane can be used for the treatment of thermal burns and radiation induced skin injuries. Bone grafts can be employed for repairing fracture defects, filling in destroyed regions of bone, management of open fractures and joint injuries. Radiation processed tissues have the potential to repair or reconstruct damaged tissues and can be of great assistance in the treatment of injuries due to the nuclear weapon. (author)

  13. The Use of Microwave Incineration to Process Biological Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sidney C.; Srinivasan, Venkatesh; Covington, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The handling and disposal of solid waste matter that has biological or biohazardous components is a difficult issue for hospitals, research laboratories, and industry. NASA faces the same challenge as it is developing regenerative systems that will process waste materials into materials that can be used to sustain humans living in space for extended durations. Plants provide critical functions in such a regenerative life support scheme in that they photosynthesize carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. The edible portions of the plant provide a food source for the crew. Inedible portions can be processed into materials that are more recyclable. The Advanced Life Support Division at NASA Ames Research Center has been evaluating a microwave incinerator that will oxidize inedible plant matter into carbon dioxide and water. The commercially available microwave incinerator is produced by Matsushita Electronic Instruments Corporation of Japan. Microwave incineration is a technology that is simple, safe, and compact enough for home use. It also has potential applications for institutions that produce biological or biohazardous waste. The incinerator produces a sterile ash that has only 13% of the mass of the original waste. The authors have run several sets of tests with the incinerator to establish its viability in processing biological material. One goal of the tests is to show that the incinerator does not generate toxic compounds as a byproduct of the combustion process. This paper will describe the results of the tests, including analyses of the resulting ash and exhaust gases. The significance of the results and their implications on commercial applications of the technology will also be discussed.

  14. Preaching and cartooning: An exploration of the processes involved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores the similarities and differences between the process followed to develop a sermon and that followed to develop a cartoon. It first examines the representation of the jester or clown in some recent publications by homileticians before describing the process of development of a sermon, as proposed by ...

  15. Application of bacteria involved in the biological sulfur cycle for paper mill effluent purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Albert J.H.; Lens, Piet N.L.; Stams, Alfons J.M.; Plugge, Caroline M.; Sorokin, Dimitri Y.; Muyzer, Gerard; Dijkman, Henk; Van Zessen, Erik; Luimes, Peter; Buisman, Cees J.N.

    2009-01-01

    In anaerobic wastewater treatment, the occurrence of biological sulfate reduction results in the formation of unwanted hydrogen sulfide, which is odorous, corrosive and toxic. In this paper, the role and application of bacteria in anaerobic and aerobic sulfur transformations are described and exemplified for the treatment of a paper mill wastewater. The sulfate containing wastewater first passes an anaerobic UASB reactor for bulk COD removal which is accompanied by the formation of biogas and hydrogen sulfide. In an aeration pond, the residual COD organic and the formed dissolved hydrogen sulfide are removed. The biogas, consisting of CH 4 (80-90 vol.%), CO 2 (10-20 vol.%) and H 2 S (0.8-1.2 vol.%), is desulfurised prior to its combustion in a power generator thereby using a new biological process for H 2 S removal. This process will be described in more detail in this paper. Biomass from the anaerobic bioreactor has a compact granular structure and contains a diverse microbial community. Therefore, other anaerobic bioreactors throughout the world are inoculated with biomass from this UASB reactor. The sludge was also successfully used in investigation on sulfate reduction with carbon monoxide as the electron donor and the conversion of methanethiol. This shows the biotechnological potential of this complex reactor biomass

  16. Application of bacteria involved in the biological sulfur cycle for paper mill effluent purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, Albert J.H. [Sub-department of Environmental Technology, Wageningen University, Wageningen (Netherlands); Shell Global Solutions Int. B.V., Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: albert.janssen@wur.nl; Lens, Piet N.L. [Sub-department of Environmental Technology, Wageningen University, Wageningen (Netherlands); Stams, Alfons J.M.; Plugge, Caroline M. [Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Wageningen (Netherlands); Sorokin, Dimitri Y. [Department of Biotechnology, Delft (Netherlands); Institute of Microbiology, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation); Muyzer, Gerard [Department of Biotechnology, Delft (Netherlands); Dijkman, Henk; Van Zessen, Erik [Paques B.V., Balk (Netherlands); Luimes, Peter [Industriewater Eerbeek B.V. Eerbeek (Netherlands); Buisman, Cees J.N. [Sub-department of Environmental Technology, Wageningen University, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2009-02-01

    In anaerobic wastewater treatment, the occurrence of biological sulfate reduction results in the formation of unwanted hydrogen sulfide, which is odorous, corrosive and toxic. In this paper, the role and application of bacteria in anaerobic and aerobic sulfur transformations are described and exemplified for the treatment of a paper mill wastewater. The sulfate containing wastewater first passes an anaerobic UASB reactor for bulk COD removal which is accompanied by the formation of biogas and hydrogen sulfide. In an aeration pond, the residual COD{sub organic} and the formed dissolved hydrogen sulfide are removed. The biogas, consisting of CH{sub 4} (80-90 vol.%), CO{sub 2} (10-20 vol.%) and H{sub 2}S (0.8-1.2 vol.%), is desulfurised prior to its combustion in a power generator thereby using a new biological process for H{sub 2}S removal. This process will be described in more detail in this paper. Biomass from the anaerobic bioreactor has a compact granular structure and contains a diverse microbial community. Therefore, other anaerobic bioreactors throughout the world are inoculated with biomass from this UASB reactor. The sludge was also successfully used in investigation on sulfate reduction with carbon monoxide as the electron donor and the conversion of methanethiol. This shows the biotechnological potential of this complex reactor biomass.

  17. Stochasticity in processes fundamentals and applications to chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Schuster, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This book has developed over the past fifteen years from a modern course on stochastic chemical kinetics for graduate students in physics, chemistry and biology. The first part presents a systematic collection of the mathematical background material needed to understand probability, statistics, and stochastic processes as a prerequisite for the increasingly challenging practical applications in chemistry and the life sciences examined in the second part. Recent advances in the development of new techniques and in the resolution of conventional experiments at nano-scales have been tremendous: today molecular spectroscopy can provide insights into processes down to scales at which current theories at the interface of physics, chemistry and the life sciences cannot be successful without a firm grasp of randomness and its sources. Routinely measured data is now sufficiently accurate to allow the direct recording of fluctuations. As a result, the sampling of data and the modeling of relevant processes are doomed t...

  18. Research Education: Perspectives and subjective processes involved in educational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harm H. Tillema

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Educational research acknowledges that researcher’s beliefs and training play a role in framing the outcomes of any study. Research not only consists of defining objectives and following certain methods (search but also of making decisions over the steps taking during the inquiry process (research.Establishing a conceptual framework to guide actions on the subjective processes in research is then crucial to control them. With that purpose in mind we offer researchers and Teacher Educators a heuristic tool to be conscious on the risks that can be taken when immersed in research interpretative process. This instrument could be utilised in PhD programs, masters and research projects.

  19. Identification of B-type procyanidins in Fallopia spp. involved in biological denitrification inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardon, Clément; Piola, Florence; Haichar, Feth el Zahar; Meiffren, Guillaume; Comte, Gilles; Missery, Boris; Balby, Manon; Poly, Franck

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) is considered as a main limiting factor in plant growth, and nitrogen losses through denitrification can be responsible for severe decreases in plant productivity. Recently, it was demonstrated that Fallopia spp. is responsible for biological denitrification inhibition (BDI) through the release of unknown secondary metabolites. Here, we investigate the secondary metabolites involved in the BDI of Fallopia spp. The antioxidant, protein precipitation capability of Fallopia spp. extracts was measured in relation to the aerobic respiration and denitrification of two bacteria (Gram positive and Gram negative). Proanthocyanidin concentrations were estimated. Proanthocyanidins in extracts were characterized by chromatographic analysis, purified and tested on the bacterial denitrification and aerobic respiration of two bacterial strains. The effect of commercial procyanidins on denitrification was tested on two different soil types. Denitrification and aerobic respiration inhibition were correlated with protein precipitation capacity and concentration of proanthocyanidins but not to antioxidant capacity. These proanthocyanidins were B-type procyanidins that inhibited denitrification more than the aerobic respiration of bacteria. In addition, procyanidins also inhibited soil microbial denitrification. We demonstrate that procyanidins are involved in the BDI of Fallopia spp. Our results pave the way to a better understanding of plant-microbe interactions and highlight future applications for a more sustainable agriculture. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. REDOX CHEMISTRY OF MOLYBDENUM IN NATURAL WATERS AND ITS INVOLVEMENT IN BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deli eWang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The transition element molybdenum (Mo possesses diverse valances (+II to +VI, and is involved in forming cofactors in more than 60 enzymes in biology. Redox switching of the element in these enzymes catalyzes a series of metabolic reactions in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and the element therefore plays a fundamental role in the global carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur cycling. In the present oxygenated waters, oxidized Mo(VI predominates thermodynamically, whilst reduced Mo species are mainly confined within specific niches including cytoplasm. Only recently has the reduced Mo(V been separated from Mo(VI in sulfidic mats and even in some reducing waters. Given the presence of reduced Mo(V in contemporary anaerobic habitats, it seems that reduced Mo species were present in the ancient reducing ocean (probably under both ferrigenous and sulfidic conditions, prompting the involvement of Mo in enzymes including nitrogenase and nitrate reductase. During the global transition to oxic conditions, reduced Mo species were constrained to specific anaerobic habitats, and efficient uptake systems of oxidized Mo(VI became a selective advantage both for prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Some prokaryotes are still able to directly utilize reduced Mo if any exists in ambient environments. In total, this mini-review describes the redox chemistry and biogeochemistry of Mo over the Earth’s history.

  1. Process for the biological purification of waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1992-01-01

    Process for the biological purification of waste water by the activated sludge method, the waste water being mixed with recirculated sludge and being subjected to an anaerobic treatment, before the waste water thus treated is alternately subjected to anoxic and aerobic treatments and the waste...... water thus treated is led into a clarification zone for settling sludge, which sludge is recirculated in order to be mixed with the crude waste water. As a result, a simultaneous reduction of the content both of nitrogen and phosphorus of the waste water is achieved....

  2. Processes involved in pion capture in hydrogen-containing molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, D.

    1983-03-01

    A systematic analysis is presented of the possible elementary processes determining the fate of negative pions stopped in hydrogen-containing samples. Using a phenomenological description in comparison with the available experimental information on pion capture in hydrogen, it is shown that the formation and decay of pπ - atoms in compounds Zsub(m)Hsub(n) are determined mainly by the processes of Auger capture in a molecular orbit ZHπ - , transition from molecular to atomic orbit, transfer of pions to atoms Z in collisions pπ - +Z, and nuclear capture in collisions pπ - +H. The recent assumption of a considerable role of the processes of radiative atomic capture in bound hydrogen atoms, nuclear capture of pions by protons from the molecular state ZHπ - , or 'inner' transfer of the pion via tunnelling through the bond Z-H is not supported by the theory and contradicts the experimental data

  3. Processing and analysis techniques involving in-vessel material generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabron, John F [Laramie, WY; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2011-01-25

    In at least one embodiment, the inventive technology relates to in-vessel generation of a material from a solution of interest as part of a processing and/or analysis operation. Preferred embodiments of the in-vessel material generation (e.g., in-vessel solid material generation) include precipitation; in certain embodiments, analysis and/or processing of the solution of interest may include dissolution of the material, perhaps as part of a successive dissolution protocol using solvents of increasing ability to dissolve. Applications include, but are by no means limited to estimation of a coking onset and solution (e.g., oil) fractionating.

  4. Magnetic Nanotweezers for Interrogating Biological Processes in Space and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Wook; Jeong, Hee-Kyung; Southard, Kaden M; Jun, Young-Wook; Cheon, Jinwoo

    2018-04-17

    The ability to sense and manipulate the state of biological systems has been extensively advanced during the past decade with the help of recent developments in physical tools. Unlike standard genetic and pharmacological perturbation techniques-knockdown, overexpression, small molecule inhibition-that provide a basic on/off switching capability, these physical tools provide the capacity to control the spatial, temporal, and mechanical properties of the biological targets. Among the various physical cues, magnetism offers distinct advantages over light or electricity. Magnetic fields freely penetrate biological tissues and are already used for clinical applications. As one of the unique features, magnetic fields can be transformed into mechanical stimuli which can serve as a cue in regulating biological processes. However, their biological applications have been limited due to a lack of high-performance magnetism-to-mechanical force transducers with advanced spatiotemporal capabilities. In this Account, we present recent developments in magnetic nanotweezers (MNTs) as a useful tool for interrogating the spatiotemporal control of cells in living tissue. MNTs are composed of force-generating magnetic nanoparticles and field generators. Through proper design and the integration of individual components, MNTs deliver controlled mechanical stimulation to targeted biomolecules at any desired space and time. We first discuss about MNT configuration with different force-stimulation modes. By modulating geometry of the magnetic field generator, MNTs exert pulling, dipole-dipole attraction, and rotational forces to the target specifically and quantitatively. We discuss the key physical parameters determining force magnitude, which include magnetic field strength, magnetic field gradient, magnetic moment of the magnetic particle, as well as distance between the field generator and the particle. MNTs also can be used over a wide range of biological time scales. By simply

  5. Enzymatic cascade reactions involving phosphorylated intermediates: immobilization and process optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babich, L.

    2013-01-01

    The research described in this thesis aims to develop new strategies for the synthesis of fine chemicals by replacing conventional methods by nature-inspired technologies. The integration of multiple enzymatic steps into one-pot cascade processes is the ultimate goal to convert cheap renewable

  6. Biological shielding design calculation for agricultural radiation processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petwal, V.C.; Sandha, R.S.; Soni, H.C.; Subbaiah, K.V.

    2005-01-01

    An electron beam radiation processing facility for agricultural products is being set-up at Centre for Advanced Technology Indore. The facility will be based on a pulsed linear accelerator and will be used in electron and photon modes to process various products e.g. onion, potato, home-pack items and medical products. When electron beam interact with structural components of accelerator or high Z-target used in photon mode, it generates intense Bremsstrahlung radiation field, which poses radiation protection problem. Biological shielding has been designed to provide protection against the generated radiation. Different conveying schemes and hence design of irradiation cell have been studied and results are presented for two promising designs. (author)

  7. Quantum Processes and Dynamic Networks in Physical and Biological Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudziak, Martin Joseph

    Quantum theory since its earliest formulations in the Copenhagen Interpretation has been difficult to integrate with general relativity and with classical Newtonian physics. There has been traditionally a regard for quantum phenomena as being a limiting case for a natural order that is fundamentally classical except for microscopic extrema where quantum mechanics must be applied, more as a mathematical reconciliation rather than as a description and explanation. Macroscopic sciences including the study of biological neural networks, cellular energy transports and the broad field of non-linear and chaotic systems point to a quantum dimension extending across all scales of measurement and encompassing all of Nature as a fundamentally quantum universe. Theory and observation lead to a number of hypotheses all of which point to dynamic, evolving networks of fundamental or elementary processes as the underlying logico-physical structure (manifestation) in Nature and a strongly quantized dimension to macroscalar processes such as are found in biological, ecological and social systems. The fundamental thesis advanced and presented herein is that quantum phenomena may be the direct consequence of a universe built not from objects and substance but from interacting, interdependent processes collectively operating as sets and networks, giving rise to systems that on microcosmic or macroscopic scales function wholistically and organically, exhibiting non-locality and other non -classical phenomena. The argument is made that such effects as non-locality are not aberrations or departures from the norm but ordinary consequences of the process-network dynamics of Nature. Quantum processes are taken to be the fundamental action-events within Nature; rather than being the exception quantum theory is the rule. The argument is also presented that the study of quantum physics could benefit from the study of selective higher-scale complex systems, such as neural processes in the brain

  8. Improving industrial designers work process by involving user research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Zheng; Ómarsson, Ólafur

    2011-01-01

    With changing times, new technologies and more opinionated consumers, the modern industrial designer has found himself in need of fresher and more up to date approaches in his daily work. In a fast moving industry, the designer needs to keep a thinking process of dynamic and subjective attitude....... User research is part of user centered design (UCD). UCD has a reputation for subjective and reflective practice. In this paper there are two example cases. One is conducted by a classical industrial design process, and another is costing half of energy and time in user research. These examples...... will give the grounding for believing that the industrial designer needs to adopt user research methods to a level where he can still continue to work under the very nature of industrial design that has made it a successful practice for the last century. The combing of the approaches and attitude will help...

  9. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: the role of biological particles in cloud physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Möhler

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of a series of papers on the sources, distribution and potential impact of biological particles in the atmosphere, this paper introduces and summarizes the potential role of biological particles in atmospheric clouds. Biological particles like bacteria or pollen may be active as both cloud condensation nuclei (CCN and heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN and thereby can contribute to the initial cloud formation stages and the development of precipitation through giant CCN and IN processes. The paper gives an introduction to aerosol-cloud processes involving CCN and IN in general and provides a short summary of previous laboratory, field and modelling work which investigated the CCN and IN activity of bacterial cells and pollen. Recent measurements of atmospheric ice nuclei with a continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC and of the heterogeneous ice nucleation efficiency of bacterial cells are also briefly discussed. As a main result of this overview paper we conclude that a proper assessment of the impact of biological particles on tropospheric clouds needs new laboratory, field and modelling work on the abundance of biological particles in the atmosphere and their CCN and heterogeneous IN properties.

  10. Lessons learnt on stake holder involvement on decision- making process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soda, K.

    2007-01-01

    This workshop on transparency of Nuclear Regulatory Activities was held from 22 to 24 May 2007, in Tokyo and Tokai-Mura, Japan. The second session was devoted to stakeholders expectations regarding transparency. This document is the presentation of the chairman of the session and offers a global evaluation of the session. It also presents an experience of public participation in decision making process for the revision of seismic safety guidelines of Nuclear Safety Commission in Japan. (A.L.B.)

  11. Involvement of microRNAs in physiological and pathological processes in the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriegova Eva

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To date, at least 900 different microRNA (miRNA genes have been discovered in the human genome. These short, single-stranded RNA molecules originate from larger precursor molecules that fold to produce hairpin structures, which are subsequently processed by ribonucleases Drosha/Pasha and Dicer to form mature miRNAs. MiRNAs play role in the posttranscriptional regulation of about one third of human genes, mainly via degradation of target mRNAs. Whereas the target mRNAs are often involved in the regulation of diverse physiological processes ranging from developmental timing to apoptosis, miRNAs have a strong potential to regulate fundamental biological processes also in the lung compartment. However, the knowledge of the role of miRNAs in physiological and pathological conditions in the lung is still limited. This review, therefore, summarizes current knowledge of the mechanism, function of miRNAs and their contribution to lung development and homeostasis. Besides the involvement of miRNAs in pulmonary physiological conditions, there is evidence that abnormal miRNA expression may lead to pathological processes and development of various pulmonary diseases. Next, the review describes current state-of-art on the miRNA expression profiles in smoking-related diseases including lung cancerogenesis, in immune system mediated pulmonary diseases and fibrotic processes in the lung. From the current research it is evident that miRNAs may play role in the posttranscriptional regulation of key genes in human pulmonary diseases. Further studies are, therefore, necessary to explore miRNA expression profiles and their association with target mRNAs in human pulmonary diseases.

  12. Automated force volume image processing for biological samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Polyakov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Atomic force microscopy (AFM has now become a powerful technique for investigating on a molecular level, surface forces, nanomechanical properties of deformable particles, biomolecular interactions, kinetics, and dynamic processes. This paper specifically focuses on the analysis of AFM force curves collected on biological systems, in particular, bacteria. The goal is to provide fully automated tools to achieve theoretical interpretation of force curves on the basis of adequate, available physical models. In this respect, we propose two algorithms, one for the processing of approach force curves and another for the quantitative analysis of retraction force curves. In the former, electrostatic interactions prior to contact between AFM probe and bacterium are accounted for and mechanical interactions operating after contact are described in terms of Hertz-Hooke formalism. Retraction force curves are analyzed on the basis of the Freely Jointed Chain model. For both algorithms, the quantitative reconstruction of force curves is based on the robust detection of critical points (jumps, changes of slope or changes of curvature which mark the transitions between the various relevant interactions taking place between the AFM tip and the studied sample during approach and retraction. Once the key regions of separation distance and indentation are detected, the physical parameters describing the relevant interactions operating in these regions are extracted making use of regression procedure for fitting experiments to theory. The flexibility, accuracy and strength of the algorithms are illustrated with the processing of two force-volume images, which collect a large set of approach and retraction curves measured on a single biological surface. For each force-volume image, several maps are generated, representing the spatial distribution of the searched physical parameters as estimated for each pixel of the force-volume image.

  13. Whole genome association study identifies regions of the bovine genome and biological pathways involved in carcass trait performance in Holstein-Friesian cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Anthony G; Berry, Donagh P; Creevey, Christopher J

    2014-10-01

    Four traits related to carcass performance have been identified as economically important in beef production: carcass weight, carcass fat, carcass conformation of progeny and cull cow carcass weight. Although Holstein-Friesian cattle are primarily utilized for milk production, they are also an important source of meat for beef production and export. Because of this, there is great interest in understanding the underlying genomic structure influencing these traits. Several genome-wide association studies have identified regions of the bovine genome associated with growth or carcass traits, however, little is known about the mechanisms or underlying biological pathways involved. This study aims to detect regions of the bovine genome associated with carcass performance traits (employing a panel of 54,001 SNPs) using measures of genetic merit (as predicted transmitting abilities) for 5,705 Irish Holstein-Friesian animals. Candidate genes and biological pathways were then identified for each trait under investigation. Following adjustment for false discovery (q-value 0.5) with at least one of the four traits. In total, 557 unique bovine genes, which mapped to 426 human orthologs, were within 500kbs of QTL found associated with a trait using the Bayesian approach. Using this information, 24 significantly over-represented pathways were identified across all traits. The most significantly over-represented biological pathway was the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway. A large number of genomic regions putatively associated with bovine carcass traits were detected using two different statistical approaches. Notably, several significant associations were detected in close proximity to genes with a known role in animal growth such as glucagon and leptin. Several biological pathways, including PPAR signaling, were shown to be involved in various aspects of bovine carcass performance. These core genes and biological processes may form the

  14. Ecological and biological factors involved in the transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis in the French Ardennes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guislain, Marie-Hélène; Raoul, Francis; Giraudoux, Patrick; Terrier, Marie-Eve; Froment, Guillaume; Ferté, Hubert; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine

    2008-06-01

    In order to identify the respective importance of the ecological and biological factors involved in the transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis, we estimated grassland vole intermediate host (Microtus sp. and Arvicola terrestris) population densities, in relation to the diet of the definitive host (red fox, Vulpes vulpes) and with the prevalence of E. multilocularis in the fox population. The study was conducted in the Ardennes, north-eastern France, which is an area with a high incidence of alveolar echinococcosis. Surface index methods showed that Microtus was the most abundant intermediate host in the area. Furthermore, Microtus was present in one-third of the 144 faeces and 98 stomach content samples examined and represented more than two-thirds of the rodent occurrences. Red fox predation on Microtus was significantly correlated with Microtus relative abundance. In contrast, the relative abundance of A. terrestris was very low. This species, as well as Clethrionomys glareolus and Apodemus sp., was little consumed. E. multilocularis prevalence in foxes was determined from carcasses and reached 53% (95% confidence interval 45-61%). Intensity of infection varied from 2 to 73,380 worms per fox, with 72% of the sampled worm burden harboured by 8% of the sampled foxes. The selected explanatory variables (sex, year, age class, health and nutritional condition, and season) failed to predict prevalence rate and worm burden. The high prevalence rate in foxes indicates the possibility of intense E. multilocularis transmission, apart from periods, or in landscapes, favourable to large population outbreaks of grassland rodents.

  15. Biological treatment of fish processing wastewater: A case study from Sfax City (Southeastern Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemli, Meryem; Karray, Fatma; Feki, Firas; Loukil, Slim; Mhiri, Najla; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-04-01

    The present work presents a study of the biological treatment of fish processing wastewater at salt concentration of 55 g/L. Wastewater was treated by both continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) during 50 and 100 days, respectively. These biological processes involved salt-tolerant bacteria from natural hypersaline environments at different organic loading rates (OLRs). The phylogenetic analysis of the corresponding excised DGGE bands has demonstrated that the taxonomic affiliation of the most dominant species includes Halomonadaceae and Flavobacteriaceae families of the Proteobacteria (Gamma-proteobacteria class) and the Bacteroidetes phyla, respectively. The results of MBR were better than those of CSTR in the removal of total organic carbon with efficiencies from 97.9% to 98.6%. Nevertheless, salinity with increasing OLR aggravates fouling that requires more cleaning for a membrane in MBR while leads to deterioration of sludge settleability and effluent quality in CSTR. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Sensory processing sensitivity: a review in the light of the evolution of biological responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Elaine N; Aron, Arthur; Jagiellowicz, Jadzia

    2012-08-01

    This article reviews the literature on sensory processing sensitivity (SPS) in light of growing evidence from evolutionary biology that many personality differences in nonhuman species involve being more or less responsive, reactive, flexible, or sensitive to the environment. After briefly defining SPS, it first discusses how biologists studying animal personality have conceptualized this general environmental sensitivity. Second, it reviews relevant previous human personality/temperament work, focusing on crossover interactions (where a trait generates positive or negative outcomes depending on the environment), and traits relevant to specific hypothesized aspects of SPS: inhibition of behavior, sensitivity to stimuli, depth of processing, and emotional/physiological reactivity. Third, it reviews support for the overall SPS model, focusing on development of the Highly Sensitive Person (HSP) Scale as a measure of SPS then on neuroimaging and genetic studies using the scale, all of which bears on the extent to which SPS in humans corresponds to biological responsivity.

  17. Implied Movement in Static Images Reveals Biological Timing Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carlos Nather

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception is adapted toward a better understanding of our own movements than those of non-conspecifics. The present study determined whether time perception is affected by pictures of different species by considering the evolutionary scale. Static (“S” and implied movement (“M” images of a dog, cheetah, chimpanzee, and man were presented to undergraduate students. S and M images of the same species were presented in random order or one after the other (S-M or M-S for two groups of participants. Movement, Velocity, and Arousal semantic scales were used to characterize some properties of the images. Implied movement affected time perception, in which M images were overestimated. The results are discussed in terms of visual motion perception related to biological timing processing that could be established early in terms of the adaptation of humankind to the environment.

  18. EPR imaging of diffusional processes in biologically relevant polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliner, Lawrence J.; Fujii, Hirotada

    Diffusion processes in biological tissue are important problems for noninvasive investigation. As a model study, this work addresses the diffusion of an electrolyte buffer (Krebs) solution containing a nitroxide spin probe into a cylindrical polyacrylamide gel rod. The nitroxide spin density distribution was imaged at 1.6 GHz in gel cross sections at various time intervals for both homogeneous radial diffusion and inhomogeneous diffusion. A one-dimensional radial diffusion constant was calculated for the nitroxide spin probe, TEMPOL, of 3.7 ± 0.7 × 10 -6 cm 2/s at ambient temperature. The EPR spectrometer, using low-field flat-loop surface coils (H. Nishikawa, H. Fujii, and L. J. Berliner, J. Magn. Reson.62, 79 (1985)), showed minimal dielectric or magnetic losses in sensitity for electrolyte vs nondielectric samples.

  19. Gene bionetworks involved in the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of altered mate preference: environmental epigenetics and evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Michael K; Savenkova, Marina I; Zhang, Bin; Gore, Andrea C; Crews, David

    2014-05-16

    Mate preference behavior is an essential first step in sexual selection and is a critical determinant in evolutionary biology. Previously an environmental compound (the fungicide vinclozolin) was found to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of an altered sperm epigenome and modified mate preference characteristics for three generations after exposure of a gestating female. The current study investigated gene networks involved in various regions of the brain that correlated with the altered mate preference behavior in the male and female. Statistically significant correlations of gene clusters and modules were identified to associate with specific mate preference behaviors. This novel systems biology approach identified gene networks (bionetworks) involved in sex-specific mate preference behavior. Observations demonstrate the ability of environmental factors to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of this altered evolutionary biology determinant. Combined observations elucidate the potential molecular control of mate preference behavior and suggests environmental epigenetics can have a role in evolutionary biology.

  20. Embryo fossilization is a biological process mediated by microbial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, Elizabeth C; Schollaert, Kaila L; Nelson, David E; Donoghue, Philip C J; Thomas, Ceri-Wyn; Turner, F Rudolf; Stein, Barry D; Dong, Xiping; Bengtson, Stefan; Huldtgren, Therese; Stampanoni, Marco; Chongyu, Yin; Raff, Rudolf A

    2008-12-09

    Fossilized embryos with extraordinary cellular preservation appear in the Late Neoproterozoic and Cambrian, coincident with the appearance of animal body fossils. It has been hypothesized that microbial processes are responsible for preservation and mineralization of organic tissues. However, the actions of microbes in preservation of embryos have not been demonstrated experimentally. Here, we show that bacterial biofilms assemble rapidly in dead marine embryos and form remarkable pseudomorphs in which the bacterial biofilm replaces and exquisitely models details of cellular organization and structure. The experimental model was the decay of cleavage stage embryos similar in size and morphology to fossil embryos. The data show that embryo preservation takes place in 3 distinct steps: (i) blockage of autolysis by reducing or anaerobic conditions, (ii) rapid formation of microbial biofilms that consume the embryo but form a replica that retains cell organization and morphology, and (iii) bacterially catalyzed mineralization. Major bacterial taxa in embryo decay biofilms were identified by using 16S rDNA sequencing. Decay processes were similar in different taphonomic conditions, but the composition of bacterial populations depended on specific conditions. Experimental taphonomy generates preservation states similar to those in fossil embryos. The data show how fossilization of soft tissues in sediments can be mediated by bacterial replacement and mineralization, providing a foundation for experimentally creating biofilms from defined microbial species to model fossilization as a biological process.

  1. Advancing Microwave Technology for Dehydration Processing of Biologics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellemme, Stephanie L.; Van Vorst, Matthew; Paramore, Elisha

    2013-01-01

    Our prior work has shown that microwave processing can be effective as a method for dehydrating cell-based suspensions in preparation for anhydrous storage, yielding homogenous samples with predictable and reproducible drying times. In the current work an optimized microwave-based drying process was developed that expands upon this previous proof-of-concept. Utilization of a commercial microwave (CEM SAM 255, Matthews, NC) enabled continuous drying at variable low power settings. A new turntable was manufactured from Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW-PE; Grainger, Lake Forest, IL) to provide for drying of up to 12 samples at a time. The new process enabled rapid and simultaneous drying of multiple samples in containment devices suitable for long-term storage and aseptic rehydration of the sample. To determine sample repeatability and consistency of drying within the microwave cavity, a concentration series of aqueous trehalose solutions were dried for specific intervals and water content assessed using Karl Fischer Titration at the end of each processing period. Samples were dried on Whatman S-14 conjugate release filters (Whatman, Maidestone, UK), a glass fiber membrane used currently in clinical laboratories. The filters were cut to size for use in a 13 mm Swinnex® syringe filter holder (Millipore™, Billerica, MA). Samples of 40 μL volume could be dehydrated to the equilibrium moisture content by continuous processing at 20% with excellent sample-to-sample repeatability. The microwave-assisted procedure enabled high throughput, repeatable drying of multiple samples, in a manner easily adaptable for drying a wide array of biological samples. Depending on the tolerance for sample heating, the drying time can be altered by changing the power level of the microwave unit. PMID:24835259

  2. Cytokine Involvement in Biological Inflammation Related to Degenerative Disorders of the Intervertebral Disk: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geer, Christopher M

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this narrative literature review is to discuss the literature regarding the potential role that cytokines play in degenerative disk disease. The inclusion criteria were studies that used inflammatory mediators in advancing disk disease processes. Research studies were limited to the last 3 decades that had free full-text available online in English. Exclusion criteria were review articles and articles pertaining to temporomandibular joints and other joints of the body other than the intervertebral disk. The following databases were searched: PubMed, EBSCOhost, and Google Scholar through March 13, 2017. A total of 82 studies were included in this review. The papers were reviewed for complex mechanisms behind the degenerative cascade, emphasizing the role of proinflammatory cytokines, which may be instrumental in processes of inflammation, neurologic pain, and disk degeneration. Interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor α were among the more notable cytokines involved in this cascade. Because monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 stimulates and activates macrophages in the event of infiltration, additional proinflammatory cytokines are released to act on molecules to promote blood and nerve ingrowth, resulting in pain signaling and tissue degradation. Excessive inflammation and/or tissue damage initiates a pathologic imbalance between anabolic and catabolic processes. This literature review describes how inflammatory and biochemical changes may trigger disk degeneration. Proinflammatory cytokines stimulate microvascular blood and nerve ingrowth, resulting in pain signaling and tissue degradation. This may sensitize a person to chemical and/or mechanical stimuli, contributing to severe low back pain.

  3. Involvement of Nitric Oxide on Bothropoides insularis Venom Biological Effects on Murine Macrophages In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon R P P B de Menezes

    Full Text Available Viperidae venom has several local and systemic effects, such as pain, edema, inflammation, kidney failure and coagulopathy. Additionally, bothropic venom and its isolated components directly interfere on cellular metabolism, causing alterations such as cell death and proliferation. Inflammatory cells are particularly involved in pathological envenomation mechanisms due to their capacity of releasing many mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO. NO has many effects on cell viability and it is associated to the development of inflammation and tissue damage caused by Bothrops and Bothropoides venom. Bothropoides insularis is a snake found only in Queimada Grande Island, which has markedly toxic venom. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the biological effects of Bothropoides insularis venom (BiV on RAW 264.7 cells and assess NO involvement. The venom was submitted to colorimetric assays to identify the presence of some enzymatic components. We observed that BiV induced H2O2 production and showed proteolytic and phospholipasic activities. RAW 264.7 murine macrophages were incubated with different concentrations of BiV and then cell viability was assessed by MTT reduction assay after 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours of incubation. A time- and concentration-dependent effect was observed, with a tendency to cell proliferation at lower BiV concentrations and cell death at higher concentrations. The cytotoxic effect was confirmed after lactate dehydrogenase (LDH measurement in the supernatant from the experimental groups. Flow cytometry analyses revealed that necrosis is the main cell death pathway caused by BiV. Also, BiV induced NO release. The inhibition of both proliferative and cytotoxic effects with L-NAME were demonstrated, indicating that NO is important for these effects. Finally, BiV induced an increase in iNOS expression. Altogether, these results demonstrate that B. insularis venom have proliferative and cytotoxic effects on macrophages, with

  4. Ontology of physics for biology: representing physical dependencies as a basis for biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Daniel L; Neal, Maxwell L; Bookstein, Fred L; Gennari, John H

    2013-12-02

    In prior work, we presented the Ontology of Physics for Biology (OPB) as a computational ontology for use in the annotation and representations of biophysical knowledge encoded in repositories of physics-based biosimulation models. We introduced OPB:Physical entity and OPB:Physical property classes that extend available spatiotemporal representations of physical entities and processes to explicitly represent the thermodynamics and dynamics of physiological processes. Our utilitarian, long-term aim is to develop computational tools for creating and querying formalized physiological knowledge for use by multiscale "physiome" projects such as the EU's Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) and NIH's Virtual Physiological Rat (VPR). Here we describe the OPB:Physical dependency taxonomy of classes that represent of the laws of classical physics that are the "rules" by which physical properties of physical entities change during occurrences of physical processes. For example, the fluid analog of Ohm's law (as for electric currents) is used to describe how a blood flow rate depends on a blood pressure gradient. Hooke's law (as in elastic deformations of springs) is used to describe how an increase in vascular volume increases blood pressure. We classify such dependencies according to the flow, transformation, and storage of thermodynamic energy that occurs during processes governed by the dependencies. We have developed the OPB and annotation methods to represent the meaning-the biophysical semantics-of the mathematical statements of physiological analysis and the biophysical content of models and datasets. Here we describe and discuss our approach to an ontological representation of physical laws (as dependencies) and properties as encoded for the mathematical analysis of biophysical processes.

  5. Parent involvement in schooling processes: a case study in an Aceh school

    OpenAIRE

    Dwi Wulandary; Herlisa

    2017-01-01

    The research topic of parent involvement in schooling processes in an Aceh school is examined through qualitative case study and interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). The study focuses on exploring the parents' understanding of their involvement in schooling processes based on the six typologies of Epstein. Parent involvement in an Aceh school is a crucial issue which needs to be studied. This research provides an analysis of parents' understanding of their involvement in schooling ...

  6. Improving the reviewing process in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossman, G. D.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available I discuss current issues in reviewing and editorial practices in ecology and evolutionary biology and suggest possible solutions for current problems. The reviewing crisis is unlikely to change unless steps are taken by journals to provide greater inclusiveness and incentives to reviewers. In addition, both journals and institutions should reduce their emphasis on publication numbers (least publishable units and impact factors and focus instead on article synthesis and quality which will require longer publications. Academic and research institutions should consider reviewing manuscripts and editorial positions an important part of a researcher’s professional activities and reward them accordingly. Rewarding reviewers either monetarily or via other incentives such as free journal subscriptions may encourage participation in the reviewing process for both profit and non–profit journals. Reviewer performance will likely be improved by measures that increase inclusiveness, such as sending reviews and decision letters to reviewers. Journals may be able to evaluate the efficacy of their reviewing process by comparing citations of rejected but subsequently published papers with those published within the journal at similar times. Finally, constructive reviews: 1 identify important shortcomings and suggest solutions when possible, 2 distinguish trivial from non–trivial problems, and 3 include editor’s evaluations of the reviews including identification of trivial versus substantive comments (i.e., those that must be addressed.

  7. Exploiting graphics processing units for computational biology and bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Joshua L; Sinnott-Armstrong, Nicholas A; Moore, Jason H

    2010-09-01

    Advances in the video gaming industry have led to the production of low-cost, high-performance graphics processing units (GPUs) that possess more memory bandwidth and computational capability than central processing units (CPUs), the standard workhorses of scientific computing. With the recent release of generalpurpose GPUs and NVIDIA's GPU programming language, CUDA, graphics engines are being adopted widely in scientific computing applications, particularly in the fields of computational biology and bioinformatics. The goal of this article is to concisely present an introduction to GPU hardware and programming, aimed at the computational biologist or bioinformaticist. To this end, we discuss the primary differences between GPU and CPU architecture, introduce the basics of the CUDA programming language, and discuss important CUDA programming practices, such as the proper use of coalesced reads, data types, and memory hierarchies. We highlight each of these topics in the context of computing the all-pairs distance between instances in a dataset, a common procedure in numerous disciplines of scientific computing. We conclude with a runtime analysis of the GPU and CPU implementations of the all-pairs distance calculation. We show our final GPU implementation to outperform the CPU implementation by a factor of 1700.

  8. The method validation step of biological dosimetry accreditation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, L.; Voisin, P.A.; Guillou, A.C.; Busset, A.; Gregoire, E.; Buard, V.; Delbos, M.; Voisin, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    One of the missions of the Laboratory of Biological Dosimetry (L.D.B.) of the Institute for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (I.R.S.N.) is to assess the radiological dose after an accidental overexposure suspicion to ionising radiation, by using radio-induced changes of some biological parameters. The 'gold standard' is the yield of dicentrics observed in patients lymphocytes, and this yield is converted in dose using dose effect relationships. This method is complementary to clinical and physical dosimetry, for medical team in charge of the patients. To obtain a formal recognition of its operational activity, the laboratory decided three years ago, to require an accreditation, by following the recommendations of both 17025 General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories and 19238 Performance criteria for service laboratories performing biological dosimetry by cyto-genetics. Diagnostics, risks analysis were realized to control the whole analysis process leading to documents writing. Purchases, personnel department, vocational training were also included in the quality system. Audits were very helpful to improve the quality system. One specificity of this technique is that it is not normalized therefore apart from quality management aspects, several technical points needed some validations. An inventory of potentially influent factors was carried out. To estimate their real effect on the yield of dicentrics, a Placket-Burman experimental design was conducted. The effect of seven parameters was tested: the BUdr (bromodeoxyuridine), PHA (phytohemagglutinin) and colcemid concentration, the culture duration, the incubator temperature, the blood volume and the medium volume. The chosen values were calculated according to the uncertainties on the way they were measured i.e. pipettes, thermometers, test tubes. None of the factors has a significant impact on the yield of dicentrics. Therefore the uncertainty linked to their use was considered as

  9. Performance of IFAS wastewater treatment processes for biological phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwiriyarat, T; Randall, C W

    2005-10-01

    Integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) is a promising process for the enhancement of nitrification and denitrification in conventional activated sludge systems that need to be upgraded for biological nutrient removal (BNR), particularly when they have space limitations or need modifications that will require large monetary expenses. Several studies have reported successful implementations of IFAS at temperate zone wastewater treatment facilities, typically by placement of fixed film media into aerobic zones. However, nearly all of the implementations have not included enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in the upgraded systems. This is possibly because the treatment plants have been operated at low mixed liquor mean cell residence times (MCRTs), and EBPR would wash out of the systems at the low temperatures encountered, making it difficult to maintain EBPR. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the incorporation of EBPR into IFAS systems, and study the interactions between the fixed biomass and the mixed liquor suspended solids with respect to substrate competition and nutrient removal efficiencies. Three pilot-scale UCT/VIP configuration systems were used, one as a control and the other two with Bioweb media integrated into some of the anoxic and aerobic reactors. The systems were operated at different MCRTs, and influent COD/TP ratios, and with split influent flows. The experimental results confirmed that EBPR could be incorporated successfully into IFAS systems, but the redistribution of biomass resulting from the integration of fixed film media, and the competition of organic substrate between EBPR and denitrification would affect performances. Also, the integration of fixed film media into the anoxic reactors affected performances differently from media in aerobic reactors.

  10. Molecular change signal-to-noise criteria for interpreting experiments involving exposure of biological systems to weakly interacting electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Timothy E; Weaver, James C

    2005-05-01

    We describe an approach to aiding the design and interpretation of experiments involving biological effects of weakly interacting electromagnetic fields that range from steady (dc) to microwave frequencies. We propose that if known biophysical mechanisms cannot account for an inferred, underlying molecular change signal-to-noise ratio, (S/N)gen, of a observed result, then there are two interpretation choices: (1) there is an unknown biophysical mechanism with stronger coupling between the field exposure and the ongoing biochemical process, or (2) the experiment is responding to something other than the field exposure. Our approach is based on classical detection theory, the recognition that weakly interacting fields cannot break chemical bonds, and the consequence that such fields can only alter rates of ongoing, metabolically driven biochemical reactions, and transport processes. The approach includes both fundamental chemical noise (molecular shot noise) and other sources of competing chemical change, to be compared quantitatively to the field induced change for the basic case that the field alters a single step in a biochemical network. Consistent with pharmacology and toxicology, we estimate the molecular dose (mass associated with field induced molecular change per mass tissue) resulting from illustrative low frequency field exposures for the biophysical mechanism of voltage gated channels. For perspective, we then consider electric field-mediated delivery of small molecules across human skin and into individual cells. Specifically, we consider the examples of iontophoretic and electroporative delivery of fentanyl through skin and electroporative delivery of bleomycin into individual cells. The total delivered amount corresponds to a molecular change signal and the delivery variability corresponds to generalized chemical noise. Viewed broadly, biological effects due to nonionizing fields may include animal navigation, medical applications, and environmental

  11. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.

    1994-10-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop an advanced, clean coal biogasification (MicGAS) Process. The objectives of the research during FY 1993--94 were to: (1) enhance kinetics of methane production (biogasification, biomethanation) from Texas lignite (TxL) by the Mic-1 consortium isolated and developed at ARCTECH, (2) increase coal solids loading, (3) optimize medium composition, and (4) reduce retention time. A closer analysis of the results described here indicate that biomethanation of TxL at >5% solids loading is feasible through appropriate development of nutrient medium and further adaptation of the microorganisms involved in this process. Further understanding of the inhibitory factors and some biochemical manipulations to overcome those inhibitions will hasten the process considerably. Results are discussed on the following: products of biomethanation and enhance of methane production including: bacterial adaptation; effect of nutrient amendment substitutes; effects of solids loading; effect of initial pH of the culture medium; effect of hydrogen donors and carbon balance.

  12. Posttranslational modifications of desmin and their implication in biological processes and pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Daniel L; Paulin, Denise; Mericskay, Mathias; Li, Zhenlin

    2014-01-01

    Desmin, the muscle-specific intermediate filament, is involved in myofibrillar myopathies, dilated cardiomyopathy and muscle wasting. Desmin is the target of posttranslational modifications (PTMs) such as phosphorylation, ADP-ribosylation and ubiquitylation as well as nonenzymatic modifications such as glycation, oxidation and nitration. Several PTM target residues and their corresponding modifying enzymes have been discovered in human and nonhuman desmin. The major effect of phosphorylation and ADP-ribosylation is the disassembly of desmin filaments, while ubiquitylation of desmin leads to its degradation. The regulation of the desmin filament network by phosphorylation and ADP-ribosylation was found to be implicated in several major biological processes such as myogenesis, myoblast fusion, muscle contraction, muscle atrophy, cell division and possibly desmin interactions with its binding partners. Phosphorylation of desmin is also implicated in many forms of desmin-related myopathies (desminopathies). In this review, we summarize the findings on desmin PTMs and their implication in biological processes and pathologies, and discuss the current knowledge on the regulation of the desmin network by PTMs. We conclude that the desmin filament network can be seen as an intricate scaffold for muscle cell structure and biological processes and that its dynamics can be affected by PTMs. There are now precise tools to investigate PTMs and visualize cellular structures that have been underexploited in the study of desminopathies. Future studies should focus on these aspects.

  13. Population dynamics of bacteria involved in enhanced biological phosphorus removal in Danish wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielczarek, Artur Tomasz; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2013-03-15

    The enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process is increasingly popular as a sustainable method for removal of phosphorus (P) from wastewater. This study consisted of a comprehensive three-year investigation of the identity and population dynamics of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) in 28 Danish municipal wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied to quantify ten probe-defined populations of PAO and GAO that in total constituted a large fraction (30% on average) of the entire microbial community targeted by the EUBmix probes. Two PAO genera, Accumulibacter and Tetrasphaera, were very abundant in all EBPR plants (average of 3.7% and 27% of all bacteria, respectively), and their abundance was relatively stable in the Danish full-scale plants without clear temporal variations. GAOs were occasionally present in some plants (Competibacter in 11 plants, Defluviicoccus in 6 plants) and were consistent in only a few plants. This shows that these were not core species in the EBPR communities. The total GAO abundance was always lower than that of Accumulibacter. In plants without EBPR design, the abundance of PAO and GAO was significantly lower. Competibacter correlated in general with high fraction of industrial wastewater. In specific plants Accumulibacter correlated with high C/P ratio of the wastewater and Tetrasphaera with high organic loading. Interestingly, the relative microbial composition of the PAO/GAO species was unique to each plant over time, which gives a characteristic plant-specific "fingerprint". Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biological treatment processes for PCB contaminated soil at a site in Newfoundland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punt, M.; Cooper, D.; Velicogna, D.; Mohn, W.; Reimer, K.; Parsons, D.; Patel, T.; Daugulis, A.

    2002-01-01

    SAIC Canada is conducting a study under the direction of a joint research and development contract between Public Works and Government Services Canada and Environment Canada to examine the biological options for treating PCB contaminated soil found at a containment cell at a former U.S. Military Base near Stephenville, Newfoundland. In particular, the study examines the feasibility of using indigenous microbes for the degradation of PCBs. The first phase of the study involved the testing of the microbes in a bioreactor. The second phase, currently underway, involves a complete evaluation of possible microbes for PCB degradation. It also involves further study into the biological process options for the site. Suitable indigenous and non-indigenous microbes for PCB dechlorination and biphenyl degradation are being identified and evaluated. In addition, the effectiveness and economics of microbial treatment in a conventional bioreactor is being evaluated. The conventional bioreactor used in this study is the two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) using a biopile process. Results thus far will be used to help Public Works and Government Services Canada to choose the most appropriate remedial technology. Preliminary results suggest that the use of soil classification could reduce the volume of soil requiring treatment. The soil in the containment cell contains microorganisms that could grow in isolation on biphenyl, naphthalene and potentially Aroclor 1254. Isolated native microbes were inoculated in the TPPB for growth. The TPPB was also run successfully under anaerobic conditions. Future work will involve lab-scale evaluation of microbes for PCB dechlorination and biphenyl degradation using both indigenous and non-indigenous microbes. The next phase of study may also involve field-scale demonstration of treatment methods. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  15. Identification of lncRNAs involved in biological regulation in early age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu W

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wei Zhu,1,* Yi-Fang Meng,1,* Qian Xing,1 Jian-Jun Tao,1 Jiong Lu,1 Yan Wu2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Changshu No. 2 People’s Hospital, Changshu, China; 2Department of Ophthalmology, First Hospital Affiliated to Soochow University, Suzhou, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is one of the most common causes of adult blindness in developed countries. However, the role of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs in the development and progression of early AMD is unclear.Methods: We established the lncRNA profile of early AMD by reannotation of microarrays from the gene expression omnibus database. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the expression of selected lncRNAs.Results: The expression profiles of 9 cases of AMD and 7 controls were studied. A total of 266 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were detected (94 upregulated and 172 downregulated. Among all the DEGs, 64 were lncRNAs. Advanced bioinformatics analyses demonstrated that differentially expressed lncRNAs could play significant roles in visual perception, sensory perception of light stimulus, and cognition. The pathway analyses showed that the two most significantly influenced Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways were those of phototransduction and purine metabolism. By the analyses of the key lncRNAs, it was found that RP11-234O6.2 was downregulated in the aging retinal pigment epithelium (RPE cellular model. Exogenous RP11-234O6.2 treatment led to increased cell viability and improved apoptosis but it did not affect the cell migration ability of aging RPE cells.Conclusion: This study indicated that lncRNAs are differentially expressed in early AMD and may produce important regulative effects. An lncRNA, RP11-234O6.2, might be involved in the biological regulation of early AMD and have therapeutic potential. Keywords: age-related macular degeneration, lncRNAs, microarray

  16. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: chemical interactions of primary biological aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Deguillaume

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of primary biological aerosols (PBA on atmospheric chemistry and vice versa through microbiological and chemical properties and processes. Several studies have shown that PBA represent a significant fraction of air particulate matter and hence affect the microstructure and water uptake of aerosol particles. Moreover, airborne micro-organisms, namely fungal spores and bacteria, can transform chemical constituents of the atmosphere by metabolic activity. Recent studies have emphasized the viability of bacteria and metabolic degradation of organic substances in cloud water. On the other hand, the viability and metabolic activity of airborne micro-organisms depend strongly on physical and chemical atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure, radiation, pH value and nutrient concentrations. In spite of recent advances, however, our knowledge of the microbiological and chemical interactions of PBA in the atmosphere is rather limited. Further targeted investigations combining laboratory experiments, field measurements, and modelling studies will be required to characterize the chemical feedbacks, microbiological activities at the air/snow/water interface supplied to the atmosphere.

  17. Exploring Biological Motion Processing in Parkinson's Disease Using Temporal Dilation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihua Cao

    Full Text Available Biological motion (BM perception is the compelling ability of the visual system to perceive complex animated movements effortlessly and promptly. A recent study has shown that BM can automatically lengthen perceived temporal duration independent of global configuration. The present study aimed mainly to investigate this temporal dilation effect of BM signals in Parkinson's disease (PD patients. We used the temporal dilation effect as an implicit measure of visual processing of BM. In all, 32 PD patients (under off-therapy conditions and 32 healthy controls (HCs participated in our study. In each trial, an upright BM sequence and an inverted BM sequence were presented within an interval in the center of the screen. We tested both canonical and scrambled BM sequences; the scrambled ones were generated by disturbing the global configuration of the canonical ones but preserving exactly the same local motion components. Observers were required to make a verbal two-alternative forced choice response to indicate which interval (the first or the second appeared longer. Statistical analyses were conducted on the points of subjective equality (PSEs. We found that the temporal dilation effect was significantly reduced for PD patients compared with HCs in both canonical and scrambled BM conditions. Moreover, no temporal dilation effects of scrambled BM were shown in both early- and late-stage PD patients, while the temporal dilation effect of canonical BM was relatively preserved in the early stages.

  18. Crowdsourcing and curation: perspectives from biology and natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, Lynette; Fort, Karën; Boué, Stéphanie; Kyrpides, Nikos; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Cohen, Kevin Bretonnel

    2016-01-01

    Crowdsourcing is increasingly utilized for performing tasks in both natural language processing and biocuration. Although there have been many applications of crowdsourcing in these fields, there have been fewer high-level discussions of the methodology and its applicability to biocuration. This paper explores crowdsourcing for biocuration through several case studies that highlight different ways of leveraging 'the crowd'; these raise issues about the kind(s) of expertise needed, the motivations of participants, and questions related to feasibility, cost and quality. The paper is an outgrowth of a panel session held at BioCreative V (Seville, September 9-11, 2015). The session consisted of four short talks, followed by a discussion. In their talks, the panelists explored the role of expertise and the potential to improve crowd performance by training; the challenge of decomposing tasks to make them amenable to crowdsourcing; and the capture of biological data and metadata through community editing.Database URL: http://www.mitre.org/publications/technical-papers/crowdsourcing-and-curation-perspectives. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Preliminary degradation process study of infectious biological waste in a 5 k W thermal plasma equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xochihua S M, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    This work is a preliminary study of infectious biological waste degradation process by thermal plasma and was made in Thermal Plasma Applications Laboratory of Environmental Studies Department of the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). Infectious biological waste degradation process is realized by using samples such polyethylene, cotton, glass, etc., but the present study scope is to analyze polyethylene degradation process with mass and energy balances involved. Degradation method is realized as follow: a polyethylene sample is put in an appropriated crucible localized inside a pyrolysis reactor chamber, the plasma jet is projected to the sample, by the pyrolysis phenomena the sample is degraded into its constitutive particles: carbon and hydrogen. Air was utilized as a recombination gas in order to obtain the higher percent of CO 2 if amount of O 2 is greater in the recombination gas, the CO generation is reduced. The effluent gases of exhaust pyrolysis reactor through are passed through a heat exchanger to get cooled gases, the temperature water used is 15 Centigrade degrees. Finally the gases was tried into absorption tower with water as an absorbent fluid. Thermal plasma degradation process is a very promising technology, but is necessary to develop engineering process area to avail all advantages of thermal plasma. (Author)

  20. Modeling and Compensatory Processes Underlying Involvement in Child Care among Kibbutz-Reared Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Ruth; Bassi, Liat

    2012-01-01

    This study examined modeling and compensatory processes underlying the effects of an early paternal model on father involvement in child care. Drawing on social learning theory, it was hypothesized that father-son relationships would moderate the association between a father's involvement and his own father's involvement. A sample of 136 kibbutz…

  1. Brain network involved in visual processing of movement stimuli used in upper limb robotic training: an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nocchi Federico

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential of robot-mediated therapy and virtual reality in neurorehabilitation is becoming of increasing importance. However, there is limited information, using neuroimaging, on the neural networks involved in training with these technologies. This study was intended to detect the brain network involved in the visual processing of movement during robotic training. The main aim was to investigate the existence of a common cerebral network able to assimilate biological (human upper limb and non-biological (abstract object movements, hence testing the suitability of the visual non-biological feedback provided by the InMotion2 Robot. Methods A visual functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI task was administered to 22 healthy subjects. The task required observation and retrieval of motor gestures and of the visual feedback used in robotic training. Functional activations of both biological and non-biological movements were examined to identify areas activated in both conditions, along with differential activity in upper limb vs. abstract object trials. Control of response was also tested by administering trials with congruent and incongruent reaching movements. Results The observation of upper limb and abstract object movements elicited similar patterns of activations according to a caudo-rostral pathway for the visual processing of movements (including specific areas of the occipital, temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes. Similarly, overlapping activations were found for the subsequent retrieval of the observed movement. Furthermore, activations of frontal cortical areas were associated with congruent trials more than with the incongruent ones. Conclusions This study identified the neural pathway associated with visual processing of movement stimuli used in upper limb robot-mediated training and investigated the brain’s ability to assimilate abstract object movements with human motor gestures. In both conditions

  2. Production of hydrogen using an anaerobic biological process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Robert; Pelter, Libbie S.; Patterson, John A.

    2016-11-29

    Various embodiments of the present invention pertain to methods for biological production of hydrogen. More specifically, embodiments of the present invention pertain to a modular energy system and related methods for producing hydrogen using organic waste as a feed stock.

  3. A metabolic model for members of the genus Tetrasphaera involved in enhanced biological phosphorus removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Rikke; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Saunders, Aaron Marc

    2013-01-01

    Members of the genus Tetrasphaera are considered to be putative polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from wastewater. Although abundant in Danish full-scale wastewater EBPR plants, how similar their ecophysiology is to ‘Candidatus Accumuliba...

  4. Human biological monitoring for exposure assessment in response to an incident involving hazardous materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Brederode, N.E. van; Bos, P.M.J.; Nijhuis, N.J.; Weerdt, R.H. van de; Woude, I. van der; Eggens, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Biological monitoring in humans (HBM) is widely used in the field of occupational and environmental health. In the situation of an unexpected release of hazardous materials HBM may contribute to the medical support and treatment of exposed individuals from the general population or of emergency

  5. Chemical and biological agent incident response and decision process for civilian and public sector facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raber, Ellen; Hirabayashi, Joy M; Mancieri, Saverio P; Jin, Alfred L; Folks, Karen J; Carlsen, Tina M; Estacio, Pete

    2002-04-01

    In the event of a terrorist attack or catastrophic release involving potential chemical and/or biological warfare agents, decisionmakers will need to make timely and informed choices about whether, or how, to respond. The objective of this article is to provide a decision framework to specify initial and follow-up actions, including possible decontamination, and to address long-term health and environmental issues. This decision framework consists of four phases, beginning with the identification of an incident and ending with verification that cleanup and remediation criteria have been met. The flowchart takes into account both differences and similarities among potential agents or toxins at key points in the decision-making process. Risk evaluation and communication of information to the public must be done throughout the process to ensure a successful effort.

  6. Students' Ability to Solve Process-Diagram Problems in Secondary Biology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams are important tools in biology for explaining processes such as protein synthesis, compound cycles and the like. The aim of the present study was to measure the ability to solve process-diagram problems in biology and its relationship with prior knowledge, spatial ability and working memory. For this purpose, we developed a test…

  7. Students’ Ability to Solve Process-diagram Problems in Secondary Biology Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragten, M.; Admiraal, W.; Rijlaarsdam, G.

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams are important tools in biology for explaining processes such as protein synthesis, compound cycles and the like. The aim of the present study was to measure the ability to solve process-diagram problems in biology and its relationship with prior knowledge, spatial ability and

  8. Biological processing of dinuclear ruthenium complexes in eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Heimann, Kirsten; Dinh, Xuyen Thi; Keene, F Richard; Collins, J Grant

    2016-10-20

    The biological processing - mechanism of cellular uptake, effects on the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial membranes, intracellular sites of localisation and induction of reactive oxygen species - of two dinuclear polypyridylruthenium(ii) complexes has been examined in three eukaryotic cells lines. Flow cytometry was used to determine the uptake of [{Ru(phen)2}2{μ-bb12}](4+) (Rubb12) and [Ru(phen)2(μ-bb7)Ru(tpy)Cl](3+) {Rubb7-Cl, where phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, tpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine and bbn = bis[4(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)]-1,n-alkane} in baby hamster kidney (BHK), human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) and liver carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines. The results demonstrated that the major uptake mechanism for Rubb12 and Rubb7-Cl was active transport, although with a significant contribution from carrier-assisted diffusion for Rubb12 and passive diffusion for Rubb7-Cl. Flow cytometry coupled with Annexin V/TO-PRO-3 double-staining was used to compare cell death by membrane damage or apoptosis. Rubb12 induced significant direct membrane damage, particularly with HepG2 cells, while Rubb7-Cl caused considerably less membrane damage but induced greater levels of apoptosis. Confocal microscopy, coupled with JC-1 assays, demonstrated that Rubb12 depolarises the mitochondrial membrane, whereas Rubb7-Cl had a much smaller affect. Cellular localisation experiments indicated that Rubb12 did not accumulate in the mitochondria, whereas significant mitochondrial accumulation was observed for Rubb7-Cl. The effect of Rubb12 and Rubb7-Cl on intracellular superoxide dismutase activity showed that the ruthenium complexes could induce cell death via a reactive oxygen species-mediated pathway. The results of this study demonstrate that Rubb12 predominantly kills eukaryotic cells by damaging the cytoplasmic membrane. As this dinuclear ruthenium complex has been previously shown to exhibit greater toxicity towards bacteria than eukaryotic cells, the results of the present study suggest that

  9. Simulating biological processes: stochastic physics from whole cells to colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnest, Tyler M.; Cole, John A.; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2018-05-01

    The last few decades have revealed the living cell to be a crowded spatially heterogeneous space teeming with biomolecules whose concentrations and activities are governed by intrinsically random forces. It is from this randomness, however, that a vast array of precisely timed and intricately coordinated biological functions emerge that give rise to the complex forms and behaviors we see in the biosphere around us. This seemingly paradoxical nature of life has drawn the interest of an increasing number of physicists, and recent years have seen stochastic modeling grow into a major subdiscipline within biological physics. Here we review some of the major advances that have shaped our understanding of stochasticity in biology. We begin with some historical context, outlining a string of important experimental results that motivated the development of stochastic modeling. We then embark upon a fairly rigorous treatment of the simulation methods that are currently available for the treatment of stochastic biological models, with an eye toward comparing and contrasting their realms of applicability, and the care that must be taken when parameterizing them. Following that, we describe how stochasticity impacts several key biological functions, including transcription, translation, ribosome biogenesis, chromosome replication, and metabolism, before considering how the functions may be coupled into a comprehensive model of a ‘minimal cell’. Finally, we close with our expectation for the future of the field, focusing on how mesoscopic stochastic methods may be augmented with atomic-scale molecular modeling approaches in order to understand life across a range of length and time scales.

  10. Potential biological hazard of importance for HACCP plans in fresh fish processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltić Milan Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP system is scientifically based and focused on problem prevention in order to assure the produced food products are safe to consume. Prerequisite programs such as GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices, GHP (Good Hygienic Practices are an essential foundation for the development and implementation of successful HACCP plans. One of the preliminary tasks in the development of HACCP plan is to conduct a hazard analysis. The process of conducting a hazard analysis involves two stages. The first is hazard identification and the second stage is the HACCP team decision which potential hazards must be addressed in the HACCP plan. By definition, the HACCP concept covers all types of potential food safety hazards: biological, chemical and physical, whether they are naturally occurring in the food, contributed by the environment or generated by a mistake in the manufacturing process. In raw fish processing, potential significant biological hazards which are reasonably likely to cause illness of humans are parasites (Trematodae, Nematodae, Cestodae, bacteria (Salmonella, E. coli, Vibrio parahemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, Staphyloccocus aureus, viruses (Norwalk virus, Entero virusesi, Hepatitis A, Rotovirus and bio-toxins. Upon completion of hazard analysis, any measure(s that are used to control the hazard(s should be described.

  11. Nitrous oxide production from reactive nitrification intermediates: a concerted action of biological and chemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Nicolas; Heil, Jannis; Liu, Shurong; Wei, Jing; Vereecken, Harry

    2017-04-01

    This contribution tries to open up a new perspective on biogeochemical N2O production processes, taking the term bio-geo-chemistry literally. What if a major part of N2O is produced from reactive intermediates of microbiological N turnover processes ("bio…") leaking out of the involved microorganisms into the soil ("…geo…") and then reacting chemically ("…chemistry") with the surrounding matrix? There are at least two major reactive N intermediates that might play a significant role in these coupled biological-chemical reactions, i.e. hydroxylamine (NH2OH) and nitrite (NO2-), both of which are produced during nitrification under oxic conditions, while NO2- is also produced during denitrification under anoxic conditions. Furthermore, NH2OH is assumed to be also a potential intermediate of DNRA and/or anammox. First, this contribution will summarize information about several chemical reactions involving NH2OH and NO2- leading to the formation of N2O. These abiotic reactions are: reactions of NO2- with reduced metal cations, nitrosation reactions of NO2- and soil organic matter (SOM), the reaction between NO2- and NH2OH, and the oxidation of NH2OH by oxidized metal ions. While these reactions can occur over a broad range of soil characteristics, they are ignored in most current N trace gas studies in favor of biological processes only. Disentangling microbiological from purely chemical N2O production is further complicated by the fact that the chemically formed N2O is either undiscernible from N2O produced during nitrification, or shows an intermediate 15N site preference between that of N2O from nitrification and denitrification, respectively. Results from experiments with live and sterilized soil samples, with artificial soil mixtures and with phenolic lignin decomposition model compounds will be presented that demonstrate the potential contribution of these abiotic processes to soil N trace gas emissions, given a substantial leakage rate of these reactive

  12. On the selection and validation of biological treatment processes. The GDF experience; Le choix et la validation des procedes de traitement biologique. L`experience de GDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druelle, V. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    The biological treatment process was selected by Gaz de France (GDF), the French national gas utility, for the de-pollution of an old gas works where the main pollutants are coal tars containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Microorganism-based biological treatment techniques may involve bio-reactors, static ground knolls (where oxygen is brought through drains) and dynamic knolls (where oxygenation is carried out by turning up the soil). Issues on sampling, sorting, process testing, site preparation, process control, etc. are reviewed

  13. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of heterogeneous catalytic ozonation and biological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Haifeng; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Hou, Baolin; Zhao, Qian

    2014-08-01

    Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW) was investigated employing heterogeneous catalytic ozonation integrated with anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR) and biological aerated filter (BAF) process. The results indicated that catalytic ozonation with the prepared catalyst (i.e. MnOx/SBAC, sewage sludge was converted into sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded manganese oxides) significantly enhanced performance of pollutants removal by generated hydroxyl radicals. The effluent of catalytic ozonation process was more biodegradable and less toxic than that in ozonation alone. Meanwhile, ANMBBR-BAF showed efficient capacity of pollutants removal in treatment of the effluent of catalytic ozonation at a shorter reaction time, allowing the discharge limits to be met. Therefore, the integrated process with efficient, economical and sustainable advantages was suitable for advanced treatment of real biologically pretreated CGW. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. BIOLOGICALLY ENHANCED OXYGEN TRANSFER IN THE ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS (JOURNAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biologically enhanced oxgyen transfer has been a hypothesis to explain observed oxygen transfer rates in activated sludge systems that were well above that predicted from aerator clean-water testing. The enhanced oxygen transfer rates were based on tests using BOD bottle oxygen ...

  15. Activated Sludge. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe, Owen K.; Klopping, Paul H.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a seven-lesson unit on activated sludge. Topic areas addressed in the lessons include: (1) activated sludge concepts and components (including aeration tanks, aeration systems, clarifiers, and sludge pumping systems); (2) activated sludge variations and modes; (3) biological nature of activated…

  16. Periodicity computation of generalized mathematical biology problems involving delay differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasim Mohammed, M; Ibrahim, Rabha W; Ahmad, M Z

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we consider a low initial population model. Our aim is to study the periodicity computation of this model by using neutral differential equations, which are recognized in various studies including biology. We generalize the neutral Rayleigh equation for the third-order by exploiting the model of fractional calculus, in particular the Riemann-Liouville differential operator. We establish the existence and uniqueness of a periodic computational outcome. The technique depends on the continuation theorem of the coincidence degree theory. Besides, an example is presented to demonstrate the finding.

  17. Building the process-drug–side effect network to discover the relationship between biological Processes and side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Side effects are unwanted responses to drug treatment and are important resources for human phenotype information. The recent development of a database on side effects, the side effect resource (SIDER), is a first step in documenting the relationship between drugs and their side effects. It is, however, insufficient to simply find the association of drugs with biological processes; that relationship is crucial because drugs that influence biological processes can have an impact on phenotype. Therefore, knowing which processes respond to drugs that influence the phenotype will enable more effective and systematic study of the effect of drugs on phenotype. To the best of our knowledge, the relationship between biological processes and side effects of drugs has not yet been systematically researched. Methods We propose 3 steps for systematically searching relationships between drugs and biological processes: enrichment scores (ES) calculations, t-score calculation, and threshold-based filtering. Subsequently, the side effect-related biological processes are found by merging the drug-biological process network and the drug-side effect network. Evaluation is conducted in 2 ways: first, by discerning the number of biological processes discovered by our method that co-occur with Gene Ontology (GO) terms in relation to effects extracted from PubMed records using a text-mining technique and second, determining whether there is improvement in performance by limiting response processes by drugs sharing the same side effect to frequent ones alone. Results The multi-level network (the process-drug-side effect network) was built by merging the drug-biological process network and the drug-side effect network. We generated a network of 74 drugs-168 side effects-2209 biological process relation resources. The preliminary results showed that the process-drug-side effect network was able to find meaningful relationships between biological processes and side effects in an

  18. The approaches to the definition of involvement and to types of companies-customers involvement in decision-making process

    OpenAIRE

    M.Yu. Troian; S.M. Frolov

    2011-01-01

    The approaches to the definition of involvement and toits basic types classification are developed. The classification of types of companies-customers involvement is supplemented. The concept of connotative involvement is defined and scientifically proven. The basic properties of the involvement: the intensity, directionandstability are developed.

  19. [Biological effects of arsenic and diseases: The mechanisms involved in arsenic-induced carcinogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takehiro; Takumi, Shota; Okamura, Kazuyuki; Nohara, Keiko

    2016-07-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure is associated with many diseases, including cancers. Our study using in vivo assay in gpt-delta transgenic mice showed that arsenic particularly induces G : C to T : A transversions, a mutation type induced through oxidative-stress-induced 8-OHdG formation. Gestational arsenic exposure of C3H mice was reported to increase hepatic tumor incidence. We showed that gestational arsenic exposure increased hepatic tumors having activated oncogene Ha-ras by C to A mutation. We also showed that DNA methylation status of Fosb region is implicated in tumor augmentation by gestational arsenic exposure. We further showed that long-term arsenic exposure induces premature senescence. Recent studies reported that senescence is involved in not only tumor suppression, but also tumorgenesis. All these effects of arsenic might be involved in arsenic-induced carcinogenesis.

  20. Biological sludge reduction during abattoir wastewater treatment process using a sequencing batch aerobic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskes, Sajiâa; Bouallagui, Hassib; Godon, Jean Jacques; Abid, Sami; Hamdi, Moktar

    2013-01-01

    Excess sludge disposal during biological treatment of wastewater is subject to numerous constraints, including social, health and regulatory factors. To reduce the amount of excess sludge, coupled processes involving different biological technologies are currently under taken. This work presents a laboratory scale sequencing batch aerobic system included an anaerobic zone for biomass synchronization (SBAAS: sequencing batch aerobic anaerobic system). This system was adopted to reduce sludge production during abattoir wastewater (AW) treatment. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 89% was obtained at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) and a sludge retention time (SRT) of 2 days and 15-20 days, respectively. The comparison of SBAAS performances with a conventional sequencing batch activated sludge system (SBASS) found that the observed biomass production yield (Y(obs)) were in the ranges of 0.26 and 0.7 g suspended solids g(-1) COD removed, respectively. A significant reduction in the excess biomass production of 63% was observed by using the SBAAS. In fact, in the anaerobic zone microorganisms consume the intracellular stocks of energy by endogenous metabolism, which limits biosynthesis and accelerates sludge decay. The single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) method was used to study the dynamic and the diversity of bacterial communities. Results showed a significant change in the population structure by including the anaerobic stage in the process, and revealed clearly that the sludge production yield can be correlated with the bacterial communities present in the system.

  1. Fathers Matter: Involving and Engaging Fathers in the Child Welfare System Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Christian A; Howard, Douglas; Rayford, Brett S; Gordon, Derrick M

    2015-06-01

    Research suggests that children with involved and engaged fathers tend to have more positive outcomes relative to physical, cognitive, and social emotional health. Of children who become involved in the child welfare system, involving multiple parents in the case (e.g. mother and father) often results in a greater chance of a child returning home, fewer placement episodes, and reduced trauma that may be caused by separation anxiety. With the rise of single parenting homes (which are mostly maternal) in the United States, child welfare agencies are examining the efficacy of engaging multiple caregivers (esp. fathers) in the child welfare process. Research suggests that in order to involve fathers in child welfare processes, practices and policies must be intentional in implementing systems and protocols that encourage involvement of all parents regardless of relationship status of the parents. However, few child welfare agencies are required to inquire about fathers or involve fathers in the child's case. The purpose of this paper is to highlight efforts of the Connecticut Comprehensive Outcome Review (CCOR) process and discuss challenges and lessons learned from interviews and listening forums/focus groups that included social workers and fathers who are involved in the child welfare system in the state of Connecticut. Recommendations and considerations on engaging and involving fathers are discussed.

  2. Fathers Matter: Involving and Engaging Fathers in the Child Welfare System Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Christian A; Howard, Douglas; Rayford, Brett S; Gordon, Derrick M

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that children with involved and engaged fathers tend to have more positive outcomes relative to physical, cognitive, and social emotional health. Of children who become involved in the child welfare system, involving multiple parents in the case (e.g. mother and father) often results in a greater chance of a child returning home, fewer placement episodes, and reduced trauma that may be caused by separation anxiety. With the rise of single parenting homes (which are mostly maternal) in the United States, child welfare agencies are examining the efficacy of engaging multiple caregivers (esp. fathers) in the child welfare process. Research suggests that in order to involve fathers in child welfare processes, practices and policies must be intentional in implementing systems and protocols that encourage involvement of all parents regardless of relationship status of the parents. However, few child welfare agencies are required to inquire about fathers or involve fathers in the child's case. The purpose of this paper is to highlight efforts of the Connecticut Comprehensive Outcome Review (CCOR) process and discuss challenges and lessons learned from interviews and listening forums/focus groups that included social workers and fathers who are involved in the child welfare system in the state of Connecticut. Recommendations and considerations on engaging and involving fathers are discussed. PMID:25866428

  3. Active Interaction Mapping as a tool to elucidate hierarchical functions of biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Jean-Claude; Kramer, Michael; Ideker, Trey; Subramani, Suresh

    2017-07-03

    Increasingly, various 'omics data are contributing significantly to our understanding of novel biological processes, but it has not been possible to iteratively elucidate hierarchical functions in complex phenomena. We describe a general systems biology approach called Active Interaction Mapping (AI-MAP), which elucidates the hierarchy of functions for any biological process. Existing and new 'omics data sets can be iteratively added to create and improve hierarchical models which enhance our understanding of particular biological processes. The best datatypes to further improve an AI-MAP model are predicted computationally. We applied this approach to our understanding of general and selective autophagy, which are conserved in most eukaryotes, setting the stage for the broader application to other cellular processes of interest. In the particular application to autophagy-related processes, we uncovered and validated new autophagy and autophagy-related processes, expanded known autophagy processes with new components, integrated known non-autophagic processes with autophagy and predict other unexplored connections.

  4. Gene-ontology enrichment analysis in two independent family-based samples highlights biologically plausible processes for autism spectrum disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anney, Richard J L

    2012-02-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated a range of genes from discrete biological pathways in the aetiology of autism. However, despite the strong influence of genetic factors, association studies have yet to identify statistically robust, replicated major effect genes or SNPs. We apply the principle of the SNP ratio test methodology described by O\\'Dushlaine et al to over 2100 families from the Autism Genome Project (AGP). Using a two-stage design we examine association enrichment in 5955 unique gene-ontology classifications across four groupings based on two phenotypic and two ancestral classifications. Based on estimates from simulation we identify excess of association enrichment across all analyses. We observe enrichment in association for sets of genes involved in diverse biological processes, including pyruvate metabolism, transcription factor activation, cell-signalling and cell-cycle regulation. Both genes and processes that show enrichment have previously been examined in autistic disorders and offer biologically plausibility to these findings.

  5. Roentgenofunctional symptomcomplex of respiratory disorders in the involvment of the vagus nerve in a tumor process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amosov, I.S.; Afanasova, N.F.; Silant'eva, N.K.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of roentgenofunctional symptoms of pulmonary changes in some neck tumors. The most profound disorders of bronchopulmonary ventilation were detected in patients with the involvement of the vagus nerve in a tumor process. Roentgenopneumopolygraphy tested in clinical practice was employed. Altogether 26 patients with a tumor process in the neurovascular bundle of the neck were examined

  6. Microclimate effects of crop residues on biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, J. L.; Prueger, J. H.

    1996-03-01

    Residues from crops left on the soil surface have an impact on the microclimate, primarily temperature, within the soil and the atmosphere; but, the impact on the biological system is largely unknown. Residue is assumed to have a positive impact on the biological system in the soil and a negative impact on crop growth. This report investigates the effect of standing residue on the microclimate surrounding a cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) crop in a semi-arid environment and the effect of flat residue on the seasonal soil temperature and soil water regimes in a humid climate with a corn ( Zea mays L.) and soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production system. A study was conducted during 1987 and 1988 in a semi-arid climate at Lubbock, Texas using standing wheat stubble to shelter cotton from wind. In this study soil water, microclimatic variables, and plant growth were measured within standing stubble and bare soil during the early vegetative growth period. Air temperatures were warmer at night within the standing residue and the air more humid throughout the day. This led to a reduction in the soil water evaporation rate and an increase in the water use efficiency of the cotton plant within the stubble. Studies on corn residue with continuous corn and corn-soybean rotations with no-till, chiselplow, and moldboard plow tillage practices in central Iowa showed that the average soil temperatures in the upper soil profile were not affected by the presence of flat residue after tillage. Diurnal temperature ranges were most affected by the residue throughout the year. The largest effect of the residue on soil temperature was in the fall after harvest when no-till fields cooled more slowly than tilled fields. In the spring, surface residue decreased the soil water evaporation rate and increased the soil water storage within the soil profile covered with residue. In years with below normal rainfall, the additional stored soil water due to the surface residue was used by the

  7. Pulsed electrical discharges for medicine and biology techniques, processes, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kolikov, Victor

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the application of pulsed electrical discharges in water and water dispersions of metal nanoparticles in medicine (surgery, dentistry, and oncology), biology, and ecology. The intensive electrical and shock waves represent a novel technique to destroy viruses and this way to  prepare anti-virus vaccines. The method of pulsed electrical discharges in water allows to decontaminate water from almost all known bacteria and spores of fungi being present in human beings. The nanoparticles used are not genotoxic and mutagenic. This book is useful for researchers and graduate students.

  8. Activation of GPR15 and its involvement in the biological effects of smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõks, Sulev; Kõks, Gea

    2017-06-01

    Smoking is one of the most significant modifiable environmental risk factors for many diseases. Smoking causes excessive mortality worldwide. Despite decades of long research, there has not been a clear understanding regarding the molecular mechanism that makes smoking harmful to health. Some recent studies have found that smoking influences most significantly the expression and methylation of GPR15. GPR15 is an orphan receptor that is involved in the regulation of the innate immunity and the T-cell trafficking in the intestinal epithelium. Further studies have confirmed that GPR15 is very strongly involved in smoking and smoking-induced molecular changes. Therefore, the altered expression and epigenetic regulation of GPR15 could have a significant role in the health impact of smoking. Impact statement The review describes an orphan receptor GPR15 that has recently been found to be influenced by smoking. This makes GPR15 very sensitive and adequate biomarker for smoking and smoking studies. Also, activation of GPR15 by smoking could help to explain its effects on health.

  9. Vanadium in Biosphere and Its Role in Biological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Deepika; Mani, Veena; Pal, Ravi Prakash

    2018-03-09

    Ultra-trace elements or occasionally beneficial elements (OBE) are the new categories of minerals including vanadium (V). The importance of V is attributed due to its multifaceted biological roles, i.e., glucose and lipid metabolism as an insulin-mimetic, antilipemic and a potent stress alleviating agent in diabetes when vanadium is administered at lower doses. It competes with iron for transferrin (binding site for transportation) and with lactoferrin as it is secreted in milk also. The intracellular enzyme protein tyrosine phosphatase, causing the dephosphorylation at beta subunit of the insulin receptor, is inhibited by vanadium, thus facilitating the uptake of glucose inside the cell but only in the presence of insulin. Vanadium could be useful as a potential immune-stimulating agent and also as an antiinflammatory therapeutic metallodrug targeting various diseases. Physiological state and dose of vanadium compounds hold importance in causing toxicity also. Research has been carried out mostly on laboratory animals but evidence for vanadium importance as a therapeutic agent are available in humans and large animals also. This review examines the potential biochemical and molecular role, possible kinetics and distribution, essentiality, immunity, and toxicity-related study of vanadium in a biological system.

  10. Lignocellulose Biomass: Constitutive Polymers. Biological Processes of Lignin Degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.; Manzanares, P.

    1994-01-01

    The structure of the lignocellulosic materials and the chemical composition of their main constitutive polymers, cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin are described. The most promising transformation processes according to the type of biomass considered: hardwood, softwood an herbaceous and the perspectives of biotechnological processes for bio pulping, bio bleaching and effluents decolorisation in the paper pulp industry are also discussed. (Author) 7 refs

  11. Pretreatment of lignocellulose with biological acid recycling (the Biosulfurol process)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestijn, van J.; Hazewinkel, O.; Bakker, R.R.C.

    2006-01-01

    A biomass pretreatment process is being developed based on contacting lignocellulosic biomass with 70% sulfuric acid and subsequent hydrolysis by adding water. In this process, the hydrolysate can be fermented yielding ethanol, while the sulfuric acid is partly recovered by anion-selective membranes

  12. Aerobic Digestion. Biological Treatment Process Control. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This unit on aerobic sludge digestion covers the theory of the process, system components, factors that affect the process performance, standard operational concerns, indicators of steady-state operations, and operational problems. The instructor's guide includes: (1) an overview of the unit; (2) lesson plan; (3) lecture outline (keyed to a set of…

  13. Identification of genes involved in the biology of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours using Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeibmann, Astrid; Eikmeier, Kristin; Linge, Anna; Kool, Marcel; Koos, Björn; Schulz, Jacqueline; Albrecht, Stefanie; Bartelheim, Kerstin; Frühwald, Michael C.; Pfister, Stefan M.; Paulus, Werner; Hasselblatt, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours (AT/RT) are malignant brain tumours. Unlike most other human brain tumours, AT/RT are characterized by inactivation of one single gene, SMARCB1. SMARCB1 is a member of the evolutionarily conserved SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex, which has an important role in the control of cell differentiation and proliferation. Little is known, however, about the pathways involved in the oncogenic effects of SMARCB1 inactivation, which might also represent targets for treatment. Here we report a comprehensive genetic screen in the fruit fly that revealed several genes not yet associated with loss of snr1, the Drosophila homologue of SMARCB1. We confirm the functional role of identified genes (including merlin, kibra and expanded, known to regulate hippo signalling pathway activity) in human rhabdoid tumour cell lines and AT/RT tumour samples. These results demonstrate that fly models can be employed for the identification of clinically relevant pathways in human cancer.

  14. The involvement of cutaneous receptors in the biological effects of electromagnetic millimeter waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Emil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of peripheral nerve terminations in the mechanisms of action of electromagnetic millimeter waves (mmW was assessed. It is currently thought that mmW could be used in noninvasive complementary therapy because of their analgesic effect. However, the mechanisms of their antinociceptive effect and non-ionizing radiation are the subjects of controversy. The mechanisms of interaction of mmW and the cutaneous tissue have not been elucidated. We observed mast cell degranulation at the place of mmW action, a decrease of chronaxie and Turck reflex time, an increase in the number of afferent impulses after sciatic nerve at stimulation, as well as an increase electrocardiogram R-R interval of isolated frog heart after application of mmW. Based on these investigations, we propose that electromagnetic waves of millimeter length modify, through indirect mechanisms, the excitability and reactivity of peripheral nerve terminations.

  15. Behaviour of radionuclides in biological and non-biological processes at very low concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinnaeve, J.; Frissel, M.J.; Klugt, N. van der; Geijn, S.C. van de.

    1980-01-01

    Four experiments using a 'biological exchange column', i.e. a cut papyrus stem were carried out. Prior to the passage of the labelled solution containing 250 μCi 137 Cs.l -1 , and 1 μCi 134 Cs.l -1 , the exchange sites of the stem were protonated. Two treatments were carried out, the first with 10 -4 M stable caesium in the labelled solution and the second with 10 -4 M potassium. After detection of the front of activity half way up the stem, 5 cm segments of the stem were cut and counted. (Auth.)

  16. Test of Science Process Skills of Biology Students towards Developing of Learning Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith S. Rabacal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a descriptive study aimed to determine the academic achievement on science process skills of the BS Biology Students of Northern Negros State College of Science and Technology, Philippines with the end view of developing learning exercises which will enhance their academic achievement on basic and integrated science process skills. The data in this study were obtained using a validated questionnaire. Mean was the statistical tool used to determine the academic achievement on the above mentioned science process skills; t-test for independent means was used to determine significant difference on the academic achievement of science process skills of BS Biology students while Pearson Product Moment of Correlation Coefficient was used to determine the significant relationship between basic and integrated science process skills of the BS Biology students. A 0.05 level of significance was used to determine whether the hypothesis set in the study will be rejected or accepted. Findings revealed that the academic achievement on basic and integrated science process skills of the BS Biology students was average. Findings revealed that there are no significant differences on the academic performance of the BS Biology students when grouped according to year level and gender. Findings also revealed that there is a significant difference on the academic achievement between basic and integrated science process skills of the BS Biology students. Findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between academic achievement on the basic and integrated science process skills of the BS Biology students.

  17. Two-way feedback between biology and deep Earth processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sleep, Norman; Bird, Dennis K.; Pope, Emily Catherine

    ’s surface and interior cooled following the moon-forming impact. The oceans passed through conditions favored by thermophile organisms before becoming clement. Ocean pH was ~6 and bars of CO2 existed in the atmosphere. Subduction removed the CO2 into the mantle before the time of rock record. Serpentinite......The presence of the metamorphic products of banded iron formation and black shale indicate that the Earth teemed with life by the time of the earliest preserved rocks, ca. 3.85 Ga. Iron and sulfur-based anoxygenic photosynthesis with full carbon cycles was present by this time. The pH of the ocean...... was ~8. The lack of older rock record cloaks pre-biotic evolution and the origin of life. Nascent and early life obtained energy from chemical disequilibria in rocks rather than sunlight. Appraising putative rock pre-biological environments is difficult in that life has modified the composition...

  18. Stakeholder involvement in stages of a participatory process illustrated in interior design cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vink, Peter; van Rhijn, Gu; Seim, Rikke

    2008-01-01

    In a previous study (Vink et al., 2008) an overview was made of the involvement of different stakeholders in a participatory design process. In this paper this overview was used to describe four participatory design cases focused on improvising productivity, health, and comfort by interior design....... It appeared that this overview is useful to describe the involvement in participatory interior design projects. However, it can only serve as an initial benchmark as much is dependent on the specific case at hand....

  19. Teaching the physics of medical imaging: an active learning approach involving imaging of biological tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Lonsdale, Markus Nowak

    2008-01-01

    Introduction to medical imaging is an experimentally oriented course in the physics of medical imaging, where the students record, process and analyse 3D data of an unknown piece of formalin fixed animal tissue embedded in agar in order to estimate the tissue types present. Planar X-ray, CT, MRI......, ultrasound and SPECT/PET images are recorded, showing the tissue in very different ways. In order for the students to estimate the tissue type, they need to study the physical principles of the imaging modalities. The “true” answer is subsequently revealed by slicing the tissue....

  20. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Process Description language Level 1 Version 1.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Stuart; Le Novère, Nicolas; Demir, Emek; Mi, Huaiyu; Villéger, Alice

    2015-09-04

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Process Description language represents biological entities and processes between these entities within a network. SBGN PD focuses on the mechanistic description and temporal dependencies of biological interactions and transformations. The nodes (elements) are split into entity nodes describing, e.g., metabolites, proteins, genes and complexes, and process nodes describing, e.g., reactions and associations. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the nodes, such as consumption, production, stimulation and inhibition. Among all three languages of SBGN, PD is the closest to metabolic and regulatory pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge.

  1. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.; Barik, S.

    1992-11-01

    Biomethanation of coal is a phenomenon carried out in concert by a mixed population (consortium) of at least three different groups of anaerobic bacteria and can be considered analogous to that of anaerobic digestion of municipal waste. The exception, however, is that unlike municipal waste; coal is a much complex and difficult substrate to degrade. This project was focused on studying the types of microorganisms involved in coal degradation, rates of methane production, developing a cost-effective synthetic culture medium for these microbial consortia and determining the rate of methane production in bench scale bioreactors.

  2. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.; Barik, S.

    1992-01-01

    Biomethanation of coal is a phenomenon carried out in concert by a mixed population (consortium) of at least three different groups of anaerobic bacteria and can be considered analogous to that of anaerobic digestion of municipal waste. The exception, however, is that unlike municipal waste; coal is a much complex and difficult substrate to degrade. This project was focused on studying the types of microorganisms involved in coal degradation, rates of methane production, developing a cost-effective synthetic culture medium for these microbial consortia and determining the rate of methane production in bench scale bioreactors.

  3. Mistaking geography for biology: inferring processes from species distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Dan L; Cardillo, Marcel; Rosauer, Dan F; Bolnick, Daniel I

    2014-10-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been a rapid proliferation of statistical methods that infer evolutionary and ecological processes from data on species distributions. These methods have led to considerable new insights, but they often fail to account for the effects of historical biogeography on present-day species distributions. Because the geography of speciation can lead to patterns of spatial and temporal autocorrelation in the distributions of species within a clade, this can result in misleading inferences about the importance of deterministic processes in generating spatial patterns of biodiversity. In this opinion article, we discuss ways in which patterns of species distributions driven by historical biogeography are often interpreted as evidence of particular evolutionary or ecological processes. We focus on three areas that are especially prone to such misinterpretations: community phylogenetics, environmental niche modelling, and analyses of beta diversity (compositional turnover of biodiversity). Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Integrated chemical/physical and biological processes modeling Part 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The approach of characterising sewage sludge into carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, as is done in the International Water Association (IWA) AD model No 1 ... found to be 64 to 68% biodegradable (depending on the kinetic formulation selected for the hydrolysis process) and to have a C,sub>3.5H7O2N0.196 composition.

  5. Benchmarking Combined Biological Phosphorus and Nitrogen Removal Wastewater Treatment Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2004-01-01

    conditions respectively, the definition of performance indexes that include the phosphorus removal processes, and the selection of a suitable operating point for the plant. Two control loops were implemented: one for dissolved oxygen control using the oxygen transfer coefficient K(L)a as manipulated variable...

  6. Biological processes for the production of aryl sulfates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to the field of biotechnology as it applies to the production of aryl sulfates using polypeptides or recombinant cells comprising said polypeptides. More particularly, the present invention pertains to polypeptides having aryl sulfotransferase activity......, recombinant host cells expressing same and processes for the production of aryl sulfates employing these polypeptides or recombinant host cells....

  7. Anaerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. Areas addressed include: (1) anaerobic sludge digestion (considering the nature of raw sludge, purposes of anaerobic digestion, the results of digestion, types of equipment, and other topics); (2) digester process control (considering feeding…

  8. Development of a computational system for management of risks in radiosterilization processes of biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, Cynara Viterbo

    2009-01-01

    Risk management can be understood to be a systematic management which aims to identify record and control the risks of a process. Applying risk management becomes a complex activity, due to the variety of professionals involved. In order to execute risk management the following are requirements of paramount importance: the experience, discernment and judgment of a multidisciplinary team, guided by means of quality tools, so as to provide standardization in the process of investigating the cause and effects of risks and dynamism in obtaining the objective desired, i.e. the reduction and control of the risk. This work aims to develop a computational system of risk management (software) which makes it feasible to diagnose the risks of the processes of radiosterilization of biological tissues. The methodology adopted was action-research, according to which the researcher performs an active role in the establishment of the problems found, in the follow-up and in the evaluation of the actions taken owing to the problems. The scenario of this action-research was the Laboratory of Biological Tissues (LTB) in the Radiation Technology Center IPEN/CNEN-SP - Sao Paulo/Brazil. The software developed was executed in PHP and Flash/MySQL language, the server (hosting), the software is available on the Internet (www.vcrisk.com.br), which the user can access from anywhere by means of the login/access password previously sent by email to the team responsible for the tissue to be analyzed. The software presents friendly navigability whereby the user is directed step-by-step in the process of investigating the risk up to the means of reducing it. The software 'makes' the user comply with the term and present the effectiveness of the actions taken to reduce the risk. Applying this system provided the organization (LTB/CTR/IPEN) with dynamic communication, effective between the members of the multidisciplinary team: a) in decision-making; b) in lessons learned; c) in knowing the new risk

  9. A Case Study Documenting the Process by Which Biology Instructors Transition from Teacher-Centered to Learner-Centered Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbach-Ad, Gili; Hunt Rietschel, Carly

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we used a case study approach to obtain an in-depth understanding of the change process of two university instructors who were involved with redesigning a biology course. Given the hesitancy of many biology instructors to adopt evidence-based, learner-centered teaching methods, there is a critical need to understand how biology instructors transition from teacher-centered (i.e., lecture-based) instruction to teaching that focuses on the students. Using the innovation-decision model for change, we explored the motivation, decision-making, and reflective processes of the two instructors through two consecutive, large-enrollment biology course offerings. Our data reveal that the change process is somewhat unpredictable, requiring patience and persistence during inevitable challenges that arise for instructors and students. For example, the change process requires instructors to adopt a teacher-facilitator role as opposed to an expert role, to cover fewer course topics in greater depth, and to give students a degree of control over their own learning. Students must adjust to taking responsibility for their own learning, working collaboratively, and relinquishing the anonymity afforded by lecture-based teaching. We suggest implications for instructors wishing to change their teaching and administrators wishing to encourage adoption of learner-centered teaching at their institutions. PMID:27856550

  10. N-terminal modifications of cellular proteins: The enzymes involved, their substrate specificities and biological effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varland, Sylvia; Osberg, Camilla; Arnesen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of eukaryotic proteins are N-terminally modified by one or more processing enzymes. Enzymes acting on the very first amino acid of a polypeptide include different peptidases, transferases, and ligases. Methionine aminopeptidases excise the initiator methionine leaving the nascent polypeptide with a newly exposed amino acid that may be further modified. N-terminal acetyl-, methyl-, myristoyl-, and palmitoyltransferases may attach an acetyl, methyl, myristoyl, or palmitoyl group, respectively, to the α-amino group of the target protein N-terminus. With the action of ubiquitin ligases, one or several ubiquitin molecules are transferred, and hence, constitute the N-terminal modification. Modifications at protein N-termini represent an important contribution to proteomic diversity and complexity, and are essential for protein regulation and cellular signaling. Consequently, dysregulation of the N-terminal modifying enzymes is implicated in human diseases. We here review the different protein N-terminal modifications occurring co- or post-translationally with emphasis on the responsible enzymes and their substrate specificities. PMID:25914051

  11. State observers for a biological wastewater nitrogen removal process in a sequential batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, K M; Roqueiro, N; Coelho, M A; Araújo, O Q

    2001-08-01

    Biological removal of nitrogen is a two-step process: aerobic autotrophic microorganisms oxidize ammoniacal nitrogen to nitrate, and the nitrate is further reduced to elementary nitrogen by heterotrophic microorganisms under anoxic condition with concomitant organic carbon removal. Several state variables are involved which render process monitoring a demanding task, as in most biotechnological processes, measurement of primary variables such as microorganism, carbon and nitrogen concentrations is either difficult or expensive. An alternative is to use a process model of reduced order for on-line inference of state variables based on secondary process measurements, e.g. pH and redox potential. In this work, two modeling approaches were investigated: a generic reduced order model based on the generally accepted IAWQ No. 1 Model [M. Henze, C.P.L., Grady, W., Gujer, G.V.R., Marais, T., Matsuo, Water Res. 21 (5) (1987) 505-515]-generic model (GM), and a reduced order model specially validated with the data acquired from a benchscale sequential batch reactor (SBR) specific model (SM). Model inaccuracies and measurement errors were compensated for with a Kalman filter structure to develop two state observers: one built with GM, the generic observer (GO), and another based on SM, the specific observer (SO). State variables estimated by GM, SM, GO and SO were compared to experimental data from the SBR unit. GM gave the worst performance while SM predictions presented some model to data mismatch. GO and SO, on the other hand, were both in very good agreement with experimental data showing that filters add robustness against model errors, which reduces the modeling effort while assuring adequate inference of process variables.

  12. Early print-tuned ERP response with minimal involvement of linguistic processing in Japanese Hiragana strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Yasuko; Kasai, Tetsuko; Murohashi, Harumitsu

    2014-04-16

    The act of reading leads to the development of specific neural responses for print, the most frequently reported of which is the left occipitotemporal N170 component of event-related potentials. However, it remains unclear whether this electrophysiological response solely involves print-tuned neural activities. The present study examined an early print-tuned event-related potential response with minimal involvement of linguistic processing in a nonalphabetic language. Japanese Hiragana words, nonwords, and alphanumeric symbol strings were presented rapidly and the task was to detect the change in color of a fixation cross to restrict linguistic processing. As a result, Hiragana words and nonwords elicited a larger posterior N1 than alphanumeric symbol strings bilaterally, irrespective of intercharacter spacing. The fact that this N1 was enhanced specifically for rapidly presented Hiragana strings suggests the existence of print-tuned neural processes that are relatively independent of the influence of linguistic processing.

  13. Biological Treatment of tannery wastewater using activated sludge process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydar, S.; Aziz, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of Activated Sludge Process (ASP) for the treatment of tannery wastewater and to develop a simple design criteria under local conditions. A bench scale model comprising of an aeration tank and final clarifier was used for this purpose. The model was operated continuously for 267 days. Settled tannery wastewater was used as influent to the aeration tank. Five days Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of the influent and effluent were measured to find process efficiency at various mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) and hydraulic detention time. The results of the study demonstrated that an efficiency of above 90% and 80% for BOD5 and COD, respectively could be obtained if the ASP is operated at an MLVSS concentration of 3500 mg/L keeping an aeration time of 12 hours. (author)

  14. Biological removal of metal ions from aqueous process streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumate, S.E. II; Strandberg, G.W.; Parrott, J.R. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Aqueous waste streams from nuclear fuel processing operations may contain trace quantities of heavy metals such as uranium. Conventional chemical and physical treatment may be ineffective or very expensive when uranium concentrations in the range of 10 to 100 g/m 3 must be reduced to 1 g/m 3 or less. The ability of some microorganisms to adsorb or complex dissolved heavy metals offers an alternative treatment method. Uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-2574 and a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was examined to identify factors which might affect a process for the removal of uranium from wastewater streams. At uranium concentrations in the range of 10 to 500 g/m 3 , where the binding capacity of the biomass was not exceeded, temperature, pH, and initial uranium concentration were found to influence the rate of uranium uptake, but not the soluble uranium concentration at equilibrium. 6 figs

  15. Low cost materials of construction for biological processes: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-13

    The workshop was held, May 1993 in conjunction with the 15th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. The purpose of this workshop was to present information on the biomass to ethanol process in the context of materials selection and through presentation and discussion, identify promising avenues for future research. Six technical presentations were grouped into two sessions: process assessment and technology assessment. In the process assessment session, the group felt that the pretreatment area would require the most extensive materials research due the complex chemical, physical and thermal environment. Discussion centered around the possibility of metals being leached into the process stream and their effect on the fermentation mechanics. Linings were a strong option for pretreatment assuming the economics were favorable. Fermentation was considered an important area for research also, due to the unique complex of compounds and dual phases present. Erosion in feedstock handling equipment was identified as a minor concern. In the technology assessment session, methodologies in corrosion analysis were presented in addition to an overview of current coatings/linings technology. Widely practiced testing strategies, including ASTM methods, as well as novel procedures for micro-analysis of corrosion were discussed. Various coatings and linings, including polymers and ceramics, were introduced. The prevailing recommendations for testing included keeping the testing simple until the problem warranted a more detailed approach and developing standardized testing procedures to ensure the data was reproducible and applicable. The need to evaluate currently available materials such as coatings/linings, carbon/stainless steels, or fiberglass reinforced plastic was emphasized. It was agreed that economic evaluation of each material candidate must be an integral part of any research plan.

  16. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of heterogeneous Fenton oxidation and biological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Hou, Baolin; Jia, Shengyong; Xu, Chunyan; Wang, Dexin

    2015-04-01

    Laboratorial scale experiments were conducted in order to investigate a novel system integrating heterogeneous Fenton oxidation (HFO) with anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR) and biological aerated filter (BAF) process on advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated that HFO with the prepared catalyst (FeOx/SBAC, sewage sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded Fe oxides) played a key role in eliminating COD and COLOR as well as in improving the biodegradability of raw wastewater. The surface reaction and hydroxyl radicals (OH) oxidation were the mechanisms for FeOx/SBAC catalytic reaction. Compared with ANMBBR-BAF process, the integrated system was more effective in abating COD, BOD5, total phenols (TPs), total nitrogen (TN) and COLOR and could shorten the retention time. Therefore, the integrated system was a promising technology for engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Conserving forest biological diversity: How the Montreal Process helps achieve sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Nelson; Guy Robertson; Kurt. Riitters

    2015-01-01

    Forests support a variety of ecosystems, species and genes — collectively referred to as biological diversity — along with important processes that tie these all together. With the growing recognition that biological diversity contributes to human welfare in a number of important ways such as providing food, medicine and fiber (provisioning services...

  18. Biologically-based signal processing system applied to noise removal for signal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chi Yung; Petrich, Loren I.

    2004-07-13

    The method and system described herein use a biologically-based signal processing system for noise removal for signal extraction. A wavelet transform may be used in conjunction with a neural network to imitate a biological system. The neural network may be trained using ideal data derived from physical principles or noiseless signals to determine to remove noise from the signal.

  19. Perceptions of legally mandated public involvement processes in the U.S. Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Andrew Predmore; Marc J. Stern; Michael J. Mortimer; David N. Seesholtz

    2011-01-01

    Results from an agency-wide survey of U.S. Forest Service personnel indicate that respondents in our sample engage in National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) public involvement processes primarily to accomplish two goals. The most commonly supported goal was to inform and disclose as mandated by the act. The other goal reflected interests in managing agency...

  20. Investigation of heat transfer processes involved liquid impingement jets: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Molana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This review reports research on liquid impingement jets and the abilities, limitations and features of this method of heat transfer. Some available and important correlations for Nusselt number are collected here. Also we demonstrate the capability of nanofluids to be applied in heat transfer processes involved liquid impingement jets.

  1. Tightening the Purchasing Process: Superintendents Get More Involved in Buying Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Over the last 18 months, school district purchasing offices across the country have been tightening the reins like never before while more top-level administrators get involved in the budget process. "When the economy really hit the skids, states got hit hard, so a lot of school districts were forced to make severe budget cuts," says John Musso,…

  2. ADHD Coaching with College Students: Exploring the Processes Involved in Motivation and Goal Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevatt, Frances; Smith, Shannon M.; Diers, Sarah; Marshall, Diana; Coleman, Jennifer; Valler, Emilee; Miller, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    College students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience increased academic difficulties, which can negatively impact graduation rates, employment, self-esteem, and mental health. ADHD coaching assists students with ADHD to reduce such difficulties. The present study evaluated the processes involved in ADHD coaching…

  3. Educational Support System for Experiments Involving Construction of Sound Processing Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel educational support system for technical experiments involving the production of practical electronic circuits for sound processing. To support circuit design and production, each student uses a computer during the experiments, and can learn circuit design, virtual circuit making, and real circuit making. In the…

  4. TRAINING DURING ISO 9001 IMPLEMENTATION AND WORKERS INVOLVEMENT INTO THE QUALITY MANAGEMENT PROCESS IN MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc-Arthur Diaye

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available According to several researchers, workers involvement into the implementation of a quality system in a firm is a key of its success. Since training can improve workers involvement during the implementation of a quality system in a firm, we try in this paper to evaluate quantitatively in the case of Montenegro, the impact of training of workers' involvement. Using an original data set about two leading firms from Montenegro, we show that the coefficient associated with the training variable is on average about -1.44 and is significant at a level of 1%. That is workers who are not trained during the ISO 9001 implementation are strongly less involved into the quality management process of their firms.

  5. Improved biological processes for the production of aryl sulfates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to the field of biotechnology as it applies to the production of aryl sulfates using recombinant host cells. More particularly, the present invention pertains to recombinant host cells comprising (e.g., expressing) a polypeptide having aryl sulfotransferase...... activity, wherein said recombinant host cells have been modified to have an increased uptake of sulfate compared to identical host cells that does not carry said modification. Further provided are processes for the production of aryl sulfates, such as zosteric acid, employing such recombinant host cells....

  6. A Case Study Documenting the Process by Which Biology Instructors Transition from Teacher-Centered to Learner-Centered Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbach-Ad, Gili; Hunt Rietschel, Carly

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we used a case study approach to obtain an in-depth understanding of the change process of two university instructors who were involved with redesigning a biology course. Given the hesitancy of many biology instructors to adopt evidence-based, learner-centered teaching methods, there is a critical need to understand how biology instructors transition from teacher-centered (i.e., lecture-based) instruction to teaching that focuses on the students. Using the innovation-decision model for change, we explored the motivation, decision-making, and reflective processes of the two instructors through two consecutive, large-enrollment biology course offerings. Our data reveal that the change process is somewhat unpredictable, requiring patience and persistence during inevitable challenges that arise for instructors and students. For example, the change process requires instructors to adopt a teacher-facilitator role as opposed to an expert role, to cover fewer course topics in greater depth, and to give students a degree of control over their own learning. Students must adjust to taking responsibility for their own learning, working collaboratively, and relinquishing the anonymity afforded by lecture-based teaching. We suggest implications for instructors wishing to change their teaching and administrators wishing to encourage adoption of learner-centered teaching at their institutions. © 2016 G. Marbach-Ad and C. H. Rietschel. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  7. Process for rapidly determining biological toxicity of wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, C.S.

    1986-11-04

    This patent describes a process for determining the quality of a wastewater solution or a solution of a specific chemical. The process comprises mixing microrganisms with a test solution, measuring the dissolved oxygen content in the test solution, and correlating dissolved oxygen content of the mixture with a standard solution. The improvement described here is for enhancing the sensitivity of the test while reducing the amount of time necessary to conduct a test which comprises: a. utilizing a bacterial culture in the form of a dried powder, the bacterial culture being capable of aerobic biodegradation of organic wastes; b. placing a preselected amount of the bacterial culture into a test vessel containing a preselected amount of aqueous waste which has been saturated with oxygen; c. measuring the dissolved oxygen content in the test sample as a function of time; d. determining the rate of dissolved oxygen decline at a preselected time, and; e. determining the ratio between the rate of dissolved oxygen decline at the preselected time and the rate of decline for a preselected baseline standard solution, and thereby determining the degree of inhibition of bacterial respiration or growth.

  8. Processes Involved in Chinese and English Writing: A Study of Chinese University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meihua Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the writing processes of 20 L1 writers and 20 L2 writers on a course task of writing a narrative in a Chinese university naturalistic setting, as well as the challenges they encountered and their coping strategies during the processes. Analyses of the data collected via questionnaire, journal and semi-structured interviews revealed that (1 both L1 and L2 writing processes were nonlinear and cyclical, involving a constant interplay of thinking, writing, and revising throughout the process, (2 though having a lot in common, the two groups differed in many aspects regarding the foci of concern during the process of writing the narrative, (3 both groups encountered common challenges as well as those peculiar of their own writing during the composing process, and (4 both groups were resourceful learners. Based on these findings, some suggestions are discussed.

  9. Octamer-binding protein 4 affects the cell biology and phenotypic transition of lung cancer cells involving β-catenin/E-cadherin complex degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong-Shu; Ling, Dong-Jin; Zhang, Yang-De; Feng, Jian-Xiong; Zhang, Xue-Yu; Shi, Tian-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    Clinical studies have reported evidence for the involvement of octamer‑binding protein 4 (Oct4) in the tumorigenicity and progression of lung cancer; however, the role of Oct4 in lung cancer cell biology in vitro and its mechanism of action remain to be elucidated. Mortality among lung cancer patients is more frequently due to metastasis rather than their primary tumors. Epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a prominent biological event for the induction of epithelial cancer metastasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Oct4 had the capacity to induce lung cancer cell metastasis via the promoting the EMT in vitro. Moreover, the effect of Oct4 on the β‑catenin/E‑cadherin complex, associated with EMT, was examined using immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation assays as well as western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that Oct4 enhanced cell invasion and adhesion accompanied by the downregulation of epithelial marker cytokeratin, and upregulation of the mesenchymal markers vimentin and N‑cadherin. Furthermore, Oct4 induced EMT of lung cancer cells by promoting β‑catenin/E‑cadherin complex degradation and regulating nuclear localization of β‑catenin. In conclusion, the present study indicated that Oct4 affected the cell biology of lung cancer cells in vitro through promoting lung cancer cell metastasis via EMT; in addition, the results suggested that the association and degradation of the β‑catenin/E‑cadherin complex was regulated by Oct4 during the process of EMT.

  10. Kinetics of quasi-isoenergetic transition processes in biological macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, E.G.; Teslenko, V.I.

    2010-01-01

    A master equation describing the evolution of averaged molecular state occupancies in molecular systems where alternation of molecular energy levels is caused by discrete dichotomous and trichotomous stochastic fields, is derived. This study is focused on the kinetics of quasi-isoenergetic transition processes in the presence of moderately high frequency stochastic field. A novel physical mechanism for temperature-independent transitions in flexible molecular systems is proposed. This mechanism becomes effective when the conformation transitions between quasi-isoenergetic molecular states take place. At room temperatures, stochastic broadening of molecular energy levels predominates the energy of low-frequency vibrations accompanying the transition. This leads to a cancellation of the temperature dependence in the stochastically averaged rate constants. As examples, physical interpretations of the temperature-independent onset of P2X 3 receptor desensitization in neuronal membranes, as well as degradation of PER2 protein in embrionic fibroblasts, are provided.

  11. Mobility of persons who are blind: How the attentional processes and working memory are involved?

    OpenAIRE

    PIGEON, Caroline; MARIN-LAMELLET, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Although navigation without vision seems to strongly mobilize the attentional processes and the working memory, few studies seem to be conducted about the link between these processes and the mobility of people who are blind. The main aim of this PhD work is to consider the attentional and working memory capacities of people who are blind and investigate the attentional processes involved during the navigation activity. In the first part of this PhD work, blind participants (early and late) p...

  12. TFPI alpha and beta regulate mRNAs and microRNAs involved in cancer biology and in the immune system in breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicte Stavik

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence indicate a new role of TFPI in cancer biology. We recently reported that both isoforms of TFPI induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation of cancer cells. The signaling pathway(s mediating the effects of TFPI is, however, presently still unclear. Our goal was to further investigate the cellular processes affected by TFPI and to get insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the effects of TFPI, using a global gene expression study approach. TFPIα or TFPIβ cDNA were transfected into SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells for stable overexpression. Global mRNA and microRNA (miRNA expressions were measured and functional annotation of the differentially expressed genes and miRNAs according to gene ontology terms was conducted. Selected results were validated using qRT-PCR and Western blot. A total of 242 and 801 mRNA transcripts and 120 and 46 miRNAs were differentially expressed in cells overexpressing TFPIα or TFPIβ, respectively. Overexpression of either isoform significantly affected the expression of genes involved in cell development (apoptosis, cell movement, migration, invasion, colony formation, growth, and adhesion and immune response. Network analyses revealed biological interactions between these genes and implied that several of the genes may be involved in both processes. The expression profiles also correlated significantly with clinical phenotype and outcome. Functional cluster analyses indicated altered activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor, small GTPases, and the NF-κB and JAK/STAT cascades when TFPI was overexpressed, and increased activity of the transcription factors NF-κB and Elk-1 and phospho-Akt levels was observed. Integrated mRNA-miRNA analyses showed that 19% and 32% of the differentially expressed genes in cells overexpressing TFPIα or TFPIβ, respectively, may have been regulated by miRNAs. Overexpression of TFPI in breast cancer cells affected the expression of mRNAs and mi

  13. TFPI alpha and beta regulate mRNAs and microRNAs involved in cancer biology and in the immune system in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavik, Benedicte; Skretting, Grethe; Olstad, Ole Kristoffer; Sletten, Marit; Dehli Vigeland, Magnus; Sandset, Per Morten; Iversen, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicate a new role of TFPI in cancer biology. We recently reported that both isoforms of TFPI induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation of cancer cells. The signaling pathway(s) mediating the effects of TFPI is, however, presently still unclear. Our goal was to further investigate the cellular processes affected by TFPI and to get insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the effects of TFPI, using a global gene expression study approach. TFPIα or TFPIβ cDNA were transfected into SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells for stable overexpression. Global mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expressions were measured and functional annotation of the differentially expressed genes and miRNAs according to gene ontology terms was conducted. Selected results were validated using qRT-PCR and Western blot. A total of 242 and 801 mRNA transcripts and 120 and 46 miRNAs were differentially expressed in cells overexpressing TFPIα or TFPIβ, respectively. Overexpression of either isoform significantly affected the expression of genes involved in cell development (apoptosis, cell movement, migration, invasion, colony formation, growth, and adhesion) and immune response. Network analyses revealed biological interactions between these genes and implied that several of the genes may be involved in both processes. The expression profiles also correlated significantly with clinical phenotype and outcome. Functional cluster analyses indicated altered activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor, small GTPases, and the NF-κB and JAK/STAT cascades when TFPI was overexpressed, and increased activity of the transcription factors NF-κB and Elk-1 and phospho-Akt levels was observed. Integrated mRNA-miRNA analyses showed that 19% and 32% of the differentially expressed genes in cells overexpressing TFPIα or TFPIβ, respectively, may have been regulated by miRNAs. Overexpression of TFPI in breast cancer cells affected the expression of mRNAs and miRNAs involved in processes

  14. Cochlear Implant: the complexity involved in the decision making process by the family1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Sheila de Souza; Bevilacqua, Maria Cecília; Ferreira, Noeli Marchioro Liston Andrade; Dupas, Giselle

    2014-01-01

    Objective to understand the meanings the family attributes to the phases of the decision-making process on a cochlear implant for their child. Method qualitative research, using Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory as the theoretical and methodological frameworks, respectively. Data collection instrument: semistructured interview. Nine families participated in the study (32 participants). Results knowledge deficit, difficulties to contextualize benefits and risks and fear are some factors that make this process difficult. Experiences deriving from interactions with health professionals, other cochlear implant users and their relatives strengthen decision making in favor of the implant. Conclusion deciding on whether or not to have the implant involves a complex process, in which the family needs to weigh gains and losses, experience feelings of accountability and guilt, besides overcoming the risk aversion. Hence, this demands cautious preparation and knowledge from the professionals involved in this intervention. PMID:25029052

  15. Cochlear Implant: the complexity involved in the decision making process by the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila de Souza Vieira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to understand the meanings the family attributes to the phases of the decision-making process on a cochlear implant for their child.METHOD: qualitative research, using Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory as the theoretical and methodological frameworks, respectively. Data collection instrument: semistructured interview. Nine families participated in the study (32 participants.RESULTS: knowledge deficit, difficulties to contextualize benefits and risks and fear are some factors that make this process difficult. Experiences deriving from interactions with health professionals, other cochlear implant users and their relatives strengthen decision making in favor of the implant.CONCLUSION: deciding on whether or not to have the implant involves a complex process, in which the family needs to weigh gains and losses, experience feelings of accountability and guilt, besides overcoming the risk aversion. Hence, this demands cautious preparation and knowledge from the professionals involved in this intervention.

  16. Heat transfer and fluid flow in biological processes advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Sid

    2015-01-01

    Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Biological Processes covers emerging areas in fluid flow and heat transfer relevant to biosystems and medical technology. This book uses an interdisciplinary approach to provide a comprehensive prospective on biofluid mechanics and heat transfer advances and includes reviews of the most recent methods in modeling of flows in biological media, such as CFD. Written by internationally recognized researchers in the field, each chapter provides a strong introductory section that is useful to both readers currently in the field and readers interested in learning more about these areas. Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Biological Processes is an indispensable reference for professors, graduate students, professionals, and clinical researchers in the fields of biology, biomedical engineering, chemistry and medicine working on applications of fluid flow, heat transfer, and transport phenomena in biomedical technology. Provides a wide range of biological and clinical applications of fluid...

  17. Comparative biology approaches for charged particle exposures and cancer development processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Amy; Gauny, Stacey; Kwoh, Ely; Sudo, Hiroko; Wiese, Claudia; Dan, Cristian; Turker, Mitchell

    Comparative biology studies can provide useful information for the extrapolation of results be-tween cells in culture and the more complex environment of the tissue. In other circumstances, they provide a method to guide the interpretation of results obtained for cells from differ-ent species. We have considered several key cancer development processes following charged particle exposures using comparative biology approaches. Our particular emphases have been mutagenesis and genomic instability. Carcinogenesis requires the accumulation of mutations and most of htese mutations occur on autosomes. Two loci provide the greatest avenue for the consideration of charged particle-induced mutation involving autosomes: the TK1 locus in human cells and the APRT locus in mouse cells. Each locus can provide information on a wide variety of mutational changes, from small intragenic mutations through multilocus dele-tions and extensive tracts of mitotic recombination. In addition, the mouse model can provide a direct measurement of chromosome loss which cannot be accomplished in the human cell system. Another feature of the mouse APRT model is the ability to examine effects for cells exposed in vitro with those obtained for cells exposed in situ. We will provide a comparison of the results obtained for the TK1 locus following 1 GeV/amu Fe ion exposures to the human lymphoid cells with those obtained for the APRT locus for mouse kidney epithelial cells (in vitro or in situ). Substantial conservation of mechanisms is found amongst these three exposure scenarios, with some differences attributable to the specific conditions of exposure. A similar approach will be applied to the consideraiton of proton-induced autosomal mutations in the three model systems. A comparison of the results obtained for Fe ions vs. protons in each case will highlight LET-specificc differences in response. Another cancer development process that is receiving considerable interest is genomic instability. We

  18. Life's origin: the cosmic, planetary and biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattergood, T.; Des Marais, D.; Jahnke, L.

    1987-01-01

    From elements formed in interstellar furnaces to humans peering back at the stars, the evolution of life has been a long, intricate and perhaps inevitable process. Life as we know it requires a planet orbiting a star at just the right distance so that water can exist in liquid form. It needs a rich supply of chemicals and energy sources. On Earth, the combination of chemistry and energy generated molecules that evolved ways of replicating themselves and of passing information from one generation to the next. Thus, the thread of life began. This chart traces the thread, maintained by DNA molecules for much of its history, as it weaves its way through the primitive oceans, gaining strength and diversity along the way. Organisms eventually moved onto the land, where advanced forms, including humans, ultimately arose. Finally, assisted by a technology of its own making, life has reached back out into space to understand its own origins, to expand into new realms, and to seek other living threads in the cosmos.

  19. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county`s future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  20. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county's future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  1. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county's future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County

  2. Acute toxicity and chemical evaluation of coking wastewater under biological and advanced physicochemical treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehua, Ma; Cong, Liu; Xiaobiao, Zhu; Rui, Liu; Lujun, Chen

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the changes of toxic compounds in coking wastewater with biological treatment (anaerobic reactor, anoxic reactor and aerobic-membrane bioreactor, A1/A2/O-MBR) and advanced physicochemical treatment (Fenton oxidation and activated carbon adsorption) stages. As the biological treatment stages preceding, the inhibition effect of coking wastewater on the luminescence of Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Nov. Q67 decreased. Toxic units (TU) of coking wastewater were removed by A1/A2/O-MBR treatment process, however approximately 30 % TU remained in the biologically treated effluent. There is a tendency that fewer and fewer residual organic compounds could exert equal acute toxicity during the biological treatment stages. Activated carbon adsorption further removed toxic pollutants of biologically treated effluent but the Fenton effluent increased acute toxicity. The composition of coking wastewater during the treatment was evaluated using the three-dimensional fluorescence spectra, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The organic compounds with high polarity were the main cause of acute toxicity in the coking wastewater. Aromatic protein-like matters in the coking wastewater with low biodegradability and high toxicity contributed mostly to the remaining acute toxicity of the biologically treated effluents. Chlorine generated from the oxidation process was responsible for the acute toxicity increase after Fenton oxidation. Therefore, the incorporation of appropriate advanced physicochemical treatment process, e.g., activated carbon adsorption, should be implemented following biological treatment processes to meet the stricter discharge standards and be safer to the environment.

  3. Generating quantitative models describing the sequence specificity of biological processes with the stabilized matrix method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sette Alessandro

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many processes in molecular biology involve the recognition of short sequences of nucleic-or amino acids, such as the binding of immunogenic peptides to major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecules. From experimental data, a model of the sequence specificity of these processes can be constructed, such as a sequence motif, a scoring matrix or an artificial neural network. The purpose of these models is two-fold. First, they can provide a summary of experimental results, allowing for a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in sequence recognition. Second, such models can be used to predict the experimental outcome for yet untested sequences. In the past we reported the development of a method to generate such models called the Stabilized Matrix Method (SMM. This method has been successfully applied to predicting peptide binding to MHC molecules, peptide transport by the transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP and proteasomal cleavage of protein sequences. Results Herein we report the implementation of the SMM algorithm as a publicly available software package. Specific features determining the type of problems the method is most appropriate for are discussed. Advantageous features of the package are: (1 the output generated is easy to interpret, (2 input and output are both quantitative, (3 specific computational strategies to handle experimental noise are built in, (4 the algorithm is designed to effectively handle bounded experimental data, (5 experimental data from randomized peptide libraries and conventional peptides can easily be combined, and (6 it is possible to incorporate pair interactions between positions of a sequence. Conclusion Making the SMM method publicly available enables bioinformaticians and experimental biologists to easily access it, to compare its performance to other prediction methods, and to extend it to other applications.

  4. Stochastic processes, multiscale modeling, and numerical methods for computational cellular biology

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the modeling and mathematical analysis of stochastic dynamical systems along with their simulations. The collected chapters will review fundamental and current topics and approaches to dynamical systems in cellular biology. This text aims to develop improved mathematical and computational methods with which to study biological processes. At the scale of a single cell, stochasticity becomes important due to low copy numbers of biological molecules, such as mRNA and proteins that take part in biochemical reactions driving cellular processes. When trying to describe such biological processes, the traditional deterministic models are often inadequate, precisely because of these low copy numbers. This book presents stochastic models, which are necessary to account for small particle numbers and extrinsic noise sources. The complexity of these models depend upon whether the biochemical reactions are diffusion-limited or reaction-limited. In the former case, one needs to adopt the framework of s...

  5. Degradation of benzalkonium chloride coupling photochemical advanced oxidation technologies with biological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meichtry, J; Lamponi, A; Gautier, E; Acosta, T; Fiol, P; Curutchet, G; Candal, R; Litter, M

    2005-01-01

    The combination of Advanced Oxidation Technologies (AOTs) and biological processes can be visualized as a very successful technological option for treatment of effluents, because it combines high oxidizing technologies with a conventional, low-cost and well-established treatment technology.Photochemical AOTs, like UV-C with or without H 2 O 2 , photo-Fenton (PF, UV/H 2 O 2 /Fe(II-III)) and UV/TiO 2 heterogeneous photo catalysis involve the generation and use of powerful oxidizing species, mainly the hydroxyl radical.In almost all AOTs, it is possible to use sunlight. Benzalkonium chloride (dodecyldimetylbencylammonium chloride, BKC) is a widely used surfactant, which has many industrial applications.Due to its antibacterial effect, it cannot be eliminated from effluents by a biological treatment, and the complexity of its chemical structure makes necessary the use of drastic oxidizing treatments to achieve complete mineralization and to avoid the formation of byproducts even more toxic than the initial compound.In this study, different alternatives for BKC treatment using photochemical AOTs followed by bio catalytic techniques are presented.Three AOTs were tested: a) UV-C (254 nm, germicide lamp) with and without H 2 O 2 , b) PF (366 nm), c) UV/TiO 2 (254 and 366 nm). PF at a 15:1:1 H 2 O 2 total/BKC 0 /Fe 0 molar ratio at 55 degree C was the most efficient treatment in order to decrease the tensioactivity and the total organic carbon of the solution . The biocatalysis was studied in a reactor fitted with a biofilm of microorganisms coming from a sludge-water treatment plant. To evaluate the maximal BKC concentration that could be allowed to ingress to the biological reactor after the AOT treatment, the toxicity of solutions of different BKC concentrations was analyzed. The study of the relevant parameters of both processes and their combination allowed to establish the preliminary conditions for optimizing the pollutant degradation

  6. Functional brain imaging study on brain processes involved in visual awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Futakawa, Hiroyuki; Tokita, Shohko; Jung, Jiuk

    2003-01-01

    Recently, there has been great interest in visual awareness because it is thought that it may provide valuable information in understanding aspects of consciousness. An important but still controversial issue is what region in the brain is involved in visual awareness. When viewing ambiguous figures, observers can be aware of only one of multiple competing percepts at any given moment, but experience spontaneous alternations among the percepts over time. This phenomenon is known as multistable perceptions and thought to be essential in understanding the brain processes involved in visual awareness. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the brain activities associated with multistable perceptions. Two separate experiments were performed based on two different multistable phenomena known as binocular rivalry and perceptions of ambiguous figures. Significant differential activations in the parietal and prefrontal areas were commonly observed under multistable conditions compared to monostable control conditions in the two separate experiments. These findings suggest that neural processes in the parietal and prefrontal areas may be involved in perceptual alternations in situations involving multistable phenomena. (author)

  7. Attentional requirements in perceptual grouping depend on the processes involved in the organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashal, Einat; Yeshurun, Yaffa; Kimchi, Ruth

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies on the role of attention in perceptual grouping have yielded contradicting findings, some suggesting that grouping requires attention and others indicating that it does not. Kimchi and Razpurker-Apfeld (Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 11(4), 687-696, 2004) showed that attentional demands in grouping could vary according to the processes involved. The current study expanded on this, examining whether attentional demands vary for (a) different grouping principles and (b) as a function of contingent processing of element segregation and shape formation. We used the inattention paradigm with an online measure, in which participants engaged in an attentionally demanding change-detection task on a small matrix presented on a task-irrelevant backdrop of grouped elements. The backdrop grouping changed or stayed the same independently of any change in the target. Congruency effects produced by changes in backdrop grouping on target-change judgments indicate that the backdrop grouping was accomplished under inattention. The results showed congruency effects when grouping formed columns/rows by proximity but not by shape similarity, and when grouping into a distinct shape by collinearity did not involve element segregation. No congruency effects were found when grouping into a shape by collinearity or connectedness involved element segregation, except when connectedness was combined with color similarity. These results suggest that attentional demands depend on the combination of grouping principles and the complexity of the processes involved in the organization. These findings provide further support for the view that perceptual organization is a multiplicity of processes that vary in attentional demands.

  8. The difficulties experienced by nurses and healthcare staff involved in the process of breaking bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, Clare; Buchanan, Jean; Tod, Angela Mary

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the difficulties experienced by nurses and healthcare professionals when engaging in the process of breaking bad news. The challenges faced by staff when breaking bad news have previously been researched in relation to particular settings or participants. This study involved staff from diverse settings and roles to develop broader insights into the range of difficulties experienced in clinical practice. The study used a descriptive survey design involving self-reported written accounts and framework analysis. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire containing a free text section that asked participants to describe a difficult experience they had encountered when involved in the process of breaking bad news. Data were collected from healthcare staff from hospital, community, hospice and care home settings attending training days on breaking bad news between April 2011 and April 2014. Multiple inter-related factors presented challenges to staff engaging in activities associated with breaking bad news. Traditional subjects such as diagnostic and treatment information were described but additional topics were identified such as the impact of illness and care at the end of life. A descriptive framework was developed that summarizes the factors that contribute to creating difficult experiences for staff when breaking bad news. The framework provides insights into the scope of the challenges faced by staff when they engage in the process of breaking bad news. This provides the foundation for developing interventions to support staff that more closely matches their experiences in clinical practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Removal of reactive blue 19 from wastewaters by physicochemical and biological processes - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, M.; Farooq, R.; Shaheen, A.

    2011-01-01

    The developments for the removal of reactive blue 19 dye (RB 19) by various physicochemical methods such as sonolysis, photo catalysis, electrochemical, ozonolysis, adsorption, hydrolysis and biological methods like microbial degradation, bio sorption, chemical and biological reductive decolorisation has been presented. It was found that none of the individual physical and chemical technique can be used in wastewater treatment with good economics and high energy efficiency. For example, the application of adsorption method is restricted as adsorbent materials requires frequent regenerations; ozonolysis and photo catalysis processes can efficiently decolorize and degrade the dye but these face operational difficulties are not cost effective. Similarly the performance of biological treatment processes is required to enhance by developing efficient strains of bacteria, fungi. The comparison of physiochemical and biological treatment of RB 19 dye suggested that biological treatment of RB 19 dye is comparatively cost-effective process. However, the integrated approach can be used to decolorize and degrade the dye by combining both physicochemical and biological processes. (author)

  10. Simulation and Analysis of Complex Biological Processes: an Organisation Modelling Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores how the dynamics of complex biological processes can be modelled and simulated as an organisation of multiple agents. This modelling perspective identifies organisational structure occurring in complex decentralised processes and handles complexity of the analysis of the dynamics

  11. WE-DE-202-03: Modeling of Biological Processes - What Happens After Early Molecular Damage?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, S.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer has been established as a highly precise and effective way to eradicate a localized region of diseased tissue. To achieve further significant gains in the therapeutic ratio, we need to move towards biologically optimized treatment planning. To achieve this goal, we need to understand how the radiation-type dependent patterns of induced energy depositions within the cell (physics) connect via molecular, cellular and tissue reactions to treatment outcome such as tumor control and undesirable effects on normal tissue. Several computational biology approaches have been developed connecting physics to biology. Monte Carlo simulations are the most accurate method to calculate physical dose distributions at the nanometer scale, however simulations at the DNA scale are slow and repair processes are generally not simulated. Alternative models that rely on the random formation of individual DNA lesions within one or two turns of the DNA have been shown to reproduce the clusters of DNA lesions, including single strand breaks (SSBs), double strand breaks (DSBs) without the need for detailed track structure simulations. Efficient computational simulations of initial DNA damage induction facilitate computational modeling of DNA repair and other molecular and cellular processes. Mechanistic, multiscale models provide a useful conceptual framework to test biological hypotheses and help connect fundamental information about track structure and dosimetry at the sub-cellular level to dose-response effects on larger scales. In this symposium we will learn about the current state of the art of computational approaches estimating radiation damage at the cellular and sub-cellular scale. How can understanding the physics interactions at the DNA level be used to predict biological outcome? We will discuss if and how such calculations are relevant to advance our understanding of radiation damage and its repair, or, if the underlying biological

  12. Moving beyond a descriptive aquatic toxicology: the value of biological process and trait information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segner, Helmut

    2011-10-01

    In order to improve the ability to link chemical exposure to toxicological and ecological effects, aquatic toxicology will have to move from observing what chemical concentrations induce adverse effects to more explanatory approaches, that are concepts which build on knowledge of biological processes and pathways leading from exposure to adverse effects, as well as on knowledge on stressor vulnerability as given by the genetic, physiological and ecological (e.g., life history) traits of biota. Developing aquatic toxicology in this direction faces a number of challenges, including (i) taking into account species differences in toxicant responses on the basis of the evolutionarily developed diversity of phenotypic vulnerability to environmental stressors, (ii) utilizing diversified biological response profiles to serve as biological read across for prioritizing chemicals, categorizing them according to modes of action, and for guiding targeted toxicity evaluation; (iii) prediction of ecological consequences of toxic exposure from knowledge of how biological processes and phenotypic traits lead to effect propagation across the levels of biological hierarchy; and (iv) the search for concepts to assess the cumulative impact of multiple stressors. An underlying theme in these challenges is that, in addition to the question of what the chemical does to the biological receptor, we should give increasing emphasis to the question how the biological receptor handles the chemicals, i.e., through which pathways the initial chemical-biological interaction extends to the adverse effects, how this extension is modulated by adaptive or compensatory processes as well as by phenotypic traits of the biological receptor. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Involving the stakeholders in the curriculum process: a recipe for success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Johannes J; Fourie, Willem J; Watson, Sheona; Gay, H

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Nursing and Health Studies at the Manukau Institute of Technology (MIT) in Auckland, New Zealand, decided to involve stakeholders from the health care sector in developing a new curriculum. After implementing the new curriculum, the process was evaluated using a content analysis as qualitative research design. Seven individual interviews and one Focus group interview were conducted with the stakeholders to determine their experiences during the process. Ethical permission was sought from the MIT ethical committee. The analyses of the collected data enabled the researchers to identify six main categories. The categories were: "Existing Programme", "The need to change", "The curriculum development process", "The stakeholders", "Personnel", and "Ethnic minorities". From the collected data, it was clear that a new curriculum was necessary to enable the graduates to meet the health care needs of the New Zealand population, especially after the primary health care policy was introduced in New Zealand. It was also clear that the curriculum development process could be a painful process for all concerned, but a strong leadership could cement a feeling of "collegiality" between stakeholders and teaching staff. The importance of considering the rights of ethnic minorities is clearly stated in the Treaty of Waitangi, safeguarding the rights of the Maori People, and therefore applied rigorously in the development process. In this project, the collaborative process was very successful, and the stakeholders actually expressed feelings of "Ownership" of the curriculum.

  14. Forms And Methods Of Modern Russian Youth Involvement Into The Electoral Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey D. Maslov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article authors analyzes forms and methods of modern Russian youth involvement in the electoral process. Involving young people in the electoral process is directly related to the problem of increasing the level of political culture in the society. This article presents the main forms of work to attract young people to participate in elections in our country, according to the Central Election Commission (CEC of Russia, some of the regional election commissions, the Russian Public Opinion Research Center (WCIOM. Authors note that at present there are more than one hundred and sixty legislative acts of the Russian Federation, which reflect certain aspects of the state youth policy. All these measures stimulate the political activity of young people, but in our opinion, that is not enough. The fundamental change in the attitude of young people to politics, to the institution of elections is possible only when young people feel like a real part and the subject of transformation processes in our country. In conclusion authors summarizes, that a fundamental change in the relationship of young people to politics, the institution of elections is possible only, when very young feel a real party and the subject of transformation processes in our country. This is possible only when the state is really and not formally prioritizes youth policy. Young people should have a daily state support for education, starting a business, implementation of acquired skills for a decent fee, starting a family, buying a house, etc.

  15. Neural correlates of three cognitive processes involved in theory of mind and discourse comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nan; Yang, Xiaohong; Li, Jing; Wang, Shaonan; Hua, Huimin; Ma, Yujun; Li, Xingshan

    2018-01-29

    Neuroimaging studies have found that theory of mind (ToM) and discourse comprehension involve similar brain regions. These brain regions may be associated with three cognitive components that are necessarily or frequently involved in ToM and discourse comprehension, including social concept representation and retrieval, domain-general semantic integration, and domain-specific integration of social semantic contents. Using fMRI, we investigated the neural correlates of these three cognitive components by exploring how discourse topic (social/nonsocial) and discourse processing period (ending/beginning) modulate brain activation in a discourse comprehension (and also ToM) task. Different sets of brain areas showed sensitivity to discourse topic, discourse processing period, and the interaction between them, respectively. The most novel finding was that the right temporoparietal junction and middle temporal gyrus showed sensitivity to discourse processing period only during social discourse comprehension, indicating that they selectively contribute to domain-specific semantic integration. Our finding indicates how different domains of semantic information are processed and integrated in the brain and provides new insights into the neural correlates of ToM and discourse comprehension.

  16. The Thatcher illusion reveals orientation dependence in brain regions involved in processing facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psalta, Lilia; Young, Andrew W; Thompson, Peter; Andrews, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Although the processing of facial identity is known to be sensitive to the orientation of the face, it is less clear whether orientation sensitivity extends to the processing of facial expressions. To address this issue, we used functional MRI (fMRI) to measure the neural response to the Thatcher illusion. This illusion involves a local inversion of the eyes and mouth in a smiling face-when the face is upright, the inverted features make it appear grotesque, but when the face is inverted, the inversion is no longer apparent. Using an fMRI-adaptation paradigm, we found a release from adaptation in the superior temporal sulcus-a region directly linked to the processing of facial expressions-when the images were upright and they changed from a normal to a Thatcherized configuration. However, this release from adaptation was not evident when the faces were inverted. These results show that regions involved in processing facial expressions display a pronounced orientation sensitivity.

  17. On the analysis of complex biological supply chains: From Process Systems Engineering to Quantitative Systems Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rohit T; Scherholz, Megerle L; Hartmanshenn, Clara; Bae, Seul-A; Androulakis, Ioannis P

    2017-12-05

    The use of models in biology has become particularly relevant as it enables investigators to develop a mechanistic framework for understanding the operating principles of living systems as well as in quantitatively predicting their response to both pathological perturbations and pharmacological interventions. This application has resulted in a synergistic convergence of systems biology and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling techniques that has led to the emergence of quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP). In this review, we discuss how the foundational principles of chemical process systems engineering inform the progressive development of more physiologically-based systems biology models.

  18. Operation and control of SBR processes for enhanced biological nutrient removal from wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Puig Broch, Sebastià

    2008-01-01

    In the last decades, the awareness of environmental issues has increased in society considerably. There is an increasing need to improve the effluent quality of domestic wastewater treatment processes. This thesis describes the application of the Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) technology for Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) from the wastewater. In particular, the work presented evolves from the nitrogen removal to the biological nutrient removal (i.e. nitrogen plus phosphorous removal) with ...

  19. Stakeholders and public involvement in river management: heterogeneous acceptance of participatory processes among Swiss institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buletti, Nora; Utz, Stephan; Ejderyan, Olivier; Graefe, Olivier; Lane, Stuart; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    This research explores participatory processes in the domain of river management in Switzerland. The main objective is to better understand how participatory processes are incorporated into river management practice. Switzerland being a federal state, river management is a cantonal (regional) responsibility, under the supervision (and co-funding) of the State (a Confederation). The federal funding includes the opportunity to fund additional participatory activities to aid river management, not least because the federal authorities consider the involvement of wider stakeholders and the public in decision-making as a means of aiding the progression of projects. This is a particularly important goal in a Swiss setting where direct democracy (the possibility of calling the decision of any level of government into question through a popular vote) means that a reasonable level of project acceptance is a necessary element of project progression. River management in Switzerland now includes both flood protection and river restoration objectives, which has served to increase its controversy: river corridors contain competing interests with different objectives (e.g. ecological enhancement, protection of agricultural land, flood risk reduction). We were asked by the Confederation to evaluate participatory processes it sponsored and one element of this evaluation aimed to develop a typology of stakeholder participation. We conducted interviews with the 26 cantonal officers in charge of river management. These interviews were based upon thematically structured open ended questions, with the responses analyzed qualitatively. We have identified significant divergence in the implementation of participatory processes between the cantons. These appear to be related to two factors: (1) the canton's historical experience of river management; and (2) the methods used to select stakeholders for inclusion in the decisional process. Cantons that refer to guidelines or pre

  20. The interactive alphabet with augmented reality as a form of involving children in educational process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir D. Sekerin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research objective: to prove the expediency of using technologies with augmented reality in educational process of children in order to increase the level of their involvement and to improve the efficiency of educational process. Materials and methods. The information base of the research was made by scientific publications, information and analytical reviews, periodicals, monographs, information placed in the Internet network, concerning practical application of technologies with augmented reality in educational process, descriptive and comparative methods of analysis form the methodical basis of this research. Results. It is shown that in educational process of children it is expedient to use the modern technological achievements allowing organizing productive interactions and relationship of the students among themselves and with teachers, lecturers. Educational, business, role-playing games, discussions promoting acceleration of acquiring  a new experience and receiving new knowledge are the perspective formats of realizing the educational process. The world of augmented reality has the following properties: combines the real and virtual, interacts in real time mode, and functions in three-dimensional space. The advantages of the Interactive alphabet on the basis of the augmented reality technology are as follows: 1 security of strong emotional responses; 2 the involvement and interactivity promoting steady memorizing; 3 possibilities of interaction with the artificial world by means of gadgets; 4 Digital and offline communication; 5 possibility of carrying out virtual lessons. One of the main features of virtual reality is the feeling of participation and the opportunity to observe everything from the first person. It makes expedient to carry out lessons entirely in the virtual reality. Achievement of full involvement in educational process promotes increase of motivation and progress in knowledge acquisition.  The use of the augmented

  1. Sulfomethylated lignosulfonates as additives in oil recovery processes involving chemical recovery agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalfoglou, G.

    1981-05-26

    A process for producing petroleum from subterranean formations is disclosed wherein production from the formation is obtained by driving a fluid from an injection well to a production well. The process involves injecting via the injection well into the formation an aqueous solution of sulfomethylated lignosulfonate salt as a sacrificial agent to inhibit the deposition of surfactant and/or polymer on the reservoir matrix. The process may best be carried out by injecting the sulfomethylated lignosulfonates into the formation through the injection well mixed with either a polymer, a surfactant solution and/or a micellar dispersion. This mixture would then be followed by a drive fluid such as water to push the chemicals to the production well.

  2. Sulfomethylated lignosulfonates as additives in oil recovery processes involving chemical recovery agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalfoglou, G.

    1979-10-30

    A process for producing petroleum from subterranean formations is disclosed wherein production from the formation is obtained by driving a fluid from an injection well to a production well. The process involves injecting via the injection well into the formation an aqueous solution of sulfomethylated lignosulfonate salt as a sacrificial agent to inhibit the deposition of surfactant and/or polymer on the reservoir matrix. The process may best be carried out by injecting the sulfomethylated lignosulfonates into the formation through the injection well mixed with either a polymer, a surfactant solution and/or a micellar dispersion. This mixture would then be followed by a drive fluid such as water to push the chemicals to the production well.

  3. Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I am particularly happy that the Academy is bringing out this document by Professor M S. Valiathan on Ayurvedic Biology. It is an effort to place before the scientific community, especially that of India, the unique scientific opportunities that arise out of viewing Ayurveda from the perspective of contemporary science, its tools ...

  4. EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT IN A CHANGE PROCESS - A CASE STUDY FOR ROMANIAN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prediscan Mariana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Innovation, competitive advantage, change are some concepts that should be on every organization's agenda, due to the fact the global market leads to global competition so in order to increase the market share, turnover or profit organizations have to incorporate those concepts in their strategies. The outside environment is very unstable and things are evolving very fast so managers from all levels have to acknowledge the importance of change and to identify as soon as possible several new ideas that should be the subject of different change processes. Openness to organizational change has become a mandatory feature for those organizations that want to survive and adapt to the external pressure, helping them to be efficient. Even if in many cases managers are the initiators of change, this process is very complex and needs support and involvement from all the members of the organization, so the employee's attitude and commitment to change is crucial. In many cases employees have a negative attitude towards change and manifest a strong resistance, due to the fact that they are not consulted and are not involved in the process of the identification for the need of change. Without understanding and knowing very well what it is expected from them, employees are afraid of the unknown and prefer to perform their tasks as they did before. Creating a climate and a culture for change is very important, because like this change will be something normal, continuous and people will feel comfortable with any change initiatives, without being surprised, confused or scared. Even if any change process should improve the current state of the organization, sometimes change efforts fail because the ones that resist change are stronger than the ones supporting change. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how often are Romanian employees involved in the processes of change and how important is the role they play. We have also tried to see the Romanian manager

  5. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics transport and rate processes in physical, chemical and biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Demirel, Yasar

    2014-01-01

    Natural phenomena consist of simultaneously occurring transport processes and chemical reactions. These processes may interact with each other and may lead to self-organized structures, fluctuations, instabilities, and evolutionary systems. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics, 3rd edition emphasizes the unifying role of thermodynamics in analyzing the natural phenomena. This third edition updates and expands on the first and second editions by focusing on the general balance equations for coupled processes of physical, chemical, and biological systems. The new edition contains a new chapte

  6. A quality assurance program for environmental data operations involving waste management processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.L.; Blacker, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the 'core' elements needed in an effective Quality Program for environmental data operations involving nuclear, mixed, or non-nuclear wastes. For each core element, this paper examines the minimum components needed for an effective Quality Program for EDOs, and compares approaches to Quality Programs currently required by the U.S. DOE and the U.S. EPA. The comparison suggests how the Quality Program requirements used at DOE, and defined by NQA-1 and its supplements, and those used by EPA through its QAMS program guidance, may provide a basis for developing a harmonized Quality Program for EDOs involving any waste management processes, nuclear, non-nuclear, or mixed. (orig./DG)

  7. [Gender centrality in the process of identity construction of women involved in drug trafficking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcinski, Mariana

    2009-01-01

    The present article aims to discuss the specificities of crimes perpetrated by women, especially the female participation in drug trafficking in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In addition to that, it intends to distinguish female from male criminality. The study is based on reflections made through interviews conducted with eight women presenting a history of involvement in drug trafficking in the slums of Rio de Janeiro. Through a systemic discursive approach(1), the analysis investigates the micro and macro elements involved in the process of the construction of the participants' identity. Results show that women's motivations to enter, remain and drop drug trafficking are in great part determined by gender, which along with color and class shapes the roles performed and the places occupied by men and women in society.

  8. Landauer in the Age of Synthetic Biology: Energy Consumption and Information Processing in Biochemical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Pankaj; Lang, Alex H.; Schwab, David J.

    2016-03-01

    A central goal of synthetic biology is to design sophisticated synthetic cellular circuits that can perform complex computations and information processing tasks in response to specific inputs. The tremendous advances in our ability to understand and manipulate cellular information processing networks raises several fundamental physics questions: How do the molecular components of cellular circuits exploit energy consumption to improve information processing? Can one utilize ideas from thermodynamics to improve the design of synthetic cellular circuits and modules? Here, we summarize recent theoretical work addressing these questions. Energy consumption in cellular circuits serves five basic purposes: (1) increasing specificity, (2) manipulating dynamics, (3) reducing variability, (4) amplifying signal, and (5) erasing memory. We demonstrate these ideas using several simple examples and discuss the implications of these theoretical ideas for the emerging field of synthetic biology. We conclude by discussing how it may be possible to overcome these limitations using "post-translational" synthetic biology that exploits reversible protein modification.

  9. Effect of Process-Oriented Guided-Inquiry Learning on Non-majors Biology Students' Understanding of Biological Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Breann M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of process-oriented guided-inquiry learning (POGIL) on non-majors college biology students' understanding of biological classification. This study addressed an area of science instruction, POGIL in the non-majors college biology laboratory, which has yet to be qualitatively and quantitatively researched. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods approach was used. Students' understanding of biological classification was measured in two areas: scores on pre and posttests (consisting of 11 multiple choice questions), and conceptions of classification as elicited in pre and post interviews and instructor reflections. Participants were Minnesota State University, Mankato students enrolled in BIOL 100 Summer Session. One section was taught with the traditional curriculum (n = 6) and the other section in the POGIL curriculum (n = 10) developed by the researcher. Three students from each section were selected to take part in pre and post interviews. There were no significant differences within each teaching method (p group may have scored higher on the posttest (M = 8.830 +/- .477 vs. M = 7.330 +/- .330; z =-1.729, p = .084) and the traditional group may have scored higher on the pretest than the posttest (M = 8.333 +/- .333 vs M = 7.333 +/- .333; z = -1.650 , p = .099). Two themes emerged after the interviews and instructor reflections: 1) After instruction students had a more extensive understanding of classification in three areas: vocabulary terms, physical characteristics, and types of evidence used to classify. Both groups extended their understanding, but only POGIL students could explain how molecular evidence is used in classification. 2) The challenges preventing students from understanding classification were: familiar animal categories and aquatic habitats, unfamiliar organisms, combining and subdividing initial groupings, and the hierarchical nature of classification. The POGIL students were the only group to

  10. An overview of biological processes and their potential for CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Amin; Shamiri, Ahmad; Talaiekhozani, Amirreza; Eshtiaghi, Nicky; Aghamohammadi, Nasrin; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine

    2016-12-01

    The extensive amount of available information on global warming suggests that this issue has become prevalent worldwide. Majority of countries have issued laws and policies in response to this concern by requiring their industrial sectors to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, such as CO2. Thus, introducing new and more effective treatment methods, such as biological techniques, is crucial to control the emission of greenhouse gases. Many studies have demonstrated CO2 fixation using photo-bioreactors and raceway ponds, but a comprehensive review is yet to be published on biological CO2 fixation. A comprehensive review of CO2 fixation through biological process is presented in this paper as biological processes are ideal to control both organic and inorganic pollutants. This process can also cover the classification of methods, functional mechanisms, designs, and their operational parameters, which are crucial for efficient CO2 fixation. This review also suggests the bio-trickling filter process as an appropriate approach in CO2 fixation to assist in creating a pollution-free environment. Finally, this paper introduces optimum designs, growth rate models, and CO2 fixation of microalgae, functions, and operations in biological CO2 fixation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Adolescent fathers: knowledge of and involvement in the breast feeding process in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres de Lacerda, Ana Catarina; Lucena de Vasconcelos, Maria Gorete; Nascimento de Alencar, Eloine; Osório, Mônica Maria; Pontes, Cleide Maria

    2014-03-01

    to understand the ways in which adolescent fathers participate in the breast feeding process in the family environment in North-eastern Brazil. a descriptive, exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken involving 10 couples with infants aged 6-8 months living in a single community in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with questions to guide the interviewer. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis, and interpreted under the theoretical reference of being an adolescent father within the context of breast feeding. from the data collected, three themes were identified: knowledge of the benefits of breast feeding for the child's health; discontinued participation of the father in breast feeding during the pregnancy-childbearing cycle; and exclusion of the adolescent father from the breast feeding process. The adolescent fathers knew about the benefits of breast feeding in terms of the child's health, but did not mention benefits for the mother, the family or society. For some adolescent fathers, their participation in the breast feeding process started during pregnancy, whereas for others, it was only initiated after the infant was born. One of the fathers was prevented, by his wife and mother-in-law, from participating in the breast feeding process. the involvement of adolescent fathers in the breast feeding process oscillated during the pregnancy-childbearing cycle. This may be due to the patriarchal cultural heritage, Brazilian paternity laws, and the fact that these fathers were adolescents. This study showed that adolescent parents were knowledgeable about breast feeding. Finally, fathers want a new model of parenting in which the man participates in child care. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Recent advances in the involvement of long non-coding RNAs in neural stem cell biology and brain pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne eAntoniou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Exploration of non-coding genome has recently uncovered a growing list of formerly unknown regulatory long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs with important functions in stem cell pluripotency, development and homeostasis of several tissues. Although thousands of lncRNAs are expressed in mammalian brain in a highly patterned manner, their roles in brain development have just begun to emerge. Recent data suggest key roles for these molecules in gene regulatory networks controlling neuronal and glial cell differentiation. Analysis of the genomic distribution of genes encoding for lncRNAs indicates a physical association of these regulatory RNAs with transcription factors (TFs with well-established roles in neural differentiation, suggesting that lncRNAs and TFs may form coherent regulatory networks with important functions in neural stem cells (NSCs. Additionally, many studies show that lncRNAs are involved in the pathophysiology of brain-related diseases/disorders. Here we discuss these observations and investigate the links between lncRNAs, brain development and brain-related diseases. Understanding the functions of lncRNAs in NSCs and brain organogenesis could revolutionize the basic principles of developmental biology and neuroscience.

  13. A Traveller Information System: Minimisation of the Number of Graphs’ Nodes Involved When Processing Route Requests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendaoud Zakaria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of people using public transport is continuously increasing. Transport companies want to fulfil travellers’ expectations wherever possible. However, the great number of public transport companies operating in the same area can sometimes confuse travellers as to which route they should take and how to obtain the information relative to their journey. In this paper we suggest integrating several traveller information systems from different companies into the same multimodal information system, offering companies the choice not to share their data. This encourages them to join the system. Additionally, we have minimised the number of nodes involved when processing travellers’ requests in order to simplify the calculation process. To put our plan into action, we have opted for a multi-agent system coupled with the Voronoi decomposition for managing the network.

  14. Brushing Your Spacecrafts Teeth: A Review of Biological Reduction Processes for Planetary Protection Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugel, D.E. (Betsy); Rummel, J. D.; Conley, C. A.

    2017-01-01

    Much like keeping your teeth clean, where you brush away biofilms that your dentist calls plaque, there are various methods to clean spaceflight hardware of biological contamination, known as biological reduction processes. Different approaches clean your hardwares teeth in different ways and with different levels of effectiveness. We know that brushing at home with a simple toothbrush is convenient and has a different level of impact vs. getting your teeth cleaned at the dentist. In the same way, there are some approaches to biological reduction that may require simple tools or more complex implementation approaches (think about sonicating or just soaking your dentures, vs. brushing them). There are also some that are more effective for different degrees of cleanliness and still some that have materials compatibility concerns. In this article, we review known and NASA-certified approaches for biological reduction, pointing out materials compatibility concerns and areas where additional research is needed.

  15. Silicon Regulates Potential Genes Involved in Major Physiological Processes in Plants to Combat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abinaya Manivannan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si, the quasi-essential element occurs as the second most abundant element in the earth's crust. Biological importance of Si in plant kingdom has become inevitable particularly under stressed environment. In general, plants are classified as high, medium, and low silicon accumulators based on the ability of roots to absorb Si. The uptake of Si directly influence the positive effects attributed to the plant but Si supplementation proves to mitigate stress and recover plant growth even in low accumulating plants like tomato. The application of Si in soil as well as soil-less cultivation systems have resulted in the enhancement of quantitative and qualitative traits of plants even under stressed environment. Silicon possesses several mechanisms to regulate the physiological, biochemical, and antioxidant metabolism in plants to combat abiotic and biotic stresses. Nevertheless, very few reports are available on the aspect of Si-mediated molecular regulation of genes with potential role in stress tolerance. The recent advancements in the era of genomics and transcriptomics have opened an avenue for the determination of molecular rationale associated with the Si amendment to the stress alleviation in plants. Therefore, the present endeavor has attempted to describe the recent discoveries related to the regulation of vital genes involved in photosynthesis, transcription regulation, defense, water transport, polyamine synthesis, and housekeeping genes during abiotic and biotic stress alleviation by Si. Furthermore, an overview of Si-mediated modulation of multiple genes involved in stress response pathways such as phenylpropanoid pathway, jasmonic acid pathway, ABA-dependent or independent regulatory pathway have been discussed in this review.

  16. Silicon Regulates Potential Genes Involved in Major Physiological Processes in Plants to Combat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, Abinaya; Ahn, Yul-Kuyn

    2017-01-01

    Silicon (Si), the quasi-essential element occurs as the second most abundant element in the earth's crust. Biological importance of Si in plant kingdom has become inevitable particularly under stressed environment. In general, plants are classified as high, medium, and low silicon accumulators based on the ability of roots to absorb Si. The uptake of Si directly influence the positive effects attributed to the plant but Si supplementation proves to mitigate stress and recover plant growth even in low accumulating plants like tomato. The application of Si in soil as well as soil-less cultivation systems have resulted in the enhancement of quantitative and qualitative traits of plants even under stressed environment. Silicon possesses several mechanisms to regulate the physiological, biochemical, and antioxidant metabolism in plants to combat abiotic and biotic stresses. Nevertheless, very few reports are available on the aspect of Si-mediated molecular regulation of genes with potential role in stress tolerance. The recent advancements in the era of genomics and transcriptomics have opened an avenue for the determination of molecular rationale associated with the Si amendment to the stress alleviation in plants. Therefore, the present endeavor has attempted to describe the recent discoveries related to the regulation of vital genes involved in photosynthesis, transcription regulation, defense, water transport, polyamine synthesis, and housekeeping genes during abiotic and biotic stress alleviation by Si. Furthermore, an overview of Si-mediated modulation of multiple genes involved in stress response pathways such as phenylpropanoid pathway, jasmonic acid pathway, ABA-dependent or independent regulatory pathway have been discussed in this review.

  17. Qualified public involvement in the decision making process of siting a waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Danielle Monegalha; Almeida, Ivan Pedro Salati de

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to identify the most important characteristics required for the qualification of local communities for participating in the process of defining a specific site for a radioactive waste repository. It also compares the strategies used by Hungary, United Kingdom and Belgium to stimulate the public participation in the decision-making process of building and operating a radioactive waste repository, considering both the stepwise process and the spontaneous candidacy. Two main aspects are discussed as prerequisites to constitute a qualified public. The first aspect is how well the person or entity can be considered an effective representative of the community affected by the repository. This means the conditions the representative has to speak on behalf of the community and participate in the decision making process as its voice. The second characteristic is the level and quality of the information that the community and its representatives must have to participate actively in the decision-making process and what can be done to improve this status. Referring to the strategy to public involvement, this paper discusses the importance of transparency in the process, aiming the credibility of the entrepreneur as the first pace to gaining the confidence of the public affected by the project. Implementing an open dialog and listening to the needs and claims of the population are the first steps to being accepted as a true partner of the community. Preliminary discussions and explanations are important to introduce the subject and to reduce beliefs of false threats in the affected community. The constitution of a local committee is suggested, to act as a legal and formal channel to facilitate the partnership between local community, neighbors and the entrepreneur in order to achieve a positive result in the whole process. (author)

  18. Combined heterogeneous Electro-Fenton and biological process for the treatment of stabilized landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiju, Archa; Gandhimathi, R; Ramesh, S T; Nidheesh, P V

    2018-03-15

    Treatment of stabilized landfill leachate is a great challenge due to its poor biodegradability. Present study made an attempt to treat this wastewater by combining electro-Fenton (E-Fenton) and biological process. E-Fenton treatment was applied prior to biological process to enhance the biodegradability of leachate, which will be beneficial for the subsequent biological process. This study also investigates the efficiency of iron molybdophosphate (FeMoPO) nanoparticles as a heterogeneous catalyst in E-Fenton process. The effects of initial pH, catalyst dosage, applied voltage and electrode spacing on Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency were analyzed to determine the optimum conditions. Heterogeneous E-Fenton process gave 82% COD removal at pH 2, catalyst dosage of 50 mg/L, voltage 5 V, electrode spacing 3 cm and electrode area 25 cm 2 . Combined E-Fenton and biological treatment resulted an overall COD removal of 97%, bringing down the final COD to 192 mg/L. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Decision process involved in preparing the Shippingport reactor pressure vessel for transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphie, W.E.

    1989-01-01

    The most significant part of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project was the one-piece removal and shipment of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Implicit in the RPV transport was the task of qualifying the RPV as a waste package acceptable for shipment. Soon after physical decommissioning began on September 1985, questions regarding the packaging certification and transport of the RPV from Shippingport, Pennsylvania to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Waste Burial Site necessitated reexamination of several planning assumptions. A complete reassessment of the regulatory requirements governing the RPV shipment resulted in a programmatic decision to obtain a type B(U) Certificate of Compliance and abandon the originally planned US Department of Transportation (DOT) low specific activity (LSA) shipment. The decision process resulting in this conclusion was extensive and involved many organizations and agencies. Incidental to this process, several subtle certification issues were identified that required resolution. Some of these issues involved the definition of LSA material for large packages; interpretation and compliance with DOE, DOT and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations for the transport of radioactive material; incorporation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations by the Panama Canal; and DOE policy requiring advance notification to states of radioactive waste shipments. 2 figs

  20. Aspects of Information Architecture involved in process mapping in Military Organizations under the semiotic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mac Amaral Cartaxo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The description of the processes to represent the activities in an organization has important call semiotic, It is the flowcharts of uses, management reports and the various forms of representation of the strategies used. The subsequent interpretation of the organization's employees involved in learning tasks and the symbols used to translate the meanings of management practices is essential role for the organization. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify evidence of conceptual and empirical, on aspects of information architecture involved in the mapping process carried out in military organizations under the semiotic perspective. Methodology: The research is characterized as qualitative, case study and the data collection technique was the semi-structured interview, applied to management advisors. Results: The main results indicate that management practices described with the use of pictorial symbols and different layouts have greater impact to explain the relevance of management practices and indicators. Conclusion: With regard to the semiotic appeal, it was found that the impact of a management report is significant due to the use of signs and layout that stimulate further reading by simplifying complex concepts in tables, diagrams summarizing lengthy descriptions.

  1. Decision process involved in preparing the Shippingport reactor pressure vessel for transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphie, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    The most significant part of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project was the one-piece removal and shipment of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Implicit in the RPV transport was the task of qualifying the RPV as a waste package acceptable for shipment. Soon after physical decommissioning began on September, 1985, questions regarding the packaging certification and transport of the RPV from Shippingport, Pennsylvania to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford waste burial site necessitated reexamination of several planning assumptions. A complete reassessment of the regulatory requirements governing the RPV shipment resulting in a programmatic decision to obtain a Type B(U) Certification of Compliance and abandon the originally planned U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) low specific activity (LSA) shipment. The decision process resulting in this conclusion was extensive and involved many organizations and agencies. Incidental to this process, several subtle certification issues were identified that required resolution. Some of these issues involved the definition of LSA material for large packages; interpretation and compliance with DOE, DOT and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations for the transport of radioactive material; incorporation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations by the Panama Canal; and DOE policy requiring advance notification to states of radioactive waste shipments

  2. Numerical simulations of industrial processes involving fluid dynamics, combustion and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducrocq, J. [Air Liquide, Centre de Recherche Claude-Delorme, Jouy-en-Josas (France)

    1997-12-31

    Moving out of the scientific community research laboratories, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software packages are now allowing industrials to analyse and optimize industrial processes involving the use of gases, liquids and even some two-phase fluids. Their attractiveness and their impact stems out from the opportunity they offer to bring insight into an existing unit, or even at the design stage, by displaying the spatial distribution of process relevant variables such as temperature, concentration. The filling of the spacing in between a two-layer window is a simple example. This new opportunity of visualisation is at times an unique way, when the process environment is an opaque one, such as liquid metal flowing into a tundish or when measurements of flows may be a long and tedious work, such as flows within water treatment basins. This environment we are to investigate in order to optimize can also be a harsh one, due to its high temperature level for example. Such are burners. But then pure fluid flow analysis, such as cold flow water models, has too many shortcomings. The description of combustion processes and of radiation become a necessary feature in order to describe thermal heat transfer or to locate `hot spots`. Such numerical models showing our oxycombustion expertise in glass melting will be presented. (author)

  3. Degrading organic micropollutants: The next challenge in the evolution of biological wastewater treatment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh eSinghal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Global water scarcity is driving the need for identifying new water source. Wastewater could be a potential water resource if appropriate treatment technologies could be developed. One of the barriers to obtaining high quality water from wastewater arises from the presence of organic micropollutants, which are biologically active at trace levels. Removal of these compounds from wastewater by current physico-chemical technologies is prohibitively expensive. While biological treatment processes are comparatively cheap, current systems are not capable of degrading the wide range of organic micropollutants present in wastewater. As current wastewater treatment processes were developed for treating conventional pollutants present at mg/L levels, degrading the ng/L levels of micropollutants will require a different approach to system design and operation. In this paper we discuss strategies that could be employed to develop biological wastewater treatment systems capable of degrading organic micropollutants.

  4. Processes that Drove the Transition from Chemistry to Biology: Concepts and Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Two properties are particularly germane to the transition from chemistry to biology. One is the emergence of complex molecules (polymers) capable of performing non-trivial functions, such as catalysis, energy transduction or transport across cell walls. The other is the ability of several functions to work in concert to provide reproductive advantage to systems hosting these functions. Biological systems exhibit these properties at remarkable levels of efficiency and accuracy in a way that appears effortless. However, dissection of these properties reveals great complexities that are involved. This opens a question: how a simple, ancestral system could have acquired the required properties? Other questions follow. What are the chances that a functional polymer emerges at random? What is the minimum structural complexity of a polymer to carry out a function at a reasonable level of efficiency? Can we identify concrete, protobiologically plausible mechanisms that yield advantageous coupling between different functions? These and similar questions are at the core of the main topic of this session: how soulless chemistry became life? Clearly, we do not have complete answers to any of these questions. However, in recent years a number of new and sometimes unexpected clues have been brought to light. Of particular interest are proteins because they are the main functional polymers in contemporary cells. The emergence of protein functions is a puzzle. It is widely accepted that a well ]defined, compact structure (fold) is a prerequisite for function. It is equally widely accepted that compact folds are rare among random amino acid polymers. Then, how did protein functionality start? According to one hypothesis well folded were preceded by their poorly folded, yet still functional ancestors. Only recently, however, experimental evidence supporting this hypothesis has been presented. In particular, a small enzyme capable of ligating two RNA fragments with the rate of 106

  5. Degradation of chlorinated paraben by integrated irradiation and biological treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shizong; Wang, Jianlong; Sun, Yuliang

    2017-03-15

    Chlorinated paraben, namely, methyl 3, 5-dichloro-4-hydroxybenzoate (MDHB) is the by-product of chlorination disinfection of paraben and frequently detected in the aquatic environments, which exhibited higher persistence and toxicity than paraben itself. In this paper, the combined irradiation and biological treatment process was employed to investigate the removal of MDHB from aqueous solution. The results showed that the removal efficiency of MDHB and total organic carbon (TOC) by irradiation process increased with radiation dose no matter what the initial concentration of MDHB was. The maximum removal efficiency of MDHB was 100%, 91.1%, 93%, respectively, for the initial concentration of MDHB of 1 mg/L, 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L with the radiation dose of 800 Gy. However, the maximum removal efficiency of TOC among all the experimental groups was only 15.3% obtained with the initial concentration of 1 mg/L at dose of 800 Gy. The subsequent biological treatment enhanced the mineralization of MDHB. The suitable radiation dose for the subsequent biological treatment was determined to be 600 Gy. In this case the removal efficiency of TOC increased to about 70%. Compared to the single biological treatment, the integrated irradiation and biological treatment significantly increase the degradation and mineralization of MDHB. Moreover, the dechlorination efficiency reached 77.4% during the integrated irradiation and biological treatment process. In addition, eight intermediates were identified during the combined process and the possible degradation pathway was proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A chemically enhanced biological process for lowering operative costs and solid residues of industrial recalcitrant wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iaconi, Claudio; Del Moro, Guido; De Sanctis, Marco; Rossetti, Simona

    2010-06-01

    An innovative process based on ozone-enhanced biological degradation, carried out in an aerobic granular biomass system (SBBGR--Sequencing Batch Biofilter Granular Reactor), was tested at pilot scale for tannery wastewater treatment chosen as representative of industrial recalcitrant wastewater. The results have shown that the process was able to meet the current discharge limits when the biologically treated wastewater was recirculated through an adjacent reactor where a specific ozone dose of 120 mg O3/L(influent) was used. The benefits produced by using ozone were appreciable even visually since the final effluent of the process looked like tap water. In comparison with the conventional treatment, the proposed process was able to reduce the sludge production by 25-30 times and to save 60% of operating costs. Molecular in situ detection methods were employed in combination with the traditional measurements (oxygen uptake rate, total protein content, extracellular polymeric substances and hydrophobicity) to evaluate microbial activity and composition, and the structure of the biomass. A stable presence of active bacterial populations was observed in the biomass with the simultaneous occurrence of distinctive functional microbial groups involved in carbon, nitrogen and sulphate removal under different reaction environments established within the large microbial aggregates. The structure and activity of the biomass were not affected by the use of ozone. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Design, baseline characteristics, and retention of African American light smokers into a randomized trial involving biological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okuyemi Kolawole S

    2011-01-01

    18 (1.1% were ineligible to participate in the study because they refused blood draws, demonstrating the feasibility of recruiting and enrolling African American light smokers into a clinical treatment trial involving biological data collection and genetic analyses. Future evaluation of individual factors associated with treatment outcome will contribute to advancing tailored tobacco use treatment with the goal of enhancing treatment and reducing health disparities for African American light smokers. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00666978

  8. Design, baseline characteristics, and retention of African American light smokers into a randomized trial involving biological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Faseru, Babalola; Mayo, Matthew S; Krebill, Ron; Snow, Tricia S; Bronars, Carrie A; Nollen, Nicole L; Choi, Won S; Okuyemi, Kolawole S; Salzman, Gary A; Benowitz, Neal L; Tyndale, Rachel F; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2011-01-25

    because they refused blood draws, demonstrating the feasibility of recruiting and enrolling African American light smokers into a clinical treatment trial involving biological data collection and genetic analyses. Future evaluation of individual factors associated with treatment outcome will contribute to advancing tailored tobacco use treatment with the goal of enhancing treatment and reducing health disparities for African American light smokers. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00666978.

  9. Investigation of the Nature of Metaconceptual Processes of Pre-Service Biology Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuruk, Nejla; Selvi, Meryem; Yakisan, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Study: The aim of this study is to investigate the nature of pre-service biology teachers' metaconceptual processes that were active as they participated in metaconceptual teaching activities. Methods: Several instructional activities, including poster drawing, concept mapping, group and class discussions, and journal writing, were…

  10. Arctic Biotechnology – Sustainable Products and Processes from Arctic Biological Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Mariane Schmidt; Hennessy, Rosanna Catherine; Stougaard, Peter

    Biological resources from the Arctic hold the potential for development of sustainable products and/or processes within areas such as pharma, agriculture, and biotech. Here, we present the identification of cold-active enzymes and biocontrol agents isolated from cold-adapted bacteria. Truly cold...

  11. Do two machine-learning based prognostic signatures for breast cancer capture the same biological processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drier, Yotam; Domany, Eytan

    2011-03-14

    The fact that there is very little if any overlap between the genes of different prognostic signatures for early-discovery breast cancer is well documented. The reasons for this apparent discrepancy have been explained by the limits of simple machine-learning identification and ranking techniques, and the biological relevance and meaning of the prognostic gene lists was questioned. Subsequently, proponents of the prognostic gene lists claimed that different lists do capture similar underlying biological processes and pathways. The present study places under scrutiny the validity of this claim, for two important gene lists that are at the focus of current large-scale validation efforts. We performed careful enrichment analysis, controlling the effects of multiple testing in a manner which takes into account the nested dependent structure of gene ontologies. In contradiction to several previous publications, we find that the only biological process or pathway for which statistically significant concordance can be claimed is cell proliferation, a process whose relevance and prognostic value was well known long before gene expression profiling. We found that the claims reported by others, of wider concordance between the biological processes captured by the two prognostic signatures studied, were found either to be lacking statistical rigor or were in fact based on addressing some other question.

  12. Do two machine-learning based prognostic signatures for breast cancer capture the same biological processes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotam Drier

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The fact that there is very little if any overlap between the genes of different prognostic signatures for early-discovery breast cancer is well documented. The reasons for this apparent discrepancy have been explained by the limits of simple machine-learning identification and ranking techniques, and the biological relevance and meaning of the prognostic gene lists was questioned. Subsequently, proponents of the prognostic gene lists claimed that different lists do capture similar underlying biological processes and pathways. The present study places under scrutiny the validity of this claim, for two important gene lists that are at the focus of current large-scale validation efforts. We performed careful enrichment analysis, controlling the effects of multiple testing in a manner which takes into account the nested dependent structure of gene ontologies. In contradiction to several previous publications, we find that the only biological process or pathway for which statistically significant concordance can be claimed is cell proliferation, a process whose relevance and prognostic value was well known long before gene expression profiling. We found that the claims reported by others, of wider concordance between the biological processes captured by the two prognostic signatures studied, were found either to be lacking statistical rigor or were in fact based on addressing some other question.

  13. Processes and parameters involved in modeling radionuclide transport from bedded salt repositories. Final report. Technical memorandum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evenson, D.E.; Prickett, T.A.; Showalter, P.A.

    1979-07-01

    The parameters necessary to model radionuclide transport in salt beds are identified and described. A proposed plan for disposal of the radioactive wastes generated by nuclear power plants is to store waste canisters in repository sites contained in stable salt formations approximately 600 meters below the ground surface. Among the principal radioactive wastes contained in these canisters will be radioactive isotopes of neptunium, americium, uranium, and plutonium along with many highly radioactive fission products. A concern with this form of waste disposal is the possibility of ground-water flow occurring in the salt beds and endangering water supplies and the public health. Specifically, the research investigated the processes involved in the movement of radioactive wastes from the repository site by groundwater flow. Since the radioactive waste canisters also generate heat, temperature is an important factor. Among the processes affecting movement of radioactive wastes from a repository site in a salt bed are thermal conduction, groundwater movement, ion exchange, radioactive decay, dissolution and precipitation of salt, dispersion and diffusion, adsorption, and thermomigration. In addition, structural changes in the salt beds as a result of temperature changes are important. Based upon the half-lives of the radioactive wastes, he period of concern is on the order of a million years. As a result, major geologic phenomena that could affect both the salt bed and groundwater flow in the salt beds was considered. These phenomena include items such as volcanism, faulting, erosion, glaciation, and the impact of meteorites. CDM reviewed all of the critical processes involved in regional groundwater movement of radioactive wastes and identified and described the parameters that must be included to mathematically model their behavior. In addition, CDM briefly reviewed available echniques to measure these parameters

  14. Visual processing and social cognition in schizophrenia: relationships among eye movements, biological motion perception, and empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yukiko; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients have impairments at several levels of cognition including visual attention (eye movements), perception, and social cognition. However, it remains unclear how lower-level cognitive deficits influence higher-level cognition. To elucidate the hierarchical path linking deficient cognitions, we focused on biological motion perception, which is involved in both the early stage of visual perception (attention) and higher social cognition, and is impaired in schizophrenia. Seventeen schizophrenia patients and 18 healthy controls participated in the study. Using point-light walker stimuli, we examined eye movements during biological motion perception in schizophrenia. We assessed relationships among eye movements, biological motion perception and empathy. In the biological motion detection task, schizophrenia patients showed lower accuracy and fixated longer than healthy controls. As opposed to controls, patients exhibiting longer fixation durations and fewer numbers of fixations demonstrated higher accuracy. Additionally, in the patient group, the correlations between accuracy and affective empathy index and between eye movement index and affective empathy index were significant. The altered gaze patterns in patients indicate that top-down attention compensates for impaired bottom-up attention. Furthermore, aberrant eye movements might lead to deficits in biological motion perception and finally link to social cognitive impairments. The current findings merit further investigation for understanding the mechanism of social cognitive training and its development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Process simulation and comparison of biological conversion of syngas and hydrogen in biogas plants

    OpenAIRE

    Salman Chaudhary Awais; Schwede Sebastian; Thorin Eva; Yan Jinyue

    2017-01-01

    Organic waste is a good source of clean energy. However, different fractions of waste have to be utilized efficiently. One way is to find pathways to convert waste into useful products via various available processes (gasification, pyrolysis anaerobic digestion, etc.) and integrate them to increase the combined efficiency of the process. The syngas and hydrogen produced from the thermal conversion of biomass can be upgraded to biomethane via biological methanation. The current study presents ...

  16. Public Involvement in Repository Site Selection for Nuclear Waste: Towards a more Dynamic View in Decision-Making Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruetli, Pius; Stauffacher, Michael; Flueeler, Thomas; Scholz, Roland W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses possibilities of public involvement in radioactive waste management. A general overview of the radioactive waste issue is presented referring to a proposed model of the respective decision-making process. Based on the well known participation ladder by Arnstein, we differentiate various intensities of public involvement. A matrix with public involvement and the decision-making process is introduced and three prototypical patterns are discussed. We conclude that time frame, the level of public involvement and the mission have to be considered as well as techniques and the overarching context - all in all, a systematic and dynamic approach for public involvement is needed

  17. Public Involvement in Repository Site Selection for Nuclear Waste: Towards a more Dynamic View in Decision-Making Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruetli, Pius; Stauffacher, Michael; Flueeler, Thomas; Scholz, Roland W. [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland). lnst. for Human-Environment Systems (HES)

    2006-09-15

    This paper discusses possibilities of public involvement in radioactive waste management. A general overview of the radioactive waste issue is presented referring to a proposed model of the respective decision-making process. Based on the well known participation ladder by Arnstein, we differentiate various intensities of public involvement. A matrix with public involvement and the decision-making process is introduced and three prototypical patterns are discussed. We conclude that time frame, the level of public involvement and the mission have to be considered as well as techniques and the overarching context - all in all, a systematic and dynamic approach for public involvement is needed.

  18. The use of global transcriptional analysis to reveal the biological and cellular events involved in distinct development phases of Trichophyton rubrum conidial germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Guohui

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conidia are considered to be the primary cause of infections by Trichophyton rubrum. Results We have developed a cDNA microarray containing 10250 ESTs to monitor the transcriptional strategy of conidial germination. A total of 1561 genes that had their expression levels specially altered in the process were obtained and hierarchically clustered with respect to their expression profiles. By functional analysis, we provided a global view of an important biological system related to conidial germination, including characterization of the pattern of gene expression at sequential developmental phases, and changes of gene expression profiles corresponding to morphological transitions. We matched the EST sequences to GO terms in the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD. A number of homologues of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes related to signalling pathways and some important cellular processes were found to be involved in T. rubrum germination. These genes and signalling pathways may play roles in distinct steps, such as activating conidial germination, maintenance of isotropic growth, establishment of cell polarity and morphological transitions. Conclusion Our results may provide insights into molecular mechanisms of conidial germination at the cell level, and may enhance our understanding of regulation of gene expression related to the morphological construction of T. rubrum.

  19. Chemical analysis and biological testing of materials from the EDS coal liquefaction process: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Later, D.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.

    1984-05-01

    Representative process materials were obtained from the EDS pilot plant for chemical and biological analyses. These materials were characterized for biological activity and chemical composition using a microbial mutagenicity assay and chromatographic and mass spectrometric analytical techniques. The two highest boiling distillation cuts, as well as process solvent (PS) obtained from the bottoms recycle mode operation, were tested for initiation of mouse skin tumorigenicity. All three materials were active; the crude 800/sup 0 +/F cut was substantially more potent than the crude bottoms recycle PS or 750 to 800/sup 0/F distillate cut. Results from chemical analyses showed the EDS materials, in general, to be more highly alkylated and have higher hydroaromatic content than analogous SRC II process materials (no in-line process hydrogenation) used for comparison. In the microbial mutagenicity assays the N-PAC fractions showed greater activity than did the aliphatic hydrocarbon, hydroxy-PAH, or PAH fractions, although mutagenicity was detected in certain PAH fractions by a modified version of the standard microbial mutagenicity assay. Mutagenic activities for the EDS materials were lower, overall, than those for the corresponding materials from the SRC II process. The EDS materials produced under different operational modes had distinguishable differences in both their chemical constituency and biological activity. The primary differences between the EDS materials studied here and their SRC II counterparts used for comparison are most likely attributable to the incorporation of catalytic hydrogenation in the EDS process. 27 references, 28 figures, 27 tables.

  20. Study of the mechanisms involved in the laser superficial hardening process of metallic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Edmara Marques Rodrigues da

    2001-01-01

    The laser superficial hardening process of a ferrous alloy (gray cast iron) and of an aluminum-silicon alloy was investigated in this work. These metallic alloys are used in the automobile industry for manufacturing cylinders and pistons, respectively. By application of individual pulses and single tracks, the involved mechanisms during the processing were studied. Variables such as energy density, power density, temporal width, beam diameter on the sample surface, atmosphere of the processing region, overlapping and scanning velocity. The hardened surface was characterized by optical and scanning electronic microscopy, dispersive energy microanalysis, X-ray mapping, X-ray diffraction, and measurements of roughness and Vickers microhardness. Depending on the processing parameters, it is possible to obtain different microstructures. The affected area of gray cast iron, can be hardened by remelting or transformation hardening (total or partial) if the reached temperature is higher or not that of melting temperature. Laser treatment originated new structures such as retained austenite, martensite and, occasionally, eutectic of cellular dendritic structure. Aluminum-silicon alloy does not have phase transformation in solid state, it can be hardened only by remelting. The increase of hardness is a function of the precipitation hardening process, which makes the silicon particles smaller and more disperse in the matrix. Maximal values of microhardness (700-1000 HV) were reached with the laser treatment in gray cast iron samples. The initial microhardness is of 242 HV. For aluminum-silicon alloy, the laser remelting increases the initial microhardness of 128 HV to the range of 160-320 HV. The found results give a new perspective for using the CLA/IPEN's laser in the heat treatment area. Besides providing a higher absorptivity to the materials, compared with the CO 2 laser, and optical fiber access, the superficial hardening with Nd:YAG laser, depending on the level of

  1. Mineralization of 2-chlorophenol by sequential electrochemical reductive dechlorination and biological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano-González, Miguel Ángel; González, Ignacio [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Química, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Texier, Anne-Claire, E-mail: actx@xanum.uam.mx [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Biotecnología, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Dechlorination of 2-chlorophenol to phenol was 100% efficient on Pd-Ni/Ti electrode. • An ECCOCEL reactor was efficient and selective to obtain phenol from 2-chlorophenol. • Phenol was totally mineralized in a coupled denitrifying biorreactor. • Global time of 2-chlorophenol mineralization in the combined system was 7.5 h. - Abstract: In this work, a novel approach was applied to obtain the mineralization of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) in an electrochemical-biological combined system where an electrocatalytic dehydrogenation process (reductive dechlorination) was coupled to a biological denitrification process. Reductive dechlorination of 2-CP was conducted in an ECCOCEL-type reactor on a Pd-Ni/Ti electrode at a potential of −0.40 V vs Ag/AgCl{sub (s)}/KCl{sub (sat)}, achieving 100 percent transformation of 2-CP into phenol. The electrochemically pretreated effluent was fed to a rotating cylinder denitrifying bioreactor where the totality of phenol was mineralized by denitrification, obtaining CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} as the end products. The total time required for 2-CP mineralization in the combined electrochemical-biological process was 7.5 h. This value is close to those previously reported for electrochemical and advanced oxidation processes but in this case, an efficient process was obtained without accumulation of by-products or generation of excessive energy costs due to the selective electrochemical pretreatment. This study showed that the use of electrochemical reductive pretreatment combined with biological processes could be a promising technology for the removal of recalcitrant molecules, such as chlorophenols, from wastewaters by more efficient, rapid, and environmentally friendly processes.

  2. Closing the Loop: Involving Faculty in the Assessment of Scientific and Quantitative Reasoning Skills of Biology Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurney, Carol A.; Brown, Justin; Griscom, Heather Peckham; Kancler, Erika; Wigtil, Clifton J.; Sundre, Donna

    2011-01-01

    The development of scientific and quantitative reasoning skills in undergraduates majoring in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is an objective of many courses and curricula. The Biology Department at James Madison University (JMU) assesses these essential skills in graduating biology majors by using a multiple-choice exam…

  3. Biological evidence that human papillomaviruses are etiologically involved in a subgroup of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houten, V. M.; Snijders, P. J.; van den Brekel, M. W.; Kummer, J. A.; Meijer, C. J.; van Leeuwen, B.; Denkers, F.; Smeele, L. E.; Snow, G. B.; Brakenhoff, R. H.

    2001-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been proposed to be associated with a subset of head and neck cancers (HNSCCs). However, clear biological evidence linking HPV-mediated oncogenesis to the development of HNSCC is hardly available. An important biological mechanism underlying HPV-mediated

  4. Description of Cognitive and Competence Processes Involved in the Levels of Reading Comprehension in College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Romel Yáñez Botello

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a descriptive research whose main objective was to describe the cognitive processes involved in reading and its relation to different levels of reading comprehension. For doing so, it was chosen a sample of 124 college students of Bogotá city. Participants- men and women between 16 and 30 years old- were studying first semester of psychology. The Evaluation Test for Reading Comprehension by Arenas (2007 was applied in order to describe cognitive operations. Moreover, results related to comprehension levels were analyzed through the Rasch Model. Besides, the Angof Methodology was used to specify the competence levels. It was concluded that there are five levels of reading comprehension. It must be said that most of the students were classified in the literal and inferential reading levels. Finally, the findings and limitations of the research were discussed.

  5. How to use molecular biology tools for the study of the anaerobic digestion process?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabezas, Angela; Araujo, de Juliana Calabria; Callejas, Cecilia; Galès, Amandine; Hamelin, Jérôme; Marone, Antonella; Machado de Sousa, Diana; Trably, Eric; Etchebehere, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is used with success for the treatment of solid waste, urban and industrial effluents with a concomitant energy production. The process is robust and stable, but the complexity of the microbial community involved in the process is not yet fully comprehensive. Nowadays, the

  6. Streptomyces lunalinharesii Strain 235 Shows the Potential to Inhibit Bacteria Involved in Biocorrosion Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pacheco da Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four actinomycete strains previously isolated from Brazilian soils were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Bacillus pumilus LF-4 and Desulfovibrio alaskensis NCIMB 13491, bacteria that are well known to be involved in biofilm formation and biocorrosion. Strain 235, belonging to the species Streptomyces lunalinharesii, inhibited the growth of both bacteria. The antimicrobial activity was seen over a wide range of pH, and after treatment with several chemicals and heat but not with proteinase K and trypsin. The antimicrobial substances present in the concentrated supernatant from growth media were partially characterized by SDS-PAGE and extracellular polypeptides were seen. Bands in the size range of 12 to 14.4 kDa caused antimicrobial activity. Transmission electron microscopy of D. alaskensis cells treated with the concentrated supernatant containing the antimicrobial substances revealed the formation of prominent bubbles, the spherical double-layered structures on the cell membrane, and the periplasmic space completely filled with electron-dense material. This is the first report on the production of antimicrobial substances by actinomycetes against bacteria involved in biocorrosion processes, and these findings may be of great relevance as an alternative source of biocides to those currently employed in the petroleum industry.

  7. Transmission as a basic process in microbial biology. Lwoff Award Prize Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    Transmission is a basic process in biology and evolution, as it communicates different biological entities within and across hierarchical levels (from genes to holobionts) both in time and space. Vertical descent, replication, is transmission of information across generations (in the time dimension), and horizontal descent is transmission of information across compartments (in the space dimension). Transmission is essentially a communication process that can be studied by analogy of the classic information theory, based on 'emitters', 'messages' and 'receivers'. The analogy can be easily extended to the triad 'emigration', 'migration' and 'immigration'. A number of causes (forces) determine the emission, and another set of causes (energies) assures the reception. The message in fact is essentially constituted by 'meaningful' biological entities. A DNA sequence, a cell and a population have a semiotic dimension, are 'signs' that are eventually recognized (decoded) and integrated by receiver biological entities. In cis-acting or unenclosed transmission, the emitters and receivers correspond to separated entities of the same hierarchical level; in trans-acting or embedded transmission, the information flows between different, but frequently nested, hierarchical levels. The result (as in introgressive events) is constantly producing innovation and feeding natural selection, influencing also the evolution of transmission processes. This review is based on the concepts presented at the André Lwoff Award Lecture in the FEMS Microbiology Congress in Maastricht in 2015. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Natural physical and biological processes compromise the long-term performance of compacted soil caps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    Compacted soil barriers are components of essentially all caps placed on closed waste disposal sites. The intended functions of soil barriers in waste facility caps include restricting infiltration of water and release of gases and vapors, either independently or in combination with synthetic membrane barriers, and protecting other manmade or natural barrier components. Review of the performance of installed soil barriers and of natural processes affecting their performance indicates that compacted soil caps may function effectively for relatively short periods (years to decades), but natural physical and biological processes can be expected to cause them to fail in the long term (decades to centuries). This paper addresses natural physical and biological processes that compromise the performance of compacted soil caps and suggests measures that may reduce the adverse consequences of these natural failure mechanisms

  9. On the constituent counting rule for hard exclusive processes involving multi-quark states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng-Kun; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Wang, Wei

    2017-05-01

    At high energy, the cross section at finite scattering angle of a hard exclusive process falls off as a power of the Manderstam variable s. If all involved quark-gluon compositions undergo hard momentum transfers, the fall-off scaling is determined by the underlying valence structures of the initial and final hadrons, known as the constituent counting rule. In spite of the complication due to helicity conservation, it has been argued that when applied to exclusive process with exotic multiquark states, the counting rule is a powerful way to determine the valence degrees of freedom inside hadron exotics. In this work, we demonstrate that for hadrons with hidden flavors, the naive application of the constituent counting rule to exclusive process with hadron exotic multiquark states is problematic, since it is not mandatory for all components to participate in hard scattering at the scale . We illustrate the problems in the viewpoint based on effective field theory. We clarify the misleading results that may be obtained from the constituent counting rule in exclusive processes with exotic candidates such as , , X(3872), etc. Supported in part by DFG and NSFC through funds provided to the Sino-German CRC 110 “Symmetries and the Emergence of Structure in QCD” (NSFC Grant No. 11261130311), Thousand Talents Plan for Young Professionals, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) President’s International Fellowship Initiative (PIFI) (2015VMA076), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11575110, 11655002), Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai (15DZ2272100, 15ZR1423100), Open Project Program of State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China (Y5KF111CJ1), and by Key Laboratory for Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology, Ministry of Education.

  10. Processes involved in charging of discharged lead-acid battery electrodes by pulse methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alkaine, C.V. [Group of Electrochemistry and Polymers/DQ/UFSCar, C.P. 676, 13565-905 Sao Carlos (SP) (Brazil); de Souza, L.M.M.; Impinnisi, P.R.; de Andrade, J. [Group of Battery and Cells/DPMA-LACTEC/Centro Politecnico da UFPR, C.P. 19067, 81531-990 Curitiba (PR) (Brazil)

    2006-08-25

    In general, a relatively large part of the PbSO{sub 4} of lead-acid battery electrode discharge products can be seen as particles at the end of the discharge and thus their reduction, on the negative electrode, or oxidation, on the positive electrode, must involve the dissolution of the Pb{sup 2+}. In this paper, the processes occurring on flat negative electrodes during the galvanostatic charge transients are studied in detail, especially in relation to where and how much the PbSO{sub 4} and Pb{sup 2+} are reduced. The understanding of these processes is fundamental for the understanding of any pulse charging process. Thus, it is shown for a single discharge/charge cycle, that during the charging process a disruption of the PbSO{sub 4} film, giving rise to a continuous glued non-disrupted film and to a disrupted film attached by surface tension forces to the electrode surface can occur. Further, it is shown that the amount of disruption depends on the charging current conditions and it decreases with decreasing charging currents. It is also demonstrated that the reduction of the Pb{sup 2+} dissolved from the disrupted particles takes place simultaneously to the reduction of the non-disrupted glued part of the film. On the basis of these facts, it is finally shown, for the case of multiple discharge/charge cycles, how the charge associated with the disrupted film changes with cycling and why and how it is possible to determine the amount disrupted PbSO{sub 4} film formed. (author)

  11. The Effect of Biological Processes on Sea Spray Aerosol Composition and the Impact on Nitric Acid Heterogeneous Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C.; Ryder, O. S.; Michaud, J. M.; Sauer, J. S.; Mayer, K. J.; Moore, K.; Burkart, M. D.; Prather, K. A.

    2016-12-01

    Once in the atmosphere, sea spray aerosols (SSA) produced from breaking waves can undergo heterogeneous reaction with atmospheric trace gases. As SSA evolve in the atmosphere, their physical and chemical properties can undergo transformation, affecting particle characteristics such as light scattering ability and toxicity. One of the important heterogeneous reactions that readily occur in the atmosphere is that between SSA and gaseous HNO3, a reactive nitrogen species, where an example reaction of NaCl with HNO3is shown in eq. (1). NaCl(s or aq) + HNO3(g) -> NaNO3(s or aq) + HCl(g) (1). Recent studies using laboratory platforms that accurately replicate the chemical complexity of the nascent SSA particles have shown that SSA can exhibit a variety of distinct complex chemical compositions, dependent on the biogeochemical state of the seawater. Biological processes, such as cell growth, lysis, degradation, and enzymatic processes, have been suggested to have significant impact on the chemical composition of SSA, thus having an effect on their atmospheric properties such as reactivity due to changes at the particle-air interface. Additionally, HNO3reactive uptake onto the generated particles has revealed a new heterogeneous reaction pathway involving specific class of organic molecules shown in eq. (2). R-COONa + HNO3 -> NaNO3+ R-COOH (2). However, such organic molecules' chemistry may be altered through biological processes, leading to different behavior. Size resolved chemical composition data of reacted nascent SSA particles analyzed in situ using an aerosol reaction flow tube coupled with aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry and off-line microscopy measurements are presented, to further illustrate the significance of biological processes on SSA interface and their heterogeneous reactivity.

  12. Improved elucidation of biological processes linked to diabetic nephropathy by single probe-based microarray data analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens D Cohen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a complex and chronic metabolic disease that evolves into a progressive fibrosing renal disorder. Effective transcriptomic profiling of slowly evolving disease processes such as DN can be problematic. The changes that occur are often subtle and can escape detection by conventional oligonucleotide DNA array analyses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined microdissected human renal tissue with or without DN using Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays (HG-U133A by standard Robust Multi-array Analysis (RMA. Subsequent gene ontology analysis by Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID showed limited detection of biological processes previously identified as central mechanisms in the development of DN (e.g. inflammation and angiogenesis. This apparent lack of sensitivity may be associated with the gene-oriented averaging of oligonucleotide probe signals, as this includes signals from cross-hybridizing probes and gene annotation that is based on out of date genomic data. We then examined the same CEL file data using a different methodology to determine how well it could correlate transcriptomic data with observed biology. ChipInspector (CI is based on single probe analysis and de novo gene annotation that bypasses probe set definitions. Both methods, RMA and CI, used at default settings yielded comparable numbers of differentially regulated genes. However, when verified by RT-PCR, the single probe based analysis demonstrated reduced background noise with enhanced sensitivity and fewer false positives. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using a single probe based analysis approach with de novo gene annotation allowed an improved representation of the biological processes linked to the development and progression of DN. The improved analysis was exemplified by the detection of Wnt signaling pathway activation in DN, a process not previously reported to be involved in this disease.

  13. Potential markers and metabolic processes involved in the mechanism of radiation-induced heart injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Jan; Kura, Branislav; Babal, Pavel; Barancik, Miroslav; Ferko, Miroslav; Frimmel, Karel; Kalocayova, Barbora; Kukreja, Rakesh C; Lazou, Antigone; Mezesova, Lucia; Okruhlicova, Ludmila; Ravingerova, Tanya; Singal, Pawan K; Szeiffova Bacova, Barbara; Viczenczova, Csilla; Vrbjar, Norbert; Tribulova, Narcis

    2017-10-01

    Irradiation of normal tissues leads to acute increase in reactive oxygen/nitrogen species that serve as intra- and inter-cellular signaling to alter cell and tissue function. In the case of chest irradiation, it can affect the heart, blood vessels, and lungs, with consequent tissue remodelation and adverse side effects and symptoms. This complex process is orchestrated by a large number of interacting molecular signals, including cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. Inflammation, endothelial cell dysfunction, thrombogenesis, organ dysfunction, and ultimate failing of the heart occur as a pathological entity - "radiation-induced heart disease" (RIHD) that is major source of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to bring insights into the basic mechanisms of RIHD that may lead to the identification of targets for intervention in the radiotherapy side effect. Studies of authors also provide knowledge about how to select targeted drugs or biological molecules to modify the progression of radiation damage in the heart. New prospective studies are needed to validate that assessed factors and changes are useful as early markers of cardiac damage.

  14. Aminopeptidase N (CD13 Is Involved in Phagocytic Processes in Human Dendritic Cells and Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica I. Villaseñor-Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aminopeptidase N (APN or CD13 is a membrane ectopeptidase expressed by many cell types, including myelomonocytic lineage cells: monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. CD13 is known to regulate the biological activity of various peptides by proteolysis, and it has been proposed that CD13 also participates in several functions such as angiogenesis, cell adhesion, metastasis, and tumor invasion. We had previously reported that, in human monocytes and macrophages, CD13 modulates the phagocytosis mediated by receptors for the Fc portion of IgG antibodies (FcγRs. In this work, we analyzed the possible interaction of CD13 with other phagocytic receptors. We found out that the cross-linking of CD13 positively modulates the phagocytosis mediated by receptors of the innate immune system, since a significant increase in the phagocytosis of zymosan particles or heat-killed E. coli was observed when CD13 was cross-linked using anti-CD13 antibodies, in both macrophages and dendritic cells. Also, we observed that, during the phagocytosis of zymosan, CD13 redistributes and is internalized into the phagosome. These findings suggest that, besides its known functions, CD13 participates in phagocytic processes in dendritic cells and macrophages.

  15. Correlates of Parents' Involvement with Their Adolescent Children in Restructured and Biological Two-Parent Families: The Role of Child Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2004-01-01

    This study used data from both 225 fathers and mothers as well as their secondary school age children to explore the role of child characteristics (sex, age, self-esteem, and emotional and behavioural well-being) in mother's and father's involvement in biological and restructured (stepfather) two-parent families after controlling for known…

  16. Analysis of the Proteolytic Processing of ABCA3: Identification of Cleavage Site and Involved Proteases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Hofmann

    Full Text Available ABCA3 is a lipid transporter in the limiting membrane of lamellar bodies in alveolar type II cells. Mutations in the ABCA3 gene cause respiratory distress syndrome in new-borns and childhood interstitial lung disease. ABCA3 is N-terminally cleaved by an as yet unknown protease, a process believed to regulate ABCA3 activity.The exact site where ABCA3 is cleaved was localized using mass spectrometry (MS. Proteases involved in ABCA3 processing were identified using small molecule inhibitors and siRNA mediated gene knockdown. Results were verified by in vitro digestion of a synthetic peptide substrate mimicking ABCA3's cleavage region, followed by MS analysis.We found that cleavage of ABCA3 occurs after Lys174 which is located in the proteins' first luminal loop. Inhibition of cathepsin L and, to a lesser extent, cathepsin B resulted in attenuation of ABCA3 cleavage. Both enzymes showed activity against the ABCA3 peptide in vitro with cathepsin L being more active.We show here that, like some other proteins of the lysosomal membrane, ABCA3 is a substrate of cathepsin L. Therefore, cathepsin L may represent a potential target to therapeutically influence ABCA3 activity in ABCA3-associated lung disease.

  17. Involvement of the Warburg effect in non-tumor diseases processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Liu, Meiqing; Li, Lanfang; Chen, Linxi

    2018-04-01

    Warburg effect, as an energy shift from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis, is extensively found in various cancers. Interestingly, increasing researchers show that Warburg effect plays a crucial role in non-tumor diseases. For instance, inhibition of Warburg effect can alleviate pulmonary vascular remodeling in the process of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Interference of Warburg effect improves mitochondrial function and cardiac function in the process of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Additionally, the Warburg effect induces vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and contributes to atherosclerosis. Warburg effect may also involve in axonal damage and neuronal death, which are related with multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, Warburg effect significantly promotes cell proliferation and cyst expansion in polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Besides, Warburg effect relieves amyloid β-mediated cell death in Alzheimer's disease. And Warburg effect also improves the mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Finally, we also introduce some glycolytic agonists. This review focuses on the newest researches about the role of Warburg effect in non-tumor diseases, including PH, tuberculosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), failing heart, cardiac hypertrophy, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's diseases, multiple sclerosis, and PKD. Obviously, Warburg effect may be a potential therapeutic target for those non-tumor diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Guidelines for inclusion: Ensuring Indigenous peoples' involvement in water planning processes across South Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz Quitian, Alejandra; Rodríguez, Gloria Amparo

    2016-11-01

    Indigenous peoples within the Murray-Darling Basin have traditionally struggled for the recognition of their cultural, social, environmental, spiritual, commercial and economic connection to the waters that they have traditionally used, as well as their right to engage in all stages of water planning processes. Despite Australian national and federal frameworks providing for the inclusion of Indigenous Australians' objectives in planning frameworks, water plans have rarely addressed these objectives in water, or the strategies to achieve them. Indeed, insufficient resources, a lack of institutional capacity in both Indigenous communities and agencies and an inadequate understanding of Indigenous people's objectives in water management have limited the extent to which Indigenous objectives are addressed in water plans within the Murray-Darling Basin. In this context, the adoption of specific guidelines to meet Indigenous requirements in relation to basin water resources is crucial to support Indigenous engagement in water planning processes. Using insights from participatory planning methods and human rights frameworks, this article outlines a set of alternative and collaborative guidelines to improve Indigenous involvement in water planning and to promote sustainable and just water allocations.

  19. Facilitated workshop method to involve stakeholders and public in decision making process in radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, Raimo; Sinkko, Kari; Haemaelaeinen, Raimo P.

    2006-01-01

    International organisations in radiation protection have for many years recommended that key players, e.g. authorities, expert organisations, industry, producers of foodstuffs and even the public, should be involved in the planning of protective actions in case of a nuclear accident. In this work, we have developed and tested a facilitated workshop method where representatives from various fields of the society aim to identify and evaluate systematically protective actions. Decision analysis techniques have been applied in workshops in order to find out the most feasible countermeasure strategies and to make the decision making-process transparent and auditable. The work builds on case studies where it was assumed that a hypothetical accident had led to a release of considerable amounts of radionuclides and therefore various types of countermeasures should be considered. This paper provides experiences gained in several European countries on how to facilitate this kind of workshops and how modern decision analysis techniques can be applied in the decision-making process

  20. Are cognitive "insomnia" processes involved in the development and maintenance of delayed sleep wake phase disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Cele E; Gradisar, Michael; Barbero, Sebastian C

    2016-04-01

    Although individuals with delayed sleep wake phase disorder (DSWPD) and chronic insomnia disorder (CID) share many of the same phenomenological experiences, theories relating to the development and maintenance of these disorders are distinct in focus. Unlike CID, theory relating to DSWPD is primarily physiologically based and assumes almost no cognitive pathway. However, recent research findings suggest that individuals with DSWPD also display many of the sleep-disordered cognitive processes that were previously assumed to be unique to the insomnia experience. As such, this review aims to summarise current research findings to address the question "Could cognitive processes be involved in the development and maintenance of DSWPD?" In particular, the presence of cognitive and physiological pre-sleep arousal, sleep-related attentional bias, distorted perception of sleep and daytime functioning, dysfunctional beliefs and safety behaviours will be investigated. As this emerging area of research requires a stronger evidence base, we highlight suggestions for future investigation and provide preliminary practice points for clinicians assessing and treating "insomnia" in patients with DSWPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Heterologous expression of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus cellobiose dehydrogenase in Pichia pastoris and involvement in saccharification processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bey Mathieu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH is an extracellular hemoflavoenzyme produced by lignocellulose-degrading fungi including Pycnoporus cinnabarinus. We investigated the cellulolytic system of P. cinnabarinus, focusing on the involvement of CDH in the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. Results First, P. cinnabarinus growth conditions were optimized for CDH production. Following growth under cellulolytic conditions, the main components secreted were cellulases, xylanases and CDH. To investigate the contribution of P. cinnabarinus secretome in saccharification processes, the Trichoderma reesei enzymatic cocktail was supplemented with the P. cinnabarinus secretome. A significant enhancement of the degradation of wheat straw was observed with (i the production of a large amount of gluconic acid, (ii increased hemicellulose degradation, and (iii increased overall degradation of the lignocellulosic material. P. cinnabarinus CDH was heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris to obtain large amounts of pure enzyme. In a bioreactor, the recombinant CDH (rCDH expression level reached 7800 U/L. rCDH exhibited values of biochemical parameters similar to those of the natural enzyme, and was able to bind cellulose despite the absence of a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM. Following supplementation of purified rCDH to T. reesei enzymatic cocktail, formation of gluconic acid and increased hemicellulose degradation were observed, thus confirming the previous results observed with P. cinnabarinus secretome. Conclusions We demonstrate that CDH offers an attractive tool for saccharification process enhancement due to gluconic acid production from raw lignocellulosic material.

  2. Heterologous expression of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus cellobiose dehydrogenase in Pichia pastoris and involvement in saccharification processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) is an extracellular hemoflavoenzyme produced by lignocellulose-degrading fungi including Pycnoporus cinnabarinus. We investigated the cellulolytic system of P. cinnabarinus, focusing on the involvement of CDH in the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. Results First, P. cinnabarinus growth conditions were optimized for CDH production. Following growth under cellulolytic conditions, the main components secreted were cellulases, xylanases and CDH. To investigate the contribution of P. cinnabarinus secretome in saccharification processes, the Trichoderma reesei enzymatic cocktail was supplemented with the P. cinnabarinus secretome. A significant enhancement of the degradation of wheat straw was observed with (i) the production of a large amount of gluconic acid, (ii) increased hemicellulose degradation, and (iii) increased overall degradation of the lignocellulosic material. P. cinnabarinus CDH was heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris to obtain large amounts of pure enzyme. In a bioreactor, the recombinant CDH (rCDH) expression level reached 7800 U/L. rCDH exhibited values of biochemical parameters similar to those of the natural enzyme, and was able to bind cellulose despite the absence of a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM). Following supplementation of purified rCDH to T. reesei enzymatic cocktail, formation of gluconic acid and increased hemicellulose degradation were observed, thus confirming the previous results observed with P. cinnabarinus secretome. Conclusions We demonstrate that CDH offers an attractive tool for saccharification process enhancement due to gluconic acid production from raw lignocellulosic material. PMID:22204630

  3. Group processing in an undergraduate biology course for preservice teachers: Experiences and attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberger, Lauren Brownback

    Group processing is a key principle of cooperative learning in which small groups discuss their strengths and weaknesses and set group goals or norms. However, group processing has not been well-studied at the post-secondary level or from a qualitative or mixed methods perspective. This mixed methods study uses a phenomenological framework to examine the experience of group processing for students in an undergraduate biology course for preservice teachers. The effect of group processing on students' attitudes toward future group work and group processing is also examined. Additionally, this research investigated preservice teachers' plans for incorporating group processing into future lessons. Students primarily experienced group processing as a time to reflect on past performance. Also, students experienced group processing as a time to increase communication among group members and become motivated for future group assignments. Three factors directly influenced students' experiences with group processing: (1) previous experience with group work, (2) instructor interaction, and (3) gender. Survey data indicated that group processing had a slight positive effect on students' attitudes toward future group work and group processing. Participants who were interviewed felt that group processing was an important part of group work and that it had increased their group's effectiveness as well as their ability to work effectively with other people. Participants held positive views on group work prior to engaging in group processing, and group processing did not alter their atittude toward group work. Preservice teachers who were interviewed planned to use group work and a modified group processing protocol in their future classrooms. They also felt that group processing had prepared them for their future professions by modeling effective collaboration and group skills. Based on this research, a new model for group processing has been created which includes extensive

  4. Biological, psychological and social processes that explain celebrities' influence on patients' health-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J; Tan, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Celebrities can have substantial influence as medical advisors. However, their impact on public health is equivocal: depending on the advice's validity and applicability, celebrity engagements can benefit or hinder efforts to educate patients on evidence-based practices and improve their health literacy. This meta-narrative analysis synthesizes multiple disciplinary insights explaining the influence celebrities have on people's health-related behaviors. Systematic searches of electronic databases BusinessSource Complete, Communication & Mass Media Complete, Humanities Abstracts, ProQuest Political Science, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Sociology Abstracts were conducted. Retrieved articles were used to inform a conceptual analysis of the possible processes accounting for the substantial influence celebrities may have as medical advisors. Fourteen mechanisms of celebrity influence were identified. According to the economics literature, celebrities distinguish endorsed items from competitors and can catalyze herd behavior. Marketing studies tell us that celebrities' characteristics are transferred to endorsed products, and that the most successful celebrity advisors are those viewed as credible, a perception they can create with their success. Neuroscience research supports these explanations, finding that celebrity endorsements activate brain regions involved in making positive associations, building trust and encoding memories. The psychology literature tells us that celebrity advice conditions people to react positively toward it. People are also inclined to follow celebrities if the advice matches their self-conceptions or if not following it would generate cognitive dissonance. Sociology explains how celebrities' advice spreads through social networks, how their influence is a manifestation of people's desire to acquire celebrities' social capital, and how they affect the ways people acquire and interpret health information. There are clear and deeply rooted biological

  5. Treatment of winery wastewater by physicochemical, biological and advanced processes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, L A; Li Puma, G; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2015-04-09

    Winery wastewater is a major waste stream resulting from numerous cleaning operations that occur during the production stages of wine. The resulting effluent contains various organic and inorganic contaminants and its environmental impact is notable, mainly due to its high organic/inorganic load, the large volumes produced and its seasonal variability. Several processes for the treatment of winery wastewater are currently available, but the development of alternative treatment methods is necessary in order to (i) maximize the efficiency and flexibility of the treatment process to meet the discharge requirements for winery effluents, and (ii) decrease both the environmental footprint, as well as the investment/operational costs of the process. This review, presents the state-of-the-art of the processes currently applied and/or tested for the treatment of winery wastewater, which were divided into five categories: i.e., physicochemical, biological, membrane filtration and separation, advanced oxidation processes, and combined biological and advanced oxidation processes. The advantages and disadvantages, as well as the main parameters/factors affecting the efficiency of winery wastewater treatment are discussed. Both bench- and pilot/industrial-scale processes have been considered for this review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. PROCESSES OF ASSIMILATION INVOLVING DENTAL STOP CONSOANTS /t, d/ IN BRASILIAN PORTUGUESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermeval da HORA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of this paper is to present, based on quantitative sociolinguistics, a analyse of the process of progressive assimilation that involve the dental stop consonants. First of all, one overview about the regressive assimilation, which was extensively studied in Brazilian Portuguese, will be present. Then, the contexts of progressive assimilation in the speech community of Itabaiana-PB will be analyzed. The motivation for this paper is the fact that, in the dialect from Itabaiana, the process of progressive assimilation, in words such as muito ‘many/much’ and gosto ‘like”, in which the preceding phonological context exerts influence over the following one, tend to undergo the process of regressive assimilation, such as as pote ‘pot’ and bote ‘boat’, more useful when we think about the Brazilian Portuguese. The theoretical approach underlying the research is the variation theory, or quantitative Sociolinguistics, pioneered by William Labov (1972. The data collected had already been electronically stored in the corpus from Projeto Variação Linguística da Paraíba – VALPB. The sample consists of 36 informants from the community, being stratified according to gender, age group and years of schooling. As result, the computer program Goldvarb (SANKOFF; TAGLIAMONTE; SMITH, 2005 pointed as favorite to the application of the rule: the gender (male gender, the level of schooling (no scholar historic since the primary, the following phonological context (high back vowel, the precedent phonological context (monophthong, and the tonicity (post-stressed syllable.

  7. Proteins Involved in Distinct Phases of Cold Hardening Process in Frost Resistant Winter Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Luxor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Hynek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Winter barley is an economically important cereal crop grown in higher latitudes and altitudes where low temperatures represent an important environmental constraint limiting crop productivity. In this study changes in proteome of leaves and crowns in a frost tolerant winter barley cv. Luxor in relation to short and long term periods of cold followed by a brief frost treatment were studied in order to disclose proteins responsible for the cold hardening process in distinct plant tissues. The mentioned changes have been monitored using two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE with subsequent peptide-mapping protein identification. Regarding approximately 600–700 distinct protein spots detected on 2D gels, there has been found at least a two-fold change after exposure to low temperatures in about 10% of proteins in leaves and 13% of proteins in crowns. Protein and nitrogen metabolic processes have been influenced by low temperature to a similar extent in both tissues while catabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and proteins involved in stress response have been more affected in crowns than in leaves. The range of changes in protein abundance was generally higher in leaves and chloroplast proteins were frequently affected which suggests a priority to protect photosynthetic apparatus. Overall, our data proved existence of slightly different response strategies to low temperature stress in crowns and leaves, i.e., tissues with different biological role. Moreover, there have been found several proteins with large increase in accumulation, e.g., 33 kDa oxygen evolving protein of photosystem II in leaves and “enhanced disease susceptibility 1” in crowns; these proteins might have potential to indicate an enhanced level of frost tolerance in barley.

  8. HRI catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process materials: chemical analysis and biological testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C.W.; Later, D.W.

    1985-12-01

    This report presents data from the chemical analysis and biological testing of coal liquefaction materials obtained from the Hydrocarbon Research, Incorporated (HRI) catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process. Materials from both an experimental run and a 25-day demonstration run were analyzed. Chemical methods of analysis included adsorption column chromatography, high-resolution gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, low-voltage probe-inlet mass spectrometry, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The biological activity was evaluated using the standard microbial mutagenicity assay and an initiation/promotion assay for mouse-skin tumorigenicity. Where applicable, the results obtained from the analyses of the CTSL materials have been compared to those obtained from the integrated and nonintegrated two-stage coal liquefaction processes. 18 refs., 26 figs., 22 tabs.

  9. Marketing the use of the space environment for the processing of biological and pharmaceutical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The perceptions of U.S. biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies concerning the potential use of the space environment for the processing of biological substances was examined. Physical phenomena that may be important in space-base processing of biological materials are identified and discussed in the context of past and current experiment programs. The capabilities of NASA to support future research and development, and to engage in cooperative risk sharing programs with industry are discussed. Meetings were held with several biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies to provide data for an analysis of the attitudes and perceptions of these industries toward the use of the space environment. Recommendations are made for actions that might be taken by NASA to facilitate the marketing of the use of the space environment, and in particular the Space Shuttle, to the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries.

  10. Microbialites and microbial communities: Biological diversity, biogeochemical functioning, diagenetic processes, tracers of environmental changes

    OpenAIRE

    Camoin, Gilbert; Gautret, Pascale

    2006-01-01

    Editorial; This special issue is dedicated to microbialites and microbial communities and addresses their biological diversity, their biogeochemical functioning, their roles in diagenetic processes and their environmental significance. It is the logical successor of the special issue that one of us edited after the workshop on “Microbial mediation in carbonate diagenesis” which was held in Chichilianne (France) in 1997 (Camoin, G., Ed., 1999. Microbial mediation in carbonate diagenesis. Sedim...

  11. A short comparison of electron and proton transfer processes in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    The main differences between electron and proton transfers that take place in biological systems are examined. The relation between the distance dependence of the rate constant and the mass of the transferred particle is analyzed in detail. Differences between the two processes have important consequences at the experimental level, which are discussed. The various mechanisms that ensure the coupling between electron and proton transfers are briefly described

  12. Influence of Technological Processes on Biologically Active Compounds of Produced Grapes Juices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tříska, Jan; Balík, J.; Strohalm, J.; Novotná, P.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Lefnerová, D.; Landfeld, A.; Híc, P.; Tománková, E.; Veverka, J.; Houška, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2016), s. 421-429 ISSN 1935-5130 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MZe QJ1210258; GA MZe QI91B094 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Grapevine juices * Thermomaceration * Biologically active compounds * Antioxidative capacity * Total polyphenols * Antimutagenic activity Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 2.576, year: 2016

  13. Identification of key processes underlying cancer phenotypes using biologic pathway analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol Efroni

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is recognized to be a family of gene-based diseases whose causes are to be found in disruptions of basic biologic processes. An increasingly deep catalogue of canonical networks details the specific molecular interaction of genes and their products. However, mapping of disease phenotypes to alterations of these networks of interactions is accomplished indirectly and non-systematically. Here we objectively identify pathways associated with malignancy, staging, and outcome in cancer through application of an analytic approach that systematically evaluates differences in the activity and consistency of interactions within canonical biologic processes. Using large collections of publicly accessible genome-wide gene expression, we identify small, common sets of pathways - Trka Receptor, Apoptosis response to DNA Damage, Ceramide, Telomerase, CD40L and Calcineurin - whose differences robustly distinguish diverse tumor types from corresponding normal samples, predict tumor grade, and distinguish phenotypes such as estrogen receptor status and p53 mutation state. Pathways identified through this analysis perform as well or better than phenotypes used in the original studies in predicting cancer outcome. This approach provides a means to use genome-wide characterizations to map key biological processes to important clinical features in disease.

  14. Determination of Biological Treatability Processes of Textile Wastewater and Implementation of a Fuzzy Logic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Akif Kabuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the biological treatability of textile wastewater. For this purpose, a membrane bioreactor (MBR was utilized for biological treatment after the ozonation process. Due to the refractory organic contents of textile wastewater that has a low biodegradability capacity, ozonation was implemented as an advanced oxidation process prior to the MBR system to increase the biodegradability of the wastewater. Textile wastewater, oxidized by ozonation, was fed to the MBR at different hydraulic retention times (HRT. During the process, color, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD removal efficiencies were monitored for 24-hour, 12-hour, 6-hour, and 3-hour retention times. Under these conditions, 94% color, 65% COD, and 55% BOD removal efficiencies were obtained in the MBR system. The experimental outputs were modeled with multiple linear regressions (MLR and fuzzy logic. MLR results suggested that color removal is more related to COD removal relative to BOD removal. A surface map of this issue was prepared with a fuzzy logic model. Furthermore, fuzzy logic was employed to the whole modeling of the biological system treatment. Determination coefficients for COD, BOD, and color removal efficiencies were 0.96, 0.97, and 0.92, respectively.

  15. Cognitive processes involved in smooth pursuit eye movements: behavioral evidence, neural substrate and clinical correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuro eFukushima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Smooth-pursuit eye movements allow primates to track moving objects. Efficient pursuit requires appropriate target selection and predictive compensation for inherent processing delays. Prediction depends on expectation of future object motion, storage of motion information and use of extra-retinal mechanisms in addition to visual feedback. We present behavioural evidence of how cognitive processes are involved in predictive pursuit in normal humans and then describe neuronal responses in monkeys and behavioural responses in patients using a new technique to test these cognitive controls. The new technique examines the neural substrate of working memory and movement preparation for predictive pursuit by using a memory-based task in macaque monkeys trained to pursue (go or not pursue (no-go according to a go/no-go cue, in a direction based on memory of a previously presented visual motion display. Single-unit task-related neuronal activity was examined in medial superior temporal cortex (MST, supplementary eye fields (SEF, caudal frontal eye fields (FEF, cerebellar dorsal vermis lobules VI-VII, caudal fastigial nuclei (cFN, and floccular region. Neuronal activity reflecting working memory of visual motion direction and go/no-go selection was found predominantly in SEF, cerebellar dorsal vermis and cFN, whereas movement preparation related signals were found predominantly in caudal FEF and the same cerebellar areas. Chemical inactivation produced effects consistent with differences in signals represented in each area. When applied to patients with Parkinson's disease, the task revealed deficits in movement preparation but not working memory. In contrast, patients with frontal cortical or cerebellar dysfunction had high error rates, suggesting impaired working memory. We show how neuronal activity may be explained by models of retinal and extra-retinal interaction in target selection and predictive control and thus aid understanding of underlying

  16. Involvement of the visual change detection process in facilitating perceptual alternation in the bistable image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakawa, Tomokazu; Bunya, Mao; Araki, Osamu

    2017-08-01

    A bistable image induces one of two perceptual alternatives. When the bistable visual image is continuously viewed, the percept of the image alternates from one possible percept to the other. Perceptual alternation was previously reported to be induced by an exogenous perturbation in the bistable image, and this perturbation was theoretically interpreted to cause neural noise, prompting a transition between two stable perceptual states. However, little is known experimentally about the visual processing of exogenously driven perceptual alternation. Based on the findings of a previous behavioral study (Urakawa et al. in Perception 45:474-482, 2016), the present study hypothesized that the automatic visual change detection process, which is relevant to the detection of a visual change in a sequence of visual events, has an enhancing effect on the induction of perceptual alternation, similar to neural noise. In order to clarify this issue, we developed a novel experimental paradigm in which visual mismatch negativity (vMMN), an electroencephalographic brain response that reflects visual change detection, was evoked while participants continuously viewed the bistable image. In terms of inter-individual differences in neural and behavioral data, we found that enhancements in the peak amplitude of vMMN1, early vMMN at a latency of approximately 150 ms, correlated with increases in the proportion of perceptual alternation across participants. Our results indicate the involvement of automatic visual change detection in the induction of perceptual alternation, similar to neural noise, thereby providing a deeper insight into the neural mechanisms underlying exogenously driven perceptual alternation in the bistable image.

  17. Forest Soil Bacteria: Diversity, Involvement in Ecosystem Processes, and Response to Global Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lladó, Salvador; López-Mondéjar, Rubén; Baldrian, Petr

    2017-06-01

    The ecology of forest soils is an important field of research due to the role of forests as carbon sinks. Consequently, a significant amount of information has been accumulated concerning their ecology, especially for temperate and boreal forests. Although most studies have focused on fungi, forest soil bacteria also play important roles in this environment. In forest soils, bacteria inhabit multiple habitats with specific properties, including bulk soil, rhizosphere, litter, and deadwood habitats, where their communities are shaped by nutrient availability and biotic interactions. Bacteria contribute to a range of essential soil processes involved in the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. They take part in the decomposition of dead plant biomass and are highly important for the decomposition of dead fungal mycelia. In rhizospheres of forest trees, bacteria interact with plant roots and mycorrhizal fungi as commensalists or mycorrhiza helpers. Bacteria also mediate multiple critical steps in the nitrogen cycle, including N fixation. Bacterial communities in forest soils respond to the effects of global change, such as climate warming, increased levels of carbon dioxide, or anthropogenic nitrogen deposition. This response, however, often reflects the specificities of each studied forest ecosystem, and it is still impossible to fully incorporate bacteria into predictive models. The understanding of bacterial ecology in forest soils has advanced dramatically in recent years, but it is still incomplete. The exact extent of the contribution of bacteria to forest ecosystem processes will be recognized only in the future, when the activities of all soil community members are studied simultaneously. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. An ENU mutagenesis screen identifies novel and known genes involved in epigenetic processes in the mouse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Daxinger, L.; Harten, S.K.; Oey, H.; Epp, Trevor; Isbel, L.; Huang, E.; Whitelaw, N.; Apedaile, A.; Sorolla, A.; Yong, J.; Bharti, V.; Sutton, J.; Ashe, A.; Pang, Z.Y.; Wallace, N.; Gerhardt, D.J.; Blewitt, M.E.; Jeddeloh, J.A.; Whitelaw, E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 9 (2013) ISSN 1465-6906 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : epigenetics * variegation * forward genetics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 10.465, year: 2013

  19. [Biology of root resorption process in deciduous teeth. Review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarola, V; Galmozzi, A

    2001-05-01

    Aim of this paper, is to examine, with a review of the literature the different aspects of physiological process of root resorption of deciduous teeth. The process of development of mouth and teeth and their structure is also described. Studies made during the last period, in most part by Japanese authors, improved our knowledge about the process of root resorption of deciduous teeth, even if many aspects are still unknown. The involvement of the pulp and the periodontal ligament and the presence of enzimatic activity and immunologic cells have been confirmed; all these elements seem to have a definite role in the process of root resorption of the deciduous teeth.

  20. Differences in the early stages of social information processing for adolescents involved in bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Alexa; Lee, Kirsty; Wolke, Dieter

    2017-11-01

    Bullying victimization has commonly been associated with deficiencies in social information processing (SIP). In contrast, findings regarding bullying perpetration are mixed, with some researchers claiming that bullies may have superior SIP abilities than victimized or uninvolved youth. This study investigated the effects of bullying and victimization on early SIP; specifically the recognition and interpretation of social information. In stage 1, 2,782 adolescents (11-16 years) were screened for bullying involvement, and in stage 2, 723 of these participants (mean age = 13.95) were assessed on measures of emotion recognition, hostile attribution bias, and characterological self-blame (CSB). No associations between bullying and early SIP were found. In contrast, victimization was associated with more hostile attribution bias and CSB attributions. Girls performed better than boys on the emotion recognition task while boys showed greater hostile attribution biases. No interaction effects of bullying or victimization with gender were found. Follow-up categorical analyses that considered pure victims versus victims who also bullied (bully-victims) on SIP, found a similar pattern of findings. These findings suggest that those who purely bully others are neither superior nor deficient in the early stages of SIP. Victimized adolescents, however, show biases in their interpretations of social situations and the intentions of others. These biases may lead to maladaptive responses and may increase risk for further victimization by peers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Priorities for methodological research on patient and public involvement in clinical trials: A modified Delphi process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Anna; Williamson, Paula; Young, Bridget; Bagley, Heather; Gamble, Carrol; Denegri, Simon; Muir, Delia; Simon, Natalie A; Thomas, Stephen; Elliot, Jim T; Bulbeck, Helen; Crocker, Joanna C; Planner, Claire; Vale, Claire; Clarke, Mike; Sprosen, Tim; Woolfall, Kerry

    2017-12-01

    Despite increasing international interest, there is a lack of evidence about the most efficient, effective and acceptable ways to implement patient and public involvement (PPI) in clinical trials. To identify the priorities of UK PPI stakeholders for methodological research to help resolve uncertainties about PPI in clinical trials. A modified Delphi process including a two round online survey and a stakeholder consensus meeting. In total, 237 people registered of whom 219 (92%) completed the first round. One hundred and eighty-seven of 219 (85%) completed the second; 25 stakeholders attended the consensus meeting. Round 1 of the survey comprised 36 topics; 42 topics were considered in round 2 and at the consensus meeting. Approximately 96% of meeting participants rated the top three topics as equally important. These were as follows: developing strong and productive working relationships between researchers and PPI contributors; exploring PPI practices in selecting trial outcomes of importance to patients; and a systematic review of PPI activity to improve the accessibility and usefulness of trial information (eg participant information sheets) for participants. The prioritized methodological research topics indicate important areas of uncertainty about PPI in trials. Addressing these uncertainties will be critical to enhancing PPI. Our findings should be used in the planning and funding of PPI in clinical trials to help focus research efforts and minimize waste. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Exit of Plasmodium sporozoites from oocysts is an active process that involves the circumsporozoite protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium sporozoites develop within oocysts residing in the mosquito midgut. Mature sporozoites exit the oocysts, enter the hemolymph, and invade the salivary glands. The circumsporozoite (CS protein is the major surface protein of salivary gland and oocyst sporozoites. It is also found on the oocyst plasma membrane and on the inner surface of the oocyst capsule. CS protein contains a conserved motif of positively charged amino acids: region II-plus, which has been implicated in the initial stages of sporozoite invasion of hepatocytes. We investigated the function of region II-plus by generating mutant parasites in which the region had been substituted with alanines. Mutant parasites produced normal numbers of sporozoites in the oocysts, but the sporozoites were unable to exit the oocysts. In in vitro as well, there was a profound delay, upon trypsin treatment, in the release of mutant sporozoites from oocysts. We conclude that the exit of sporozoites from oocysts is an active process that involves the region II-plus of CS protein. In addition, the mutant sporozoites were not infective to young rats. These findings provide a new target for developing reagents that interfere with the transmission of malaria.

  3. System Model Bias Processing Approach for Regional Coordinated States Information Involved Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebo Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Kalman filtering applications, the conventional dynamic model which connects the states information of two consecutive epochs by state transition matrix is usually predefined and assumed to be invariant. Aiming to improve the adaptability and accuracy of dynamic model, we propose multiple historical states involved filtering algorithm. An autoregressive model is used as the dynamic model which is subsequently combined with observation model for deriving the optimal window-recursive filter formulae in the sense of minimum mean square error principle. The corresponding test statistics characteristics of system residuals are discussed in details. The test statistics of regional predicted residuals are then constructed in a time-window for model bias testing with two hypotheses, that is, the null and alternative hypotheses. Based on the innovations test statistics, we develop a model bias processing procedure including bias detection, location identification, and state correction. Finally, the minimum detectable bias and bias-to-noise ratio are both computed for evaluating the internal and external reliability of overall system, respectively.

  4. The involvement of the dorsal stream in processing implied actions between paired objects: A TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shan; Humphreys, Glyn W; Mevorach, Carmel; Heinke, Dietmar

    2017-01-27

    Perceiving and selecting the action possibilities (affordances) provided by objects is an important challenge to human vision, and is not limited to single-object scenarios. Xu et al. (2015) identified two effects of implied actions between paired objects on response selection: an inhibitory effect on responses aligned with the passive object in the pair (e.g. a bowl) and an advantage associated with responses aligned with the active objects (e.g. a spoon). The present study investigated the neurocognitive mechanisms behind these effects by examining the involvement of the ventral (vision for perception) and the dorsal (vision for action) visual streams, as defined in Goodale and Milner's (1992) two visual stream theory. Online repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the left anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) reduced both the inhibitory effect of implied actions on responses aligned with the passive objects and the advantage of those aligned with the active objects, but only when the active objects were contralateral to the stimulation. rTMS to the left lateral occipital areas (LO) did not significantly alter the influence of implied actions. The results reveal that the dorsal visual stream is crucial not only in single-object affordance processing, but also in responding to implied actions between objects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater by biological processes, hydrodynamic cavitation and UV treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanc, Mojca; Kosjek, Tina; Petkovšek, Martin; Dular, Matevž; Kompare, Boris; Širok, Brane; Blažeka, Željko; Heath, Ester

    2013-07-01

    To augment the removal of pharmaceuticals different conventional and alternative wastewater treatment processes and their combinations were investigated. We tested the efficiency of (1) two distinct laboratory scale biological processes: suspended activated sludge and attached-growth biomass, (2) a combined hydrodynamic cavitation-hydrogen peroxide process and (3) UV treatment. Five pharmaceuticals were chosen including ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, carbamazepine and diclofenac, and an active metabolite of the lipid regulating agent clofibric acid. Biological treatment efficiency was evaluated using lab-scale suspended activated sludge and moving bed biofilm flow-through reactors, which were operated under identical conditions in respect to hydraulic retention time, working volume, concentration of added pharmaceuticals and synthetic wastewater composition. The suspended activated sludge process showed poor and inconsistent removal of clofibric acid, carbamazepine and diclofenac, while ibuprofen, naproxen and ketoprofen yielded over 74% removal. Moving bed biofilm reactors were filled with two different types of carriers i.e. Kaldnes K1 and Mutag BioChip™ and resulted in higher removal efficiencies for ibuprofen and diclofenac. Augmentation and consistency in the removal of diclofenac were observed in reactors using Mutag BioChip™ carriers (85%±10%) compared to reactors using Kaldnes carriers and suspended activated sludge (74%±22% and 48%±19%, respectively). To enhance the removal of pharmaceuticals hydrodynamic cavitation with hydrogen peroxide process was evaluated and optimal conditions for removal were established regarding the duration of cavitation, amount of added hydrogen peroxide and initial pressure, all of which influence the efficiency of the process. Optimal parameters resulted in removal efficiencies between 3-70%. Coupling the attached-growth biomass biological treatment, hydrodynamic cavitation/hydrogen peroxide process and UV treatment

  6. Survey of biological processes for odor reduction; Kartlaeggning och studie av biologiska processer foer luktreduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrhenius, Karine; Rosell, Lars [SP Technical Research Inst. of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden); Hall, Gunnar [SIK Swedish Inst. for Food and Biotechnology, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2009-09-15

    This project aims to characterize chemical and subsequently odor emissions from a digester plant located closed to Boraas in Sweden (Boraas Energi och Miljoe AB). The digestion produces mainly 2 by-products, biogas and high quality organic biofertilizer. Biogas is a renewable source of electrical and heat energy and subsequently digester have a promising future. Unfortunately, release of unpleasant odours is one of the problems that may limit development of the technique as odours strongly influence the level of acceptance of the neighbours. The number of complaints due to odours depends mostly, upon the degree of odour release, the weather condition and plant environment (which influence the risks for spreading out), and the tolerance of the neighbours. These parameters are strongly variable. Many processes inside the plant distributed on a large surface may contribute to odour release. Chemical emissions were studied, in this project, by extensive sampling inside the plant. Results were then evaluated regarding risk for odour releases. The goal was to suggest controls and routines to limit releases. The conditions leading to the higher risks for odour emissions were studied by performing sampling at different periods of the year and subsequently different weather conditions. At first, places for measurement were chosen together with personal of the plant. Three zones are considered to mainly contribute to the odour emissions: the landfill region, the cisterns region and the leaching lake region. Totally 13 places were studied with regard to odour and chemical emissions under 2008-2009 at different weather conditions. Some results from a previous project (2007) are also presented here. Results show that the spreading out of can be maintained to an acceptable level as long as the plant is functioning without disturbances. The early stages of the treatment of waste should be confined in locals with closed doors to avoid spreading out of odours. Through controlled

  7. Identification of microorganisms involved in nitrogen removal from wastewater treatment systems by means of molecular biology techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa, M.; Alonso-Gutierrez, J.; Campos, J. L.; Mendez, R.; Mosquera-Corral, A.

    2010-01-01

    The identification of the main bacteria populations present in the granular biomass from a biological reactor treating wastewater has been performed by applying two different molecular biology techniques. By means of the DGGE technique five different genera of heterotrophic bacteria (Thiothrix, Thauera, Cloroflexi, Comamonas y Zoogloea) and one of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (Nitrosomanas) were identified. The FISH technique, based on microscopy, allowed the in situ visualization and quantification of those microorganisms. Special attention was paid to filamentous bacteria distribution (Thiothrix and Cloroflexi) which could exert a structural function in aerobic granular sludge. (Author) 26 refs.

  8. [Analysis of novel style biological fluidized bed A/O combined process in dyeing wastewater treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chao-Hai; Huang, Hui-Jing; Ren, Yuan; Wu, Chao-Fei; Wu, Hai-Zhen; Lu, Bin

    2011-04-01

    A novel biological fluidized bed was designed and developed to deal with high-concentration refractory organic industrial wastewater. From 12 successful projects, three cases of dyeing wastewater treatment projects with the scale of 1200, 2000 and 13000 m3/d respectively were selected to analyze the principle of treating refractory organic wastewater with fluidized bed technology and discuss the superiority of self-developed biological fluidized bed from the aspects of technical and economic feasibility. In the three cases, when the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of biological system were 23, 34 and 21. 8 h, and the volume loading of influents (COD) were 1.75, 4.75 and 2.97 kg/(m3 x d), the corresponding COD removal were 97.3%, 98.1% and 95.8%. Furthermore the operating costs of projects were 0.91, 1.17 and 0.88 yuan per ton of water respectively. The index of effluent all met the 1st grade of Guangdong Province wastewater discharge standard. Results showed that the biological fluidized bed had characteristics of shorter retention time, greater oxygen utilization rate, faster conversion rate of organic pollutants and less sludge production, which made it overcome the shortcomings of traditional methods in printing and dyeing wastewater treatment. Considering the development of technology and the combination of ecological security and recycling resources, a low-carbon wastewater treatment process was proposed.

  9. Prospects for energy recovery during hydrothermal and biological processing of waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber Van Doren, Léda; Posmanik, Roy; Bicalho, Felipe A; Tester, Jefferson W; Sills, Deborah L

    2017-02-01

    Thermochemical and biological processes represent promising technologies for converting wet biomasses, such as animal manure, organic waste, or algae, to energy. To convert biomass to energy and bio-chemicals in an economical manner, internal energy recovery should be maximized to reduce the use of external heat and power. In this study, two conversion pathways that couple hydrothermal liquefaction with anaerobic digestion or catalytic hydrothermal gasification were compared. Each of these platforms is followed by two alternative processes for gas utilization: 1) combined heat and power; and 2) combustion in a boiler. Pinch analysis was applied to integrate thermal streams among unit processes and improve the overall system efficiency. A techno-economic analysis was conducted to compare the feasibility of the four modeled scenarios under different market conditions. Our results show that a systems approach designed to recover internal heat and power can reduce external energy demands and increase the overall process sustainability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Motor capacities involved in the psychomotor skills of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation technique: recommendations for the teaching-learning process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyadahira, A M

    2001-12-01

    It is a bibliographic study about the identification of the motor capacities involved in the psychomotor skills of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) which aims to obtain subsidies to the planning of the teaching-learning process of this skill. It was found that: the motor capacities involved in the psychomotor skill of the CPR technique are predominantly cognitive and motor, involving 9 perceptive-motor capacities and 8 physical proficiency capacities. The CPR technique is a psychomotor skill classified as open, done in series and categorized as a thin and global skill and the teaching-learning process of the CPR technique has an elevated degree of complexity.

  11. Cellular distribution and function of ion channels involved in transport processes in rat tracheal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Anne; Faulhaber, Johannes; Srisawang, Lalita; Stortz, Andreas; Salomon, Johanna J; Mall, Marcus A; Frings, Stephan; Möhrlen, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Transport of water and electrolytes in airway epithelia involves chloride-selective ion channels, which are controlled either by cytosolic Ca 2+ or by cAMP The contributions of the two pathways to chloride transport differ among vertebrate species. Because rats are becoming more important as animal model for cystic fibrosis, we have examined how Ca 2+ - dependent and cAMP- dependent Cl - secretion is organized in the rat tracheal epithelium. We examined the expression of the Ca 2+ -gated Cl - channel anoctamin 1 (ANO1), the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl - channel, the epithelial Na + channel ENaC, and the water channel aquaporin 5 (AQP5) in rat tracheal epithelium. The contribution of ANO1 channels to nucleotide-stimulated Cl - secretion was determined using the channel blocker Ani9 in short-circuit current recordings obtained from primary cultures of rat tracheal epithelial cells in Ussing chambers. We found that ANO1, CFTR and AQP5 proteins were expressed in nonciliated cells of the tracheal epithelium, whereas ENaC was expressed in ciliated cells. Among nonciliated cells, ANO1 occurred together with CFTR and Muc5b and, in addition, in a different cell type without CFTR and Muc5b. Bioelectrical studies with the ANO1-blocker Ani9 indicated that ANO1 mediated the secretory response to the nucleotide uridine-5'-triphosphate. Our data demonstrate that, in rat tracheal epithelium, Cl - secretion and Na + absorption are routed through different cell types, and that ANO1 channels form the molecular basis of Ca 2+ -dependent Cl - secretion in this tissue. These characteristic features of Cl - -dependent secretion reveal similarities and distinct differences to secretory processes in human airways. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  12. Towards the understanding of biogeochemical processes involved in the release of carbonyl sulfide (COS) from soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Thomas; Catao, Elisa; Bunk, Rüdiger; Yi, Zhigang; Greule, Markus; Keppler, Frank; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Trumbore, Susan

    2017-04-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is present in the atmosphere in low mixing ratio ( 500ppt). It is relevant in climate change through the effect in aerosol formation. Soils can act as source of COS, e.g. by microbial degradation of thiocyanate from plant material. On the other side it is known that COS can be consumed via various enzymatic pathways. Assuming that biogenic processes dominate over chemical reactions we extracted nucleic acids and performed amplicon sequencing for bacteria (16S rRNA) and fungi (ITS region) from a mid-latitude agricultural maize soil which was previously incubated under ambient COS and COS fumigation ( 1000ppt). The mixing ratios of COS have been measured online from soil samples in a dynamic chamber system under laboratory conditions by an integrated cavity output spectroscopy (IOCS) analyzer (Los Gatos Research Inc., USA). Additionally stable carbon isotope values (δ13C values) of COS were measured using a pre-concentration method and stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Under low COS mixing ratio ( 50ppt) δ13C +4.7 ‰ for spruce forest ( 23°C), and -24.4‰ for mid-latitude cornfield ( 22°C), respectively. Linking gas release rates of (COS, CO2, CO, NO) to isotopic signatures of COS and molecular results might allow us to indicate bacterial s-compound degradation related to the higher activity of β-Proteobacteria and of the family Acetobacteraceae from the α-Proteobacteria phylum, potentially involved with the hydrolysis of thiocyanate in the soil releasing COS. Furthermore, our study reports the first COS data for rainforest and desert soils which are in the order of 0.5 pmol gdw-1 h-1 and 2 pmol gdw-1 h-1, respectively.

  13. Role of neurodevelopment involved genes in psychiatric comorbidities and modulation of inflammatory processes in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, Stefano; Crisafulli, Concetta; Donato, Luigi; Calabrò, Marco; Politis, Antonis; Liappas, Ioannis; Albani, Diego; Atti, Anna Rita; Salfi, Raffaele; Raimondi, Ilaria; Forloni, Gianluigi; Papadimitriou, George N; De Ronchi, Diana; Serretti, Alessandro

    2016-11-15

    With the increase of the population's average age, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is becoming one of the most disabling diseases worldwide. Recently, neurodevelopment processes have been involved in the AD etiopathogenesis. Genetic studies in this field could contribute to our knowledge and suggest new molecular targets for possible treatments. Our primary aim was to investigate the associations among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within neurodevelopment related genes (BDNF, ST8SIA2, C15orf32, NCAPG2, ESYT2, WDR60, LOC154822, VIPR2, GSK3B, NR1I2, ZNF804A, SP4) and AD. A number of exploratory analyses was also performed to evaluate the associations with the presence of behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD), as well as with variations in hematological parameters. Two independent samples were investigated, one of 228 Greek subjects and one sample of 229 Italian subjects, including 156Alzheimer's Disease patients CE patients and 301 healthy controls. All patients were affected by late onset AD (LOAD). None of the analyzed SNPs was associated with AD in our samples. In the exploratory analyses, several genetic variants were associated with inflammation parameters in the Greek sample and in the merged one, suggesting a relationship among these genes and the modulation of inflammation and the immune response. Other exploratory analyses showed associations among several SNPs and psychiatric symptomatology in the Greek sample, suggesting a possible modulation of these variants on psychiatric comorbidities in AD. Although we failed to find a direct relationship between AD and the genetic variants investigated, possible connections with inflammation and psychiatric symptoms were suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. GWAS for executive function and processing speed suggests involvement of the CADM2 gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim-Verbaas, CA; Bressler, J; Debette, S; Schuur, M; Smith, AV; Bis, JC; Davies, G; Trompet, S; Smith, JA; Wolf, C; Chibnik, LB; Liu, Y; Vitart, V; Kirin, M; Petrovic, K; Polasek, O; Zgaga, L; Fawns-Ritchie, C; Hoffmann, P; Karjalainen, J; Lahti, J; Llewellyn, DJ; Schmidt, CO; Mather, KA; Chouraki, V; Sun, Q; Resnick, SM; Rose, LM; Oldmeadow, C; Stewart, M; Smith, BH; Gudnason, V; Yang, Q; Mirza, SS; Jukema, JW; deJager, PL; Harris, TB; Liewald, DC; Amin, N; Coker, LH; Stegle, O; Lopez, OL; Schmidt, R; Teumer, A; Ford, I; Karbalai, N; Becker, JT; Jonsdottir, MK; Au, R; Fehrmann, RSN; Herms, S; Nalls, M; Zhao, W; Turner, ST; Yaffe, K; Lohman, K; van Swieten, JC; Kardia, SLR; Knopman, DS; Meeks, WM; Heiss, G; Holliday, EG; Schofield, PW; Tanaka, T; Stott, DJ; Wang, J; Ridker, P; Gow, AJ; Pattie, A; Starr, JM; Hocking, LJ; Armstrong, NJ; McLachlan, S; Shulman, JM; Pilling, LC; Eiriksdottir, G; Scott, RJ; Kochan, NA; Palotie, A; Hsieh, Y-C; Eriksson, JG; Penman, A; Gottesman, RF; Oostra, BA; Yu, L; DeStefano, AL; Beiser, A; Garcia, M; Rotter, JI; Nöthen, MM; Hofman, A; Slagboom, PE; Westendorp, RGJ; Buckley, BM; Wolf, PA; Uitterlinden, AG; Psaty, BM; Grabe, HJ; Bandinelli, S; Chasman, DI; Grodstein, F; Räikkönen, K; Lambert, J-C; Porteous, DJ; Price, JF; Sachdev, PS; Ferrucci, L; Attia, JR; Rudan, I; Hayward, C; Wright, AF; Wilson, JF; Cichon, S; Franke, L; Schmidt, H; Ding, J; de Craen, AJM; Fornage, M

    2016-01-01

    To identify common variants contributing to normal variation in two specific domains of cognitive functioning, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of executive functioning and information processing speed in non-demented older adults from the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) consortium. Neuropsychological testing was available for 5429–32 070 subjects of European ancestry aged 45 years or older, free of dementia and clinical stroke at the time of cognitive testing from 20 cohorts in the discovery phase. We analyzed performance on the Trail Making Test parts A and B, the Letter Digit Substitution Test (LDST), the Digit Symbol Substitution Task (DSST), semantic and phonemic fluency tests, and the Stroop Color and Word Test. Replication was sought in 1311-21860 subjects from 20 independent cohorts. A significant association was observed in the discovery cohorts for the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs17518584 (discovery P-value = 3.12 × 10−8) and in the joint discovery and replication meta-analysis (P-value = 3.28 × 10−9 after adjustment for age, gender and education) in an intron of the gene cell adhesion molecule 2 (CADM2) for performance on the LDST/DSST. Rs17518584 is located about 170 kb upstream of the transcription start site of the major transcript for the CADM2 gene, but is within an intron of a variant transcript that includes an alternative first exon. The variant is associated with expression of CADM2 in the cingulate cortex (P-value = 4 × 10−4). The protein encoded by CADM2 is involved in glutamate signaling (P-value = 7.22 × 10−15), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transport (P-value = 1.36 × 10−11) and neuron cell-cell adhesion (P-value = 1.48 × 10−13). Our findings suggest that genetic variation in the CADM2 gene is associated with individual differences in information processing speed. PMID:25869804

  15. Process of Argumentation in High School Biology Class: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, M.; Rakhmawati, E.; Hendarto, P.; Winarni

    2017-02-01

    Argumentation skill can be nurtured by designing a lesson in which students are provided with the opportunity to argue. This research aims to analyse argumentation process in biology class. The participants were students of three biology classes from different high schools in Surakarta Indonesia. One of the classroom was taught by a student teacher, and the rest were instructed by the assigned teachers. Through a classroom observation, oral activities were noted, audio-recorded and video-taped. Coding was done based on the existence of claiming-reasoning-evidence (CRE) process by McNeill and Krajcik. Data was analysed qualitatively focusing on the role of teachers to initiate questioning to support argumentation process. The lesson design of three were also analysed. The result shows that pedagogical skill of teachers to support argumentation process, such as skill to ask, answer, and respond to students’ question and statements need to be trained intensively. Most of the argumentation found were only claiming, without reasoning and evidence. Teachers have to change the routine of mostly posing open-ended questions to students, and giving directly a correct answer to students’ questions. Knowledge and skills to encourage student to follow inquiry-based learning have to be acquired by teachers.

  16. Electrochemical advanced oxidation and biological processes for wastewater treatment: a review of the combined approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzenko, Oleksandra; Huguenot, David; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Esposito, Giovanni; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2014-01-01

    As pollution becomes one of the biggest environmental challenges of the twenty-first century, pollution of water threatens the very existence of humanity, making immediate action a priority. The most persistent and hazardous pollutants come from industrial and agricultural activities; therefore, effective treatment of this wastewater prior to discharge into the natural environment is the solution. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have caused increased interest due to their ability to degrade hazardous substances in contrast to other methods, which mainly only transfer pollution from wastewater to sludge, a membrane filter, or an adsorbent. Among a great variety of different AOPs, a group of electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs), including electro-Fenton, is emerging as an environmental-friendly and effective treatment process for the destruction of persistent hazardous contaminants. The only concern that slows down a large-scale implementation is energy consumption and related investment and operational costs. A combination of EAOPs with biological treatment is an interesting solution. In such a synergetic way, removal efficiency is maximized, while minimizing operational costs. The goal of this review is to present cutting-edge research for treatment of three common and problematic pollutants and effluents: dyes and textile wastewater, olive processing wastewater, and pharmaceuticals and hospital wastewater. Each of these types is regarded in terms of recent scientific research on individual electrochemical, individual biological and a combined synergetic treatment.

  17. Biological shielding design and qualification of concreting process for construction of electron beam irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petwal, V.C.; Kumar, P.; Suresh, N.; Parchani, G.; Dwivedi, J.; Thakurta, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    A technology demonstration facility for irradiation of food and agricultural products is being set-up by RRCAT at Indore. The facility design is based on linear electron accelerator with maximum beam power of 10 kW and can be operated either in electron mode at 10 MeV or photon modes at 5/7.5 MeV. Biological shielding has been designed in accordance with NCRP 51 to achieve dose rate at all accessible points outside the irradiation vault less than the permissible limit of 0.1 mR/hr. In addition to radiation attenuation property, concrete must have satisfactory mechanical properties to meet the structural requirements. There are number of site specific variables which affect the structural, thermal and radiological properties of concrete, leading to considerable difference in actual values and design values. Hence it is essential to establish a suitable site and environmental specific process to cast the concrete and qualify the process by experimental measurement. For process qualification we have cast concrete test blocks of different thicknesses up to 3.25 m and evaluated the radiological and mechanical properties by radiometry, ultrasonic and mechanical tests. In this paper we describe the biological shielding design of the facility and analyse the results of tests carried out for qualification of the process. (author)

  18. Development of biology student worksheets to facilitate science process skills of student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Y. S.; Pratiwi, R.; Indana, S.

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to describe development of Biology student worksheets to facilitate science process skills of student, at the same time to facilitate thinking skills of students in senior high school are equipped with Assesment Sheets. The worksheets development refers to cycle which includes phase analysis (analysis), planning (planning), design (design), development (development), implementation (implementation), evaluation and revision (evaluation and revision). Phase evaluation and revision is an ongoing activity conducted in each phase of the development cycle. That is, after the evaluation of the results of these activities and make revisions at any phase, then continue to the next phase. Based on the test results for grade X, XI, and XII in St. Agnes Surabaya high school, obtained some important findings. The findings are as follows. (1) Developed biology student worksheets could be used to facilitate thinking ability of students in particular skills integrated process that includes components to formulate the problem, formulate hypotheses, determine the study variables, formulate an operational definition of variables, determine the steps in the research, planning data tables, organizing Data in the form of tables/charts, drawing conclusions, (2) Developed biology student worksheets could also facilitate the development of social interaction of students such as working together, listening/respect the opinions of others, assembling equipment and materials, discuss and share information and facilitate the upgrading of skills hands-on student activity. (3) Developed biology worksheets basically could be implemented with the guidance of the teacher step by step, especially for students who have never used a similar worksheet. Guidance at the beginning of this need, especially for worksheets that require special skills or understanding of specific concepts as a prerequisite, such as using a microscope, determine the heart rate, understand the mechanism of

  19. Structural biology of disease-associated repetitive DNA sequences and protein-DNA complexes involved in DNA damage and repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, G.; Santhana Mariappan, S.V.; Chen, X.; Catasti, P.; Silks, L.A. III; Moyzis, R.K.; Bradbury, E.M.; Garcia, A.E.

    1997-07-01

    This project is aimed at formulating the sequence-structure-function correlations of various microsatellites in the human (and other eukaryotic) genomes. Here the authors have been able to develop and apply structure biology tools to understand the following: the molecular mechanism of length polymorphism microsatellites; the molecular mechanism by which the microsatellites in the noncoding regions alter the regulation of the associated gene; and finally, the molecular mechanism by which the expansion of these microsatellites impairs gene expression and causes the disease. Their multidisciplinary structural biology approach is quantitative and can be applied to all coding and noncoding DNA sequences associated with any gene. Both NIH and DOE are interested in developing quantitative tools for understanding the function of various human genes for prevention against diseases caused by genetic and environmental effects.

  20. Active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) production involving continuous processes – A process system engineering (PSE)-assisted design framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Skovby, Tommy; Kiil, Søren

    2012-01-01

    and fermentation-based products. The method exploits the synergic combination of continuous flow technologies (e.g., microfluidic techniques) and process systems engineering (PSE) methods and tools for faster process design and increased process understanding throughout the whole drug product and process...... development cycle. The design framework structures the many different and challenging design problems (e.g., solvent selection, reactor design, and design of separation and purification operations), driving the user from the initial drug discovery steps – where process knowledge is very limited – toward......A systematic framework is proposed for the design of continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Specifically, the design framework focuses on organic chemistry based, active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) synthetic processes, but could potentially be extended to biocatalytic...

  1. Thalamic Multisensory integration: Creating a neural network map of involved brain areas in music perception, processing and execution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaschke, A.C.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Music activates a wide array of neural areas involved in different functions besides the perception, processing and execution of music itself. Understanding musical processes in the brain has had multiple implications in the neuro- and health sciences. Engaging the brain with a multisensory stimulus

  2. Intended process water management concept for the mechanical biological treatment of municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Weichgrebe

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating operational experience in both aerobic and anaerobic mechanical biological waste treatment (MBT makes it increasingly obvious that controlled water management would substantially reduce the cost of MBT and also enhance resource recovery of the organic and inorganic fraction. The MBT plant at Gescher, Germany, is used as an example in order to determine the quantity and composition of process water and leachates from intensive and subsequent rotting, pressing water from anaerobic digestion and scrubber water from acid exhaust air treatment, and hence prepare an MBT water balance. The potential of, requirements for and limits to internal process water reuse as well as the possibilities of resource recovery from scrubber water are also examined. Finally, an assimilated process water management concept with the purpose of an extensive reduction of wastewater quantity and freshwater demand is presented.

  3. Process-driven inference of biological network structure: feasibility, minimality, and multiplicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanyu Wang

    Full Text Available A common problem in molecular biology is to use experimental data, such as microarray data, to infer knowledge about the structure of interactions between important molecules in subsystems of the cell. By approximating the state of each molecule as "on" or "off", it becomes possible to simplify the problem, and exploit the tools of boolean analysis for such inference. Amongst boolean techniques, the process-driven approach has shown promise in being able to identify putative network structures, as well as stability and modularity properties. This paper examines the process-driven approach more formally, and makes four contributions about the computational complexity of the inference problem, under the "dominant inhibition" assumption of molecular interactions. The first is a proof that the feasibility problem (does there exist a network that explains the data? can be solved in polynomial-time. Second, the minimality problem (what is the smallest network that explains the data? is shown to be NP-hard, and therefore unlikely to result in a polynomial-time algorithm. Third, a simple polynomial-time heuristic is shown to produce near-minimal solutions, as demonstrated by simulation. Fourth, the theoretical framework explains how multiplicity (the number of network solutions to realize a given biological process, which can take exponential-time to compute, can instead be accurately estimated by a fast, polynomial-time heuristic.

  4. Combination of Advanced Oxidation Processes and biological treatments for wastewater decontamination-A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oller, I.; Malato, S.; Sanchez-Perez, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays there is a continuously increasing worldwide concern for development of alternative water reuse technologies, mainly focused on agriculture and industry. In this context, Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) are considered a highly competitive water treatment technology for the removal of those organic pollutants not treatable by conventional techniques due to their high chemical stability and/or low biodegradability. Although chemical oxidation for complete mineralization is usually expensive, its combination with a biological treatment is widely reported to reduce operating costs. This paper reviews recent research combining AOPs (as a pre-treatment or post-treatment stage) and bioremediation technologies for the decontamination of a wide range of synthetic and real industrial wastewater. Special emphasis is also placed on recent studies and large-scale combination schemes developed in Mediterranean countries for non-biodegradable wastewater treatment and reuse. The main conclusions arrived at from the overall assessment of the literature are that more work needs to be done on degradation kinetics and reactor modeling of the combined process, and also dynamics of the initial attack on primary contaminants and intermediate species generation. Furthermore, better economic models must be developed to estimate how the cost of this combined process varies with specific industrial wastewater characteristics, the overall decontamination efficiency and the relative cost of the AOP versus biological treatment.

  5. Active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) production involving continuous processes--a process system engineering (PSE)-assisted design framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera-Padrell, Albert E; Skovby, Tommy; Kiil, Søren; Gani, Rafiqul; Gernaey, Krist V

    2012-10-01

    A systematic framework is proposed for the design of continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Specifically, the design framework focuses on organic chemistry based, active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) synthetic processes, but could potentially be extended to biocatalytic and fermentation-based products. The method exploits the synergic combination of continuous flow technologies (e.g., microfluidic techniques) and process systems engineering (PSE) methods and tools for faster process design and increased process understanding throughout the whole drug product and process development cycle. The design framework structures the many different and challenging design problems (e.g., solvent selection, reactor design, and design of separation and purification operations), driving the user from the initial drug discovery steps--where process knowledge is very limited--toward the detailed design and analysis. Examples from the literature of PSE methods and tools applied to pharmaceutical process design and novel pharmaceutical production technologies are provided along the text, assisting in the accumulation and interpretation of process knowledge. Different criteria are suggested for the selection of batch and continuous processes so that the whole design results in low capital and operational costs as well as low environmental footprint. The design framework has been applied to the retrofit of an existing batch-wise process used by H. Lundbeck A/S to produce an API: zuclopenthixol. Some of its batch operations were successfully converted into continuous mode, obtaining higher yields that allowed a significant simplification of the whole process. The material and environmental footprint of the process--evaluated through the process mass intensity index, that is, kg of material used per kg of product--was reduced to half of its initial value, with potential for further reduction. The case-study includes reaction steps typically used by the pharmaceutical

  6. Socialization Values and Parenting Practices as Predictors of Parental Involvement in Their Children's Educational Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikas, Eve; Tulviste, Tiia; Peets, Kätlin

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine associations between parental socialization values (including inconsistency in values), parenting practices, and parental involvement in their children's education. Altogether 242 Estonian mothers and fathers of first-grade children

  7. Relationship Processes in Youth Psychotherapy: Measuring Alliance, Alliance-Building Behaviors, and Client Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karver, Marc; Shirk, Stephen; Handelsman, Jessica B.; Fields, Sherecce; Crisp, Heather; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; McMakin, Dana

    2008-01-01

    This study explores hypothesized associations among therapist engagement strategies, therapeutic alliance, client involvement, and treatment outcome in a randomized clinical trial comparing cognitive behavioral psychotherapy and nondirective supportive psychotherapy for adolescents with depressive symptoms who have attempted suicide. Ratings from…

  8. Comparing biological and thermochemical processing of sugarcane bagasse: An energy balance perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibbrandt, N.H.; Knoetze, J.H.; Goergens, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    The technical performance of lignocellulosic enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation versus pyrolysis processes for sugarcane bagasse was evaluated, based on currently available technology. Process models were developed for bioethanol production from sugarcane bagasse using three different pretreatment methods, i.e. dilute acid, liquid hot water and steam explosion, at various solid concentrations. Two pyrolysis processes, namely fast pyrolysis and vacuum pyrolysis, were considered as alternatives to biological processing for the production of biofuels from sugarcane bagasse. For bioethanol production, a minimum of 30% solids in the pretreatment reactor was required to render the process energy self-sufficient, which led to a total process energy demand equivalent to roughly 40% of the feedstock higher heating value. Both vacuum pyrolysis and fast pyrolysis could be operated as energy self-sufficient if 45% of the produced char from fast pyrolysis is used to fuel the process. No char energy is required to fuel the vacuum pyrolysis process due to lower process energy demands (17% compared to 28% of the feedstock higher heating value). The process models indicated that effective process heat integration can result in a 10-15% increase in all process energy efficiencies. Process thermal efficiencies between 52 and 56% were obtained for bioethanol production at pretreatment solids at 30% and 50%, respectively, while the efficiencies were 70% for both pyrolysis processes. The liquid fuel energy efficiency of the best bioethanol process is 41%, while that of crude bio-oil production before upgrading is 67% and 56% via fast and vacuum pyrolysis, respectively. Efficiencies for pyrolysis processes are expected to decrease by up to 15% should upgrade to a transportation fuel of equivalent quality to bioethanol be taken into consideration. -- Highlights: → Liquid biofuels can be produced via lignocellulosic enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation or pyrolysis. → A minimum of

  9. Process development for biological cleaning of industrial waste water; Prozessentwicklung fuer die biologische Reinigung industrieller Abwaesser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempel, D.C. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Bioverfahrenstechnik; Noertemann, B. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Bioverfahrenstechnik

    1997-09-01

    Surface water, and drinking water obtained from surface water, should be largely free of organic compounds. This applies particularly to substances that are not or poorly degradable in the environment. Pollution of surface water with poorly degradable toxic substances - especially from industrial applications - can be avoided or at least largely reduced by means of specially adapted biological waste water cleaning techniques. The compound ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA), which has multiple technical applications and is used in large amounts, demonstrates that even contaminants considered to be unsuitable for biological treatment can be eliminated from waste water by means of certain biological processes employing specially enriched bacterial cultures. (orig.) [Deutsch] Oberflaechengewaesser und daraus gewonnenes Trinkwasser sollen moeglichst frei von organischen Verbindungen sein. Dies gilt insbesondere fuer Substanzen, die in der Umwelt nicht oder nur sehr langsam abbaubar sind. Eine Belastung von Oberflaechengewaessern mit schwer abbaubaren `Problemstoffen` - insbesondere aus industriellen Anwendungsbereichen - kann unter anderem mit Hilfe speziell angepasster Verfahren zur biologischen Abwasserreinigung vermieden beziehungsweise weitestgehend reduziert werden. Am Beispiel der technisch sehr vielfaeltig und in grossen Mengen eingesetzten Verbindung EDTA (Ethylendiamintetraacetat) laesst sich erkennen, dass durch bestimmte bioverfahrenstechnische Massnahmen mit Hilfe speziell angereicherter Bakterienkulturen auch als `biologieunfaehig` eingestufte Problemstoffe aus Abwaessern eliminiert werden koennen. (orig.)

  10. Principles for integrating reactive species into in vivo biological processes: Examples from exercise physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritelis, Nikos V; Cobley, James N; Paschalis, Vassilis; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Theodorou, Anastasios A; Kyparos, Antonios; Nikolaidis, Michalis G

    2016-04-01

    The equivocal role of reactive species and redox signaling in exercise responses and adaptations is an example clearly showing the inadequacy of current redox biology research to shed light on fundamental biological processes in vivo. Part of the answer probably relies on the extreme complexity of the in vivo redox biology and the limitations of the currently applied methodological and experimental tools. We propose six fundamental principles that should be considered in future studies to mechanistically link reactive species production to exercise responses or adaptations: 1) identify and quantify the reactive species, 2) determine the potential signaling properties of the reactive species, 3) detect the sources of reactive species, 4) locate the domain modified and verify the (ir)reversibility of post-translational modifications, 5) establish causality between redox and physiological measurements, 6) use selective and targeted antioxidants. Fulfilling these principles requires an idealized human experimental setting, which is certainly a utopia. Thus, researchers should choose to satisfy those principles, which, based on scientific evidence, are most critical for their specific research question. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Reductions of bacterial antibiotic resistance through five biological treatment processes treated municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qing-Bin; Guo, Mei-Ting; Wei, Wu-Ji; Yang, Jian

    2016-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants are hot spots for antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). However, limited studies have been conducted to compare the reductions of ARB and ARGs by various biological treatment processes. The study explored the reductions of heterotrophic bacteria resistant to six groups of antibiotics (vancomycin, gentamicin, erythromycin, cephalexin, tetracycline, and sulfadiazine) and corresponding resistance genes (vanA, aacC1, ereA, ampC, tetA, and sulI) by five bench-scale biological reactors. Results demonstrated that membrane bioreactor (MBR) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) significantly reduced ARB abundances in the ranges of 2.80∼3.54 log and 2.70∼3.13 log, respectively, followed by activated sludge (AS). Biological filter (BF) and anaerobic (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, UASB) techniques led to relatively low reductions. In contrast, ARGs were not equally reduced as ARB. AS and SBR also showed significant potentials on ARGs reduction, whilst MBR and UASB could not reduce ARGs effectively. Redundancy analysis implied that the purification of wastewater quality parameters (COD, NH4 (+)-N, and turbidity) performed a positive correlation to ARB and ARGs reductions.

  12. Gas transport processes in sea ice: How convection and diffusion processes might affect biological imprints, a challenge for modellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tison, J.-L.; Zhou, Shaola J. G.; Thomas, D. N.

    2012-01-01

    ice cover. These rates were however obtained surmising that neither convection, nor diffusion had affected the gas concentration profiles in the ice between discrete ice core collections. This paper discusses examples from three different field surveys (the above-mentioned Barrow experiment......, the INTERICE IV tank experiment in Hamburg and a short field survey close to the Kapisilit locality in the South-East Greenland fjords) where convection or diffusion processes have clearly affected the temporal evolution of the gas profiles in the ice, therefore potentially affecting biological signatures....... The INTERICE IV and Barrow experiment show that the initial equilibrium dissolved gas entrapment within the skeletal layer basically governs most of the profiles higher up in the sea ice cover during the active sea ice growth. However, as the ice layers age and cool down under the temperature gradient, bubble...

  13. Advances in wastewater nitrogen removal by biological processes: state of the art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea G. Capodaglio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the state-of-the-art of the most recent advances in biological nitrogen removal, including process design criteria and technological innovations. With reference to the Modified Ludzck Ettinger (MLE process (pre-denitrification and nitrification in the activated sludge process, the most common nitrogen removal process used nowadays, a new design equation for the denitrification reactor based on specific denitrification rate (SDNR has been proposed. In addition, factors influencing SDNR (DO in the anoxic reactor; hydrodynamic behavior are analyzed, and technological solutions are proposed. Concerning technological advances, the paper presents a summary of various “deammonification” processes, better known by their patent names like ANAMMOX®, DEMON®, CANON®, ANITA® and others. These processes have already found applications in the treatment of high-strength wastewater such as digested sludge liquor and landfill leachate. Among other emerging denitrification technologies, consideration is given to the Membrane Biofilm Reactors (MBfRs that can be operated both in oxidation and reduction mode.

  14. Research on rural sewage treatment using biological-ecological coupling process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang SHI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing low-investment, low-energy consumption and low-maintenance sewage treatment process is important for sewage treatment in rural areas. An upflow anaerobic filter (UAF without energy consumption and a subsurface flow wetland (SFW are utilized as a biological-ecological coupling process to treat rural domestic sewage. The effect of the coupling process on treatment performance of domestic sewage under different hydraulic retention time (HRT is investigated. The removal of nitrogen and phosphorus in the SFW is improved by increasing plant density. The results show that the coupling process of UAF and SFW has no power consumption and is maintenance-free, suitable for rural sewage treatment; the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus mainly happens in the SFW phase; increasing the density of reed plants in the SFW can obviously enhance the capacity to remove nitrogen and phosphorus, and ensure that the efficient performance of the coupling process of UAF and SFW is stabilized in a high level. When the HRTs of UAF and SFW are 18 h and 3 d, respectively, the concentrations of COD, ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus in the final effluent treated by UAF and SFW process are 44.07, 4.25, 13.36 and 0.44 mg/L, respectively, meeting the requirement of first grade class A in Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (GB 18918-2002.

  15. Silicon Regulates Potential Genes Involved in Major Physiological Processes in Plants to Combat Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Manivannan, Abinaya; Ahn, Yul-Kuyn

    2017-01-01

    Silicon (Si), the quasi-essential element occurs as the second most abundant element in the earth's crust. Biological importance of Si in plant kingdom has become inevitable particularly under stressed environment. In general, plants are classified as high, medium, and low silicon accumulators based on the ability of roots to absorb Si. The uptake of Si directly influence the positive effects attributed to the plant but Si supplementation proves to mitigate stress and recover plant growth eve...

  16. A biological inspired fuzzy adaptive window median filter (FAWMF) for enhancing DNA signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muneer; Jung, Low Tan; Bhuiyan, Al-Amin

    2017-10-01

    Digital signal processing techniques commonly employ fixed length window filters to process the signal contents. DNA signals differ in characteristics from common digital signals since they carry nucleotides as contents. The nucleotides own genetic code context and fuzzy behaviors due to their special structure and order in DNA strand. Employing conventional fixed length window filters for DNA signal processing produce spectral leakage and hence results in signal noise. A biological context aware adaptive window filter is required to process the DNA signals. This paper introduces a biological inspired fuzzy adaptive window median filter (FAWMF) which computes the fuzzy membership strength of nucleotides in each slide of window and filters nucleotides based on median filtering with a combination of s-shaped and z-shaped filters. Since coding regions cause 3-base periodicity by an unbalanced nucleotides' distribution producing a relatively high bias for nucleotides' usage, such fundamental characteristic of nucleotides has been exploited in FAWMF to suppress the signal noise. Along with adaptive response of FAWMF, a strong correlation between median nucleotides and the Π shaped filter was observed which produced enhanced discrimination between coding and non-coding regions contrary to fixed length conventional window filters. The proposed FAWMF attains a significant enhancement in coding regions identification i.e. 40% to 125% as compared to other conventional window filters tested over more than 250 benchmarked and randomly taken DNA datasets of different organisms. This study proves that conventional fixed length window filters applied to DNA signals do not achieve significant results since the nucleotides carry genetic code context. The proposed FAWMF algorithm is adaptive and outperforms significantly to process DNA signal contents. The algorithm applied to variety of DNA datasets produced noteworthy discrimination between coding and non-coding regions contrary

  17. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tambone, Fulvia; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO 2 kg V S −1 h −1 . Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS 13 C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)

  18. [Experimental study on the mechanism of oilfield wastewater treatment by using hydrolysis-acidification with aerobic biological processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yue; Huang, Xiang-feng; Qiu, Zhan; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Fei-juan; Zhou, Qi

    2006-07-01

    Hydrolysis-acidification + aerobic biological processes were conducted experimentally to treat oilfield wastewater pretreated with physical and chemical treatment in Xinjiang oilfield. The results showed that when the COD concentration in influent was 190-220 mg x L(-1), that in effluent reduced to 65-75 mg x L(-1) under HRT of 10h in both hydrolysis-acidification process and aerobic biological process, reaching the strictest requirement of Effluent Standards for Wastewater from Petroleum Development Industry (GB3550-83). Using GC/MS technology, the relative content of various organic pollutants was analyzed to discover the transfer and degradation law in the oilfield wastewater in biological treatment process. The system of DNA extraction technique, PCR and DGGE reacting systems were practical to analyze the microbial community in the hydrolysis-acidification and aerobic biological processes. The predominant sequences of several 16S rDNA DGGE fragments were determined and confirmed in comparison in GeneBank (NCBI).

  19. Power relations and contrasting conceptions of evidence in patient-involvement processes used to inform health funding decisions in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Edilene; Carter, Drew; Street, Jackie

    2015-06-01

    We collected and analysed views of key stakeholders on the processes used to involve patient organisations in health care funding decision making in Australia. We conducted 12 semi-structured interviews with patient organisation representatives and members of Advisory Committees that provide advice to the Australian Department of Health and employ Health Technology Assessment (HTA) as an evaluation framework. Using two theoretical frameworks, we analysed structural and contextual elements pertaining to the involvement processes. The findings reported in this article relate to interviewees' perspectives on contextual elements, analysed using a Foucauldian lens. These elements include: the perspectives of marginalised voices; the diversity of views on what ought to be considered valid evidence in a HTA setting; and the relationships between stakeholders, along with how these relationships impact on involvement processes and the outcomes of those processes. The findings demonstrate that the involvement processes currently used are deemed inadequate by both patient organisation representatives and Advisory Committee members, but for different reasons connected to how different stakeholders conceptualise evidence. Advisory Committee members viewed evidence as encompassing clinical outcomes and patient preferences, whereas patient organisation representatives tended to view evidence as encompassing aspects not directly related to a disease entity, such as the social and emotional aspects of patients' experiences in living with illness. Patient organisation representatives reported interacting with other stakeholders (especially industry) to increase the influence of their conception of evidence on decision making. The use of this strategy by interviewees illustrates how power struggles occur in government decision-making processes which involve both medical expertise and patients' accounts. Such struggles, and the power differentials they reflect, need to be considered

  20. Information support of the processes of organizational management of the earth’s biological resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovezgheldyiev А.О.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers the classification of information and a brief description of all major organizations, institutions and communities involved in the study or solving problems of global warming, the preservation of the environment and ecology of the Earth's biosphere. All the organizations, institutions and communities are organized by statuses: international, regional, national, and others. Their information description specifies the name in Ukrainian and English languages, internet addresses, the number of member states, the location of the headquarters, the purpose and main activities, as well as the condition and status of relations with Ukraine. It is proposed to create a unified information database of all these agencies on the status of biological resources of our planet Earth. We considered the principal Ukraine's problems in biodiversity conservation and environmental protection for now.

  1. Environmental performance of biological nutrient removal processes from a life cycle perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontiveros, Guillermo A; Campanella, Enrique A

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the present study is to assess different alternatives for a wastewater treatment plant module with capacity to remove nutrients biologically, taking into account present Argentine regulations for effluent discharge. A computational modeling tool (GPS-X) was employed to simulate the behavior of the different alternatives, and Life Cycle Assessment was applied to quantify the environmental impact. A 2000 m(3)/d municipal wastewater flow was used to carry out the simulations, the annual flow was utilized as functional units and the main topics analyzed were energy efficiency, land use, eutrophication reduction and biosolid reuse. Biogas and biosolid generation was evaluated as a good opportunity to generate a cleaner process. This study highlights the fact that nutrient removal processes significantly improve the quality of effluent and biosolids and reduces energy consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic Bight: Zooplankton responses. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paffenhofer, G.A.

    1992-09-25

    This study sought to determine and understand the major processes governing the abundance, distribution, composition and eventual fate of zooplankton on the southeastern shelf of the US in relation to water circulation. Over much of the shelf circulation is dominated by the Gulf Stream and/or atmospheric forcing. Most of our studies concentrated on processes on the middle and outer shelf. On the latter, pronounced biological production occurs year-round at frequent intervals and is due to Gulf Stream eddies which move by at an average frequency of one every week. These eddies are rich in nutrients which, when upwelled into the euphoric zone, lead to pronounced primary production which then triggers zooplankton production.

  3. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic Bight: Zooplankton responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paffenhofer, G.A.

    1992-09-25

    This study sought to determine and understand the major processes governing the abundance, distribution, composition and eventual fate of zooplankton on the southeastern shelf of the US in relation to water circulation. Over much of the shelf circulation is dominated by the Gulf Stream and/or atmospheric forcing. Most of our studies concentrated on processes on the middle and outer shelf. On the latter, pronounced biological production occurs year-round at frequent intervals and is due to Gulf Stream eddies which move by at an average frequency of one every week. These eddies are rich in nutrients which, when upwelled into the euphoric zone, lead to pronounced primary production which then triggers zooplankton production.

  4. Distorted wave calculations for electron loss process induced by bare ion impact on biological targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti, J.M.; Tachino, C.A.; Hanssen, J.; Fojón, O.A.; Galassi, M.E.; Champion, C.; Rivarola, R.D.

    2014-01-01

    Distorted wave models are employed to investigate the electron loss process induced by bare ions on biological targets. The two main reactions which contribute to this process, namely, the single electron ionization as well as the single electron capture are here studied. In order to further assess the validity of the theoretical descriptions used, the influence of particular mechanisms are studied, like dynamic screening for the case of electron ionization and energy deposition on the target by the impacting projectile for the electron capture one. Results are compared with existing experimental data. - Highlights: ► Distorted wave models are used to investigate ion-molecule collisions. ► Differential and total cross-sections for capture and ionization are evaluated. ► The influence of dynamic screening is determined. ► Capture reaction dominates the mean energy deposited by the projectile on the target

  5. Carbon Isotope Fractionation of 1,2-Dibromoethane by Biological and Abiotic Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster van Groos, Paul G; Hatzinger, Paul B; Streger, Sheryl H; Vainberg, Simon; Philp, R Paul; Kuder, Tomasz

    2018-03-20

    1,2-Dibromethane (EDB) is a toxic fuel additive that likely occurs at many sites where leaded fuels have impacted groundwater. This study quantified carbon (C) isotope fractionation of EDB associated with anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation, abiotic degradation by iron sulfides, and abiotic hydrolysis. These processes likely contribute to EDB degradation in source zones (biodegradation) and in more dilute plumes (hydrolysis). Mixed anaerobic cultures containing dehalogenating organisms (e.g., Dehaloccoides spp.) were examined, as were aerobic cultures that degrade EDB cometabolically. Bulk C isotope enrichment factors (ε bulk ) associated with biological degradation covered a large range, with mixed anaerobic cultures fractionating more (ε bulk from -8 to -20‰) than aerobic cultures (ε bulk from -3 to -6‰). ε bulk magnitudes associated with the abiotic processes (dihaloelimination by FeS/FeS 2 and hydrolysis) were large but fairly well constrained (ε bulk from -19 to -29‰). As expected, oxidative mechanisms fractionated EDB less than dihaloelimination and substitution mechanisms, and biological systems exhibited a larger range of fractionation, potentially due to isotope masking effects. In addition to quantifying and discussing ε bulk values, which are highly relevant for quantifying in situ EDB degradation, an innovative approach for constraining the age of EDB in the aqueous phase, based on fractionation during hydrolysis, is described.

  6. Dispensing processes impact apparent biological activity as determined by computational and statistical analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Ekins

    Full Text Available Dispensing and dilution processes may profoundly influence estimates of biological activity of compounds. Published data show Ephrin type-B receptor 4 IC50 values obtained via tip-based serial dilution and dispensing versus acoustic dispensing with direct dilution differ by orders of magnitude with no correlation or ranking of datasets. We generated computational 3D pharmacophores based on data derived by both acoustic and tip-based transfer. The computed pharmacophores differ significantly depending upon dispensing and dilution methods. The acoustic dispensing-derived pharmacophore correctly identified active compounds in a subsequent test set where the tip-based method failed. Data from acoustic dispensing generates a pharmacophore containing two hydrophobic features, one hydrogen bond donor and one hydrogen bond acceptor. This is consistent with X-ray crystallography studies of ligand-protein interactions and automatically generated pharmacophores derived from this structural data. In contrast, the tip-based data suggest a pharmacophore with two hydrogen bond acceptors, one hydrogen bond donor and no hydrophobic features. This pharmacophore is inconsistent with the X-ray crystallographic studies and automatically generated pharmacophores. In short, traditional dispensing processes are another important source of error in high-throughput screening that impacts computational and statistical analyses. These findings have far-reaching implications in biological research.

  7. Toward a New Model of Fatherhood? Discourses on the Process of Paternal Involvement in Urban Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Barbeta-Viñas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades quantitative studies have documented an increase in paternal involvement. These changes have led to hypotheses of a new model of fatherhood. The aim of this paper is to explore the discourses of Spanish fathers regarding paternal involvement, identifying its structure and changing tendencies. The analysis is based on eight focus groups conducted in Madrid and Barcelona. Among the main findings we emphasize that the transition of fatherhood,not without contradictions, is causing the traditional homogeneous fatherhood to evolve toward a more complex and multidimensional conceptualization.

  8. Biological Niches within Human Calcified Aortic Valves: Towards Understanding of the Pathological Biomineralization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Cottignoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances, mineralization site, its microarchitecture, and composition in calcific heart valve remain poorly understood. A multiscale investigation, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS, from micrometre up to nanometre, was conducted on human severely calcified aortic and mitral valves, to provide new insights into calcification process. Our aim was to evaluate the spatial relationship existing between bioapatite crystals, their local growing microenvironment, and the presence of a hierarchical architecture. Here we detected the presence of bioapatite crystals in two different mineralization sites that suggest the action of two different growth processes: a pathological crystallization process that occurs in biological niches and is ascribed to a purely physicochemical process and a matrix-mediated mineralized process in which the extracellular matrix acts as the template for a site-directed nanocrystals nucleation. Different shapes of bioapatite crystallization were observed at micrometer scale in each microenvironment but at the nanoscale level crystals appear to be made up by the same subunits.

  9. Improving the biological nitrogen removal process in pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrijos, M; Carrera, J; Lafuente, J

    2004-04-01

    The Biological Nitrogen Removal (BNR) process of some pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants has important operational problems. This study shows that, in order to solve these problems, the design of industrial BNR processes should start by analysing three key parameters: the characteristics of the wastewater load, the determination of the maximum TKN removal rate and the detection of toxic or inhibitory compounds in the wastewater. A case study of this analysis in pharmaceutical wastewater is presented here. In this case, the conventional TKN analytical method does not make an accurate characterisation of the wastewater load because it measures a concentration of 100 mg TKN l(-1) whereas the real concentration, determined with a modified TKN analytical method, is 150-500 mg TKN l(-1). Also, the TKN removal of the treatment system is insufficient in some periods because it falls below legal requirements. This problem might be a consequence of the wrong characterisation of wastewater during the design process. The maximum TKN removal at 27 degrees C (24 mg N g VSS(-1) d(-1) or 197 mg N l(-1) d(-1)) was evaluated in a pilot-scale plant. This value is six times greater than the average NLR applied in the full-scale plant. Finally, some of the components of the wastewater, such as p-phenylenediamine, might have inhibitory or toxic effects on the biological process. P-phenylenediamine causes a large decrease in the nitrification rate. This effect was determined by respirometry. This methodology shows that the effect is mainly inhibitory with a contact time of 30 min and if the contact time is longer, 14 hours, a toxic effect is observed.

  10. Geochemical Considerations Regarding the Processes Involved in Mineral Deposition in Sedimentary Rock-Hosted Veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, J. W.; Gledhill, D. K.

    2005-12-01

    In order for mineral deposition to take place in a vein, first the opposite reaction-dissolution of the mineral must occur from some source rock to place the requisite dissolved components into solution. Then the dissolved components must be transported to the vein either by advective or diffusive means before deposition can ensue. Finally conditions must be such in the vein that a supersaturated solution is produced and conditions are favorable for the nucleation and precipitation of the vein filling mineral. Although these general principles are widely accepted, there are many fundamental questions remaining regarding the chemistry that controls these processes. The controlling parameters are far more complex than simple temperature and pressure variations that are readily dealt with by equilibrium thermodynamic models. Answers for many questions reside, at least in a substantial part, in a better understanding of mineral solubility behavior, and precipitation and dissolution kinetics in high ionic strength solutions (brines) typically found in the subsurface. (Fluid inclusions commonly indicate that vein-filling minerals have precipitated from high ionic strength solutions.) We give as an example of the chemical complexities involving mineral reactions in brines the dissolution of calcite. The good news is that the calcite dissolution reaction is close to first order at high ionic strengths. In addition, common inhibitors, such as magnesium, are not very effective in influencing the rate constant, probably as a result of surface site competition. However, the bad news is that the sensitivity of the rate constant to composition increases with increasing carbon dioxide partial pressure and becomes most strongly influenced by total ionic strength. It is hypothesized that this is the result of a depressed water activity in brines that decreases the rate of cation hydration. We also observed that the inhibitory influence of anionic brine components, such as sulfate

  11. Processes Involving Perceived Instructional Support, Task Value, and Engagement in Graduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Gwen C.; Gutierrez, Antonio P.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations among perceived instructional support (provision of relevance and involvement), subjective task value beliefs (utility, attainment, and intrinsic value), and engagement (behavioral and emotional) over the course of a semester for graduate students enrolled in an introductory research…

  12. Socialization Values and Parenting Practices as Predictors of Parental Involvement in Their Children's Educational Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikas, Eve; Tulviste, Tiia; Peets, Kätlin

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine associations between parental socialization values (including inconsistency in values), parenting practices, and parental involvement in their children's education. Altogether 242 Estonian mothers and fathers of first-grade children participated in the study. We found that mothers were…

  13. Software Quality Perceptions of Stakeholders Involved in the Software Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Priya

    2013-01-01

    Software quality is one of the primary determinants of project management success. Stakeholders involved in software development widely agree that quality is important (Barney and Wohlin 2009). However, they may differ on what constitutes software quality, and which of its attributes are more important than others. Although, software quality…

  14. Involvement of External Stakeholders in Local Health Policymaking Process: A Case Study from Odense Municipality, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Leena Eklund; Jakobsen, Mette Winge; Winblad, Malin; Aro, Arja R.

    2017-01-01

    Collaboration between research and policy is an essential element for knowledge-based public health. However, only half of the Danish municipalities have experience with collaborating with researchers or other stakeholders. Through content analysis of interviews and policy documents the study explores the involvement of external stakeholders in…

  15. Hen uterine gene expression profiling during eggshell formation reveals putative proteins involved in the supply of minerals or in the shell mineralization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The chicken eggshell is a natural mechanical barrier to protect egg components from physical damage and microbial penetration. Its integrity and strength is critical for the development of the embryo or to ensure for consumers a table egg free of pathogens. This study compared global gene expression in laying hen uterus in the presence or absence of shell calcification in order to characterize gene products involved in the supply of minerals and / or the shell biomineralization process. Results Microarrays were used to identify a repertoire of 302 over-expressed genes during shell calcification. GO terms enrichment was performed to provide a global interpretation of the functions of the over-expressed genes, and revealed that the most over-represented proteins are related to reproductive functions. Our analysis identified 16 gene products encoding proteins involved in mineral supply, and allowed updating of the general model describing uterine ion transporters during eggshell calcification. A list of 57 proteins potentially secreted into the uterine fluid to be active in the mineralization process was also established. They were classified according to their potential functions (biomineralization, proteoglycans, molecular chaperone, antimicrobials and proteases/antiproteases). Conclusions Our study provides detailed descriptions of genes and corresponding proteins over-expressed when the shell is mineralizing. Some of these proteins involved in the supply of minerals and influencing the shell fabric to protect the egg contents are potentially useful biological markers for the genetic improvement of eggshell quality. PMID:24649854

  16. Impact of nitinol stent surface processing on in-vivo nickel release and biological response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, Srinidhi; Sullivan, Stacey J L; Stafford, Philip R; Lucas, Anne D; Malkin, Elon

    2018-03-27

    Although nitinol is widely used in percutaneous cardiovascular interventions, a causal relationship between nickel released from implanted cardiovascular devices and adverse systemic or local biological responses has not been established. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between nitinol surface processing, in-vivo nickel release, and biocompatibility. Nitinol stents manufactured using select surface treatments were implanted into the iliac arteries of minipigs for 6 months. Clinical chemistry profile, complete blood count, serum and urine nickel analyses were performed periodically during the implantation period. After explant, stented arteries were either digested and analyzed for local nickel concentration or fixed and sectioned for histopathological analysis of stenosis and inflammation within the artery. The results indicated that markers for liver and kidney function were not different than baseline values throughout 180 days of implantation regardless of surface finish. In addition, white blood cell, red blood cell, and platelet counts were similar to baseline values for all surface finishes. Systemic nickel concentrations in serum and urine were not significantly different between processing groups and comparable to baseline values during 180 days of implantation. However, stents with non-optimized surface finishing had significantly greater nickel levels in the surrounding artery compared to polished stents. These stents had increased stenosis with potential for local inflammation compared to polished stents. These findings demonstrate that proper polishing of nitinol surfaces can reduce in-vivo nickel release locally, which may aid in minimizing adverse inflammatory reactions and restenosis. Nitinol is a commonly used material in cardiovascular medical devices. However, relationships between nitinol surface finishing, in-vivo metal ion release, and adverse biological responses have yet to be established. We addressed

  17. Using Dual-Task Methodology to Dissociate Automatic from Nonautomatic Processes Involved in Artificial Grammar Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Michelle A.; Conway, Christopher M.; Kellogg, Ronald T.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that both automatic and intentional processes contribute to the learning of grammar and fragment knowledge in artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks. To explore the relative contribution of automatic and intentional processes to knowledge gained in AGL, we utilized dual-task methodology to dissociate automatic and…

  18. Open Water Processes of the San Francisco Estuary: From Physical Forcing to Biological Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Kimmerer

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current state of knowledge of the open waters of the San Francisco Estuary. This estuary is well known for the extent to which it has been altered through loss of wetlands, changes in hydrography, and the introduction of chemical and biological contaminants. It is also one of the most studied estuaries in the world, with much of the recent research effort aimed at supporting restoration efforts. In this review I emphasize the conceptual foundations for our current understanding of estuarine dynamics, particularly those aspects relevant to restoration. Several themes run throughout this paper. First is the critical role physical dynamics play in setting the stage for chemical and biological responses. Physical forcing by the tides and by variation in freshwater input combine to control the movement of the salinity field, and to establish stratification, mixing, and dilution patterns throughout the estuary. Many aspects of estuarine dynamics respond to interannual variation in freshwater flow; in particular, abundance of several estuarine-dependent species of fish and shrimp varies positively with flow, although the mechanisms behind these relationships are largely unknown. The second theme is the importance of time scales in determining the degree of interaction between dynamic processes. Physical effects tend to dominate when they operate at shorter time scales than biological processes; when the two time scales are similar, important interactions can arise between physical and biological variability. These interactions can be seen, for example, in the response of phytoplankton blooms, with characteristic time scales of days, to stratification events occurring during neap tides. The third theme is the key role of introduced species in all estuarine habitats; particularly noteworthy are introduced waterweeds and fishes in the tidal freshwater reaches of the estuary, and introduced clams there and in brackish water. The

  19. Transcriptomic variation of eyestalk reveals the genes and biological processes associated with molting in Portunus trituberculatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjian Lv

    Full Text Available Molting is an essential biological process throughout the life history of crustaceans, which is regulated by many neuropeptide hormones expressed in the eyestalk. To better understand the molting mechanism in Portunus trituberculatus, we used digital gene expression (DGE to analyze single eyestalk samples during the molting cycle by high-throughput sequencing.We obtained 14,387,942, 12,631,508 and 13,060,062 clean sequence reads from inter-molt (InM, pre-molt (PrM and post-molt (PoM cDNA libraries, respectively. A total of 1,394 molt-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis identified some important processes and pathways with key roles in molting regulation, such as chitin metabolism, peptidase inhibitor activity, and the ribosome. We first observed a pattern associated with the neuromodulator-related pathways during the molting cycle, which were up-regulated in PrM and down-regulated in PoM. Four categories of important molting-related transcripts were clustered and most of them had similar expression patterns, which suggests that there is a connection between these genes throughout the molt cycle.Our work is the first molt-related investigation of P. trituberculatus focusing on the eyestalk at the whole transcriptome level. Together, our results, including DEGs, identification of molting-related biological processes and pathways, and observed expression patterns of important genes, provide a novel insight into the function of the eyestalk in molting regulation.

  20. Strategic Co-Location in a Hybrid Process Involving Desalination and Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Krantz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a Hybrid Process that uses feed salinity dilution and osmotic power recovery from Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO to achieve higher overall water recovery. This reduces the energy consumption and capital costs of conventional seawater desalination and water reuse processes. The Hybrid Process increases the amount of water recovered from the current 66.7% for conventional seawater desalination and water reuse processes to a potential 80% through the use of reclaimed water brine as an impaired water source. A reduction of up to 23% in energy consumption is projected via the Hybrid Process. The attractiveness is amplified by potential capital cost savings ranging from 8.7%–20% compared to conventional designs of seawater desalination plants. A decision matrix in the form of a customizable scorecard is introduced for evaluating a Hybrid Process based on the importance of land space, capital costs, energy consumption and membrane fouling. This study provides a new perspective, looking at processes not as individual systems but as a whole utilizing strategic co-location to unlock the synergies available in the water-energy nexus for more sustainable desalination.

  1. Strategic Co-Location in a Hybrid Process Involving Desalination and Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Victor S.T.; She, Qianhong; Chong, Tzyy Haur; Tang, Chuyang Y.; Fane, Anthony G.; Krantz, William B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on a Hybrid Process that uses feed salinity dilution and osmotic power recovery from Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO) to achieve higher overall water recovery. This reduces the energy consumption and capital costs of conventional seawater desalination and water reuse processes. The Hybrid Process increases the amount of water recovered from the current 66.7% for conventional seawater desalination and water reuse processes to a potential 80% through the use of reclaimed water brine as an impaired water source. A reduction of up to 23% in energy consumption is projected via the Hybrid Process. The attractiveness is amplified by potential capital cost savings ranging from 8.7%–20% compared to conventional designs of seawater desalination plants. A decision matrix in the form of a customizable scorecard is introduced for evaluating a Hybrid Process based on the importance of land space, capital costs, energy consumption and membrane fouling. This study provides a new perspective, looking at processes not as individual systems but as a whole utilizing strategic co-location to unlock the synergies available in the water-energy nexus for more sustainable desalination. PMID:24956940

  2. Neuroimmunomodulation in depression: a review of inflammatory cytokines involved in this process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelaira, Helena M; Réus, Gislaine Z; Petronilho, Fabricia; Barichello, Tatiana; Quevedo, João

    2014-09-01

    Depression is a debilitating mental disease that affects a large number of people globally; however the pathophysiological mechanisms of this disease remain incompletely understood. Some studies have shown that depression is associated with inflammatory activity, and the mode of action of several antidepressants appears to involve immunomodulation. In this case, the induction of a pro-inflammatory state in healthy or depressive subjects induces a 'sickness behaviour' resembling depressive symptomatology. Potential mechanisms of pro-inflammatory cytokines are effects on monoamine levels, disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, activation of the pathological microglial cells, such as the macrophages and alterations in neuroplasticity and brain functions. Thus, this review will highlight the role of inflammation in depression, the possible mechanisms involved, and also explore effective treatments that act on the immune system.

  3. Interplay of break-up and transfer processes in reactions involving weakly-bound systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitturi, Andrea; Moschini, Laura

    2018-02-01

    In this note we illustrate some applications of a simple model which has been devised to clarify the reaction mechanism and the interplay of different reaction channels (elastic, inelastic, transfer, break-up) in heavy-ion collisions. The model involves two potential wells moving in one dimension and few active particles; in spite of its simplicity, it is supposed to maintain the main features, the properties and the physics of the full three-dimensional case. Special attention is given to the role of continuum states in reactions involving weakly-bound systems, and different approximation schemes (as first-order or coupled-channels) as well as different continuum discretization procedures are tested. In the case of two active particles the reaction mechanism associated with two-particle transfer and the effect of pairing intearction are investigated. Work done in collaboration with Antonio Moro and Kouichi Hagino

  4. An Experimental Study of Force Involved in Manual Rebar Bending Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepu, Sasi; Vishnu, Rajendran S.; Harish, Mohan T.; Bhavani, Rao R.

    2018-02-01

    The work presents an experimental method of understanding the force applied during a manual rebar bending process. The study tracks the force with the variation of the angle of bend and the elapsed time from the start to the end of a complete manual rebar bending process. A sample of expert rebar bending labourers are used for conducting the experiment and the data processed to set a performance standard. If a simulator based rebar bending training can be provided for a novice, this standard can be used as a matrix to define how close a novice rebar bender is closing to the expertise.

  5. Nutrition in emergencies: Issues involved in ensuring proper nutrition in post-chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Som Nath Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidental or deliberate exposure to chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN agents poses considerable threat throughout the world. Under such conditions, ensuring proper nutrition is a difficult task due to contamination of food available in the affected area. Generally, food is not prepared or served in an environment contaminated by CBRN agents. Foods that are properly packed need to be decontaminated from outside before use. These agents get incorporated in to food chain. Therefore, especially the foliage vegetables, milk and meat products from affected area are not fit for consumption. Potassium iodide has protective role, as radioiodine uptake into the thyroid can be blocked by its pharmacological doses. This is most effective when taken before exposure, but still has significant effects up to five to six hours postexposure. The antioxidant vitamins and minerals may be included in therapeutic feeding programs, as they are known to protect against oxidative stress. Minimum requirement of calories and nutrients are similar to other disasters and are discussed in the present review.

  6. The Footprints of Poly-Autoimmunity: Evidence for Common Biological Factors Involved in Multiple Sclerosis and Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perga, Simona; Martire, Serena; Montarolo, Francesca; Giordani, Ilaria; Spadaro, Michela; Bono, Gabriele; Corvisieri, Stefania; Messuti, Ilaria; Panzica, Giancarlo; Orlandi, Fabio; Bertolotto, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases are a diverse group of chronic disorders and affect a multitude of organs and systems. However, the existence of common pathophysiological mechanisms is hypothesized and reports of shared risk are emerging as well. In this regard, patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have been shown to have an increased susceptibility to develop chronic autoimmune thyroid diseases, in particular Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT), suggesting an autoimmune predisposition. However, studies comparing such different pathologies of autoimmune origin are still missing till date. In the present study, we sought to investigate mechanisms which may lead to the frequent coexistence of MS and HT by analyzing several factors related to the pathogenesis of MS and HT in patients affected by one or both diseases, as well as in healthy donors. In particular, we analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene-expression levels of common candidate genes such as TNFAIP3, NR4A family, BACH2, FOXP3, and PDCD5, in addition to the regulatory T cell (Treg) percentage and the 25-hydroxy vitamin D serum levels. Our findings support the plausibility of the existence of common deregulated mechanisms shared by MS and HT, such as BACH2/PDCD5-FOXP3 pathways and Tregs. Although the biological implications of these data need to be further investigated, we have highlighted the relevance of studies comparing different autoimmune pathologies for the understanding of the core concepts of autoimmunity. PMID:29527211

  7. The Footprints of Poly-Autoimmunity: Evidence for Common Biological Factors Involved in Multiple Sclerosis and Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Perga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases are a diverse group of chronic disorders and affect a multitude of organs and systems. However, the existence of common pathophysiological mechanisms is hypothesized and reports of shared risk are emerging as well. In this regard, patients with multiple sclerosis (MS have been shown to have an increased susceptibility to develop chronic autoimmune thyroid diseases, in particular Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT, suggesting an autoimmune predisposition. However, studies comparing such different pathologies of autoimmune origin are still missing till date. In the present study, we sought to investigate mechanisms which may lead to the frequent coexistence of MS and HT by analyzing several factors related to the pathogenesis of MS and HT in patients affected by one or both diseases, as well as in healthy donors. In particular, we analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene-expression levels of common candidate genes such as TNFAIP3, NR4A family, BACH2, FOXP3, and PDCD5, in addition to the regulatory T cell (Treg percentage and the 25-hydroxy vitamin D serum levels. Our findings support the plausibility of the existence of common deregulated mechanisms shared by MS and HT, such as BACH2/PDCD5-FOXP3 pathways and Tregs. Although the biological implications of these data need to be further investigated, we have highlighted the relevance of studies comparing different autoimmune pathologies for the understanding of the core concepts of autoimmunity.

  8. An enzymatic method of analysis for GDP-L-fucose in biological samples, involving high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Katsuhisa; Miyoshi, Eiji; Nakahara, Susumu; Ihara, Hideyuki; Gao, Cong Xiao; Honke, Koichi; Yanagidani, Shusaku; Sasaki, Yutaka; Kasahara, Akinori; Hori, Masatsugu; Hayashi, Norio; Taniguchi, Naoyuki

    2002-11-01

    To investigate the biological significance of GDP-L-fucose, we established a unique method for the determination of GDP-L-fucose levels in microsomal fractions, using an HPLC assay of alpha 1-6-fucosyltransferase (alpha1-6-FucT), an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of core fucosylation in N-glycans. A microsomal protein and a large excess of fluorescence-labeled synthetic oligosaccharide (a substrate) were incubated with a large excess of alpha1-6-FucT. The fluorescent intensity of the fucosylated reaction product, which was analyzed by isocratic reverse phase HPLC, was proportional to the level of GDP-L-fucose in the microsomal fractions over the range 0.20-10 pmol. This assay is applicable to the determination of the GDP-L-fucose content in various cancer cell lines as well as rat liver and would be useful in developing a better understanding of the fucosylation potential of such cells and tissues.

  9. Alveolar process fractures in the permanent dentition. Part 2. The risk of healing complications in teeth involved in an alveolar process fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Eva; Gerds, Thomas; Andreasen, Jens Ove

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the risk of pulp canal obliteration (PCO), pulp necrosis (PN), repair-related resorption (RRR), infection-related resorption (IRR), ankylosis-related resorption (ARR), marginal bone loss (MBL), and tooth loss (TL) for teeth involved in an alveolar process fracture and to identify.......3-3.5), P = 0.003), and age >30 years (HR: 2.3 (95% CI: 1.1-4.6), P = 0.02). The type of splint (rigid or flexible), the duration of splinting (more or less than 4 weeks), and the administration of antibiotics did not affect the risk of PN. CONCLUSION: Teeth involved in alveolar process fractures appear...

  10. Concepts in context: processing mental state concepts with internal or external focus involves different neural systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwijk, S.; Mackey, S.; Wilson-Mendenhall, C.; Winkielman, P.; Paulus, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    According to embodied cognition theories, concepts are contextually situated and grounded in neural systems that produce experiential states. This view predicts that processing mental state concepts recruits neural regions associated with different aspects of experience depending on the context in

  11. Gene expression profiling analysis of bisphenol A-induced perturbation in biological processes in ER-negative HEK293 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Rong; Gu, Liang; Li, Min; Jiang, Cizhong; Cao, Tongcheng; Zhang, Xiaobai

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental endocrine disruptor which has been detected in human bodies. Many studies have implied that BPA exposure is harmful to human health. Previous studies mainly focused on BPA effects on estrogen receptor (ER)-positive cells. Genome-wide impacts of BPA on gene expression in ER-negative cells is unclear. In this study, we performed RNA-seq to characterize BPA-induced cellular and molecular impacts on ER-negative HEK293 cells. The microscopic observation showed that low-dose BPA exposure did not affect cell viability and morphology. Gene expression profiling analysis identified a list of differentially expressed genes in response to BPA exposure in HEK293 cells. These genes were involved in variable important biological processes including ion transport, cysteine metabolic process, apoptosis, DNA damage repair, etc. Notably, BPA up-regulated the expression of ERCC5 encoding a DNA endonuclease for nucleotide-excision repair. Further electrochemical experiment showed that BPA induced significant DNA damage in ER-positive MCF-7 cells but not in ER-negative HEK293 cells. Collectively, our study revealed that ER-negative HEK293 cells employed mechanisms in response to BPA exposure different from ER-positive cells.

  12. Gene expression profiling analysis of bisphenol A-induced perturbation in biological processes in ER-negative HEK293 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Yin

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an environmental endocrine disruptor which has been detected in human bodies. Many studies have implied that BPA exposure is harmful to human health. Previous studies mainly focused on BPA effects on estrogen receptor (ER-positive cells. Genome-wide impacts of BPA on gene expression in ER-negative cells is unclear. In this study, we performed RNA-seq to characterize BPA-induced cellular and molecular impacts on ER-negative HEK293 cells. The microscopic observation showed that low-dose BPA exposure did not affect cell viability and morphology. Gene expression profiling analysis identified a list of differentially expressed genes in response to BPA exposure in HEK293 cells. These genes were involved in variable important biological processes including ion transport, cysteine metabolic process, apoptosis, DNA damage repair, etc. Notably, BPA up-regulated the expression of ERCC5 encoding a DNA endonuclease for nucleotide-excision repair. Further electrochemical experiment showed that BPA induced significant DNA damage in ER-positive MCF-7 cells but not in ER-negative HEK293 cells. Collectively, our study revealed that ER-negative HEK293 cells employed mechanisms in response to BPA exposure different from ER-positive cells.

  13. Novel MBR_based main stream biological nutrient removal process: high performance and microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanyi; Xu, Xinhai; Zhao, Kuixia; Tang, Lianggang; Zou, Siqi; Yuan, Limei

    2018-02-01

    For municipal wastewater treatment, main stream biological nutrient removal (BNR) process is becoming more and more important. This lab-scale study, novel MBR_based BNR processes (named A 2 N-MBR and A 2 NO-MBR) were built. Comparison of the COD removal, results obtained demonstrated that COD removal efficiencies were almost the same in three processes, with effluent concentration all bellowed 30 mg L -1 . However, the two-sludge systems (A 2 N-MBR and A 2 NO-MBR) had an obvious advantage over the A 2 /O for denitrification and phosphorus removal, with the average TP removal rates of 91.20, 98.05% and TN removal rates of 73.00, 79.49%, respectively, higher than that of 86.45 and 61.60% in A 2 /O process. Illumina Miseq sequencing revealed that Candidatus_Accumulibacter, which is capable of using nitrate as an electron acceptor for phosphorus and nitrogen removal simultaneously, was the dominant phylum in both A 2 N-MBR and A 2 NO-MBR process, accounting for 28.74 and 23.98%, respectively. Distinguishingly, major organism groups related to nitrogen and phosphorus removal in A 2 /O system were Anaerolineaceae_uncultured, Saprospiraceae_uncultured and Thauera, with proportions of 11.31, 8.56 and 5.00%, respectively. Hence, the diversity of dominant PAOs group was likely responsible for the difference in nitrogen and phosphorus removal in the three processes.

  14. Assessment of the removal of estrogenicity in biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogunlaja, O.O., E-mail: oogunlaj@uwaterloo.ca; Parker, W.J., E-mail: wjparker@uwaterloo.ca

    2015-05-01

    The removal of estrogenicity in a University of Cape Town-biological nutrient removal (UCT-BNR) wastewater treatment process was investigated using pilot and bench scale systems, batch experiments and mathematical modeling. In the pilot BNR process, 96 ± 5% of the estrogenicity exerted by the influent wastewater was removed by the treatment process. The degradation efficiencies in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones of the pilot BNR bioreactor were 11 ± 9%, 18 ± 2% and 93 ± 10%, respectively. In order to further understand the performance of the BNR process in the removal of estrogenicity from wastewater, a bench scale BNR process was operated with synthetic wastewater dosed with E1 and E2. The removal of estrogenicity in the bench scale system (95 ± 5%) was comparable to the pilot BNR process and the degradation efficiencies were estimated to be 8 ± 0.8%, 38 ± 4% and 85 ± 22% in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones, respectively. A biotransformation model developed to predict the fate of E1 and E2 in batch tests using the sludge from the BNR process was calibrated using the data from the experiments. The biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E2 to E1 were estimated as 71 ± 1.5, 31 ± 3.3 and 1 ± 0.9 L g COD{sup −1} d{sup −1} for the aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic batch tests, respectively, while the corresponding biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E1 were estimated to be 7.3 ± 1.0, 3 ± 2.0, and 0.85 ± 0.6 L·g COD{sup −1} d{sup −1}. A steady state mass balance model formulated to describe the interactions between E2 and E1 in BNR activated sludge reasonably described the fate of E1 and E2 in the BNR process. - Highlights: • Comparable estrogenicity removal was observed from two BNR processes. • Pseudo first order model described the transformation of E2 and E1 in BNR process. • Biotransformation of E1 in BNR activated sludge controls the degradation of E2.

  15. Assessment of the removal of estrogenicity in biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunlaja, O.O.; Parker, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    The removal of estrogenicity in a University of Cape Town-biological nutrient removal (UCT-BNR) wastewater treatment process was investigated using pilot and bench scale systems, batch experiments and mathematical modeling. In the pilot BNR process, 96 ± 5% of the estrogenicity exerted by the influent wastewater was removed by the treatment process. The degradation efficiencies in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones of the pilot BNR bioreactor were 11 ± 9%, 18 ± 2% and 93 ± 10%, respectively. In order to further understand the performance of the BNR process in the removal of estrogenicity from wastewater, a bench scale BNR process was operated with synthetic wastewater dosed with E1 and E2. The removal of estrogenicity in the bench scale system (95 ± 5%) was comparable to the pilot BNR process and the degradation efficiencies were estimated to be 8 ± 0.8%, 38 ± 4% and 85 ± 22% in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones, respectively. A biotransformation model developed to predict the fate of E1 and E2 in batch tests using the sludge from the BNR process was calibrated using the data from the experiments. The biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E2 to E1 were estimated as 71 ± 1.5, 31 ± 3.3 and 1 ± 0.9 L g COD −1 d −1 for the aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic batch tests, respectively, while the corresponding biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E1 were estimated to be 7.3 ± 1.0, 3 ± 2.0, and 0.85 ± 0.6 L·g COD −1 d −1 . A steady state mass balance model formulated to describe the interactions between E2 and E1 in BNR activated sludge reasonably described the fate of E1 and E2 in the BNR process. - Highlights: • Comparable estrogenicity removal was observed from two BNR processes. • Pseudo first order model described the transformation of E2 and E1 in BNR process. • Biotransformation of E1 in BNR activated sludge controls the degradation of E2

  16. Evaluating the feasibility of biological waste processing for long term space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, J. L.; Alazraki, M. P.; Atkinson, C. F.; Finger, B. W.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Recycling waste products during orbital (e.g., International Space Station) and planetary missions (e.g., lunar base, Mars transit mission, Martian base) will reduce storage and resupply costs. Wastes streams on the space station will include human hygiene water, urine, faeces, and trash. Longer term missions will contain human waste and inedible plant material from plant growth systems used for atmospheric regeneration, food production, and water recycling. The feasibility of biological and physical-chemical waste recycling is being investigated as part of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. In-vessel composting has lower manpower requirements, lower water and volume requirements, and greater potential for sanitization of human waste compared to alternative bioreactor designs such as continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR). Residual solids from the process (i.e. compost) could be used a biological air filter, a plant nutrient source, and a carbon sink. Potential in-vessel composting designs for both near- and long-term space missions are presented and discussed with respect to the unique aspects of space-based systems.

  17. Safety Assessment and Biological Effects of a New Cold Processed SilEmulsion for Dermatological Purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Raposo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is of crucial importance to evaluate the safety profile of the ingredients used in dermatological emulsions. A suitable equilibrium between safety and efficacy is a pivotal concern before the marketing of a dermatological product. The aim was to assess the safety and biological effects of a new cold processed silicone-based emulsion (SilEmulsion. The hazard, exposure, and dose-response assessment were used to characterize the risk for each ingredient. EpiSkin assay and human repeat insult patch tests were performed to compare the theoretical safety assessment to in vitro and in vivo data. The efficacy of the SilEmulsion was studied using biophysical measurements in human volunteers during 21 days. According to the safety assessment of the ingredients, 1,5-pentanediol was an ingredient of special concern since its margin of safety was below the threshold of 100 (36.53. EpiSkin assay showed that the tissue viability after the application of the SilEmulsion was 92 ± 6% and, thus considered nonirritant to the skin. The human studies confirmed that the SilEmulsion was not a skin irritant and did not induce any sensitization on the volunteers, being safe for human use. Moreover, biological effects demonstrated that the SilEmulsion increased both the skin hydration and skin surface lipids.

  18. Comprehension of complex biological processes by analytical methods: how far can we go using mass spectrometry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerner, C.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive understanding of complex biological processes is the basis for many biomedical issues of great relevance for modern society including risk assessment, drug development, quality control of industrial products and many more. Screening methods provide means for investigating biological samples without research hypothesis. However, the first boom of analytical screening efforts has passed and we again need to ask whether and how to apply screening methods. Mass spectrometry is a modern tool with unrivalled analytical capacities. This applies to all relevant characteristics of analytical methods such as specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, multiplicity and diversity of applications. Indeed, mass spectrometry qualifies to deal with complexity. Chronic inflammation is a common feature of almost all relevant diseases challenging our modern society; these diseases are apparently highly diverse and include arteriosclerosis, cancer, back pain, neurodegenerative diseases, depression and other. The complexity of mechanisms regulating chronic inflammation is the reason for the practical challenge to deal with it. The presentation shall give an overview of capabilities and limitations of the application of this analytical tool to solve critical questions with great relevance for our society. (author)

  19. The relative contributions of biological and abiotic processes to carbon dynamics in subarctic sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Dorte Haubjerg; Thomas, David; Rysgaard, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge on the relative effects of biological activity and precipitation/dissolution of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in influencing the air-ice CO2 exchange in sea-ice-covered season is currently lacking. Furthermore, the spatial and temporal occurrence of CaCO3 and other biogeochemical parameters...... in sea ice are still not well described. Here we investigated autotrophic and heterotrophic activity as well as the precipitation/dissolution of CaCO3 in subarctic sea ice in South West Greenland. Integrated over the entire ice season (71 days), the sea ice was net autotrophic with a net carbon fixation...... and CaCO3 precipitation. The net biological production could only explain 4 % of this sea-ice-driven CO2 uptake. Abiotic processes contributed to an air-sea CO2 uptake of 1.5 mmol m(-2) sea ice day(-1), and dissolution of CaCO3 increased the air-sea CO2 uptake by 36 % compared to a theoretical estimate...

  20. Process of inorganic nitrogen transformation and design of kinetics model in the biological aerated filter reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Gang; Xu, Xia; Yao, Lirong; Lu, Liqiao; Zhao, Tingting; Zhang, Wenyi

    2011-04-01

    As one of the plug-flow reactors, biological aerated filter (BAF) reactor was divided into four sampling sectors to understand the characteristics of elemental nitrogen transformation during the reaction process, and then the different characteristics of elemental nitrogen transformation caused by different NH(3)-N loadings, biological quantities and activities in each section were obtained. The results showed that the total transformation ratio in the nitrifying reactor was more than 90% in the absence of any organic carbon resource, at the same time, more than 65% NH(3)-N in the influent were nitrified at the filter height of 70 cm below under the conditions of the influent runoff 9-19 L/h, the gas-water ratio 4-5:1, the dissolved oxygen 3.0-5.8 mg/L and the NH(3)-N load 0.28-0.48 kg NH(3)-N/m(3) d. On the base of the Eckenfelder mode, the kinetics equation of the NH(3)-N transformation along the reactor was S(e)=S(0) exp(-0.0134D/L(1.2612)). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Simulation and optimization of a coking wastewater biological treatment process by activated sludge models (ASM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohui; Yang, Yang; Wu, Gaoming; Mao, Juan; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Applications of activated sludge models (ASM) in simulating industrial biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are still difficult due to refractory and complex components in influents as well as diversity in activated sludges. In this study, an ASM3 modeling study was conducted to simulate and optimize a practical coking wastewater treatment plant (CWTP). First, respirometric characterizations of the coking wastewater and CWTP biomasses were conducted to determine the specific kinetic and stoichiometric model parameters for the consecutive aeration-anoxic-aeration (O-A/O) biological process. All ASM3 parameters have been further estimated and calibrated, through cross validation by the model dynamic simulation procedure. Consequently, an ASM3 model was successfully established to accurately simulate the CWTP performances in removing COD and NH4-N. An optimized CWTP operation condition could be proposed reducing the operation cost from 6.2 to 5.5 €/m(3) wastewater. This study is expected to provide a useful reference for mathematic simulations of practical industrial WWTPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolic features involved in drought stress tolerance mechanisms in peanut nodules and their contribution to biological nitrogen fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Ana Laura; Bianucci, Eliana; Castro, Stella; Dietz, Karl-Josef

    2017-10-01

    Legumes belong to the most important crops worldwide. They increase soil fertility due their ability to establish symbiotic associations with soil microorganisms, known as rhizobia, capable of fixing nitrogen from the atmosphere. However, they are frequently exposed to abiotic stress conditions in particular drought. Such adverse conditions impair the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and depend largely on the legume. Therefore, two peanut cultivars with contrasting tolerance to drought, namely the more tolerant EC-98 and the sensitive Granoleico, were investigated to elucidate the relative contribution of BNF to the tolerance to drought. The tolerant cultivar EC-98 sustained growth and BNF similar to the control condition despite the reduced water potential and photosynthesis, suggesting the functioning of distinct metabolic pathways that contributed to enhance the tolerance. The biochemical and metabolomics approaches revealed that nodules from the tolerant cultivar accumulated trehalose, proline and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), metabolites with known function in protecting against drought stress. The amide metabolism was severely affected in nodules from the sensitive cultivar Granoleico as revealed by the low content of asparagine and glutamine in the drought stressed plants. The sensitive cultivar upon rehydration was unable to re-establish a metabolism similar to well-watered plants. This was evidenced by the low level of metabolites and, transcripts and specific activities of enzymes from the carbon (sucrose synthase) and nitrogen (glutamine synthetase) metabolism which decreased below the values of control plants. Therefore, the increased content of metabolites with protective functions under drought stress likely is crucial for the full restoration upon rehydration. Smaller changes of drought stress-related metabolites in nodule are another trait that contributes to the effective control of BNF in the tolerant peanut cultivar (EC-98). Copyright © 2017

  3. Stress leads to aberrant hippocampal involvement when processing schema-related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Susanne; Kluen, Lisa Marieke; Fernández, Guillén; Schwabe, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Prior knowledge, represented as a mental schema, has critical impact on how we organize, interpret, and process incoming information. Recent findings indicate that the use of an existing schema is coordinated by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), communicating with parietal areas. The hippocampus, however, is crucial for encoding schema-unrelated information but not for schema-related information. A recent study indicated that stress mediators may affect schema-related memory, but the underlying neural mechanisms are currently unknown. Here, we thus tested the impact of acute stress on neural processing of schema-related information. We exposed healthy participants to a stress or control manipulation before they processed, in the MRI scanner, words related or unrelated to a preexisting schema activated by a specific cue. Participants' memory for the presented material was tested 3-5 d after encoding. Overall, the processing of schema-related information activated the mPFC, the precuneus, and the angular gyrus. Stress resulted in aberrant hippocampal activity and connectivity while participants processed schema-related information. This aberrant engagement of the hippocampus was linked to altered subsequent memory. These findings suggest that stress may interfere with the efficient use of prior knowledge during encoding and may have important practical implications, in particular for educational settings. © 2018 Vogel et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  4. Activity of pectic enzymes involved in the ripening process of lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Nieto Jeimmy Marcela

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the ripening process of the lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam. physicochemical changes are produced by pectics enzymes as Polygalacturonase (PG, Pectinesterase (PE and Pectateliase (PL that acting on pectics substrates of plant tissue, being responsible of the physiological alteration of cells and tissues that results in the fruit softening and the beginning of the premature senescence period. This research explores the foundations of the softening enzymes behavior of lulo epicarp for the activity measurement of PL, PG and PE of fruit´s epicarp and determining their relationship with the softening process during the ripening and senescence process of fruits through follow up of the enzyme expression, the ripening index and instrumental hardness during the lulo fruit ripening under three storage treatments: 1 Control (18° C, 57 days, 2 Refrigeration (18° C, 1 day; 4° C, 14 days; 18° C, 42 days and 3 Pre-cooling heat shock (27° C, 1 day; 4° C, 14 days; 18° C, 42 days found that the enzymes expression and softening is reduced by heat treatment, compared with the control group; however, the cold storage inhibit the fruit softening process but chilling injuries was produced, while heat shock, in addition to inhibiting the enzymes expression, inhibited the fruit softening process and protect against chilling injuries prolonging the shelf life in 10 days, showing that it´s the best post-harvest treatment for this type of fruit.

  5. EEG beta-power changes reflect motor involvement in abstract action language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Franziska; Weiss, Sabine; Müller, Horst M

    2017-05-01

    Brain oscillations in the α- and β-range become suppressed during motor processing and motor imagery. It has recently been discussed that such power changes also occur during action language processing. In our study, we compared β 2 -oscillations (16-25Hz) during the observation of prototypical arm movements (revealed via motion tracking) as well as during semantic processing of concrete and abstract sentences containing arm-related action verbs. Whereas we did find a strong desynchronization in the β 2 -range during action observation, the processing of action sentences evoked a rather weak desynchronization. However, this desynchronization occurred for action verbs in both concrete and abstract contexts. These results might indicate a tendency for abstract action language to be processed similar to concrete action language rather than abstract sentences. The oscillation patterns reflect the close relationship between language comprehension and motor functions - one of the core claims of current theories on embodied cognition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Genome-Based Characterization of Biological Processes That Differentiate Closely Related Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Marike; Steenkamp, Emma T; Coetzee, Martin P A; Blom, Jochen; Venter, Stephanus N

    2018-01-01

    Bacteriologists have strived toward attaining a natural classification system based on evolutionary relationships for nearly 100 years. In the early twentieth century it was accepted that a phylogeny-based system would be the most appropriate, but in the absence of molecular data, this approach proved exceedingly difficult. Subsequent technical advances and the increasing availability of genome sequencing have allowed for the generation of robust phylogenies at all taxonomic levels. In this study, we explored the possibility of linking biological characters to higher-level taxonomic groups in bacteria by making use of whole genome sequence information. For this purpose, we specifically targeted the genus Pantoea and its four main lineages. The shared gene sets were determined for Pantoea , the four lineages within the genus, as well as its sister-genus Tatumella . This was followed by functional characterization of the gene sets using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. In comparison to Tatumella , various traits involved in nutrient cycling were identified within Pantoea , providing evidence for increased efficacy in recycling of metabolites within the genus. Additionally, a number of traits associated with pathogenicity were identified within species often associated with opportunistic infections, with some support for adaptation toward overcoming host defenses. Some traits were also only conserved within specific lineages, potentially acquired in an ancestor to the lineage and subsequently maintained. It was also observed that the species isolated from the most diverse sources were generally the most versatile in their carbon metabolism. By investigating evolution, based on the more variable genomic regions, it may be possible to detect biologically relevant differences associated with the course of evolution and speciation.

  7. Biological impact of preschool music classes on processing speech in noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana L.; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; O’Connell, Samantha; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Musicians have increased resilience to the effects of noise on speech perception and its neural underpinnings. We do not know, however, how early in life these enhancements arise. We compared auditory brainstem responses to speech in noise in 32 preschool children, half of whom were engaged in music training. Thirteen children returned for testing one year later, permitting the first longitudinal assessment of subcortical auditory function with music training. Results indicate emerging neural enhancements in musically trained preschoolers for processing speech in noise. Longitudinal outcomes reveal that children enrolled in music classes experience further increased neural resilience to background noise following one year of continued training compared to nonmusician peers. Together, these data reveal enhanced development of neural mechanisms undergirding speech-in-noise perception in preschoolers undergoing music training and may indicate a biological impact of music training on auditory function during early childhood. PMID:23872199

  8. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic Bight: Zooplankton responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-02-07

    The goal of the Fall Removal Experiment 1987 was to determine the processes affecting the dependent and fate of low salinity coastal water and of biological material therein during fall when winds are mainly south-to westward. Five zooplankton taxa, Acartia tonsa, (A. tonsa) Paracalanus species (sp), Temora turbinata (T. turbinata), Oncaea sp, and Sagitta enflata were examined. Data on the distribution of all five taxa were presented, and distribution over time was also studied. The abundance of A. tonsa decreased tenfold over the 13 day sampling period, Paracalanus varied twofold and T. Turbinata showed little variability. The A. tonsa decrease was postulated to result from food abundance or predation, although the possible role of size distribution, water displacement and chlorophyll distribution will be examined in the future. A possible role of turbulence in zooplankton abundance is being examined. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Study on substrate metabolism process of saline waste sludge and its biological hydrogen production potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zengshuai; Guo, Liang; Li, Qianqian; Zhao, Yangguo; Gao, Mengchun; She, Zonglian

    2017-07-01

    With the increasing of high saline waste sludge production, the treatment and utilization of saline waste sludge attracted more and more attention. In this study, the biological hydrogen production from saline waste sludge after heating pretreatment was studied. The substrate metabolism process at different salinity condition was analyzed by the changes of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), carbohydrate and protein in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and dissolved organic matters (DOM). The excitation-emission matrix (EEM) with fluorescence regional integration (FRI) was also used to investigate the effect of salinity on EPS and DOM composition during hydrogen fermentation. The highest hydrogen yield of 23.6 mL H 2 /g VSS and hydrogen content of 77.6% were obtained at 0.0% salinity condition. The salinity could influence the hydrogen production and substrate metabolism of waste sludge.

  10. Application of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in stabilization process of biological molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossien Salmani

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Co-precipitation method is an easy way to prepare magnetic nanoparticles of iron with a large surface and small particle size, which increases the ability of these particles to act as a suitable carrier for enzyme stabilization. Adequate modification of the surface of these nanoparticles enhances their ability to bind to biological molecules. The immobilized protein or enzyme on magnetic nanoparticles are more stable against structural changes, temperature and pH in comparison with un-stabilized structures, and it is widely used in various sciences, including protein isolation and purification, pharmaceutical science, and food analysis. Stabilization based on the covalent bonds and physical absorption is nonspecific, which greatly limits their functionality. The process of stabilization through bio-mediums provide a new method to overcome the selectivity problem.

  11. Insights into biological information processing: structural and dynamical analysis of a human protein signalling network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuente, Alberto de la; Fotia, Giorgio; Maggio, Fabio; Mancosu, Gianmaria; Pieroni, Enrico [CRS4 Bioinformatica, Parco Tecnologico POLARIS, Ed.1, Loc Piscinamanna, Pula (Italy)], E-mail: alf@crs4.it

    2008-06-06

    We present an investigation on the structural and dynamical properties of a 'human protein signalling network' (HPSN). This biological network is composed of nodes that correspond to proteins and directed edges that represent signal flows. In order to gain insight into the organization of cell information processing this network is analysed taking into account explicitly the edge directions. We explore the topological properties of the HPSN at the global and the local scale, further applying the generating function formalism to provide a suitable comparative model. The relationship between the node degrees and the distribution of signals through the network is characterized using degree correlation profiles. Finally, we analyse the dynamical properties of small sub-graphs showing high correlation between their occurrence and dynamic stability.

  12. Composting of biological waste. Processes and utilisation. Summary report; Bioabfallkompostierung. Verfahren und Verwertung. Kurzfassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronauer, A.; Claassen, N.; Ebertseder, T.; Fischer, P.; Gutser, R.; Helm, M.; Popp, L.; Schoen, H.

    1997-12-31

    The project investigated environmentally compatible concepts for processing and utilisation of biological waste by means of composting and spreading on agriculataural and gardening plots. The project comprised three parts: Composting techniques, applications of compost in agriculture and gardening, and applications in landscaping. This volume comprises the summaries of the three part-projects. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die umweltschonende Aufbereitung und Verwertung von Bioabfall durch Kompostierung und Rueckfuehrung auf landwirtschaftliche und gaertnerische Flaechen wurde untersucht. Dieses Projekt war dreigeteilt in die Bereiche der Kompostierung selbst, der Anwendung des Komposts in der Landwirtschaft und seiner Anwendung im Gartenbau sowie im Garten- und Landschaftsbau (GaLa-Bau). Die vorliegende Schrift enthaelt die Zusammenfassung der genannten drei Teilberichte. (orig./SR)

  13. ["Scholar officials": thoughts on the involvement of professional nurses in the political process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2014-08-01

    A growing number of nurses are concerned with / participate in public affairs, politics, and policymaking processes. In particular, nursing leaders are actively leveraging their collective power to create interdisciplinary alliances aimed at encouraging the media and government to confront key nursing issues and implement healthcare reform. This article highlights the political participation and policy-making process to address the meaning and essence of politics, politics and nursing, training and strategies of public affairs and political participation, the shift from academia to health policy, and facilitation of important health policies. It is hoped that nurses may appropriately use their status and influence to actively participate in political campaigns and the policymaking process. By using their professional knowledge and skills, nurses may not only protect patient safety and public health but also facilitate nursing professional development and promote the professional image of nursing.

  14. Biological effect of Muller's Ratchet: distant capsid site can affect picornavirus protein processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escarmís, Cristina; Perales, Celia; Domingo, Esteban

    2009-07-01

    Repeated bottleneck passages of RNA viruses result in accumulation of mutations and fitness decrease. Here, we show that clones of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) subjected to bottleneck passages, in the form of plaque-to-plaque transfers in BHK-21 cells, increased the thermosensitivity of the viral clones. By constructing infectious FMDV clones, we have identified the amino acid substitution M54I in capsid protein VP1 as one of the lesions associated with thermosensitivity. M54I affects processing of precursor P1, as evidenced by decreased production of VP1 and accumulation of VP1 precursor proteins. The defect is enhanced at high temperatures. Residue M54 of VP1 is exposed on the virion surface, and it is close to the B-C loop where an antigenic site of FMDV is located. M54 is not in direct contact with the VP1-VP3 cleavage site, according to the three-dimensional structure of FMDV particles. Models to account for the effect of M54 in processing of the FMDV polyprotein are proposed. In addition to revealing a distance effect in polyprotein processing, these results underline the importance of pursuing at the biochemical level the biological defects that arise when viruses are subjected to multiple bottleneck events.

  15. Video-rate processing in tomographic phase microscopy of biological cells using CUDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardikman, Gili; Habaza, Mor; Waller, Laura; Shaked, Natan T

    2016-05-30

    We suggest a new implementation for rapid reconstruction of three-dimensional (3-D) refractive index (RI) maps of biological cells acquired by tomographic phase microscopy (TPM). The TPM computational reconstruction process is extremely time consuming, making the analysis of large data sets unreasonably slow and the real-time 3-D visualization of the results impossible. Our implementation uses new phase extraction, phase unwrapping and Fourier slice algorithms, suitable for efficient CPU or GPU implementations. The experimental setup includes an external off-axis interferometric module connected to an inverted microscope illuminated coherently. We used single cell rotation by micro-manipulation to obtain interferometric projections from 73 viewing angles over a 180° angular range. Our parallel algorithms were implemented using Nvidia's CUDA C platform, running on Nvidia's Tesla K20c GPU. This implementation yields, for the first time to our knowledge, a 3-D reconstruction rate higher than video rate of 25 frames per second for 256 × 256-pixel interferograms with 73 different projection angles (64 × 64 × 64 output). This allows us to calculate additional cellular parameters, while still processing faster than video rate. This technique is expected to find uses for real-time 3-D cell visualization and processing, while yielding fast feedback for medical diagnosis and cell sorting.

  16. A novel A-B process for enhanced biological nutrient removal in municipal wastewater reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guangjing; Wang, Han; Gu, Jun; Shen, Nan; Qiu, Zheng; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Yu

    2017-12-01

    This study developed an innovative A-B process for enhanced nutrients removal in municipal wastewater reclamation, in which a micro-aerated moving bed biofilm reactor served as A-stage and a step-feed sequencing batch reactor (SBR) as B-stage. In the A-stage, 55% of COD and 15% of ammonia nitrogen was removed, while more than 88% of the total nitrogen was removed via nitritation and denitritation, together with 93% of phosphorous removal at the B-stage where ammonia oxidizing bacteria activity was significantly higher than nitrite oxidizing bacteria activity. Meanwhile substantial phenotype of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) was also observed in the B-stage SBR. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that Accumulibacter was the dominant PAOs with undetectable Competibacter. Compared to the conventional activated sludge process, the proposed A-B process could offer a more cost-effective alternative for enhanced biological nutrients removal from municipal wastewater with less energy consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Electron processing at low energies: from basics to environmental and biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illenberger, Eugen

    2006-10-01

    Electron initiated reactions play a key role in nearly any field of pure and applied sciences, in the gas phase as well as in condensed phases or at interfaces. This include substrate induced photochemistry, radiation damage of biological material (and, accordingly, the molecular mechanisms, how radio sensitizers used in tumour therapy operate), reactions induced by electrons in surface tunnelling microscopy (STM), or any kind of plasma used in industrial plasma processing. In each of these fields the electron-molecule interaction represents a key step within an eventually complex reaction sequence. A particularly interesting field is the interaction of electrons with molecules at energies below the level of electronic excitation. In this range many molecules exhibit large cross sections for resonant electron capture, often followed by the decomposition of the transient negative compound (M^-# ) according to e^- + M --> M^-# --> R + X^-.^ We report on such dissociative electron attachment (DEA) processes studied at different stages of aggregation, namely in single molecules under collision free conditions, in clusters formed by supersonic gas expansion, and on the surface of solids or in molecular nanofilms. In the meantime it has also been recognised that in the damage of living cells by high energy radiation the attachment of low energy secondary electrons to DNA is a key initial process leading to strand breaks. These secondary electrons are created along the ionisation track of the primary high-energy quantum. Apart from that, bio-molecular systems exhibit unique features in DEA, like bond and site selective decompositions.

  18. The variability of processes involved in transgene dispersal - case studies from Brassica and related genera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Hauser, Thure Pavlo; D'Hertefeldt, T.

    2009-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope We strive to predict consequences of genetically modified plants (GMPs) being cultivated openly in the environment, as human and animal health, biodiversity, agricultural practise and farmers’ economy could be affected. Therefore, it is unfortunate that the risk...... is a valuable tool in identifying key factors in the gene-flow process for which more knowledge is needed, and identifying parameters and processes which are relatively insensitive to change and therefore require less attention in future collections of data. But the interdependence between models...

  19. Analysis of Hazards Associated with a Process Involving Uranium Metal and Uranium Hydride Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullock, J.S.

    2000-05-01

    An analysis of the reaction chemistry and operational factors associated with processing uranium and uranium hydride powders is presented, focusing on a specific operation in the Development Division which was subjected to the Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) process. Primary emphasis is on the thermodynamic factors leading to pyrophoricity in common atmospheres. The discussion covers feed powders, cold-pressed and hot-pressed materials, and stray material resulting from the operations. The sensitivity of the various forms of material to pyrophoricity in common atmospheres is discussed. Operational recommendations for performing the work described are given.

  20. Spies and Bloggers: New Synthetic Biology Tools to Understand Microbial Processes in Soils and Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, C. A.; Silberg, J. J.; Cheng, H. Y.; Del Valle, I.; Fulk, E. M.; Gao, X.; Bennett, G. N.

    2017-12-01

    Microbes can be programmed through synthetic biology to report on their behavior, informing researchers when their environment has triggered changes in their gene expression (e.g. in response to shifts in O2 or H2O), or when they have participated in a specific step of an elemental cycle (e.g. denitrification). This use of synthetic biology has the potential to significantly improve our understanding of microbes' roles in elemental and water cycling, because it allows reporting on the environment from the perspective of a microbe, matching the measurement scale exactly to the scale that a microbe experiences. However, synthetic microbes have not yet seen wide use in soil and sediment laboratory experiments because synthetic organisms typically report by fluorescing, making their signals difficult to detect outside the petri dish. We are developing a new suite of microbial programs that report instead by releasing easily-detected gases, allowing the real-time, noninvasive monitoring of behaviors in sediments and soils. Microbial biosensors can, in theory, be programmed to detect dynamic processes that contribute to a wide range of geobiological processes, including C cycling (biofilm production, methanogenesis, and synthesis of extracellular enzymes that degrade organic matter), N cycling (expression of enzymes that underlie different steps of the N cycle) and potentially S cycling. We will provide an overview of the potential uses of gas-reporting biosensors in soil and sediment lab experiments, and will report the development of the systematics of these sensors. Successful development of gas biosensors for laboratory use will require addressing issues including: engineering the intensity and selectivity of microbial gas production to maximize the signal to noise ratio; normalizing the gas reporter signal to cell population size, managing gas diffusion effects on signal shape; and developing multiple gases that can be used in parallel.

  1. Biological processes for concentrating trace elements from uranium mine waters. Technical completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brierley, C.L.; Brierley, J.A.

    1981-12-01

    Waste water from uranium mines in the Ambrosia Lake district near Grants, New Mexico, USA, contains uranium, selenium, radium and molybdenum. The Kerr-McGee Corporation has a novel treatment process for waters from two mines to reduce the concentrations of the trace contaminants. Particulates are settled by ponding, and the waters are passed through an ion exchange resin to remove uranium; barium chloride is added to precipitate sulfate and radium from the mine waters. The mine waters are subsequently passed through three consecutive algae ponds prior to discharge. Water, sediment and biological samples were collected over a 4-year period and analyzed to assess the role of biological agents in removal of inorganic trace contaminants from the mine waters. Some of the conclusions derived from this study are: (1) The concentrations of soluble uranium, selenium and molybdenum were not diminished in the mine waters by passage through the series of impoundments which constituted the mine water treatment facility. Uranium concentrations were reduced but this was due to passage of the water through an ion exchange column. (2) The particulate concentrations of the mine water were reduced at least ten-fold by passage of the waters through the impoundments. (3) The sediments were anoxic and enriched in uranium, molybdenum and selenium. The deposition of particulates and the formation of insoluble compounds were proposed as mechanisms for sediment enrichment. (4) The predominant algae of the treatment ponds were the filamentous Spirogyra and Oscillatoria, and the benthic alga, Chara. (5) Adsorptive processes resulted in the accumulation of metals in the algae cells. (6) Stimulation of sulfate reduction by the bacteria resulted in retention of molybdenum, selenium, and uranium in sediments. 1 figure, 16 tables

  2. Functional knowledge transfer for high-accuracy prediction of under-studied biological processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Y Park

    Full Text Available A key challenge in genetics is identifying the functional roles of genes in pathways. Numerous functional genomics techniques (e.g. machine learning that predict protein function have been developed to address this question. These methods generally build from existing annotations of genes to pathways and thus are often unable to identify additional genes participating in processes that are not already well studied. Many of these processes are well studied in some organism, but not necessarily in an investigator's organism of interest. Sequence-based search methods (e.g. BLAST have been used to transfer such annotation information between organisms. We demonstrate that functional genomics can complement traditional sequence similarity to improve the transfer of gene annotations between organisms. Our method transfers annotations only when functionally appropriate as determined by genomic data and can be used with any prediction algorithm to combine transferred gene function knowledge with organism-specific high-throughput data to enable accurate function prediction. We show that diverse state-of-art machine learning algorithms leveraging functional knowledge transfer (FKT dramatically improve their accuracy in predicting gene-pathway membership, particularly for processes with little experimental knowledge in an organism. We also show that our method compares favorably to annotation transfer by sequence similarity. Next, we deploy FKT with state-of-the-art SVM classifier to predict novel genes to 11,000 biological processes across six diverse organisms and expand the coverage of accurate function predictions to processes that are often ignored because of a dearth of annotated genes in an organism. Finally, we perform in vivo experimental investigation in Danio rerio and confirm the regulatory role of our top predicted novel gene, wnt5b, in leftward cell migration during heart development. FKT is immediately applicable to many bioinformatics

  3. First Experimental Assessment of Protein Intrinsic Disorder Involvement in an RNA Virus Natural Adaptive Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon, Justine; Barra, Amandine; Walter, Jocelyne; Millot, Pauline; Hébrard, Eugénie; Moury, Benoît; Michon, Thierry

    2018-01-01

    Intrinsic disorder (ID) in proteins is defined as a lack of stable structure in physiological conditions. Intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) are highly abundant in some RNA virus proteomes. Low topological constraints exerted on IDRs are expected to buffer the effect of numerous deleterious mutations and could be related to the remarkable adaptive potential of RNA viruses to overcome resistance of their host. To experimentally test this hypothesis in a natural pathosystem, a set of four variants of Potato virus Y (PVY; Potyvirus genus) containing various ID degrees in the Viral genome-linked (VPg) protein, a key determinant of potyvirus adaptation, was designed. To estimate the ID contribution to the VPg-based PVY adaptation, the adaptive ability of the four PVY variants was monitored in the pepper host (Capsicum annuum) carrying a recessive resistance gene. Intriguingly, the two mutants with the highest ID content displayed a significantly higher ability to restore infection in the resistant host, whereas the less intrinsically disordered mutant was unable to restore infection. The role of ID on virus adaptation may be due either to a larger exploration of evolutionary pathways or the minimization of fitness penalty caused by resistance-breaking mutations. This pioneering study strongly suggests the positive impact of ID in an RNA virus adaptive capacity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  4. Lobbying Across Arenas. Interest Group Involvement in the Legislative Process in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Helene Helboe; Christiansen, Peter Munk; Binderkrantz, Anne Skorkjær

    2014-01-01

    Interest groups may approach political decision makers in two phases of the legislative process: the pre-parliamentary, administrative phase, in which bills are prepared by bureaucrats; and the parliamentary phase, in which bills are discussed and possibly revised by parliamentary committees. The...

  5. Stress Leads to Aberrant Hippocampal Involvement When Processing Schema-Related Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Susanne; Kluen, Lisa Marieke; Fernández, Guillén; Schwabe, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Prior knowledge, represented as a mental schema, has critical impact on how we organize, interpret, and process incoming information. Recent findings indicate that the use of an existing schema is coordinated by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), communicating with parietal areas. The hippocampus, however, is crucial for encoding…

  6. GWAS for executive function and processing speed suggests involvement of the CADM2 gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Ibrahim-Verbaas (Carla); J. Bressler (Jan); S. Debette (Stéphanie); M. Schuur (Maaike); A.V. Smith; J.C. Bis (Joshua); G. Davies (Gail); S. Trompet (Stella); J.A. Smith; A. Björnsson (Asgeir); L.B. Chibnik (Lori); Y. Liu; V. Vitart (Veronique); M. Kirin (Mirna); K. Petrovic (Katja); O. Polasek (Ozren); L. Zgaga (Lina); C. Fawns-Ritchie; P. Hoffmann (Per); J. Karjalainen (Juha); J. Lahti; D.J. Llewellyn; C.O. Schmidt (Carsten O.); R. Mather; V. Chouraki (Vincent); Q. Sun; S.M. Resnick; L.M. Rose (Lynda); C. Oldmeadow (Christopher); M. Stewart; B.H. Smith; V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); Q. Yang (Qiong); S.S. Mirza (Saira); J.W. Jukema; P.L. DeJager (Philip L.); T.B. Harris (Tamara); D.C. Liewald (David C.); N. Amin (Najaf); L.H. Coker (Laura); O. Stegle (Oliver); O.L. Lopez; R. Schmidt; A. Teumer (Alexander); I. Ford; N. Karbalai (Nazanin); J.T. Becker (James); M.K. Jonsdottir (Maria K.); R. Au (Rhoda); R.S.N. Fehrmann (Rudolf); S. Herms (Stefan); M.A. Nalls (Michael); W. Zhao; S.T. Turner (Stephen); K. Yaffe; K. Lohman (Kurt); J.C. van Swieten (John); S.L. Kardia (Sharon L.r); D.S. Knopman (David); W.M. Meeks (William); G. Heiss (Gerardo); E.G. Holliday (Elizabeth); P.W. Schofield; T. Tanaka (Toshiko); D.J. Stott (David J.); J. Wang (Jing); P.M. Ridker (Paul); A.J. Gow; A. Pattie (Alison); J.M. Starr (John); L.J. Hocking; N.J. Armstrong (Nicola); S. McLachlan (Stela); J.M. Shulman; L.C. Pilling (Luke); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); R. Scott (Rodney); N.A. Kochan (Nicole A.); A. Palotie (Aarno); Y.-C. Hsieh (Yi-Chen); J.G. Eriksson (Johan G.); A.D. Penman (Alan); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); B.A. Oostra (Ben); L. Yu (Lei); A.L. DeStefano (Anita); A. Beiser (Alexa); M. Garcia; J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); M.M. Nöthen (Markus M.); A. Hofman (Albert); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); R.G.J. Westendorp; B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); P.A. Wolf; A.G. Uitterlinden (André); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); F. Grodstein (Francine); K. Räikkönen (Katri); J.-C. Lambert (J.); D.J. Porteous (David J.); J.F. Price (Jackie F.); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); J. Attia (John); I. Rudan (Igor); C. Hayward; A.F. Wright; J.F. Wilson (James F); S. Cichon; L. Franke (Lude); H. Schmidt; J. Ding (Jingzhong); A.J. de Craen (Anton); M. Fornage (Myriam); D.A. Bennett (David); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); L.J. Launer (Lenore); A.L. Fitzpatrick (Annette); S. Seshadri (Sudha); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); T.H. Mosley (Thomas H.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTo identify common variants contributing to normal variation in two specific domains of cognitive functioning, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of executive functioning and information processing speed in non-demented older adults from the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and

  7. Data, analysis and modeling of physical properties for process designof systems involving lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cunico, Larissa; Ceriani, Roberta; Sarup, Bent

    2013-01-01

    Pure component and mixture properties are necessary for synthesis, design, and analysis of processes forthe production of edible oils, fats, biodiesel, and other lipids. The lack of measured data for these systemsmakes it necessary to develop reliable predictive models based on limited data. We...

  8. An appraisal of the hydrogeological processes involved in shallow subsurface radioactive waste management in Canadian terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisak, G.E.; Jackson, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    The hydrogeological aspects of the problem of low-level radioactive waste management are introduced with a discussion of the Canadian nuclear power program; the nature of radioactive wastes and their rates of production; and the half-lives and health effects of ''waste'' radionuclides. As well, a general account is given of the present Canadian policy and procedures for licensing radioactive waste management sites. Following this introductory material, a detailed account is presented of the geohydrologic processes controlling the transport of radionuclides in groundwater flow systems and the attendant geochemical processes causing the retardation of the radionuclides. These geohydrologic and geochemical processes (i.e., hydrogeological processes) can be evaluated by the measurement of certain variables such as aquifer dispersivity, groundwater velocity, hydraulic conductivity, cation-exchange capacity, and total competing cations. To assess the possible importance of each variable in Canadian terrain, a comprehensive discussion of presently available (Canadian) data that have been compiled pertaining to each variable is presented. A description is then given of the hydrogeology of and the waste management experiences at radioactive waste management sites at Chalk River, Ontario; Bruce, Ontario; Whiteshell, Manitoba; and Suffield, Alberta. Along with this description there is a brief evaluation of those geohydrologic and geochemical processes that may be of importance at these sites. As a consequence of the above, site criteria outlining the nature of desirable hydrogeological environments for radioactive waste management areas are presented for those situations where the groundwater flow system acts as (a) a barrier to the migration of escaped radioactivity and (b) a joint dispersion-retardation system for liquid wastes. (author)

  9. Modelling binaural processes involved in simultaneous reflection masking: limitations of current models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    Masked thresholds were measured for a single test reflection, masked by the direct sound, as a function of the reflection delay. This was done for diotic as well as for dichotic stimulus presentations and all stimuli were presented via headphones. The input signal was a 200-ms long broadband noise......, such as normalized cross-correlation models (e.g., Bernstein et al., 1999, JASA, pp. 870-876), the power-addition model (Zurek, 1979, JASA, pp. 1750-1757), or Equalization-Cancellation-based models (e.g., Breebaart et al., 2001, JASA, pp. 1074-1088), cannot account for the psychoacoustical data. The present talk...... aims at understanding why these binaural models in their current form cannot describe the binaural mechanisms involved in reflection masking and a number of model-modifications are discussed that might help to overcome this deficiency....

  10. Coronin 3 involvement in F-actin-dependent processes at the cell cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosentreter, Andre; Hofmann, Andreas; Xavier, Charles-Peter; Stumpf, Maria; Noegel, Angelika A.; Clemen, Christoph S.

    2007-01-01

    The actin interaction of coronin 3 has been mainly documented by in vitro experiments. Here, we discuss coronin 3 properties in the light of new structural information and focus on assays that reflect in vivo roles of coronin 3 and its impact on F-actin-associated functions. Using GFP-tagged coronin 3 fusion proteins and RNAi silencing we show that coronin 3 has roles in wound healing, protrusion formation, cell proliferation, cytokinesis, endocytosis, axonal growth, and secretion. During formation of cell protrusions actin accumulation precedes the focal enrichment of coronin 3 suggesting a role for coronin 3 in events that follow the initial F-actin assembly. Moreover, we show that coronin 3 similar to other coronins interacts with the Arp2/3-complex and cofilin indicating that this family in general is involved in regulating Arp2/3-mediated events

  11. Impact of schoolchildren's involvement in the design process on the effectiveness of healthy food promotion materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Gustafson

    2017-06-01

    Relative to baseline, students in group 4 doubled their vegetable consumption (p < 0.001 when materials were posted. Vegetable consumption remained elevated at a follow-up 2–3 months later (p < 0.05. Students in group 3 initially increased the quantity of vegetables selected (p < 0.05, but did not increase consumption. In the follow-up period, however, students in group 3 increased their vegetable consumption (p < 0.01. Involving elementary-aged students in the design of vegetable promotional materials that were posted in the lunchroom increased the amount of vegetables students consumed.

  12. Novel Aspects of Materials Processing by Ultrafast Lasers: From Electronic to Biological and Cultural Heritage Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fotakis, C; Zorba, V; Stratakis, E; Athanassiou, A; Tzanetakis, P; Zergioti, I; Papagoglou, D G; Sambani, K; Filippidis, G; Farsari, M; Pouli, V; Bounos, G; Georgiou, S

    2007-01-01

    Materials processing by ultrafast lasers offers several distinct possibilities for micro/nano scale applications. This is due to the unique characteristics of the laser-matter interactions involved, when sub-picosecond pulses are employed. Prospects arising will be discussed in the context of surface and in bulk laser induced modifications. In particular, examples of diverse applications including the development and functionalization of laser engineered surfaces, the laser transfer of biomolecules and the functionalization of 3D structures constructed by three-photon stereolithography will be presented. Furthermore, the removal of molecular substrates by ultrafast laser ablation will be discussed with emphasis placed on assessing the photochemical changes induced in the remaining bulk material. The results indicate that in femtosecond laser processing of organic materials, besides the well acknowledged morphological advantages, a second fundamental factor responsible for its success pertains to the selective chemical effects. This is crucial for the laser cleaning of sensitive painted artworks

  13. [The perception of urban garbage collectors of Dourados, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, regarding the biological risks involved in their work routine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, Michelly Angelina; Reis, Cássia Barbosa

    2011-08-01

    There are several occupational risks inherent to urban garbage collection, and the scope of this study was to identify the biological risks to which urban garbage collectors in Dourados/MS are exposed. A qualitative study using the Lefévre and Lefévre Collective Subject Discourse method was used with 42 urban garbage collectors working for the outsourced provider to the Municipal Department of Urban Services. Data were collected from September 2005 to January 2006. The interviews had an average duration of 40 minutes, and were recorded at the company office when the workers arrived to start their working day and subsequently transcribed. The biological risks mentioned by the garbage pickers were accidents with glass, syringes, thorns, dog bites, and contact with substances found in the garbage. Accidents with sharp and jagged instruments are ways for microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi to infect the human body. Virus contamination, like HIV and Hepatitis B and C, can occur in accidents involving inadequate disposal of contaminated needles. The conclusion reached is that biological risks in urban garbage collection can be reduced by educating the population about adequate garbage disposal.

  14. How to Generate Understanding of the Scientific Process in Introductory Biology: A Student-Designed Laboratory Exercise on Yeast Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Linda T.; Bell, Rebekah P.

    2004-01-01

    Heavy faculty teaching loads and limited funds biology teachers designed certain objectives in order to increase the understandability of the subject matter of the laboratory exercises they write. In relation to these objectives an old "cookbook" laboratory exercise on yeast fermentation is introduced which involve students asking questions,…

  15. Correlations in photon-numbers and integrated intensities in parametric processes involving three optical fields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peřina, Jan; Křepelka, Jaromír; Peřina ml., Jan; Bondani, M.; Allevi, A.; Andreoni, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2009), 373-382 ISSN 1434-6060 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN301370701; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : parametric process * three-mode state * sub-Poisson statistics * conditional measurement Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.420, year: 2009

  16. Forest Soil Bacteria: Diversity, Involvement in Ecosystem Processes, and Response to Global Change

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lladó, Salvador; López-Mondéjar, Rubén; Baldrian, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 2 (2017), s. 1-27, č. článku e00063. ISSN 1092-2172 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-09040P; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15086 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : bacteria * decomposition * ecosystem processes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 14.533, year: 2016

  17. Psychopathological Processes Involved in Social Comparison, Depression, and Envy on Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Pera, Aurel

    2018-01-01

    Is Facebook utilization beneficial or detrimental for psychological well-being? I draw on outstanding research (e.g., Chou and Edge, 2012; Lin and Utz, 2015; Appel et al., 2016; Ehrenreich and Underwood, 2016; Vogel and Rose, 2016; Hu et al., 2017) to substantiate that examining other individuals’ positively presented material on Facebook may have detrimental consequences. Increasing comparisons on Facebook may generate feelings of envy, the latter being a significant process determining the ...

  18. Using dual-task methodology to dissociate automatic from nonautomatic processes involved in artificial grammar learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Michelle A; Conway, Christopher M; Kellogg, Ronald T

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested that both automatic and intentional processes contribute to the learning of grammar and fragment knowledge in artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks. To explore the relative contribution of automatic and intentional processes to knowledge gained in AGL, we utilized dual-task methodology to dissociate automatic and intentional grammar- and fragment-based knowledge in AGL at both acquisition and at test. Both experiments used a balanced chunk strength grammar to assure an equal proportion of fragment cues (i.e., chunks) in grammatical and nongrammatical test items. In Experiment 1, participants engaged in a working memory dual-task either during acquisition, test, or both acquisition and test. The results showed that participants performing the dual-task during acquisition learned the artificial grammar as well as the single-task group, presumably by relying on automatic learning mechanisms. A working memory dual-task at test resulted in attenuated grammar performance, suggesting a role for intentional processes for the expression of grammatical learning at test. Experiment 2 explored the importance of perceptual cues by changing letters between the acquisition and test phase; unlike Experiment 1, there was no significant learning of grammatical information for participants under dual-task conditions in Experiment 2, suggesting that intentional processing is necessary for successful acquisition and expression of grammar-based knowledge under transfer conditions. In sum, it appears that some aspects of learning in AGL are indeed relatively automatic, although the expression of grammatical information and the learning of grammatical patterns when perceptual similarity is eliminated both appear to require explicit resources. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Differences in the early stages of social information processing for adolescents involved in bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Guy, Alexa; Lee, Kirsty; Wolke, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Bullying victimization has commonly been associated with deficiencies in social information processing (SIP). In contrast, findings regarding bullying perpetration are mixed, with some researchers claiming that bullies may have superior SIP abilities than victimized or uninvolved youth. This study investigated the effects of bullying and victimization on early SIP; specifically the recognition and interpretation of social information. In stage 1, 2,782 adolescents (11–16 years) were screened ...

  20. TEACHING PHYSICS: An experiment to demonstrate the principles and processes involved in medical Doppler ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D. G. H.

    2000-09-01

    Doppler ultrasound is widely used in medicine for measuring blood velocity. This paper describes an experiment illustrating the principles of medical Doppler ultrasound. It is designed with A-level/undergraduate physics students in mind. Ultrasound is transmitted in air and reflected from a moving target. The return signal is processed using a series of modules, so that students can discover for themselves how each stage in the instrument works. They can also obtain a quantitative value of the speed of the target.

  1. Solitary lower lumbar osteochondroma (spinous process of L3 involvement): a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassankhani, Ebrahim Ghayem

    2009-12-20

    Solitary osteochondromas, which are the most common benign bone tumors of long bones, are rarely found in the vertebral column. A 16-year-old female patient presented with a hard palpable mass at lower lumbar region like a congenital deformity. Plain radiography illustrated a well-defined solid mass arising from the posterior elements of the L3 and ruled out any congenital anomalies. A computed tomography scan further determined a mass that arose from the spinous process of L3. The tumor was excised en bloc through a posterior approach and histopathological examination verified the diagnosis of osteocondroma.Osteochondromas are rarely found in the spine, when present in the spine, however, have a predilection for cervical or upper thoracic region arising usually from lamina of vertebrae and are rare in lumbosacral region and very rare at spinous process of the vertebrae.We present a case of osteochondroma locates in lumbar region and spinous process of vertebrae with unusual presentation and was considered clinically as congenital lumbar kyphosis.

  2. Sentential context modulates the involvement of the motor cortex in action language processing: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuil, Karen D I; Smits, Marion; Zwaan, Rolf A

    2013-01-01

    Theories of embodied cognition propose that language comprehension is based on perceptual and motor processes. More specifically, it is hypothesized that neurons processing verbs describing bodily actions, and those that process the corresponding physical actions, fire simultaneously during action verb learning. Thus the concept and motor activation become strongly linked. According to this view, the language-induced activation of the neural substrates for action is automatic. By contrast, a weak view of embodied cognition proposes that activation of these motor regions is modulated by context. In recent studies it was found that action verbs in literal sentences activate the motor system, while mixed results were observed for action verbs in non-literal sentences. Thus, whether the recruitment of motor regions is automatic or context dependent remains a question. We investigated functional magnetic resonance imaging activation in response to non-literal and literal sentences including arm and leg related actions. The sentence structure was such that the action verb was the last word in the subordinate clause. Thus, the constraining context was presented well before the verb. Region of interest analyses showed that action verbs in literal context engage the motor regions to a greater extent than non-literal action verbs. There was no evidence for a semantic somatotopic organization of the motor cortex. Taken together, these results indicate that during comprehension, the degree to which motor regions are recruited is context dependent, supporting the weak view of embodied cognition.

  3. A compact and versatile microfluidic probe for local processing of tissue sections and biological specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cors, J. F.; Lovchik, R. D.; Delamarche, E.; Kaigala, G. V.

    2014-03-01

    The microfluidic probe (MFP) is a non-contact, scanning microfluidic technology for local (bio)chemical processing of surfaces based on hydrodynamically confining nanoliter volumes of liquids over tens of micrometers. We present here a compact MFP (cMFP) that can be used on a standard inverted microscope and assist in the local processing of tissue sections and biological specimens. The cMFP has a footprint of 175 × 100 × 140 mm3 and can scan an area of 45 × 45 mm2 on a surface with an accuracy of ±15 μm. The cMFP is compatible with standard surfaces used in life science laboratories such as microscope slides and Petri dishes. For ease of use, we developed self-aligned mounted MFP heads with standardized "chip-to-world" and "chip-to-platform" interfaces. Switching the processing liquid in the flow confinement is performed within 90 s using a selector valve with a dead-volume of approximately 5 μl. We further implemented height-compensation that allows a cMFP head to follow non-planar surfaces common in tissue and cellular ensembles. This was shown by patterning different macroscopic copper-coated topographies with height differences up to 750 μm. To illustrate the applicability to tissue processing, 5 μm thick M000921 BRAF V600E+ melanoma cell blocks were stained with hematoxylin to create contours, lines, spots, gradients of the chemicals, and multiple spots over larger areas. The local staining was performed in an interactive manner using a joystick and a scripting module. The compactness, user-friendliness, and functionality of the cMFP will enable it to be adapted as a standard tool in research, development and diagnostic laboratories, particularly for the interaction with tissues and cells.

  4. Process evaluation of the health education resource Abre los Ojos for street-involved youth in Medellín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. Wylie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Conduct a process evaluation of a health education resource (pamphlet¸ Abre los Ojos, designed for street-involved youth in Medellín. The primary foci of the evaluation were the process of developing the resource and youth’s subsequent perception of the resource. Methodology: Drawing upon both qualitative and quantitative data, a process evaluation was undertaken. Ninety four street-involved youth between the ages of 14–24 years completed surveys about the resource. These semi-structured interviews were key for the information about youth perception of the resource. In addition to individual interviews, prior to resource creation, a series of focus groups were integral for the development of the resource. Results: The process of consulting with the target population through the focus groups was effective in obtaining their ideas and feedback about what type of content they would like to see in a health education resource, and how they wanted that content presented. After distribution, participants described that Abre los Ojos contained information that was valuable and relevant to their experiences. While not a primary focus of this evaluation, the individual interviews were also able to provide some preliminary insight into whether Abre los Ojos was an effective means for participants to increase their knowledge of content included in the resource. Conclusion: The collaborative process of jointly developing the resource content in partnership with the youth proved very worthwhile. While our research team chose to include information about HIV, through focus group dialogue, the youth themselves determined the additional content themes (piercings, use of solvents, and description of life on the street. The resulting resource was well-received by members of the street-involved population who had not been involved in its design.

  5. Fair processes and fair outcomes: involving local stakeholders in RWM decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vari, A.

    2004-01-01

    There is a general agreement on the requirements to be met by radioactive waste management strategies. One of the requirements is that both the outcomes of any decisions and the decision-making processes must be seen to be fair. However, there exist multiple legitimate views on fairness and there is no meta-theory that could help decide which of the competing views should be considered valid in a concrete case. Referring to the plurality of views on fairness, Linnerooth-Bayer (forthcoming) argues that the impasse in facility siting processes can be attributed to the failure to take adequate account of the diverse views held by the various stakeholders on fair processes and outcomes. Three fundamental ethical principles have been derived from three basic ethical theories: well-being which is the central concept of utilitarian ethics, justice which is a key notion in egalitarian ethics, and dignity which is central to deontology (Bay and Oughton, 2003). According to utilitarian ethics fairness means that public welfare is maximized even at the cost of stakeholders' individual rights. Costs and benefits can be legitimately distributed in any way; only their overall balance has to be enhanced. In contrary, egalitarian ethics aims for a fair distribution of benefits and costs among stakeholders, while deontology acknowledges universal values of actions, e.g. the respect for individual rights, apart from their consequences. According to the latter ethics, fairness means that stakeholders themselves have the opportunity to learn about the benefits and costs of various options, and having considered them, decide on their position to accept them. How do diverse views on fair decisions materialize in RWM debates? (author)

  6. Remediation of a winery wastewater combining aerobic biological oxidation and electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Francisca C; Boaventura, Rui A R; Brillas, Enric; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-05-15

    Apart from a high biodegradable fraction consisting of organic acids, sugars and alcohols, winery wastewaters exhibit a recalcitrant fraction containing high-molecular-weight compounds as polyphenols, tannins and lignins. In this context, a winery wastewater was firstly subjected to a biological oxidation to mineralize the biodegradable fraction and afterwards an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP) was applied in order to mineralize the refractory molecules or transform them into simpler ones that can be further biodegraded. The biological oxidation led to above 97% removals of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), but was inefficient on the degradation of a bioresistant fraction corresponding to 130 mg L(-1) of DOC, 380 mg O2 L(-1) of COD and 8.2 mg caffeic acid equivalent L(-1) of total dissolved polyphenols. Various EAOPs such as anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF), UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) and solar PEF (SPEF) were then applied to the recalcitrant effluent fraction using a 2.2 L lab-scale flow plant containing an electrochemical cell equipped with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a carbon-PTFE air-diffusion cathode and coupled to a photoreactor with compound parabolic collectors (CPCs). The influence of initial Fe(2+) concentration and current density on the PEF process was evaluated. The relative oxidative ability of EAOPs increased in the order AO-H2O2 effluent, along with energy consumptions of 45 kWh (kg DOC)(-1) and 5.1 kWh m(-3). After this coupled treatment, color, odor, COD, BOD5, NH4(+), NO3(-) and SO4(2-) parameters complied with the legislation targets and, in addition, a total dissolved polyphenols content of 0.35 mg caffeic acid equivalent L(-1) was found. Respirometry tests revealed low biodegradability enhancement along the SPEF process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Involvement of O-glycosylation defining oncofetal fibronectin in epithelial-mesenchymal transition process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freire-de-Lima, Leonardo; Gelfenbeyn, Kirill; Ding, Yao

    2011-01-01

    The process termed "epithelial-mesenchymal transition" (EMT) was originally discovered in ontogenic development, and has been shown to be one of the key steps in tumor cell progression and metastasis. Recently, we showed that the expression of some glycosphingolipids (GSLs) is down-regulated during......) This change is associated with typical EMT characteristics; i.e., change from epithelial to fibroblastic morphology, enhanced cell motility, decreased expression of a typical epithelial cell marker, E-cadherin, and enhanced expression of mesenchymal markers. (iii) TGF-ß treatment up-regulated mRNA level of FN...

  8. Controlled Carbon Source Addition to an Alternating Nitrification-Denitrification Wastewater Treatment Process Including Biological P Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard; Henze, Mogens

    1995-01-01

    The paper investigates the effect of adding an external carbon source on the rate of denitrification in an alternating activated sludge process including biological P removal. Two carbon sources were examined, acetate and hydrolysate derived from biologically hydrolyzed sludge. Preliminary batch...... that external carbon source addition may serve as a suitable control variable to improve process performance....... process, the addition of either carbon source to the anoxic zone also resulted in an instantaneous and fairly reproducible increase in the denitrification rate. Some release of phosphate associated with the carbon source addition was observed. With respect to nitrogen removal, these results indicate...

  9. Process simulation and comparison of biological conversion of syngas and hydrogen in biogas plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awais Salman, Chaudhary; Schwede, Sebastian; Thorin, Eva; Yan, Jinyue

    2017-11-01

    Organic waste is a good source of clean energy. However, different fractions of waste have to be utilized efficiently. One way is to find pathways to convert waste into useful products via various available processes (gasification, pyrolysis anaerobic digestion, etc.) and integrate them to increase the combined efficiency of the process. The syngas and hydrogen produced from the thermal conversion of biomass can be upgraded to biomethane via biological methanation. The current study presents the simulation model to predict the amount of biomethane produced by injecting the hydrogen and syngas. Hydrogen injection is modelled both in-situ and ex-situ while for syngas solely the ex-situ case has been studied. The results showed that 85% of the hydrogen conversion was achieved for the ex-situ reactor while 81% conversion rate was achieved for the in-situ reactor. The syngas could be converted completely in the bio-reactor. However, the addition of syngas resulted in an increase of carbon dioxide. Simulation of biomethanation of gas addition showed a biomethane concentration of 87% while for hydrogen addition an increase of 74% and 80% for in-situ and ex-situ addition respectively.

  10. Roles of extracellular polymeric substances in enhanced biological phosphorus removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Wei; Zhang, Hai-Ling; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-12-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process is known to mainly rely on the ability of phosphorus-accumulating organisms to take up, transform and store excess amount of phosphorus (P) inside the cells. However, recent studies have revealed considerable accumulation of P also in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of sludge, implying a non-negligible role of EPS in P removal by EBPR sludge. However, the contribution of EPS to P uptake and the forms of accumulated extracellular P vary substantially in different studies, and the underlying mechanism of P transformation and transportation in EPS remains poorly understood. This review provides a new recognition into the P removal process in EBPR system by incorporating the role of EPS. It overviews on the characteristics of P accumulation in EPS, explores the mechanism of P transformation and transportation in EBPR sludge and EPS, summarizes the main influential factors for the P-accumulation properties of EPS, and discusses the remaining knowledge gaps and needed future efforts that may lead to better understanding and use of such an EPS role for maximizing P recovery from wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Preferential biological processes in the human limbus by differential gene profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin N Nakatsu

    Full Text Available Corneal epithelial stem cells or limbal stem cells (LSCs are responsible for the maintenance of the corneal epithelium in humans. The exact location of LSCs is still under debate, but the increasing need for identifying the biological processes in the limbus, where LSCs are located, is of great importance in the regulation of LSCs. In our current study we identified 146 preferentially expressed genes in the human limbus in direct comparison to that in the cornea and conjunctiva. The expression of newly identified limbal transcripts endomucin, fibromodulin, paired-like homeodomain 2 (PITX2 and axin-2 were validated using qRT-PCR. Further protein analysis on the newly identified limbal transcripts showed protein localization of PITX2 in the basal and suprabasal layer of the limbal epithelium and very low expression in the cornea and conjunctiva. Two other limbal transcripts, frizzled-7 and tenascin-C, were expressed in the basal epithelial layer of the limbus. Gene ontology and network analysis of the overexpressed limbal genes revealed cell-cell adhesion, Wnt and TGF-β/BMP signaling components among other developmental processes in the limbus. These results could aid in a better understanding of the regulatory elements in the LSC microenvironment.

  12. Comparison of biological and advanced treatment processes for ciprofloxacin removal in a raw hospital wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Gokce; Sponza, Delia Teresa

    2016-12-01

    The treatability of ciprofloxacin (CIP) antibiotic was investigated using a single aerobic, a single anaerobic, an anaerobic/aerobic sequential reactor system, a sonicator and a photocatalytic reactor with TiO2 nanoparticles in a raw hospital wastewater in Izmir, Turkey. The effects of increasing organic loading on the performance of all biological systems were investigated, while the effects of power and time on the yields of sonication and photocatalysis were determined. The maximum COD and CIP yields were 95% and 83% in anaerobic/aerobic sequential reactor system at an HRT of 10 days and at an OLR of 0.19 g COD/L × day after 50 days of incubation, respectively. The maximum CH4 gas production was 580 mL day(-1) at an HRT of 6.7 days. The maximum COD and CIP yields were 95% and 81% after 45 min sonication time at a power of 640 W and a frequency of 35 kHz while the maximum yield of COD and CIP were 98% and 88% after 45 min UV irradiation time with a UV power of 210 W using 0.5 g L(-1) TiO2. Among the aforementioned treatment processes, it was found that the highest treatment yields for COD (98%) and CIP (88%) pollutants were obtained with the photocatalytic process due to high OH((●)) radical productions.

  13. Combined Fenton oxidation and aerobic biological processes for treating a surfactant wastewater containing abundant sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaojun; Song Yang; Mai Junsheng

    2008-01-01

    The present study is to investigate the treatment of a surfactant wastewater containing abundant sulfate by Fenton oxidation and aerobic biological processes. The operating conditions have been optimized. Working at an initial pH value of 8, a Fe 2+ dosage of 600 mg L -1 and a H 2 O 2 dosage of 120 mg L -1 , the chemical oxidation demand (COD) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) were decreased from 1500 and 490 mg L -1 to 230 and 23 mg L -1 after 40 min of Fenton oxidation, respectively. Advanced oxidation pretreatment using Fenton reagent was very effective at enhancing the biodegradability of this kind of wastewater. The wastewater was further treated by a bio-chemical treatment process based on an immobilized biomass reactor with a hydraulic detention time (HRT) of 20 h after Fenton oxidation pretreatment under the optimal operating conditions. It was found that the COD and LAS of the final effluent were less than 100 and 5 mg L -1 , corresponding to a removal efficiencies of over 94% and 99%, respectively

  14. In vitro biological outcome of laser application for modification or processing of titanium dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindy, Ahmed; Farahmand, Farzam; Tabatabaei, Fahimeh Sadat

    2017-07-01

    There are numerous functions for laser in modern implant dentistry including surface treatment, surface coating, and implant manufacturing. As laser application may potentially improve osseointegration of dental implants, we systematically reviewed the literature for in vitro biological responses to laser-modified or processed titanium dental implants. The literature was searched in PubMed, ISI Web, and Scopus, using keywords "titanium dental implants," "laser," "biocompatibility," and their synonyms. After screening the 136 references obtained, 28 articles met the inclusion criteria. We found that Nd:YAG laser was the most commonly used lasers in the treatment or processing of titanium dental implants. Most of the experiments used cell attachment and cell proliferation to investigate bioresponses of the implants. The most commonly used cells in these assays were osteoblast-like cells. Only one study was conducted in stem cells. These in vitro studies reported higher biocompatibility in laser-modified titanium implants. It seems that laser radiation plays a vital role in cell response to dental implants; however, it is necessary to accomplish more studies using different laser types and parameters on various cells to offer a more conclusive result.

  15. A biological/chemical process for reduced waste and energy consumption: caprolactam production. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    A biological/chemical process for converting cyclohexane into caprolactam was investigated: microorganisms in a bioreactor would be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone followed by chemical synthesis of caprolactam using ammonia. Four microorganisms were isolated from natural soil and water, that can utilize cyclohexane as a sole source of C and energy for growth. They were shown to have the correct metabolic intermediates and enzymes to convert cyclohexane into cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, and caprolactone. Genetic techniques to create and select for caprolactone hydrolase negative-mutants were developed; those are used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone but, because of the block, are unable to metabolize the caprolactone further. Because of a new nylon carpet reycle process and the long time frame for a totally new bioprocess, a limited study was done to evaluate whether a simplified bioprocess to convert cyclohexanol into cyclohexanone or caprolactone was feasible; growth rates and key enzyme levels were measured in a collection of microorganisms that metabolize cyclohexanol to determine if the bioactivity is high enough to support an economical cyclohexanol bioprocess. Although these microorganisms had sufficient bioactivity, they could tolerate only low levels (<1%) of cyclohexanol and thus are not suitable for developing a cost effective bioprocess because of the high cost of dilute product recovery.

  16. Process simulation and comparison of biological conversion of syngas and hydrogen in biogas plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Chaudhary Awais

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic waste is a good source of clean energy. However, different fractions of waste have to be utilized efficiently. One way is to find pathways to convert waste into useful products via various available processes (gasification, pyrolysis anaerobic digestion, etc. and integrate them to increase the combined efficiency of the process. The syngas and hydrogen produced from the thermal conversion of biomass can be upgraded to biomethane via biological methanation. The current study presents the simulation model to predict the amount of biomethane produced by injecting the hydrogen and syngas. Hydrogen injection is modelled both in-situ and ex-situ while for syngas solely the ex-situ case has been studied. The results showed that 85% of the hydrogen conversion was achieved for the ex-situ reactor while 81% conversion rate was achieved for the in-situ reactor. The syngas could be converted completely in the bio-reactor. However, the addition of syngas resulted in an increase of carbon dioxide. Simulation of biomethanation of gas addition showed a biomethane concentration of 87% while for hydrogen addition an increase of 74% and 80% for in-situ and ex-situ addition respectively.

  17. Photo-induced regeneration of hormones by electron transfer processes: Potential biological and medical consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getoff, Nikola, E-mail: nikola.getoff@univie.ac.a [Section of Radiation Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Hartmann, Johannes [Department of Gynecologic Endocrinology and Reproduction, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schittl, Heike [Section of Radiation Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Gerschpacher, Marion [Department of Gynecologic Endocrinology and Reproduction, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Quint, Ruth Maria [Section of Radiation Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-08-15

    Based on the previous results concerning electron transfer processes in biological substances, it was of interest to investigate if hormone transients resulting by e.g. electron emission can be regenerated. The presented results prove for the first time that the hormone transients originating by the electron emission process can be successfully regenerated by the transfer of electrons from a potent electron donor, such as vitamin C (VitC). Investigations were performed using progesterone (PRG), testosterone (TES) and estrone (E1) as representatives of hormones. By irradiation with monochromatic UV light ({lambda}=254 nm) in a media of 40% water and 60% ethanol, the degradation as well as the regeneration of the hormones was studied with each hormone individually and in the mixture with VitC as a function of the absorbed UV dose, using HPLC. Calculated from the obtained initial yields, the determined regeneration of PRG amounted to 52.7%, for TES to 58.6% and for E1 to 90.9%. The consumption of VitC was determined in the same way. The reported results concerning the regeneration of hormones by the transfer of electrons from an electron donor offer a new, promising method for the therapy with hormones. As a consequence of the regeneration of hormones, a decreased formation of carcinogenic metabolites is expected.

  18. Morphology of Filamentous Fungi: Linking Cellular Biology to Process Engineering Using Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krull, Rainer; Cordes, Christiana; Horn, Harald; Kampen, Ingo; Kwade, Arno; Neu, Thomas R.; Nörtemann, Bernd

    In various biotechnological processes, filamentous fungi, e.g. Aspergillus niger, are widely applied for the production of high value-added products due to their secretion efficiency. There is, however, a tangled relationship between the morphology of these microorganisms, the transport phenomena and the related productivity. The morphological characteristics vary between freely dispersed mycelia and distinct pellets of aggregated biomass. Hence, advantages and disadvantages for mycel or pellet cultivation have to be balanced out carefully. Due to this inadequate understanding of morphogenesis of filamentous microorganisms, fungal morphology, along with reproducibility of inocula of the same quality, is often a bottleneck of productivity in industrial production. To obtain an optimisation of the production process it is of great importance to gain a better understanding of the molecular and cell biology of these microorganisms as well as the approaches in biochemical engineering and particle technique, in particular to characterise the interactions between the growth conditions, cell morphology, spore-hyphae-interactions and product formation. Advances in particle and image analysis techniques as well as micromechanical devices and their applications to fungal cultivations have made available quantitative morphological data on filamentous cells. This chapter provides the ambitious aspects of this line of action, focussing on the control and characterisation of the morphology, the transport gradients and the approaches to understand the metabolism of filamentous fungi. Based on these data, bottlenecks in the morphogenesis of A. niger within the complex production pathways from gene to product should be identified and this may improve the production yield.

  19. Photo-induced regeneration of hormones by electron transfer processes: Potential biological and medical consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getoff, Nikola; Hartmann, Johannes; Schittl, Heike; Gerschpacher, Marion; Quint, Ruth Maria

    2011-01-01

    Based on the previous results concerning electron transfer processes in biological substances, it was of interest to investigate if hormone transients resulting by e.g. electron emission can be regenerated. The presented results prove for the first time that the hormone transients originating by the electron emission process can be successfully regenerated by the transfer of electrons from a potent electron donor, such as vitamin C (VitC). Investigations were performed using progesterone (PRG), testosterone (TES) and estrone (E1) as representatives of hormones. By irradiation with monochromatic UV light (λ=254 nm) in a media of 40% water and 60% ethanol, the degradation as well as the regeneration of the hormones was studied with each hormone individually and in the mixture with VitC as a function of the absorbed UV dose, using HPLC. Calculated from the obtained initial yields, the determined regeneration of PRG amounted to 52.7%, for TES to 58.6% and for E1 to 90.9%. The consumption of VitC was determined in the same way. The reported results concerning the regeneration of hormones by the transfer of electrons from an electron donor offer a new, promising method for the therapy with hormones. As a consequence of the regeneration of hormones, a decreased formation of carcinogenic metabolites is expected.

  20. Trait-based Affective Processes in Alcohol-Involved Risk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Tyler B.; Simons, Jeffrey S.; Dvorak, Robert D.; Gaher, Raluca M.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested a theoretical model of alcohol use, markers of extreme intoxication, and risk behavior as a function of trait affect, distress tolerance, and affect-based behavior dysregulation. Positive affective pathways to risk behavior were primarily expected to be indirect via high levels of alcohol use, while negative affect paths were expected to be more directly associated with engagement in risk behavior. In addition, we expected trait affectivity and distress tolerance would primarily exhibit relationships with alcohol use and problems through behavioral dysregulation occurring during extreme affective states. To evaluate these hypotheses, we tested a SEM with three alcohol–related outcomes: “Typical” alcohol use, “blackout” drinking,” and risk behavior. Results were complex, but generally supported the hypotheses. High trait negative affect and low tolerance for affective distress contribute to difficulty controlling behavior when negatively aroused and this is directly associated with increased risk behavior when drinking. In contrast, associations between positive urgency and risk behaviors are indirect via increased alcohol consumption. Positive affectivity exhibited both inverse and positive effects in the model, with the net effect on alcohol outcomes being insignificant. These findings contribute important information about the distinct pathways between affect, alcohol use, and alcohol-involved risk behavior among college students. PMID:22770825

  1. Effect of residual H2O2 from advanced oxidation processes on subsequent biological water treatmen : A laboratory batch study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, F.; van Halem, D.; Liu, G.; Lekkerkerker-Teunissen, K.; van der Hoek, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    H2O2 residuals from advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) may have critical impacts on the microbial ecology and performance of subsequent biological treatment processes, but little is known. The objective of this study was to evaluate how H2O2 residuals influence sand systems with an emphasis on

  2. Are podoplanin and ezrin involved in the invasion process of the ameloblastomas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.F. Costa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The association between podoplanin and ezrin in the process of odontogenic tumors invasion has been suggested, but was not studied yet. Our purpose was to investigate the relationship between podoplanin and ezrin expressions in the odontogenic epithelium of ameloblastomas. Forty-seven ameloblastomas were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using anti-podoplanin and anti-ezrin antibodies. The expressions of both proteins were evaluated using a score method and the comparison and association between these proteins were verified, respectively, by Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test and by Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, using a statistical significance level of 0.05. The majority of tumors (87.2% exhibited strong membranous expression of podoplanin in the peripheral cells. Cytoplasmic expression of ezrin in the peripheral cells of ameloblastomas was stronger than its membranous expression. No statistically significant correlation was observed between podoplanin and ezrin. However, there was statistically significant difference between membranous podoplanin and membranous ezrin expressions, between cytoplasmic podoplanin and membranous ezrin expressions, and between cytoplasmic podoplanin and cytoplasmic ezrin expressions. There was no statistical difference between membranous podoplanin and cytoplasmic ezrin expressions. These results suggest a synergistic role of both proteins in the process of invasion of ameloblastomas.

  3. The leech nervous system: a valuable model to study the microglia involvement in regenerative processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Marrec-Croq, Françoise; Drago, Francesco; Vizioli, Jacopo; Sautière, Pierre-Eric; Lefebvre, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Microglia are intrinsic components of the central nervous system (CNS). During pathologies in mammals, inflammatory processes implicate the resident microglia and the infiltration of blood cells including macrophages. Functions of microglia appear to be complex as they exhibit both neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects during neuropathological conditions in vivo and in vitro. The medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis is a well-known model in neurobiology due to its ability to naturally repair its CNS following injury. Considering the low infiltration of blood cells in this process, the leech CNS is studied to specify the activation mechanisms of only resident microglial cells. The microglia recruitment is known to be essential for the usual sprouting of injured axons and does not require any other glial cells. The present review will describe the questions which are addressed to understand the nerve repair. They will discuss the implication of leech factors in the microglial accumulation, the identification of nerve cells producing these molecules, and the study of different microglial subsets. Those questions aim to better understand the mechanisms of microglial cell recruitment and their crosstalk with damaged neurons. The study of this dialog is necessary to elucidate the balance of the inflammation leading to the leech CNS repair.

  4. The Leech Nervous System: A Valuable Model to Study the Microglia Involvement in Regenerative Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Le Marrec-Croq

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are intrinsic components of the central nervous system (CNS. During pathologies in mammals, inflammatory processes implicate the resident microglia and the infiltration of blood cells including macrophages. Functions of microglia appear to be complex as they exhibit both neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects during neuropathological conditions in vivo and in vitro. The medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis is a well-known model in neurobiology due to its ability to naturally repair its CNS following injury. Considering the low infiltration of blood cells in this process, the leech CNS is studied to specify the activation mechanisms of only resident microglial cells. The microglia recruitment is known to be essential for the usual sprouting of injured axons and does not require any other glial cells. The present review will describe the questions which are addressed to understand the nerve repair. They will discuss the implication of leech factors in the microglial accumulation, the identification of nerve cells producing these molecules, and the study of different microglial subsets. Those questions aim to better understand the mechanisms of microglial cell recruitment and their crosstalk with damaged neurons. The study of this dialog is necessary to elucidate the balance of the inflammation leading to the leech CNS repair.

  5. Mixed reverse micelles facilitated downstream processing of lipase involving water-oil-water liquid emulsion membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowal, Saibal; Priyanka, B S; Rastogi, Navin K

    2014-01-01

    Our earlier work for the first time demonstrated that liquid emulsion membrane (LEM) containing reverse micelles could be successfully used for the downstream processing of lipase from Aspergillus niger. In the present work, we have attempted to increase the extraction and purification fold of lipase by using mixed reverse micelles (MRM) consisting of cationic and nonionic surfactants in LEM. It was basically prepared by addition of the internal aqueous phase solution to the organic phase followed by the redispersion of the emulsion in the feed phase containing enzyme, which resulted in globules of water-oil-water (WOW) emulsion for the extraction of lipase. The optimum conditions for maximum lipase recovery (100%) and purification fold (17.0-fold) were CTAB concentration 0.075 M, Tween 80 concentration 0.012 M, at stirring speed of 500 rpm, contact time 15 min, internal aqueous phase pH 7, feed pH 9, KCl concentration 1 M, NaCl concentration 0.1 M, and ratio of membrane emulsion to feed volume 1:1. Incorporation of the nonionic surfactant (e.g., Tween 80) resulted in remarkable improvement in the purification fold (3.1-17.0) of the lipase. LEM containing a mixture of nonionic and cationic surfactants can be successfully used for the enhancement in the activity recovery and purification fold during downstream processing of enzymes/proteins. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  6. Can the BestGrid Process Improve Stakeholder Involvement in Electricity Transmission Projects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadejda Komendantova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has set ambitious targets for deployment of renewable energy sources to reach goals of climate change mitigation and energy security policies. However, the current state of electricity transmission infrastructure is a major bottleneck for further scaling up of renewable energy in the EU. Several thousands of kilometers of new lines have to be constructed and upgraded to accommodate growing volumes of intermittent renewable electricity. In many countries, construction of electricity transmission projects has been delayed for several years due to concerns of local stakeholders. The innovative BESTGRID approach, reported here, brings together transmission system operators (TSOs and non-governmental organizations (NGOs to discuss and understand the nature of stakeholder concerns. This paper has three objectives: (1 to understand stakeholder concerns about the deployment of electricity transmission grids in four pilot projects according to five guiding principles: need, transparency, engagement, environment, and impacts on human health as well as benefits; (2 to understand how these principles can be addressed to provide a basis for better decision-making outcomes; and (3 to evaluate the BESTGRID process based on feedback received from stakeholders and the level of participation achieved according to the ladder of Arnstein. This paper goes beyond a discussion of “measures to mitigate opposition” to understand how dialogue between TSOs and the public—represented mainly by NGOs and policy-makers—might lead to a better decision-making process and more sustainable electricity transmission infrastructure deployment.

  7. Beta-delayed fission probabilities of transfermium nuclei, involved in the r-process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, I; Lutostansky, Yu; Thielemann, F-K

    2016-01-01

    For the nucleosynthesis of heavy and superheavy nuclei fission becomes very important when the r-process runs in a very high neutron density environment. In part, fission is responsible for the formation of heavy nuclei due to the inclusion of fission products as new seed nuclei (fission cycling). More than that, beta-delayed fission, along with spontaneous fission, is responsible in the late stages of the r-process for the suppression of superheavy element yields.For beta-delayed fission probability calculations a model description of the beta-strength- functions is required. Extended theoretical predictions for astro-physical applications were provided long ago, and new predictions also for superheavy nuclei with uptodate nuclear input are needed. For the further extension of data to heavier transactinides the models of strength- functions should be modified, taking into account more complicated level schemes. In our present calculations the strength-function model is based on the quasi-particle approximation of Finite Fermi Systems Theory.The probabilities of beta-delayed fission and beta-delayed neutron emission are calculated for some transfermium neutron-rich nuclei, and the influence of beta-delayed fission upon superheavy element formation is discussed. (paper)

  8. E-cadherin junction formation involves an active kinetic nucleation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Kabir H.; Hartman, Kevin L.; Yu, Cheng-han; Harrison, Oliver J.; Song, Hang; Smith, Adam W.; Huang, William Y. C.; Lin, Wan-Chen; Guo, Zhenhuan; Padmanabhan, Anup; Troyanovsky, Sergey M.; Dustin, Michael L.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Honig, Barry; Zaidel-Bar, Ronen; Groves, Jay T.

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial (E)-cadherin-mediated cell−cell junctions play important roles in the development and maintenance of tissue structure in multicellular organisms. E-cadherin adhesion is thus a key element of the cellular microenvironment that provides both mechanical and biochemical signaling inputs. Here, we report in vitro reconstitution of junction-like structures between native E-cadherin in living cells and the extracellular domain of E-cadherin (E-cad-ECD) in a supported membrane. Junction formation in this hybrid live cell-supported membrane configuration requires both active processes within the living cell and a supported membrane with low E-cad-ECD mobility. The hybrid junctions recruit α-catenin and exhibit remodeled cortical actin. Observations suggest that the initial stages of junction formation in this hybrid system depend on the trans but not the cis interactions between E-cadherin molecules, and proceed via a nucleation process in which protrusion and retraction of filopodia play a key role. PMID:26290581

  9. Evaluation of the processing of dry biological ferment for gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabundjian, Ingrid Traete

    2007-01-01

    The developed work had with objectives to demonstrate if it had alteration in the growth of UFC in plate and in the viability of yeasts and total bacteria when dry biological ferment was dealt with by different doses to gamma radiation and under different times storage, to determine the D10 dose for total bacteria and yeasts in this product and to analyzed the processing of this product it promoted some benefit without causing unfeasibility of exactly. The different samples of dry biological ferment had been irradiated at IPEN in a Gammacell - 220 source at 0.5; 1; 2 and 3 kGy doses (dose rate of 3.51 kGy/h). This procedure referring samples to each dose of radiation had been after destined to the microbiological analysis and the test of viability while excessively the samples had been stored the ambient temperature (23 degree C). The increase of the dose of radiation caused a reduction in the counting of yeasts growth, of total bacteria growth and also in the frequency of viable yeast cells, demonstrated by FDA-EB fluorescent method. Beyond of radiation the storage time also it influenced in counting reduction of total bacteria and reduction of frequency of viable cells. According with the analysis of simple linear regression, the dose of radiation necessary to eliminate 90% of the yeast population was between 1.10 and 2.23 kGy and for the bacterial population varied between 2.31 and 2.95 kGy. These results demonstrated clearly the negative points of the application of ionizing radiation in dry biological ferment; therefore the interval of D10 found for total bacteria is superior to found for yeasts. Being thus, the use of this resource for the improvement of the product quality becomes impracticable, since to reduce significantly the bacterial population necessarily we have that to diminish the population of yeasts. With yeasts reduction of we will go significantly to modify the quality and the viability of product. (author)

  10. Modelling atopic dermatitis during the morphogenetic process involved in reconstruction of a human epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuyst, É; Mound, A; Lambert de Rouvroit, C; Poumay, Y

    Most crucial role of epidermis is to maintain efficient barrier between the organism and its environment. This barrier is however perturbed in inflammatory skin conditions like atopic dermatitis (AD), one common chronic disease. This review depicts characteristics of a model intending to reproduce epidermal features of AD in vitro. Firstly, methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) during reconstruction of epidermis was used to deplete cholesterol from plasma membrane because this condition reproduces characteristics of AD at transcriptomic level in monolayer cultures. Major changes are confirmed after same treatment inside reconstructed human epidermis (RHE). However, since early treatment do not reveal impairment to reconstruct a functional epidermal barrier and given the importance of the Th2 dysregulated immune response in AD, cholesterol-depleted RHE at day 11 of reconstruction were then incubated with three Th2-related cytokines (IL-4, IL-13 and IL-25) previously reported as playing important roles in the development of AD, as well as altering overall function of epidermal barrier. When combining both treatments, essential epidermal features of AD are observed. Indeed, RHE then exhibit spongiosis, disappearing granular layer, alteration of barrier function, as well as dysregulated expression levels for genes involved in AD pathogenesis. Moreover, while trying to identify individual roles for each component used to create AD-like alterations, incubation with IL-4 following cholesterol depletion from plasma membrane was found inducing most of the reported alterations. This model suggests potential for better investigations of epidermal AD features and may be considered for eventual in vitro screening of cosmetics or therapeutic compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Gamification as a Means to User Involvement in Decision-making Processes for Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Tine Ring; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann; Skøtt, Stine

    2017-01-01

    was developed by a multidisciplinary group of stakeholders and actors from the Danish building and housing industry. The paper presents how gamification can be used to make complex and academic issues of sustainability available to decision-makers in housing organisations who are typically people from all walks...... of life. Design thinking was used as method to develop a tool that focuses on how to make sustainable strategy development accessible to non-specialists during those critical stages of building design processes when goals and prioritisations are set. The tool is based on an open and editable platform...... and it will be available to the public in the early Summer of 2017. The paper presents how design thinking is used as an engaging research and development methodology, as well as, an introduction to the dialogue and prioritisation tool’s content and format....

  12. Neural sensitivity to statistical regularities as a fundamental biological process that underlies auditory learning: the role of musical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Clément; Schön, Daniele

    2014-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that humans and other nonhuman mammals are sensitive to the statistical structure of auditory input. Indeed, neural sensitivity to statistical regularities seems to be a fundamental biological property underlying auditory learning. In the case of speech, statistical regularities play a crucial role in the acquisition of several linguistic features, from phonotactic to more complex rules such as morphosyntactic rules. Interestingly, a similar sensitivity has been shown with non-speech streams: sequences of sounds changing in frequency or timbre can be segmented on the sole basis of conditional probabilities between adjacent sounds. We recently ran a set of cross-sectional and longitudinal experiments showing that merging music and speech information in song facilitates stream segmentation and, further, that musical practice enhances sensitivity to statistical regularities in speech at both neural and behavioral levels. Based on recent findings showing the involvement of a fronto-temporal network in speech segmentation, we defend the idea that enhanced auditory learning observed in musicians originates via at least three distinct pathways: enhanced low-level auditory processing, enhanced phono-articulatory mapping via the left Inferior Frontal Gyrus and Pre-Motor cortex and increased functional connectivity within the audio-motor network. Finally, we discuss how these data predict a beneficial use of music for optimizing speech acquisition in both normal and impaired populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Control structure design for resource recovery using the enhanced biological phosphorus removal and recovery (EBP2R) activated sludge process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valverde Perez, Borja; Fuentes-Martínez, José Manuel; Flores Alsina, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, wastewater is considered as a set of resources to be recovered rather than a mixture of pollutantsthat should be removed. Many resource recovery schemes have been proposed, involving the useof novel technologies whose controllability is poorly studied. In this paper we present a control...... strategies can be applied to other phosphorus recovery schemes where short sludge age EBPR systemsplay an important role....... structurefor the novel enhanced biological phosphorus removal and recovery (EBP2R) process, which is currentlyunder development. The aim of the EBP2R is to maximize phosphorus recovery through optimal greenmicro-algal cultivation, which is achieved by controlling the nitrogen to phosphorus ratio (N-to-P ratio...... in the effluent (16.9 ± 0.07) and can recover about 72% of the influent phosphorus. The phosphorus recovered by the CFS is limited by the influent nitrogen (65% of the influent phosphorus load). Using the CFS configuration the effluent N-to-P ratio cannot be effectively controlled (16.45 ± 2.48). Therefore...

  14. Identification of growth processes involved in QTLs for tomato fruit size and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Nadia; Causse, Mathilde; Brunel, Béatrice; Tricon, David; Génard, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Many quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for quality traits have been located on the tomato genetic map, but introgression of favourable wild alleles into large fruited species is hampered by co-localizations of QTLs with antagonist effects. The aim of this study was to assess the growth processes controlled by the main QTLs for fruit size and composition. Four nearly isogenic lines (NILs) derived from an intraspecific cross between a tasty cherry tomato (Cervil) and a normal-tasting large fruit tomato (Levovil) were studied. The lines carried one (L2, L4, and L9) or five (Lx) introgressions from Cervil on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, and 9. QTLs for fruit size could be mainly associated with cell division processes in L2 and L9, whereas cell expansion was rather homogeneous among the genotypes, except Cervil for which the low expansion rate was attributed to low cell plasticity. The link between endoreduplication and fruit size remained unclear, as cell or fruit sizes were positively correlated with the cell DNA content, but not with the endoreduplication factor. QTLs for fruit composition reflected differences in water accumulation rather than in sugar accumulation, except in L9 for which the up-regulation of sucrose unloading and hexose transport and/or starch synthesis was suggested. This may explain the increased amount of carbon allocated to cell structures in L9, which could be related to a QTL for fruit texture. In Lx, these effects were attenuated, except on fruit size and cell division. Finally, the region on top of chromosome 9 may control size and composition attributes in tomato, by a combination of QTL effects on cell division, cell wall synthesis, and carbon import and metabolism.

  15. Diversity in Biological Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, H. John

    2010-01-01

    One of the striking characteristics of fundamental biological processes, such as genetic inheritance, development and primary metabolism, is the limited amount of variation in the molecules involved. Natural selective pressures act strongly on these core processes and individuals carrying mutations and producing slightly sub-optimal versions of…

  16. Changes in Pre-service Science Teachers' Understandings After Being Involved in Explicit Nature of Science and Socioscientific Argumentation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutluca, A. Y.; Aydın, A.

    2017-08-01

    The study explored the changes in pre-service science teachers' understanding of the nature of science and their opinions about the nature of science, science teaching and argumentation after their participation in explicit nature of science (NOS) and socioscientific argumentation processes. The participants were 56 third-grade pre-service science teachers studying in a state university in Turkey. The treatment group comprised 27 participants, and there were 29 participants in the comparison group. The comparison group participants were involved in a student-centred science-teaching process, and the participants of the treatment group were involved in explicit NOS and socioscientific argumentation processes. In the study, which lasted a total of 11 weeks, a NOS-as-argumentation questionnaire was administered to all the participants to determine their understanding of NOS at the beginning and end of the data collection process, and six random participants of the treatment group participated in semi-structured interview questions in order to further understand their views regarding NOS, science teaching and argumentation. Qualitative and quantitative data analysis revealed that the explicit NOS and socioscientific argumentation processes had a significant effect on pre-service science teachers' NOS understandings. Furthermore, NOS, argumentation and science teaching views of the participants in the treatment group showed a positive change. The results of this study are discussed in light of the related literature, and suggestions are made within the context of contribution to science-teaching literature, improvement of education quality and education of pre-service teachers.

  17. Advanced low carbon-to-nitrogen ratio wastewater treatment by electrochemical and biological coupling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shihai; Li, Desheng; Yang, Xue; Zhu, Shanbin; Xing, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Nitrogen pollution in ground and surface water significantly affects the environment and its organisms, thereby leading to an increasingly serious environmental problem. Such pollution is difficult to degrade because of the lack of carbon sources. Therefore, an electrochemical and biological coupling process (EBCP) was developed with a composite catalytic biological carrier (CCBC) and applied in a pilot-scale cylindrical reactor to treat wastewater with a carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 2. The startup process, coupling principle, and dynamic feature of the EBCP were examined along with the effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT), dissolved oxygen (DO), and initial pH on nitrogen removal. A stable coupling system was obtained after 51 days when plenty of biofilms were cultivated on the CCBC without inoculation sludge. Autotrophic denitrification, with [Fe(2+)] and [H] produced by iron-carbon galvanic cells in CCBC as electron donors, was confirmed by equity calculation of CODCr and nitrogen removal. Nitrogen removal efficiency was significantly influenced by HRT, DO, and initial pH with optimal values of 3.5 h, 3.5 ± 0.1 mg L(-1), and 7.5 ± 0.1, respectively. The ammonia, nitrate, and total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiencies of 90.1 to 95.3 %, 90.5 to 99.0 %, and 90.3 to 96.5 % were maintained with corresponding initial concentrations of 40 ± 2 mg L(-1) (NH3-N load of 0.27 ± 0.01 kg NH3-N m(-3) d(-1)), 20 ± 1 mg L(-1), and 60 ± 2 mg L(-1) (TN load of 0.41 ± 0.02 kg TN m(-3) d(-1)). Based on the Eckenfelder model, the kinetics equation of the nitrogen transformation along the reactor was N e  = N 0 exp (-0.04368 h/L(1.8438)). Hence, EBCP is a viable method for advanced low C/N ratio wastewater treatment.

  18. Studies of the mechanisms involved in the laser surface hardening process of aluminum base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luciana Ventavele da

    2011-01-01

    The Al-Si alloys are widely used in industry to replace the steel and gray cast iron in high-tech sectors. The commercial importance of these alloys is mainly due to its low weight, excellent wear (abrasion) and corrosion resistance, high resistance at elevated temperatures, low coefficient of thermal expansion and lesser fuel consumption that provide considerable reduction of emission of pollutants. In this work, Al-Si alloy used in the automotive industry to manufacture pistons of internal combustion engines, was undergone to surface treatments using LASER remelting (Nd:YAG, λ = 1.06 μm, pulsed mode). The LASER enables various energy concentrations with accurate transfer to the material without physical contact. The intense energy transfer causes the occurrence of structural changes in the superficial layer of the material. Experiments with single pulses and trails were conducted under various conditions of LASER processing in order to analyze microstructural changes resulting from treatments and their effects on the hardness. For the characterization of hardened layer was utilized the following techniques: optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), x-ray mapping, Vickers microhardness and maximum roughness tests. The high cooling rate caused a change in the alloy structure due to the refinement of the primary eutectic silicon particles, resulting in increase of the mechanical properties (hardness) of the Al-Si alloy. (author)

  19. An In Vitro Evaluation of Biochemical Processes Involved in Lead-Induced Changes on Ram Spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, P; Maroto-Morales, A; García-Álvarez, O; Garde, J J; Mateo, R

    2016-06-01

    Lead (Pb(2+) ) is a toxic heavy metal which interferes with several physiological processes regulated by Ca(2+) , including those characterized by changes of the membrane stability and the motility of spermatozoa necessary for the fertilization of the oocyte. In this study, ejaculated sperm from six rams (Ovis aries) have been incubated in vitro with or without 50 ng Pb(2+) /ml during 30 min and in the presence or absence of three different potential modulators of the effects of Pb(2+) on changes in the sperm membrane before fertilization: charybdotoxin, quinacrine and staurosporine. Sperm samples incubated with Pb(2+) have shown significant reductions in acrosome integrity and sperm viability and an increase in progressive movement. None of the studied potential modulators had a protective effect against Pb(2+) action. On the contrary, Pb(2+) -incubated sperm in the presence of staurosporine had lower acrosome integrity, and lower sperm viability was observed when spermatozoa were incubated with Pb(2+) + charybdotoxin. Quinacrine was the only tested substance capable of increasing the concentration of Pb(2+) in spermatozoa; thus, the enhancement of Pb(2+) effects produced by staurosporine and charybdotoxin was not produced by an increased uptake of Pb(2+) by spermatozoa. However, the increase of intracellular Pb(2+) in those spermatozoa incubated with quinacrine did not result in an adverse effect on sperm motility or viability although the acrosome integrity was negatively affected. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Plant immunity induced by COS-OGA elicitor is a cumulative process that involves salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aubel, Géraldine; Cambier, Pierre; Dieu, Marc; Van Cutsem, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Plant innate immunity offers considerable opportunities for plant protection but beside flagellin and chitin, not many molecules and their receptors have been extensively characterized and very few have successfully reached the field. COS-OGA, an elicitor that combines cationic chitosan oligomers (COS) with anionic pectin oligomers (OGA), efficiently protected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) grown in greenhouse against powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica). Leaf proteomic analysis of plants sprayed with COS-OGA showed accumulation of Pathogenesis-Related proteins (PR), especially subtilisin-like proteases. qRT-PCR confirmed upregulation of PR-proteins and salicylic acid (SA)-related genes while expression of jasmonic acid/ethylene-associated genes was not modified. SA concentration and class III peroxidase activity were increased in leaves and appeared to be a cumulative process dependent on the number of sprayings with the elicitor. These results suggest a systemic acquired resistance (SAR) mechanism of action of the COS-OGA elicitor and highlight the importance of repeated applications to ensure efficient protection against disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Benzoate degradation by Rhodococcus opacus 1CP after dormancy: Characterization of dioxygenases involved in the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solyanikova, Inna P; Emelyanova, Elena V; Borzova, Oksana V; Golovleva, Ludmila A

    2016-01-01

    The process of benzoate degradation by strain Rhodococcus opacus 1CP after a five-year dormancy was investigated and its peculiarities were revealed. The strain was shown to be capable of growth on benzoate at a concentration of up to 10 g L(-1). The substrate specificity of benzoate dioxygenase (BDO) during the culture growth on a medium with a low (200-250 mg L(-1)) and high (4 g L(-1)) concentration of benzoate was assessed. BDO of R. opacus 1CP was shown to be an extremely narrow specificity enzyme. Out of 31 substituted benzoates, only with one, 3-chlorobenzoate, its activity was higher than 9% of that of benzoate. Two dioxygenases, catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (Cat 1,2-DO) and protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (PCA 3,4-DO), were identified in a cell-free extract, purified and characterized. The substrate specificity of Cat 1,2-DO isolated from cells of strain 1CP after the dormancy was found to differ significantly from that of Cat 1,2-DO isolated earlier from cells of this strain grown on benzoate. By its substrate specificity, the described Cat 1,2-DO was close to the Cat 1,2-DO from strain 1CP grown on 4-methylbenzoate. Neither activity nor inhibition by protocatechuate was observed during the reaction of Cat 1,2-DO with catechol, and catechol had no inhibitory effect on the reaction of PCA 3,4-DO with protocatechuate.

  2. Comparative genomic analysis of a neurotoxigenic Clostridium species using partial genome sequence: Phylogenetic analysis of a few conserved proteins involved in cellular processes and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Syed Imteyaz; Dixit, Aparna; Tomar, Arvind; Singh, Lokendra

    2010-04-01

    Clostridial organisms produce neurotoxins, which are generally regarded as the most potent toxic substances of biological origin and potential biological warfare agents. Clostridium tetani produces tetanus neurotoxin and is responsible for the fatal tetanus disease. In spite of the extensive immunization regimen, the disease is an important cause of death especially among neonates. Strains of C. tetani have not been genetically characterized except the complete genome sequencing of strain E88. The present study reports the genetic makeup and phylogenetic affiliations of an environmental strain of this bacterium with respect to C. tetani E88 and other clostridia. A shot gun library was constructed from the genomic DNA of C. tetani drde, isolated from decaying fish sample. Unique clones were sequenced and sequences compared with its closest relative C. tetani E88. A total of 275 clones were obtained and 32,457 bases of non-redundant sequence were generated. A total of 150 base changes were observed over the entire length of sequence obtained, including, additions, deletions and base substitutions. Of the total 120 ORFs detected, 48 exhibited closest similarity to E88 proteins of which three are hypothetical proteins. Eight of the ORFs exhibited similarity with hypothetical proteins from other organisms and 10 aligned with other proteins from unrelated organisms. There is an overall conservation of protein sequences among the two strains of C. tetani and. Selected ORFs involved in cellular processes and metabolism were subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychopathological Processes Involved in Social Comparison, Depression, and Envy on Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Pera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Is Facebook utilization beneficial or detrimental for psychological well-being? I draw on outstanding research (e.g., Chou and Edge, 2012; Lin and Utz, 2015; Appel et al., 2016; Ehrenreich and Underwood, 2016; Vogel and Rose, 2016; Hu et al., 2017 to substantiate that examining other individuals’ positively presented material on Facebook may have detrimental consequences. Increasing comparisons on Facebook may generate feelings of envy, the latter being a significant process determining the effect of growing social comparison on psychological well-being. To date, there is an increasing body of literature investigating the psychological consequences of Facebook usage, the function of relationship closeness in producing the feelings of contentment and envy, the impacts of exposure to positive content on Facebook, the link between envy and depression on Facebook, and the function of tie strength in expecting the emotional results of browsing Facebook. I am specifically interested in how previous research explored the consequences of Facebook use on psychological outcomes, the moderating function of envy in the link between Facebook use and reduced affective wellbeing, the psychological results of non-interactive Facebook conduct, and the role of relationship closeness in anticipating user’s contentment and envy after inspecting a post. A synthesis of the extant literature suggests that inspecting other individuals’ positive news on Facebook brings about contentment through emotional contagion, whereas negative news causes discomfort as a consequence of mood contagion, the transmissible effect being more powerful when the news is associated with a strong tie. The outcomes of this research back the argument that self-confidence and dispositional envy are instrumental in producing Facebook envy. These findings highlight that the emotional results of browsing Facebook are considerably affected by the substance of the comment, the personal

  4. Psychopathological Processes Involved in Social Comparison, Depression, and Envy on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera, Aurel

    2018-01-01

    Is Facebook utilization beneficial or detrimental for psychological well-being? I draw on outstanding research (e.g., Chou and Edge, 2012; Lin and Utz, 2015; Appel et al., 2016; Ehrenreich and Underwood, 2016; Vogel and Rose, 2016; Hu et al., 2017) to substantiate that examining other individuals' positively presented material on Facebook may have detrimental consequences. Increasing comparisons on Facebook may generate feelings of envy, the latter being a significant process determining the effect of growing social comparison on psychological well-being. To date, there is an increasing body of literature investigating the psychological consequences of Facebook usage, the function of relationship closeness in producing the feelings of contentment and envy, the impacts of exposure to positive content on Facebook, the link between envy and depression on Facebook, and the function of tie strength in expecting the emotional results of browsing Facebook. I am specifically interested in how previous research explored the consequences of Facebook use on psychological outcomes, the moderating function of envy in the link between Facebook use and reduced affective wellbeing, the psychological results of non-interactive Facebook conduct, and the role of relationship closeness in anticipating user's contentment and envy after inspecting a post. A synthesis of the extant literature suggests that inspecting other individuals' positive news on Facebook brings about contentment through emotional contagion, whereas negative news causes discomfort as a consequence of mood contagion, the transmissible effect being more powerful when the news is associated with a strong tie. The outcomes of this research back the argument that self-confidence and dispositional envy are instrumental in producing Facebook envy. These findings highlight that the emotional results of browsing Facebook are considerably affected by the substance of the comment, the personal attributes of the Facebook user

  5. Psychopathological Processes Involved in Social Comparison, Depression, and Envy on Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera, Aurel

    2018-01-01

    Is Facebook utilization beneficial or detrimental for psychological well-being? I draw on outstanding research (e.g., Chou and Edge, 2012; Lin and Utz, 2015; Appel et al., 2016; Ehrenreich and Underwood, 2016; Vogel and Rose, 2016; Hu et al., 2017) to substantiate that examining other individuals’ positively presented material on Facebook may have detrimental consequences. Increasing comparisons on Facebook may generate feelings of envy, the latter being a significant process determining the effect of growing social comparison on psychological well-being. To date, there is an increasing body of literature investigating the psychological consequences of Facebook usage, the function of relationship closeness in producing the feelings of contentment and envy, the impacts of exposure to positive content on Facebook, the link between envy and depression on Facebook, and the function of tie strength in expecting the emotional results of browsing Facebook. I am specifically interested in how previous research explored the consequences of Facebook use on psychological outcomes, the moderating function of envy in the link between Facebook use and reduced affective wellbeing, the psychological results of non-interactive Facebook conduct, and the role of relationship closeness in anticipating user’s contentment and envy after inspecting a post. A synthesis of the extant literature suggests that inspecting other individuals’ positive news on Facebook brings about contentment through emotional contagion, whereas negative news causes discomfort as a consequence of mood contagion, the transmissible effect being more powerful when the news is associated with a strong tie. The outcomes of this research back the argument that self-confidence and dispositional envy are instrumental in producing Facebook envy. These findings highlight that the emotional results of browsing Facebook are considerably affected by the substance of the comment, the personal attributes of the Facebook

  6. A DO- and pH-Based Early Warning System of Nitrification Inhibition for Biological Nitrogen Removal Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunook Kim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In Korea, more than 80% of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs with capacities of 500 m3·d−1 or more are capable of removing nitrogen from wastewater through biological nitrification and denitrification processes. Normally, these biological processes show excellent performance, but if a toxic chemical is present in the influent to a WWTP, the biological processes (especially, the nitrification process may be affected and fail to function normally; nitrifying bacteria are known very vulnerable to toxic substances. Then, the toxic compound as well as the nitrogen in wastewater may be discharged into a receiving water body without any proper treatment. Moreover, it may take significant time for the process to return back its normal state. In this study, a DO- and pH-based strategy to identify potential nitrification inhibition was developed to detect early the inflow of toxic compounds to a biological nitrogen removal process. This strategy utilizes significant changes observed in the oxygen uptake rate and the pH profiles of the mixed liquor when the activity of nitrifying bacteria is inhibited. Using the strategy, the toxicity from test wastewater with 2.5 mg·L−1 Hg2+, 0.5 mg·L−1 allythiourea, or 0.25 mg·L−1 chloroform could be successfully detected.

  7. Removal of Refractory Organics from Biologically Treated Landfill Leachate by Microwave Discharge Electrodeless Lamp Assisted Fenton Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuyi Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologically treated leachate usually contains considerable amount of refractory organics and trace concentrations of xenobiotic pollutants. Removal of refractory organics from biologically treated landfill leachate by a novel microwave discharge electrodeless lamp (MDEL assisted Fenton process was investigated in the present study in comparison to conventional Fenton and ultraviolet Fenton processes. Conventional Fenton and ultraviolet Fenton processes could substantially remove up to 70% of the refractory organics in a membrane bioreactor treated leachate. MDEL assisted Fenton process achieved excellent removal performance of the refractory components, and the effluent chemical oxygen demand concentration was lower than 100 mg L−1. Most organic matters were transformed into smaller compounds with molecular weights less than 1000 Da. Ten different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected in the biologically treated leachate, most of which were effectively removed by MDEL-Fenton treatment. MDEL-Fenton process provides powerful capability in degradation of refractory and xenobiotic organic pollutants in landfill leachate and could be adopted as a single-stage polishing process for biologically treated landfill leachate to meet the stringent discharge limit.

  8. Treatment of bromoamine acid wastewater using combined process of micro-electrolysis and biological aerobic filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Li; Ni, Jinren; Wu, Yanjun; Zhang, Yongyong

    2009-03-15

    The wastewater originated from the production of bromoamine acid was treated in a sequential system of micro-electrolysis (ME) and biological aerobic filter (BAF). Decolorization and COD(Cr) removal rate of the proposed system was investigated with full consideration of the influence of two major controlling factors such as organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT). The removal rate of COD(Cr) was 81.2% and that of chrominance could be up to 96.6% at an OLR of 0.56 kg m(-3)d(-1) when the total HRT was 43.4h. Most of the chrominance was removed by the ME treatment, however, the BAF process was more effective for COD(Cr) removal. The GC-MS and HPLC-MS analysis of the contaminants revealed that 1-aminoanthraquinone, bromoamine acid and mono-sulfonated 1,2-dichlorobenzene were the main organic components in the wastewater. The reductive transformation of the anthraquinone derivatives in the ME reactor improved the biodegradability of the wastewater, and rendered the decolorization. After long-term of operation, it was observed that the predominant microorganisms immobilized on the BAF carriers were rod-shaped and globular. Four bacterial strains with apparent 16S rDNA fragments in the Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of BAF samples were identified as Variovorax sp., Sphingomonas sp., Mycobacterium sp., and Microbacterium sp.

  9. Treatment of bromoamine acid wastewater using combined process of micro-electrolysis and biological aerobic filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Li [Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Key Laboratory for Environmental and Urban Sciences, Guang Dong 518055 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871 (China); Ni Jinren [Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Key Laboratory for Environmental and Urban Sciences, Guang Dong 518055 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: nijinren@iee.pku.edu.cn; Wu Yanjun; Zhang Yongyong [Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Key Laboratory for Environmental and Urban Sciences, Guang Dong 518055 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2009-03-15

    The wastewater originated from the production of bromoamine acid was treated in a sequential system of micro-electrolysis (ME) and biological aerobic filter (BAF). Decolorization and COD{sub Cr} removal rate of the proposed system was investigated with full consideration of the influence of two major controlling factors such as organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT). The removal rate of COD{sub Cr} was 81.2% and that of chrominance could be up to 96.6% at an OLR of 0.56 kg m{sup -3} d{sup -1} when the total HRT was 43.4 h. Most of the chrominance was removed by the ME treatment, however, the BAF process was more effective for COD{sub Cr} removal. The GC-MS and HPLC-MS analysis of the contaminants revealed that 1-aminoanthraquinone, bromoamine acid and mono-sulfonated 1,2-dichlorobenzene were the main organic components in the wastewater. The reductive transformation of the anthraquinone derivatives in the ME reactor improved the biodegradability of the wastewater, and rendered the decolorization. After long-term of operation, it was observed that the predominant microorganisms immobilized on the BAF carriers were rod-shaped and globular. Four bacterial strains with apparent 16S rDNA fragments in the Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of BAF samples were identified as Variovorax sp., Sphingomonas sp., Mycobacterium sp., and Microbacterium sp.

  10. Treatment of bromoamine acid wastewater using combined process of micro-electrolysis and biological aerobic filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Li; Ni Jinren; Wu Yanjun; Zhang Yongyong

    2009-01-01

    The wastewater originated from the production of bromoamine acid was treated in a sequential system of micro-electrolysis (ME) and biological aerobic filter (BAF). Decolorization and COD Cr removal rate of the proposed system was investigated with full consideration of the influence of two major controlling factors such as organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT). The removal rate of COD Cr was 81.2% and that of chrominance could be up to 96.6% at an OLR of 0.56 kg m -3 d -1 when the total HRT was 43.4 h. Most of the chrominance was removed by the ME treatment, however, the BAF process was more effective for COD Cr removal. The GC-MS and HPLC-MS analysis of the contaminants revealed that 1-aminoanthraquinone, bromoamine acid and mono-sulfonated 1,2-dichlorobenzene were the main organic components in the wastewater. The reductive transformation of the anthraquinone derivatives in the ME reactor improved the biodegradability of the wastewater, and rendered the decolorization. After long-term of operation, it was observed that the predominant microorganisms immobilized on the BAF carriers were rod-shaped and globular. Four bacterial strains with apparent 16S rDNA fragments in the Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of BAF samples were identified as Variovorax sp., Sphingomonas sp., Mycobacterium sp., and Microbacterium sp

  11. Biological Processes that Prepare Mammalian Spermatozoa to Interact with an Egg and Fertilize It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daulat R. P. Tulsiani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the mouse and other mammals studied, including man, ejaculated spermatozoa cannot immediately fertilize an egg. They require a certain period of residence in the female genital tract to become functionally competent cells. As spermatozoa traverse through the female genital tract, they undergo multiple biochemical and physiological changes collectively referred to as capacitation. Only capacitated spermatozoa interact with the extracellular egg coat, the zona pellucida. The tight irreversible binding of the opposite gametes triggers a Ca2+-dependent signal transduction cascade. The net result is the fusion of the sperm plasma membrane and the underlying outer acrosomal membrane at multiple sites that causes the release of acrosomal contents at the site of sperm-egg adhesion. The hydrolytic action of the acrosomal enzymes released, along with the hyperactivated beat pattern of the bound spermatozoon, is important factor that directs the sperm to penetrate the egg coat and fertilize the egg. The sperm capacitation and the induction of the acrosomal reaction are Ca2+-dependent signaling events that have been of wide interest to reproductive biologists for over half a century. In this paper, we intend to discuss data from this and other laboratories that highlight the biological processes which prepare spermatozoa to interact with an egg and fertilize it.

  12. Assessment of the propensity of biofilm growth on newfloat carrier media through process and biological experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podedworna, J; Zubrowska-Sudoł, M; Grabińska-Łoniewska, A

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research on biomass growth on Newfloat carrier elements and the implications of this growth on the wastewater treatment process. Supervision of the experiment comprised of the analysis of treatment efficiency (dynamic experiments), the estimation of the content of nitrifying bacteria in the biofilm (batch tests) and biological investigations of the biofilm structure and composition. It has been demonstrated that the biofilm growing on the carrier elements was rich in nitrifying bacteria and that this in turn guaranteed the highly efficient oxidation of ammoniacal nitrogen. After the full growth of biofilm had been established, average removal efficiencies were as follows: organic C removal-88.8% (effluent COD below 60 mg O2 l(-1)), nitrification-97.9% (effluent ammoniacal N below 1 mg N-NH4+ l(-1)), denitrification (after the COD loading rate increased to over 0.53 kg COD m(-3) d(-1))-95.7% (total N in the effluent below 8 mg N l(-1)).

  13. Enhanced biological nutrient removal in sequencing batch reactors operated as static/oxic/anoxic (SOA) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dechao; Chen, Hongbo; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Qi; Zeng, Tianjing; Luo, Kun; Zeng, Guangming

    2013-09-01

    An innovative static/oxic/anoxic (SOA) activated sludge process