WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological processes 1st

  1. 1st International Conference on Cognitive Systems and Information Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Dewen; Liu, Huaping

    2014-01-01

    "Foundations and Practical Applications of Cognitive Systems and Information Processing" presents selected papers from the First International Conference on Cognitive Systems and Information Processing, held in Beijing, China on December 15-17, 2012 (CSIP2012). The aim of this conference is to bring together experts from different fields of expertise to discuss the state-of-the-art in artificial cognitive systems and advanced information processing, and to present new findings and perspectives on future development. This book introduces multidisciplinary perspectives on the subject areas of Cognitive Systems and Information Processing, including cognitive sciences and technology, autonomous vehicles, cognitive psychology, cognitive metrics, information fusion, image/video understanding, brain-computer interfaces, visual cognitive processing, neural computation, bioinformatics, etc. The book will be beneficial for both researchers and practitioners in the fields of Cognitive Science, Computer Science and Cogni...

  2. 1st International Conference on Computer Vision and Image Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Roy, Partha; Sen, Debashis

    2017-01-01

    This edited volume contains technical contributions in the field of computer vision and image processing presented at the First International Conference on Computer Vision and Image Processing (CVIP 2016). The contributions are thematically divided based on their relation to operations at the lower, middle and higher levels of vision systems, and their applications. The technical contributions in the areas of sensors, acquisition, visualization and enhancement are classified as related to low-level operations. They discuss various modern topics – reconfigurable image system architecture, Scheimpflug camera calibration, real-time autofocusing, climate visualization, tone mapping, super-resolution and image resizing. The technical contributions in the areas of segmentation and retrieval are classified as related to mid-level operations. They discuss some state-of-the-art techniques – non-rigid image registration, iterative image partitioning, egocentric object detection and video shot boundary detection. Th...

  3. Proceedings of the 1st workshop on ion beam applied biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikazono, Naoya; Hase, Yoshihiro; Sakamoto, Ayako; Oono, Yutaka; Tanaka, Atsushi

    2003-03-01

    Application of ion beam-irradiation to biology has been undertaken in JAERI. To establish further development of the research by strengthening the industrial, governmental, and academic cooperation, to share the knowledge of the present status of the field with researchers outside JAERI, and to find out future plans, the 1st workshop on ion beam-applied biology was held. The theme of the workshop was on 'Development of breeding techniques using ion beam-irradiation'. This workshop was held by JAERI on November 19, 2002 under the joint auspices of Kanto·Kouetsu branch of Atomic Energy Society of Japan, Breeding Science Society of Japan, and Genetics Society of Japan. One hundred and thirty people participated in the workshop. Highly qualified presentations were given on irradiation techniques, on outcomes of research, and on novel varieties that had been put to practical use, which were the results obtained at the irradiation facilities of JAERI, RIKEN, and WERC. Many new plant resources are expected to be produced by ion beam irradiation, and application of new irradiation techniques, such as microbeams, would be useful in the near future. The 8 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N)

  4. 1st World Congress on Electroporation and Pulsed Electric Fields in Biology, Medicine and Food & Environmental Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Kramar, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the 1st World Congress on Electroporation and Pulsed Electric Fields in Biology, Medicine and Food & Environmental Technologies (WC2015). The congress took place in Portorož, Slovenia, during the week of September 6th to 10th, 2015. The scientific part of the Congress covered different aspects of electroporation and related technologies and included the following main topics:   ·         Application of pulsed electric fields technology in food: challenges and opportunities ·         Electrical impedance measurement for assessment of electroporation yield ·         Electrochemistry and electroporation ·         Electroporation meets electrostimulation ·         Electrotechnologies for food and biomass treatment ·         Food and biotechnology applications ·         In vitro electroporation - basic mechanisms ·         Interfacial behaviour of lipid-assemblies, membranes and cells in electric f...

  5. 1st Global Conference on Biomedical Engineering & 9th Asian-Pacific Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shyh-Hau; Yeh, Ming-Long

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the 9th Asian-Pacific Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering (APCMBE 2014). The proceedings address a broad spectrum of topics from Bioengineering and Biomedicine, like Biomaterials, Artificial Organs, Tissue Engineering, Nanobiotechnology and Nanomedicine, Biomedical Imaging, Bio MEMS, Biosignal Processing, Digital Medicine, BME Education. It helps medical and biological engineering professionals to interact and exchange their ideas and experiences.

  6. Improving conversion yield of fermentable sugars into fuel ethanol in 1st generation yeast-based production processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombert, Andreas K; van Maris, Antonius J A

    2015-06-01

    Current fuel ethanol production using yeasts and starch or sucrose-based feedstocks is referred to as 1st generation (1G) ethanol production. These processes are characterized by the high contribution of sugar prices to the final production costs, by high production volumes, and by low profit margins. In this context, small improvements in the ethanol yield on sugars have a large impact on process economy. Three types of strategies used to achieve this goal are discussed: engineering free-energy conservation, engineering redox-metabolism, and decreasing sugar losses in the process. Whereas the two former strategies lead to decreased biomass and/or glycerol formation, the latter requires increased process and/or yeast robustness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 1st International Conference on Recent Cognizance in Wireless Communication & Image Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Vishnu; Singh, Ghanshyam; Bhatnagar, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    This volume comprises the proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Cognizance in Wireless Communication & Image Processing. It brings together content from academicians, researchers, and industry experts in areas of Wireless Communication and Image Processing. The volume provides a snapshot of current progress in computational creativity and a glimpse of future possibilities. The proceedings include two kinds of paper submissions: (i) regular papers addressing foundation issues, describing original research on creative systems development and modeling; and (ii) position papers describing work-in-progress or research directions for computational creativity. This work will be useful to professionals and researchers working in the core areas of wireless communications and image processing.

  8. Pre-Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Process-oriented Information Systems in Healthcare (ProHealth'07)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichert, M.U.; Peleg, M.; Lenz, R.

    These pre-proceedings contain the presentations given at the 1st Int'l Workshop on Process-oriented Information Systems in Healthcare (ProHealth'07). Formal proceedings will be published in Springer's LNCS series. Process-oriented information systems have been demanded for more than 20 years and

  9. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  10. APPLICATION OF T. I. IN THE TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS FOR THE ACQUISITION OF MATH KNOWLEDGE 1st GRADE OF SECONDARY EDUCATION "IMAT"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Castro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present project focused on the creation of a T.I. with interactive multimedia content to support the mathematics subject 1st grade of secondary school. A fundamental element in its development lies in how the contents should be expressed and interpreted, that is, to respect the teaching-learning process pedagogically, taking advantage of visual and auditory products created from the potential of design and programming software tools. According to information concentrated and analyzed, we consider that one of the main problems that exists at the secondary level, specifically in the subject of mathematics, is that young people do not know or use supporting content for the study of this subject, for example: videos, audios, digital material complementary to books, etc., this means that the vast majority learns only what is seen in the classroom, as there are deficiencies, it generates impact on failure rates. It was based on two software development methodologies: ICONIX (1. ICONIX Process, sf 2016 that unifies object-oriented methods to cover the life cycle of a project and MeISE (2. Abud Figueroa, 2009 is a methodology focused on the development of educational software. Revisions were made to statistics of ENLACE test results from previous years and work was carried out on the revision of appropriate methodologies for the development of educational software, interviews with pedagogues were carried out and surveys were applied to students. We can say that the expression of the contents in the application of educational software is the essence of teaching, the structure and organization must adhere to the pedagogical process. Progress was made in determining a new methodology to develop educational software and significant advances in interactive multimedia content.

  11. 1st EUCOMAS conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The following topics were dealt with: CFC Infusion Technology - the Future for Commercial CFC Fuselages? Structural Optimization of Composite Aircraft Panels with Large Cut-Outs. Design and Analysis of Advanced Composite Load Introduction Structures for High Lift Devices. A new highly formable quasi-isotropic prepreg for complex shape parts - HexMC, a unique composite technology for new aerospace needs. Ultra Thick Laminates for Highly Loaded Main Landing Gear Fittings - Development of a main landing gear fitting in carbon fibre reinforced plastics. ''ScaLA'' -2nd generation of AlMgSc materials dedicated for short manufacturing chains in the aerospace industry. Latest generation of Al-Li alloys developed by Alcan Aerospace. Aleris' Advanced Aluminium Sheet and Plate Products for High-Performance Aircraft Applications. Mechanical and environmental validation of a spherical multipurpose inflatable structure. Design, Analysis and Manufacturing of a Thermoplastic Slat. Novel load-introduction systems for lightweight aircraft components in composite-metal-hybrid design - Multi-Materials Design for lightweight hydraulic actuators. SiC-fibre reinforced titanium shafts under multiaxial loading - Tests and numerical simulations for torsion and tension loading. New Design Philosophy for Improvement of Damage Tolerance of Welded Airframe Structure. New Approaches for the Flexible Manufacturing of Helicopter FRP-structures. Development of an innovative process for the manufacture of composite components. Thermoplastic Technologies - An Alternative for Aircraft Structures. New Prepreg Materials for Crushed Core Technology - Influence of Cure Cycle on Flammability and Fracture Toughness. Influence of Heat Treatment on Mechanical Properties of Ti-5Al-5V-5Mo-3Cr. Manufacturing and Properties of Induction Welded Metal/Composite Joints. Multi-Physics Modelling of Bobbin-Tool Friction Stir Welding - Applications to a latest generation aluminium Alloy - A

  12. Treatment of reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate by the combined Fe/Cu/air and Fenton process (1stFe/Cu/air-Fenton-2ndFe/Cu/air).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yi; Yuan, Yue; Lai, Bo; Zhou, Yuexi; Wang, Juling

    2016-01-25

    To decompose or transform the toxic and refractory reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate and improve the biodegradability, 1stFe/Cu/air-Fenton-2ndFe/Cu/air were developed to treat RO concentrate obtained from an amino acid production plant in northern China. First, their operating conditions were optimized thoroughly. Furthermore, 5 control experiments were setup to confirm the superiority of 1stFe/Cu/air-Fenton-2ndFe/Cu/air and synergistic reaction between Fe/Cu/air and Fenton. The results suggest that the developed method could obtain high COD removal (65.1%) and BOD5/COD ratio (0.26) due to the synergistic reaction between Fe/Cu/air and Fenton. Under the optimal conditions, the influent and effluent of 1stFe/Cu/air-Fenton-2ndFe/Cu/air and 5 control experiments were analyzed by using UV, FTIR, EEM and LC, which confirm the superiority of 1stFe/Cu/air-Fenton-2ndFe/Cu/air. Therefore, the developed method in this study is a promising process for treatment of RO concentrate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 1st quarterly report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The present report describes the activities carried out in the 1st quarter of 1977 at the Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung in Karlsruhe or on its behalf in the framework of the fast breeder project (PSB). The problems and main results of the partial projects fuel rod development, materials testing, reactor physics, reactor safety and reactor technology are presented. (RW) [de

  14. Mathematical modeling of biological processes

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2014-01-01

    This book on mathematical modeling of biological processes includes a wide selection of biological topics that demonstrate the power of mathematics and computational codes in setting up biological processes with a rigorous and predictive framework. Topics include: enzyme dynamics, spread of disease, harvesting bacteria, competition among live species, neuronal oscillations, transport of neurofilaments in axon, cancer and cancer therapy, and granulomas. Complete with a description of the biological background and biological question that requires the use of mathematics, this book is developed for graduate students and advanced undergraduate students with only basic knowledge of ordinary differential equations and partial differential equations; background in biology is not required. Students will gain knowledge on how to program with MATLAB without previous programming experience and how to use codes in order to test biological hypothesis.

  15. Radiobiology 2000: advances in fundamental and clinical radiobiology. Programme and abstracts: 1st international congress of the South African Radiobiology Society (SARS) in conjunction with the South African Association of Physicists in Medicine and Biology (SAAPMB) and the University of Stellenbosch, 10-13 December 2000, Music Conservatoire, University of Stellenbosch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    Programme and abstracts of the 1st international congress of the South African Radiobiology Society, held in conjunction with the South African Association of Physicists in Medicine and Biology and the University of Stellenbosch, from 10-13 December 2000. This publication contain the abstracts of the forty-four papers and posters that were presented

  16. 1st International Conference on Computational and Experimental Biomedical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Jorge, RM

    2015-01-01

    This book contains the full papers presented at ICCEBS 2013 – the 1st International Conference on Computational and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, which was organized in Azores, in October 2013. The included papers present and discuss new trends in those fields, using several methods and techniques, including active shape models, constitutive models, isogeometric elements, genetic algorithms, level sets, material models, neural networks, optimization, and the finite element method, in order to address more efficiently different and timely applications involving biofluids, computer simulation, computational biomechanics, image based diagnosis, image processing and analysis, image segmentation, image registration, scaffolds, simulation, and surgical planning. The main audience for this book consists of researchers, Ph.D students, and graduate students with multidisciplinary interests related to the areas of artificial intelligence, bioengineering, biology, biomechanics, computational fluid dynamics, comput...

  17. Stochastic processes in cell biology

    CERN Document Server

    Bressloff, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    This book develops the theory of continuous and discrete stochastic processes within the context of cell biology.  A wide range of biological topics are covered including normal and anomalous diffusion in complex cellular environments, stochastic ion channels and excitable systems, stochastic calcium signaling, molecular motors, intracellular transport, signal transduction, bacterial chemotaxis, robustness in gene networks, genetic switches and oscillators, cell polarization, polymerization, cellular length control, and branching processes. The book also provides a pedagogical introduction to the theory of stochastic process – Fokker Planck equations, stochastic differential equations, master equations and jump Markov processes, diffusion approximations and the system size expansion, first passage time problems, stochastic hybrid systems, reaction-diffusion equations, exclusion processes, WKB methods, martingales and branching processes, stochastic calculus, and numerical methods.   This text is primarily...

  18. Fluctuating Thermodynamics for Biological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Sihyun

    Because biomolecular processes are largely under thermodynamic control, dynamic extension of thermodynamics is necessary to uncover the mechanisms and driving factors of fluctuating processes. The fluctuating thermodynamics technology presented in this talk offers a practical means for the thermodynamic characterization of conformational dynamics in biomolecules. The use of fluctuating thermodynamics has the potential to provide a comprehensive picture of fluctuating phenomena in diverse biological processes. Through the application of fluctuating thermodynamics, we provide a thermodynamic perspective on the misfolding and aggregation of the various proteins associated with human diseases. In this talk, I will present the detailed concepts and applications of the fluctuating thermodynamics technology for elucidating biological processes. This work was supported by Samsung Science and Technology Foundation under Project Number SSTF-BA1401-13.

  19. 1st Roman Young Researchers Meeting Proceedings

    CERN Document Server

    Cannuccia, E; Pietrobon, D; Stellato, F; Veneziani, M

    2009-01-01

    During the last few decades scientists have been able to test the bases of the physics paradigms, where the quantum mechanics has to match the cosmological scales. Between the extremes of this scenario, biological phenomena and their complexity take place, challenging the laws we observe in the atomic and sub-atomic world. In order to explore the details of this world, new huge experimental facilities are under construction. These projects involve people coming from several countries and give physicists the opportunity to work together with chemists, biologists and other scientists. The Roman Young Researchers Meeting is a conference, organised by Ph. D. students and young postdocs connected to the Roman area. It is aimed primarily at graduate students and post-docs, working in physics. The 1st conference has been held on the 21st of July 2009 at the University of Roma Tor Vergata. It was organised in three sessions, devoted to Astrophysics and Cosmology, Soft and Condensed Matter Physics and Theoretical and ...

  20. Hybrid Thermochemical/Biological Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert C.

    The conventional view of biorefineries is that lignocellulosic plant material will be fractionated into cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and terpenes before these components are biochemically converted into market products. Occasionally, these plants include a thermochemical step at the end of the process to convert recalcitrant plant components or mixed waste streams into heat to meet thermal energy demands elsewhere in the facility. However, another possibility for converting high-fiber plant materials is to start by thermochemically processing it into a uniform intermediate product that can be biologically converted into a bio-based product. This alternative route to bio-based products is known as hybrid thermochemical/biological processing. There are two distinct approaches to hybrid processing: (a) gasification followed by fermentation of the resulting gaseous mixture of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), and carbon dioxide (CO2) and (b) fast pyrolysis followed by hydrolysis and/or fermentation of the anhydrosugars found in the resulting bio-oil. This article explores this "cart before the horse" approach to biorefineries.

  1. Piecewise deterministic processes in biological models

    CERN Document Server

    Rudnicki, Ryszard

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a concise introduction to piecewise deterministic Markov processes (PDMPs), with particular emphasis on their applications to biological models. Further, it presents examples of biological phenomena, such as gene activity and population growth, where different types of PDMPs appear: continuous time Markov chains, deterministic processes with jumps, processes with switching dynamics, and point processes. Subsequent chapters present the necessary tools from the theory of stochastic processes and semigroups of linear operators, as well as theoretical results concerning the long-time behaviour of stochastic semigroups induced by PDMPs and their applications to biological models. As such, the book offers a valuable resource for mathematicians and biologists alike. The first group will find new biological models that lead to interesting and often new mathematical questions, while the second can observe how to include seemingly disparate biological processes into a unified mathematical theory, and...

  2. CDC WONDER: Population - Bridged-Race July 1st Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Population - Bridged-Race July 1st Estimates online databases report bridged-race population estimates of the July 1st resident population of the United States,...

  3. Site remediation using biological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, J.; Sansregret, J.L.; Cyr, B.; Pouliot, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The main process used in the bioremediation of contaminated sites is the microbial degradation and mineralization of pollutants. The bioengineering processes developed and applied by the company to optimize the microbial degradation are described and full scale case studies are reviewed. In each case, the site characteristics (type of contaminants, nature of soil, geographic location, etc.) and the results obtained are presented. The selected projects cover different bioremediation techniques (biopile, bioventing and air sparging), different contaminants (PAH, PCP, hydrocarbons) and different types of industrial sites (former gas work plant, petroleum depot, refinery, etc.)

  4. Proceedings: International Conference on Fixed-Film Biological Processes (1st) Held at Kings Island, Ohio on 20-23 April 1982. Volume I,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    common acids and alkalies, with the exception of strong ammonium hydroxide. It is suitable for most alcohols , esters, ketones, nitroparaffins, benzene...Manual of Microbio- logical Methods (98), was used to determine if the micro- organisms contained PHB. After staining with 0.3% alcoholic Sudan Black...water-layer thickness Rn g/m3h Intrinsic nitrification rate Ro g/m 3h Intrinsic oxygen uptake rate Rs g/m 3h Intrinsic starch oxydation rate ’ g

  5. Proceedings: International Conference on Fixed-Film Biological Processes (1st) Held at Kings Island, Ohio on 20-23 April 1982. Volume II,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    facilities is shown in Table 1. Several investigators have described water recirculating systems using biofilters for intensive cultivation of salmon smolts...Bloassy." Symposium on Acute Aquatic Ecotoxicological Test. Methodology, Standardization and Significance CERTIA, France, Nov. 1981. 6 Kp. • 1112 PART X

  6. 1st Applied Electromagnetic International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Othman, Mohd; Aziz, Mohamad; Malek, Mohd

    2015-01-01

    In this book, experts from academia and industry present the latest advances in scientific theory relating to applied electromagnetics and examine current and emerging applications particularly within the fields of electronics, communications, and computer technology. The book is based on presentations delivered at APPEIC 2014, the 1st Applied Electromagnetic International Conference, held in Bandung, Indonesia in December 2014. The conference provided an ideal platform for researchers and specialists to deliver both theoretically and practically oriented contributions on a wide range of topics relevant to the theme of nurturing applied electromagnetics for human technology. Many novel aspects were addressed, and the contributions selected for this book highlight the relevance of advances in applied electromagnetics to a variety of industrial engineering problems and identify exciting future directions for research.

  7. Graphics processing units in bioinformatics, computational biology and systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Marco S; Cazzaniga, Paolo; Tangherloni, Andrea; Besozzi, Daniela

    2017-09-01

    Several studies in Bioinformatics, Computational Biology and Systems Biology rely on the definition of physico-chemical or mathematical models of biological systems at different scales and levels of complexity, ranging from the interaction of atoms in single molecules up to genome-wide interaction networks. Traditional computational methods and software tools developed in these research fields share a common trait: they can be computationally demanding on Central Processing Units (CPUs), therefore limiting their applicability in many circumstances. To overcome this issue, general-purpose Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) are gaining an increasing attention by the scientific community, as they can considerably reduce the running time required by standard CPU-based software, and allow more intensive investigations of biological systems. In this review, we present a collection of GPU tools recently developed to perform computational analyses in life science disciplines, emphasizing the advantages and the drawbacks in the use of these parallel architectures. The complete list of GPU-powered tools here reviewed is available at http://bit.ly/gputools. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Technologies for Collaborative Business Processes and Management of Enterprise Information Systems : Proceedings of the 1st International Joint Workshop on Technologies for Collaborative Processes and Management of Enterprise Information Systems, TCoB & MEIS 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadiq, Shazia; Reichert, Manfred; Schultz, Karsten; Trienekens, Jos; Møller, Charles; Kusters, Rob J.

    Enterprise Information Systems (EIS) like ERP-, CRM- and SCM-systems are pervasive in today’s organizations. EIS implementation projects ask for major financial investments of organizations. They impact many processes and employees of an organization and require significant organizational change.

  9. Biological processes influencing contaminant release from sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reible, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of biological processes, including bioturbation, on the mobility of contaminants in freshwater sediments is described. Effective mass coefficients are estimated for tubificid oligochaetes as a function of worm behavior and biomass density. The mass transfer coefficients were observed to be inversely proportional to water oxygen content and proportional to the square root of biomass density. The sediment reworking and contaminant release are contrasted with those of freshwater amphipods. The implications of these and other biological processes for contaminant release and i n-situ remediation of soils and sediments are summarized. 4 figs., 1 tab

  10. Process for sewage biological treatment from uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, K.; Cecal, A.; Craciun, I.

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to the sewage treatment, in particular to the sewage biological treatmen from radioactive waste, namely from uranium. The process dor sewage biological treatment from uranium includes cultivation in the sewage of the aquatic plants Lemna minor and Spirulina platensis. The plants cultivation is carried out in two stages. In the first stage for cultivation is used Lemna minor in the second stage - Spirulina platensis . After finishing the plant cultivation it is carried out separation of their biomass. The result of the invention consists in increasing the uranyl ions by the biomass of plants cultivated in the sewage

  11. Process for sewage biological treatment from uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, Karin; Cecal, Alexandru; Craciun, Iftimie Ionel; Rudic, Valeriu; Gulea, Aurelian; Cepoi, Liliana

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to the sewage treatment, in particular to the sewage biological treatment from radioactive waste, namely from uranium. The process for sewage biological treatment from uranium includes cultivation in the sewage of the aquatic plants Lemna minor and Spirulina platensis. The plant cultivation is carried out in two stages. In the first stage for cultivation is used Lemna minor and in the second stage - Spirulina platensis. After finishing the plant cultivation it is carried out separation of their biomass. The result of the invention consists in increasing the uranyl ions accumulation by the biomass of plants cultivated in the sewage.

  12. 1st International Conference on Advancements of Medical Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bag, Sandip; Ganguly, Karabi; Sarkar, Indranath; Biswas, Papun

    2015-01-01

    The book is a collection of peer-reviewed scientific papers submitted by active researchers in the 1st International Conference on Advancements of Medical Electronics (ICAME2015). The conference is organized jointly by the Department of Biomedical Engineering and Electronics and Communication Engineering, JIS College of Engineering, West Bengal, India. The primary objective of the conference is to strengthen interdisciplinary research and its applications for the welfare of humanity. A galaxy of academicians, professionals, scientists, statesman and researchers from different parts of the country and abroad got together and shared their knowledge. The book presents research articles of medical image processing & analysis, biomedical instrumentation & measurements, DSP & clinical applications, embedded systems & its applications in healthcare. The book can be referred as a tool for further research.

  13. 1st International Conference on Calcined Clays for Sustainable Concrete

    CERN Document Server

    Favier, Aurélie

    2015-01-01

    This volume focuses on research and practical issues linked to Calcined Clays for Sustainable Concrete. The main subjects are geology of clays, hydration and performance of blended systems with calcined clays, alkali activated binders, economic and environmental impacts of the use of calcined clays in cement based materials. Topics addressed in this book include the influence of processing on reactivity of calcined clays, influence of clay mineralogy on reactivity, geology of clay deposits, Portland-calcined clay systems, hydration, durability, performance, Portland-calcined clay-limestone systems, hydration, durability, performance, calcined clay-alkali systems, life cycle analysis, economics and environmental impact of use of calcined clays in cement and concrete, and field applications. This book compiles the different contributions of the 1st International Conference on Calcined Clays for Sustainable Concrete, which took place in Lausanne, Switzerland, June, 23-25, 2015.The papers present the latest  res...

  14. Identification and characterization of two novel cytosolic sulfotransferases, SULT1 ST7 and SULT1 ST8, from zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, T.-A. [Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Department of Biological Science and Technology, College of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Bhuiyan, Shakhawat [Division of Arts and Sciences, Jarvis Christian College, Hawkins, TX 75765 (United States); Snow, Rhodora [School of Mathematics and Science, J. Sargeant Reynolds Community College, Richmond, VA 23285 (United States); Yasuda, Shin; Yasuda, Tomoko [Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Yang, Y.-S. [Department of Biological Science and Technology, College of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Williams, Frederick E.; Liu, M.-Y.; Suiko, Masahito [Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Carter, Glendora [School of Mathematics and Science, J. Sargeant Reynolds Community College, Richmond, VA 23285 (United States); Liu, M.-C. [Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)], E-mail: ming.liu@utoledo.edu

    2008-08-29

    Cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) constitute a family of Phase II detoxification enzymes that are involved in the protection against potentially harmful xenobiotics as well as the regulation and homeostasis of endogenous compounds. Compared with humans and rodents, the zebrafish serves as an excellent model for studying the role of SULTs in the detoxification of environmental pollutants including environmental estrogens. By searching the expressed sequence tag database, two zebrafish cDNAs encoding putative SULTs were identified. Sequence analysis indicated that these two putative zebrafish SULTs belong to the SULT1 gene family. The recombinant form of these two novel zebrafish SULTs, designated SULT1 ST7 and SULT1 ST8, were expressed using the pGEX-2TK glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene fusion system and purified from transformed BL21 (DE3) cells. Purified GST-fusion protein form of SULT1 ST7 and SULT1 ST8 exhibited strong sulfating activities toward environmental estrogens, particularly hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), among various endogenous and xenobiotic compounds tested as substrates. pH-dependence experiments showed that SULT1 ST7 and SULT1 ST8 displayed pH optima at 6.5 and 8.0, respectively. Kinetic parameters of the two enzymes in catalyzing the sulfation of catechin and chlorogenic acid as well as 3-chloro-4-biphenylol were determined. Developmental expression experiments revealed distinct patterns of expression of SULT1 ST7 and SULT1 ST8 during embryonic development and throughout the larval stage onto maturity.

  15. Conference report: 1st Medicon Valley Inhalation Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastow, Orest

    2013-02-01

    The 1st Medicon Valley Inhalation Symposium was arranged by the Medicon Valley Inhalation Consortium. It was held at the Medicon Village site, which is the former AstraZeneca site in Lund, Sweden. It was a 1-day symposium focused on inhaled drug delivery and inhalation product development. A total of 90 delegates listened to 15 speakers. The program was organized to follow the value chain of an inhalation product development. The benefits and future opportunities of inhaled drug delivery were discussed together with some new disease areas that can be targeted with inhalation. The pros and cons of the two main formulation types; dry powder and liquid formulations, were discussed by a panel. The different requirements of the drug molecules from a pharmacology, chemical and physical perspective were explained. The modeling of the physics inside an inhaler was demonstrated and the potential strategic benefits of device design were highlighted together with the many challenges of formulation manufacturing. Lung deposition mechanisms and the difficulties of the generic bioequivalence concept were discussed. Using an anatomically correct impactor inlet is a valuable tool in lung deposition predictions and the planning of clinical trials. The management of the biological material generated in clinical studies is key to successful studies.

  16. 1st National Conference on Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    D’Amico, Arnaldo; Natale, Corrado; Siciliano, Pietro; Seeber, Renato; Stefano, Luca; Bizzarri, Ranieri; Andò, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers presented at the First National Conference on Sensors held in Rome 15-17 February 2011. The conference highlighted state-of-the-art results from both theoretical and applied research in the field of sensors and related technologies. This book presents material in an interdisciplinary approach, covering many aspects of the disciplines related to sensors, including physics, chemistry, materials science, biology and applications.   ·         Provides a selection of the best papers from the First Italian National Conference on Sensors; ·         Covers a broad range of topics relating to sensors and microsystems, including physics, chemistry, materials science, biology and applications;       ·        Offers interdisciplinary coverage, aimed at defining a common ground for sensors beyond the specific differences among the different particular implementation of sensors.

  17. Stochastic transport processes in discrete biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Frehland, Eckart

    1982-01-01

    These notes are in part based on a course for advanced students in the applications of stochastic processes held in 1978 at the University of Konstanz. These notes contain the results of re­ cent studies on the stochastic description of ion transport through biological membranes. In particular, they serve as an introduction to an unified theory of fluctuations in complex biological transport systems. We emphasize that the subject of this volume is not to introduce the mathematics of stochastic processes but to present a field of theoretical biophysics in which stochastic methods are important. In the last years the study of membrane noise has become an important method in biophysics. Valuable information on the ion transport mechanisms in membranes can be obtained from noise analysis. A number of different processes such as the opening and closing of ion channels have been shown to be sources of the measured current or voltage fluctuations. Bio­ logical 'transport systems can be complex. For example, the tr...

  18. Redox processes in radiation biology and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstock, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    Free-radical intermediates, particularly the activated oxygen species OH, O - 2 , and 1 O 2 , are implicated in many types of radiation damage to biological systems. In addition, these same species may be formed, either directly or indirectly through biochemical redox reactions, in both essential and aberrant metabolic processes. Cell survival and adaptation to an environment containing ionizing radiation and other physical and chemical carcinogens ultimately depend upon the cell's ability to maintain optimal function in response to free-radical damage at the chemical level. Many of these feedback control mechanisms are redox controlled. Radiation chemical techniques using selective radical scavengers, such as product analysis and pulse radiolysis, enable us to generate, observe, and characterize individually the nature and reactivity of potentially damaging free radicals. From an analysis of the chemical kinetics of free-radical involvement in biological damage, redox mechanisms are proposed to describe the early processes of radiation damage, redox mechanisms are proposed to describe the early processes of radiation damage, its protection and sensitization, and the role of free radicals in radiation and chemical carcinogenesis

  19. Diffusion processes and related topics in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Ricciardi, Luigi M

    1977-01-01

    These notes are based on a one-quarter course given at the Department of Biophysics and Theoretical Biology of the University of Chicago in 1916. The course was directed to graduate students in the Division of Biological Sciences with interests in population biology and neurobiology. Only a slight acquaintance with probability and differential equations is required of the reader. Exercises are interwoven with the text to encourage the reader to play a more active role and thus facilitate his digestion of the material. One aim of these notes is to provide a heuristic approach, using as little mathematics as possible, to certain aspects of the theory of stochastic processes that are being increasingly employed in some of the population biol­ ogy and neurobiology literature. While the subject may be classical, the nov­ elty here lies in the approach and point of view, particularly in the applica­ tions such as the approach to the neuronal firing problem and its related dif­ fusion approximations. It is a ple...

  20. Electronic Health Records Place 1st at Indy 500

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues EHR Electronic Health Records Place 1st at Indy 500 Past ... last May's Indy 500 had thousands of personal Electronic Health Records on hand for those attending—and ...

  1. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, FY08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-01-28

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  2. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, Fiscal Year 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, Mary Ann; Kathmann, Loel E.; Manke, Kristin L.

    2009-02-02

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2008 - December 2008) of Fiscal Year 2009.

  3. Image processing and recognition for biological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Seiichi

    2013-05-01

    This paper reviews image processing and pattern recognition techniques, which will be useful to analyze bioimages. Although this paper does not provide their technical details, it will be possible to grasp their main tasks and typical tools to handle the tasks. Image processing is a large research area to improve the visibility of an input image and acquire some valuable information from it. As the main tasks of image processing, this paper introduces gray-level transformation, binarization, image filtering, image segmentation, visual object tracking, optical flow and image registration. Image pattern recognition is the technique to classify an input image into one of the predefined classes and also has a large research area. This paper overviews its two main modules, that is, feature extraction module and classification module. Throughout the paper, it will be emphasized that bioimage is a very difficult target for even state-of-the-art image processing and pattern recognition techniques due to noises, deformations, etc. This paper is expected to be one tutorial guide to bridge biology and image processing researchers for their further collaboration to tackle such a difficult target. © 2013 The Author Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2013 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  4. National Forum on the Future of Automated Materials Processing in US Industry: The Role of Sensors. Report of a workshop (1st) held at Santa Barbara, California on December 16-17, 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolken, H. T.; Mehrabian, R.

    1985-12-01

    These are the proceedings of the workshop A National Forum on the Future of Automated Materials Processing in U.S. Industry - The Role of Sensors. This is the first of two workshops to be sponsored by the Industrial Research Institute and the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, Committee on Materials Working Group on Automation of Materials Processing. The second workshop will address the other two key components required for automated materials processing, process models and artificial intelligence coupled with computer integration of the system. The objective of these workshops is to identify and assess important issues afecting the competitive position of U.S. industry related to its ability to automate production processes for basic and advanced materials and to develop approaches for improved capability through cooperative R&D and associated efforts.

  5. Processing laboratory of radio sterilized biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre H, Paulina; Zarate S, Herman; Silva R, Samy; Hitschfeld, Mario

    2005-01-01

    The nuclear development applications have also reached those areas related to health. The risk of getting contagious illnesses through applying biological tissues has been one of the paramount worries to be solved since infectious illnesses might be provoked by virus, fungis or bacterias coming from donors or whether they have been introduced by means of intermediate stages before the use of these tissues. Therefore it has been concluded that the tissue allografts must be sterilized. The sterilization of medical products has been one of the main applications of the ionizing radiations and that it is why the International Organization of Atomic Energy began in the 70s promoting works related to the biological tissue sterilization and pharmaceutical products. The development of different tissue preservation methods has made possible the creation of tissue banks in different countries, to deal with long-term preservation. In our country, a project was launched in 1998, 'Establishment of a Tissue Bank in Latino america', this project was supported by the OIEA through the project INT/ 6/ 049, and was the starting of the actual Processing Laboratory of Radioesterilized Biological Tissues (LPTR), leaded by the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN). This first organization is part of a number of entities compounding the Tissue Bank in Chile, organizations such as the Transplantation Promotion Corporation hospitals and the LPTR. The working system is carried out by means of the interaction between the hospitals and the laboratory. The medical professionals perform the procuring of tissues in the hospitals, then send them to the LPTR where they are processed and sterilized with ionizing radiation. The cycle ends up with the tissues return released to the hospitals, where they are used, and then the result information is sent to the LPTR as a form of feedback. Up to now, human skin has been processed (64 donors), amniotic membranes (35 donors) and pig skin (175 portions

  6. Understanding the biological underpinnings of ecohydrological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxman, T. E.; Scott, R. L.; Barron-Gafford, G. A.; Hamerlynck, E. P.; Jenerette, D.; Tissue, D. T.; Breshears, D. D.; Saleska, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change presents a challenge for predicting ecosystem response, as multiple factors drive both the physical and life processes happening on the land surface and their interactions result in a complex, evolving coupled system. For example, changes in surface temperature and precipitation influence near-surface hydrology through impacts on system energy balance, affecting a range of physical processes. These changes in the salient features of the environment affect biological processes and elicit responses along the hierarchy of life (biochemistry to community composition). Many of these structural or process changes can alter patterns of soil water-use and influence land surface characteristics that affect local climate. Of the many features that affect our ability to predict the future dynamics of ecosystems, it is this hierarchical response of life that creates substantial complexity. Advances in the ability to predict or understand aspects of demography help describe thresholds in coupled ecohydrological system. Disentangling the physical and biological features that underlie land surface dynamics following disturbance are allowing a better understanding of the partitioning of water in the time-course of recovery. Better predicting the timing of phenology and key seasonal events allow for a more accurate description of the full functional response of the land surface to climate. In addition, explicitly considering the hierarchical structural features of life are helping to describe complex time-dependent behavior in ecosystems. However, despite this progress, we have yet to build an ability to fully account for the generalization of the main features of living systems into models that can describe ecohydrological processes, especially acclimation, assembly and adaptation. This is unfortunate, given that many key ecosystem services are functions of these coupled co-evolutionary processes. To date, both the lack of controlled measurements and experimentation

  7. Howard Brenner's Legacy for Biological Transport Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, Johannes

    2014-11-01

    This talk discusses the manner in which Howard Brenner's theoretical contributions have had, and long will have, strong and direct impact on the understanding of transport processes occurring in biological systems. His early work on low Reynolds number resistance/mobility coefficients of arbitrarily shaped particles, and particles near walls and in pores, is an essential component of models of hindered diffusion through many types of membranes and tissues, and convective transport in microfluidic diagnostic systems. His seminal contributions to macrotransport (coarse-graining, homogenization) theory presaged the growing discipline of multiscale modeling. For biological systems they represent the key to infusing diffusion models of a wide variety of tissues with a sound basis in their microscopic structure and properties, often over a hierarchy of scales. Both scientific currents are illustrated within the concrete context of diffusion models of drug/chemical diffusion through the skin. This area of theory, which is key to transdermal drug development and risk assessment of chemical exposure, has benefitted very directly from Brenner's contributions. In this as in other areas, Brenner's physicochemical insight, mathematical virtuosity, drive for fully justified analysis free of ad hoc assumptions, quest for generality, and impeccable exposition, have consistently elevated the level of theoretical understanding and presentation. We close with anecdotes showing how his personal qualities and warmth helped to impart high standards of rigor to generations of grateful research students. Authors are Johannes M. Nitsche, Ludwig C. Nitsche and Gerald B. Kasting.

  8. 1st SaporeGravis Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    English: Retequarkonii is a networking of the I3 Hadron Physics 2 program of the EU 7th FP. Retequarkonii aims at studying the production of quarkonia in hadronic collisions at ultra relativistic energies. In the next 10 years, the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will open new possibilities for studying the properties of the strongly interacting matter at high temperature and for studying non-perturbative features of QCD. Quarkonia will be abundantly produced and correlations with other global observables of the heavy ion collision like centrality and/or reaction plane will allow for studying the properties of the QGP phases. At such high-energy hadronic collisions, Quarkonia will also be abundantly produced in diffractive and electromagnetic processes including both diffractive pomeron- and photon- induced quarkonium production. About 27 research groups of 12 different countries participate to the Retequarkonii project. Retequarkonii will organize one training school for phD and two conferences between ex...

  9. Stochastic Simulation of Process Calculi for Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Phillips

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological systems typically involve large numbers of components with complex, highly parallel interactions and intrinsic stochasticity. To model this complexity, numerous programming languages based on process calculi have been developed, many of which are expressive enough to generate unbounded numbers of molecular species and reactions. As a result of this expressiveness, such calculi cannot rely on standard reaction-based simulation methods, which require fixed numbers of species and reactions. Rather than implementing custom stochastic simulation algorithms for each process calculus, we propose to use a generic abstract machine that can be instantiated to a range of process calculi and a range of reaction-based simulation algorithms. The abstract machine functions as a just-in-time compiler, which dynamically updates the set of possible reactions and chooses the next reaction in an iterative cycle. In this short paper we give a brief summary of the generic abstract machine, and show how it can be instantiated with the stochastic simulation algorithm known as Gillespie's Direct Method. We also discuss the wider implications of such an abstract machine, and outline how it can be used to simulate multiple calculi simultaneously within a common framework.

  10. Mixing and Processing of Complex Biological Fluids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liepmann, Dorian

    2003-01-01

    ... of microfluidic control on the makeup and molecular structure of biological fluids. For this project, we focused on two critical fluids that are biologically significant and that are of critical importance to DoD...

  11. PREFACE: 1st International Conference on Rheology and Modeling of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gömze, László A.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the rheological properties of materials and their rheological behaviors during their manufacturing processes and in their applications in many cases can help to increase the efficiency and competitiveness not only of the finished goods and products but the organizations and societies also. The more scientific supported and prepared organizations develop more competitive products with better thermal, mechanical, physical, chemical and biological properties and the leading companies apply more competitive knowledge, materials, equipment and technology processes. The idea to organize in Hungary the 1st International Conference on Rheology and Modeling of Materials we have received from prospective scientists, physicists, chemists, mathematicians and engineers from Asia, Europe, North and South America including India, Korea, Russia, Turkey, Estonia, France, Italy, United Kingdom, Chile, Mexico and USA. The goals of ic-rmm1 the 1st International Conference on Rheology and Modeling of Materials are the following: • Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of modeling and measurements of rheological properties and behavior of materials under processing and applications. • Change information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implantations. • Promote the communication between the scientists of different disciplines, nations, countries and continents. The international conference ic-rmm1 provides a platform among the leading international scientists, researchers, PhD students and engineers for discussing recent achievements in measurement, modeling and application of rheology in materials technology and materials science of liquids, melts, solids, crystals and amorphous structures. Among the major fields of interest are the influences of material structures, mechanical stresses temperature and deformation speeds on rheological and physical properties, phase transformation of

  12. Biological processes for mitigation of greenhouse gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, John R. [California Univ., Dept. of Plant and Microbial Biology, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Biological processes driven by photosynthesis cycle through the atmosphere well over an order of magnitude more CO{sub 2} than is currently emitted from the combustion of fossils fuels. Already human activities control and appropriate almost half the primary photosynthetic productivity of the planet. Better management of natural and man-made ecosystems affords many opportunities for mitigation of greenhouse gases, through sink enhancements, source reduction and substitution of fossil fuels with biofuels. Biofuels can be recovered from most organic wastes, from agricultural and forestry residues, and from biomass produced solely for energy use. However, the currently low costs of fossil fuels limits the market for biofuels. Accounting for the greenhouse mitigation value of biofuels would significantly increase their contribution to world fuel suppliers, estimated to be currently equivalent to about 15% of fossil fuel usage. Another limiting factor in expanding the use of biofuels is the relatively low solar energy conversion efficiencies of photosynthesis. Currently well below 1% of solar energy is converted into biomass energy even by intensive agricultural or forestry systems, with peak conversion efficiencies about 2 to 3% for sugar cane or microalgae cultures. One approach to increase photosynthetic efficiencies, being developed at the University of California Berkeley, is to reduce the amount of light-gathering chlorophyll in microalgae and higher plants. This would reduce mutual shading and also increase photosynthetic efficiencies under full sunlight intensities. Estimates of the potential of photosynthetic greenhouse mitigation processes vary widely. However, even conservative estimates for biofuels substituting for fossil fuels project the potential to reduce a large fraction of current increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels. Biofuels production will require integration with existing agronomic, forestry and animal husbandry systems, and improved

  13. Status of Design and Manufacturing of ITER 1st batch Assembly Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jin Ho; Nam, Kyoun Go; Chung, Si Kun; Ha, Min Su [ITER Korea National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Geun Hong [ITER Organization, St Paul lez Durance (France)

    2016-05-15

    The ITER tokamak assembly tools are purpose-built and specially designed to complete the ITER tokamak machine which includes; Vacuum Vessel (VV), VV Thermal Shield (VVTS), Toroidal Field Coil (TFC) and other components contained in the cryostat. KODA has carried out the preliminary and final design of these assembly tools. This paper shows that the current status, first quarter of the 2016, including manufacturing of ITER 1st batch assembly tools and briefly summarized the design process through design work of Sector Sub-assembly Tool (SSAT) that is most important tool representing ITER 1st batch assembly tools. KODA (Korea Domestic Agency) should provide 128 kinds of the purpose-built assembly tools for ITER Tokamak machine, and the ITER 1st batch assembly tools are split into 3 groups. The FDR for Group A was performed in December 2014, and design of SSAT has been verified by FE analysis and engineering calculation using EN cords. The SSAT is now under manufacturing phase to meet the ITER milestone. After factory acceptance test of SSAT on end of 2016, the 1st SSAT will be delivered and arrived in ITER site on second quarter of the 2017.

  14. Proceedings of the 1st LAK Data Challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d'Aquin, Mathieu; Dietze, Stefan; Drachsler, Hendrik; Herder, Eelco; Taibi, Davide

    2013-01-01

    d'Aquin, M., Dietze, S., Drachsler, H., Herder, E., & Taibi, D. (Eds.) (2013, April). Proceedings of the 1st LAK Data Challenge, held at LAK 2013, the Third Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge. Published by CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 2013, Vol. 974.

  15. Proceedings of the 1st JAERI symposium on HTGR technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This report was edited as the Proceedings of the 1st JAERI Symposium on HTGR Technologies, - Design, Licensing Requirements and Supporting Technologies -, collecting the 21 papers presented in the Symposium. The 19 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  16. RESTAURANT AND CAFETERIA SERVICES ARRANGEMENTS FOR MAY 1ST, 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    Restaurant Supervisory Committee

    2001-01-01

    1. Restaurants As Tuesday, May 1st, is an official CERN holiday, restaurants no 2 (DSR : Bldg. 504 - Meyrin) and no 3 (Avenance : Bldg. 866 - Prévessin) will be closed as from Monday, April 30 at 18h00. They will reopen on Wednesday, May 2nd at 6h30 (rest. no 2) and at 7h00 (rest. no 3). On May 1st, a limited service will be provided by restaurant no. 1 (COOP : Bldg. 501 - Meyrin) from 8h00 to 21h00 with hot meals served from 11h30 to 14h00 and from 18h00 to 19h30. 2. Satellite cafétérias All satellite cafétérias will be closed on May 1st. They will all operate normally on Monday, April 30, except for buildings 17 (Meyrin), 865 and 892 (Prévessin) which will be closed. 3. Newspaper stand The newspaper kiosque in building 501 will be closed on May 1st.

  17. Proceedings of the 1st Symposium on Laser Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    This proceedings contains articles of the 1st Symposium on Laser Spectroscopy. It was held on Nov 11, 1993 in Taejeon, Korea. The main topics are as follows: Laser Isotope, Laser Spectroscopy, Laser Fusion, Laser Applications and so on. (Yi, J. H.)

  18. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Performance Analysis - 1st Quarter FY2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 73 reportable events (27 from the 1St Qtr FY-15 and 46 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 38 other issue reports (including nine not reportable events and Significant Category A and B conditions reported during the1st Qtr FY-15) identified at INL during the past 12 months.

  19. 1st International Symposium on Stress-Associated RNA Granules in Human Disease and Viral Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce W. Banfield

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, important linkages have been made between RNA granules and human disease processes. On June 8-10 of this year, we hosted a new symposium, dubbed the 1st International Symposium on Stress-Associated RNA Granules in Human Disease and Viral Infection. This symposium brought together experts from diverse research disciplines ranging from cancer and neuroscience to infectious disease. This report summarizes speaker presentations and highlights current challenges in the field.

  20. Processing scarce biological samples for light and transmission electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Taupin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Light microscopy (LM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM aim at understanding the relationship structure-function. With advances in biology, isolation and purification of scarce populations of cells or subcellular structures may not lead to enough biological material, for processing for LM and TEM. A protocol for preparation of scarce biological samples is presented. It is based on pre-embedding the biological samples, suspensions or pellets, in bovine serum albumin (BSA and bis-acrylamide (BA, cross-linked and polymerized. This preparation provides a simple and reproducible technique to process biological materials, present in limited quantities that can not be amplified, for light and transmission electron microscopy.

  1. SOURCE 1ST 2.0: development and beta testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.H.; Iglesias, F.C.; Hoang, Y.; Dickson, L.W.; Dickson, R.S.; Richards, M.J.; Gibb, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    SOURCE 1ST 2.0 is the Industry Standard fission product release code that is being developed by Ontario Power Generation, New Brunswick Power, Hydro-Quebec, and Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. This paper is a report on recent progress on requirement specification, code development, and module verification and validation activities. The theoretical basis for each model in the code is described in a module Software Theory Manual. The development of SOURCE IST 2.0 has required code design decisions about how to implement the software requirements. Development and module testing of the β1 release of SOURCE IST 2.0 (released in July 1999) have led to some interesting insights into fission product release modelling. The beta testing process has allowed code developers and analysts to refine the software requirements for the code. The need to verify physical reference data has guided some decisions on the code and data structure design. Examples of these design decisions are provided. Module testing, and verification and validation activities are discussed. These activities include code-targeted testing, stress testing, code inspection, comparison of code with requirements, and comparison of code results with independent algebraic, numerical, or semi-algebraic calculations. The list of isotopes to be modelled by SOURCE IST 2.0 provides an example of a subset of a reference data set. Isotopes are present on the list for a variety of reasons: personnel or public dose, equipment dose (for environmental qualification), fission rate and actinide modelling, or stable (or long-lived) targets for activation processes. To accommodate controlled changes to the isotope list, the isotope list and associated nuclear data are contained in a reference data file. The questions of multiple computing platforms, and of Year 2000 compliance have been addressed by programming rules for the code. By developing and testing modules on most of the different platforms on which the code is intended

  2. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 64, 1st Quarter 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    ndupress .ndu.edu issue 64, 1 st quarter 2012 / JFQ 43 experienced in cultural relativism belie the great commonality of moral solidarity in...Politics of Civil-Military Relations (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1957), 11. 12 Many people equate cultural relativism and moral relativism ...perhaps reluctantly, his muse was Platonic (the concept of the human for strategy to work in our age, it must possess solid moral and political

  3. RESTAURANT and CAFETERIA SERVICES: ARRANGEMENTS for MAY 1st, 2003

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    1. Restaurants As Thursday, May 1st, is an official CERN holiday, restaurants no. 2 (DSR : Bldg. 504 - Meyrin) and no. 3 (Avenance : Bldg. 866 - Prévessin) will be closed as from Wednesday, April 30 at 18h00. They will reopen on Friday, May 2nd at 6h30 (rest. no. 2) and at 7h00 (rest. no. 3). On May 1st, a limited service will be provided by restaurant no. 1 (COOP : Bldg. 501 - Meyrin) from 8h00 to 21h00 with hot meals served from 11h30 to 14h00 and from 18h00 to 19h30. 2. Newspaper stand The newspaper kiosque run by restaurant no. 1 in building 501 will be closed. 3. Decentralised services No decentralised services (satellite cafétérias etc.) will operate on May 1st, but will resume their normal activites on Friday, May 2nd, except for those dependent on restaurant no. 3 (Prévessin site) which will not reopen until Monday, May 5, 2003.

  4. Action of radiations on some biological model systems. Technical progress report, 1 October 1975--1 June 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, G.

    1976-01-01

    Work during the period 1st October 1975 to 1st June 1976 is reviewed. The topics investigated include: investigation of the action of ionizing radiation on enzyme proteins, using the technique of pulse rdiolysis; the use of fast nanosecond laser pulse techniques in the study of biochemical and biological model systems; and the action of ionizing radiation on mammalian cells, particularly at low doses. Using chromatin as the model substance, radiation biological processes at the nucleoprotein level were investigated

  5. 2003 - 2004 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME 1st TERM

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2003-01-01

    1st TERM 29 September to 19 December 2003 REGULAR LECTURE PROGRAMME (Renewable) Energy Policy in the EU Members States and the Accession States By D. Reiche, Free University of Berlin, D 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 October LECTURES SERIES FOR POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS Introduction to QCD By B. Webber, CERN-TH 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 October The lectures are open to all those interested, without application. The abstract of the lectures, as well as any change to the above information (title, dates, time, place etc) will be published in the CERN Bulletin, the WWW, and by notices before each term and for each series of lectures.

  6. Proceedings of the 1st symposium on advanced science research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The 1st symposium on advanced science research was held in Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken, on 23-24 March, 1995, under the auspices of JAERI. Two hundred and sixty scientists attended the symposium; over 40% of the attendants were from universities and laboratories outside JAERI. This proceedings consists of 6 oral presentations of the research activities in the Advanced Science Research Center, 70 poster presentations on the field of basic science from both the inside and outside of JAERI and 2 panel discussions on the actinide physics and biocrystallography. (author)

  7. Integrated biological, chemical and physical processes kinetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... for C and N removal, only gas and liquid phase processes were considered for this integrated model. ... kLA value for the aeration system, which affects the pH in the anoxic and aerobic reactors through CO2 gas exchange. ... Water SA Vol.

  8. AIDS. 1st annual George H. Gallup Memorial Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was selected as the subject for the 1st annual George H Gallup Memorial Survey. This survey, conducted in August 1987-April 1988 in 35 countries, measured the level of awareness of AIDS, the extent of concern about AIDS, knowledge, changes in behavior resulting form the AIDS epidemic, and attitudes toward people with AIDS. Overall, the poll's findings attest to the effectiveness of the health education efforts of governmental and nongovernmental organizations. Awareness that AIDS poses an urgent international health problem was almost universal in the 35 samples. In about half of these countries, AIDS was identified as the most important national health problem; in the remaining countries, AIDS was ranked 2nd to cancer. The proportion of respondents expressing a fear of personally contracting the AIDS virus ranged from lows of under 10% in most of Europe to a high of 45% among South African blacks. A majority of respondents in the US, Colombia, the Philippines, Brazil, Nigeria, Ecuador, El Salvador, and Chile believed that AIDS will soon spread beyond current risk groups to the general population. Despite widespread awareness of the grave threat posed by AIDS, insufficient numbers of respondents reported that they had made specific behavioral changes intended to protect themselves form HIV infection. Overall, about half of those interviewed indicated they are now more cautious in their choice of sexual partners; similarly, about half are using condoms more or for the 1st time.

  9. Profile of science process skills of Preservice Biology Teacher in General Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanti, R.; Anwar, Y.; Ermayanti

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to obtain portrayal images of science process skills among preservice biology teacher. This research took place in Sriwijaya University and involved 41 participants. To collect the data, this study used multiple choice test comprising 40 items to measure the mastery of science process skills. The data were then analyzed in descriptive manner. The results showed that communication aspect outperfomed the other skills with that 81%; while the lowest one was identifying variables and predicting (59%). In addition, basic science process skills was 72%; whereas for integrated skills was a bit lower, 67%. In general, the capability of doing science process skills varies among preservice biology teachers.

  10. 1st Stage Separation Aerodynamics Of VEGA Launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genito, M.; Paglia, F.; Mogavero, A.; Barbagallo, D.

    2011-05-01

    VEGA is an European launch vehicle under development by the Prime Contractor ELV S.p.A. in the frame of an ESA contract. It is constituted by four stages, dedicated to the scientific/commercial market of small satellites (300 ÷ 2500 kg) into Low Earth Orbits, with inclinations ranging from 5.2° up to Sun Synchronous Orbits and with altitude ranging from 300 to 1500 km. Aim of this paper is to present a study of flow field due to retro-rockets impingement during the 1st stage VEGA separation phase. In particular the main goal of the present work is to present the aerodynamic activities performed for the justification of the separation phase.

  11. DECODING OF ACADEMIC CONTENT BY THE 1st GRADE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Błaszczyński

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the paper a comparative study conducted on the 1st grade students of sociology and pedagogy is discussed. The study was focused on the language skills of students. The most important skills tested were the abilities to decode academic content. The study shows that the students have very poor language skills in decoding the academic content on every level of its complexity. They also have noticeable problems with the definition of basic academic terms. The significance of the obtained results are high because of the innovative topic and character of the study, which was the first such study conducted on students of a Polish university. Results are also valuable for academic teachers who are interested in such problems as effective communication with students.

  12. 1st International Conference on Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Matson, Eric; Myung, Hyun; Xu, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, robots have been built based on cognitive architecture which has been developed to model human cognitive ability. The cognitive architecture can be a basis for intelligence technology to generate robot intelligence. In this edited book the robot intelligence is classified into six categories: cognitive intelligence, social intelligence, behavioral intelligence, ambient intelligence, collective intelligence and genetic intelligence. This classification categorizes the intelligence of robots based on the different aspects of awareness and the ability to act deliberately as a result of such awareness. This book aims at serving researchers and practitioners with a timely dissemination of the recent progress on robot intelligence technology and its applications, based on a collection of papers presented at the 1st International Conference on Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications (RiTA), held in Gwangju, Korea, December 16-18, 2012. For a better readability, this edition has the total 101 ...

  13. 1st Latin American Congress on Automation and Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Baca, José; Moreno, Héctor; Carrera, Isela; Cardona, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 1st Latin American Congress on Automation and Robotics held at Panama City, Panama in February 2017. It gathers research work from researchers, scientists, and engineers from academia and private industry, and presents current and exciting research applications and future challenges in Latin American. The scope of this book covers a wide range of themes associated with advances in automation and robotics research encountered in engineering and scientific research and practice. These topics are related to control algorithms, systems automation, perception, mobile robotics, computer vision, educational robotics, robotics modeling and simulation, and robotics and mechanism design. LACAR 2017 has been sponsored by SENACYT (Secretaria Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnologia e Inovacion of Panama).

  14. 1st International Conference on Communication and Computer Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Othman, Mohd; Othman, Mohd; Rahim, Yahaya; Pee, Naim

    2015-01-01

    This book covers diverse aspects of advanced computer and communication engineering, focusing specifically on industrial and manufacturing theory and applications of electronics, communications, computing, and information technology. Experts in research, industry, and academia present the latest developments in technology, describe applications involving cutting-edge communication and computer systems, and explore likely future directions. In addition, access is offered to numerous new algorithms that assist in solving computer and communication engineering problems. The book is based on presentations delivered at ICOCOE 2014, the 1st International Conference on Communication and Computer Engineering. It will appeal to a wide range of professionals in the field, including telecommunication engineers, computer engineers and scientists, researchers, academics, and students.

  15. Synthetic Biology: Tools to Design, Build, and Optimize Cellular Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eric; Alper, Hal

    2010-01-01

    The general central dogma frames the emergent properties of life, which make biology both necessary and difficult to engineer. In a process engineering paradigm, each biological process stream and process unit is heavily influenced by regulatory interactions and interactions with the surrounding environment. Synthetic biology is developing the tools and methods that will increase control over these interactions, eventually resulting in an integrative synthetic biology that will allow ground-up cellular optimization. In this review, we attempt to contextualize the areas of synthetic biology into three tiers: (1) the process units and associated streams of the central dogma, (2) the intrinsic regulatory mechanisms, and (3) the extrinsic physical and chemical environment. Efforts at each of these three tiers attempt to control cellular systems and take advantage of emerging tools and approaches. Ultimately, it will be possible to integrate these approaches and realize the vision of integrative synthetic biology when cells are completely rewired for biotechnological goals. This review will highlight progress towards this goal as well as areas requiring further research. PMID:20150964

  16. Synthetic Biology: Tools to Design, Build, and Optimize Cellular Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Young

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The general central dogma frames the emergent properties of life, which make biology both necessary and difficult to engineer. In a process engineering paradigm, each biological process stream and process unit is heavily influenced by regulatory interactions and interactions with the surrounding environment. Synthetic biology is developing the tools and methods that will increase control over these interactions, eventually resulting in an integrative synthetic biology that will allow ground-up cellular optimization. In this review, we attempt to contextualize the areas of synthetic biology into three tiers: (1 the process units and associated streams of the central dogma, (2 the intrinsic regulatory mechanisms, and (3 the extrinsic physical and chemical environment. Efforts at each of these three tiers attempt to control cellular systems and take advantage of emerging tools and approaches. Ultimately, it will be possible to integrate these approaches and realize the vision of integrative synthetic biology when cells are completely rewired for biotechnological goals. This review will highlight progress towards this goal as well as areas requiring further research.

  17. Synthetic biology: tools to design, build, and optimize cellular processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eric; Alper, Hal

    2010-01-01

    The general central dogma frames the emergent properties of life, which make biology both necessary and difficult to engineer. In a process engineering paradigm, each biological process stream and process unit is heavily influenced by regulatory interactions and interactions with the surrounding environment. Synthetic biology is developing the tools and methods that will increase control over these interactions, eventually resulting in an integrative synthetic biology that will allow ground-up cellular optimization. In this review, we attempt to contextualize the areas of synthetic biology into three tiers: (1) the process units and associated streams of the central dogma, (2) the intrinsic regulatory mechanisms, and (3) the extrinsic physical and chemical environment. Efforts at each of these three tiers attempt to control cellular systems and take advantage of emerging tools and approaches. Ultimately, it will be possible to integrate these approaches and realize the vision of integrative synthetic biology when cells are completely rewired for biotechnological goals. This review will highlight progress towards this goal as well as areas requiring further research.

  18. An introduction to stochastic processes with applications to biology

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Linda J S

    2010-01-01

    An Introduction to Stochastic Processes with Applications to Biology, Second Edition presents the basic theory of stochastic processes necessary in understanding and applying stochastic methods to biological problems in areas such as population growth and extinction, drug kinetics, two-species competition and predation, the spread of epidemics, and the genetics of inbreeding. Because of their rich structure, the text focuses on discrete and continuous time Markov chains and continuous time and state Markov processes.New to the Second EditionA new chapter on stochastic differential equations th

  19. Treatment of slaughter wastewater by coagulation sedimentation-anaerobic biological filter and biological contact oxidation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, M.; Yu, P. F.; Fu, J. X.; Ji, X. Q.; Jiang, T.

    2017-08-01

    The optimal process parameters and conditions for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater by coagulation sedimentation-AF - biological contact oxidation process were studied to solve the problem of high concentration organic wastewater treatment in the production of small and medium sized slaughter plants. The suitable water temperature and the optimum reaction time are determined by the experiment of precipitation to study the effect of filtration rate and reflux ratio on COD and SS in anaerobic biological filter and the effect of biofilm thickness and gas water ratio on NH3-N and COD in biological contact oxidation tank, and results show that the optimum temperature is 16-24°C, reaction time is 20 min in coagulating sedimentation, the optimum filtration rate is 0.6 m/h, and the optimum reflux ratio is 300% in anaerobic biological filter reactor. The most suitable biological film thickness range of 1.8-2.2 mm and the most suitable gas water ratio is 12:1-14:1 in biological contact oxidation pool. In the coupling process of continuous operation for 80 days, the average effluent’s mass concentrations of COD, TP and TN were 15.57 mg/L, 40 mg/L and 0.63 mg/L, the average removal rates were 98.93%, 86.10%, 88.95%, respectively. The coupling process has stable operation effect and good effluent quality, and is suitable for the industrial application.

  20. Students’ learning activities while studying biological process diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragten, M.; Admiraal, W.; Rijlaarsdam, G.

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students’ learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each

  1. Hidden Markov processes theory and applications to biology

    CERN Document Server

    Vidyasagar, M

    2014-01-01

    This book explores important aspects of Markov and hidden Markov processes and the applications of these ideas to various problems in computational biology. The book starts from first principles, so that no previous knowledge of probability is necessary. However, the work is rigorous and mathematical, making it useful to engineers and mathematicians, even those not interested in biological applications. A range of exercises is provided, including drills to familiarize the reader with concepts and more advanced problems that require deep thinking about the theory. Biological applications are t

  2. Biologic phosphorus elimination - influencing parameters, boundary conditions, process optimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Xiaohu.

    1992-01-01

    This paper first presents a systematic study of the basic process of biologic phosphorus elimination as employed by the original 'Phoredox (Main Stream) Process'. The conditions governing the process and the factors influencing its performance were determined by trial operation. A stationary model was developed for the purpose of modelling biologic phosphorus elimination in such a main stream process and optimising the dimensioning. The validity of the model was confirmed by operational data given in the literature and by operational data from the authors' own semitechnical-scale experimental plant. The model permits simulation of the values to be expected for effluent phosphorus and phosphate concentrations for given influent data and boundary conditions. It is thus possible to dimension a plant for accomodation of the original Phoredox (Main Stream) Process or any similar phosphorus eliminating plant that is to work according to the principle of the main stream process. (orig./EF) [de

  3. Towards the understanding of network information processing in biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay

    Living organisms perform incredibly well in detecting a signal present in the environment. This information processing is achieved near optimally and quite reliably, even though the sources of signals are highly variable and complex. The work in the last few decades has given us a fair understanding of how individual signal processing units like neurons and cell receptors process signals, but the principles of collective information processing on biological networks are far from clear. Information processing in biological networks, like the brain, metabolic circuits, cellular-signaling circuits, etc., involves complex interactions among a large number of units (neurons, receptors). The combinatorially large number of states such a system can exist in makes it impossible to study these systems from the first principles, starting from the interactions between the basic units. The principles of collective information processing on such complex networks can be identified using coarse graining approaches. This could provide insights into the organization and function of complex biological networks. Here I study models of biological networks using continuum dynamics, renormalization, maximum likelihood estimation and information theory. Such coarse graining approaches identify features that are essential for certain processes performed by underlying biological networks. We find that long-range connections in the brain allow for global scale feature detection in a signal. These also suppress the noise and remove any gaps present in the signal. Hierarchical organization with long-range connections leads to large-scale connectivity at low synapse numbers. Time delays can be utilized to separate a mixture of signals with temporal scales. Our observations indicate that the rules in multivariate signal processing are quite different from traditional single unit signal processing.

  4. State of the art of biological hydrogen production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loubette, N.; Junker, M.

    2006-01-01

    Our report gives an overview of hydrogen production processes with bacteria or algae. 4 main processes are described: water biophotolysis, photo- fermentation biological CO conversion and dark fermentation. Chemical phenomena which lead to hydrogen generation are exp/aired. Performances, limits and outlook are given for each process. Main projects, programs and key players involved in this field of research have been listed. This paper resumes few results of this report. (authors)

  5. State of the art of biological hydrogen production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas Loubette; Michel Junker

    2006-01-01

    Our report gives an overview of hydrogen production processes with bacteria or algae. 4 main processes are described: water bio-photolysis, photo-fermentation biological CO conversion and dark fermentation. Chemical phenomena which lead to hydrogen generation are explained. Performances, limits and outlook are given for each process. Main projects, programs and key players involved in this field of research have been listed. This paper resumes few results of this report. (authors)

  6. Boolean Models of Biological Processes Explain Cascade-Like Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Wang, Guanyu; Simha, Rahul; Du, Chenghang; Zeng, Chen

    2016-01-29

    Biological networks play a key role in determining biological function and therefore, an understanding of their structure and dynamics is of central interest in systems biology. In Boolean models of such networks, the status of each molecule is either "on" or "off" and along with the molecules interact with each other, their individual status changes from "on" to "off" or vice-versa and the system of molecules in the network collectively go through a sequence of changes in state. This sequence of changes is termed a biological process. In this paper, we examine the common perception that events in biomolecular networks occur sequentially, in a cascade-like manner, and ask whether this is likely to be an inherent property. In further investigations of the budding and fission yeast cell-cycle, we identify two generic dynamical rules. A Boolean system that complies with these rules will automatically have a certain robustness. By considering the biological requirements in robustness and designability, we show that those Boolean dynamical systems, compared to an arbitrary dynamical system, statistically present the characteristics of cascadeness and sequentiality, as observed in the budding and fission yeast cell- cycle. These results suggest that cascade-like behavior might be an intrinsic property of biological processes.

  7. 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. marine energy industry is actively pursuing development of offshore wind and marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy systems. Experience in the wind energy sector demonstrates that new technology development requires thorough measurement and characterization of the environmental conditions prevalent at installation sites and of technology operating in the field. Presently, there are no turn-key instrumentation system solutions that meet the measurement needs of the marine energy industry. The 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop brought together technical experts from government laboratories, academia, and industry representatives from marine energy, wind, offshore oil and gas, and instrumentation developers to present and discuss the instrumentation needs of the marine energy industry. The goals of the meeting were to: 1. Share the latest relevant knowledge among technical experts; 2. Review relevant state-of-the-art field measurement technologies and methods; 3. Review lessons learned from recent field deployments; 4. Identify synergies across different industries; 5. Identify gaps between existing and needed instrumentation capabilities; 6. Understand who are the leading experts; 7. Provide a forum where stakeholders from the marine energy industry could provide substantive input in the development of new marine energy field deployable instrumentation packages.

  8. DEMONSTRATION OF AN INTEGRATED, PASSIVE BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESS FOR AMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    An innovative, cost-effective, biological treatment process has been designed by MSE Technology Applications, Inc. to treat acid mine drainage (AMD). A pilot-scale demonstration is being conducted under the Mine Waste Technology Program using water flowing from an abandoned mine ...

  9. Introductory Biology Textbooks Under-Represent Scientific Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara B. Duncan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Attrition of undergraduates from Biology majors is a long-standing problem. Introductory courses that fail to engage students or spark their curiosity by emphasizing the open-ended and creative nature of biological investigation and discovery could contribute to student detachment from the field. Our hypothesis was that introductory biology books devote relatively few figures to illustration of the design and interpretation of experiments or field studies, thereby de-emphasizing the scientific process.To investigate this possibility, we examined figures in six Introductory Biology textbooks published in 2008. On average, multistep scientific investigations were presented in fewer than 5% of the hundreds of figures in each book. Devoting such a small percentage of figures to the processes by which discoveries are made discourages an emphasis on scientific thinking. We suggest that by increasing significantly the illustration of scientific investigations, textbooks could support undergraduates’ early interest in biology, stimulate the development of design and analytical skills, and inspire some students to participate in investigations of their own.

  10. A Friendly-Biological Reactor SIMulator (BioReSIM for studying biological processes in wastewater treatment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Molina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological processes for wastewater treatments are inherently dynamic systems because of the large variations in the influent wastewater flow rate, concentration composition and the adaptive behavior of the involved microorganisms. Moreover, the sludge retention time (SRT is a critical factor to understand the bioreactor performances when changes in the influent or in the operation conditions take place. Since SRT are usually in the range of 10-30 days, the performance of biological reactors needs a long time to be monitored in a regular laboratory demonstration, limiting the knowledge that can be obtained in the experimental lab practice. In order to overcome this lack, mathematical models and computer simulations are useful tools to describe biochemical processes and predict the overall performance of bioreactors under different working operation conditions and variations of the inlet wastewater composition. The mathematical solution of the model could be difficult as numerous biochemical processes can be considered. Additionally, biological reactors description (mass balance, etc. needs models represented by partial or/and ordinary differential equations associated to algebraic expressions, that require complex computational codes to obtain the numerical solutions. Different kind of software for mathematical modeling can be used, from large degree of freedom simulators capable of free models definition (as AQUASIM, to closed predefined model structure programs (as BIOWIN. The first ones usually require long learning curves, whereas the second ones could be excessively rigid for specific wastewater treatment systems. As alternative, we present Biological Reactor SIMulator (BioReSIM, a MATLAB code for the simulation of sequencing batch reactors (SBR and rotating biological contactors (RBC as biological systems of suspended and attached biomass for wastewater treatment, respectively. This BioReSIM allows the evaluation of simple and complex

  11. Classical and spatial stochastic processes with applications to biology

    CERN Document Server

    Schinazi, Rinaldo B

    2014-01-01

    The revised and expanded edition of this textbook presents the concepts and applications of random processes with the same illuminating simplicity as its first edition, but with the notable addition of substantial modern material on biological modeling. While still treating many important problems in fields such as engineering and mathematical physics, the book also focuses on the highly relevant topics of cancerous mutations, influenza evolution, drug resistance, and immune response. The models used elegantly apply various classical stochastic models presented earlier in the text, and exercises are included throughout to reinforce essential concepts. The second edition of Classical and Spatial Stochastic Processes is suitable as a textbook for courses in stochastic processes at the advanced-undergraduate and graduate levels, or as a self-study resource for researchers and practitioners in mathematics, engineering, physics, and mathematical biology. Reviews of the first edition: An appetizing textbook for a f...

  12. Is nanotechnology the key to unravel and engineer biological processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Melba; Planell, Josep A

    2012-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is an emerging field aiming to the development of new reparative strategies to treat degenerative diseases, injury, and trauma through developmental pathways in order to rebuild the architecture of the original injured organ and take over its functionality. Most of the processes and interactions involved in the regenerative process take place at subcellular scale. Nanotechnology provides the tools and technology not only to detect, to measure, or to image the interactions between the different biomolecules and biological entities, but also to control and guide the regenerative process. The relevance of nanotechnology for the development of regenerative medicine as well as an overview of the different tools that contribute to unravel and engineer biological systems are presented in this chapter. In addition, general data about the social impact and global investment in nanotechnology are provided.

  13. iBiology: communicating the process of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Sarah S

    2014-08-01

    The Internet hosts an abundance of science video resources aimed at communicating scientific knowledge, including webinars, massive open online courses, and TED talks. Although these videos are efficient at disseminating information for diverse types of users, they often do not demonstrate the process of doing science, the excitement of scientific discovery, or how new scientific knowledge is developed. iBiology (www.ibiology.org), a project that creates open-access science videos about biology research and science-related topics, seeks to fill this need by producing videos by science leaders that make their ideas, stories, and experiences available to anyone with an Internet connection. © 2014 Goodwin. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  14. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis for the 1st Quarter FY2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 82 reportable events (13 from the 1st quarter (Qtr) of fiscal year (FY) 2017 and 68 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 31 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (seven from this quarter and 24 from the prior three quarters).

  15. 1st International Conference on Computational Advancement in Communication Circuits and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dalapati, Goutam; Banerjee, P; Mallick, Amiya; Mukherjee, Moumita

    2015-01-01

    This book comprises the proceedings of 1st International Conference on Computational Advancement in Communication Circuits and Systems (ICCACCS 2014) organized by Narula Institute of Technology under the patronage of JIS group, affiliated to West Bengal University of Technology. The conference was supported by Technical Education Quality Improvement Program (TEQIP), New Delhi, India and had technical collaboration with IEEE Kolkata Section, along with publication partner by Springer. The book contains 62 refereed papers that aim to highlight new theoretical and experimental findings in the field of Electronics and communication engineering including interdisciplinary fields like Advanced Computing, Pattern Recognition and Analysis, Signal and Image Processing. The proceedings cover the principles, techniques and applications in microwave & devices, communication & networking, signal & image processing, and computations & mathematics & control. The proceedings reflect the conference’s emp...

  16. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis - 1st Quarter FY 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 74 reportable events (16 from the 1st Qtr FY-16 and 58 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 35 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (15 from this quarter and 20 from the prior three quarters).

  17. The Content Analysis, Material Presentation, and Readability of Curriculum 2013 Science Textbook for 1st Semester of Junior High School 7th Grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endik Deni Nugroho

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the early observation by researchers of the two Science textbooks 7thGrade about biological material, 1stand 2ndsemester of curriculum 2013, there were errors in the material presentation and legibility. This study aimed to compare and find the contents suitability of the book based on standard of competence and basic competences, readability, materials presentation and supporting material in the science textbook VII grade, 1st and 2nd semester and measured student legibility. This study used a qualitative descriptive approach by using document analysis. The data resources were obtained by using purposive, the data collection was triangulation, data analysis was inductive/qualitative and the results emphasized the meaning. This research results showed that the Integrated Sciences and Sciences textbook 1st and 2nd semester meet the standards of the core competencies and basic competence on the syllabus curriculum 2013 and also meet the books standart. The results of the analysis conducted in misstatement concept and principles and material llustration in the Integrated Science textbook 1st semester were found 5 misstatement concept, for the presentation of the principles and material illustration was found no error. In the book Integrated Sciences there was no delivery errors concept, principle, and material illustration. Science textbook 1st semester found 8 concepts misstatements and 8 illustration material misstatements. In general, Integrated Sciences and Sciences textbooks 1st and 2nd semester are illegibility so not appropriate for students.

  18. 100 years after Smoluchowski: stochastic processes in cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcman, D; Schuss, Z

    2017-01-01

    100 years after Smoluchowski introduced his approach to stochastic processes, they are now at the basis of mathematical and physical modeling in cellular biology: they are used for example to analyse and to extract features from a large number (tens of thousands) of single molecular trajectories or to study the diffusive motion of molecules, proteins or receptors. Stochastic modeling is a new step in large data analysis that serves extracting cell biology concepts. We review here Smoluchowski’s approach to stochastic processes and provide several applications for coarse-graining diffusion, studying polymer models for understanding nuclear organization and finally, we discuss the stochastic jump dynamics of telomeres across cell division and stochastic gene regulation. (topical review)

  19. Influence of different natural physical fields on biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashinsky, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    In space flight conditions gravity, magnetic, and electrical fields as well as ionizing radiation change both in size, and in direction. This causes disruptions in the conduct of some physical processes, chemical reactions, and metabolism in living organisms. In these conditions organisms of different phylogenetic level change their metabolic reactions undergo changes such as disturbances in ionic exchange both in lower and in higher plants, changes in cell morphology for example, gyrosity in Proteus ( Proteus vulgaris), spatial disorientation in coleoptiles of Wheat ( Triticum aestivum) and Pea ( Pisum sativum) seedlings, mutational changes in Crepis ( Crepis capillaris) and Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana) seedling. It has been found that even in the absence of gravity, gravireceptors determining spatial orientation in higher plants under terrestrial conditions are formed in the course of ontogenesis. Under weightlessness this system does not function and spatial orientation is determined by the light flux gradient or by the action of some other factors. Peculiarities of the formation of the gravireceptor apparatus in higher plants, amphibians, fish, and birds under space flight conditions have been observed. It has been found that the system in which responses were accompanied by phase transition have proven to be gravity-sensitive under microgravity conditions. Such reactions include also the process of photosynthesis which is the main energy production process in plants. In view of the established effects of microgravity and different natural physical fields on biological processes, it has been shown that these processes change due to the absence of initially rigid determination. The established biological effect of physical fields influence on biological processes in organisms is the starting point for elucidating the role of gravity and evolutionary development of various organisms on Earth.

  20. Review on Physicochemical, Chemical, and Biological Processes for Pharmaceutical Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenchen; Yang, Ping

    2018-02-01

    Due to the needs of human life and health, pharmaceutical industry has made great progress in recent years, but it has also brought about severe environmental problems. The presence of pharmaceuticals in natural waters which might pose potential harm to the ecosystems and humans raised increasing concern worldwide. Pharmaceuticals cannot be effectively removed by conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) owing to the complex composition, high concentration of organic contaminants, high salinity and biological toxicity of pharmaceutical wastewater. Therefore, the development of efficient methods is needed to improve the removal effect of pharmaceuticals. This review provides an overview on three types of treatment technologies including physicochemical, chemical and biological processes and their advantages and disadvantages respectively. In addition, the future perspectives of pharmaceutical wastewater treatment are given.

  1. Radiation processing of biological tissues for nuclear disaster management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rita

    2012-01-01

    A number of surgical procedures require tissue substitutes to repair or replace damaged or diseased tissues. Biological tissues from human donor like bone, skin, amniotic membrane and other soft tissues can be used for repair or reconstruction of the injured part of the body. Tissues from human donor can be processed and banked for orthopaedic, spinal, trauma and other surgical procedures. Allograft tissues provide an excellent alternative to autografts. The use of allograft tissue avoids the donor site morbidity and reduces the operating time, expense and trauma associated with the acquisition of autografts. Further, allografts have the added advantage of being available in large quantities. This has led to a global increase in allogeneic transplantation and development of tissue banking. However, the risk of infectious disease transmission via tissue allografts is a major concern. Therefore, tissue allografts should be sterilized to make them safe for clinical use. Radiation processing has well appreciated technological advantages and is the most suitable method for sterilization of biological tissues. Radiation processed biological tissues can be provided by the tissue banks for the management of injuries due to a nuclear disaster. A nuclear detonation will result in a large number of casualties due to the heat, blast and radiation effects of the weapon. Skin dressings or skin substitutes like allograft skin, xenograft skin and amniotic membrane can be used for the treatment of thermal burns and radiation induced skin injuries. Bone grafts can be employed for repairing fracture defects, filling in destroyed regions of bone, management of open fractures and joint injuries. Radiation processed tissues have the potential to repair or reconstruct damaged tissues and can be of great assistance in the treatment of injuries due to the nuclear weapon. (author)

  2. Continuous downstream processing for high value biological products: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydney, Andrew L

    2016-03-01

    There is growing interest in the possibility of developing truly continuous processes for the large-scale production of high value biological products. Continuous processing has the potential to provide significant reductions in cost and facility size while improving product quality and facilitating the design of flexible multi-product manufacturing facilities. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art in separations technology suitable for continuous downstream bioprocessing, focusing on unit operations that would be most appropriate for the production of secreted proteins like monoclonal antibodies. This includes cell separation/recycle from the perfusion bioreactor, initial product recovery (capture), product purification (polishing), and formulation. Of particular importance are the available options, and alternatives, for continuous chromatographic separations. Although there are still significant challenges in developing integrated continuous bioprocesses, recent technological advances have provided process developers with a number of attractive options for development of truly continuous bioprocessing operations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Stochasticity in processes fundamentals and applications to chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Schuster, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This book has developed over the past fifteen years from a modern course on stochastic chemical kinetics for graduate students in physics, chemistry and biology. The first part presents a systematic collection of the mathematical background material needed to understand probability, statistics, and stochastic processes as a prerequisite for the increasingly challenging practical applications in chemistry and the life sciences examined in the second part. Recent advances in the development of new techniques and in the resolution of conventional experiments at nano-scales have been tremendous: today molecular spectroscopy can provide insights into processes down to scales at which current theories at the interface of physics, chemistry and the life sciences cannot be successful without a firm grasp of randomness and its sources. Routinely measured data is now sufficiently accurate to allow the direct recording of fluctuations. As a result, the sampling of data and the modeling of relevant processes are doomed t...

  4. Process for the biological purification of waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1992-01-01

    Process for the biological purification of waste water by the activated sludge method, the waste water being mixed with recirculated sludge and being subjected to an anaerobic treatment, before the waste water thus treated is alternately subjected to anoxic and aerobic treatments and the waste...... water thus treated is led into a clarification zone for settling sludge, which sludge is recirculated in order to be mixed with the crude waste water. As a result, a simultaneous reduction of the content both of nitrogen and phosphorus of the waste water is achieved....

  5. 1st International Early Research Career Enhancement School

    CERN Document Server

    Klimov, Valentin; Rybina, Galina

    2016-01-01

    This book presents cutting-edge research focused on current challenges towards the realization of Biologically Inspired intelligent agents, or Cognitive Architectures (BICA). The chapters are written by both world-recognized experts (including Antonio Chella, Olivier Georgeon, Oliver Kutz, Antonio Lieto, David Vernon, Paul Verschure, and others) and young researchers. Together, they constitute a good mixture of new findings with tutorial-based reviews and position papers, all presented at the First International Early Research Career Enhancement School on Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures (FIERCES on BICA 2016), held April 21-24 in Moscow, Russia. Most works included here cross boundaries between disciplines: from neuroscience to social science, from cognitive science to robotics, and from bioengineering to artificial intelligence. A special emphasis is given to novel solutions to urgent problems that have been resisting traditional approaches for decades. Intended for providing readers with an up...

  6. Genomic Signal Processing: Predicting Basic Molecular Biological Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Orly

    2005-03-01

    Advances in high-throughput technologies enable acquisition of different types of molecular biological data, monitoring the flow of biological information as DNA is transcribed to RNA, and RNA is translated to proteins, on a genomic scale. Future discovery in biology and medicine will come from the mathematical modeling of these data, which hold the key to fundamental understanding of life on the molecular level, as well as answers to questions regarding diagnosis, treatment and drug development. Recently we described data-driven models for genome-scale molecular biological data, which use singular value decomposition (SVD) and the comparative generalized SVD (GSVD). Now we describe an integrative data-driven model, which uses pseudoinverse projection (1). We also demonstrate the predictive power of these matrix algebra models (2). The integrative pseudoinverse projection model formulates any number of genome-scale molecular biological data sets in terms of one chosen set of data samples, or of profiles extracted mathematically from data samples, designated the ``basis'' set. The mathematical variables of this integrative model, the pseudoinverse correlation patterns that are uncovered in the data, represent independent processes and corresponding cellular states (such as observed genome-wide effects of known regulators or transcription factors, the biological components of the cellular machinery that generate the genomic signals, and measured samples in which these regulators or transcription factors are over- or underactive). Reconstruction of the data in the basis simulates experimental observation of only the cellular states manifest in the data that correspond to those of the basis. Classification of the data samples according to their reconstruction in the basis, rather than their overall measured profiles, maps the cellular states of the data onto those of the basis, and gives a global picture of the correlations and possibly also causal coordination of

  7. Magnetic Nanotweezers for Interrogating Biological Processes in Space and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Wook; Jeong, Hee-Kyung; Southard, Kaden M; Jun, Young-Wook; Cheon, Jinwoo

    2018-04-17

    The ability to sense and manipulate the state of biological systems has been extensively advanced during the past decade with the help of recent developments in physical tools. Unlike standard genetic and pharmacological perturbation techniques-knockdown, overexpression, small molecule inhibition-that provide a basic on/off switching capability, these physical tools provide the capacity to control the spatial, temporal, and mechanical properties of the biological targets. Among the various physical cues, magnetism offers distinct advantages over light or electricity. Magnetic fields freely penetrate biological tissues and are already used for clinical applications. As one of the unique features, magnetic fields can be transformed into mechanical stimuli which can serve as a cue in regulating biological processes. However, their biological applications have been limited due to a lack of high-performance magnetism-to-mechanical force transducers with advanced spatiotemporal capabilities. In this Account, we present recent developments in magnetic nanotweezers (MNTs) as a useful tool for interrogating the spatiotemporal control of cells in living tissue. MNTs are composed of force-generating magnetic nanoparticles and field generators. Through proper design and the integration of individual components, MNTs deliver controlled mechanical stimulation to targeted biomolecules at any desired space and time. We first discuss about MNT configuration with different force-stimulation modes. By modulating geometry of the magnetic field generator, MNTs exert pulling, dipole-dipole attraction, and rotational forces to the target specifically and quantitatively. We discuss the key physical parameters determining force magnitude, which include magnetic field strength, magnetic field gradient, magnetic moment of the magnetic particle, as well as distance between the field generator and the particle. MNTs also can be used over a wide range of biological time scales. By simply

  8. A finite element simulation of biological conversion processes in landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeck, M; Ricken, T; Widmann, R

    2011-04-01

    Landfills are the most common way of waste disposal worldwide. Biological processes convert the organic material into an environmentally harmful landfill gas, which has an impact on the greenhouse effect. After the depositing of waste has been stopped, current conversion processes continue and emissions last for several decades and even up to 100years and longer. A good prediction of these processes is of high importance for landfill operators as well as for authorities, but suitable models for a realistic description of landfill processes are rather poor. In order to take the strong coupled conversion processes into account, a constitutive three-dimensional model based on the multiphase Theory of Porous Media (TPM) has been developed at the University of Duisburg-Essen. The theoretical formulations are implemented in the finite element code FEAP. With the presented calculation concept we are able to simulate the coupled processes that occur in an actual landfill. The model's theoretical background and the results of the simulations as well as the meantime successfully performed simulation of a real landfill body will be shown in the following. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A finite element simulation of biological conversion processes in landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robeck, M.; Ricken, T.; Widmann, R.

    2011-01-01

    Landfills are the most common way of waste disposal worldwide. Biological processes convert the organic material into an environmentally harmful landfill gas, which has an impact on the greenhouse effect. After the depositing of waste has been stopped, current conversion processes continue and emissions last for several decades and even up to 100 years and longer. A good prediction of these processes is of high importance for landfill operators as well as for authorities, but suitable models for a realistic description of landfill processes are rather poor. In order to take the strong coupled conversion processes into account, a constitutive three-dimensional model based on the multiphase Theory of Porous Media (TPM) has been developed at the University of Duisburg-Essen. The theoretical formulations are implemented in the finite element code FEAP. With the presented calculation concept we are able to simulate the coupled processes that occur in an actual landfill. The model's theoretical background and the results of the simulations as well as the meantime successfully performed simulation of a real landfill body will be shown in the following.

  10. Adoption: biological and social processes linked to adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotevant, Harold D; McDermott, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Children join adoptive families through domestic adoption from the public child welfare system, infant adoption through private agencies, and international adoption. Each pathway presents distinctive developmental opportunities and challenges. Adopted children are at higher risk than the general population for problems with adaptation, especially externalizing, internalizing, and attention problems. This review moves beyond the field's emphasis on adoptee-nonadoptee differences to highlight biological and social processes that affect adaptation of adoptees across time. The experience of stress, whether prenatal, postnatal/preadoption, or during the adoption transition, can have significant impacts on the developing neuroendocrine system. These effects can contribute to problems with physical growth, brain development, and sleep, activating cascading effects on social, emotional, and cognitive development. Family processes involving contact between adoptive and birth family members, co-parenting in gay and lesbian adoptive families, and racial socialization in transracially adoptive families affect social development of adopted children into adulthood.

  11. Quantum Processes and Dynamic Networks in Physical and Biological Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudziak, Martin Joseph

    Quantum theory since its earliest formulations in the Copenhagen Interpretation has been difficult to integrate with general relativity and with classical Newtonian physics. There has been traditionally a regard for quantum phenomena as being a limiting case for a natural order that is fundamentally classical except for microscopic extrema where quantum mechanics must be applied, more as a mathematical reconciliation rather than as a description and explanation. Macroscopic sciences including the study of biological neural networks, cellular energy transports and the broad field of non-linear and chaotic systems point to a quantum dimension extending across all scales of measurement and encompassing all of Nature as a fundamentally quantum universe. Theory and observation lead to a number of hypotheses all of which point to dynamic, evolving networks of fundamental or elementary processes as the underlying logico-physical structure (manifestation) in Nature and a strongly quantized dimension to macroscalar processes such as are found in biological, ecological and social systems. The fundamental thesis advanced and presented herein is that quantum phenomena may be the direct consequence of a universe built not from objects and substance but from interacting, interdependent processes collectively operating as sets and networks, giving rise to systems that on microcosmic or macroscopic scales function wholistically and organically, exhibiting non-locality and other non -classical phenomena. The argument is made that such effects as non-locality are not aberrations or departures from the norm but ordinary consequences of the process-network dynamics of Nature. Quantum processes are taken to be the fundamental action-events within Nature; rather than being the exception quantum theory is the rule. The argument is also presented that the study of quantum physics could benefit from the study of selective higher-scale complex systems, such as neural processes in the brain

  12. PREFACE: 1st European Conference on Gas Micro Flows (GasMems 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frijns, Arjan; Valougeorgis, Dimitris; Colin, Stéphane; Baldas, Lucien

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the 1st European Conference on Gas Micro Flows is to advance research in Europe and worldwide in the field of gas micro flows as well as to improve global fundamental knowledge and to enable technological applications. Gas flows in microsystems are of great importance and touch almost every industrial field (e.g. fluidic microactuators for active control of aerodynamic flows, vacuum generators for extracting biological samples, mass flow and temperature micro-sensors, pressure gauges, micro heat-exchangers for the cooling of electronic components or for chemical applications, and micro gas analyzers or separators). The main characteristic of gas microflows is their rarefaction, which for device design often requires modelling and simulation both by continuous and molecular approaches. In such flows various non-equilibrium transport phenomena appear, while the role played by the interaction between the gas and the solid device surfaces becomes essential. The proposed models of boundary conditions often need an empirical adjustment strongly dependent on the micro manufacturing technique. The 1st European Conference on Gas Micro Flows is organized under the umbrella of the recently established GASMEMS network (www.gasmems.eu/) consisting of 13 participants and six associate members. The main objectives of the network are to structure research and train researchers in the fields of micro gas dynamics, measurement techniques for gaseous flows in micro experimental setups, microstructure design and micro manufacturing with applications in lab and industry. The conference takes place on June 6-8 2012, at the Skiathos Palace Hotel, on the beautiful island of Skiathos, Greece. The conference has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement ITN GASMEMS no. 215504. It owes its success to many people. We would like to acknowledge the support of all members of the Scientific Committee and of all

  13. Automated force volume image processing for biological samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Polyakov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Atomic force microscopy (AFM has now become a powerful technique for investigating on a molecular level, surface forces, nanomechanical properties of deformable particles, biomolecular interactions, kinetics, and dynamic processes. This paper specifically focuses on the analysis of AFM force curves collected on biological systems, in particular, bacteria. The goal is to provide fully automated tools to achieve theoretical interpretation of force curves on the basis of adequate, available physical models. In this respect, we propose two algorithms, one for the processing of approach force curves and another for the quantitative analysis of retraction force curves. In the former, electrostatic interactions prior to contact between AFM probe and bacterium are accounted for and mechanical interactions operating after contact are described in terms of Hertz-Hooke formalism. Retraction force curves are analyzed on the basis of the Freely Jointed Chain model. For both algorithms, the quantitative reconstruction of force curves is based on the robust detection of critical points (jumps, changes of slope or changes of curvature which mark the transitions between the various relevant interactions taking place between the AFM tip and the studied sample during approach and retraction. Once the key regions of separation distance and indentation are detected, the physical parameters describing the relevant interactions operating in these regions are extracted making use of regression procedure for fitting experiments to theory. The flexibility, accuracy and strength of the algorithms are illustrated with the processing of two force-volume images, which collect a large set of approach and retraction curves measured on a single biological surface. For each force-volume image, several maps are generated, representing the spatial distribution of the searched physical parameters as estimated for each pixel of the force-volume image.

  14. 1st International Conference on Advanced Intelligent System and Informatics

    CERN Document Server

    Hassanien, Aboul; El-Bendary, Nashwa; Dey, Nilanjan

    2016-01-01

    The conference topics address different theoretical and practical aspects, and implementing solutions for intelligent systems and informatics disciplines including bioinformatics, computer science, medical informatics, biology, social studies, as well as robotics research. The conference also discuss and present solutions to the cloud computing and big data mining which are considered hot research topics. The conference papers discussed different topics – techniques, models, methods, architectures, as well as multi aspect, domain-specific, and new solutions for the above disciplines. The accepted papers have been grouped into five parts: Part I—Intelligent Systems and Informatics, addressing topics including, but not limited to, medical application, predicting student performance, action classification, and detection of dead stained microscopic cells, optical character recognition, plant identification, rehabilitation of disabled people. Part II—Hybrid Intelligent Systems, addressing topics including, b...

  15. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. The 1st quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1st quarter of 2015. Statistical data are presented for mining, exports and imports of hard coal and lignite and for employees.

  16. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. The 1st quarter 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1st quarter of 2017. Statistical data are presented for mining, exports and imports of hard coal and lignite and for employees.

  17. Monitoring Biological Modes in a Bioreactor Process by Computer Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Semcheddine

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the general framework of fermentation system modeling and monitoring, focusing on the fermentation of Escherichia coli. Our main objective is to develop an algorithm for the online detection of acetate production during the culture of recombinant proteins. The analysis the fermentation process shows that it behaves like a hybrid dynamic system with commutation (since it can be represented by 5 nonlinear models. We present a strategy of fault detection based on residual generation for detecting the different actual biological modes. The residual generation is based on nonlinear analytical redundancy relations. The simulation results show that the several modes that are occulted during the bacteria cultivation can be detected by residuals using a nonlinear dynamic model and a reduced instrumentation.

  18. Implied Movement in Static Images Reveals Biological Timing Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carlos Nather

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception is adapted toward a better understanding of our own movements than those of non-conspecifics. The present study determined whether time perception is affected by pictures of different species by considering the evolutionary scale. Static (“S” and implied movement (“M” images of a dog, cheetah, chimpanzee, and man were presented to undergraduate students. S and M images of the same species were presented in random order or one after the other (S-M or M-S for two groups of participants. Movement, Velocity, and Arousal semantic scales were used to characterize some properties of the images. Implied movement affected time perception, in which M images were overestimated. The results are discussed in terms of visual motion perception related to biological timing processing that could be established early in terms of the adaptation of humankind to the environment.

  19. INL FY2014 1st Quarterly Performance Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinghorn, Loran [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Performance Assurance Organization. The Department of Energy Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2 “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 76 occurrence reports and over 16 other deficiency reports (including not reportable events) identified at the INL during the period of October 2013 through December 2013. Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) operates the INL under contract DE AC 07 051D14517

  20. 1st European Biomedical Engineering Conference for Young Investigators

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

     This volume presents the proceedings of the first European Biomedical Engineering Conference for Young Investigators ENCY2015. It was in Budapest, from 28th to 30th May, 2015. The papers were assembled under the motto "Understanding complex living systems” and cover the topics sensors, image processing, bioinformatics, biomechanics, and modeling.

  1. Vom work Book Journal, 2011 1st Edition PDF

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    recognized to be of public health concern in that ... alarm about the possible risk of zoonotic transmission in the ... through the consumption of contaminated food ... fecal smears or concentrates using acid-fast ... Total. 131/406 32.3 0.2770 – 0.3683 available Cryptosporidium parvum ELISA ... and kept at 4°C until processed.

  2. 1st International Conference on Intelligent Computing, Communication and Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Patnaik, Srikanta; Ichalkaranje, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    In the history of mankind, three revolutions which impact the human life are the tool-making revolution, agricultural revolution and industrial revolution. They have transformed not only the economy and civilization but the overall development of the society. Probably, intelligence revolution is the next revolution, which the society will perceive in the next 10 years. ICCD-2014 covers all dimensions of intelligent sciences, i.e. Intelligent Computing, Intelligent Communication and Intelligent Devices. This volume covers contributions from Intelligent Communication which are from the areas such as Communications and Wireless Ad Hoc & Sensor Networks, Speech & Natural Language Processing, including Signal, Image and Video Processing and Mobile broadband and Optical networks, which are the key to the ground-breaking inventions to intelligent communication technologies. Secondly, Intelligent Device is any type of equipment, instrument, or machine that has its own computing capability. Contributions from ...

  3. File list: His.Lar.05.AllAg.1st_instar [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lar.05.AllAg.1st_instar dm3 Histone Larvae 1st instar SRX013088,SRX013009,SRX01...3064,SRX013044,SRX013097 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Lar.05.AllAg.1st_instar.bed ...

  4. File list: ALL.Lar.10.AllAg.1st_instar [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.10.AllAg.1st_instar dm3 All antigens Larvae 1st instar SRX013088,SRX013064,...SRX013044,SRX013009,SRX013072,SRX013097,SRX013055,SRX013056 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.10.AllAg.1st_instar.bed ...

  5. File list: ALL.Lar.50.AllAg.1st_instar [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.50.AllAg.1st_instar dm3 All antigens Larvae 1st instar SRX013009,SRX013072,...SRX013088,SRX013044,SRX013064,SRX013097,SRX013056,SRX013055 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.50.AllAg.1st_instar.bed ...

  6. File list: His.Lar.20.AllAg.1st_instar [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lar.20.AllAg.1st_instar dm3 Histone Larvae 1st instar SRX013009,SRX013088,SRX01...3044,SRX013064,SRX013097 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Lar.20.AllAg.1st_instar.bed ...

  7. File list: ALL.Lar.20.AllAg.1st_instar [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.20.AllAg.1st_instar dm3 All antigens Larvae 1st instar SRX013009,SRX013072,...SRX013088,SRX013044,SRX013064,SRX013097,SRX013055,SRX013056 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.20.AllAg.1st_instar.bed ...

  8. File list: His.Lar.50.AllAg.1st_instar [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lar.50.AllAg.1st_instar dm3 Histone Larvae 1st instar SRX013009,SRX013088,SRX01...3044,SRX013064,SRX013097 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Lar.50.AllAg.1st_instar.bed ...

  9. File list: His.Lar.10.AllAg.1st_instar [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lar.10.AllAg.1st_instar dm3 Histone Larvae 1st instar SRX013088,SRX013064,SRX01...3044,SRX013009,SRX013097 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Lar.10.AllAg.1st_instar.bed ...

  10. File list: ALL.Lar.05.AllAg.1st_instar [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.05.AllAg.1st_instar dm3 All antigens Larvae 1st instar SRX013088,SRX013009,...SRX013064,SRX013044,SRX013072,SRX013055,SRX013097,SRX013056 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.05.AllAg.1st_instar.bed ...

  11. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 44, 1st Quarter 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    excellent lineup of articles addressing both areas, JFQ has interviewed key leaders to provide broader coverage of the issues, pursu- ant to our...each of the combatant commanders who had combatant command authority over forces. The recommendations were obtained in a redundant and sequential ...management recommendations were obtained in a redundant and sequential process that proved too slow and segmented for the war on terror soldie rs per form

  12. 1st International Conference on Communities and Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Wenger, Etienne; Wulf, Volker

    2003-01-01

    The book contains 24 research articles related to the emerging research field of Communities and Technologies (C&T). The papers treat subjects such as online communities, communities of practice, Community support systems, Digital Cities, regional communities and the internet, knowledge sharing and communities, civil communities, communities and education and social capital. As a result of a very quality-oriented review process, the work reflects the best of current research and practice in the field of C&T.

  13. Exploiting graphics processing units for computational biology and bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Joshua L; Sinnott-Armstrong, Nicholas A; Moore, Jason H

    2010-09-01

    Advances in the video gaming industry have led to the production of low-cost, high-performance graphics processing units (GPUs) that possess more memory bandwidth and computational capability than central processing units (CPUs), the standard workhorses of scientific computing. With the recent release of generalpurpose GPUs and NVIDIA's GPU programming language, CUDA, graphics engines are being adopted widely in scientific computing applications, particularly in the fields of computational biology and bioinformatics. The goal of this article is to concisely present an introduction to GPU hardware and programming, aimed at the computational biologist or bioinformaticist. To this end, we discuss the primary differences between GPU and CPU architecture, introduce the basics of the CUDA programming language, and discuss important CUDA programming practices, such as the proper use of coalesced reads, data types, and memory hierarchies. We highlight each of these topics in the context of computing the all-pairs distance between instances in a dataset, a common procedure in numerous disciplines of scientific computing. We conclude with a runtime analysis of the GPU and CPU implementations of the all-pairs distance calculation. We show our final GPU implementation to outperform the CPU implementation by a factor of 1700.

  14. Stochastic model of template-directed elongation processes in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilstra, Maria J; Nehaniv, Chrystopher L

    2010-10-01

    We present a novel modular, stochastic model for biological template-based linear chain elongation processes. In this model, elongation complexes (ECs; DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase, or ribosomes associated with nascent chains) that span a finite number of template units step along the template, one after another, with semaphore constructs preventing overtaking. The central elongation module is readily extended with modules that represent initiation and termination processes. The model was used to explore the effect of EC span on motor velocity and dispersion, and the effect of initiation activator and repressor binding kinetics on the overall elongation dynamics. The results demonstrate that (1) motors that move smoothly are able to travel at a greater velocity and closer together than motors that move more erratically, and (2) the rate at which completed chains are released is proportional to the occupancy or vacancy of activator or repressor binding sites only when initiation or activator/repressor dissociation is slow in comparison with elongation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Processing biological literature with customizable Web services supporting interoperable formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, Rafal; Batista-Navarro, Riza Theresa; Carter, Jacob; Rowley, Andrew; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Web services have become a popular means of interconnecting solutions for processing a body of scientific literature. This has fuelled research on high-level data exchange formats suitable for a given domain and ensuring the interoperability of Web services. In this article, we focus on the biological domain and consider four interoperability formats, BioC, BioNLP, XMI and RDF, that represent domain-specific and generic representations and include well-established as well as emerging specifications. We use the formats in the context of customizable Web services created in our Web-based, text-mining workbench Argo that features an ever-growing library of elementary analytics and capabilities to build and deploy Web services straight from a convenient graphical user interface. We demonstrate a 2-fold customization of Web services: by building task-specific processing pipelines from a repository of available analytics, and by configuring services to accept and produce a combination of input and output data interchange formats. We provide qualitative evaluation of the formats as well as quantitative evaluation of automatic analytics. The latter was carried out as part of our participation in the fourth edition of the BioCreative challenge. Our analytics built into Web services for recognizing biochemical concepts in BioC collections achieved the highest combined scores out of 10 participating teams. Database URL: http://argo.nactem.ac.uk. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Improving the reviewing process in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossman, G. D.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available I discuss current issues in reviewing and editorial practices in ecology and evolutionary biology and suggest possible solutions for current problems. The reviewing crisis is unlikely to change unless steps are taken by journals to provide greater inclusiveness and incentives to reviewers. In addition, both journals and institutions should reduce their emphasis on publication numbers (least publishable units and impact factors and focus instead on article synthesis and quality which will require longer publications. Academic and research institutions should consider reviewing manuscripts and editorial positions an important part of a researcher’s professional activities and reward them accordingly. Rewarding reviewers either monetarily or via other incentives such as free journal subscriptions may encourage participation in the reviewing process for both profit and non–profit journals. Reviewer performance will likely be improved by measures that increase inclusiveness, such as sending reviews and decision letters to reviewers. Journals may be able to evaluate the efficacy of their reviewing process by comparing citations of rejected but subsequently published papers with those published within the journal at similar times. Finally, constructive reviews: 1 identify important shortcomings and suggest solutions when possible, 2 distinguish trivial from non–trivial problems, and 3 include editor’s evaluations of the reviews including identification of trivial versus substantive comments (i.e., those that must be addressed.

  17. 1st International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Informatics

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, V; Rani, B; Udgata, Siba; Raju, K

    2017-01-01

    The book covers a variety of topics which include data mining and data warehousing, high performance computing, parallel and distributed computing, computational intelligence, soft computing, big data, cloud computing, grid computing, cognitive computing, image processing, computer networks, wireless networks, social networks, wireless sensor networks, information and network security, web security, internet of things, bioinformatics and geoinformatics. The book is a collection of best papers submitted in the First International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Informatics (ICCII 2016) held during 28-30 May 2016 at JNTUH CEH, Hyderabad, India. It was hosted by Department of Computer Science and Engineering, JNTUH College of Engineering in association with Division V (Education & Research) CSI, India. .

  18. 1st International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Satapathy, Suresh; Sanyal, Manas; Bhateja, Vikrant

    2017-01-01

    The book covers a wide range of topics in Computer Science and Information Technology including swarm intelligence, artificial intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, and bio-inspired algorithms. It is a collection of papers presented at the First International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Communication (ICIC2) 2016. The prime areas of the conference are Intelligent Computing, Intelligent Communication, Bio-informatics, Geo-informatics, Algorithm, Graphics and Image Processing, Graph Labeling, Web Security, Privacy and e-Commerce, Computational Geometry, Service Orient Architecture, and Data Engineering.

  19. The method validation step of biological dosimetry accreditation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, L.; Voisin, P.A.; Guillou, A.C.; Busset, A.; Gregoire, E.; Buard, V.; Delbos, M.; Voisin, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    One of the missions of the Laboratory of Biological Dosimetry (L.D.B.) of the Institute for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (I.R.S.N.) is to assess the radiological dose after an accidental overexposure suspicion to ionising radiation, by using radio-induced changes of some biological parameters. The 'gold standard' is the yield of dicentrics observed in patients lymphocytes, and this yield is converted in dose using dose effect relationships. This method is complementary to clinical and physical dosimetry, for medical team in charge of the patients. To obtain a formal recognition of its operational activity, the laboratory decided three years ago, to require an accreditation, by following the recommendations of both 17025 General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories and 19238 Performance criteria for service laboratories performing biological dosimetry by cyto-genetics. Diagnostics, risks analysis were realized to control the whole analysis process leading to documents writing. Purchases, personnel department, vocational training were also included in the quality system. Audits were very helpful to improve the quality system. One specificity of this technique is that it is not normalized therefore apart from quality management aspects, several technical points needed some validations. An inventory of potentially influent factors was carried out. To estimate their real effect on the yield of dicentrics, a Placket-Burman experimental design was conducted. The effect of seven parameters was tested: the BUdr (bromodeoxyuridine), PHA (phytohemagglutinin) and colcemid concentration, the culture duration, the incubator temperature, the blood volume and the medium volume. The chosen values were calculated according to the uncertainties on the way they were measured i.e. pipettes, thermometers, test tubes. None of the factors has a significant impact on the yield of dicentrics. Therefore the uncertainty linked to their use was considered as

  20. The method validation step of biological dosimetry accreditation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, L.; Voisin, P.A.; Guillou, A.C.; Busset, A.; Gregoire, E.; Buard, V.; Delbos, M.; Voisin, Ph. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, LDB, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2006-07-01

    One of the missions of the Laboratory of Biological Dosimetry (L.D.B.) of the Institute for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (I.R.S.N.) is to assess the radiological dose after an accidental overexposure suspicion to ionising radiation, by using radio-induced changes of some biological parameters. The 'gold standard' is the yield of dicentrics observed in patients lymphocytes, and this yield is converted in dose using dose effect relationships. This method is complementary to clinical and physical dosimetry, for medical team in charge of the patients. To obtain a formal recognition of its operational activity, the laboratory decided three years ago, to require an accreditation, by following the recommendations of both 17025 General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories and 19238 Performance criteria for service laboratories performing biological dosimetry by cyto-genetics. Diagnostics, risks analysis were realized to control the whole analysis process leading to documents writing. Purchases, personnel department, vocational training were also included in the quality system. Audits were very helpful to improve the quality system. One specificity of this technique is that it is not normalized therefore apart from quality management aspects, several technical points needed some validations. An inventory of potentially influent factors was carried out. To estimate their real effect on the yield of dicentrics, a Placket-Burman experimental design was conducted. The effect of seven parameters was tested: the BUdr (bromodeoxyuridine), PHA (phytohemagglutinin) and colcemid concentration, the culture duration, the incubator temperature, the blood volume and the medium volume. The chosen values were calculated according to the uncertainties on the way they were measured i.e. pipettes, thermometers, test tubes. None of the factors has a significant impact on the yield of dicentrics. Therefore the uncertainty linked to their use was

  1. Advances in downstream processing of biologics - Spectroscopy: An emerging process analytical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüdt, Matthias; Briskot, Till; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2017-03-24

    Process analytical technologies (PAT) for the manufacturing of biologics have drawn increased interest in the last decade. Besides being encouraged by the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) PAT initiative, PAT promises to improve process understanding, reduce overall production costs and help to implement continuous manufacturing. This article focuses on spectroscopic tools for PAT in downstream processing (DSP). Recent advances and future perspectives will be reviewed. In order to exploit the full potential of gathered data, chemometric tools are widely used for the evaluation of complex spectroscopic information. Thus, an introduction into the field will be given. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 1st International Conference on Intelligent Communication, Control and Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Sushabhan

    2017-01-01

    The book presents high-quality research papers presented at the first international conference, ICICCD 2016, organised by the Department of Electronics, Instrumentation and Control Engineering of University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun on 2nd and 3rd April, 2016. The book is broadly divided into three sections: Intelligent Communication, Intelligent Control and Intelligent Devices. The areas covered under these sections are wireless communication and radio technologies, optical communication, communication hardware evolution, machine-to-machine communication networks, routing techniques, network analytics, network applications and services, satellite and space communications, technologies for e-communication, wireless Ad-Hoc and sensor networks, communications and information security, signal processing for communications, communication software, microwave informatics, robotics and automation, optimization techniques and algorithms, intelligent transport, mechatronics system, guidance and navigat...

  3. NS&T Managment Observations - 1st Quarter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gianotto

    2014-06-01

    The INL Management Observation Program (MOP) is designed to improve managers and supervisors understanding of work being performed by employees and the barriers impacting their success. The MOP also increases workers understanding of managements’ expectations as they relate to safety, security, quality, and work performance. Management observations (observations) are designed to improve the relationship and trust between employees and managers through increased engagement and interactions between managers and researchers in the field. As part of continuous improvement, NS&T management took initiative to focus on the participation and quality of observations in FY 14. This quarterly report is intended to (a) summarize the participation and quality of management’s observations, (b) assess observations for commonalities or trends related to facility or process barriers impacting research, and (c) provide feedback and make recommendations for improvements NS&T’s MOP.

  4. Crowdsourcing and curation: perspectives from biology and natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, Lynette; Fort, Karën; Boué, Stéphanie; Kyrpides, Nikos; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Cohen, Kevin Bretonnel

    2016-01-01

    Crowdsourcing is increasingly utilized for performing tasks in both natural language processing and biocuration. Although there have been many applications of crowdsourcing in these fields, there have been fewer high-level discussions of the methodology and its applicability to biocuration. This paper explores crowdsourcing for biocuration through several case studies that highlight different ways of leveraging 'the crowd'; these raise issues about the kind(s) of expertise needed, the motivations of participants, and questions related to feasibility, cost and quality. The paper is an outgrowth of a panel session held at BioCreative V (Seville, September 9-11, 2015). The session consisted of four short talks, followed by a discussion. In their talks, the panelists explored the role of expertise and the potential to improve crowd performance by training; the challenge of decomposing tasks to make them amenable to crowdsourcing; and the capture of biological data and metadata through community editing.Database URL: http://www.mitre.org/publications/technical-papers/crowdsourcing-and-curation-perspectives. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Optimization of electrocoagulation process to treat biologically pretreated bagasse effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirugnanasambandham K.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was to investigate the efficiency of electrocoagulation process as a post-treatment to treat biologically pretreated bagasse effluent using iron electrodes. The removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD and total suspended solids (TSS were studied under different operating conditions such as amount of dilution, initial pH, applied current and electrolyte dose by using response surface methodology (RSM coupled with four-factor three-level Box-Behnken experimental design (BBD. The experimental results were analyzed by Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA and second order polynomial mathematical models were developed with high correlation of efficiency (R2 for COD, TSS removal and electrical energy consumption (EEC. The individual and combined effect of variables on responses was studied using three dimensional response surface plots. Under the optimum operating conditions, such as amount of dilution at 30 %, initial pH of 6.5, applied current of 8 mA cm-2 and electrolyte dose of 740 mg l-1 shows the higher removal efficiency of COD (98 % and TSS (93 % with EEC of 2.40 Wh, which were confirmed by validation experiments.

  6. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: chemical interactions of primary biological aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Deguillaume

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of primary biological aerosols (PBA on atmospheric chemistry and vice versa through microbiological and chemical properties and processes. Several studies have shown that PBA represent a significant fraction of air particulate matter and hence affect the microstructure and water uptake of aerosol particles. Moreover, airborne micro-organisms, namely fungal spores and bacteria, can transform chemical constituents of the atmosphere by metabolic activity. Recent studies have emphasized the viability of bacteria and metabolic degradation of organic substances in cloud water. On the other hand, the viability and metabolic activity of airborne micro-organisms depend strongly on physical and chemical atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure, radiation, pH value and nutrient concentrations. In spite of recent advances, however, our knowledge of the microbiological and chemical interactions of PBA in the atmosphere is rather limited. Further targeted investigations combining laboratory experiments, field measurements, and modelling studies will be required to characterize the chemical feedbacks, microbiological activities at the air/snow/water interface supplied to the atmosphere.

  7. PREFACE: 1st Nano-IBCT Conference 2011 - Radiation Damage of Biomolecular Systems: Nanoscale Insights into Ion Beam Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Bernd A.; Malot, Christiane; Domaracka, Alicja; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2012-07-01

    The 1st Nano-IBCT Conference entitled 'Radiation Damage in Biomolecular Systems: Nanoscale Insights into Ion Beam Cancer Therapy' was held in Caen, France, in October 2011. The Meeting was organised in the framework of the COST Action MP1002 (Nano-IBCT) which was launched in December 2010 (http://fias.uni-frankfurt.de/nano-ibct). This action aims to promote the understanding of mechanisms and processes underlying the radiation damage of biomolecular systems at the molecular and nanoscopic level and to use the findings to improve the strategy of Ion Beam Cancer Therapy. In the hope of achieving this, participants from different disciplines were invited to represent the fields of physics, biology, medicine and chemistry, and also included those from industry and the operators of hadron therapy centres. Ion beam therapy offers the possibility of excellent dose localization for treatment of malignant tumours, minimizing radiation damage in normal healthy tissue, while maximizing cell killing within the tumour. Several ion beam cancer therapy clinical centres are now operating in Europe and elsewhere. However, the full potential of such therapy can only be exploited by better understanding the physical, chemical and biological mechanisms that lead to cell death under ion irradiation. Considering a range of spatio-temporal scales, the proposed action therefore aims to combine the unique experimental and theoretical expertise available within Europe to acquire greater insight at the nanoscopic and molecular level into radiation damage induced by ion impact. Success in this endeavour will be both an important scientific breakthrough and give great impetus to the practical improvement of this innovative therapeutic technique. Ion therapy potentially provides an important advance in cancer therapy and the COST action MP1002 will be very significant in ensuring Europe's leadership in this field, providing the scientific background, required data and mechanistic insight which

  8. Creating Research-Rich Learning Experiences and Quantitative Skills in a 1st Year Earth Systems Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, P. L.; Eggins, S.; Jones, S.

    2014-12-01

    We are creating a 1st year Earth Systems course at the Australian National University that is built around research-rich learning experiences and quantitative skills. The course has top students including ≤20% indigenous/foreign students; nonetheless, students' backgrounds in math and science vary considerably posing challenges for learning. We are addressing this issue and aiming to improve knowledge retention and deep learning by changing our teaching approach. In 2013-2014, we modified the weekly course structure to a 1hr lecture; a 2hr workshop with hands-on activities; a 2hr lab; an assessment piece covering all face-to-face activities; and a 1hr tutorial. Our new approach was aimed at: 1) building student confidence with data analysis and quantitative skills through increasingly difficult tasks in science, math, physics, chemistry, climate science and biology; 2) creating effective learning groups using name tags and a classroom with 8-person tiered tables; 3) requiring students to apply new knowledge to new situations in group activities, two 1-day field trips and assessment items; 4) using pre-lab and pre-workshop exercises to promote prior engagement with key concepts; 5) adding open-ended experiments to foster structured 'scientific play' or enquiry and creativity; and 6) aligning the assessment with the learning outcomes and ensuring that it contains authentic and challenging southern hemisphere problems. Students were asked to design their own ocean current experiment in the lab and we were astounded by their ingenuity: they simulated the ocean currents off Antarctica; varied water density to verify an equation; and examined the effect of wind and seafloor topography on currents. To evaluate changes in student learning, we conducted surveys in 2013 and 2014. In 2014, we found higher levels of student engagement with the course: >~80% attendance rates and >~70% satisfaction (20% neutral). The 2014 cohort felt that they were more competent in writing

  9. Ultrasound assessment of the meniscus complex formation in health children and with the 1st stage of longitudinal platypodia ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Ivantsov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Foot arch reduces the exposure of weight and buf load due to its bufer function. in longitudinal platypodia foot looses this function and articular menisci have to take the role of the bufers (shock absorbers. Materials and Methods: Ultrasound assessment of meniscus thickness was performed on the joint space level. Results: varus type (43.4% of the meniscus complex adaptation was dominant in 5-7 years old patients with the 1st stage longitudinal platypodia; symmetric type (51.9% – in 8-12 years old patients; valgus type (56% – in 13-17 years old ones. Healthy children showed the valgus type in all age periods. Conclusions: in our opinion the dominance of the varus type of the meniscus complex in 5-7 aged children and its further conversion into the valgus type in case of the 1st stage longitudinal platypodia refects the reduction of the lower extremities transformation processes from the varus into the most functional convenient valgus position at the age of 13-17. Keywords: meniscus, children, ultrasound investigation.

  10. Students' Ability to Solve Process-Diagram Problems in Secondary Biology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams are important tools in biology for explaining processes such as protein synthesis, compound cycles and the like. The aim of the present study was to measure the ability to solve process-diagram problems in biology and its relationship with prior knowledge, spatial ability and working memory. For this purpose, we developed a test…

  11. Simulating biological processes: stochastic physics from whole cells to colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnest, Tyler M.; Cole, John A.; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2018-05-01

    The last few decades have revealed the living cell to be a crowded spatially heterogeneous space teeming with biomolecules whose concentrations and activities are governed by intrinsically random forces. It is from this randomness, however, that a vast array of precisely timed and intricately coordinated biological functions emerge that give rise to the complex forms and behaviors we see in the biosphere around us. This seemingly paradoxical nature of life has drawn the interest of an increasing number of physicists, and recent years have seen stochastic modeling grow into a major subdiscipline within biological physics. Here we review some of the major advances that have shaped our understanding of stochasticity in biology. We begin with some historical context, outlining a string of important experimental results that motivated the development of stochastic modeling. We then embark upon a fairly rigorous treatment of the simulation methods that are currently available for the treatment of stochastic biological models, with an eye toward comparing and contrasting their realms of applicability, and the care that must be taken when parameterizing them. Following that, we describe how stochasticity impacts several key biological functions, including transcription, translation, ribosome biogenesis, chromosome replication, and metabolism, before considering how the functions may be coupled into a comprehensive model of a ‘minimal cell’. Finally, we close with our expectation for the future of the field, focusing on how mesoscopic stochastic methods may be augmented with atomic-scale molecular modeling approaches in order to understand life across a range of length and time scales.

  12. 1st Fire Behavior and Fuels Conference: Fuels Management-How to Measure Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews

    2006-01-01

    The 1st Fire Behavior and Fuels Conference: Fuels Management -- How to Measure Success was held in Portland, Oregon, March 28-30, 2006. The International Association of Wildland Fire (IAWF) initiated a conference on this timely topic primarily in response to the needs of the U.S. National Interagency Fuels Coordinating Group (http://www.nifc.gov/).

  13. Analysis of storm runoff-sediment yield of a 1st order stream basin in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of storm runoff-sediment yield of a 1st order stream basin in Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, southwestern Nigeria. ... The findings of this study will aid programme in soil erosion controls designed by the governments and individuals in forested watersheds. Key Words: Storm flow discharge, storm sediment ...

  14. Proceedings of the 1st conference on nuclear structure data evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firestone, R.B.; Shirley, V.S.; Dairiki, J.M.

    1982-04-01

    The 1st Conference on Nuclear Structure Data Evaluation was organized by the Isotopes Project of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in order to encourage the open discussion of the scientific aspects of ENSDF production and usage. Summaries of the roundtable discussion sessions, abstracts of the presented papers, and additional contributed papers are contained in these Proceedings

  15. 1st European Conference on Gas Micro Flows (GasMems 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijns, A.J.H.; Valougeorgis, D.; Colin, S.; Baldas, L.

    2012-01-01

    PREFACE The aim of the 1st European Conference on Gas Micro Flows is to advance research in Europe and worldwide in the field of gas micro flows as well as to improve global fundamental knowledge and to enable technological applications. Gas flows in microsystems are of great importance and touch

  16. Perceptual Narrowing of Linguistic Sign Occurs in the 1st Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephanie Baker; Fais, Laurel; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Werker, Janet F.

    2012-01-01

    Over their 1st year of life, infants' "universal" perception of the sounds of language narrows to encompass only those contrasts made in their native language (J. F. Werker & R. C. Tees, 1984). This research tested 40 infants in an eyetracking paradigm and showed that this pattern also holds for infants exposed to seen language--American Sign…

  17. Assessing the effect of an online HIV/AIDS course on 1st-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. More international HIV/AIDS intervention initiatives targeting young adults are needed to help reach targets set by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS). Objectives. To determine the effect of an online HIV/AIDS course on 1st-year pharmacy students' knowledge of HIV prevention and ...

  18. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. The 1st quarter 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The report on coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1st quarter 2010 contains the statistical data concerning the following issues: (i) black coal mining: part I: production, resources, accomplishments; employees, part II: marketing and foreign trade; (ii) brown coal mining: part I: production, resources, accomplishments; employees, part II: marketing and foreign trade.

  19. Cancer incidence among 1st generation migrants compared to native Danes--a retrospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørredam, Marie Louise; Krasnik, A; Pipper, C

    2007-01-01

    STUDY AIMS: To investigate the incidence of cancer among 1st generation migrants compared to native Danes, including time trends in the risk of cancer among migrants. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study design. Migrants were matched 1:4 on age and sex with a Danish born reference population....... The time trends of the study are interesting and a relevant topic for further research....

  20. The Importance of Friends: Friendship and Adjustment among 1st-Year University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buote, Vanessa M.; Pancer, S. Mark; Pratt, Michael W.; Adams, Gerald; Birnie-Lefcovitch, Shelly; Polivy, Janet; Wintre, Maxine Gallander

    2007-01-01

    In a study of new friendships and adjustment among 1st-year university students, students at six Canadian universities completed questionnaires that assessed the quality of new friendships and adjustment during their first academic year. In-depth, face-to-face interviews about students' new friendships were conducted with a subsample of these…

  1. 77 FR 22574 - Filing Dates for the Washington Special Election In the 1st Congressional District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... the 1st Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for... Special Primary and Special General Election on November 6, 2012, shall file a 12-day Pre-Primary Report... Elections shall file a 12-day Pre-Primary Report on July 26, 2012; a 12-day Pre-General Report on October 25...

  2. 76 FR 51366 - Filing Dates for the Oregon Special Election in the 1st Congressional District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... 1st Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for... Special Primary and Special General Election on January 31, 2012, shall file a 12-day Pre-Primary Report... Primary and Special General Elections shall file a 12-day Pre-Primary Report on October 27, 2011; a...

  3. 75 FR 12544 - Filing Dates for the Hawaii Special Election In the 1st Congressional District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... 1st Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special election. SUMMARY: Hawaii has scheduled a Special General Election on May 22, 2010, to fill the U.... Committees required to file reports in connection with the Special General Election on May 22, 2010, shall...

  4. 78 FR 51189 - Filing Dates for the Alabama Special Elections in the 1st Congressional District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... 1st Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for... Congressional District vacated by Representative Jo Bonner. There are three possible special elections, but only... Election, the top two vote-getters will participate in a Special Runoff Election. General Election...

  5. Biological features produced by additive manufacturing processes using vat photopolymerization method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoudinejad, Ali; Mendez Ribo, Macarena; Pedersen, David Bue

    2017-01-01

    of micro biological features by Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes. The study characterizes the additive manufacturing processes for polymeric micro part productions using the vat photopolymerization method. A specifically designed vat photopolymerization AM machine suitable for precision printing...

  6. Active Interaction Mapping as a tool to elucidate hierarchical functions of biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Jean-Claude; Kramer, Michael; Ideker, Trey; Subramani, Suresh

    2017-07-03

    Increasingly, various 'omics data are contributing significantly to our understanding of novel biological processes, but it has not been possible to iteratively elucidate hierarchical functions in complex phenomena. We describe a general systems biology approach called Active Interaction Mapping (AI-MAP), which elucidates the hierarchy of functions for any biological process. Existing and new 'omics data sets can be iteratively added to create and improve hierarchical models which enhance our understanding of particular biological processes. The best datatypes to further improve an AI-MAP model are predicted computationally. We applied this approach to our understanding of general and selective autophagy, which are conserved in most eukaryotes, setting the stage for the broader application to other cellular processes of interest. In the particular application to autophagy-related processes, we uncovered and validated new autophagy and autophagy-related processes, expanded known autophagy processes with new components, integrated known non-autophagic processes with autophagy and predict other unexplored connections.

  7. Using Simple Manipulatives to Improve Student Comprehension of a Complex Biological Process: Protein Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Karen; Bartlett, John

    2012-01-01

    Biological systems and living processes involve a complex interplay of biochemicals and macromolecular structures that can be challenging for undergraduate students to comprehend and, thus, misconceptions abound. Protein synthesis, or translation, is an example of a biological process for which students often hold many misconceptions. This article…

  8. Pulsed electrical discharges for medicine and biology techniques, processes, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kolikov, Victor

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the application of pulsed electrical discharges in water and water dispersions of metal nanoparticles in medicine (surgery, dentistry, and oncology), biology, and ecology. The intensive electrical and shock waves represent a novel technique to destroy viruses and this way to  prepare anti-virus vaccines. The method of pulsed electrical discharges in water allows to decontaminate water from almost all known bacteria and spores of fungi being present in human beings. The nanoparticles used are not genotoxic and mutagenic. This book is useful for researchers and graduate students.

  9. Degradation alternatives for a commercial fungicide in water: biological, photo-Fenton, and coupled biological photo-Fenton processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Loveira, Elsa; Ariganello, Federico; Medina, María Sara; Centrón, Daniela; Candal, Roberto; Curutchet, Gustavo

    2017-11-01

    Imazalil (IMZ) is a widely used fungicide for the post-harvest treatment of citrus, classified as "likely to be carcinogenic in humans" for EPA, that can be only partially removed by conventional biological treatment. Consequently, specific or combined processes should be applied to prevent its release to the environment. Biological treatment with adapted microorganism consortium, photo-Fenton, and coupled biological photo-Fenton processes were tested as alternatives for the purification of water containing high concentration of the fungicide and the coadjutants present in the commercial formulation. IMZ-resistant consortium with the capacity to degrade IMZ in the presence of a C-rich co-substrate was isolated from sludge coming from a fruit packaging company wastewater treatment plant. This consortium was adapted to resist and degrade the organics present in photo-Fenton-oxidized IMZ water solution. Bacteria colonies from the consortia were isolated and identified. The effect of H 2 O 2 initial concentration and dosage on IMZ degradation rate, average oxidation state (AOS), organic acid concentration, oxidation, and mineralization percentage after photo-Fenton process was determined. The application of biological treatment to the oxidized solutions notably decreased the total organic carbon (TOC) in solution. The effect of the oxidation degree, limited by H 2 O 2 concentration and dosage, on the percentage of mineralization obtained after the biological treatment was determined and explained in terms of changes in AOS. The concentration of H 2 O 2 necessary to eliminate IMZ by photo-Fenton and to reduce TOC and chemical oxygen demand (COD) by biological treatment, in order to allow the release of the effluents to rivers with different flows, was estimated.

  10. Behaviour of radionuclides in biological and non-biological processes at very low concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinnaeve, J.; Frissel, M.J.; Klugt, N. van der; Geijn, S.C. van de.

    1980-01-01

    Four experiments using a 'biological exchange column', i.e. a cut papyrus stem were carried out. Prior to the passage of the labelled solution containing 250 μCi 137 Cs.l -1 , and 1 μCi 134 Cs.l -1 , the exchange sites of the stem were protonated. Two treatments were carried out, the first with 10 -4 M stable caesium in the labelled solution and the second with 10 -4 M potassium. After detection of the front of activity half way up the stem, 5 cm segments of the stem were cut and counted. (Auth.)

  11. The 1st of April 2470 BC Total Solar Eclipse Seen by the Prophet Ibraheem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, S. M.

    The Holy Quran describes a phenomenon seen by young Abraham that can only fit a solar eclipse. Two criteria were given for this particular eclipse; first only one planet was seen as soon as it got dark and second no corona was seen. In order to justify the first selection rule, examinations of solar and planetary longitudes for total solar eclipses passing over Babel were carried out. Only the eclipse of the 1st of April 2470 BC meets this condition, as it was only Venus that was seen at that eclipse. The second selection rule was also naturally fulfilled, as Babel happened to be on the border of the totality zone hence no corona was seen, however all the time the moon glistened as Baily's beads. There is no doubt that the prophet Abraham witnessed the 1st of April total solar eclipse that passed over Babel. This will put him about 470 years backward than it was previously anticipated.

  12. Proceedings of the 1st CIRP Seminar on Micro and Nano Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Alting, Leo

    2003-01-01

    The present Proceedings of the 1st International CIRP Seminar on Micro and Nano Technology is the result of a CIRP initiative taken by the Working Group on Micro/Nano Technology established in 2002. The CIRP initiative is a recognition of the large potentials that micro/nano technology has...... in improving/enhancing many of the existing products and in forming the basis of a long range of new next generation of products. Micro and nano technology are common phrases used to describe phenomena, components, products etc. related to small dimensions, usually based on functioning principles...... accessible to a large group of customers. Therefore, product development and manufacture is very essential. Therefore this 1st CIRP Seminar represents an important milestone for design and industrial manufacture of products based on micro and nano technology. The Proceedings cover mostly new, interesting...

  13. Lignocellulose Biomass: Constitutive Polymers. Biological Processes of Lignin Degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.; Manzanares, P.

    1994-01-01

    The structure of the lignocellulosic materials and the chemical composition of their main constitutive polymers, cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin are described. The most promising transformation processes according to the type of biomass considered: hardwood, softwood an herbaceous and the perspectives of biotechnological processes for bio pulping, bio bleaching and effluents decolorisation in the paper pulp industry are also discussed. (Author) 7 refs

  14. Aerobic Digestion. Biological Treatment Process Control. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This unit on aerobic sludge digestion covers the theory of the process, system components, factors that affect the process performance, standard operational concerns, indicators of steady-state operations, and operational problems. The instructor's guide includes: (1) an overview of the unit; (2) lesson plan; (3) lecture outline (keyed to a set of…

  15. Achievement report for 1st phase (fiscal 1974-80) Sunshine Program research and development - Hydrogen energy. Research on hydrogen production technology using thermochemical process (Research on cycles of Fe systems etc.); 1974-1980 nendo suiso energy seika hokokusho. Netsu kagakuho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu (tetsukei cycle nado no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    Collected in this report are the results of efforts of the Government Industrial Research Institute, Osaka, in the 7-year period that began in fiscal 1974. The Institute, after looking for basic reactions in thermochemical cycles which are promising, has come to propose a new cycle in which iron and bromine are the reactants. In the research, the Fe-Br reaction is divided into a hydrogen generating loop and an oxygen generating loop, both to be developed into devices. Problems in developing them into a cycle are isolated, and solved. In the hydrogen generating loop, the use of a molten salt is contrived for the prevention of reduction in the reactivity of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to be generated, and now it is expected that the problem will be solved. No problem is detected in the oxygen generating loop. The process is now accepted as a superb one. As for the materials for the Fe-Br-based cycle apparatus, important tasks have to be undertaken since existing materials cannot be used as is. Besides, thermal efficiency etc. are estimated for a new As-Br-based hybrid cycle and the Fe-Br-based cycle. (NEDO)

  16. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on area consortium research and development business, 1st year. Area consortium energy research and development (molding material processing eco-system using powder lubricant); 1998 nendo chiiki consortium energy kenkyu kaihatsu bun'ya. Funtai rikei junkatsuzai wo mochiita sokeizai kako eko system no kenkyu kaihatsu (dai 1 nendo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A material processing technology demanding but low energy and cost and causing low environmental impact was developed using a powder lubricant in a closed metal die system. An inorganic powder excellent in adhesiveness as lubricant was discovered. Powder lubricants for die casting and new carbon lubricants for metal die forging were also developed. In a test in an eco-die casting system, it was found that power was better than water solution in terms of finish and energy efficiency. In the development of a metal forging system using a powder lubricant, existing graphite lubricants and new powder lubricants containing fullerene were subjected to evaluation (ring tests). Two types of graphite solutions now in use and two powder lubricants were evaluated by the ring tests, and this enabled the comprehension of powder lubricant characteristics. For the development of a die casting system requiring no lubricant, a metal die surface treatment method was found that produces a surface excellent in resisting erosion by the application of the aluminizing ion nitriding composite treatment method. In addition, wettability was compared between a PVD (physical vapor deposition)-formed nitride film and the powder lubricant constituents. The report also refers to surveys conducted for commercialization. (NEDO)

  17. Proceedings of the 1st international scientific conference "Teaching methods for economics and business sciences"

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Teaching is a challenging but also a rewarding profession. It is underpinned by one key question: how do we build a good teaching and learning environment so that our students can acquire professional competences which will enable them to be successful in today’s global business environment. These proceedings include the papers presented at the 1st International Scientific Conference »Teaching Methods for Economics and Business Sciences« held on 8 May 2017 at the University of Maribor, F...

  18. 1st Cavalry Division’s Effectiveness In Conducting Airmobile Operations During Operation Pegasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    HQ Provisional Corps Vietnam, 1968), 30. 4 Story created by Author, derived from events found in 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile), Combat Operations...not available. However, a limitation of this was that aerial fire support had limited capability in restrictive weather conditions, such as low clouds ...Cavalry Division (Airmobile) Tactical SOP, Annex O. 88 Robert, Cushman to John Tolson, January 28, 1968, MSG, HQ III MAF 25 1428z JAN 68 Subject

  19. Test of Science Process Skills of Biology Students towards Developing of Learning Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith S. Rabacal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a descriptive study aimed to determine the academic achievement on science process skills of the BS Biology Students of Northern Negros State College of Science and Technology, Philippines with the end view of developing learning exercises which will enhance their academic achievement on basic and integrated science process skills. The data in this study were obtained using a validated questionnaire. Mean was the statistical tool used to determine the academic achievement on the above mentioned science process skills; t-test for independent means was used to determine significant difference on the academic achievement of science process skills of BS Biology students while Pearson Product Moment of Correlation Coefficient was used to determine the significant relationship between basic and integrated science process skills of the BS Biology students. A 0.05 level of significance was used to determine whether the hypothesis set in the study will be rejected or accepted. Findings revealed that the academic achievement on basic and integrated science process skills of the BS Biology students was average. Findings revealed that there are no significant differences on the academic performance of the BS Biology students when grouped according to year level and gender. Findings also revealed that there is a significant difference on the academic achievement between basic and integrated science process skills of the BS Biology students. Findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between academic achievement on the basic and integrated science process skills of the BS Biology students.

  20. Enhancing the hydrolysis process of a two-stage biogas technology for the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasir, Zeeshan; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2015-01-01

    The Danish company Solum A/S has developed a two-stage dry anaerobic digestion process labelled AIKAN® for the biological conversion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) into biogas and compost. In the AIKAN® process design the methanogenic (2nd) stage is separated from...... the hydrolytic (1st) stage, which enables pump-free feeding of the waste into the 1st stage (processing module), and eliminates the risk for blocking of pumps and pipes by pumping only the percolate from the 1st stage into the 2nd stage (biogas reactor tank). The biogas yield of the AIKAN® two-stage process......, however, has shown to be only about 60% of the theoretical maximum. Previous monitoring of the hydrolytic and methanogenic activity in the two stages of the process revealed that the bottleneck of the whole degradation process is rather found in the hydrolytic first stage while the methanogenic second...

  1. Two-way feedback between biology and deep Earth processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sleep, Norman; Bird, Dennis K.; Pope, Emily Catherine

    The presence of the metamorphic products of banded iron formation and black shale indicate that the Earth teemed with life by the time of the earliest preserved rocks, ca. 3.85 Ga. Iron and sulfur-based anoxygenic photosynthesis with full carbon cycles was present by this time. The pH of the ocean...... was ~8. The lack of older rock record cloaks pre-biotic evolution and the origin of life. Nascent and early life obtained energy from chemical disequilibria in rocks rather than sunlight. Appraising putative rock pre-biological environments is difficult in that life has modified the composition...... of the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and sedimentary rocks. It has greatly affected the composition of crystalline crustal rocks and measurably modified the mantle. Conversely, hard crustal rocks and the mantle likely sequester a very ancient record of last resort. Theory provides additional insight. The Earth...

  2. System for monitoring an industrial or biological process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Vilim, Rick B.; White, Andrew M.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring and responding to conditions of an industrial process. Industrial process signals, such as repetitive manufacturing, testing and operational machine signals, are generated by a system. Sensor signals characteristic of the process are generated over a time length and compared to reference signals over the time length. The industrial signals are adjusted over the time length relative to the reference signals, the phase shift of the industrial signals is optimized to the reference signals and the resulting signals output for analysis by systems such as SPRT.

  3. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Process Description language Level 1 Version 1.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Stuart; Le Novère, Nicolas; Demir, Emek; Mi, Huaiyu; Villéger, Alice

    2015-09-04

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Process Description language represents biological entities and processes between these entities within a network. SBGN PD focuses on the mechanistic description and temporal dependencies of biological interactions and transformations. The nodes (elements) are split into entity nodes describing, e.g., metabolites, proteins, genes and complexes, and process nodes describing, e.g., reactions and associations. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the nodes, such as consumption, production, stimulation and inhibition. Among all three languages of SBGN, PD is the closest to metabolic and regulatory pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge.

  4. PREFACE: 1st International Conference on Mechanical Engineering Research 2011 (ICMER2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Rosli

    2012-09-01

    The year 2010 represented a significant milestone in the history of the Mechanical Engineering community with the organization of the first and second national level conferences (National Conference in Mechanical Engineering for Research, 1st and 2nd NCMER) at Universiti Malaysia Pahang on 26-27 May and 3-4 December 2010. The conferences attracted a large number of delegates from different premier academic and research institutions in the country to participate and share their research experiences at the conference. The International Conference on Mechanical Engineering Research (ICMER 2011) followed on from the first and second conferences due to good support from researchers. The ICMER 2011 is a good platform for researchers and postgraduate students to present their latest finding in research. The conference covers a wide range of topics including the internal combustion engine, machining processes, heat and mass transfer, fuel, biomechanical analysis, aerodynamic analysis, thermal comfort, computational techniques, design and simulation, automotive transmission, optimization techniques, hybrid electric vehicles, engine vibration, heat exchangers, finite element analysis, computational fluid dynamics, green energy, vehicle dynamics renewable energy, combustion, design, product development, advanced experimentation techniques, to name but a few. The international conference has helped to bridge the gap between researchers working at different institutions and in different countries to share their knowledge and has helped to motivate young scientists with their research. This has also given some clear direction for further research from the deliberations of the conference. Several people have contributed in different ways to the success of the conference. We thank the keynote speakers and all authors of the contributed papers, for the cooperation rendered to us in the publication of the CD conference proceedings. In particular, we would like to place on record our

  5. Effect of Process-Oriented Guided-Inquiry Learning on Non-majors Biology Students' Understanding of Biological Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Breann M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of process-oriented guided-inquiry learning (POGIL) on non-majors college biology students' understanding of biological classification. This study addressed an area of science instruction, POGIL in the non-majors college biology laboratory, which has yet to be qualitatively and quantitatively researched. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods approach was used. Students' understanding of biological classification was measured in two areas: scores on pre and posttests (consisting of 11 multiple choice questions), and conceptions of classification as elicited in pre and post interviews and instructor reflections. Participants were Minnesota State University, Mankato students enrolled in BIOL 100 Summer Session. One section was taught with the traditional curriculum (n = 6) and the other section in the POGIL curriculum (n = 10) developed by the researcher. Three students from each section were selected to take part in pre and post interviews. There were no significant differences within each teaching method (p familiar animal categories and aquatic habitats, unfamiliar organisms, combining and subdividing initial groupings, and the hierarchical nature of classification. The POGIL students were the only group to surpass these challenges after the teaching intervention. This study shows that POGIL is an effective technique at eliciting students' misconceptions, and addressing these misconceptions, leading to an increase in student understanding of biological classification.

  6. Mistaking geography for biology: inferring processes from species distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Dan L; Cardillo, Marcel; Rosauer, Dan F; Bolnick, Daniel I

    2014-10-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been a rapid proliferation of statistical methods that infer evolutionary and ecological processes from data on species distributions. These methods have led to considerable new insights, but they often fail to account for the effects of historical biogeography on present-day species distributions. Because the geography of speciation can lead to patterns of spatial and temporal autocorrelation in the distributions of species within a clade, this can result in misleading inferences about the importance of deterministic processes in generating spatial patterns of biodiversity. In this opinion article, we discuss ways in which patterns of species distributions driven by historical biogeography are often interpreted as evidence of particular evolutionary or ecological processes. We focus on three areas that are especially prone to such misinterpretations: community phylogenetics, environmental niche modelling, and analyses of beta diversity (compositional turnover of biodiversity). Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biological processes for the production of aryl sulfates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to the field of biotechnology as it applies to the production of aryl sulfates using polypeptides or recombinant cells comprising said polypeptides. More particularly, the present invention pertains to polypeptides having aryl sulfotransferase activity......, recombinant host cells expressing same and processes for the production of aryl sulfates employing these polypeptides or recombinant host cells....

  8. Anaerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. Areas addressed include: (1) anaerobic sludge digestion (considering the nature of raw sludge, purposes of anaerobic digestion, the results of digestion, types of equipment, and other topics); (2) digester process control (considering feeding…

  9. Assessment of the Biological Treatability of Black Tea Processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anaerobic degradability of tea beverage processing effluent was assessed using a stationary upflow anaerobic filter. The filter, with an active column of 1.2m height, inner diameter of 100 mm and filled with rock as the attachment medium was operated at room temperature ranging between 20-250C throughout the ...

  10. Applications of Structural Biology and Bioinformatics in the Investigation of Oxidative Stress-Related Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bersch, Beate; Groves, Matthew; Johann, Klare; Torda, Andrew; Ortiz, Dario; Laher, I.

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated dysfunction of certain biological processes is implicated in different diseases in humans, including cardiovascular, cancer, or neurodegenerative disorders. Not only human cells and tissues are affected by ROS but also all other biological systems, including

  11. Conserving forest biological diversity: How the Montreal Process helps achieve sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Nelson; Guy Robertson; Kurt. Riitters

    2015-01-01

    Forests support a variety of ecosystems, species and genes — collectively referred to as biological diversity — along with important processes that tie these all together. With the growing recognition that biological diversity contributes to human welfare in a number of important ways such as providing food, medicine and fiber (provisioning services...

  12. Sustainability in the Design, Synthesis and Analysis of Chemical Engineering Processes 1st edition (Preface)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book preface explains the needs found by the book editors for assembling the state of the art of technical and scientific knowledge relevant to chemical engineering, sustainability, and sustainable uses of wastes and materials management, and to do so in an accessible and c...

  13. Biological removal of metal ions from aqueous process streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumate, S.E. II; Strandberg, G.W.; Parrott, J.R. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Aqueous waste streams from nuclear fuel processing operations may contain trace quantities of heavy metals such as uranium. Conventional chemical and physical treatment may be ineffective or very expensive when uranium concentrations in the range of 10 to 100 g/m 3 must be reduced to 1 g/m 3 or less. The ability of some microorganisms to adsorb or complex dissolved heavy metals offers an alternative treatment method. Uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-2574 and a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was examined to identify factors which might affect a process for the removal of uranium from wastewater streams. At uranium concentrations in the range of 10 to 500 g/m 3 , where the binding capacity of the biomass was not exceeded, temperature, pH, and initial uranium concentration were found to influence the rate of uranium uptake, but not the soluble uranium concentration at equilibrium. 6 figs

  14. Low cost materials of construction for biological processes: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-13

    The workshop was held, May 1993 in conjunction with the 15th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. The purpose of this workshop was to present information on the biomass to ethanol process in the context of materials selection and through presentation and discussion, identify promising avenues for future research. Six technical presentations were grouped into two sessions: process assessment and technology assessment. In the process assessment session, the group felt that the pretreatment area would require the most extensive materials research due the complex chemical, physical and thermal environment. Discussion centered around the possibility of metals being leached into the process stream and their effect on the fermentation mechanics. Linings were a strong option for pretreatment assuming the economics were favorable. Fermentation was considered an important area for research also, due to the unique complex of compounds and dual phases present. Erosion in feedstock handling equipment was identified as a minor concern. In the technology assessment session, methodologies in corrosion analysis were presented in addition to an overview of current coatings/linings technology. Widely practiced testing strategies, including ASTM methods, as well as novel procedures for micro-analysis of corrosion were discussed. Various coatings and linings, including polymers and ceramics, were introduced. The prevailing recommendations for testing included keeping the testing simple until the problem warranted a more detailed approach and developing standardized testing procedures to ensure the data was reproducible and applicable. The need to evaluate currently available materials such as coatings/linings, carbon/stainless steels, or fiberglass reinforced plastic was emphasized. It was agreed that economic evaluation of each material candidate must be an integral part of any research plan.

  15. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.

    1994-10-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop an advanced, clean coal biogasification (MicGAS) Process. The objectives of the research during FY 1993--94 were to: (1) enhance kinetics of methane production (biogasification, biomethanation) from Texas lignite (TxL) by the Mic-1 consortium isolated and developed at ARCTECH, (2) increase coal solids loading, (3) optimize medium composition, and (4) reduce retention time. A closer analysis of the results described here indicate that biomethanation of TxL at >5% solids loading is feasible through appropriate development of nutrient medium and further adaptation of the microorganisms involved in this process. Further understanding of the inhibitory factors and some biochemical manipulations to overcome those inhibitions will hasten the process considerably. Results are discussed on the following: products of biomethanation and enhance of methane production including: bacterial adaptation; effect of nutrient amendment substitutes; effects of solids loading; effect of initial pH of the culture medium; effect of hydrogen donors and carbon balance.

  16. All-optical 1st- and 2nd-order differential equation solvers with large tuning ranges using Fabry-Pérot semiconductor optical amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kaisheng; Hou, Jie; Huang, Zhuyang; Cao, Tong; Zhang, Jihua; Yu, Yuan; Zhang, Xinliang

    2015-02-09

    We experimentally demonstrate an all-optical temporal computation scheme for solving 1st- and 2nd-order linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with tunable constant coefficients by using Fabry-Pérot semiconductor optical amplifiers (FP-SOAs). By changing the injection currents of FP-SOAs, the constant coefficients of the differential equations are practically tuned. A quite large constant coefficient tunable range from 0.0026/ps to 0.085/ps is achieved for the 1st-order differential equation. Moreover, the constant coefficient p of the 2nd-order ODE solver can be continuously tuned from 0.0216/ps to 0.158/ps, correspondingly with the constant coefficient q varying from 0.0000494/ps(2) to 0.006205/ps(2). Additionally, a theoretical model that combining the carrier density rate equation of the semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) with the transfer function of the Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity is exploited to analyze the solving processes. For both 1st- and 2nd-order solvers, excellent agreements between the numerical simulations and the experimental results are obtained. The FP-SOAs based all-optical differential-equation solvers can be easily integrated with other optical components based on InP/InGaAsP materials, such as laser, modulator, photodetector and waveguide, which can motivate the realization of the complicated optical computing on a single integrated chip.

  17. Improved biological processes for the production of aryl sulfates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to the field of biotechnology as it applies to the production of aryl sulfates using recombinant host cells. More particularly, the present invention pertains to recombinant host cells comprising (e.g., expressing) a polypeptide having aryl sulfotransferase...... activity, wherein said recombinant host cells have been modified to have an increased uptake of sulfate compared to identical host cells that does not carry said modification. Further provided are processes for the production of aryl sulfates, such as zosteric acid, employing such recombinant host cells....

  18. Kinetics of quasi-isoenergetic transition processes in biological macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, E.G.; Teslenko, V.I.

    2010-01-01

    A master equation describing the evolution of averaged molecular state occupancies in molecular systems where alternation of molecular energy levels is caused by discrete dichotomous and trichotomous stochastic fields, is derived. This study is focused on the kinetics of quasi-isoenergetic transition processes in the presence of moderately high frequency stochastic field. A novel physical mechanism for temperature-independent transitions in flexible molecular systems is proposed. This mechanism becomes effective when the conformation transitions between quasi-isoenergetic molecular states take place. At room temperatures, stochastic broadening of molecular energy levels predominates the energy of low-frequency vibrations accompanying the transition. This leads to a cancellation of the temperature dependence in the stochastically averaged rate constants. As examples, physical interpretations of the temperature-independent onset of P2X 3 receptor desensitization in neuronal membranes, as well as degradation of PER2 protein in embrionic fibroblasts, are provided.

  19. Kinetics of quasi-isoenergetic transition processes in biological macromolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, E.G., E-mail: epetrov@bitp.kiev.ua [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Metrologichna Street, 14-b, UA-03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Teslenko, V.I. [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Metrologichna Street, 14-b, UA-03680 Kiev (Ukraine)

    2010-10-05

    A master equation describing the evolution of averaged molecular state occupancies in molecular systems where alternation of molecular energy levels is caused by discrete dichotomous and trichotomous stochastic fields, is derived. This study is focused on the kinetics of quasi-isoenergetic transition processes in the presence of moderately high frequency stochastic field. A novel physical mechanism for temperature-independent transitions in flexible molecular systems is proposed. This mechanism becomes effective when the conformation transitions between quasi-isoenergetic molecular states take place. At room temperatures, stochastic broadening of molecular energy levels predominates the energy of low-frequency vibrations accompanying the transition. This leads to a cancellation of the temperature dependence in the stochastically averaged rate constants. As examples, physical interpretations of the temperature-independent onset of P2X{sub 3} receptor desensitization in neuronal membranes, as well as degradation of PER2 protein in embrionic fibroblasts, are provided.

  20. Heat transfer and fluid flow in biological processes advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Sid

    2015-01-01

    Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Biological Processes covers emerging areas in fluid flow and heat transfer relevant to biosystems and medical technology. This book uses an interdisciplinary approach to provide a comprehensive prospective on biofluid mechanics and heat transfer advances and includes reviews of the most recent methods in modeling of flows in biological media, such as CFD. Written by internationally recognized researchers in the field, each chapter provides a strong introductory section that is useful to both readers currently in the field and readers interested in learning more about these areas. Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Biological Processes is an indispensable reference for professors, graduate students, professionals, and clinical researchers in the fields of biology, biomedical engineering, chemistry and medicine working on applications of fluid flow, heat transfer, and transport phenomena in biomedical technology. Provides a wide range of biological and clinical applications of fluid...

  1. Revealing complex function, process and pathway interactions with high-throughput expression and biological annotation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nitesh Kumar; Ernst, Mathias; Liebscher, Volkmar; Fuellen, Georg; Taher, Leila

    2016-10-20

    The biological relationships both between and within the functions, processes and pathways that operate within complex biological systems are only poorly characterized, making the interpretation of large scale gene expression datasets extremely challenging. Here, we present an approach that integrates gene expression and biological annotation data to identify and describe the interactions between biological functions, processes and pathways that govern a phenotype of interest. The product is a global, interconnected network, not of genes but of functions, processes and pathways, that represents the biological relationships within the system. We validated our approach on two high-throughput expression datasets describing organismal and organ development. Our findings are well supported by the available literature, confirming that developmental processes and apoptosis play key roles in cell differentiation. Furthermore, our results suggest that processes related to pluripotency and lineage commitment, which are known to be critical for development, interact mainly indirectly, through genes implicated in more general biological processes. Moreover, we provide evidence that supports the relevance of cell spatial organization in the developing liver for proper liver function. Our strategy can be viewed as an abstraction that is useful to interpret high-throughput data and devise further experiments.

  2. Perception of 1 st year medical students towards career choices and specialty of psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneet Kumar Upadhyaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shortage of psychiatrists is a worldwide phenomenon. If the factors that attract or repel students towards a specialty can be identified, it may be possible to encourage them towards it. Choice of specialty as a career depends on the complex interplay of experiences before, during or after exposure to the specialty. Objectives: The aim was to understand perceptions of 1 st year medical students regarding career choices and the specialty of psychiatry through a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. Materials and Methods: Perceptions of 137 1 st year medical students from the Government Medical College were recorded using a semi-structured questionnaire. Students provided their opinions about future career choices; perspective of these specialties in terms of financial reward, reputation, work-life balance, challenging aspect, ability to help patients effectively and emotional stability; their preferences in life and interaction with psychiatrist and its impact. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA with post-hoc analysis by Tukey-Kramer test. Results: Surgery was a high priority for 69 (50% while psychiatry was a high priority only for 11 (8%. Surgery was highest for financial reward and reputation, but lowest for work-life balance. Psychiatry had higher emotional stability, however, its the reputation was lower than surgery, medicine, obstetrics and gynaecology and paediatrics. Students preferred reputation (41% over social service opportunities (43%, work-life balance (16%, and high-income (11%. Interaction with psychiatrist increased inclination for psychiatry in 69% (9/13 students. Conclusions: Psychiatry is not a preferred specialty among 1 st year medical students due to its poor reputation.

  3. 1st ESMO Consensus Conference in lung cancer; Lugano 2010: small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahel, R; Thatcher, N; Früh, M

    2011-01-01

    , the expert panel prepared clinically relevant questions concerning five areas as follows: early and locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), first-line metastatic NSCLC, second-/third-line NSCLC, NSCLC pathology and molecular testing, and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) to be addressed through......The 1st ESMO Consensus Conference on lung cancer was held in Lugano, Switzerland on 21st and 22nd May 2010 with the participation of a multidisciplinary panel of leading professionals in pathology and molecular diagnostics and medical, surgical and radiation oncology. Before the conference...

  4. 1st ESMO Consensus Conference in lung cancer; Lugano 2010: small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahel, R; Thatcher, N; Früh, M

    2011-01-01

    The 1st ESMO Consensus Conference on lung cancer was held in Lugano, Switzerland on 21st and 22nd May 2010 with the participation of a multidisciplinary panel of leading professionals in pathology and molecular diagnostics and medical, surgical and radiation oncology. Before the conference......, the expert panel prepared clinically relevant questions concerning five areas as follows: early and locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), first-line metastatic NSCLC, second-/third-line NSCLC, NSCLC pathology and molecular testing, and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) to be addressed through...

  5. Presentations for the 1st muon science experimental facility advisory committee meeting (MuSAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    The J-PARC Muon Science Advisory Committee, so called 'MuSAC', is organized under the J-PARC Project Director during construction period, in order to discuss the following items related to the Muon Science Facility at J-PARC and to report to the Project Director and Muon Science Facility construction team. The committee will review and advise the following subjects: 1) Project definition of the experimental facility to be constructed in Materials and Life Science Facility of J-PARC, 2) Content of the 1st phase experimental program. This issue is the collection of the documents presented at the title meeting. (J.P.N.)

  6. Chemical and Biological Defense: DOD Needs Consistent Policies and Clear Processes to Address the Survivability of Weapon Systems Against Chemical and Biological Threats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    DOD, joint, and military service weapon system acquisition policies inconsistently address and do not establish a clear process for considering and testing system chemical and biological survivability...

  7. Stochastic processes, multiscale modeling, and numerical methods for computational cellular biology

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the modeling and mathematical analysis of stochastic dynamical systems along with their simulations. The collected chapters will review fundamental and current topics and approaches to dynamical systems in cellular biology. This text aims to develop improved mathematical and computational methods with which to study biological processes. At the scale of a single cell, stochasticity becomes important due to low copy numbers of biological molecules, such as mRNA and proteins that take part in biochemical reactions driving cellular processes. When trying to describe such biological processes, the traditional deterministic models are often inadequate, precisely because of these low copy numbers. This book presents stochastic models, which are necessary to account for small particle numbers and extrinsic noise sources. The complexity of these models depend upon whether the biochemical reactions are diffusion-limited or reaction-limited. In the former case, one needs to adopt the framework of s...

  8. Remote Laboratory NetLab for Effective Teaching of 1st Year Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Nedic

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Practical skills are important attributes of every engineering graduate. The Internet has provided tertiary education with the opportunity to develop innovative learning environments. The teaching and learning of practical skills has gained a new dimension with the emergence of remote laboratories. The rapidly growing number of remote laboratories (RL worldwide is the evidence that the educational community has recognized their potential to develop into a creative, flexible, engaging, and student-cantered learning environment. Even a brief review of the existing RLs shows a large diversity in their structure, design and implementation. However, not many researchers disclose how their RLs are integrated within their curricula. Therefore, an important question still remains to be answered: how to optimize the design of RLs and their integration in a course curriculum for the best learning outcomes? This problem is particularly important when RLs are used in teaching 1st year students who have limited technical knowledge and practical experience in using real equipment. In this paper we would like to share our experiences with NetLab, an RL developed at the University of South Australia (UniSA for teaching 1st year engineering students and make recommendations for improvements in teaching practices based on it.

  9. WE-DE-202-03: Modeling of Biological Processes - What Happens After Early Molecular Damage?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, S.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer has been established as a highly precise and effective way to eradicate a localized region of diseased tissue. To achieve further significant gains in the therapeutic ratio, we need to move towards biologically optimized treatment planning. To achieve this goal, we need to understand how the radiation-type dependent patterns of induced energy depositions within the cell (physics) connect via molecular, cellular and tissue reactions to treatment outcome such as tumor control and undesirable effects on normal tissue. Several computational biology approaches have been developed connecting physics to biology. Monte Carlo simulations are the most accurate method to calculate physical dose distributions at the nanometer scale, however simulations at the DNA scale are slow and repair processes are generally not simulated. Alternative models that rely on the random formation of individual DNA lesions within one or two turns of the DNA have been shown to reproduce the clusters of DNA lesions, including single strand breaks (SSBs), double strand breaks (DSBs) without the need for detailed track structure simulations. Efficient computational simulations of initial DNA damage induction facilitate computational modeling of DNA repair and other molecular and cellular processes. Mechanistic, multiscale models provide a useful conceptual framework to test biological hypotheses and help connect fundamental information about track structure and dosimetry at the sub-cellular level to dose-response effects on larger scales. In this symposium we will learn about the current state of the art of computational approaches estimating radiation damage at the cellular and sub-cellular scale. How can understanding the physics interactions at the DNA level be used to predict biological outcome? We will discuss if and how such calculations are relevant to advance our understanding of radiation damage and its repair, or, if the underlying biological

  10. WE-DE-202-03: Modeling of Biological Processes - What Happens After Early Molecular Damage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, S. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer has been established as a highly precise and effective way to eradicate a localized region of diseased tissue. To achieve further significant gains in the therapeutic ratio, we need to move towards biologically optimized treatment planning. To achieve this goal, we need to understand how the radiation-type dependent patterns of induced energy depositions within the cell (physics) connect via molecular, cellular and tissue reactions to treatment outcome such as tumor control and undesirable effects on normal tissue. Several computational biology approaches have been developed connecting physics to biology. Monte Carlo simulations are the most accurate method to calculate physical dose distributions at the nanometer scale, however simulations at the DNA scale are slow and repair processes are generally not simulated. Alternative models that rely on the random formation of individual DNA lesions within one or two turns of the DNA have been shown to reproduce the clusters of DNA lesions, including single strand breaks (SSBs), double strand breaks (DSBs) without the need for detailed track structure simulations. Efficient computational simulations of initial DNA damage induction facilitate computational modeling of DNA repair and other molecular and cellular processes. Mechanistic, multiscale models provide a useful conceptual framework to test biological hypotheses and help connect fundamental information about track structure and dosimetry at the sub-cellular level to dose-response effects on larger scales. In this symposium we will learn about the current state of the art of computational approaches estimating radiation damage at the cellular and sub-cellular scale. How can understanding the physics interactions at the DNA level be used to predict biological outcome? We will discuss if and how such calculations are relevant to advance our understanding of radiation damage and its repair, or, if the underlying biological

  11. Moving beyond a descriptive aquatic toxicology: the value of biological process and trait information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segner, Helmut

    2011-10-01

    In order to improve the ability to link chemical exposure to toxicological and ecological effects, aquatic toxicology will have to move from observing what chemical concentrations induce adverse effects to more explanatory approaches, that are concepts which build on knowledge of biological processes and pathways leading from exposure to adverse effects, as well as on knowledge on stressor vulnerability as given by the genetic, physiological and ecological (e.g., life history) traits of biota. Developing aquatic toxicology in this direction faces a number of challenges, including (i) taking into account species differences in toxicant responses on the basis of the evolutionarily developed diversity of phenotypic vulnerability to environmental stressors, (ii) utilizing diversified biological response profiles to serve as biological read across for prioritizing chemicals, categorizing them according to modes of action, and for guiding targeted toxicity evaluation; (iii) prediction of ecological consequences of toxic exposure from knowledge of how biological processes and phenotypic traits lead to effect propagation across the levels of biological hierarchy; and (iv) the search for concepts to assess the cumulative impact of multiple stressors. An underlying theme in these challenges is that, in addition to the question of what the chemical does to the biological receptor, we should give increasing emphasis to the question how the biological receptor handles the chemicals, i.e., through which pathways the initial chemical-biological interaction extends to the adverse effects, how this extension is modulated by adaptive or compensatory processes as well as by phenotypic traits of the biological receptor. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Simulation and Analysis of Complex Biological Processes: an Organisation Modelling Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores how the dynamics of complex biological processes can be modelled and simulated as an organisation of multiple agents. This modelling perspective identifies organisational structure occurring in complex decentralised processes and handles complexity of the analysis of the dynamics

  13. On the analysis of complex biological supply chains: From Process Systems Engineering to Quantitative Systems Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rohit T; Scherholz, Megerle L; Hartmanshenn, Clara; Bae, Seul-A; Androulakis, Ioannis P

    2017-12-05

    The use of models in biology has become particularly relevant as it enables investigators to develop a mechanistic framework for understanding the operating principles of living systems as well as in quantitatively predicting their response to both pathological perturbations and pharmacological interventions. This application has resulted in a synergistic convergence of systems biology and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling techniques that has led to the emergence of quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP). In this review, we discuss how the foundational principles of chemical process systems engineering inform the progressive development of more physiologically-based systems biology models.

  14. INFLUENCE OF THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION ON THE MARCH 1ST MOVEMENT IN KOREA (1917-1919

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Василий Владимирович Лебедев

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to address the question of how the influence of the October Revolution reached Korea and to what extent it affected the outcome of the March 1st Movement. The author analyzes the documents from the Diplomatic Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan and the articles of the official mouthpiece of the colonial government Maeil Sinbo from 1917 to the mid-1920s. Based on the analysis of the primary sources, the author reveals two main channels of receiving information of the revolutionary events in Russia. The first of them was the official newspaper of the Governor General. The main actions of the government of Soviet Russia covered by this newspaper aroused such great interest among the Korean public that in order to prevent an “incorrect interpretation” of these events, the Governor General had to repeatedly dedicate the front page of the newspaper to the articles directly or indirectly condemning the 1917 October Revolution. The second channel was the Korean labour migrants in Primorye. Coming to Russia in search of a better life, most “unnaturalized” migrants faced difficult economic and social conditions. The February Revolution of 1917 which opened the discussion of the future of the Korean population in the Far East became a prerequisite for the politicization of a large part of the labour migrants who witnessed the revolutionary changes in Russia. The author concludes that the ideas of the 1917 October Revolution found active response in the hearts and minds of the masses in Korea. The political and ethnic oppression intensified the social and political contradictions in the colonial Korea resulting in the nation-wide March 1st Movement of 1919 that became the turning point in the history of the world political anti-colonial movement in Asia. The national-bourgeois idea of “gaining independence through diplomacy” suffered a crushing defeat but it retained the spirit of the March 1st Movement in

  15. Family affluence, socio - economic status and dietary habits of 1st year University students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirini Syligardou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low socio-economic status (SES is associated with health risk behaviours contributing to the social inequalities in health. However, the associations of dietary habits with socio-economic status have not been investigated in emerging adulthood in detail yet. Aim: To investigate the associations of dietary habits with socio-economic status in 1st year undergraduate university students. Methods: This cross-sectional analysis draws data from the LATO study, a longitudinal study of all 1st year undergraduate students of TEI Crete during the academic year 2012/13 (Ν=1138, 54% girls, Mean age 18,31 years, response rate 96,7%. The consumption frequencies of fruits, vegetables, soft drinks, breakfast and delivery food were associated with the following socio-economic indicators: Family affluence (FAS II, paternal and maternal educational level and self-reported economic status. The SPSS v21.0 was used to perform logistic regression models after adjusting for potential confounders. Results: Only 24,9%, 12% and 17% of the students were consuming breakfast, fruits and vegetables, respectively, in a daily basis. Soft drinks were consumed daily by 6,1% of the participants but most of them consumed delivery/junk food less than 1/week (73,8%. Higher family affluence was associated with increased odds of consuming breakfast (OR=2,90, 95%CI=1,13-7,44, soft drinks (OR=8,10, 95%CI=1,38-47,68 and delivery/junk food (OR=2,44, 95%CI=1,27-4,70 in boys. High paternal educational level was associated in a protective way with boys’ consumption of delivery food (OR=0,42, 95%CI=0,18-0,95 and soft drinks (OR=0,19, 95%CI=0,05-0,72. Fruits and vegetables consumption was not associated with any SES indicator. Conclusions: The majority of 1st year university students were not following current diet recommendations irrespective of SES. Interventions targeting eating behaviours are needed at higher education institutes.

  16. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics transport and rate processes in physical, chemical and biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Demirel, Yasar

    2014-01-01

    Natural phenomena consist of simultaneously occurring transport processes and chemical reactions. These processes may interact with each other and may lead to self-organized structures, fluctuations, instabilities, and evolutionary systems. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics, 3rd edition emphasizes the unifying role of thermodynamics in analyzing the natural phenomena. This third edition updates and expands on the first and second editions by focusing on the general balance equations for coupled processes of physical, chemical, and biological systems. The new edition contains a new chapte

  17. Developing a Personal-Learning-Portfolio (PLP) for 1st year students at Department of Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anna Thit; Beck Hansen, Nina; Andersen, Mette Elmose

    Abstract title: Developing a Personal-Learning-Portfolio (PLP) for 1st year students at Department of Psychology Learning outcome of activity: B01 is the first module of the education in Psychology at University of Southern Denmark (SDU). The aim of B01 is to give the students a ‘map...... different strategies: first the overall framework of the PLP is discussed and second we conduct cognitive interviews evaluating the comprehensibility and relevance of the questions posed in the PLP. The PLP is then adapted based on the comments from the students. The development and initial testing...... be an inspiration to others who wish to develop and implements PLPs. Second, we will show the format of our particular Personal-Learning-Portfolio together with reflections on why it was developed in such a way. This includes the students’ opinions about the PLP and the results of the cognitive interviews....

  18. Tariffs on power supply and prices of electricity per 1st January 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The document gives a survey of the most usual types of tariffs connected with the Danish electric-power distribution companies and the prices, valid per January 1st, 1994, set by individual companies and also the cost to consumers of connection to the supply network. A survey of prices set by power plant administrators with regard to the distribution companies is also included in addition to a summary of the modes of calculation in connection with wind turbines not owned by the electricity companies and descriptions of models for calculations related to decentral and industrial plants. Local conditions such as structure, economy etc. must be taken into consideration when comparing prices set by companies in several different areas. (AB)

  19. 1st and 2nd Trimester Headsize in Fetuses with Congenital Heart Disease: A Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mette Høj; Petersen, Olav Bjørn; Vestergaard, Else Marie

    2014-01-01

    and screening for fetal malformations is carried out. Our cohort includes all fetuses in Western Denmark (2.9 million inhabitants) screened in between January 1st 2012 and December 31st 2013, diagnosed with any structural, non-syndromic congenital heart disease either during pregnancy or up to 6 months after......Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with neuro-developmental disorders. The influence of CHD on the brain may be present in the fetus. We hypothesize that fetal cerebral growth is impaired as early as 2nd trimester. Aim: To investigate if fetal cerebral growth is associated...... birth. Results 276 fetuses with CHD were identified. 114 (41%) were genetically screened primarily by chromosomal microarray analysis (n=82). Fetuses with identified chromosomal abnormalities were excluded as were multiple gestation fetuses and fetuses with major extra cardiac malformations. Data from...

  20. The new Facilities Management contract at CERN from 1st July 2002

    CERN Document Server

    Mauro Nonis

    2002-01-01

    Within the ST Division, all the Facilities Management activities have been under the ST/TFM group responsibility until the 30th June 2002, who has performed them using around 20 industrial support contracts. Starting from the 1st July 2002 a new unit, ST/FM, will take over these activities that will be unified into one single contract that has been adjudicated to the company Facilities Management Network SA. This contract will be in charge of the maintenance and minor works on tertiary installations (i.e. all structures and installations that have no direct relation to the running of the accelerators) for the following trades: - Technical: heating, ventilation, air conditioning, plumbing, electricity, civil engineering (painting, roofing, glazing, blinds, fencing, masonry etc.), passenger and goods lifts, automatic and powered doors, kitchen equipment, roads, signs, keys and locks, office furniture, - Services: waste collection, security, green areas, cleaning and sanitary supplies, disinfection, rodent cont...

  1. THE NEW FACILITIES MANAGEMENT CONTRACT AT CERN FROM 1st JULY 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    Mauro Nonis

    2002-01-01

    Within the ST Division, all the Facilities Management activities have been under the ST/TFM group responsibility until the 30th June 2002, who has performed them using around 20 industrial support contracts. Starting from the 1st July 2002 a new unit, ST/FM, will take over these activities that will be unified into one single contract that has been adjudicated to the company Facilities Management Network SA. This contract will be in charge of the maintenance and minor works on tertiary installations (i.e. all structures and installations that have no direct relation to the running of the accelerators) for the following trades: Technical: heating, ventilation, air conditioning, plumbing, electricity, civil engineering (painting, roofing, glazing, blinds, fencing, masonry etc.), passenger and goods lifts, automatic and powered doors, kitchen equipment, roads, signs, keys and locks, office furniture, Services: waste collection, security, green areas, cleaning and sanitary supplies, disinfection, rodent contro...

  2. 1st European-Middle Asian Conference on Computer Modelling 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Kolosov, Dmitrii; Snášel, Václav; Karakeyev, Taalaybek; Abraham, Ajith

    2016-01-01

    This volume of Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing contains papers presented at the 1st European-Middle Asian Conference on Computer Modelling, EMACOM 2015. This international conference was conceived as a brand new scientific and social event of mutual collaboration between the VSB - Technical University of Ostrava (Ostrava, Czech Republic) and the Kyrgyz National University named after J. Balasagyn (Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic). The aim of EMACOM 2015 was to present the latest development in the field of computer-aided modelling as an essential aspect of research and development of innovative systems and their applications. The conference showed that together with simulations, various modeling techniques, enabled and encouraged by the rapid development of high-performance computing platforms, are crucial for cost-efficient design, verification, and prototyping of solutions in many diverse industrial fields spanning the whole range from manufacturing, mining, machinery, and automotive industries to in...

  3. Environmental engineering education - summary report of the 1st European Seminar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alha, K; Holliger, C.; Larsen, Bo Skjold

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes the discussions of the 1st European Seminar on Environmental Engineering Education (E3), which was held at EAWAG, Zurich, Switzerland in August 1999. Although the emerging discipline of environmental engineering, which was once viewed as being a sub-set of civil or chemical...... engineering, has established a status in its own right, a definition of environmental engineering is still not agreed among European engineering educators. This report discusses the variation between European countries and the way in which higher education institutions in these countries address...... the educational needs of environmental engineers. A review of the acceptance of this new discipline by employers and the status of environmental engineering as a profession throughout Europe is presented. The question of how to achieve greater compatibility and comparability of the systems of environmental...

  4. Design of a new research reactor : 1st year conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Cheol; Lee, B. C.; Chae, H. T.

    2004-01-01

    A new research reactor model satisfying the strengthened regulatory environments and the changed circumstances around nuclear society should be prepared for the domestic and international demand of research reactor. This can also lead to the improvement of technologies and fostering manpower obtained during the construction and the operation of HANARO. In this aspect, this study has been launched and the 1st year conceptual design has been carried out in 2003. The major tasks performed at the first year of conceptual design stage are as follows; Establishments of general design requirements of research reactors and experimental facilities, Establishment of fuel and reactor core concepts, Preliminary analysis of reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics for conceptual core, Conceptual design of reactor structure and major systems, International cooperation to establish foundations for exporting

  5. Changes in carbon footprint when integrating production of filamentous fungi in 1st generation ethanol plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancoli, Pedro; Ferreira, Jorge A; Bolton, Kim; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2018-02-01

    Integrating the cultivation of edible filamentous fungi in the thin stillage from ethanol production is presently being considered. This integration can increase the ethanol yield while simultaneously producing a new value-added protein-rich biomass that can be used for animal feed. This study uses life cycle assessment to determine the change in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when integrating the cultivation of filamentous fungi in ethanol production. The result shows that the integration performs better than the current scenario when the fungal biomass is used as cattle feed for system expansion and when energy allocation is used. It performs worse if the biomass is used as fish feed. Hence, integrating the cultivation of filamentous fungi in 1st generation ethanol plants combined with proper use of the fungi can lead to a reduction of GHG emissions which, considering the number of existing ethanol plants, can have a significant global impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 1st International Symposium ‘Physics, Engineering and Technologies for Bio-Medicine’

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The 1st International Symposium “Physics, Engineering and Technologies for BioMedicine” was held in Moscow at the occasion of the foundation of the new Institute PhysBio at MEPHI (Russia) on October 20-23, 2016. Under the auspices of the Russian Ministry of Science and Education, the Ministry of Health and the State Company Rosatom, the Symposium is organized by the Institute of Engineering Physics for Biomedicine (PhysBio), which has recently been established at National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute). The PhysBio’s goal is to train highly-skilled personnel through the research and development in engineering physics for biomedicine, including nuclear medicine, material science, laser physics and biophotonic technologies. The Symposium was aimed to meet the leading scientists and experts in nuclear medicine, biophysics, biophotonics, and emerging fields to present their works and to have invited lectures. (paper)

  7. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on High-Speed and Intercity Railways

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Xiao-Wei

    2012-01-01

    This book contains the papers included in the proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on High-speed and Intercity Railways (IWHIR 2011) held in Shenzhen and Hong Kong, China from July 19 to July 22, 2011, which is organized by The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, in collaboration with Southwest Jiaotong University, Beijing Jiaotong University, Dalian Jiaotong University, China Engineering Consultants, Inc., Zhejiang University, and Tsinghua University. Continuing the great initiatives and momentums of the rapid development in high-speed and intercity railways worldwide in recent years, IWHIR 2011 aims at providing a platform for academic scholars and practicing engineers to share knowledge and experience, to promote collaboration, and to strengthen R&D activities related to railway engineering. Engineers, scientists, professors, and students from universities, research institutes, and related industrial companies have been cordially invited to participate in the workshop. These papers have covered ...

  8. Proceedings of the 1st Nordic Optimization Symposium - 10th Nordic MPS meeting, Copenhagen 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens; Jørgensen, Rene Munk; Kohl, Niklas

    2006-01-01

    , Operations Research and Mathematical Programming. Finally we would like to thank our sponsors and supporter for their contributions. It has among other things made it possible to give free registration to a number of researchers from the Baltic countries and Ph.D. students in general. We wish you all......On behalf of the Technical University of Denmark, the Danish Operations Research Society and the Nordic Section of the Mathematical Programming Society we welcome you to Copenhagen and the 1st Nordic Optimization Symposium - the 10th meeting of the Nordic MPS. The meetings of the Nordic MPS have...... to add a new title, that reflects the much broader field that is our playground at these meetings. Still the odd trustworthy title “Meeting of the Nordic MPS” has been maintained to demonstrate the origin of the symposium. It is our hope that future Nordic MPS meetings will carry on using this “double...

  9. 1st International Symposium and 10th Balkan Conference on Operational Research

    CERN Document Server

    Sifaleras, Angelo; Georgiadis, Christos; Papathanasiou, Jason; Stiakakis, Emmanuil

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the Balkan Conference on Operational Research (BALCOR) has facilitated the exchange of scientific and technical information on the subject of Operations Research and related fields such as Mathematical Programming, Game Theory, Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis, Information Systems, Data Mining, and more, in order to promote international scientific cooperation.  The contributed papers contained in this volume consist of 25 selected research papers based on results presented at the 10th Balkan Conference & 1st International Symposium on Operational Research in Thessalonike, Greece. Subjects include, but do not restrict to, the development of theory and mathematical models for Operations Research, theory and applications of Combinatorial Optimization, Supply Chain Optimization, and Military Operations Research.  These carefully selected papers present important recent developments and modern applications, and will serve as excellent reference for students, researchers, and pr...

  10. A Study on Integrated Control Network for Multiple Automation Services-1st year report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, D.H.; Park, B.S.; Kim, M.S.; Lim, Y.H.; Ahn, S.K. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the development of Integrated and Intelligent Gateway which is under developed. The network operating technique in this report can identifies the causes of the communication faults and can avoid communication network faults in advance. Utility companies spend large financial investment and time for supplying the stabilized power. Since this is deeply related to the reliability of Automation Systems, it is natural to employ Fault-Tolerant communication network for Automation Systems. Use of the network system developed in this report is not limited in DAS. It can be expandable to the many kinds of data services for customer. Thus this report suggests the direction of the communication network development. This 1st year report is composed of following contents, 1) The introduction and problems of DAS. 2) The configuration and functions of IIG. 3) The protocols. (author). 27 refs., 73 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Impaired global, and compensatory local, biological motion processing in people with high levels of autistic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxtel, Jeroen J A; Lu, Hongjing

    2013-01-01

    People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are hypothesized to have poor high-level processing but superior low-level processing, causing impaired social recognition, and a focus on non-social stimulus contingencies. Biological motion perception provides an ideal domain to investigate exactly how ASD modulates the interaction between low and high-level processing, because it involves multiple processing stages, and carries many important social cues. We investigated individual differences among typically developing observers in biological motion processing, and whether such individual differences associate with the number of autistic traits. In Experiment 1, we found that individuals with fewer autistic traits were automatically and involuntarily attracted to global biological motion information, whereas individuals with more autistic traits did not show this pre-attentional distraction. We employed an action adaptation paradigm in the second study to show that individuals with more autistic traits were able to compensate for deficits in global processing with an increased involvement in local processing. Our findings can be interpreted within a predictive coding framework, which characterizes the functional relationship between local and global processing stages, and explains how these stages contribute to the perceptual difficulties associated with ASD.

  12. Impaired global, and compensatory local, biological motion processing in people with high levels of autistic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen J A Van Boxtel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD are hypothesized to have poor high-level processing but superior low-level processing, causing impaired social recognition, and a focus on non-social stimulus contingencies. Biological motion perception provides an ideal domain to investigate exactly how ASD modulates the interaction between low and high-level processing, because it involves multiple processing stages, and carries many important social cues. We investigated individual differences among typically developing observers in biological motion processing, and whether such individual differences associate with the number of autistic traits. In Experiment 1, we found that individuals with fewer autistic traits were automatically and involuntarily attracted to global biological motion information, whereas individuals with more autistic traits did not show this pre-attentional distraction. We employed an action adaptation paradigm in the second study to show that individuals with more autistic traits were able to compensate for deficits in global processing with an increased involvement in local processing. Our findings can be interpreted within a predictive coding framework, which characterizes the functional relationship between local and global processing stages, and explains how these stages contribute to the perceptual difficulties associated with ASD.

  13. Combined heterogeneous Electro-Fenton and biological process for the treatment of stabilized landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiju, Archa; Gandhimathi, R; Ramesh, S T; Nidheesh, P V

    2018-03-15

    Treatment of stabilized landfill leachate is a great challenge due to its poor biodegradability. Present study made an attempt to treat this wastewater by combining electro-Fenton (E-Fenton) and biological process. E-Fenton treatment was applied prior to biological process to enhance the biodegradability of leachate, which will be beneficial for the subsequent biological process. This study also investigates the efficiency of iron molybdophosphate (FeMoPO) nanoparticles as a heterogeneous catalyst in E-Fenton process. The effects of initial pH, catalyst dosage, applied voltage and electrode spacing on Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency were analyzed to determine the optimum conditions. Heterogeneous E-Fenton process gave 82% COD removal at pH 2, catalyst dosage of 50 mg/L, voltage 5 V, electrode spacing 3 cm and electrode area 25 cm 2 . Combined E-Fenton and biological treatment resulted an overall COD removal of 97%, bringing down the final COD to 192 mg/L. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rhizosphere Biological Processes of Legume//Cereal Intercropping Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIANG Yuan-yuan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping, a sustainable planting pattern, was widely used in the wordwide. It not only has the advantages of yield and nutrient acquisition, but also can ensure food security and reduce the risk of crop failures. The majority of intercropping systems involve legume//cereal combinations because of interspecific facilitation or complementarity. The rhizosphere is the interface between plants and soil where there are interactions among a myriad of microorganisms and affect the uptake of nutrients, water and harmful substances. The rhizosphere biologi-cal processes not only determine the amount of nutrients and the availability of nutrients, but also affect crop productivity and nutrient use efficiency. Hence, this paper summarized the progress made on root morphology, rhizosphere microorganisms, root exudates and ecological ef-fect in the perspective of the rhizosphere biological process,which would provide theoretical basis for improving nutrient availability, remov-ing heavy metals, and plant genetic improvements.

  15. Degrading organic micropollutants: The next challenge in the evolution of biological wastewater treatment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh eSinghal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Global water scarcity is driving the need for identifying new water source. Wastewater could be a potential water resource if appropriate treatment technologies could be developed. One of the barriers to obtaining high quality water from wastewater arises from the presence of organic micropollutants, which are biologically active at trace levels. Removal of these compounds from wastewater by current physico-chemical technologies is prohibitively expensive. While biological treatment processes are comparatively cheap, current systems are not capable of degrading the wide range of organic micropollutants present in wastewater. As current wastewater treatment processes were developed for treating conventional pollutants present at mg/L levels, degrading the ng/L levels of micropollutants will require a different approach to system design and operation. In this paper we discuss strategies that could be employed to develop biological wastewater treatment systems capable of degrading organic micropollutants.

  16. PREFACE: PAGES 1st Young Scientists Meeting (YSM) - 'Retrospective views on our planet's future'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margrethe Basse, Ellen

    2010-03-01

    more recent pollution. The concept and format of the 1st PAGES YSM worked very well, and created a high degree of enthusiasm and stimulation among the participants (as is demonstrated by this special issue). The 2nd YSM is therefore firmly planned to take place in 2013, back-to-back with the 4th PAGES OSM. Crucial and gratefully acknowledged contributions to the success of the YSM were made by the numerous co-sponsors (see logos below), who provided the financial basis for the YSM and supported the attendance of many early-career researchers from various parts of the world. Furthermore, we cordially thank all reviewers for shaping this proceeding issue with their insightful and helpful reviews. Conference photograph

  17. A two-stage biological gas to liquid transfer process to convert carbon dioxide into bioplastic

    KAUST Repository

    Al Rowaihi, Israa; Kick, Benjamin; Grö tzinger, Stefan W.; Burger, Christian; Karan, Ram; Weuster-Botz, Dirk; Eppinger, Jö rg; Arold, Stefan T.

    2018-01-01

    The fermentation of carbon dioxide (CO2) with hydrogen (H2) uses available low-cost gases to synthesis acetic acid. Here, we present a two-stage biological process that allows the gas to liquid transfer (Bio-GTL) of CO2 into the biopolymer

  18. Fixation and utilization of CO2 by biological and/or chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiromichi, N.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the carbon dioxide fixation and utilisation by biological and/or chemical processes. It presents research objectives and program contents for the effective fixation of carbon dioxide by micro-organism and its hydrogenation. (TEC). 5 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Investigation of the Nature of Metaconceptual Processes of Pre-Service Biology Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuruk, Nejla; Selvi, Meryem; Yakisan, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Study: The aim of this study is to investigate the nature of pre-service biology teachers' metaconceptual processes that were active as they participated in metaconceptual teaching activities. Methods: Several instructional activities, including poster drawing, concept mapping, group and class discussions, and journal writing, were…

  20. Phenol wastewater remediation: advanced oxidation processes coupled to a biological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubalcaba, A; Suárez-Ojeda, M E; Stüber, F; Fortuny, A; Bengoa, C; Metcalfe, I; Font, J; Carrera, J; Fabregat, A

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, there are increasingly stringent regulations requiring more and more treatment of industrial effluents to generate product waters which could be easily reused or disposed of to the environment without any harmful effects. Therefore, different advanced oxidation processes were investigated as suitable precursors for the biological treatment of industrial effluents containing phenol. Wet air oxidation and Fenton process were tested batch wise, while catalytic wet air oxidation and H2O2-promoted catalytic wet air oxidation processes were studied in a trickle bed reactor, the last two using over activated carbon as catalyst. Effluent characterisation was made by means of substrate conversion (using high liquid performance chromatography), chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon. Biodegradation parameters (i.e. maximum oxygen uptake rate and oxygen consumption) were obtained from respirometric tests using activated sludge from an urban biological wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The main goal was to find the proper conditions in terms of biodegradability enhancement, so that these phenolic effluents could be successfully treated in an urban biological WWTP. Results show promising research ways for the development of efficient coupled processes for the treatment of wastewater containing toxic or biologically non-degradable compounds.

  1. Diurnal rhythmicity in biological processes involved in bioavailability of functional food factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurusaki, Takashi; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Aoshima, Yoshiki; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Sakono, Masanobu; Shimoi, Kayoko

    2013-05-01

    In the past few decades, many types of functional factors have been identified in dietary foods; for example, flavonoids are major groups widely distributed in the plant kingdom. However, the absorption rates of the functional food factors are usually low, and many of these are difficult to be absorbed in the intact forms because of metabolization by biological processes during absorption. To gain adequate beneficial effects, it is therefore mandatory to know whether functional food factors are absorbed in sufficient quantity, and then reach target organs while maintaining beneficial effects. These are the reasons why the bioavailability of functional food factors has been well investigated using rodent models. Recently, many of the biological processes have been reported to follow diurnal rhythms recurring every 24 h. Therefore, absorption and metabolism of functional food factors influenced by the biological processes may vary with time of day. Consequently, the evaluation of the bioavailability of functional food factors using rodent models should take into consideration the timing of consumption. In this review, we provide a perspective overview of the diurnal rhythm of biological processes involved in the bioavailability of functional food factors, particularly flavonoids.

  2. Do two machine-learning based prognostic signatures for breast cancer capture the same biological processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drier, Yotam; Domany, Eytan

    2011-03-14

    The fact that there is very little if any overlap between the genes of different prognostic signatures for early-discovery breast cancer is well documented. The reasons for this apparent discrepancy have been explained by the limits of simple machine-learning identification and ranking techniques, and the biological relevance and meaning of the prognostic gene lists was questioned. Subsequently, proponents of the prognostic gene lists claimed that different lists do capture similar underlying biological processes and pathways. The present study places under scrutiny the validity of this claim, for two important gene lists that are at the focus of current large-scale validation efforts. We performed careful enrichment analysis, controlling the effects of multiple testing in a manner which takes into account the nested dependent structure of gene ontologies. In contradiction to several previous publications, we find that the only biological process or pathway for which statistically significant concordance can be claimed is cell proliferation, a process whose relevance and prognostic value was well known long before gene expression profiling. We found that the claims reported by others, of wider concordance between the biological processes captured by the two prognostic signatures studied, were found either to be lacking statistical rigor or were in fact based on addressing some other question.

  3. Do two machine-learning based prognostic signatures for breast cancer capture the same biological processes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotam Drier

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The fact that there is very little if any overlap between the genes of different prognostic signatures for early-discovery breast cancer is well documented. The reasons for this apparent discrepancy have been explained by the limits of simple machine-learning identification and ranking techniques, and the biological relevance and meaning of the prognostic gene lists was questioned. Subsequently, proponents of the prognostic gene lists claimed that different lists do capture similar underlying biological processes and pathways. The present study places under scrutiny the validity of this claim, for two important gene lists that are at the focus of current large-scale validation efforts. We performed careful enrichment analysis, controlling the effects of multiple testing in a manner which takes into account the nested dependent structure of gene ontologies. In contradiction to several previous publications, we find that the only biological process or pathway for which statistically significant concordance can be claimed is cell proliferation, a process whose relevance and prognostic value was well known long before gene expression profiling. We found that the claims reported by others, of wider concordance between the biological processes captured by the two prognostic signatures studied, were found either to be lacking statistical rigor or were in fact based on addressing some other question.

  4. Structures linking physical and biological processes in headwater streams of the Maybeso watershed, Southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason D. Bryant; Takashi Gomi; Jack J. Piccolo

    2007-01-01

    We focus on headwater streams originating in the mountainous terrain of northern temperate rain forests. These streams rapidly descend from gradients greater than 20% to less than 5% in U-shaped glacial valleys. We use a set of studies on headwater streams in southeast Alaska to define headwater stream catchments, link physical and biological processes, and describe...

  5. Radiation biology using synchrotron radiation. In relation to radiation chemistry as an initial process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Katsumi

    1995-01-01

    Radiation biology using synchrotron radiation have been investigated, focusing on the mechanism of the formation of molecular damage. This paper introduces recent outcome of these studies. First, the process from imparted energy to the formation of molecular damage is outlined. The previous studies can be largely categorized as dealing with (1) biological effects of inner-shell ionization on elements composing the living body and (2) X-ray energy dependence of biological effects. Bromine and phosphorus are used as elements for the study of inner-cell ionization. In the study on lethal effects of monochromatic soft X-rays on the BrdUMP-incorporated yeast cells, Auger enhancement was found to occur. The first report on the effects of K-shell absorption of cellular phosphorus atoms has revealed that biological effects on cellular lethality and genetic changes was enhanced by 40%. Plasmid DNA and oligonucleotide have been used to study biological effects of vacuum ultraviolet rays to monochromatic soft X-ray, which makes it possible to study strand breaks. Because experimental production of energy required for the formation of double strand breaks has become possible, synchrotron radiation plays a very important role in radiation biological studies. Finally, future issues are presented. (N.K.)

  6. Modelling biological processes in WWTP; Modelado de procesos biologicos en las EDAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpes, G.

    2009-07-01

    Biological technologies by active sludges are the most used in wastewater treatments. Multiple variants are affected in the characterization of this process, like wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) design, features and concentration of sludge, dissolved oxygen concentration and characteristics of the wastewater, including temperature and nutrients. Mathematical formula applied to WWTP modelling are presented to design its operation and to test the most important parameters, too. It is necessary to optimize the process in WWTP. (Author) 19 refs.

  7. Mineralization of 2-chlorophenol by sequential electrochemical reductive dechlorination and biological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano-González, Miguel Ángel; González, Ignacio [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Química, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Texier, Anne-Claire, E-mail: actx@xanum.uam.mx [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Biotecnología, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Dechlorination of 2-chlorophenol to phenol was 100% efficient on Pd-Ni/Ti electrode. • An ECCOCEL reactor was efficient and selective to obtain phenol from 2-chlorophenol. • Phenol was totally mineralized in a coupled denitrifying biorreactor. • Global time of 2-chlorophenol mineralization in the combined system was 7.5 h. - Abstract: In this work, a novel approach was applied to obtain the mineralization of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) in an electrochemical-biological combined system where an electrocatalytic dehydrogenation process (reductive dechlorination) was coupled to a biological denitrification process. Reductive dechlorination of 2-CP was conducted in an ECCOCEL-type reactor on a Pd-Ni/Ti electrode at a potential of −0.40 V vs Ag/AgCl{sub (s)}/KCl{sub (sat)}, achieving 100 percent transformation of 2-CP into phenol. The electrochemically pretreated effluent was fed to a rotating cylinder denitrifying bioreactor where the totality of phenol was mineralized by denitrification, obtaining CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} as the end products. The total time required for 2-CP mineralization in the combined electrochemical-biological process was 7.5 h. This value is close to those previously reported for electrochemical and advanced oxidation processes but in this case, an efficient process was obtained without accumulation of by-products or generation of excessive energy costs due to the selective electrochemical pretreatment. This study showed that the use of electrochemical reductive pretreatment combined with biological processes could be a promising technology for the removal of recalcitrant molecules, such as chlorophenols, from wastewaters by more efficient, rapid, and environmentally friendly processes.

  8. Biclustering with Flexible Plaid Models to Unravel Interactions between Biological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Rui; Madeira, Sara C

    2015-01-01

    Genes can participate in multiple biological processes at a time and thus their expression can be seen as a composition of the contributions from the active processes. Biclustering under a plaid assumption allows the modeling of interactions between transcriptional modules or biclusters (subsets of genes with coherence across subsets of conditions) by assuming an additive composition of contributions in their overlapping areas. Despite the biological interest of plaid models, few biclustering algorithms consider plaid effects and, when they do, they place restrictions on the allowed types and structures of biclusters, and suffer from robustness problems by seizing exact additive matchings. We propose BiP (Biclustering using Plaid models), a biclustering algorithm with relaxations to allow expression levels to change in overlapping areas according to biologically meaningful assumptions (weighted and noise-tolerant composition of contributions). BiP can be used over existing biclustering solutions (seizing their benefits) as it is able to recover excluded areas due to unaccounted plaid effects and detect noisy areas non-explained by a plaid assumption, thus producing an explanatory model of overlapping transcriptional activity. Experiments on synthetic data support BiP's efficiency and effectiveness. The learned models from expression data unravel meaningful and non-trivial functional interactions between biological processes associated with putative regulatory modules.

  9. Applying the Nernst equation to simulate redox potential variations for biological nitrification and denitrification processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Nan; Cheng, Hong-Bang; Chao, Allen C

    2004-03-15

    In this paper, various forms of Nernst equations have been developed based on the real stoichiometric relationship of biological nitrification and denitrification reactions. Instead of using the Nernst equation based on a one-to-one stoichiometric relation for the oxidizing and the reducing species, the basic Nernst equation is modified into slightly different forms. Each is suitable for simulating the redox potential (ORP) variation of a specific biological nitrification or denitrification process. Using the data published in the literature, the validity of these developed Nernst equations has been verified by close fits of the measured ORP data with the calculated ORP curve. The simulation results also indicate that if the biological process is simulated using an incorrect form of Nernst equation, the calculated ORP curve will not fit the measured data. Using these Nernst equations, the ORP value that corresponds to a predetermined degree of completion for the biochemical reaction can be calculated. Thus, these Nernst equations will enable a more efficient on-line control of the biological process.

  10. Transmission as a basic process in microbial biology. Lwoff Award Prize Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    Transmission is a basic process in biology and evolution, as it communicates different biological entities within and across hierarchical levels (from genes to holobionts) both in time and space. Vertical descent, replication, is transmission of information across generations (in the time dimension), and horizontal descent is transmission of information across compartments (in the space dimension). Transmission is essentially a communication process that can be studied by analogy of the classic information theory, based on 'emitters', 'messages' and 'receivers'. The analogy can be easily extended to the triad 'emigration', 'migration' and 'immigration'. A number of causes (forces) determine the emission, and another set of causes (energies) assures the reception. The message in fact is essentially constituted by 'meaningful' biological entities. A DNA sequence, a cell and a population have a semiotic dimension, are 'signs' that are eventually recognized (decoded) and integrated by receiver biological entities. In cis-acting or unenclosed transmission, the emitters and receivers correspond to separated entities of the same hierarchical level; in trans-acting or embedded transmission, the information flows between different, but frequently nested, hierarchical levels. The result (as in introgressive events) is constantly producing innovation and feeding natural selection, influencing also the evolution of transmission processes. This review is based on the concepts presented at the André Lwoff Award Lecture in the FEMS Microbiology Congress in Maastricht in 2015. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Natural physical and biological processes compromise the long-term performance of compacted soil caps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    Compacted soil barriers are components of essentially all caps placed on closed waste disposal sites. The intended functions of soil barriers in waste facility caps include restricting infiltration of water and release of gases and vapors, either independently or in combination with synthetic membrane barriers, and protecting other manmade or natural barrier components. Review of the performance of installed soil barriers and of natural processes affecting their performance indicates that compacted soil caps may function effectively for relatively short periods (years to decades), but natural physical and biological processes can be expected to cause them to fail in the long term (decades to centuries). This paper addresses natural physical and biological processes that compromise the performance of compacted soil caps and suggests measures that may reduce the adverse consequences of these natural failure mechanisms

  12. 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop: April 5-7, 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. marine energy industry is actively pursuing development of offshore wind and marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy systems. Experience in the wind energy sector demonstrates that new technology development requires thorough measurement and characterization of the environmental conditions prevalent at installation sites and of technology operating in the field. Presently, there are no turn-key instrumentation system solutions that meet the measurement needs of the marine energy industry. The 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop brought together technical experts from government laboratories, academia, and industry representatives from marine energy, wind, offshore oil and gas, and instrumentation developers to present and discuss the instrumentation needs of the marine energy industry. The goals of the meeting were to: (1) Share the latest relevant knowledge among technical experts; (2) Review relevant state-of-the-art field measurement technologies and methods; (3) Review lessons learned from recent field deployments; (4) Identify synergies across different industries; (5) Identify gaps between existing and needed instrumentation capabilities; (6) Understand who are the leading experts; (7) Provide a forum where stakeholders from the marine energy industry could provide substantive input in the development of new marine energy field deployable instrumentation packages.

  13. 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop: April 5-7, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. marine energy industry is actively pursuing development of offshore wind and marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy systems. Experience in the wind energy sector demonstrates that new technology development requires thorough measurement and characterization of the environmental conditions prevalent at installation sites and of technology operating in the field. Presently, there are no turn-key instrumentation system solutions that meet the measurement needs of the marine energy industry. The 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop brought together technical experts from government laboratories, academia, and industry representatives from marine energy, wind, offshore oil and gas, and instrumentation developers to present and discuss the instrumentation needs of the marine energy industry. The goals of the meeting were to: (1) Share the latest relevant knowledge among technical experts; (2) Review relevant state-of-the-art field measurement technologies and methods; (3) Review lessons learned from recent field deployments; (4) Identify synergies across different industries; (5) Identify gaps between existing and needed instrumentation capabilities; (6) Understand who are the leading experts; (7) Provide a forum where stakeholders from the marine energy industry could provide substantive input in the development of new marine energy field deployable instrumentation packages.

  14. Society for Research on Biological Rhythms (1st) Held on May 11-14, 1988 in Charleston, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-10

    Fuentes-Pardo. Depto. de Fisiologia , Facultad de Medicina, UNAM, 92 CIRCADIAN CHANGES IN PROTEIN SYNTHESIS Mexico, D.F Mixico. AND OXYDATIVE METABOLISM...de Fisiologia , Facultad de 93 OLFACTORY BULBECTOMY LENGTHENS TAU(dd) Medicina, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. M6xico. IN MICE. B. Possidente’, E. deLumos’, A.R

  15. Biologically-Oriented Processes in the Coastal Sea Ice Zone of the White Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, I. A.

    2002-12-01

    The annual advance and retreat of sea ice is a major physical determinant of spatial and temporal changes in the structure and function of marine coastal biological communities. Sea ice biological data obtained in the tidal zone of Kandalaksha Gulf (White Sea) during 1996-2001 period will be presented. Previous observations in this area were mainly conducted during the ice-free summer season. However, there is little information on the ice-covered winter season (6-7 months duration), and, especially, on the sea-ice biology in the coastal zone within tidal regimes. During the January-May period time-series observations were conducted on transects along shorelines with coastal and fast ice. Trends in the annual extent of sea ice showed significant impacts on ice-associated biological communities. Three types of sea ice impact on kelps, balanoides, littorinas and amphipods are distinguished: (i) positive, when sea ice protects these populations from grinding (ii) negative, when ice grinds both fauna and flora, and (iii) a combined effect, when fast ice protects, but anchored ice grinds plant and animals. To understand the full spectrum of ecological problems caused by pollution on the coastal zone, as well as the problems of sea ice melting caused by global warming, an integrated, long-term study of the physical, chemical, and biological processes is needed.

  16. Single amino acid substitution in important hemoglobinopathies does not disturb molecular function and biological process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Viroj WiwanitkitDepartment of Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, ThailandAbstract: Hemoglobin is an important protein found in the red cells of many animals. In humans, the hemoglobin is mainly distributed in the red blood cell. Single amino acid substitution is the main pathogenesis of most hemoglobin disorders. Here, the author used a new gene ontology technology to predict the molecular function and biological process of four important hemoglobin disorders with single substitution. The four studied important abnormal hemoglobins (Hb with single substitution included Hb S, Hb E, Hb C, and Hb J-Baltimore. Using the GoFigure server, the molecular function and biological process in normal and abnormal hemoglobins was predicted. Compared with normal hemoglobin, all studied abnormal hemoglobins had the same function and biological process. This indicated that the overall function of oxygen transportation is not disturbed in the studied hemoglobin disorders. Clinical findings of oxygen depletion in abnormal hemoglobin should therefore be due to the other processes rather than genomics, proteomics, and expression levels.Keywords: hemoglobin, amino acid, substitution, function

  17. Group processing in an undergraduate biology course for preservice teachers: Experiences and attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberger, Lauren Brownback

    Group processing is a key principle of cooperative learning in which small groups discuss their strengths and weaknesses and set group goals or norms. However, group processing has not been well-studied at the post-secondary level or from a qualitative or mixed methods perspective. This mixed methods study uses a phenomenological framework to examine the experience of group processing for students in an undergraduate biology course for preservice teachers. The effect of group processing on students' attitudes toward future group work and group processing is also examined. Additionally, this research investigated preservice teachers' plans for incorporating group processing into future lessons. Students primarily experienced group processing as a time to reflect on past performance. Also, students experienced group processing as a time to increase communication among group members and become motivated for future group assignments. Three factors directly influenced students' experiences with group processing: (1) previous experience with group work, (2) instructor interaction, and (3) gender. Survey data indicated that group processing had a slight positive effect on students' attitudes toward future group work and group processing. Participants who were interviewed felt that group processing was an important part of group work and that it had increased their group's effectiveness as well as their ability to work effectively with other people. Participants held positive views on group work prior to engaging in group processing, and group processing did not alter their atittude toward group work. Preservice teachers who were interviewed planned to use group work and a modified group processing protocol in their future classrooms. They also felt that group processing had prepared them for their future professions by modeling effective collaboration and group skills. Based on this research, a new model for group processing has been created which includes extensive

  18. Treatment of winery wastewater by physicochemical, biological and advanced processes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, L A; Li Puma, G; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2015-04-09

    Winery wastewater is a major waste stream resulting from numerous cleaning operations that occur during the production stages of wine. The resulting effluent contains various organic and inorganic contaminants and its environmental impact is notable, mainly due to its high organic/inorganic load, the large volumes produced and its seasonal variability. Several processes for the treatment of winery wastewater are currently available, but the development of alternative treatment methods is necessary in order to (i) maximize the efficiency and flexibility of the treatment process to meet the discharge requirements for winery effluents, and (ii) decrease both the environmental footprint, as well as the investment/operational costs of the process. This review, presents the state-of-the-art of the processes currently applied and/or tested for the treatment of winery wastewater, which were divided into five categories: i.e., physicochemical, biological, membrane filtration and separation, advanced oxidation processes, and combined biological and advanced oxidation processes. The advantages and disadvantages, as well as the main parameters/factors affecting the efficiency of winery wastewater treatment are discussed. Both bench- and pilot/industrial-scale processes have been considered for this review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of stresses on the 1st phase support of the monitoring drifts of the radioactive waste repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatala Jozef

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the stability analysis of the radioactive waste repository monitoring drifts’ support by means of the numerical modelling - finite element method is described. The aim of this analysis was to judge to what extent the designed 1st phase support’s parameters correspond with the geomechanical conditions determined by the engineering-geological survey.

  20. Differentiation of initial skills in 1st grade and the relative age effect in 3rd grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRZYSZTOF KONARZEWSKI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to verify two hypotheses. The first states that the differentiation of initial 1st grade pupil skills is negatively correlated with age at entry to school. This was tested according to findings from the ERI study Six and seven year olds at the start of school. The variation of reading and writing scores of 1164 pupils aged 5.9–7.9 years who were beginning 1st grade decreased in subsequent age quartiles. The second hypothesis – that classroom differentiation of pupils’ initial skills in 1st grade is positively correlated with the birthdate effect in 3rd grade – was tested on data of 4838 pupils from 254 classrooms drawn from the 2011 PIRLS and TIMSS studies in Poland. Skills were evaluated on the basis of parental reports. Hierarchical linear analysis (gender, SES and school location controlled showed that the greater the differentiation of language skills in 1st grade, the greater the birthdate effect in mathematics in 3rd grade. This result suggests that school entry age is of lesser importance than the methods used to reduce differences in children’s school readiness at the onset of education.

  1. Influence of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd harmonic magnetic field in mini-cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu xiangshun; Chen Maobai; Li Deming; Xu Senlin

    1996-01-01

    The influence of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd harmonic magnetic field on particle's movement in the mini-cyclotron has been studied. The permitted upper limits for each harmonic part are calculated. These data provide a theoretical reference for magnetic trimming

  2. The 1st symposium of Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy on fundamental development of the charged particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soga, Fuminori

    2002-06-01

    This issue is the collection of the paper presented at the 1st Symposium of Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy on fundamental development of the charged particle therapy. The 31 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  3. 1st IAEA research co-ordination meeting on charge exchange cross section data for fusion plasma studies. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janev, R.K.

    1999-02-01

    A brief description of the proceedings and the conclusions of the 1st Research Coordination Meeting on 'Charge Exchange Cross Section Data for Fusion Plasma Studies', held on September 24-25, 1999, at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, Austria, is provided. The conclusions of the Meeting regarding the data collection, assessment and generation priorities are also included in the report. (author)

  4. Academic software development tools and techniques (Report on the 1st Workshop WASDeTT at ECOOP 2008)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuyts, R.; Kienle, H.M.; Mens, K.; Brand, van den M.G.J.; Kuhn, A.; Eugster, P.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the 1st International Workshop on Advanced Software Development Tools and Techniques (WASDeTT-1) was to provide interested researchers with a forum to share their tool building experiences and to explore how tools can be built more effectively and efficiently. The theme for this

  5. 78 FR 7781 - Filing Dates for the South Carolina Special Elections in the 1st Congressional District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... in the 1st Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates... Primary Election, the top two vote-getters will participate in a Special Runoff Election. General Election... participating in the South Carolina Special Primary and Special General Elections shall file a 12-day Pre...

  6. Italian research on Antarctic atmosphere: 1st workshop. Ricerche italiane sull'atmosfera antartica: 1o workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colacino, M. (ed.); Giovannelli, G. (ed.); Stefanutti, L. (ed.)

    1989-01-01

    The papers and reports, presented at this 1st workshop on 'Italian research on antarctic atmosphere', deal with several main topics: meteorology and climatology, aerosol and tropospheric clouds, planetary boundary layer, chemical-physic stratospheric property, aeronomy. They define the stage of development of Italian research in this area after 3 years of activity in Antarctica.

  7. Laser apparatus and method for microscopic and spectroscopic analysis and processing of biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, P.L.; Gourley, M.F.

    1997-03-04

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for microscopic and spectroscopic analysis and processing of biological cells. The apparatus comprises a laser having an analysis region within the laser cavity for containing one or more biological cells to be analyzed. The presence of a cell within the analysis region in superposition with an activated portion of a gain medium of the laser acts to encode information about the cell upon the laser beam, the cell information being recoverable by an analysis means that preferably includes an array photodetector such as a CCD camera and a spectrometer. The apparatus and method may be used to analyze biomedical cells including blood cells and the like, and may include processing means for manipulating, sorting, or eradicating cells after analysis. 20 figs.

  8. Biological treatment of fish processing wastewater: A case study from Sfax City (Southeastern Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemli, Meryem; Karray, Fatma; Feki, Firas; Loukil, Slim; Mhiri, Najla; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-04-01

    The present work presents a study of the biological treatment of fish processing wastewater at salt concentration of 55 g/L. Wastewater was treated by both continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) during 50 and 100 days, respectively. These biological processes involved salt-tolerant bacteria from natural hypersaline environments at different organic loading rates (OLRs). The phylogenetic analysis of the corresponding excised DGGE bands has demonstrated that the taxonomic affiliation of the most dominant species includes Halomonadaceae and Flavobacteriaceae families of the Proteobacteria (Gamma-proteobacteria class) and the Bacteroidetes phyla, respectively. The results of MBR were better than those of CSTR in the removal of total organic carbon with efficiencies from 97.9% to 98.6%. Nevertheless, salinity with increasing OLR aggravates fouling that requires more cleaning for a membrane in MBR while leads to deterioration of sludge settleability and effluent quality in CSTR. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. 'TISUCROMA': A Software for Color Processing of Biological Tissue's Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arista Romeu, Eduardo J.; La Rosa Vazquez, Jose Manuel de; Valor, Alma; Stolik, Suren

    2016-01-01

    In this work a software intended to plot and analyze digital image RGB histograms from normal and abnormal regions of biological tissue. The obtained RGB histograms from each zone can be used to show the image in only one color or the mixture of some of them. The Software was developed in Lab View to process the images in a laptop. Some medical application examples are shown. (Author)

  10. Influence of Technological Processes on Biologically Active Compounds of Produced Grapes Juices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tříska, Jan; Balík, J.; Strohalm, J.; Novotná, P.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Lefnerová, D.; Landfeld, A.; Híc, P.; Tománková, E.; Veverka, J.; Houška, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2016), s. 421-429 ISSN 1935-5130 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MZe QJ1210258; GA MZe QI91B094 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Grapevine juices * Thermomaceration * Biologically active compounds * Antioxidative capacity * Total polyphenols * Antimutagenic activity Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 2.576, year: 2016

  11. A short comparison of electron and proton transfer processes in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    The main differences between electron and proton transfers that take place in biological systems are examined. The relation between the distance dependence of the rate constant and the mass of the transferred particle is analyzed in detail. Differences between the two processes have important consequences at the experimental level, which are discussed. The various mechanisms that ensure the coupling between electron and proton transfers are briefly described

  12. Efficient high-throughput biological process characterization: Definitive screening design with the ambr250 bioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Mitchell; Ly, Amanda; Leung, Inne; Nayar, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    The burgeoning pipeline for new biologic drugs has increased the need for high-throughput process characterization to efficiently use process development resources. Breakthroughs in highly automated and parallelized upstream process development have led to technologies such as the 250-mL automated mini bioreactor (ambr250™) system. Furthermore, developments in modern design of experiments (DoE) have promoted the use of definitive screening design (DSD) as an efficient method to combine factor screening and characterization. Here we utilize the 24-bioreactor ambr250™ system with 10-factor DSD to demonstrate a systematic experimental workflow to efficiently characterize an Escherichia coli (E. coli) fermentation process for recombinant protein production. The generated process model is further validated by laboratory-scale experiments and shows how the strategy is useful for quality by design (QbD) approaches to control strategies for late-stage characterization. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  13. Determination of Biological Treatability Processes of Textile Wastewater and Implementation of a Fuzzy Logic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Akif Kabuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the biological treatability of textile wastewater. For this purpose, a membrane bioreactor (MBR was utilized for biological treatment after the ozonation process. Due to the refractory organic contents of textile wastewater that has a low biodegradability capacity, ozonation was implemented as an advanced oxidation process prior to the MBR system to increase the biodegradability of the wastewater. Textile wastewater, oxidized by ozonation, was fed to the MBR at different hydraulic retention times (HRT. During the process, color, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD removal efficiencies were monitored for 24-hour, 12-hour, 6-hour, and 3-hour retention times. Under these conditions, 94% color, 65% COD, and 55% BOD removal efficiencies were obtained in the MBR system. The experimental outputs were modeled with multiple linear regressions (MLR and fuzzy logic. MLR results suggested that color removal is more related to COD removal relative to BOD removal. A surface map of this issue was prepared with a fuzzy logic model. Furthermore, fuzzy logic was employed to the whole modeling of the biological system treatment. Determination coefficients for COD, BOD, and color removal efficiencies were 0.96, 0.97, and 0.92, respectively.

  14. Posttranslational modifications of desmin and their implication in biological processes and pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Daniel L; Paulin, Denise; Mericskay, Mathias; Li, Zhenlin

    2014-01-01

    Desmin, the muscle-specific intermediate filament, is involved in myofibrillar myopathies, dilated cardiomyopathy and muscle wasting. Desmin is the target of posttranslational modifications (PTMs) such as phosphorylation, ADP-ribosylation and ubiquitylation as well as nonenzymatic modifications such as glycation, oxidation and nitration. Several PTM target residues and their corresponding modifying enzymes have been discovered in human and nonhuman desmin. The major effect of phosphorylation and ADP-ribosylation is the disassembly of desmin filaments, while ubiquitylation of desmin leads to its degradation. The regulation of the desmin filament network by phosphorylation and ADP-ribosylation was found to be implicated in several major biological processes such as myogenesis, myoblast fusion, muscle contraction, muscle atrophy, cell division and possibly desmin interactions with its binding partners. Phosphorylation of desmin is also implicated in many forms of desmin-related myopathies (desminopathies). In this review, we summarize the findings on desmin PTMs and their implication in biological processes and pathologies, and discuss the current knowledge on the regulation of the desmin network by PTMs. We conclude that the desmin filament network can be seen as an intricate scaffold for muscle cell structure and biological processes and that its dynamics can be affected by PTMs. There are now precise tools to investigate PTMs and visualize cellular structures that have been underexploited in the study of desminopathies. Future studies should focus on these aspects.

  15. Meteorological features associated with unprecedented precipitation over India during 1st week of March 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naresh; Mohapatra, M.; Jaswal, A. K.

    2017-07-01

    Unprecedented precipitation along with heavy falls occurred over many parts of India from 28th February to 2nd March 2015. Many of the stations of northwest and central India received an all time high 24 hr cumulative precipitation of March during this period. Even the national capital, New Delhi, broke all the previous historical 24 hr rainfall records of the last 100 years to the rainfall record in March 2015. Due to this event, huge loss to agricultural and horticultural crops occurred in several parts of India. In the present study, an attempt is made to understand the various meteorological features associated with this unprecedented precipitation event over India. It occurred due to the presence of an intense western disturbance (WD) over Afghanistan and neighbouring areas in the form of north-south oriented deep trough in westerlies in middle and upper tropospheric levels with its southern end deep in the Arabian Sea, which pumped huge moisture feed over Indian region. Also, there was a jet stream with core wind speed up to 160 knots that generated high positive divergence at upper tropospheric level over Indian region; along with this there was high magnitude of negative vertical velocity and velocity convergence were there at middle tropospheric level. It caused intense upward motion and forced lower levels air to rise and strengthen the lower levels cyclonic circulations (CCs)/Lows. Moreover, the induced CCs/Lows at lower tropospheric levels associated with WD were more towards south of its normal position. Additionally, there was wind confluence over central parts of India due to westerlies in association with WD and easterlies from anticyclone over north Bay of Bengal. Thus, intense WD along with wind confluence between westerlies and easterlies caused unprecedented precipitation over India during the 1st week of March 2015.

  16. Prevalence of injuries in Wushu competition during the 1st Asian Martial Arts Games 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiemsiri, Pichet; Wanawan, Amarin

    2014-02-01

    To determine the prevalence and characteristic of injuries in Wushu Competition during the IP' Asian MartialArts Games 2009. Sixty international athletes (38 males) participating in Wushu Competition during the 1st Asian Martial Arts Games 2009. Injuries were recorded on injury report forms to document any injuries seen and treatment provided by tournament physician during competitions. The injury forms described the athlete s causes, type, site, and severity of the injuries. There were 60 international athletes the average age were 22.49 +/- 3.75 years. The prevalence ofinjuries was 228.07/ 1000 athlete exposure (AE). The prevalence in males andfemales was 161.76/1000 AE and 326.09/1000 AE, respectively. The most common injured body parts in males were lower extremities 102.94/1000 AE, followed by head and face injuries 58.82/1000 AE. The most common injured body parts in females were lower extremities 282.61/1000 AE. The most common types of injuries in males were contusions 58.82/1000 AE, concussion 29.41/1000 AE and strain-sprain 29.41/1000 AE. In females the most common type of injury were contusion 195.65/1000 AEfollowed by strain-sprain 130.43/1000 AE. The most common mechanism of injury in males werereceiving a punch 58.82/1000 AE, receiving a kick 44.12/1000 AE and delivering a kick 44.12/1000 AE. Meanwhile, in females common mechanisms were receiving a kick 152.17/1000 AE followed by delivering a kick 130.43/1000 AE. High prevalence of injuries in Wushu competition during the 1" Asian MartialArts Games 2009 revealedfemale injuries were higher than male and had a higher prevalence compared with Muay Thai or Taekwondo competitions.

  17. A simple design rule for 1st order form-closure of underactuated hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krut

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The property of form-closure of a grasp, as generally defined in the literature, is based on the assumption that contact points between the hand and the object are fixed in space. However, this assumption is false when considering a grasp exerted by an underactuated hand, since in this case, it is not possible to control the position of each phalanx independently. In spite of researchers' interest in studying form-closure, none of the available published work on this subject takes into consideration the particular kinematics of underactuated hands. Actually, there are few available tools to qualify or quantify the stability of a grasp exerted by an underactuated hand, thus the design of underactuated hands mostly results from an intuitive approach. This paper aims to reduce this gap.

    A classification of underactuated hands is proposed, based on the expression of contact forces. This highlights the influence of non-backdrivable mechanisms introduced in the transmission of the closing motion of the hand on the stability of the grasp. The way to extend the original definition of form-closure to underactuated grasps is illustrated. A more general definition is formulated, which checks the stability of the set "object + hand". Using this new definition, a simple rule is proposed for designing a hand capable of achieving 1st order form-closed grasps.

    This paper was presented at the IFToMM/ASME International Workshop on Underactuated Grasping (UG2010, 19 August 2010, Montréal, Canada.

  18. Innovative biological systems for anaerobic treatment of grain and food processing wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, P M

    1986-09-01

    The application of two innovative fixed film and suspended growth anaerobic biological systems to the treatment of grain and food processing wastewaters is discussed. A fluidized bed fixed film system and a suspended growth membrane system are described. The technical and economic factors dictating which system is selected for treatment of a specific industrial wastewater are discussed. Case history results from successful operation of full-scale, demonstration, and pilot-scale systems treating respectively, soy whey, cheese whey, and wheat flour processing wastewaters are presented.

  19. Removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater by biological processes, hydrodynamic cavitation and UV treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanc, Mojca; Kosjek, Tina; Petkovšek, Martin; Dular, Matevž; Kompare, Boris; Širok, Brane; Blažeka, Željko; Heath, Ester

    2013-07-01

    To augment the removal of pharmaceuticals different conventional and alternative wastewater treatment processes and their combinations were investigated. We tested the efficiency of (1) two distinct laboratory scale biological processes: suspended activated sludge and attached-growth biomass, (2) a combined hydrodynamic cavitation-hydrogen peroxide process and (3) UV treatment. Five pharmaceuticals were chosen including ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, carbamazepine and diclofenac, and an active metabolite of the lipid regulating agent clofibric acid. Biological treatment efficiency was evaluated using lab-scale suspended activated sludge and moving bed biofilm flow-through reactors, which were operated under identical conditions in respect to hydraulic retention time, working volume, concentration of added pharmaceuticals and synthetic wastewater composition. The suspended activated sludge process showed poor and inconsistent removal of clofibric acid, carbamazepine and diclofenac, while ibuprofen, naproxen and ketoprofen yielded over 74% removal. Moving bed biofilm reactors were filled with two different types of carriers i.e. Kaldnes K1 and Mutag BioChip™ and resulted in higher removal efficiencies for ibuprofen and diclofenac. Augmentation and consistency in the removal of diclofenac were observed in reactors using Mutag BioChip™ carriers (85%±10%) compared to reactors using Kaldnes carriers and suspended activated sludge (74%±22% and 48%±19%, respectively). To enhance the removal of pharmaceuticals hydrodynamic cavitation with hydrogen peroxide process was evaluated and optimal conditions for removal were established regarding the duration of cavitation, amount of added hydrogen peroxide and initial pressure, all of which influence the efficiency of the process. Optimal parameters resulted in removal efficiencies between 3-70%. Coupling the attached-growth biomass biological treatment, hydrodynamic cavitation/hydrogen peroxide process and UV treatment

  20. Ten good reasons to consider biological processes in prevention and intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchaine, Theodore P; Neuhaus, Emily; Brenner, Sharon L; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Most contemporary accounts of psychopathology acknowledge the importance of both biological and environmental influences on behavior. In developmental psychopathology, multiple etiological mechanisms for psychiatric disturbance are well recognized, including those operating at genetic, neurobiological, and environmental levels of analysis. However, neuroscientific principles are rarely considered in current approaches to prevention or intervention. In this article, we explain why a deeper understanding of the genetic and neural substrates of behavior is essential for the next generation of preventive interventions, and we outline 10 specific reasons why considering biological processes can improve treatment efficacy. Among these, we discuss (a) the role of biomarkers and endophenotypes in identifying those most in need of prevention; (b) implications for treatment of genetic and neural mechanisms of homotypic comorbidity, heterotypic comorbidity, and heterotypic continuity; (c) ways in which biological vulnerabilities moderate the effects of environmental experience; (d) situations in which Biology x Environment interactions account for more variance in key outcomes than main effects; and (e) sensitivity of neural systems, via epigenesis, programming, and neural plasticity, to environmental moderation across the life span. For each of the 10 reasons outlined we present an example from current literature and discuss critical implications for prevention.

  1. Ten good reasons to consider biological processes in prevention and intervention research

    Science.gov (United States)

    BEAUCHAINE, THEODORE P.; NEUHAUS, EMILY; BRENNER, SHARON L.; GATZKE-KOPP, LISA

    2009-01-01

    Most contemporary accounts of psychopathology acknowledge the importance of both biological and environmental influences on behavior. In developmental psychopathology, multiple etiological mechanisms for psychiatric disturbance are well recognized, including those operating at genetic, neurobiological, and environmental levels of analysis. However, neuroscientific principles are rarely considered in current approaches to prevention or intervention. In this article, we explain why a deeper understanding of the genetic and neural substrates of behavior is essential for the next generation of preventive interventions, and we outline 10 specific reasons why considering biological processes can improve treatment efficacy. Among these, we discuss (a) the role of biomarkers and endophenotypes in identifying those most in need of prevention; (b) implications for treatment of genetic and neural mechanisms of homotypic comorbidity, heterotypic comorbidity, and heterotypic continuity; (c) ways in which biological vulnerabilities moderate the effects of environmental experience; (d) situations in which Biology×Environment interactions account for more variance in key outcomes than main effects; and (e) sensitivity of neural systems, via epigenesis, programming, and neural plasticity, to environmental moderation across the life span. For each of the 10 reasons outlined we present an example from current literature and discuss critical implications for prevention. PMID:18606030

  2. Preliminary degradation process study of infectious biological waste in a 5 k W thermal plasma equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xochihua S M, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    This work is a preliminary study of infectious biological waste degradation process by thermal plasma and was made in Thermal Plasma Applications Laboratory of Environmental Studies Department of the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). Infectious biological waste degradation process is realized by using samples such polyethylene, cotton, glass, etc., but the present study scope is to analyze polyethylene degradation process with mass and energy balances involved. Degradation method is realized as follow: a polyethylene sample is put in an appropriated crucible localized inside a pyrolysis reactor chamber, the plasma jet is projected to the sample, by the pyrolysis phenomena the sample is degraded into its constitutive particles: carbon and hydrogen. Air was utilized as a recombination gas in order to obtain the higher percent of CO 2 if amount of O 2 is greater in the recombination gas, the CO generation is reduced. The effluent gases of exhaust pyrolysis reactor through are passed through a heat exchanger to get cooled gases, the temperature water used is 15 Centigrade degrees. Finally the gases was tried into absorption tower with water as an absorbent fluid. Thermal plasma degradation process is a very promising technology, but is necessary to develop engineering process area to avail all advantages of thermal plasma. (Author)

  3. Mind the gap: non-biological processes contributing to soil CO2 efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Ana

    2015-05-01

    Widespread recognition of the importance of soil CO2 efflux as a major source of CO2 to the atmosphere has led to active research. A large soil respiration database and recent reviews have compiled data, methods, and current challenges. This study highlights some deficiencies for a proper understanding of soil CO2 efflux focusing on processes of soil CO2 production and transport that have not received enough attention in the current soil respiration literature. It has mostly been assumed that soil CO2 efflux is the result of biological processes (i.e. soil respiration), but recent studies demonstrate that pedochemical and geological processes, such as geothermal and volcanic CO2 degassing, are potentially important in some areas. Besides the microbial decomposition of litter, solar radiation is responsible for photodegradation or photochemical degradation of litter. Diffusion is considered to be the main mechanism of CO2 transport in the soil, but changes in atmospheric pressure and thermal convection may also be important mechanisms driving soil CO2 efflux greater than diffusion under certain conditions. Lateral fluxes of carbon as dissolved organic and inorganic carbon occur and may cause an underestimation of soil CO2 efflux. Traditionally soil CO2 efflux has been measured with accumulation chambers assuming that the main transport mechanism is diffusion. New techniques are available such as improved automated chambers, CO2 concentration profiles and isotopic techniques that may help to elucidate the sources of carbon from soils. We need to develop specific and standardized methods for different CO2 sources to quantify this flux on a global scale. Biogeochemical models should include biological and non-biological CO2 production processes before we can predict the response of soil CO2 efflux to climate change. Improving our understanding of the processes involved in soil CO2 efflux should be a research priority given the importance of this flux in the global

  4. Prospects for energy recovery during hydrothermal and biological processing of waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber Van Doren, Léda; Posmanik, Roy; Bicalho, Felipe A; Tester, Jefferson W; Sills, Deborah L

    2017-02-01

    Thermochemical and biological processes represent promising technologies for converting wet biomasses, such as animal manure, organic waste, or algae, to energy. To convert biomass to energy and bio-chemicals in an economical manner, internal energy recovery should be maximized to reduce the use of external heat and power. In this study, two conversion pathways that couple hydrothermal liquefaction with anaerobic digestion or catalytic hydrothermal gasification were compared. Each of these platforms is followed by two alternative processes for gas utilization: 1) combined heat and power; and 2) combustion in a boiler. Pinch analysis was applied to integrate thermal streams among unit processes and improve the overall system efficiency. A techno-economic analysis was conducted to compare the feasibility of the four modeled scenarios under different market conditions. Our results show that a systems approach designed to recover internal heat and power can reduce external energy demands and increase the overall process sustainability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Survey of biological processes for odor reduction; Kartlaeggning och studie av biologiska processer foer luktreduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrhenius, Karine; Rosell, Lars [SP Technical Research Inst. of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden); Hall, Gunnar [SIK Swedish Inst. for Food and Biotechnology, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2009-09-15

    This project aims to characterize chemical and subsequently odor emissions from a digester plant located closed to Boraas in Sweden (Boraas Energi och Miljoe AB). The digestion produces mainly 2 by-products, biogas and high quality organic biofertilizer. Biogas is a renewable source of electrical and heat energy and subsequently digester have a promising future. Unfortunately, release of unpleasant odours is one of the problems that may limit development of the technique as odours strongly influence the level of acceptance of the neighbours. The number of complaints due to odours depends mostly, upon the degree of odour release, the weather condition and plant environment (which influence the risks for spreading out), and the tolerance of the neighbours. These parameters are strongly variable. Many processes inside the plant distributed on a large surface may contribute to odour release. Chemical emissions were studied, in this project, by extensive sampling inside the plant. Results were then evaluated regarding risk for odour releases. The goal was to suggest controls and routines to limit releases. The conditions leading to the higher risks for odour emissions were studied by performing sampling at different periods of the year and subsequently different weather conditions. At first, places for measurement were chosen together with personal of the plant. Three zones are considered to mainly contribute to the odour emissions: the landfill region, the cisterns region and the leaching lake region. Totally 13 places were studied with regard to odour and chemical emissions under 2008-2009 at different weather conditions. Some results from a previous project (2007) are also presented here. Results show that the spreading out of can be maintained to an acceptable level as long as the plant is functioning without disturbances. The early stages of the treatment of waste should be confined in locals with closed doors to avoid spreading out of odours. Through controlled

  6. Advanced oxidation process-biological system for wastewater containing a recalcitrant pollutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oller, I; Malato, S; Sánchez-Pérez, J A; Maldonado, M I; Gernjak, W; Pérez-Estrada, L A

    2007-01-01

    Two advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), ozonation and photo-Fenton, combined with a pilot aerobic biological reactor at field scale were employed for the treatment of industrial non-biodegradable saline wastewater (TOC around 200 mgL(-1)) containing a biorecalcitrant compound, alpha-methylphenylglycine (MPG), at a concentration of 500 mgL(-1). Ozonation experiments were performed in a 50-L reactor with constant inlet ozone of 21.9 g m(-3). Solar photo-Fenton tests were carried out in a 75-L pilot plant made up of four compound parabolic collector (CPC) units. The catalyst concentration employed in this system was 20 mgL(-1) of Fe2+ and the H2O2 concentration was kept in the range of 200-500mgL(-1). Complete degradation of MPG was attained after 1,020 min of ozone treatment, while only 195 min were required for photo-Fenton. Samples from different stages of both AOPs were taken for Zahn-Wellens biocompatibility tests. Biodegradability enhancement of the industrial saline wastewater was confirmed (>70% biodegradability). Biodegradable compounds generated during the preliminary oxidative processes were biologically mineralised in a 170-L aerobic immobilised biomass reactor (IBR). The global efficiency of both AOP/biological combined systems was 90% removal of an initial TOC of over 500 mgL(-1).

  7. 3rd International Meeting for Researchers in Materials and Plasma Technology (IMRMPT) and 1st Symposium on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings present the written contributions of the participants of the 3rd International Meeting for Researchers in Materials and Plasma Technology (3rd IMRMPT) and the 1st Symposium on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology which was held from 4 to May 9, 2015 at the Dann Carlton Hotel Bucaramanga, Colombia, organized by the faculty of science of the Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS) and the basic science department of the Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana. This was the third version of biennial meetings that began in 2011. The five-day scientific program of the 3rd IMRMPT consisted of 24 Magisterial Conferences, 70 Oral Presentations, 185 Poster Presentations, 3 Courses and 1 Discussion Panel with the participation of undergraduate and graduate students, professors, researchers and entrepreneurs from Colombia, Russia, Germany, France, Spain, England, United States, Mexico, Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil, Venezuela, among others. Moreover, the objective of IMRMPT was to bring together national and international researchers in order to establish a network of scientific cooperation with a global impact in the area of the science and the technology of materials; to promote the exchange of creative ideas and the effective transfer of scientific knowledge, from fundamental research to innovation applied to industrial solutions and to advances in the development of new research allowing to increase the lifetime of the materials used in the industry by means of efficient transference of the knowledge between sectors academia and industry. The topics covered in the 3rd IMRMPT include New Materials, Surface Physics, Structural Integrity, Renewable Energy, Online Process Control, Non Destructive Evaluation, Characterization of Materials, Laser and Hybrid Processes, Thin Films and Nanomaterials, Surface Hardening Processes, Wear and Corrosion/Oxidation, Plasma Applications and Technologies, Modelling, Simulation and Diagnostics, Biomedical Coatings, Surface Treatments

  8. Removal of dimethyl sulfide by the combination of non-thermal plasma and biological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Z S; Li, H Q; He, J C; Ye, Q H; Huang, Q R; Luo, Y W

    2013-10-01

    A bench scale system integrated with a non-thermal plasma (NTP) and a biotricking filtration (BTF) unit for the treatment of gases containing dimethyl sulfide (DMS) was investigated. DMS removal efficiency in the integrated system was up to 96%. Bacterial communities in the BTF were assessed by PCR-DGGE, which play the dominant role in the biological processes of metabolism, sulfur oxidation, sulfate-reducing and carbon oxidation. The addition of ozone from NTP made microbial community in BTF more complicated and active for DMS removal. The NTP oxidize DMS to simple compounds such as methanol and carbonyl sulfide; the intermediate organic products and DMS are further oxidized to sulfate, carbon dioxide, water vapors by biological degradation. These results show that NTP-BTF is achievable and open new possibilities for applying the integrated with NTP and BTF to odour gas treatment. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Process of Argumentation in High School Biology Class: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, M.; Rakhmawati, E.; Hendarto, P.; Winarni

    2017-02-01

    Argumentation skill can be nurtured by designing a lesson in which students are provided with the opportunity to argue. This research aims to analyse argumentation process in biology class. The participants were students of three biology classes from different high schools in Surakarta Indonesia. One of the classroom was taught by a student teacher, and the rest were instructed by the assigned teachers. Through a classroom observation, oral activities were noted, audio-recorded and video-taped. Coding was done based on the existence of claiming-reasoning-evidence (CRE) process by McNeill and Krajcik. Data was analysed qualitatively focusing on the role of teachers to initiate questioning to support argumentation process. The lesson design of three were also analysed. The result shows that pedagogical skill of teachers to support argumentation process, such as skill to ask, answer, and respond to students’ question and statements need to be trained intensively. Most of the argumentation found were only claiming, without reasoning and evidence. Teachers have to change the routine of mostly posing open-ended questions to students, and giving directly a correct answer to students’ questions. Knowledge and skills to encourage student to follow inquiry-based learning have to be acquired by teachers.

  10. Biological shielding design and qualification of concreting process for construction of electron beam irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petwal, V.C.; Kumar, P.; Suresh, N.; Parchani, G.; Dwivedi, J.; Thakurta, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    A technology demonstration facility for irradiation of food and agricultural products is being set-up by RRCAT at Indore. The facility design is based on linear electron accelerator with maximum beam power of 10 kW and can be operated either in electron mode at 10 MeV or photon modes at 5/7.5 MeV. Biological shielding has been designed in accordance with NCRP 51 to achieve dose rate at all accessible points outside the irradiation vault less than the permissible limit of 0.1 mR/hr. In addition to radiation attenuation property, concrete must have satisfactory mechanical properties to meet the structural requirements. There are number of site specific variables which affect the structural, thermal and radiological properties of concrete, leading to considerable difference in actual values and design values. Hence it is essential to establish a suitable site and environmental specific process to cast the concrete and qualify the process by experimental measurement. For process qualification we have cast concrete test blocks of different thicknesses up to 3.25 m and evaluated the radiological and mechanical properties by radiometry, ultrasonic and mechanical tests. In this paper we describe the biological shielding design of the facility and analyse the results of tests carried out for qualification of the process. (author)

  11. Development of biology student worksheets to facilitate science process skills of student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Y. S.; Pratiwi, R.; Indana, S.

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to describe development of Biology student worksheets to facilitate science process skills of student, at the same time to facilitate thinking skills of students in senior high school are equipped with Assesment Sheets. The worksheets development refers to cycle which includes phase analysis (analysis), planning (planning), design (design), development (development), implementation (implementation), evaluation and revision (evaluation and revision). Phase evaluation and revision is an ongoing activity conducted in each phase of the development cycle. That is, after the evaluation of the results of these activities and make revisions at any phase, then continue to the next phase. Based on the test results for grade X, XI, and XII in St. Agnes Surabaya high school, obtained some important findings. The findings are as follows. (1) Developed biology student worksheets could be used to facilitate thinking ability of students in particular skills integrated process that includes components to formulate the problem, formulate hypotheses, determine the study variables, formulate an operational definition of variables, determine the steps in the research, planning data tables, organizing Data in the form of tables/charts, drawing conclusions, (2) Developed biology student worksheets could also facilitate the development of social interaction of students such as working together, listening/respect the opinions of others, assembling equipment and materials, discuss and share information and facilitate the upgrading of skills hands-on student activity. (3) Developed biology worksheets basically could be implemented with the guidance of the teacher step by step, especially for students who have never used a similar worksheet. Guidance at the beginning of this need, especially for worksheets that require special skills or understanding of specific concepts as a prerequisite, such as using a microscope, determine the heart rate, understand the mechanism of

  12. Finding biological process modifications in cancer tissues by mining gene expression correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storari Sergio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Through the use of DNA microarrays it is now possible to obtain quantitative measurements of the expression of thousands of genes from a biological sample. This technology yields a global view of gene expression that can be used in several ways. Functional insight into expression profiles is routinely obtained by using Gene Ontology terms associated to the cellular genes. In this paper, we deal with functional data mining from expression profiles, proposing a novel approach that studies the correlations between genes and their relations to Gene Ontology (GO. By using this "functional correlations comparison" we explore all possible pairs of genes identifying the affected biological processes by analyzing in a pair-wise manner gene expression patterns and linking correlated pairs with Gene Ontology terms. Results We apply here this "functional correlations comparison" approach to identify the existing correlations in hepatocarcinoma (161 microarray experiments and to reveal functional differences between normal liver and cancer tissues. The number of well-correlated pairs in each GO term highlights several differences in genetic interactions between cancer and normal tissues. We performed a bootstrap analysis in order to compute false detection rates (FDR and confidence limits. Conclusion Experimental results show the main advantage of the applied method: it both picks up general and specific GO terms (in particular it shows a fine resolution in the specific GO terms. The results obtained by this novel method are highly coherent with the ones proposed by other cancer biology studies. But additionally they highlight the most specific and interesting GO terms helping the biologist to focus his/her studies on the most relevant biological processes.

  13. Effect of ozone on the performance of a hybrid ceramic membrane-biological activated carbon process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianning; Hu, Jiangyong; Tao, Yi; Zhu, Jia; Zhang, Xihui

    2014-04-01

    Two hybrid processes including ozonation-ceramic membrane-biological activated carbon (BAC) (Process A) and ceramic membrane-BAC (Process B) were compared to treat polluted raw water. The performance of hybrid processes was evaluated with the removal efficiencies of turbidity, ammonia and organic matter. The results indicated that more than 99% of particle count was removed by both hybrid processes and ozonation had no significant effect on its removal. BAC filtration greatly improved the removal of ammonia. Increasing the dissolved oxygen to 30.0 mg/L could lead to a removal of ammonia with concentrations as high as 7.80 mg/L and 8.69 mg/L for Processes A and B, respectively. The average removal efficiencies of total organic carbon and ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254, a parameter indicating organic matter with aromatic structure) were 49% and 52% for Process A, 51% and 48% for Process B, respectively. Some organic matter was oxidized by ozone and this resulted in reduced membrane fouling and increased membrane flux by 25%-30%. However, pre-ozonation altered the components of the raw water and affected the microorganisms in the BAC, which may impact the removals of organic matter and nitrite negatively. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. PREFACE: 1st International Conference on Sensing for Industry, Control, Communication & Security Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuja Syed, Ahmed

    2013-12-01

    The 1st International Conference on Sensing for Industry, Control, Communication & Security Technologies (ICSICCST-2013), took place in Karachi, Pakistan, from 24-26 June 2013. It was organized by Indus University, Karachi, in collaboration with HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi. More than 80 abstracts were submitted to the conference and were double blind-reviewed by an international scientific committee. The topics of the Conference were: Video, Image & Voice Sensing Sensing for Industry, Environment, and Health Automation and Controls Laser Sensors and Systems Displays for Innovative Applications Emerging Technologies Unmanned, Robotic, and Layered Systems Sensing for Defense, Homeland Security, and Law Enforcement The title of the conference, 'Sensing for Industry, Control, Communication & Security Technologies' is very apt in capturing the main issues facing the industry of Pakistan and the world. We believe the sensing industry, particularly in Pakistan, is currently at a critical juncture of its development. The future of the industry will depend on how the industry players choose to respond to the challenge of global competition and opportunities arising from strong growth in the Asian region for which we are pleased to note that the conference covered a comprehensive spectrum of issues with an international perspective. This will certainly assist industry players to make informed decisions in shaping the future of the industry. The conference gathered qualified researchers from developed countries like USA, UK, Sweden, Saudi Arabia, China, South Korea and Malaysia etc whose expertise resulting from the research can be drawn upon to build an exploitable area of new technology that has potential Defense, Homeland Security, and Military applicability. More than 250 researchers/students attended the event and made the event great success as the turnout was 100%. An exceptional line-up of speakers spoke at the occasion. We want

  15. SU-E-T-188: Commission of World 1st Commercial Compact PBS Proton System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, X; Patel, B; Song, X; Syh, J; Syh, J; Zhang, J; Freund, D; Rosen, L; Wu, H [Willis-Knighton Medical Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: ProteusONE is the 1st commercial compact PBS proton system with an upstream scanning gantry and C230 cyclotron. We commissioned XiO and Raystation TPS simultaneously. This is a summary of beam data collection, modeling, and verification and comparison without range shiter for this unique system with both TPS. Methods: Both Raystation and XiO requires the same measurements data: (i) integral depth dose(IDDs) of single central spot measured in water tank; (ii) absolute dose calibration measured at 2cm depth of water with mono-energetic 10×10 cm2 field with spot spacing 4mm, 1MU per spot; and (iii) beam spot characteristics in air at 0cm and ± 20cm away from ISO. To verify the beam model for both TPS, same 15 cube plans were created to simulate different treatment sites, target volumes and positions. PDDs of each plan were measured using a Multi-layer Ionization Chamber(MLIC), absolute point dose verification were measured using PPC05 in water tank and patient-specific QA were measured using MatriXX PT, a 2D ion chamber array. Results: All the point dose measurements at midSOBP were within 2% for both XiO and Raystation. However, up to 5% deviations were observed in XiO’s plans at shallow depth while within 2% in Raystation plans. 100% of the ranges measured were within 1 mm with maximum deviation of 0.5 mm. 20 patient specific plan were generated and measured in 3 planes (distal, proximal and midSOBP) in Raystation. The average of gamma index is 98.7%±3% with minimum 94% Conclusions: Both TPS were successfully commissioned and can be safely deployed for clinical use for ProteusONE. Based on our clinical experience in PBS planning, user interface, function and workflow, we preferably use Raystation as our main clinical TPS. Gamma Index >95% at 3%/3 mm criteria is our institution action level for patient specific plan QAs.

  16. Assessment of biological chromium among stainless steel and mild steel welders in relation to welding processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmé, J L; Shirali, P; Mereau, M; Sobaszek, A; Boulenguez, C; Diebold, F; Haguenoer, J M

    1997-01-01

    Air and biological monitoring were used for assessing external and internal chromium exposure among 116 stainless steel welders (SS welders) using manual metal arc (MMA), metal inert gas (MIG) and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding processes (MMA: n = 57; MIG: n = 37; TIG: n = 22) and 30 mild steel welders (MS welders) using MMA and MIG welding processes (MMA: n = 14; MIG: n = 16). The levels of atmospheric total chromium were evaluated after personal air monitoring. The mean values for the different groups of SS welders were 201 micrograms/m3 (MMA) and 185 micrograms/m3 (MIG), 52 micrograms/m3 (TIG) and for MS welders 8.1 micrograms/m3 (MMA) and 7.3 micrograms/m3 (MIG). The curve of cumulative frequency distribution from biological monitoring among SS welders showed chromium geometric mean concentrations in whole blood of 3.6 micrograms/l (95th percentile = 19.9), in plasma of 3.3 micrograms/l (95th percentile = 21.0) and in urine samples of 6.2 micrograms/l (95th percentile = 58.0). Among MS welders, mean values in whole blood and plasma were rather more scattered (1.8 micrograms/l, 95th percentile = 9.3 and 1.3 micrograms/l, 95th percentile = 8.4, respectively) and in urine the value was 2.4 micrograms/l (95th percentile = 13.3). The analysis of variance of chromium concentrations in plasma previously showed a metal effect (F = 29.7, P process effect (F = 22.2, P process interaction (F = 1.3, P = 0.25). Concerning urinary chromium concentration, the analysis of variance also showed a metal effect (F = 30, P process effect (F = 72, P process interaction (F = 13.2, P = 0.0004). Throughout the study we noted any significant differences between smokers and non-smokers among welders. Taking in account the relationships between chromium concentrations in whole, plasma or urine and the different welding process. MMA-SS is definitely different from other processes because the biological values are clearly higher. These higher levels are due to the very significant

  17. 1st Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference and 3rd Czech Proteomic Conference

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářová, Hana; Gadher, S. J.; Archakov, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2008), s. 25-28 ISSN 1478-9450 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : proteomic conference Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.848, year: 2008

  18. Intended process water management concept for the mechanical biological treatment of municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. Weichgrebe; S. Maerker; T. Boning; H. Stegemann

    2008-01-01

    Accumulating operational experience in both aerobic and anaerobic mechanical biological waste treatment (MBT) makes it increasingly obvious that controlled water management would substantially reduce the cost of MBT and also enhance resource recovery of the organic and inorganic fraction. The MBT plant at Gescher, Germany, is used as an example in order to determine the quantity and composition of process water and leachates from intensive and subsequent rotting, pressing water from anaerobic digestion and scrubber water from acid exhaust air treatment, and hence prepare an MBT water balance. The potential of, requirements for and limits to internal process water reuse as well as the possibilities of resource recovery from scrubber water are also examined. Finally, an assimilated process water management concept with the purpose of an extensive reduction of wastewater quantity and freshwater demand is presented.

  19. Potential biological hazard of importance for HACCP plans in fresh fish processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltić Milan Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP system is scientifically based and focused on problem prevention in order to assure the produced food products are safe to consume. Prerequisite programs such as GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices, GHP (Good Hygienic Practices are an essential foundation for the development and implementation of successful HACCP plans. One of the preliminary tasks in the development of HACCP plan is to conduct a hazard analysis. The process of conducting a hazard analysis involves two stages. The first is hazard identification and the second stage is the HACCP team decision which potential hazards must be addressed in the HACCP plan. By definition, the HACCP concept covers all types of potential food safety hazards: biological, chemical and physical, whether they are naturally occurring in the food, contributed by the environment or generated by a mistake in the manufacturing process. In raw fish processing, potential significant biological hazards which are reasonably likely to cause illness of humans are parasites (Trematodae, Nematodae, Cestodae, bacteria (Salmonella, E. coli, Vibrio parahemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, Staphyloccocus aureus, viruses (Norwalk virus, Entero virusesi, Hepatitis A, Rotovirus and bio-toxins. Upon completion of hazard analysis, any measure(s that are used to control the hazard(s should be described.

  20. Nanomaterial processing using self-assembly-bottom-up chemical and biological approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiruvengadathan, Rajagopalan; Gangopadhyay, Keshab; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra; Korampally, Venumadhav; Ghosh, Arkasubhra; Chanda, Nripen

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is touted as the next logical sequence in technological evolution. This has led to a substantial surge in research activities pertaining to the development and fundamental understanding of processes and assembly at the nanoscale. Both top-down and bottom-up fabrication approaches may be used to realize a range of well-defined nanostructured materials with desirable physical and chemical attributes. Among these, the bottom-up self-assembly process offers the most realistic solution toward the fabrication of next-generation functional materials and devices. Here, we present a comprehensive review on the physical basis behind self-assembly and the processes reported in recent years to direct the assembly of nanoscale functional blocks into hierarchically ordered structures. This paper emphasizes assembly in the synthetic domain as well in the biological domain, underscoring the importance of biomimetic approaches toward novel materials. In particular, two important classes of directed self-assembly, namely, (i) self-assembly among nanoparticle–polymer systems and (ii) external field-guided assembly are highlighted. The spontaneous self-assembling behavior observed in nature that leads to complex, multifunctional, hierarchical structures within biological systems is also discussed in this review. Recent research undertaken to synthesize hierarchically assembled functional materials have underscored the need as well as the benefits harvested in synergistically combining top-down fabrication methods with bottom-up self-assembly. (review article)

  1. Combination of Advanced Oxidation Processes and biological treatments for wastewater decontamination-A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oller, I.; Malato, S.; Sanchez-Perez, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays there is a continuously increasing worldwide concern for development of alternative water reuse technologies, mainly focused on agriculture and industry. In this context, Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) are considered a highly competitive water treatment technology for the removal of those organic pollutants not treatable by conventional techniques due to their high chemical stability and/or low biodegradability. Although chemical oxidation for complete mineralization is usually expensive, its combination with a biological treatment is widely reported to reduce operating costs. This paper reviews recent research combining AOPs (as a pre-treatment or post-treatment stage) and bioremediation technologies for the decontamination of a wide range of synthetic and real industrial wastewater. Special emphasis is also placed on recent studies and large-scale combination schemes developed in Mediterranean countries for non-biodegradable wastewater treatment and reuse. The main conclusions arrived at from the overall assessment of the literature are that more work needs to be done on degradation kinetics and reactor modeling of the combined process, and also dynamics of the initial attack on primary contaminants and intermediate species generation. Furthermore, better economic models must be developed to estimate how the cost of this combined process varies with specific industrial wastewater characteristics, the overall decontamination efficiency and the relative cost of the AOP versus biological treatment.

  2. Coronal MR imaging of the normal 3rd, 4th, and 5th lumbar and 1st sacral nerve roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hald, J.K.; Nakstad, P.H.; Hauglum, B.E.

    1991-01-01

    Seven healthy volunteers underwent coronal MR imaging at 1.5 tesla of the normal 3rd, 4th, and 5th lumbar, and 1st sacral nerve roots. Coronal slices, 3-mm-thick with a 0.3-mm gap between the slices were obtained (TR/TE 600/22) through the lumbar spinal canal. All the nerve roots were visible on at least one image. One can routinely expect to demonstrate the 3rd, 4th, and 5th lumbar, and 1st sacral nerve roots on T1-weighted, 3-mm-thick coronal MR scans. We found no correlation between the degree of lumbar lordosis and the lengths of the visible nerve roots. Five patients with one of the following spinal problems: anomaly, tumor, disk herniation, and failed back surgery syndrome were examined according to our protocol. In all these cases coronal MR imaging gave the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  3. Coronal MR imaging of the normal 3rd, 4th, and 5th lumbar and 1st sacral nerve roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hald, J K; Nakstad, P H; Hauglum, B E [National Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Radiology

    1991-05-01

    Seven healthy volunteers underwent coronal MR imaging at 1.5 tesla of the normal 3rd, 4th, and 5th lumbar, and 1st sacral nerve roots. Coronal slices, 3-mm-thick with a 0.3-mm gap between the slices were obtained (TR/TE 600/22) through the lumbar spinal canal. All the nerve roots were visible on at least one image. One can routinely expect to demonstrate the 3rd, 4th, and 5th lumbar, and 1st sacral nerve roots on T1-weighted, 3-mm-thick coronal MR scans. We found no correlation between the degree of lumbar lordosis and the lengths of the visible nerve roots. Five patients with one of the following spinal problems: anomaly, tumor, disk herniation, and failed back surgery syndrome were examined according to our protocol. In all these cases coronal MR imaging gave the correct diagnosis. (orig.).

  4. Computer-Based Support of Decision Making Processes during Biological Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Antos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes contextual analysis of a general system that should provide a computerized support of decision making processes related to response operations in case of a biological incident. This analysis is focused on information systems and information resources perspective and their integration using appropriate tools and technology. In the contextual design the basic modules of BioDSS system are suggested and further elaborated. The modules deal with incident description, scenarios development and recommendation of appropriate countermeasures. Proposals for further research are also included.

  5. Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn biogeochemical behaviour and biological transfer processes in the Northwestern Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, E.; Marty, J.C.; Miquel, J.C.; Fowler, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn concentrations were determined in planktonic organisms (Salps, copepods), their associated faecal pellets and in particles collected at 200 and 2000 m depth in sediment traps moored in the Ligurian Sea. Al and P were also measured and taken as tracers of lithogenic and biogenic components, respectively. The aim of this work was to determine the fluxes of trace metals in the Ligurian Sea and their variations with depth, and to to assess the biogeochemical behaviour of elements having, for some of them, an anthropogenic origin, by the study of biologically-mediated uptake and removal processes

  6. State Estimation for a Biological Phosphorus Removal Process using an Asymptotic Observer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larose, Claude Alain; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the use of an asymptotic observer for state estimation in a continuous biological phosphorus removal process. The estimated states are the concentration of heterotrophic, autotrophic, and phosphorus accumulating organisms, polyphosphate, glycogen and PHA. The reaction scheme...... if the convergence, driven by the dilution rate, was slow (from 15 to 60 days). The propagation of the measurement noise and a bias in the estimation of glycogen and PHA could be the result of the high condition number of one of the matrices used in the algorithm of the asymptotic observer for the aerated tanks....

  7. Antibiotic abatement in different advanced oxidation processes coupled with a biological sequencing batch biofilm reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esplugas, M.; Gonzalez, O.; Benito, J.; Sans, C.

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade, the lack of fresh water is becoming a major concern. Recently, the present of recalcitrant products such as pharmaceuticals has caused a special interest due to their undefined environmental impact. Among these antibiotics are one of the numerous recalcitrant pollutants present in surface waters that might not be completely removed in the biological stage of sewage treatment plants because of their antibacterial nature. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) have proved to be highly efficient for the degradation of most organic pollutants in wastewaters. (Author)

  8. Theoretical considerations concerning the effect of relativistic velocities on the rate of biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneine, I F

    1997-06-01

    Theoretical considerations were advanced on the reaction rate of biological systems in a rocket accelerated at fractional levels of the velocity of light. The values of mass increase in reacting molecules and length contraction of space under these relativistic velocities attained by the hypothetical rocket were inserted in equations of the absolute reaction rate theory. The equations employed were for the frequency of collisions, and for the internal kinetic energy of molecular reactions. Results of both sets of equations indicated that reduction of reaction rates were correlated to the mass increase. This would imply a general slowing of all chemical, biochemical and biological processes taking place. A human would suffer a related decrease in metabolic rate. Contrary to what is generally accepted, the biological aging of the space traveler under velocities bearable by humans, namely under 0.50c, would follow a pace very similar to that of an observer remaining in the resting frame of reference. With increased increments of the velocity, the space traveler would display a more intense lowering of the metabolic rate, with signs and symptoms comparable to body core hypothermia. Metabolic rates at insufficient levels to maintain the vital functions would be attained at 0.70c and higher, leading swiftly to coma and death. The presence of an endocrine dysfunction such as hypothyroidism or obesity in the space traveler would aggravate the signs and symptoms. Space travel at efficient velocities would be unbearable for a warm-blooded animal.

  9. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: biological, physical and chemical characterization of aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Georgakopoulos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The interest in bioaerosols has traditionally been linked to health hazards for humans, animals and plants. However, several components of bioaerosols exhibit physical properties of great significance for cloud processes, such as ice nucleation and cloud condensation. To gain a better understanding of their influence on climate, it is therefore important to determine the composition, concentration, seasonal fluctuation, regional diversity and evolution of bioaerosols. In this paper, we will review briefly the existing techniques for detection, quantification, physical and chemical analysis of biological particles, attempting to bridge physical, chemical and biological methods for analysis of biological particles and integrate them with aerosol sampling techniques. We will also explore some emerging spectroscopy techniques for bulk and single-particle analysis that have potential for in-situ physical and chemical analysis. Lastly, we will outline open questions and further desired capabilities (e.g., in-situ, sensitive, both broad and selective, on-line, time-resolved, rapid, versatile, cost-effective techniques required prior to comprehensive understanding of chemical and physical characterization of bioaerosols.

  10. Supporting cognition in systems biology analysis: findings on users' processes and design implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirel, Barbara

    2009-02-13

    Current usability studies of bioinformatics tools suggest that tools for exploratory analysis support some tasks related to finding relationships of interest but not the deep causal insights necessary for formulating plausible and credible hypotheses. To better understand design requirements for gaining these causal insights in systems biology analyses a longitudinal field study of 15 biomedical researchers was conducted. Researchers interacted with the same protein-protein interaction tools to discover possible disease mechanisms for further experimentation. Findings reveal patterns in scientists' exploratory and explanatory analysis and reveal that tools positively supported a number of well-structured query and analysis tasks. But for several of scientists' more complex, higher order ways of knowing and reasoning the tools did not offer adequate support. Results show that for a better fit with scientists' cognition for exploratory analysis systems biology tools need to better match scientists' processes for validating, for making a transition from classification to model-based reasoning, and for engaging in causal mental modelling. As the next great frontier in bioinformatics usability, tool designs for exploratory systems biology analysis need to move beyond the successes already achieved in supporting formulaic query and analysis tasks and now reduce current mismatches with several of scientists' higher order analytical practices. The implications of results for tool designs are discussed.

  11. The yield, processing, and biological consequences of clustered DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikazono, Naoya; Noguchi, Miho; Fujii, Kentaro; Urushibara, Ayumi; Yokoya, Akinari

    2009-01-01

    After living cells are exposed to ionizing radiation, a variety of chemical modifications of DNA are induced either directly by ionization of DNA or indirectly through interactions with water-derived radicals. The DNA lesions include single strand breaks (SSB), base lesions, sugar damage, and apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites). Clustered DNA damage, which is defined as two or more of such lesions within one to two helical turns of DNA induced by a single radiation track, is considered to be a unique feature of ionizing radiation. A double strand break (DSB) is a type of clustered DNA damage, in which single strand breaks are formed on opposite strands in close proximity. Formation and repair of DSBs have been studied in great detail over the years as they have been linked to important biological endpoints, such as cell death, loss of genetic material, chromosome aberration. Although non-DSB clustered DNA damage has received less attention, there is growing evidence of its biological significance. This review focuses on the current understanding of (1) the yield of non-DSB clustered damage induced by ionizing radiation (2) the processing, and (3) biological consequences of non-DSB clustered DNA damage. (author)

  12. Principles for integrating reactive species into in vivo biological processes: Examples from exercise physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritelis, Nikos V; Cobley, James N; Paschalis, Vassilis; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Theodorou, Anastasios A; Kyparos, Antonios; Nikolaidis, Michalis G

    2016-04-01

    The equivocal role of reactive species and redox signaling in exercise responses and adaptations is an example clearly showing the inadequacy of current redox biology research to shed light on fundamental biological processes in vivo. Part of the answer probably relies on the extreme complexity of the in vivo redox biology and the limitations of the currently applied methodological and experimental tools. We propose six fundamental principles that should be considered in future studies to mechanistically link reactive species production to exercise responses or adaptations: 1) identify and quantify the reactive species, 2) determine the potential signaling properties of the reactive species, 3) detect the sources of reactive species, 4) locate the domain modified and verify the (ir)reversibility of post-translational modifications, 5) establish causality between redox and physiological measurements, 6) use selective and targeted antioxidants. Fulfilling these principles requires an idealized human experimental setting, which is certainly a utopia. Thus, researchers should choose to satisfy those principles, which, based on scientific evidence, are most critical for their specific research question. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Uncertainty Requirement Analysis for the Orbit, Attitude, and Burn Performance of the 1st Lunar Orbit Insertion Maneuver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joo Song

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the uncertainty requirements for orbit, attitude, and burn performance were estimated and analyzed for the execution of the 1st lunar orbit insertion (LOI maneuver of the Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO mission. During the early design phase of the system, associate analysis is an essential design factor as the 1st LOI maneuver is the largest burn that utilizes the onboard propulsion system; the success of the lunar capture is directly affected by the performance achieved. For the analysis, the spacecraft is assumed to have already approached the periselene with a hyperbolic arrival trajectory around the moon. In addition, diverse arrival conditions and mission constraints were considered, such as varying periselene approach velocity, altitude, and orbital period of the capture orbit after execution of the 1st LOI maneuver. The current analysis assumed an impulsive LOI maneuver, and two-body equations of motion were adapted to simplify the problem for a preliminary analysis. Monte Carlo simulations were performed for the statistical analysis to analyze diverse uncertainties that might arise at the moment when the maneuver is executed. As a result, three major requirements were analyzed and estimated for the early design phase. First, the minimum requirements were estimated for the burn performance to be captured around the moon. Second, the requirements for orbit, attitude, and maneuver burn performances were simultaneously estimated and analyzed to maintain the 1st elliptical orbit achieved around the moon within the specified orbital period. Finally, the dispersion requirements on the B-plane aiming at target points to meet the target insertion goal were analyzed and can be utilized as reference target guidelines for a mid-course correction (MCC maneuver during the transfer. More detailed system requirements for the KPLO mission, particularly for the spacecraft bus itself and for the flight dynamics subsystem at the ground

  14. New feedstocks for biofuels. Alternative 1st generation of energy crops; Nieuwe Grondstoffen voor Biobrandstoffen. Alternatieve 1e Generatie Energiegewassen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbersen, W. [Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group, WUR-AFSG, Wageningen (Netherlands); Oyen, L. [Plant Resources of Tropical Africa, WUR-PROTA, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2009-08-15

    A brief overview is provided of a number of alternative crops that can supply feedstocks for 1st generation biofuels and a brief analysis is conducted of the option for renewable biofuel production. [Dutch] Er wordt een kort overzicht gegeven van een aantal alternatieve gewassen die grondstoffen voor 1e generatie biobrandstoffen kunnen leveren en wordt er een korte analyse gegeven van de mogelijkheid voor duurzame biobrandstofproductie.

  15. Nuclear Physics Department: Progress report from the 1st October 1988 to the 30th September 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The work performed at the Nuclear Physics Department, from the 1st October 1988 to the 30th September 1990, are summarized. The investigations are carried out in the fields of heavy ion physics, intermediate energy physics and accelerators using superconducting cavities. Theoretical and experimental studies accomplished in the following fields are included: hot nuclei, exotic nuclei, giant resonances, fission, inelastic scattering, electroproduction of pions, polarization of deuterons, central collisions [fr

  16. Draft Genome Sequences of Staphylococcus aureus AMRF1 (ST22) and AMRF2 (ST672), Ocular Methicillin-Resistant Isolates

    KAUST Repository

    Velusamy, Nithya

    2014-03-20

    Sequence type 22 (ST22) and ST672 are the two major emerging clones of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in India. ST672 strains were found to cause severe ocular infections. We report the draft genome sequences of two emerging strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, AMRF1 (ST22) and AMRF2 (ST672), isolated from patients with ocular infections.

  17. Teachers' Spatial Anxiety Relates to 1st-and 2nd-Graders' Spatial Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L.; Levine, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' anxiety about an academic domain, such as math, can impact students' learning in that domain. We asked whether this relation held in the domain of spatial skill, given the importance of spatial skill for success in math and science and its malleability at a young age. We measured 1st-and 2nd-grade teachers' spatial anxiety…

  18. Summary Report of 1st Research Coordination Meeting on Development of Reference Database for Beta-delayed Neutron Emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillmann, Iris; Dimitriou, Paraskevi; Singh, Balraj

    2014-03-01

    A summary is given of the 1st Research Coordination Meeting of the new IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of a Reference Database for Beta-delayed neutron emission data. Participants presented their work, reviewed the current status of the field with regards to individual precursors and aggregate data, and discussed the scope of the work to be undertaken. A list of priorities and task assignments was produced. (author)

  19. Draft Genome Sequences of Staphylococcus aureus AMRF1 (ST22) and AMRF2 (ST672), Ocular Methicillin-Resistant Isolates

    KAUST Repository

    Velusamy, Nithya; Prakash, Logambiga; Neelamegam, Sivakumar; Antony, Aju; Prajna, Lalitha; Mohankumar, Vidyarani; Devarajan, Bharanidharan

    2014-01-01

    Sequence type 22 (ST22) and ST672 are the two major emerging clones of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in India. ST672 strains were found to cause severe ocular infections. We report the draft genome sequences of two emerging strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, AMRF1 (ST22) and AMRF2 (ST672), isolated from patients with ocular infections.

  20. Comparing biological and thermochemical processing of sugarcane bagasse: An energy balance perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibbrandt, N.H.; Knoetze, J.H.; Goergens, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    The technical performance of lignocellulosic enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation versus pyrolysis processes for sugarcane bagasse was evaluated, based on currently available technology. Process models were developed for bioethanol production from sugarcane bagasse using three different pretreatment methods, i.e. dilute acid, liquid hot water and steam explosion, at various solid concentrations. Two pyrolysis processes, namely fast pyrolysis and vacuum pyrolysis, were considered as alternatives to biological processing for the production of biofuels from sugarcane bagasse. For bioethanol production, a minimum of 30% solids in the pretreatment reactor was required to render the process energy self-sufficient, which led to a total process energy demand equivalent to roughly 40% of the feedstock higher heating value. Both vacuum pyrolysis and fast pyrolysis could be operated as energy self-sufficient if 45% of the produced char from fast pyrolysis is used to fuel the process. No char energy is required to fuel the vacuum pyrolysis process due to lower process energy demands (17% compared to 28% of the feedstock higher heating value). The process models indicated that effective process heat integration can result in a 10-15% increase in all process energy efficiencies. Process thermal efficiencies between 52 and 56% were obtained for bioethanol production at pretreatment solids at 30% and 50%, respectively, while the efficiencies were 70% for both pyrolysis processes. The liquid fuel energy efficiency of the best bioethanol process is 41%, while that of crude bio-oil production before upgrading is 67% and 56% via fast and vacuum pyrolysis, respectively. Efficiencies for pyrolysis processes are expected to decrease by up to 15% should upgrade to a transportation fuel of equivalent quality to bioethanol be taken into consideration. -- Highlights: → Liquid biofuels can be produced via lignocellulosic enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation or pyrolysis. → A minimum of

  1. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambone, Fulvia, E-mail: fulvia.tambone@unimi.it; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO{sub 2} kg V S{sup −1} h{sup −1}. Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS {sup 13}C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)

  2. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tambone, Fulvia; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO 2 kg V S −1 h −1 . Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS 13 C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)

  3. A biological inspired fuzzy adaptive window median filter (FAWMF) for enhancing DNA signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muneer; Jung, Low Tan; Bhuiyan, Al-Amin

    2017-10-01

    Digital signal processing techniques commonly employ fixed length window filters to process the signal contents. DNA signals differ in characteristics from common digital signals since they carry nucleotides as contents. The nucleotides own genetic code context and fuzzy behaviors due to their special structure and order in DNA strand. Employing conventional fixed length window filters for DNA signal processing produce spectral leakage and hence results in signal noise. A biological context aware adaptive window filter is required to process the DNA signals. This paper introduces a biological inspired fuzzy adaptive window median filter (FAWMF) which computes the fuzzy membership strength of nucleotides in each slide of window and filters nucleotides based on median filtering with a combination of s-shaped and z-shaped filters. Since coding regions cause 3-base periodicity by an unbalanced nucleotides' distribution producing a relatively high bias for nucleotides' usage, such fundamental characteristic of nucleotides has been exploited in FAWMF to suppress the signal noise. Along with adaptive response of FAWMF, a strong correlation between median nucleotides and the Π shaped filter was observed which produced enhanced discrimination between coding and non-coding regions contrary to fixed length conventional window filters. The proposed FAWMF attains a significant enhancement in coding regions identification i.e. 40% to 125% as compared to other conventional window filters tested over more than 250 benchmarked and randomly taken DNA datasets of different organisms. This study proves that conventional fixed length window filters applied to DNA signals do not achieve significant results since the nucleotides carry genetic code context. The proposed FAWMF algorithm is adaptive and outperforms significantly to process DNA signal contents. The algorithm applied to variety of DNA datasets produced noteworthy discrimination between coding and non-coding regions contrary

  4. Advances in wastewater nitrogen removal by biological processes: state of the art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea G. Capodaglio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the state-of-the-art of the most recent advances in biological nitrogen removal, including process design criteria and technological innovations. With reference to the Modified Ludzck Ettinger (MLE process (pre-denitrification and nitrification in the activated sludge process, the most common nitrogen removal process used nowadays, a new design equation for the denitrification reactor based on specific denitrification rate (SDNR has been proposed. In addition, factors influencing SDNR (DO in the anoxic reactor; hydrodynamic behavior are analyzed, and technological solutions are proposed. Concerning technological advances, the paper presents a summary of various “deammonification” processes, better known by their patent names like ANAMMOX®, DEMON®, CANON®, ANITA® and others. These processes have already found applications in the treatment of high-strength wastewater such as digested sludge liquor and landfill leachate. Among other emerging denitrification technologies, consideration is given to the Membrane Biofilm Reactors (MBfRs that can be operated both in oxidation and reduction mode.

  5. A novel theory: biological processes mostly involve two types of mediators, namely general and specific mediators Endogenous small radicals such as superoxide and nitric oxide may play a role of general mediator in biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jian

    2005-01-01

    A great number of papers have shown that free radicals as well as bioactive molecules can play a role of mediator in a wide spectrum of biological processes, but the biological actions and chemical reactivity of the free radicals are quite different from that of the bioactive molecules, and that a wide variety of bioactive molecules can be easily modified by free radicals due to having functional groups sensitive to redox, and the significance of the interaction between the free radicals and the bioactive molecules in biological processes has been confirmed by the results of some in vitro and in vivo studies. Based on these evidence, this article presented a novel theory about the mediators of biological processes. The essentials of the theory are: (a) mediators of biological processes can be classified into general and specific mediators; the general mediators include two types of free radicals, namely superoxide and nitric oxide; the specific mediators include a wide variety of bioactive molecules, such as specific enzymes, transcription factors, cytokines and eicosanoids; (b) a general mediator can modify almost any class of the biomolecules, and thus play a role of mediator in nearly every biological process via diverse mechanisms; a specific mediator always acts selectively on certain classes of the biomolecules, and may play a role of mediator in different biological processes via a same mechanism; (c) biological processes are mostly controlled by networks of their mediators, so the free radicals can regulate the last consequence of a biological process by modifying some types of the bioactive molecules, or in cooperation with these bioactive molecules; the biological actions of superoxide and nitric oxide may be synergistic or antagonistic. According to this theory, keeping the integrity of these networks and the balance between the free radicals and the bioactive molecules as well as the balance between the free radicals and the free radical scavengers

  6. Controlled Carbon Source Addition to an Alternating Nitrification-Denitrification Wastewater Treatment Process Including Biological P Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard; Henze, Mogens

    1995-01-01

    The paper investigates the effect of adding an external carbon source on the rate of denitrification in an alternating activated sludge process including biological P removal. Two carbon sources were examined, acetate and hydrolysate derived from biologically hydrolyzed sludge. Preliminary batch ...

  7. Statistical and Fractal Processing of Phase Images of Human Biological Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCHUK, Y. I.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Performed in this work are complex statistical and fractal analyses of phase properties inherent to birefringence networks of liquid crystals consisting of optically-thin layers prepared from human bile. Within the framework of a statistical approach, the authors have investigated values and ranges for changes of statistical moments of the 1-st to 4-th orders that characterize coordinate distributions for phase shifts between orthogonal components of amplitudes inherent to laser radiation transformed by human bile with various pathologies. Using the Gramm-Charlie method, ascertained are correlation criteria for differentiation of phase maps describing pathologically changed liquid-crystal networks. In the framework of the fractal approach, determined are dimensionalities of self-similar coordinate phase distributions as well as features of transformation of logarithmic dependences for power spectra of these distributions for various types of human pathologies.

  8. Processing of biological waste. Ecological efficiency and potential; Behandlung von Bioabfaellen. Oekoeffizienz und Potenziale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitschke, Thorsten; Peche, Rene; Tronecker, Dieter; Kreibe, Siegfried [bifa Umweltinstitut GmbH, Augsburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The sustainable usage of biological wastes has to be focused on the targets protection of resources and minimization of environmental impact. The only focus on the energy inventory is not sufficient. The following recommendations are summarized: separated bio-waste collection is usually more eco-efficient; the optimized bio-waste processing should be available according to the biodegradability; anaerobic degradation for biogas production and subsequent aerobic degradation of the fermentation product for compost can be combined; low-emission operational standards should be mandatory, innovation and investment should be promoted b reliable boundary conditions; ecological aspects should be equivalent to low-cost considerations; regulatory measures should be implemented for separated bio-waste collection and processing.

  9. Signal processing for molecular and cellular biological physics: an emerging field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Max A; Jones, Nick S

    2013-02-13

    Recent advances in our ability to watch the molecular and cellular processes of life in action--such as atomic force microscopy, optical tweezers and Forster fluorescence resonance energy transfer--raise challenges for digital signal processing (DSP) of the resulting experimental data. This article explores the unique properties of such biophysical time series that set them apart from other signals, such as the prevalence of abrupt jumps and steps, multi-modal distributions and autocorrelated noise. It exposes the problems with classical linear DSP algorithms applied to this kind of data, and describes new nonlinear and non-Gaussian algorithms that are able to extract information that is of direct relevance to biological physicists. It is argued that these new methods applied in this context typify the nascent field of biophysical DSP. Practical experimental examples are supplied.

  10. Distorted wave calculations for electron loss process induced by bare ion impact on biological targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti, J.M.; Tachino, C.A.; Hanssen, J.; Fojón, O.A.; Galassi, M.E.; Champion, C.; Rivarola, R.D.

    2014-01-01

    Distorted wave models are employed to investigate the electron loss process induced by bare ions on biological targets. The two main reactions which contribute to this process, namely, the single electron ionization as well as the single electron capture are here studied. In order to further assess the validity of the theoretical descriptions used, the influence of particular mechanisms are studied, like dynamic screening for the case of electron ionization and energy deposition on the target by the impacting projectile for the electron capture one. Results are compared with existing experimental data. - Highlights: ► Distorted wave models are used to investigate ion-molecule collisions. ► Differential and total cross-sections for capture and ionization are evaluated. ► The influence of dynamic screening is determined. ► Capture reaction dominates the mean energy deposited by the projectile on the target

  11. Dispensing processes impact apparent biological activity as determined by computational and statistical analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Ekins

    Full Text Available Dispensing and dilution processes may profoundly influence estimates of biological activity of compounds. Published data show Ephrin type-B receptor 4 IC50 values obtained via tip-based serial dilution and dispensing versus acoustic dispensing with direct dilution differ by orders of magnitude with no correlation or ranking of datasets. We generated computational 3D pharmacophores based on data derived by both acoustic and tip-based transfer. The computed pharmacophores differ significantly depending upon dispensing and dilution methods. The acoustic dispensing-derived pharmacophore correctly identified active compounds in a subsequent test set where the tip-based method failed. Data from acoustic dispensing generates a pharmacophore containing two hydrophobic features, one hydrogen bond donor and one hydrogen bond acceptor. This is consistent with X-ray crystallography studies of ligand-protein interactions and automatically generated pharmacophores derived from this structural data. In contrast, the tip-based data suggest a pharmacophore with two hydrogen bond acceptors, one hydrogen bond donor and no hydrophobic features. This pharmacophore is inconsistent with the X-ray crystallographic studies and automatically generated pharmacophores. In short, traditional dispensing processes are another important source of error in high-throughput screening that impacts computational and statistical analyses. These findings have far-reaching implications in biological research.

  12. A MODELING AND SIMULATION LANGUAGE FOR BIOLOGICAL CELLS WITH COUPLED MECHANICAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Endre; Glazier, James A

    2017-04-01

    Biological cells are the prototypical example of active matter. Cells sense and respond to mechanical, chemical and electrical environmental stimuli with a range of behaviors, including dynamic changes in morphology and mechanical properties, chemical uptake and secretion, cell differentiation, proliferation, death, and migration. Modeling and simulation of such dynamic phenomena poses a number of computational challenges. A modeling language describing cellular dynamics must naturally represent complex intra and extra-cellular spatial structures and coupled mechanical, chemical and electrical processes. Domain experts will find a modeling language most useful when it is based on concepts, terms and principles native to the problem domain. A compiler must then be able to generate an executable model from this physically motivated description. Finally, an executable model must efficiently calculate the time evolution of such dynamic and inhomogeneous phenomena. We present a spatial hybrid systems modeling language, compiler and mesh-free Lagrangian based simulation engine which will enable domain experts to define models using natural, biologically motivated constructs and to simulate time evolution of coupled cellular, mechanical and chemical processes acting on a time varying number of cells and their environment.

  13. Wavelet data processing of micro-Raman spectra of biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerlingo, C.; Zenone, F.; Gaeta, G. M.; Riccio, R.; Lepore, M.

    2006-02-01

    A wavelet multi-component decomposition algorithm is proposed for processing data from micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-RS) of biological tissue. The μ-RS has been recently recognized as a promising tool for the biopsy test and in vivo diagnosis of degenerative human tissue pathologies, due to the high chemical and structural information contents of this spectroscopic technique. However, measurements of biological tissues are usually hampered by typically low-level signals and by the presence of noise and background components caused by light diffusion or fluorescence processes. In order to overcome these problems, a numerical method based on discrete wavelet transform is used for the analysis of data from μ-RS measurements performed in vitro on animal (pig and chicken) tissue samples and, in a preliminary form, on human skin and oral tissue biopsy from normal subjects. Visible light μ-RS was performed using a He-Ne laser and a monochromator with a liquid nitrogen cooled charge coupled device equipped with a grating of 1800 grooves mm-1. The validity of the proposed data procedure has been tested on the well-characterized Raman spectra of reference acetylsalicylic acid samples.

  14. Mathematical modeling of heat treatment processes conserving biological activity of plant bioresources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, N. S.; Popov, E. S.; Pozhidaeva, E. A.; Pynzar, S. S.; Ryaskina, L. O.

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a mathematical model of the heat exchange process of LT-processing to estimate the dynamics of temperature field changes and optimize the regime parameters, due to the non-stationarity process, the physicochemical and thermophysical properties of food systems. The application of LT-processing, based on the use of low-temperature modes in thermal culinary processing of raw materials with preliminary vacuum packaging in a polymer heat- resistant film is a promising trend in the development of technics and technology in the catering field. LT-processing application of food raw materials guarantees the preservation of biologically active substances in food environments, which are characterized by a certain thermolability, as well as extend the shelf life and high consumer characteristics of food systems that are capillary-porous bodies. When performing the mathematical modeling of the LT-processing process, the packet of symbolic mathematics “Maple” was used, as well as the mathematical packet flexPDE that uses the finite element method for modeling objects with distributed parameters. The processing of experimental results was evaluated with the help of the developed software in the programming language Python 3.4. To calculate and optimize the parameters of the LT processing process of polycomponent food systems, the differential equation of non-stationary thermal conductivity was used, the solution of which makes it possible to identify the temperature change at any point of the solid at different moments. The present study specifies data on the thermophysical characteristics of the polycomponent food system based on plant raw materials, with the help of which the physico-mathematical model of the LT- processing process has been developed. The obtained mathematical model allows defining of the dynamics of the temperature field in different sections of the LT-processed polycomponent food systems on the basis of calculating the

  15. Improving the biological nitrogen removal process in pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrijos, M; Carrera, J; Lafuente, J

    2004-04-01

    The Biological Nitrogen Removal (BNR) process of some pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants has important operational problems. This study shows that, in order to solve these problems, the design of industrial BNR processes should start by analysing three key parameters: the characteristics of the wastewater load, the determination of the maximum TKN removal rate and the detection of toxic or inhibitory compounds in the wastewater. A case study of this analysis in pharmaceutical wastewater is presented here. In this case, the conventional TKN analytical method does not make an accurate characterisation of the wastewater load because it measures a concentration of 100 mg TKN l(-1) whereas the real concentration, determined with a modified TKN analytical method, is 150-500 mg TKN l(-1). Also, the TKN removal of the treatment system is insufficient in some periods because it falls below legal requirements. This problem might be a consequence of the wrong characterisation of wastewater during the design process. The maximum TKN removal at 27 degrees C (24 mg N g VSS(-1) d(-1) or 197 mg N l(-1) d(-1)) was evaluated in a pilot-scale plant. This value is six times greater than the average NLR applied in the full-scale plant. Finally, some of the components of the wastewater, such as p-phenylenediamine, might have inhibitory or toxic effects on the biological process. P-phenylenediamine causes a large decrease in the nitrification rate. This effect was determined by respirometry. This methodology shows that the effect is mainly inhibitory with a contact time of 30 min and if the contact time is longer, 14 hours, a toxic effect is observed.

  16. Effects of aerobic and anaerobic biological processes on leaching of heavy metals from soil amended with sewage sludge compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wen; Wei, Yonghong; Liu, Jianguo; Kosson, David S; van der Sloot, Hans A; Zhang, Peng

    2016-12-01

    The risk from leaching of heavy metals is a major factor hindering land application of sewage sludge compost (SSC). Understanding the change in heavy metal leaching resulting from soil biological processes provides important information for assessing long-term behavior of heavy metals in the compost amended soil. In this paper, 180days aerobic incubation and 240days anaerobic incubation were conducted to investigate the effects of the aerobic and anaerobic biological processes on heavy metal leaching from soil amended with SSC, combined with chemical speciation modeling. Results showed that leaching concentrations of heavy metals at natural pH were similar before and after biological process. However, the major processes controlling heavy metals were influenced by the decrease of DOC with organic matter mineralization during biological processes. Mineralization of organic matter lowered the contribution of DOC-complexation to Ni and Zn leaching. Besides, the reducing condition produced by biological processes, particularly by the anaerobic biological process, resulted in the loss of sorption sites for As on Fe hydroxide, which increased the potential risk of As release at alkaline pH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of a computational system for management of risks in radiosterilization processes of biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, Cynara Viterbo

    2009-01-01

    Risk management can be understood to be a systematic management which aims to identify record and control the risks of a process. Applying risk management becomes a complex activity, due to the variety of professionals involved. In order to execute risk management the following are requirements of paramount importance: the experience, discernment and judgment of a multidisciplinary team, guided by means of quality tools, so as to provide standardization in the process of investigating the cause and effects of risks and dynamism in obtaining the objective desired, i.e. the reduction and control of the risk. This work aims to develop a computational system of risk management (software) which makes it feasible to diagnose the risks of the processes of radiosterilization of biological tissues. The methodology adopted was action-research, according to which the researcher performs an active role in the establishment of the problems found, in the follow-up and in the evaluation of the actions taken owing to the problems. The scenario of this action-research was the Laboratory of Biological Tissues (LTB) in the Radiation Technology Center IPEN/CNEN-SP - Sao Paulo/Brazil. The software developed was executed in PHP and Flash/MySQL language, the server (hosting), the software is available on the Internet (www.vcrisk.com.br), which the user can access from anywhere by means of the login/access password previously sent by email to the team responsible for the tissue to be analyzed. The software presents friendly navigability whereby the user is directed step-by-step in the process of investigating the risk up to the means of reducing it. The software 'makes' the user comply with the term and present the effectiveness of the actions taken to reduce the risk. Applying this system provided the organization (LTB/CTR/IPEN) with dynamic communication, effective between the members of the multidisciplinary team: a) in decision-making; b) in lessons learned; c) in knowing the new risk

  18. Remediation of a winery wastewater combining aerobic biological oxidation and electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Francisca C; Boaventura, Rui A R; Brillas, Enric; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-05-15

    Apart from a high biodegradable fraction consisting of organic acids, sugars and alcohols, winery wastewaters exhibit a recalcitrant fraction containing high-molecular-weight compounds as polyphenols, tannins and lignins. In this context, a winery wastewater was firstly subjected to a biological oxidation to mineralize the biodegradable fraction and afterwards an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP) was applied in order to mineralize the refractory molecules or transform them into simpler ones that can be further biodegraded. The biological oxidation led to above 97% removals of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), but was inefficient on the degradation of a bioresistant fraction corresponding to 130 mg L(-1) of DOC, 380 mg O2 L(-1) of COD and 8.2 mg caffeic acid equivalent L(-1) of total dissolved polyphenols. Various EAOPs such as anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF), UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) and solar PEF (SPEF) were then applied to the recalcitrant effluent fraction using a 2.2 L lab-scale flow plant containing an electrochemical cell equipped with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a carbon-PTFE air-diffusion cathode and coupled to a photoreactor with compound parabolic collectors (CPCs). The influence of initial Fe(2+) concentration and current density on the PEF process was evaluated. The relative oxidative ability of EAOPs increased in the order AO-H2O2 < EF < PEF ≤ SPEF. The SPEF process using an initial Fe(2+) concentration of 35 mg L(-1), current density of 25 mA cm(-2), pH of 2.8 and 25 °C reached removals of 86% on DOC and 68% on COD after 240 min, regarding the biologically treated effluent, along with energy consumptions of 45 kWh (kg DOC)(-1) and 5.1 kWh m(-3). After this coupled treatment, color, odor, COD, BOD5, NH4(+), NO3(-) and SO4(2-) parameters complied with the legislation targets and, in addition, a total

  19. Open Water Processes of the San Francisco Estuary: From Physical Forcing to Biological Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Kimmerer

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current state of knowledge of the open waters of the San Francisco Estuary. This estuary is well known for the extent to which it has been altered through loss of wetlands, changes in hydrography, and the introduction of chemical and biological contaminants. It is also one of the most studied estuaries in the world, with much of the recent research effort aimed at supporting restoration efforts. In this review I emphasize the conceptual foundations for our current understanding of estuarine dynamics, particularly those aspects relevant to restoration. Several themes run throughout this paper. First is the critical role physical dynamics play in setting the stage for chemical and biological responses. Physical forcing by the tides and by variation in freshwater input combine to control the movement of the salinity field, and to establish stratification, mixing, and dilution patterns throughout the estuary. Many aspects of estuarine dynamics respond to interannual variation in freshwater flow; in particular, abundance of several estuarine-dependent species of fish and shrimp varies positively with flow, although the mechanisms behind these relationships are largely unknown. The second theme is the importance of time scales in determining the degree of interaction between dynamic processes. Physical effects tend to dominate when they operate at shorter time scales than biological processes; when the two time scales are similar, important interactions can arise between physical and biological variability. These interactions can be seen, for example, in the response of phytoplankton blooms, with characteristic time scales of days, to stratification events occurring during neap tides. The third theme is the key role of introduced species in all estuarine habitats; particularly noteworthy are introduced waterweeds and fishes in the tidal freshwater reaches of the estuary, and introduced clams there and in brackish water. The

  20. Simulation and optimization of a coking wastewater biological treatment process by activated sludge models (ASM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohui; Yang, Yang; Wu, Gaoming; Mao, Juan; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Applications of activated sludge models (ASM) in simulating industrial biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are still difficult due to refractory and complex components in influents as well as diversity in activated sludges. In this study, an ASM3 modeling study was conducted to simulate and optimize a practical coking wastewater treatment plant (CWTP). First, respirometric characterizations of the coking wastewater and CWTP biomasses were conducted to determine the specific kinetic and stoichiometric model parameters for the consecutive aeration-anoxic-aeration (O-A/O) biological process. All ASM3 parameters have been further estimated and calibrated, through cross validation by the model dynamic simulation procedure. Consequently, an ASM3 model was successfully established to accurately simulate the CWTP performances in removing COD and NH4-N. An optimized CWTP operation condition could be proposed reducing the operation cost from 6.2 to 5.5 €/m(3) wastewater. This study is expected to provide a useful reference for mathematic simulations of practical industrial WWTPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluating the feasibility of biological waste processing for long term space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, J. L.; Alazraki, M. P.; Atkinson, C. F.; Finger, B. W.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Recycling waste products during orbital (e.g., International Space Station) and planetary missions (e.g., lunar base, Mars transit mission, Martian base) will reduce storage and resupply costs. Wastes streams on the space station will include human hygiene water, urine, faeces, and trash. Longer term missions will contain human waste and inedible plant material from plant growth systems used for atmospheric regeneration, food production, and water recycling. The feasibility of biological and physical-chemical waste recycling is being investigated as part of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. In-vessel composting has lower manpower requirements, lower water and volume requirements, and greater potential for sanitization of human waste compared to alternative bioreactor designs such as continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR). Residual solids from the process (i.e. compost) could be used a biological air filter, a plant nutrient source, and a carbon sink. Potential in-vessel composting designs for both near- and long-term space missions are presented and discussed with respect to the unique aspects of space-based systems.

  2. Extended morphological processing: a practical method for automatic spot detection of biological markers from microscopic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimori, Yoshitaka; Baba, Norio; Morone, Nobuhiro

    2010-07-08

    A reliable extraction technique for resolving multiple spots in light or electron microscopic images is essential in investigations of the spatial distribution and dynamics of specific proteins inside cells and tissues. Currently, automatic spot extraction and characterization in complex microscopic images poses many challenges to conventional image processing methods. A new method to extract closely located, small target spots from biological images is proposed. This method starts with a simple but practical operation based on the extended morphological top-hat transformation to subtract an uneven background. The core of our novel approach is the following: first, the original image is rotated in an arbitrary direction and each rotated image is opened with a single straight line-segment structuring element. Second, the opened images are unified and then subtracted from the original image. To evaluate these procedures, model images of simulated spots with closely located targets were created and the efficacy of our method was compared to that of conventional morphological filtering methods. The results showed the better performance of our method. The spots of real microscope images can be quantified to confirm that the method is applicable in a given practice. Our method achieved effective spot extraction under various image conditions, including aggregated target spots, poor signal-to-noise ratio, and large variations in the background intensity. Furthermore, it has no restrictions with respect to the shape of the extracted spots. The features of our method allow its broad application in biological and biomedical image information analysis.

  3. Comprehension of complex biological processes by analytical methods: how far can we go using mass spectrometry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerner, C.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive understanding of complex biological processes is the basis for many biomedical issues of great relevance for modern society including risk assessment, drug development, quality control of industrial products and many more. Screening methods provide means for investigating biological samples without research hypothesis. However, the first boom of analytical screening efforts has passed and we again need to ask whether and how to apply screening methods. Mass spectrometry is a modern tool with unrivalled analytical capacities. This applies to all relevant characteristics of analytical methods such as specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, multiplicity and diversity of applications. Indeed, mass spectrometry qualifies to deal with complexity. Chronic inflammation is a common feature of almost all relevant diseases challenging our modern society; these diseases are apparently highly diverse and include arteriosclerosis, cancer, back pain, neurodegenerative diseases, depression and other. The complexity of mechanisms regulating chronic inflammation is the reason for the practical challenge to deal with it. The presentation shall give an overview of capabilities and limitations of the application of this analytical tool to solve critical questions with great relevance for our society. (author)

  4. The relative contributions of biological and abiotic processes to carbon dynamics in subarctic sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Dorte Haubjerg; Thomas, David; Rysgaard, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge on the relative effects of biological activity and precipitation/dissolution of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in influencing the air-ice CO2 exchange in sea-ice-covered season is currently lacking. Furthermore, the spatial and temporal occurrence of CaCO3 and other biogeochemical parameters...... in sea ice are still not well described. Here we investigated autotrophic and heterotrophic activity as well as the precipitation/dissolution of CaCO3 in subarctic sea ice in South West Greenland. Integrated over the entire ice season (71 days), the sea ice was net autotrophic with a net carbon fixation...... and CaCO3 precipitation. The net biological production could only explain 4 % of this sea-ice-driven CO2 uptake. Abiotic processes contributed to an air-sea CO2 uptake of 1.5 mmol m(-2) sea ice day(-1), and dissolution of CaCO3 increased the air-sea CO2 uptake by 36 % compared to a theoretical estimate...

  5. Critical operational parameters for zero sludge production in biological wastewater treatment processes combined with sludge disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seong-Hoon; Lee, Sangho

    2005-09-01

    Mathematical models were developed to elucidate the relationships among process control parameters and the effect of these parameters on the performance of anoxic/oxic biological wastewater processes combined with sludge disintegrators (A/O-SD). The model equations were also applied for analyses of activated sludge processes hybrid with sludge disintegrators (AS-SD). Solubilization ratio of sludge in the sludge disintegrator, alpha, hardly affected sludge reduction efficiencies if the biomass was completely destructed to smaller particulates. On the other hand, conversion efficiency of non-biodegradable particulates to biodegradable particulates, beta, significantly affected sludge reduction efficiencies because beta was directly related to the accumulation of non-biodegradable particulates in bioreactors. When 30% of sludge in the oxic tank was disintegrated everyday and beta was 0.5, sludge reduction was expected to be 78% and 69% for the A/O-SD and AS-SD processes, respectively. Under this condition, the sludge disintegration number (SDN), which is the amount of sludge disintegrated divided by the reduced sludge, was calculated to be around 4. Due to the sludge disintegration, live biomass concentration decreased while other non-biodegradable particulates concentration increased. As a consequence, the real F/M ratio was expected to be much higher than the apparent F/M. The effluent COD was maintained almost constant for the range of sludge disintegration rate considered in this study. Nitrogen removal efficiencies of the A/O-SD process was hardly affected by the sludge disintegration until daily sludge disintegration reaches 40% of sludge in the oxic tank. Above this level of sludge disintegration, autotrophic biomass concentration decreases overly and TKN in the effluent increases abruptly in both the A/O-SD and AS-SD processes. Overall, the trends of sludge reduction and effluent quality according to operation parameters matched well with experimental results

  6. Novel MBR_based main stream biological nutrient removal process: high performance and microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanyi; Xu, Xinhai; Zhao, Kuixia; Tang, Lianggang; Zou, Siqi; Yuan, Limei

    2018-02-01

    For municipal wastewater treatment, main stream biological nutrient removal (BNR) process is becoming more and more important. This lab-scale study, novel MBR_based BNR processes (named A 2 N-MBR and A 2 NO-MBR) were built. Comparison of the COD removal, results obtained demonstrated that COD removal efficiencies were almost the same in three processes, with effluent concentration all bellowed 30 mg L -1 . However, the two-sludge systems (A 2 N-MBR and A 2 NO-MBR) had an obvious advantage over the A 2 /O for denitrification and phosphorus removal, with the average TP removal rates of 91.20, 98.05% and TN removal rates of 73.00, 79.49%, respectively, higher than that of 86.45 and 61.60% in A 2 /O process. Illumina Miseq sequencing revealed that Candidatus_Accumulibacter, which is capable of using nitrate as an electron acceptor for phosphorus and nitrogen removal simultaneously, was the dominant phylum in both A 2 N-MBR and A 2 NO-MBR process, accounting for 28.74 and 23.98%, respectively. Distinguishingly, major organism groups related to nitrogen and phosphorus removal in A 2 /O system were Anaerolineaceae_uncultured, Saprospiraceae_uncultured and Thauera, with proportions of 11.31, 8.56 and 5.00%, respectively. Hence, the diversity of dominant PAOs group was likely responsible for the difference in nitrogen and phosphorus removal in the three processes.

  7. Birth/birth-death processes and their computable transition probabilities with biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lam Si Tung; Xu, Jason; Crawford, Forrest W; Minin, Vladimir N; Suchard, Marc A

    2018-03-01

    Birth-death processes track the size of a univariate population, but many biological systems involve interaction between populations, necessitating models for two or more populations simultaneously. A lack of efficient methods for evaluating finite-time transition probabilities of bivariate processes, however, has restricted statistical inference in these models. Researchers rely on computationally expensive methods such as matrix exponentiation or Monte Carlo approximation, restricting likelihood-based inference to small systems, or indirect methods such as approximate Bayesian computation. In this paper, we introduce the birth/birth-death process, a tractable bivariate extension of the birth-death process, where rates are allowed to be nonlinear. We develop an efficient algorithm to calculate its transition probabilities using a continued fraction representation of their Laplace transforms. Next, we identify several exemplary models arising in molecular epidemiology, macro-parasite evolution, and infectious disease modeling that fall within this class, and demonstrate advantages of our proposed method over existing approaches to inference in these models. Notably, the ubiquitous stochastic susceptible-infectious-removed (SIR) model falls within this class, and we emphasize that computable transition probabilities newly enable direct inference of parameters in the SIR model. We also propose a very fast method for approximating the transition probabilities under the SIR model via a novel branching process simplification, and compare it to the continued fraction representation method with application to the 17th century plague in Eyam. Although the two methods produce similar maximum a posteriori estimates, the branching process approximation fails to capture the correlation structure in the joint posterior distribution.

  8. Assessment of the removal of estrogenicity in biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunlaja, O.O.; Parker, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    The removal of estrogenicity in a University of Cape Town-biological nutrient removal (UCT-BNR) wastewater treatment process was investigated using pilot and bench scale systems, batch experiments and mathematical modeling. In the pilot BNR process, 96 ± 5% of the estrogenicity exerted by the influent wastewater was removed by the treatment process. The degradation efficiencies in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones of the pilot BNR bioreactor were 11 ± 9%, 18 ± 2% and 93 ± 10%, respectively. In order to further understand the performance of the BNR process in the removal of estrogenicity from wastewater, a bench scale BNR process was operated with synthetic wastewater dosed with E1 and E2. The removal of estrogenicity in the bench scale system (95 ± 5%) was comparable to the pilot BNR process and the degradation efficiencies were estimated to be 8 ± 0.8%, 38 ± 4% and 85 ± 22% in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones, respectively. A biotransformation model developed to predict the fate of E1 and E2 in batch tests using the sludge from the BNR process was calibrated using the data from the experiments. The biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E2 to E1 were estimated as 71 ± 1.5, 31 ± 3.3 and 1 ± 0.9 L g COD −1 d −1 for the aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic batch tests, respectively, while the corresponding biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E1 were estimated to be 7.3 ± 1.0, 3 ± 2.0, and 0.85 ± 0.6 L·g COD −1 d −1 . A steady state mass balance model formulated to describe the interactions between E2 and E1 in BNR activated sludge reasonably described the fate of E1 and E2 in the BNR process. - Highlights: • Comparable estrogenicity removal was observed from two BNR processes. • Pseudo first order model described the transformation of E2 and E1 in BNR process. • Biotransformation of E1 in BNR activated sludge controls the degradation of E2

  9. Assessment of the removal of estrogenicity in biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogunlaja, O.O., E-mail: oogunlaj@uwaterloo.ca; Parker, W.J., E-mail: wjparker@uwaterloo.ca

    2015-05-01

    The removal of estrogenicity in a University of Cape Town-biological nutrient removal (UCT-BNR) wastewater treatment process was investigated using pilot and bench scale systems, batch experiments and mathematical modeling. In the pilot BNR process, 96 ± 5% of the estrogenicity exerted by the influent wastewater was removed by the treatment process. The degradation efficiencies in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones of the pilot BNR bioreactor were 11 ± 9%, 18 ± 2% and 93 ± 10%, respectively. In order to further understand the performance of the BNR process in the removal of estrogenicity from wastewater, a bench scale BNR process was operated with synthetic wastewater dosed with E1 and E2. The removal of estrogenicity in the bench scale system (95 ± 5%) was comparable to the pilot BNR process and the degradation efficiencies were estimated to be 8 ± 0.8%, 38 ± 4% and 85 ± 22% in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones, respectively. A biotransformation model developed to predict the fate of E1 and E2 in batch tests using the sludge from the BNR process was calibrated using the data from the experiments. The biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E2 to E1 were estimated as 71 ± 1.5, 31 ± 3.3 and 1 ± 0.9 L g COD{sup −1} d{sup −1} for the aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic batch tests, respectively, while the corresponding biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E1 were estimated to be 7.3 ± 1.0, 3 ± 2.0, and 0.85 ± 0.6 L·g COD{sup −1} d{sup −1}. A steady state mass balance model formulated to describe the interactions between E2 and E1 in BNR activated sludge reasonably described the fate of E1 and E2 in the BNR process. - Highlights: • Comparable estrogenicity removal was observed from two BNR processes. • Pseudo first order model described the transformation of E2 and E1 in BNR process. • Biotransformation of E1 in BNR activated sludge controls the degradation of E2.

  10. Comparative biology approaches for charged particle exposures and cancer development processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Amy; Gauny, Stacey; Kwoh, Ely; Sudo, Hiroko; Wiese, Claudia; Dan, Cristian; Turker, Mitchell

    Comparative biology studies can provide useful information for the extrapolation of results be-tween cells in culture and the more complex environment of the tissue. In other circumstances, they provide a method to guide the interpretation of results obtained for cells from differ-ent species. We have considered several key cancer development processes following charged particle exposures using comparative biology approaches. Our particular emphases have been mutagenesis and genomic instability. Carcinogenesis requires the accumulation of mutations and most of htese mutations occur on autosomes. Two loci provide the greatest avenue for the consideration of charged particle-induced mutation involving autosomes: the TK1 locus in human cells and the APRT locus in mouse cells. Each locus can provide information on a wide variety of mutational changes, from small intragenic mutations through multilocus dele-tions and extensive tracts of mitotic recombination. In addition, the mouse model can provide a direct measurement of chromosome loss which cannot be accomplished in the human cell system. Another feature of the mouse APRT model is the ability to examine effects for cells exposed in vitro with those obtained for cells exposed in situ. We will provide a comparison of the results obtained for the TK1 locus following 1 GeV/amu Fe ion exposures to the human lymphoid cells with those obtained for the APRT locus for mouse kidney epithelial cells (in vitro or in situ). Substantial conservation of mechanisms is found amongst these three exposure scenarios, with some differences attributable to the specific conditions of exposure. A similar approach will be applied to the consideraiton of proton-induced autosomal mutations in the three model systems. A comparison of the results obtained for Fe ions vs. protons in each case will highlight LET-specificc differences in response. Another cancer development process that is receiving considerable interest is genomic instability. We

  11. Long-term sea surface temperature baselines - time series, spatial covariation and implications for biological processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Schiedek, D.

    2007-01-01

    to 2 years. These differences suggest that spatial variations in physical oceanographic phenomena and sampling heterogeneities associated with opportunistic sampling could affect perceptions of biological responses to temperature fluctuations. The documentation that the coastally measured temperatures...... questions at large spatial scales, such as the response of species distributions and phenologies to climate change. In this study we investigate the spatial synchrony of long-term sea surface temperatures in the North Sea-Baltic Sea region as measured daily at four coastal sites (Marsdiep, Netherlands...... at coastal sites co-varied strongly with each other and with opportunistically measured offshore temperatures despite separation distances between measuring locations of 20-1200 km. This covariance is probably due to the influence of large-scale atmospheric processes on regional temperatures...

  12. Study on substrate metabolism process of saline waste sludge and its biological hydrogen production potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zengshuai; Guo, Liang; Li, Qianqian; Zhao, Yangguo; Gao, Mengchun; She, Zonglian

    2017-07-01

    With the increasing of high saline waste sludge production, the treatment and utilization of saline waste sludge attracted more and more attention. In this study, the biological hydrogen production from saline waste sludge after heating pretreatment was studied. The substrate metabolism process at different salinity condition was analyzed by the changes of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), carbohydrate and protein in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and dissolved organic matters (DOM). The excitation-emission matrix (EEM) with fluorescence regional integration (FRI) was also used to investigate the effect of salinity on EPS and DOM composition during hydrogen fermentation. The highest hydrogen yield of 23.6 mL H 2 /g VSS and hydrogen content of 77.6% were obtained at 0.0% salinity condition. The salinity could influence the hydrogen production and substrate metabolism of waste sludge.

  13. Facilitating a More Efficient Commercial Review Process for Pediatric Drugs and Biologics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan D. Rykhus

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, the biopharmaceutical industry has seen unprecedented expansion and innovation in concert with significant technological advancements. While the industry has experienced marked growth, the regulatory system in the United States still operates at a capacity much lower than the influx of new drug and biologic candidates. As a result, it has become standard for months or even years of waiting for commercial approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. These regulatory delays have generated a system that stifles growth and innovation due to the exorbitant costs associated with awaiting approval from the nation’s sole regulatory agency. The recent re-emergence of diseases that impact pediatric demographics represents one particularly acute reason for developing a regulatory system that facilitates a more efficient commercial review process. Herein, we present a range of initiatives that could represent early steps toward alleviating the delays in approving life-saving therapeutics.

  14. Application of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in stabilization process of biological molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossien Salmani

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Co-precipitation method is an easy way to prepare magnetic nanoparticles of iron with a large surface and small particle size, which increases the ability of these particles to act as a suitable carrier for enzyme stabilization. Adequate modification of the surface of these nanoparticles enhances their ability to bind to biological molecules. The immobilized protein or enzyme on magnetic nanoparticles are more stable against structural changes, temperature and pH in comparison with un-stabilized structures, and it is widely used in various sciences, including protein isolation and purification, pharmaceutical science, and food analysis. Stabilization based on the covalent bonds and physical absorption is nonspecific, which greatly limits their functionality. The process of stabilization through bio-mediums provide a new method to overcome the selectivity problem.

  15. Composting of biological waste. Processes and utilisation. Summary report; Bioabfallkompostierung. Verfahren und Verwertung. Kurzfassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronauer, A.; Claassen, N.; Ebertseder, T.; Fischer, P.; Gutser, R.; Helm, M.; Popp, L.; Schoen, H.

    1997-12-31

    The project investigated environmentally compatible concepts for processing and utilisation of biological waste by means of composting and spreading on agriculataural and gardening plots. The project comprised three parts: Composting techniques, applications of compost in agriculture and gardening, and applications in landscaping. This volume comprises the summaries of the three part-projects. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die umweltschonende Aufbereitung und Verwertung von Bioabfall durch Kompostierung und Rueckfuehrung auf landwirtschaftliche und gaertnerische Flaechen wurde untersucht. Dieses Projekt war dreigeteilt in die Bereiche der Kompostierung selbst, der Anwendung des Komposts in der Landwirtschaft und seiner Anwendung im Gartenbau sowie im Garten- und Landschaftsbau (GaLa-Bau). Die vorliegende Schrift enthaelt die Zusammenfassung der genannten drei Teilberichte. (orig./SR)

  16. Biological impact of preschool music classes on processing speech in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana L; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; O'Connell, Samantha; Kraus, Nina

    2013-10-01

    Musicians have increased resilience to the effects of noise on speech perception and its neural underpinnings. We do not know, however, how early in life these enhancements arise. We compared auditory brainstem responses to speech in noise in 32 preschool children, half of whom were engaged in music training. Thirteen children returned for testing one year later, permitting the first longitudinal assessment of subcortical auditory function with music training. Results indicate emerging neural enhancements in musically trained preschoolers for processing speech in noise. Longitudinal outcomes reveal that children enrolled in music classes experience further increased neural resilience to background noise following one year of continued training compared to nonmusician peers. Together, these data reveal enhanced development of neural mechanisms undergirding speech-in-noise perception in preschoolers undergoing music training and may indicate a biological impact of music training on auditory function during early childhood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Spies and Bloggers: New Synthetic Biology Tools to Understand Microbial Processes in Soils and Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, C. A.; Silberg, J. J.; Cheng, H. Y.; Del Valle, I.; Fulk, E. M.; Gao, X.; Bennett, G. N.

    2017-12-01

    Microbes can be programmed through synthetic biology to report on their behavior, informing researchers when their environment has triggered changes in their gene expression (e.g. in response to shifts in O2 or H2O), or when they have participated in a specific step of an elemental cycle (e.g. denitrification). This use of synthetic biology has the potential to significantly improve our understanding of microbes' roles in elemental and water cycling, because it allows reporting on the environment from the perspective of a microbe, matching the measurement scale exactly to the scale that a microbe experiences. However, synthetic microbes have not yet seen wide use in soil and sediment laboratory experiments because synthetic organisms typically report by fluorescing, making their signals difficult to detect outside the petri dish. We are developing a new suite of microbial programs that report instead by releasing easily-detected gases, allowing the real-time, noninvasive monitoring of behaviors in sediments and soils. Microbial biosensors can, in theory, be programmed to detect dynamic processes that contribute to a wide range of geobiological processes, including C cycling (biofilm production, methanogenesis, and synthesis of extracellular enzymes that degrade organic matter), N cycling (expression of enzymes that underlie different steps of the N cycle) and potentially S cycling. We will provide an overview of the potential uses of gas-reporting biosensors in soil and sediment lab experiments, and will report the development of the systematics of these sensors. Successful development of gas biosensors for laboratory use will require addressing issues including: engineering the intensity and selectivity of microbial gas production to maximize the signal to noise ratio; normalizing the gas reporter signal to cell population size, managing gas diffusion effects on signal shape; and developing multiple gases that can be used in parallel.

  18. Biological treatment processes for PCB contaminated soil at a site in Newfoundland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punt, M.; Cooper, D.; Velicogna, D.; Mohn, W.; Reimer, K.; Parsons, D.; Patel, T.; Daugulis, A.

    2002-01-01

    SAIC Canada is conducting a study under the direction of a joint research and development contract between Public Works and Government Services Canada and Environment Canada to examine the biological options for treating PCB contaminated soil found at a containment cell at a former U.S. Military Base near Stephenville, Newfoundland. In particular, the study examines the feasibility of using indigenous microbes for the degradation of PCBs. The first phase of the study involved the testing of the microbes in a bioreactor. The second phase, currently underway, involves a complete evaluation of possible microbes for PCB degradation. It also involves further study into the biological process options for the site. Suitable indigenous and non-indigenous microbes for PCB dechlorination and biphenyl degradation are being identified and evaluated. In addition, the effectiveness and economics of microbial treatment in a conventional bioreactor is being evaluated. The conventional bioreactor used in this study is the two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) using a biopile process. Results thus far will be used to help Public Works and Government Services Canada to choose the most appropriate remedial technology. Preliminary results suggest that the use of soil classification could reduce the volume of soil requiring treatment. The soil in the containment cell contains microorganisms that could grow in isolation on biphenyl, naphthalene and potentially Aroclor 1254. Isolated native microbes were inoculated in the TPPB for growth. The TPPB was also run successfully under anaerobic conditions. Future work will involve lab-scale evaluation of microbes for PCB dechlorination and biphenyl degradation using both indigenous and non-indigenous microbes. The next phase of study may also involve field-scale demonstration of treatment methods. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  19. Biological processes for concentrating trace elements from uranium mine waters. Technical completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brierley, C.L.; Brierley, J.A.

    1981-12-01

    Waste water from uranium mines in the Ambrosia Lake district near Grants, New Mexico, USA, contains uranium, selenium, radium and molybdenum. The Kerr-McGee Corporation has a novel treatment process for waters from two mines to reduce the concentrations of the trace contaminants. Particulates are settled by ponding, and the waters are passed through an ion exchange resin to remove uranium; barium chloride is added to precipitate sulfate and radium from the mine waters. The mine waters are subsequently passed through three consecutive algae ponds prior to discharge. Water, sediment and biological samples were collected over a 4-year period and analyzed to assess the role of biological agents in removal of inorganic trace contaminants from the mine waters. Some of the conclusions derived from this study are: (1) The concentrations of soluble uranium, selenium and molybdenum were not diminished in the mine waters by passage through the series of impoundments which constituted the mine water treatment facility. Uranium concentrations were reduced but this was due to passage of the water through an ion exchange column. (2) The particulate concentrations of the mine water were reduced at least ten-fold by passage of the waters through the impoundments. (3) The sediments were anoxic and enriched in uranium, molybdenum and selenium. The deposition of particulates and the formation of insoluble compounds were proposed as mechanisms for sediment enrichment. (4) The predominant algae of the treatment ponds were the filamentous Spirogyra and Oscillatoria, and the benthic alga, Chara. (5) Adsorptive processes resulted in the accumulation of metals in the algae cells. (6) Stimulation of sulfate reduction by the bacteria resulted in retention of molybdenum, selenium, and uranium in sediments. 1 figure, 16 tables

  20. Utilization of the cyanobacteria Anabaena sp CH1 in biological carbon dioxide mitigation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, C.L.; Lee, C.M.; Chen, P.C. [Hungkuang University, Taichung (Taiwan)

    2011-05-15

    Before switching totally to alternative fuel stage, CO{sub 2} mitigation process has considered a transitional strategy for combustion of fossil fuels inevitably. In comparison to other CO{sub 2} mitigation options, such as oceanic or geologic injection, the biological photosynthetic process would present a far superior and sustainable solution under both environmental and social considerations. The utilization of the cyanobacteria Anabaena sp. CH1 in carbon dioxide mitigation processes is analyzed in our research. It was found that an original developed photobioreactor with internal light source exhibits high light utilization. Anabaena sp. CH1 demonstrates excellent CO{sub 2} tolerance even at 15% CO{sub 2} level. This enables flue gas from power plant to be directly introduced to Anabaena sp. CH1 culture. Double light intensity and increased 47% CO{sub 2} bubble retention time could enhance CO{sub 2} removal efficiencies by 79% and 67%, respectively. A maximum CO{sub 2} fixation rate of 1.01 g CO{sub 2} L{sup -1} day{sup -1} was measured experimentally.

  1. Learning how scientists work: experiential research projects to promote cell biology learning and scientific process skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DebBurman, Shubhik K

    2002-01-01

    Facilitating not only the mastery of sophisticated subject matter, but also the development of process skills is an ongoing challenge in teaching any introductory undergraduate course. To accomplish this goal in a sophomore-level introductory cell biology course, I require students to work in groups and complete several mock experiential research projects that imitate the professional activities of the scientific community. I designed these projects as a way to promote process skill development within content-rich pedagogy and to connect text-based and laboratory-based learning with the world of contemporary research. First, students become familiar with one primary article from a leading peer-reviewed journal, which they discuss by means of PowerPoint-based journal clubs and journalism reports highlighting public relevance. Second, relying mostly on primary articles, they investigate the molecular basis of a disease, compose reviews for an in-house journal, and present seminars in a public symposium. Last, students author primary articles detailing investigative experiments conducted in the lab. This curriculum has been successful in both quarter-based and semester-based institutions. Student attitudes toward their learning were assessed quantitatively with course surveys. Students consistently reported that these projects significantly lowered barriers to primary literature, improved research-associated skills, strengthened traditional pedagogy, and helped accomplish course objectives. Such approaches are widely suited for instructors seeking to integrate process with content in their courses.

  2. Functional knowledge transfer for high-accuracy prediction of under-studied biological processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Y Park

    Full Text Available A key challenge in genetics is identifying the functional roles of genes in pathways. Numerous functional genomics techniques (e.g. machine learning that predict protein function have been developed to address this question. These methods generally build from existing annotations of genes to pathways and thus are often unable to identify additional genes participating in processes that are not already well studied. Many of these processes are well studied in some organism, but not necessarily in an investigator's organism of interest. Sequence-based search methods (e.g. BLAST have been used to transfer such annotation information between organisms. We demonstrate that functional genomics can complement traditional sequence similarity to improve the transfer of gene annotations between organisms. Our method transfers annotations only when functionally appropriate as determined by genomic data and can be used with any prediction algorithm to combine transferred gene function knowledge with organism-specific high-throughput data to enable accurate function prediction. We show that diverse state-of-art machine learning algorithms leveraging functional knowledge transfer (FKT dramatically improve their accuracy in predicting gene-pathway membership, particularly for processes with little experimental knowledge in an organism. We also show that our method compares favorably to annotation transfer by sequence similarity. Next, we deploy FKT with state-of-the-art SVM classifier to predict novel genes to 11,000 biological processes across six diverse organisms and expand the coverage of accurate function predictions to processes that are often ignored because of a dearth of annotated genes in an organism. Finally, we perform in vivo experimental investigation in Danio rerio and confirm the regulatory role of our top predicted novel gene, wnt5b, in leftward cell migration during heart development. FKT is immediately applicable to many bioinformatics

  3. 10th International Seminar on Medical Physics and 1st AMDI International Oncology Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Preface The International Seminar on Medical Physics (ISMP) 2016 is a national medical physics conference organised every two years by the Malaysian Association of Medical Physics (MAMP). Previously the biennial conference is known as the National Seminar on Medical Physics (NSMP). The conference was held on 27 and 28 August 2016 in Bayview Batu Ferringhi Hotel, Penang, Malaysia in conjunction with an Oncology Symposium (IOS) organised by Advanced Medical and Dental Institute of Universiti Sains Malaysia. The conference was renamed the International Seminar on Medical Physics (ISMP) on the 10th anniversary to recognise the diversity of the nationality of the conference speakers and attendees in the 8th (2012) and 9th (2014) conference. The change is also to encourage more international participants especially from the neighbouring countries of Malaysia and beyond to come together in “Fostering Medical Physics Research and Clinical Practice for Better Healthcare” in this region. About 300 participants from universities and hospitals participated in the conference. 28 oral contributions and 22 posters were presented at the conference. We also had a few invited lectures by international experts. The conference was divided into two main themes, imaging physics and radiotherapy physics. The topics presented were radiation dosimetry, image quality, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear medicine, quality assurance, particle therapy, image guided radiotherapy, brachytherapy and Monte Carlo simulation and modelling. The IOS held in parallel covered topics in clinical oncology, cancer imaging and cancer biology. 41 papers are included in the volume organised into three main themes, i.e., imaging physics (ISMP), radiotherapy physics (ISMP) and oncology (IOS). All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editor. Each paper was peer-reviewed by two reviewers from the

  4. Proceedings of the 1st Ibero-Latin American and Caribbean Congress on Medical Physics. Mexico 98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.; Huitron, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    This book composes the works received for the 1st Ibero-Latin American and the Caribbean Congress on Medical Physics. There are 68 works which represent a sample of the recent advances of the medical physics which are indicators about the level of development of the speciality in these regions of the world. Thus, the Congress represents the greatest event of medical physics of Ibero-Latin America and the Caribbean besides its consolidation and regional organization. The book also contains useful counsels for the education, yours researches and the daily hospitable practice. (Author)

  5. Chondrosarcoma of right 1st rib presenting as neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome; A 13th case report in world literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravisagar Patel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic outlet syndrome [TOS] caused by a tumor of the rib is rare and has been reported only 12 times in the literature over the past one and one-half centuries, with the majority of cases due to osteochondroma. We report a case of chondrosarcoma of right 1st rib causing neurogenic TOS that was resected via posterolateral thoracotomy and biopsy confirmed a grade I chondrosarcoma. In the treatment of chondrosarcoma, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are less effective, and appropriate surgery is needed.

  6. Treatment of the carcinoma of the vulva at the 1st University-Clinic of Gynaecology in Vienna (386 cases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, H.

    1980-01-01

    In the department of radiotherapy of the 1st University-Clinic of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Vienna the electroresection and electrocoagulation is practiced with good success in the treatment of carcinoma of the vulva. Of 386 treated cases with vulvar carcinoma, 234 (60,6%) were alive after five years. After surgical treatment the inguinal lymphonodes were irradiated (6000 rad). In comparison with the international statistic of the Annual Report of the results of treatment in gynaecological cancer (1979) the results obtained in Vienna are much better than the international average. (orig.) [de

  7. Updating Photonuclear Data Library and Generating a Reference Database for Photon Strength Functions. 1st Research Coordination Meeting. Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goriely, S.; Dimitriou, P.

    2016-07-01

    A summary is given of the 1 st Research Coordination Meeting of the new IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Updating the Photonuclear Data Library and Generating a Reference Database for Photon Strength Functions. Participants presented their work, reviewed the current status of the field with regards to measurements, theoretical models and evaluations, discussed the scope of the work to be undertaken and agreed on a list of priorities and task assignments necessary to achieve the goals of the CRP. A summary of the presentations and discussions is presented in this report. (author)

  8. A compact and versatile microfluidic probe for local processing of tissue sections and biological specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cors, J. F.; Lovchik, R. D.; Delamarche, E.; Kaigala, G. V.

    2014-03-01

    The microfluidic probe (MFP) is a non-contact, scanning microfluidic technology for local (bio)chemical processing of surfaces based on hydrodynamically confining nanoliter volumes of liquids over tens of micrometers. We present here a compact MFP (cMFP) that can be used on a standard inverted microscope and assist in the local processing of tissue sections and biological specimens. The cMFP has a footprint of 175 × 100 × 140 mm3 and can scan an area of 45 × 45 mm2 on a surface with an accuracy of ±15 μm. The cMFP is compatible with standard surfaces used in life science laboratories such as microscope slides and Petri dishes. For ease of use, we developed self-aligned mounted MFP heads with standardized "chip-to-world" and "chip-to-platform" interfaces. Switching the processing liquid in the flow confinement is performed within 90 s using a selector valve with a dead-volume of approximately 5 μl. We further implemented height-compensation that allows a cMFP head to follow non-planar surfaces common in tissue and cellular ensembles. This was shown by patterning different macroscopic copper-coated topographies with height differences up to 750 μm. To illustrate the applicability to tissue processing, 5 μm thick M000921 BRAF V600E+ melanoma cell blocks were stained with hematoxylin to create contours, lines, spots, gradients of the chemicals, and multiple spots over larger areas. The local staining was performed in an interactive manner using a joystick and a scripting module. The compactness, user-friendliness, and functionality of the cMFP will enable it to be adapted as a standard tool in research, development and diagnostic laboratories, particularly for the interaction with tissues and cells.

  9. Interconnection of reactive oxygen species chemistry across the interfaces of atmospheric, environmental, and biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglada, Josep M; Martins-Costa, Marilia; Francisco, Joseph S; Ruiz-López, Manuel F

    2015-03-17

    Oxidation reactions are ubiquitous and play key roles in the chemistry of the atmosphere, in water treatment processes, and in aerobic organisms. Ozone (O3), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydrogen polyoxides (H2Ox, x > 2), associated hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals (HOx = OH and HO2), and superoxide and ozonide anions (O2(-) and O3(-), respectively) are the primary oxidants in these systems. They are commonly classified as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Atmospheric chemistry is driven by a complex system of chain reactions of species, including nitrogen oxides, hydroxyl and hydroperoxide radicals, alkoxy and peroxy radicals, and ozone. HOx radicals contribute to keeping air clean, but in polluted areas, the ozone concentration increases and creates a negative impact on plants and animals. Indeed, ozone concentration is used to assess air quality worldwide. Clouds have a direct effect on the chemical composition of the atmosphere. On one hand, cloud droplets absorb many trace atmospheric gases, which can be scavenged by rain and fog. On the other hand, ionic species can form in this medium, which makes the chemistry of the atmosphere richer and more complex. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested that air-cloud interfaces might have a significant impact on the overall chemistry of the troposphere. Despite the large differences in molecular composition, concentration, and thermodynamic conditions among atmospheric, environmental, and biological systems, the underlying chemistry involving ROS has many similarities. In this Account, we examine ROS and discuss the chemical characteristics common to all of these systems. In water treatment, ROS are key components of an important subset of advanced oxidation processes. Ozonation, peroxone chemistry, and Fenton reactions play important roles in generating sufficient amounts of hydroxyl radicals to purify wastewater. Biochemical processes within living organisms also involve ROS. These species can come from pollutants in

  10. Morphology of Filamentous Fungi: Linking Cellular Biology to Process Engineering Using Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krull, Rainer; Cordes, Christiana; Horn, Harald; Kampen, Ingo; Kwade, Arno; Neu, Thomas R.; Nörtemann, Bernd

    In various biotechnological processes, filamentous fungi, e.g. Aspergillus niger, are widely applied for the production of high value-added products due to their secretion efficiency. There is, however, a tangled relationship between the morphology of these microorganisms, the transport phenomena and the related productivity. The morphological characteristics vary between freely dispersed mycelia and distinct pellets of aggregated biomass. Hence, advantages and disadvantages for mycel or pellet cultivation have to be balanced out carefully. Due to this inadequate understanding of morphogenesis of filamentous microorganisms, fungal morphology, along with reproducibility of inocula of the same quality, is often a bottleneck of productivity in industrial production. To obtain an optimisation of the production process it is of great importance to gain a better understanding of the molecular and cell biology of these microorganisms as well as the approaches in biochemical engineering and particle technique, in particular to characterise the interactions between the growth conditions, cell morphology, spore-hyphae-interactions and product formation. Advances in particle and image analysis techniques as well as micromechanical devices and their applications to fungal cultivations have made available quantitative morphological data on filamentous cells. This chapter provides the ambitious aspects of this line of action, focussing on the control and characterisation of the morphology, the transport gradients and the approaches to understand the metabolism of filamentous fungi. Based on these data, bottlenecks in the morphogenesis of A. niger within the complex production pathways from gene to product should be identified and this may improve the production yield.

  11. Photo-induced regeneration of hormones by electron transfer processes: Potential biological and medical consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getoff, Nikola; Hartmann, Johannes; Schittl, Heike; Gerschpacher, Marion; Quint, Ruth Maria

    2011-08-01

    Based on the previous results concerning electron transfer processes in biological substances, it was of interest to investigate if hormone transients resulting by e.g. electron emission can be regenerated. The presented results prove for the first time that the hormone transients originating by the electron emission process can be successfully regenerated by the transfer of electrons from a potent electron donor, such as vitamin C (VitC). Investigations were performed using progesterone (PRG), testosterone (TES) and estrone (E1) as representatives of hormones. By irradiation with monochromatic UV light (λ=254 nm) in a media of 40% water and 60% ethanol, the degradation as well as the regeneration of the hormones was studied with each hormone individually and in the mixture with VitC as a function of the absorbed UV dose, using HPLC. Calculated from the obtained initial yields, the determined regeneration of PRG amounted to 52.7%, for TES to 58.6% and for E1 to 90.9%. The consumption of VitC was determined in the same way. The reported results concerning the regeneration of hormones by the transfer of electrons from an electron donor offer a new, promising method for the therapy with hormones. As a consequence of the regeneration of hormones, a decreased formation of carcinogenic metabolites is expected.

  12. Photo-induced regeneration of hormones by electron transfer processes: Potential biological and medical consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getoff, Nikola, E-mail: nikola.getoff@univie.ac.a [Section of Radiation Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Hartmann, Johannes [Department of Gynecologic Endocrinology and Reproduction, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schittl, Heike [Section of Radiation Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Gerschpacher, Marion [Department of Gynecologic Endocrinology and Reproduction, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Quint, Ruth Maria [Section of Radiation Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-08-15

    Based on the previous results concerning electron transfer processes in biological substances, it was of interest to investigate if hormone transients resulting by e.g. electron emission can be regenerated. The presented results prove for the first time that the hormone transients originating by the electron emission process can be successfully regenerated by the transfer of electrons from a potent electron donor, such as vitamin C (VitC). Investigations were performed using progesterone (PRG), testosterone (TES) and estrone (E1) as representatives of hormones. By irradiation with monochromatic UV light ({lambda}=254 nm) in a media of 40% water and 60% ethanol, the degradation as well as the regeneration of the hormones was studied with each hormone individually and in the mixture with VitC as a function of the absorbed UV dose, using HPLC. Calculated from the obtained initial yields, the determined regeneration of PRG amounted to 52.7%, for TES to 58.6% and for E1 to 90.9%. The consumption of VitC was determined in the same way. The reported results concerning the regeneration of hormones by the transfer of electrons from an electron donor offer a new, promising method for the therapy with hormones. As a consequence of the regeneration of hormones, a decreased formation of carcinogenic metabolites is expected.

  13. Photo-induced regeneration of hormones by electron transfer processes: Potential biological and medical consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getoff, Nikola; Hartmann, Johannes; Schittl, Heike; Gerschpacher, Marion; Quint, Ruth Maria

    2011-01-01

    Based on the previous results concerning electron transfer processes in biological substances, it was of interest to investigate if hormone transients resulting by e.g. electron emission can be regenerated. The presented results prove for the first time that the hormone transients originating by the electron emission process can be successfully regenerated by the transfer of electrons from a potent electron donor, such as vitamin C (VitC). Investigations were performed using progesterone (PRG), testosterone (TES) and estrone (E1) as representatives of hormones. By irradiation with monochromatic UV light (λ=254 nm) in a media of 40% water and 60% ethanol, the degradation as well as the regeneration of the hormones was studied with each hormone individually and in the mixture with VitC as a function of the absorbed UV dose, using HPLC. Calculated from the obtained initial yields, the determined regeneration of PRG amounted to 52.7%, for TES to 58.6% and for E1 to 90.9%. The consumption of VitC was determined in the same way. The reported results concerning the regeneration of hormones by the transfer of electrons from an electron donor offer a new, promising method for the therapy with hormones. As a consequence of the regeneration of hormones, a decreased formation of carcinogenic metabolites is expected.

  14. Roles of extracellular polymeric substances in enhanced biological phosphorus removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Wei; Zhang, Hai-Ling; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-12-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process is known to mainly rely on the ability of phosphorus-accumulating organisms to take up, transform and store excess amount of phosphorus (P) inside the cells. However, recent studies have revealed considerable accumulation of P also in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of sludge, implying a non-negligible role of EPS in P removal by EBPR sludge. However, the contribution of EPS to P uptake and the forms of accumulated extracellular P vary substantially in different studies, and the underlying mechanism of P transformation and transportation in EPS remains poorly understood. This review provides a new recognition into the P removal process in EBPR system by incorporating the role of EPS. It overviews on the characteristics of P accumulation in EPS, explores the mechanism of P transformation and transportation in EBPR sludge and EPS, summarizes the main influential factors for the P-accumulation properties of EPS, and discusses the remaining knowledge gaps and needed future efforts that may lead to better understanding and use of such an EPS role for maximizing P recovery from wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. In vitro biological outcome of laser application for modification or processing of titanium dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindy, Ahmed; Farahmand, Farzam; Tabatabaei, Fahimeh Sadat

    2017-07-01

    There are numerous functions for laser in modern implant dentistry including surface treatment, surface coating, and implant manufacturing. As laser application may potentially improve osseointegration of dental implants, we systematically reviewed the literature for in vitro biological responses to laser-modified or processed titanium dental implants. The literature was searched in PubMed, ISI Web, and Scopus, using keywords "titanium dental implants," "laser," "biocompatibility," and their synonyms. After screening the 136 references obtained, 28 articles met the inclusion criteria. We found that Nd:YAG laser was the most commonly used lasers in the treatment or processing of titanium dental implants. Most of the experiments used cell attachment and cell proliferation to investigate bioresponses of the implants. The most commonly used cells in these assays were osteoblast-like cells. Only one study was conducted in stem cells. These in vitro studies reported higher biocompatibility in laser-modified titanium implants. It seems that laser radiation plays a vital role in cell response to dental implants; however, it is necessary to accomplish more studies using different laser types and parameters on various cells to offer a more conclusive result.

  16. Process simulation and comparison of biological conversion of syngas and hydrogen in biogas plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awais Salman, Chaudhary; Schwede, Sebastian; Thorin, Eva; Yan, Jinyue

    2017-11-01

    Organic waste is a good source of clean energy. However, different fractions of waste have to be utilized efficiently. One way is to find pathways to convert waste into useful products via various available processes (gasification, pyrolysis anaerobic digestion, etc.) and integrate them to increase the combined efficiency of the process. The syngas and hydrogen produced from the thermal conversion of biomass can be upgraded to biomethane via biological methanation. The current study presents the simulation model to predict the amount of biomethane produced by injecting the hydrogen and syngas. Hydrogen injection is modelled both in-situ and ex-situ while for syngas solely the ex-situ case has been studied. The results showed that 85% of the hydrogen conversion was achieved for the ex-situ reactor while 81% conversion rate was achieved for the in-situ reactor. The syngas could be converted completely in the bio-reactor. However, the addition of syngas resulted in an increase of carbon dioxide. Simulation of biomethanation of gas addition showed a biomethane concentration of 87% while for hydrogen addition an increase of 74% and 80% for in-situ and ex-situ addition respectively.

  17. Application of a biological process for decontamination of soils in the far north

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouliot, Y.; Sansregret, J.-L.

    1994-01-01

    The site of a diesel-fuelled power station in the extreme north of Quebec (62 degree latitude) was contaminated with hydrocarbons. The site was characterized by typical Arctic conditions: presence of permafrost, limited land transport facilities, restricted availability of machinery and equipment, and scarcity of skilled labor and specialized services. To remediate the site, it was decided to excavate the contaminated soil and subject it to a biological treatment process. The soil was piled on an impermeable base inside of the old power station building and the following parameters were controlled in order to optimize the biodegradation of the hydrocarbons: temperature, humidity, pH, presence of hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms, and concentrations of oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus in the soil. Samples were analyzed to monitor the performance of the biodegradation process. In less than 12 weeks, of treatment, an inital hydrocarbon content estimated at 6,400 mg/kg of oils and greases was reduced to 750 mg/kg, corresponding to a level acceptable for residential areas. Indigenous microorganisms capable of degrading hydrocarbons were already present in the native soil in sufficient quantity, and their performance improved when the soil conditions were optimized. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  18. Effect of residual H2O2 from advanced oxidation processes on subsequent biological water treatmen : A laboratory batch study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, F.; van Halem, D.; Liu, G.; Lekkerkerker-Teunissen, K.; van der Hoek, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    H2O2 residuals from advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) may have critical impacts on the microbial ecology and performance of subsequent biological treatment processes, but little is known. The objective of this study was to evaluate how H2O2 residuals influence sand systems with an emphasis on

  19. Evaluation of the processing of dry biological ferment for gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabundjian, Ingrid Traete

    2007-01-01

    The developed work had with objectives to demonstrate if it had alteration in the growth of UFC in plate and in the viability of yeasts and total bacteria when dry biological ferment was dealt with by different doses to gamma radiation and under different times storage, to determine the D10 dose for total bacteria and yeasts in this product and to analyzed the processing of this product it promoted some benefit without causing unfeasibility of exactly. The different samples of dry biological ferment had been irradiated at IPEN in a Gammacell - 220 source at 0.5; 1; 2 and 3 kGy doses (dose rate of 3.51 kGy/h). This procedure referring samples to each dose of radiation had been after destined to the microbiological analysis and the test of viability while excessively the samples had been stored the ambient temperature (23 degree C). The increase of the dose of radiation caused a reduction in the counting of yeasts growth, of total bacteria growth and also in the frequency of viable yeast cells, demonstrated by FDA-EB fluorescent method. Beyond of radiation the storage time also it influenced in counting reduction of total bacteria and reduction of frequency of viable cells. According with the analysis of simple linear regression, the dose of radiation necessary to eliminate 90% of the yeast population was between 1.10 and 2.23 kGy and for the bacterial population varied between 2.31 and 2.95 kGy. These results demonstrated clearly the negative points of the application of ionizing radiation in dry biological ferment; therefore the interval of D10 found for total bacteria is superior to found for yeasts. Being thus, the use of this resource for the improvement of the product quality becomes impracticable, since to reduce significantly the bacterial population necessarily we have that to diminish the population of yeasts. With yeasts reduction of we will go significantly to modify the quality and the viability of product. (author)

  20. Functional anthology of intrinsic disorder. 1. Biological processes and functions of proteins with long disordered regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongbo; Vucetic, Slobodan; Iakoucheva, Lilia M; Oldfield, Christopher J; Dunker, A Keith; Uversky, Vladimir N; Obradovic, Zoran

    2007-05-01

    statistical approach, outlines the major findings, and provides illustrative examples of biological processes and functions positively and negatively correlated with intrinsic disorder.

  1. Functional Anthology of Intrinsic Disorder. I. Biological Processes and Functions of Proteins with Long Disordered Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongbo; Vucetic, Slobodan; Iakoucheva, Lilia M.; Oldfield, Christopher J.; Dunker, A. Keith; Uversky, Vladimir N.; Obradovic, Zoran

    2008-01-01

    approach, outlines the major findings and provides illustrative examples of biological processes and functions positively and negatively correlated with intrinsic disorder. PMID:17391014

  2. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. The 1st quarter 2016; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 1. Vierteljahr 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-06

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1st quarter of 2016. Statistical data are presented for mining, exports and imports of hard coal and lignite and for employees.

  3. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. The 1st quarter 2015; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 1. Vierteljahr 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-07

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1st quarter of 2015. Statistical data are presented for mining, exports and imports of hard coal and lignite and for employees.

  4. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. The 1st quarter 2017; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 1. Vierteljahr 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-06-14

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1st quarter of 2017. Statistical data are presented for mining, exports and imports of hard coal and lignite and for employees.

  5. Holocaust and process. Since the birth of national socialism until the start of the world war II (1st. part)

    OpenAIRE

    Zimerman, Héctor José

    2013-01-01

    El presente artículo trata de la aparición del nazismo en Alemania, y su programa inicial desde 1920, declarado inmodificable por Hitler a partir de 1926. El trabajo introduce la denominada cuestión o problema judío, desde el origen del Partido Nazi, y los intentos de la cúpula partidaria, luego grupo oficial del gobierno alemán en 1933. Se describen nociones básicas que hacen a la implementación y el enlace entre Nación, Partido y Gobierno, en una mixtura propia de los sistemas totalitarios ...

  6. Proceedings of the 1st International Operational Modal Analysis Conference, April 26-27, 2005, Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    These proceedings contain approximately 100 papers presented at the 1st International Operational Modal Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, April 26 - 27, 2005. The conference is jointly organised by Structural Vibration Systems (SVS), Aalborg, Brüel & Kjær Sound and Vibration Measurement A/S and th......These proceedings contain approximately 100 papers presented at the 1st International Operational Modal Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, April 26 - 27, 2005. The conference is jointly organised by Structural Vibration Systems (SVS), Aalborg, Brüel & Kjær Sound and Vibration Measurement A....../S and the Department of Building Technology and Structural Engineering at Aalborg University. It is the first conference ever to focus solely on experimental modal analysis for cases where only the responses are measured. It was decided to hold the conference to generate interest in operational modal analysis (also...... effort and higher versatility. However, because the mathematical background was initially weak, computer power was insufficient and the equipment not sensitive enough for this kind of testing, the technology has only become popular during the last 3 - 4 years. For this reason, the first conference...

  7. [Expression, crystallization and crystallographic study of the 1st IgV domain of human CD96].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenjing; Zhang, Shuijun; Yan, Jinghua; Guo, Ning

    2013-05-01

    CD96 (Tactile) is an adhesion receptor expressed mainly on activated T cells, NK cells. As a family member of the immunoglobulin-like cell receptor, CD96 consists of three immunoglobulin-like domains (V1, V2/C and C) in the extracellular region. Recent studies have shown that the 1st IgV domain of CD96 (CD96V1) plays an essential role in cell adhesion and NK cell-mediated killing. In this study, the 1st IgV domain of human CD96 (hCD96V1) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli (BL21). The soluble protein was obtained by refolding of the hCD96V1 inclusion bodies. From analytical ultracentrifugation, we could predict that CD96 V1 maily exists as dimer with approximate molecular weight of 26.9 kDa. The protein was then successfully crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to 1.9 angstrom resolution and belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 35.1, b = 69.5, c = 49.6A, alpha=gamma=90 degrees, beta=105.4 degrees.

  8. A method of neptunium recovery into the product stream of the Purex 1st codecontamination step for LWR fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuboya, Takao; Nemoto, Shinichi; Hoshino, Tadaya; Segawa, Takeshi

    1973-01-01

    An improved nitrous acid method was applied for recovering neptunium in spent fuel. Counter-current solvent extraction has been performed to find out its recovery conditions. The nitrous acid in the form of sodium salt solution was fed to the 1st stage of extraction section, and hydrazine nitrate was fed to some stages near feed point. Flow rate and the concentration of additives were altered for finding out optimum condition. Laboratory scale mixer-settlers having 6 ml of mixing volume and 17 ml of settling volume for each stage were used. The nitrous acid method was improved so that the reduction reaction in scrub section can be eliminated by the decomposition of the nitrous acid using a reagent such as sulfamic acid, urea, or hydrazine. In operation, the feed rate of the nitrous acid was about 3 mM/hr, and about 61% of neptunium charged was discharged in the product stream of Purex-1st codecontamination step designed for the LWR fuel reprocessing plant of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The calculated value of Δx/x for extraction section agreed with the experimental value, where Δx is the quantity of oxidation, and x is the inventory for neptunium in each stage. In conclusion, the improved nitrous acid method is effective for the neptunium discharge in product stream, and the difference of neptunium extraction between estimate and experiment is caused by some of reduction reaction in scrub section. (Iwakiri, K.)

  9. Life Cycle Assessment of waste management systems in Italian industrial areas: Case study of 1st Macrolotto of Prato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarantini, Mario; Loprieno, Arianna Dominici; Cucchi, Eleonora; Frenquellucci, Ferdinando

    2009-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is not widely used as a decision-supporting tool in Italy, despite recent European Commission policies fostering its adoption to achieve an energy- and resource-efficient economy. In this paper, an LCA of waste management system of the 1st Macrolotto industrial area is presented. The aims of the study were to identify the environmental critical points of the system and to evaluate opportunities and problems in applying this methodology at industrial area level. After a description of the waste management system of the 1st Macrolotto industrial area, the main assumptions of the study and some elements of the system modelling are presented. Results confirmed that door-to-door separated collection and packaging recycling are successful strategies for reducing the use of natural resources. The cooperation of the waste management company, which was part of the area management structure, was strategic for the completion of the analysis. Country-specific databases and models should be developed for a widespread application of the LCA methodology to waste management in Italian industrial areas.

  10. Team-based Learning Strategy in Biochemistry: Perceptions and Attitudes of Faculty and 1st-Year Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Namrata; Kukreja, Sahiba; Chhabra, Sarah; Chhabra, Sahil; Khodabux, Sameenah; Sabane, Harshal

    2017-12-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) strategy has been widely adapted by medical schools all over the world, but the reports regarding the perceptions and the attitudes of faculty and undergraduate medical students towards TBL approach have been conflicting. The study aimed to introduce TBL strategy in curriculum of Biochemistry after evaluating its effectiveness through perceptions and attitudes of faculty and 1 st -year medical students. One hundred and fifty students of first professional M.B.B.S and five faculty members participated in the study. Their responses regarding perceptions and attitudes towards TBL strategy were collected using structured questionnaires, focus group discussions, and in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test, paired sample t -test, and Mann-Whitney U-test. Majority of the students expressed satisfaction with team approach and reported improvement in the academic scores, learning styles, and development of problem-solving, interpersonal, and professional skills. The faculty, however, recommended a modified TBL approach to benefit all sections of the students for the overall success of this intervention. TBL is an effective technique to enable the students to master the core concepts and develop professional and critical thinking skills; however, for the 1 st -year medical students, a modified TBL approach might be more appropriate for the effective outcomes.

  11. Chinese Commission of Science Technology and Industry for National Defense Senior Vice Minister CHEN Qiufa visiting ALICE experiment on 1st November 2007 with CERN Director-General R. Aymar and Adviser J.-P. Revol. Thursday, 1st and Friday, 2nd November 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    Chinese Commission of Science Technology and Industry for National Defense Senior Vice Minister CHEN Qiufa visiting ALICE experiment on 1st November 2007 with CERN Director-General R. Aymar and Adviser J.-P. Revol. Thursday, 1st and Friday, 2nd November 2007

  12. Dose rate distribution for products irradiated in a semi-industrial irradiation plant. 1st stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangussi, J.

    2005-01-01

    The model of the bulk product absorbed dose rate distribution in a semi industrial irradiation plant is presented. In this plant the products are subject to a dynamic irradiation process: single-plaque, single-direction, four-passes. The additional two passes, also one on each side of the plaque, serve to minimize the lateral dose variation as well as the depth-dose non-uniformity. The first stage of this model takes only into account the direct absorbed dose rate; the model outputs are the depth-dose distribution and the lateral-dose distribution. The calculated absorbed dose in the bulk product and its uniformity-ratio after the dynamic irradiation process for different products is compared. The model results are in good agreement with the experimental measurements in a bulk of irradiated product; and the air absorbed dose rate in the irradiation chamber behind the product subject to the dynamic irradiation process. (author) [es

  13. Research and development of basic technologies for next-generation industry. Evaluation of 1st-phase research and development of 3-dimensional circuit devices; Jisedai sangyo kiban gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu. Sanjigen kairo soshi daiikki kenkyu kaihatsu hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-30

    The aim is to develop basic technologies relating to 3-dimensional circuit devices with an ultrahigh-density accumulation of functions therein for the embodiment of ultra-small high-performance data processing devices or artificial brain-like multiple-function data processing devices. To be developed are laminate-structure devices which have an ultrahigh-density accumulation of logic and memory functions or a complex accumulation of functions including signal and sensor functions. In the 1st phase, importance is attached to the development of a multilayer crystalline structure, which is the most elementary in the development of 3-dimensional circuit devices, and of processing technologies for them. Propositions are made and analyses are conducted relating to the enlargement of exposure region in synchrotron radiation lithography, development of a maskless beam process of a resolution of 0.1{mu}m, development of a focused ion beam device, etc. Recrystallization methods using a laser beam or a linear electron beam are developed for the growth of multilayer crystals, and are proved to be effective. The application feasibility of a flat deposition dry process etc. to laminate processing technologies is demonstrated. Concerning integration technologies, some laminated circuit devices are experimentally fabricated, and their behavior is determined. The goals of the 1st phase are found achieved. (NEDO)

  14. Processes that Drove the Transition from Chemistry to Biology: Concepts and Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    above background was evolved in vitro. This enzyme does not look like any contemporary protein. It is very flexible and its structure is kept together just by a single salt bridge between a charged residue and a coordinating zinc. A similar picture emerges from studies of simple transmembrane channels that mimic those in ancestral cells. Again, they are extremely flexible and do not form a conventional pore. Yet, they efficiently mediate ion transport. Studies on simple proteins that are on-going in several laboratories hold promise of revealing crucial links between chemical and biological catalysis and other ubiquitous cell functions. Interaction between composition, growth and division of protobiologically relevant vesicles and metabolic reactions that they encapsulate is an example of coupling between simple functions that promotes reproduction and evolution. Recent studies have demonstrated possible mechanisms by which vesicles might have evolved their composition from fatty acids to phospholipids, thus facilitating a number of new cellular functions. Conversely, it has been also demonstrated that an encapsulated metabolism might drive vesicle division. These are, again, examples of processes that might have driven the transition from chemistry to biology.

  15. Removal of Refractory Organics from Biologically Treated Landfill Leachate by Microwave Discharge Electrodeless Lamp Assisted Fenton Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuyi Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologically treated leachate usually contains considerable amount of refractory organics and trace concentrations of xenobiotic pollutants. Removal of refractory organics from biologically treated landfill leachate by a novel microwave discharge electrodeless lamp (MDEL assisted Fenton process was investigated in the present study in comparison to conventional Fenton and ultraviolet Fenton processes. Conventional Fenton and ultraviolet Fenton processes could substantially remove up to 70% of the refractory organics in a membrane bioreactor treated leachate. MDEL assisted Fenton process achieved excellent removal performance of the refractory components, and the effluent chemical oxygen demand concentration was lower than 100 mg L−1. Most organic matters were transformed into smaller compounds with molecular weights less than 1000 Da. Ten different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected in the biologically treated leachate, most of which were effectively removed by MDEL-Fenton treatment. MDEL-Fenton process provides powerful capability in degradation of refractory and xenobiotic organic pollutants in landfill leachate and could be adopted as a single-stage polishing process for biologically treated landfill leachate to meet the stringent discharge limit.

  16. Biological effects of ion implantation on processing tomato and eggplant seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Peihong; Zeng Xianxian; Jin Xiang

    2004-01-01

    The seed of processing tomato '87-5' (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) were implanted by the low energy nitrogen ion (N + ) with 6 different doses. The rate of emergence was little reduced in M1 generation, but the fruiting number per plant was increased and it's maturing earlier 20 days than the control. The precocity, disease resistance and stronger growth vigor were shown in M2 generation. Experimental results of two years showed that, according to synthetic analysis in factors such as precocity, disease resistance, high yield and quality, the N + dose of 6 x 10 16 cm -2 (60 times of pulse) for tomato seed '87-5' had been proved to have notable biological effects on M1 and M2 generation. The seed of eggplant 'Wuyeqie' (Solanum melongena L.) was also implanted by the low energy nitrogen ion (N + ) with 2 different doses. Multi-vertical channel fruits were obtained in variable M1 generation, which liked the pomelo without peel. The seed of these variable eggplants was taken and planted in the next year. The meaningful variable fruits, the characters of disease-resistance, purple-peel, small-navel, lantern-form, large-scale, etc. were obtained in beneficial M2 generation. The biggest single-fruit weight reached 1.53 kg, providing valuable germplasm resource for breeding. (authors)

  17. BioModels Database: a repository of mathematical models of biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelliah, Vijayalakshmi; Laibe, Camille; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    BioModels Database is a public online resource that allows storing and sharing of published, peer-reviewed quantitative, dynamic models of biological processes. The model components and behaviour are thoroughly checked to correspond the original publication and manually curated to ensure reliability. Furthermore, the model elements are annotated with terms from controlled vocabularies as well as linked to relevant external data resources. This greatly helps in model interpretation and reuse. Models are stored in SBML format, accepted in SBML and CellML formats, and are available for download in various other common formats such as BioPAX, Octave, SciLab, VCML, XPP and PDF, in addition to SBML. The reaction network diagram of the models is also available in several formats. BioModels Database features a search engine, which provides simple and more advanced searches. Features such as online simulation and creation of smaller models (submodels) from the selected model elements of a larger one are provided. BioModels Database can be accessed both via a web interface and programmatically via web services. New models are available in BioModels Database at regular releases, about every 4 months.

  18. Impacts of Environmental Nanoparticles on Chemical, Biological and Hydrological Processes in Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Nikolla

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides insights on nanoparticle (NP) influence or control on the extent and timescales of single or coupled physical, chemical, biological and hydrological reactions and processes that occur in terrestrial ecosystems. Examples taken from the literature that show how terrestrial NPs may determine the fate of the aqueous and sorbed (adsorbed or precipitated) chemical species of nutrients and contaminants, are also included in this chapter. Specifically, in the first section, chapter objectives, term definitions and discussions on size-dependent properties, the origin and occurrence of NP in terrestrial ecosystems and NP toxicity, are included. In the second section, the topic of the binary interactions of NPs of different sizes, shapes, concentrations and ages with the soil solution chemical species is covered, focusing on NP formation, stability, aggregation, ability to serve as sorbents, or surface-mediated precipitation catalysts, or electron donors and acceptors. In the third section, aspects of the interactions in the ternary systems composed of environmental NP, nutrient/contaminant chemical species, and the soil/sediment matrix are discussed, focusing on the inhibitory and catalytic effects of environmental NP on nutrient/contaminant advective mobility and mass transfer, adsorption and desorption, dissolution and precipitation and redox reactions that occur in terrestrial ecosystems. These three review sections are followed by a short summary of future research needs and directions, the acknowledgements, the list of the references, and the figures.

  19. Treatment of bromoamine acid wastewater using combined process of micro-electrolysis and biological aerobic filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Li; Ni, Jinren; Wu, Yanjun; Zhang, Yongyong

    2009-03-15

    The wastewater originated from the production of bromoamine acid was treated in a sequential system of micro-electrolysis (ME) and biological aerobic filter (BAF). Decolorization and COD(Cr) removal rate of the proposed system was investigated with full consideration of the influence of two major controlling factors such as organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT). The removal rate of COD(Cr) was 81.2% and that of chrominance could be up to 96.6% at an OLR of 0.56 kg m(-3)d(-1) when the total HRT was 43.4h. Most of the chrominance was removed by the ME treatment, however, the BAF process was more effective for COD(Cr) removal. The GC-MS and HPLC-MS analysis of the contaminants revealed that 1-aminoanthraquinone, bromoamine acid and mono-sulfonated 1,2-dichlorobenzene were the main organic components in the wastewater. The reductive transformation of the anthraquinone derivatives in the ME reactor improved the biodegradability of the wastewater, and rendered the decolorization. After long-term of operation, it was observed that the predominant microorganisms immobilized on the BAF carriers were rod-shaped and globular. Four bacterial strains with apparent 16S rDNA fragments in the Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of BAF samples were identified as Variovorax sp., Sphingomonas sp., Mycobacterium sp., and Microbacterium sp.

  20. Treatment of bromoamine acid wastewater using combined process of micro-electrolysis and biological aerobic filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Li [Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Key Laboratory for Environmental and Urban Sciences, Guang Dong 518055 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871 (China); Ni Jinren [Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Key Laboratory for Environmental and Urban Sciences, Guang Dong 518055 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: nijinren@iee.pku.edu.cn; Wu Yanjun; Zhang Yongyong [Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Key Laboratory for Environmental and Urban Sciences, Guang Dong 518055 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2009-03-15

    The wastewater originated from the production of bromoamine acid was treated in a sequential system of micro-electrolysis (ME) and biological aerobic filter (BAF). Decolorization and COD{sub Cr} removal rate of the proposed system was investigated with full consideration of the influence of two major controlling factors such as organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT). The removal rate of COD{sub Cr} was 81.2% and that of chrominance could be up to 96.6% at an OLR of 0.56 kg m{sup -3} d{sup -1} when the total HRT was 43.4 h. Most of the chrominance was removed by the ME treatment, however, the BAF process was more effective for COD{sub Cr} removal. The GC-MS and HPLC-MS analysis of the contaminants revealed that 1-aminoanthraquinone, bromoamine acid and mono-sulfonated 1,2-dichlorobenzene were the main organic components in the wastewater. The reductive transformation of the anthraquinone derivatives in the ME reactor improved the biodegradability of the wastewater, and rendered the decolorization. After long-term of operation, it was observed that the predominant microorganisms immobilized on the BAF carriers were rod-shaped and globular. Four bacterial strains with apparent 16S rDNA fragments in the Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of BAF samples were identified as Variovorax sp., Sphingomonas sp., Mycobacterium sp., and Microbacterium sp.

  1. Treatment of bromoamine acid wastewater using combined process of micro-electrolysis and biological aerobic filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Li; Ni Jinren; Wu Yanjun; Zhang Yongyong

    2009-01-01

    The wastewater originated from the production of bromoamine acid was treated in a sequential system of micro-electrolysis (ME) and biological aerobic filter (BAF). Decolorization and COD Cr removal rate of the proposed system was investigated with full consideration of the influence of two major controlling factors such as organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT). The removal rate of COD Cr was 81.2% and that of chrominance could be up to 96.6% at an OLR of 0.56 kg m -3 d -1 when the total HRT was 43.4 h. Most of the chrominance was removed by the ME treatment, however, the BAF process was more effective for COD Cr removal. The GC-MS and HPLC-MS analysis of the contaminants revealed that 1-aminoanthraquinone, bromoamine acid and mono-sulfonated 1,2-dichlorobenzene were the main organic components in the wastewater. The reductive transformation of the anthraquinone derivatives in the ME reactor improved the biodegradability of the wastewater, and rendered the decolorization. After long-term of operation, it was observed that the predominant microorganisms immobilized on the BAF carriers were rod-shaped and globular. Four bacterial strains with apparent 16S rDNA fragments in the Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of BAF samples were identified as Variovorax sp., Sphingomonas sp., Mycobacterium sp., and Microbacterium sp

  2. A two-stage biological gas to liquid transfer process to convert carbon dioxide into bioplastic

    KAUST Repository

    Al Rowaihi, Israa

    2018-03-06

    The fermentation of carbon dioxide (CO2) with hydrogen (H2) uses available low-cost gases to synthesis acetic acid. Here, we present a two-stage biological process that allows the gas to liquid transfer (Bio-GTL) of CO2 into the biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). Using the same medium in both stages, first, acetic acid is produced (3.2 g L−1) by Acetobacterium woodii from 5.2 L gas-mixture of CO2:H2 (15:85 v/v) under elevated pressure (≥2.0 bar) to increase H2-solubility in water. Second, acetic acid is converted to PHB (3 g L−1 acetate into 0.5 g L−1 PHB) by Ralstonia eutropha H16. The efficiencies and space-time yields were evaluated, and our data show the conversion of CO2 into PHB with a 33.3% microbial cell content (percentage of the ratio of PHB concentration to cell concentration) after 217 h. Collectively, our results provide a resourceful platform for future optimization and commercialization of a Bio-GTL for PHB production.

  3. Fuzzy logic for plant-wide control of biological wastewater treatment process including greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santín, I; Barbu, M; Pedret, C; Vilanova, R

    2018-06-01

    The application of control strategies is increasingly used in wastewater treatment plants with the aim of improving effluent quality and reducing operating costs. Due to concerns about the progressive growth of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), these are also currently being evaluated in wastewater treatment plants. The present article proposes a fuzzy controller for plant-wide control of the biological wastewater treatment process. Its design is based on 14 inputs and 6 outputs in order to reduce GHG emissions, nutrient concentration in the effluent and operational costs. The article explains and shows the effect of each one of the inputs and outputs of the fuzzy controller, as well as the relationship between them. Benchmark Simulation Model no 2 Gas is used for testing the proposed control strategy. The results of simulation results show that the fuzzy controller is able to reduce GHG emissions while improving, at the same time, the common criteria of effluent quality and operational costs. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Feasibility of a two-stage biological aerated filter for depth processing of electroplating-wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Yan, Dongdong; Wang, Qi; Li, Song; Yang, Shaogui; Wu, Wenfei

    2009-09-01

    A "two-stage biological aerated filter" (T-SBAF) consisting of two columns in series was developed to treat electroplating-wastewater. Due to the low BOD/CODcr values of electroplating-wastewater, "twice start-up" was employed to reduce the time for adaptation of microorganisms, a process that takes up of 20 days. Under steady-state conditions, the removal of CODcr and NH(4)(+)-N increased first and then decreased while the hydraulic loadings increased from 0.75 to 1.5 m(3) m(-2) h(-1). The air/water ratio had the same influence on the removal of CODcr and NH(4)(+)-N when increasing from 3:1 to 6:1. When the hydraulic loadings and air/water ratio were 1.20 m(3) m(-2) h(-1) and 4:1, the optimal removal of CODcr, NH(4)(+)-N and total-nitrogen (T-N) were 90.13%, 92.51% and 55.46%, respectively. The effluent steadily reached the wastewater reuse standard. Compared to the traditional BAF, the period before backwashing of the T-SBAF could be extended to 10days, and the recovery time was considerably shortened.

  5. The microbial community in a high-temperature enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Hui Ong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR process operated at a relatively high temperature, 28 °C, removed 85% carbon and 99% phosphorus from wastewater over a period of two years. This study investigated its microbial community through fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and clone library generation. Through FISH, considerably more Candidatus “Accumulibacter phosphatis” (Accumulibacter-polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs than Candidatus ‘Competibacter phosphatis’ (Competibacter-glycogen accumulating organisms were detected in the reactor, at 36 and 7% of total bacterial population, respectively. A low ratio of Glycogen/Volatile Fatty Acid of 0.69 further indicated the dominance of PAOs in the reactor. From clone library generated, 26 operational taxonomy units were retrieved from the sludge and a diverse population was shown, comprising Proteobacteria (69.6%, Actinobacteria (13.7%, Bacteroidetes (9.8%, Firmicutes (2.94%, Planctomycetes (1.96%, and Acidobacteria (1.47%. Accumulibacter are the only recognized PAOs revealed by the clone library. Both the clone library and FISH results strongly suggest that Accumulibacter are the major PAOs responsible for the phosphorus removal in this long-term EBPR at relatively high temperature.

  6. Generating quantitative models describing the sequence specificity of biological processes with the stabilized matrix method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sette Alessandro

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many processes in molecular biology involve the recognition of short sequences of nucleic-or amino acids, such as the binding of immunogenic peptides to major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecules. From experimental data, a model of the sequence specificity of these processes can be constructed, such as a sequence motif, a scoring matrix or an artificial neural network. The purpose of these models is two-fold. First, they can provide a summary of experimental results, allowing for a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in sequence recognition. Second, such models can be used to predict the experimental outcome for yet untested sequences. In the past we reported the development of a method to generate such models called the Stabilized Matrix Method (SMM. This method has been successfully applied to predicting peptide binding to MHC molecules, peptide transport by the transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP and proteasomal cleavage of protein sequences. Results Herein we report the implementation of the SMM algorithm as a publicly available software package. Specific features determining the type of problems the method is most appropriate for are discussed. Advantageous features of the package are: (1 the output generated is easy to interpret, (2 input and output are both quantitative, (3 specific computational strategies to handle experimental noise are built in, (4 the algorithm is designed to effectively handle bounded experimental data, (5 experimental data from randomized peptide libraries and conventional peptides can easily be combined, and (6 it is possible to incorporate pair interactions between positions of a sequence. Conclusion Making the SMM method publicly available enables bioinformaticians and experimental biologists to easily access it, to compare its performance to other prediction methods, and to extend it to other applications.

  7. Summary of the 1st specialist meeting on simulators and plant analyzers held in Lappeenranta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miettinen, J.

    1999-01-01

    The first CSNI specialist meeting on simulators and plant analyzers was an attempt to find a new perspective to simulation of the nuclear power plant processes at a time when analytical calculation and operator training were quite much diversified. The speed of computers was limited for real time physical simulation but quite impressive computer graphics and simulator development tools had been developed. Systematic methodologies for simulator validation were under development. The human reliability was under study. This paper first describes the content and conclusions of the meeting. After that the visions presented in the meeting are compared to the development during past years. (author)

  8. 1st International Conference on Machine Learning for Cyber Physical Systems and Industry 4.0

    CERN Document Server

    Beyerer, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The work presents new approaches to Machine Learning for Cyber Physical Systems, experiences and visions. It contains some selected papers from the international Conference ML4CPS – Machine Learning for Cyber Physical Systems, which was held in Lemgo, October 1-2, 2015. Cyber Physical Systems are characterized by their ability to adapt and to learn: They analyze their environment and, based on observations, they learn patterns, correlations and predictive models. Typical applications are condition monitoring, predictive maintenance, image processing and diagnosis. Machine Learning is the key technology for these developments.

  9. A comparative analysis of in vitro toxicity of diesel exhaust particles from combustion of 1st- and 2nd-generation biodiesel fuels in relation to their physicochemical properties-the FuelHealth project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankoff, Anna; Brzoska, Kamil; Czarnocka, Joanna; Kowalska, Magdalena; Lisowska, Halina; Mruk, Remigiusz; Øvrevik, Johan; Wegierek-Ciuk, Aneta; Zuberek, Mariusz; Kruszewski, Marcin

    2017-08-01

    Biodiesels represent more carbon-neutral fuels and are introduced at an increasing extent to reduce emission of greenhouse gases. However, the potential impact of different types and blend concentrations of biodiesel on the toxicity of diesel engine emissions are still relatively scarce and to some extent contradictory. The objective of the present work was to compare the toxicity of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) from combustion of two 1st-generation fuels: 7% fatty acid methyl esters (FAME; B7) and 20% FAME (B20) and a 2nd-generation 20% FAME/HVO (synthetic hydrocarbon biofuel (SHB)) fuel. Our findings indicate that particulate emissions of each type of biodiesel fuel induce cytotoxic effects in BEAS-2B and A549 cells, manifested as cell death (apoptosis or necrosis), decreased protein concentrations, intracellular ROS production, as well as increased expression of antioxidant genes and genes coding for DNA damage-response proteins. The different biodiesel blend percentages and biodiesel feedstocks led to marked differences in chemical composition of the emitted DEP. The different DEPs also displayed statistically significant differences in cytotoxicity in A549 and BEAS-2B cells, but the magnitude of these variations was limited. Overall, it seems that increasing biodiesel blend concentrations from the current 7 to 20% FAME, or substituting 1st-generation FAME biodiesel with 2nd-generation HVO biodiesel (at least below 20% blends), affects the in vitro toxicity of the emitted DEP to some extent, but the biological significance of this may be moderate.

  10. Unity and disunity in evolutionary sciences: process-based analogies open common research avenues for biology and linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Johann-Mattis; Pathmanathan, Jananan Sylvestre; Lopez, Philippe; Bapteste, Eric

    2016-08-20

    For a long time biologists and linguists have been noticing surprising similarities between the evolution of life forms and languages. Most of the proposed analogies have been rejected. Some, however, have persisted, and some even turned out to be fruitful, inspiring the transfer of methods and models between biology and linguistics up to today. Most proposed analogies were based on a comparison of the research objects rather than the processes that shaped their evolution. Focusing on process-based analogies, however, has the advantage of minimizing the risk of overstating similarities, while at the same time reflecting the common strategy to use processes to explain the evolution of complexity in both fields. We compared important evolutionary processes in biology and linguistics and identified processes specific to only one of the two disciplines as well as processes which seem to be analogous, potentially reflecting core evolutionary processes. These new process-based analogies support novel methodological transfer, expanding the application range of biological methods to the field of historical linguistics. We illustrate this by showing (i) how methods dealing with incomplete lineage sorting offer an introgression-free framework to analyze highly mosaic word distributions across languages; (ii) how sequence similarity networks can be used to identify composite and borrowed words across different languages; (iii) how research on partial homology can inspire new methods and models in both fields; and (iv) how constructive neutral evolution provides an original framework for analyzing convergent evolution in languages resulting from common descent (Sapir's drift). Apart from new analogies between evolutionary processes, we also identified processes which are specific to either biology or linguistics. This shows that general evolution cannot be studied from within one discipline alone. In order to get a full picture of evolution, biologists and linguists need to

  11. A 1ST Step Integration of the Restructured MELCOR for the MIDAS Computer Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. H.; Kim, D. H.; Cho, S. W.

    2006-01-01

    KAERI is developing a localized severe accident code, MIDAS, based on MELCOR. MELCOR uses pointer variables for a fixed-size storage management to save the data. It passes data through two depths, its meaning is not understandable by variable itself. So it is needed to understand the methods for data passing. This method deteriorates the readability, maintainability and portability of the code. As a most important process for a localized severe accident analysis code, it is needed convenient method for data handling. So, it has been used the new features in FORTRAN90 such as a dynamic allocation for the restructuring. The restructuring of the data saving and transferring method of the existing code makes it easy to understand the code. Before an entire restructuring of the code, a restructuring for each package was developed and tested. And then integration of each restructured package was being processed one by one. In this paper, the integrating scope includes the BUR, CF, CVH, DCH, EDF, ESF, MP, SPR, TF and TP packages. As most of them use data within each package and a few packages share data with other packages. The verification was done through comparing the results before and after the restructuring

  12. Results of the independent verification of radiological remedial action at 464 South 1st East Street, Monticello, Utah (MS00071)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.J.; Crutcher, J.W.

    1991-07-01

    In 1980 the site of a vanadium and uranium mill at Monticello, Utah, was accepted into the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Surplus Facilities Management Program, with the objectives of restoring the government-owned mill site to safe levels of radioactivity, disposing of or containing the tailings in an environmentally safe manner, and performing remedial actions on off-site (vicinity) properties that had been contaminated by radioactive material resulting from mill operations. During 1986 and 1987, UNC Geotech, the remedial action contractor designated by DOE, performed remedial action on the vicinity property at 464 South 1st East Street, Monticello, Utah. The Pollutant Assessments Group (PAG) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory was assigned the responsibility of verifying the data supporting the adequacy of remedial action and confirming the site's compliance with DOE guidelines. The PAG found that the site successfully meets the DOE remedial action objectives. Procedures used by PAG are described. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  13. 1st International Experts’ Meeting on Agitation: Conclusions Regarding the Current and Ideal Management Paradigm of Agitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Martínez-Raga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Agitation is a heterogeneous concept without a uniformly accepted definition, however, it is generally considered as a state of cognitive and motor hyperactivity characterized by excessive or inappropriate motor or verbal activity with marked emotional arousal. Not only the definition but also other aspects of agitated patients’ care are still unsolved and need consensus and improvement. To help the discussion about agitation among experts and improve the identification, management, and treatment of agitation, the 1st International Experts’ Meeting on Agitation was held in October 2016 in Madrid. It was attended by 20 experts from Europe and Latin America with broad experience in the clinical management of agitated patients. The present document summarizes the key conclusions of this meeting and highlights the need for an updated protocol of agitation management and treatment, the promotion of education and training among healthcare professionals to improve the care of these patients and the necessity to generate clinical data of agitated episodes.

  14. Results of the independent verification of radiological remedial action at 273 East 1st South Street, Monticello, Utah (MS00092)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutcher, J.W.; Smuin, M.W.

    1989-12-01

    In 1980 the site of a vanadium and uranium mill at Monticello, Utah, was accepted into the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Surplus Facilities Management Program, with the objectives of restoring the government-owned mill site to safe levels of radioactivity, disposing of or containing the tailings in an environmentally safe manner, and performing remedial actions on off-site (vicinity) properties that had been contaminated by radioactive material resulting from mill operations. During 1984 and 1985, UNC Geotech, the remedial action contractor designated by DOE, performed remedial action on the vicinity property at 273 East 1st South Street, Monticello, Utah. The Pollutant Assessments Group (PAG) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory was assigned the responsibility of verifying the data supporting the adequacy of remedial action and confirming the site's compliance with DOE guidelines. The PAG found that the site successfully meets the DOE remedial action objectives. Procedures used by PAG are described. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Intemational collaborative study on the preparation of 1st international standard for rhTSH for bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Ying; Shen Hongzheng; Yu Ting; Xu Ligen

    2007-01-01

    The history of the international collaborative studies on the preparation of standards of TSH for bioassay and immunoassay was reviewed. The result of collaborative study on the 1st international standard for thyroid-stimulating hormone, recombinant, human, for bioassay was reported in detail in this article. Based on the results of this collaborative study, it is proposed that the candidate standard be established as the international standard for rhTSH for bioassay, and be assigned an activity of 9.5 IU per ampoule. The national standard preparation of TSH for immunoassay was also reassayed, revealing the potency to be 0.557 mIU/ampoule, i.e. 92. 8% of the labelled value of 0.600mIU/ampoule, a reasonable consistency. (authors)

  16. Report about the 1st De Frutos - Universidad Miguel Hernández Judo Scientific Congress with Training Camp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Pulido González

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current report resumes the 1st De Frutos-Universidad Miguel Hernández Judo Scientific Congress, held in San Juan de Alicante (Spain from the 27th to the 30th of June in 2013. Three plenary sessions in classroom, 12 oral communications, a round – table, 2 theoretical – practical workshops on tatami, and 3 randori sessions were developed. This congress was a new event where judo personalities at the international level as well as scientists from the whole Spanish geography interested in this field assisted. The event complied the aim to approach the science to judo professionals and vice versa. A total amount of 112 participants were in the congress.

  17. A compositional study of a museum jewellery collection (7th-1st BC) by means of a portable XRF spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karydas, A.G.; Kotzamani, D.; Bernard, R.; Barrandon, J.N.; Zarkadas, Ch.

    2004-01-01

    Within the framework of the project 'Jewelmed' (ICA3-1999-10020), the chemical composition of 34 gold and four silver jewels was examined. These jewels belong to the Benaki museum's collection in Athens, Greece and are dating from the 7th to the 1st century BC. The compositional analysis of the jewels was performed by means of a 'home-made' portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer. The XRF results have shown that the gold jewels can be categorized in two groups, which include artifacts made by native and by high purity gold, respectively. For the silver jewels the results have provided interesting information regarding the manufacturing technology, the authenticity of the jewels and the raw materials used. The potential and the limitations of the XRF technique, applied in the chemical analysis of archaeological metal artifacts, are also discussed

  18. 1st International Ocean Technology Congress on EEZ Resources : Technology Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Champ, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Today western nations consume annually only a small percentage of their resources from the sea, despite the proclamation of Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) by many. In contrast, most Pacific Basin Countries obtain more than a quarter of their annual needs from the ocean. Determination of greater rewards from the development of marine resources is markedly inhibited by the limited technical abilities available to locate and assess them. Knowledge of Exclusive Economic Zone resources is schematic and generalised, and a detailed understanding of the geology and processes relating to the economic use of the seafloor is both fragmentary and very basic. Technology for mapping the mineral resources of continental shelves and ocean areas, except in active offshore hydrocarbon provinces, has been largely developed in pursuit of scientific objectives and competence to rapidly appraise economic potential is limited. Similarly, the capability to characterise and evaluate the other resources of the seas is rudimentary. The...

  19. GUINEAN-SOVIET RELATIONS IN THE 1 ST REPUBLIC PERIOD (1958-1984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергей Сергеевич Размыслов

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the history of the Guinean-Soviet relations in the period of Ahmed Secou Toure’s presidency. Guinea and the USSR fought for Africa’s liberation from colonialism and imperialism, and the Guinean leader was an initiator of the integration processes in Africa. The author proves that the character of the bilateral relations was under strong influence of the Guinean leader’s controversial personality as well as the attempts to balance between the capitalist and socialist poles in the Cold War. As a result Guinea became estranged from the Soviet Union and restored the relationships with its former parent state, France, and other Western countries.

  20. The activity approach to the psychological support of the 1st year university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Rozhdestvenskaya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to approbating the method of negative emotion processing as the main component of the psychological support of the first-year students experiencing difficulties in adapting to university life. Many teachers associate the gradual development of intellectual activity and knowledge with teaching of school subjects. The work of P.Ya. Galperin’s disciples and followers (e.g. O.Karabanova, A.Liders, Yu.Frolov, N. Rozhdestvenskaya showed that the scientific method is universal and can be used to develop and improve various mental properties and activities. Using method «Perfection of Interpersonal Cognition Strategies» in psychological counseling based on P.Ya. Galperin’s theory promotes the development of adolescent reflexive mechanisms of understanding the personal characteristics of people, reducing the number of interpersonal conflicts with peers and adults, and also improving teachers’ understanding of the student personal characteristics. There are conditions under which the efficacy of mastering knowledge and cognitive skills are achieved. The educational experiment of studying the adaptation to university conditions in rural school graduates shows that mastering the cognitive processing of negative emotional experiences plays a leading role in the psychological adaptation of students. This method is an independent variable with respect to the three dependent ones, i.e. psychological adaptation in general, self-regulation of behaviour and communicative competence. The educational experiment carried out in accordance with the requirements of P.Ya. Galperin’s theory once again confirmed the high efficiency of P.Ya. Galperin’s methodology and showed that its potential capabilities are far from exhausted.

  1. Biological and geochemical processes involved during denitrification in Callovo-Oxfordian clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollivier, P.; Parmentier, M.; Joulian, C.; Pauwels, H.; Albrecht, A.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The clay-rich Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) formation has been selected for the disposal of medium and high level, long-lived radioactive waste. After waste cell closure and degradation of package some intermediate-level waste will release nitrate. The latter is likely to diffuse into the surrounding environment (engineered barriers and geological host formation) and interact with a variety compounds present in the barrier components and the rocks. These interactions may result in modification of chemical conditions and impact storage conditions and radionuclide retention. Our work is focused on the understanding of the fate of nitrates released during and after degradation of waste package. We developed a coupled approach considering both geochemical and biological processes of nitrate reduction to simulate reactions occurring at the interface of the engineered barrier and the clay-rich COx formation. Laboratory experiments have been carried out in order to acquire data on kinetics of denitrification coupled with a molecular approach using enzymatic and metabolic activities as a tool for an accurate estimation of biomass. Denitrification has been monitored in a synthetic solution comparable to COx pore water supplemented with acetate and nitrate and amended with a heterotrophic denitrifying strain, Pseudomonas mandelii. Several conditions are applied considering different acetate/nitrate ratios in the presence or absence of COx clay. Before the beginning of experiments, the headspace is flushed with N 2 gas to remove oxygen from flasks. Acetylene is used to stop denitrification reaction after the production of N 2 O gas and thus avoid the formation of N 2 gas. Two successive redox reactions are thus expected to occur in experiments. Samples are regularly collected to analyze physical and chemical parameters as well as biological parameters. Biomass is estimated and monitored using both optical microscopy and

  2. Gene-ontology enrichment analysis in two independent family-based samples highlights biologically plausible processes for autism spectrum disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anney, Richard J L

    2012-02-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated a range of genes from discrete biological pathways in the aetiology of autism. However, despite the strong influence of genetic factors, association studies have yet to identify statistically robust, replicated major effect genes or SNPs. We apply the principle of the SNP ratio test methodology described by O\\'Dushlaine et al to over 2100 families from the Autism Genome Project (AGP). Using a two-stage design we examine association enrichment in 5955 unique gene-ontology classifications across four groupings based on two phenotypic and two ancestral classifications. Based on estimates from simulation we identify excess of association enrichment across all analyses. We observe enrichment in association for sets of genes involved in diverse biological processes, including pyruvate metabolism, transcription factor activation, cell-signalling and cell-cycle regulation. Both genes and processes that show enrichment have previously been examined in autistic disorders and offer biologically plausibility to these findings.

  3. [Effectiveness of teaching gerontology and geriatrics in students of the 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mádlová, P; Neuwirth, J; Topinková, E

    2006-01-01

    Increasing number of seniors in the society requires more university-degree educated professionals--health care professionals, social care workers and managers with basic exposure to and knowledge of gerontology and geriatrics. The aim of our paper was to evaluate the effectiveness of undergraduate training of gerontology and geriatrics among students of the 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. To get information about knowledge of medical students and students of ergotherapy and physiotherapy and about their attitudes towards senior citizens we conducted a survey using two anonymous questionnaires prepared in our department and piloted earlier. The survey ran during the academic year 2004/2005. Students completed identical questionnaires twice, first time before the start of the clinical rotation and second time after the training end (n=134). Evaluation of knowledge and attitudes confirmed that one to two weeks clinical rotation at Department of Geriatrics was effective and increased knowledge of students in the topic trained. The percentage of correct answers in all three evaluated training programmes increased after the completion of the clinical rotation and reached 83% and more. From 134 participating students, 54.5 % appreciated life experience and wisdom of seniors they met, 98.4 % of students were satisfied with the training programme and 67.2 % of students reported that after training they changed their attitude towards senior population. Our survey confirmed that clinical training in geriatric medicine at 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, prepared in agreement with current European recommendations is sufficiently effective and well accepted by the students. Therefore we recommend introduction of formal geriatric training for students in all medical faculties in the Czech Republic.

  4. Introduction of an integrated interactive lecture in the early blocks of 1st year medical students: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anudeep Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In an integrated curriculum, topics are integrated at the system block level from semester 2 onward. However, in the basic biomedical block, opportunities to integrate also exist which is often overlooked. Aim: A study was conducted to determine the possibility and acceptability of a new pedagogical approach to aid integration of form and function along with the improvement of understanding. Materials and Design: The study was prospective and questionnaire-based, conducted in an upcoming medical college in Malaysia with 1st year medical students. Materials and Methods: An integrated lecture on the autonomic nervous system was planned for the 1st year medical students in their biomedical science block of the first semester by the lecturers from anatomy and physiology and interactive lecture for 1 h and 30 min was delivered. After the session, responses were taken on a structured questionnaire with 10 questions on the Likert scale and a test was conducted to check their understandability. SPSS version 19.1 was used to analyze the results and data were reported based on descriptive statistics and scores were compared by t-test. Results: About 84.2% of the students wanted more lectures of this kind whereas 15.8% disagreed. About 80% stated that proper integration increased their understandability, whereas 83% preferred this modality in comparison to didactic lectures. Conclusions: This pedagogical approach with careful planning can be extended to involve clinical departments thus reaching vertical integration. Including more such integrated interactive sessions will prove to be significant and an effective tool for teaching and learning.

  5. Atypical biological motion kinematics are represented by complementary lower-level and top-down processes during imitation learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Spencer J; Dutoy, Chris A; Elliott, Digby; Gowen, Emma; Bennett, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Learning a novel movement requires a new set of kinematics to be represented by the sensorimotor system. This is often accomplished through imitation learning where lower-level sensorimotor processes are suggested to represent the biological motion kinematics associated with an observed movement. Top-down factors have the potential to influence this process based on the social context, attention and salience, and the goal of the movement. In order to further examine the potential interaction between lower-level and top-down processes in imitation learning, the aim of this study was to systematically control the mediating effects during an imitation of biological motion protocol. In this protocol, we used non-human agent models that displayed different novel atypical biological motion kinematics, as well as a control model that displayed constant velocity. Importantly the three models had the same movement amplitude and movement time. Also, the motion kinematics were displayed in the presence, or absence, of end-state-targets. Kinematic analyses showed atypical biological motion kinematics were imitated, and that this performance was different from the constant velocity control condition. Although the imitation of atypical biological motion kinematics was not modulated by the end-state-targets, movement time was more accurate in the absence, compared to the presence, of an end-state-target. The fact that end-state targets modulated movement time accuracy, but not biological motion kinematics, indicates imitation learning involves top-down attentional, and lower-level sensorimotor systems, which operate as complementary processes mediated by the environmental context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A Case Study Documenting the Process by Which Biology Instructors Transition from Teacher-Centered to Learner-Centered Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbach-Ad, Gili; Hunt Rietschel, Carly

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we used a case study approach to obtain an in-depth understanding of the change process of two university instructors who were involved with redesigning a biology course. Given the hesitancy of many biology instructors to adopt evidence-based, learner-centered teaching methods, there is a critical need to understand how biology instructors transition from teacher-centered (i.e., lecture-based) instruction to teaching that focuses on the students. Using the innovation-decision model for change, we explored the motivation, decision-making, and reflective processes of the two instructors through two consecutive, large-enrollment biology course offerings. Our data reveal that the change process is somewhat unpredictable, requiring patience and persistence during inevitable challenges that arise for instructors and students. For example, the change process requires instructors to adopt a teacher-facilitator role as opposed to an expert role, to cover fewer course topics in greater depth, and to give students a degree of control over their own learning. Students must adjust to taking responsibility for their own learning, working collaboratively, and relinquishing the anonymity afforded by lecture-based teaching. We suggest implications for instructors wishing to change their teaching and administrators wishing to encourage adoption of learner-centered teaching at their institutions. © 2016 G. Marbach-Ad and C. H. Rietschel. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  7. Report of the 1st meeting of the "Vienna Initiative to Save European Academic Research (VISAER)".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druml, Christiane; Singer, Ernst A; Wolzt, Michael

    2006-04-01

    The European Directive 2001/20/EC ("Clinical Trials Directive") was aimed at simplifying and harmonising European clinical research. The directive's attempt represents an important step because many European Member States lack national laws that specifically address details of research, but the goal has been only partly achieved. For academic investigators doing national or multi-national research the new European law and the requirements following its implementation are likely to have the opposite effect. Some areas seem to be of particular concern: trial sponsorship, the ethical review process, the participation of patients who are temporarily not able to consent in clinical trials, in particular the informed consent process, an accepted European registry for all clinical trials, insurance and pharmacovigilance. Furthermore there are fundamental problems of the conduct of clinical trials that could have been foreseen at the time of implementation of the new law, which are impeding academic basic clinical research. The bureaucratic burden for academic investigators has tremendously increased without representing any contribution to patients' safety or to the scientific value of research. Furthermore some large European academic trials cannot be conducted anymore due to the new regulations. This result in a reduction in the number of trials and additionally in a reduction in the number of patients enrolled in a study. European research and thus European patients will suffer from the loss of potential benefits of research. The Vienna Initiative to Save European Academic Research (VISEAR) brings together leading stakeholders from academic research groups and interested parties from industry, international organisations and regulatory authorities to focus on the issues of concern regarding the organisational and funding of academic clinical research in order to improve the development and use of medicines in Europe. The first step of the initiative was a meeting held

  8. Enhanced biological processes associated with alopecia in polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Stott, Jeffrey L.; Waters, Shannon C.; Atwood, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    Populations of wildlife species worldwide experience incidents of mass morbidity and mortality. Primary or secondary drivers of these events may escape classical detection methods for identifying microbial insults, toxin exposure, or additional stressors. In 2012, 28% of polar bears sampled in a study in the southern Beaufort Sea region of Alaska had varying degrees of alopecia that was concomitant with reduced body condition. Concurrently, elevated numbers of sick or dead ringed seals were detected in the southern Beaufort, Chukchi, and Bering seas in 2012, resulting in the declaration of an unusual mortality event (UME) by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The primary and possible ancillary causative stressors of these events are unknown, and related physiological changes within individual animals have been undetectable using classical diagnostic methods. Here we present an emerging technology as a potentially guiding investigative approach aimed at elucidating the circumstances responsible for the susceptibility of certain polar bears to observed conditions. Using transcriptomic analysis we identified enhanced biological processes including immune response, viral defense, and response to stress in polar bears with alopecia. Our results support an alternative mechanism of investigation into the causative agents that, when used proactively, could serve as an early indicator for populations and species at risk. We suggest that current or classical methods for investigation into events of unusual morbidity and mortality can be costly, sometimes unfocused, and often inconclusive. Advances in technology allow for implementation of a holistic system of surveillance and investigation that could provide early warning of health concerns in wildlife species important to humans.

  9. Biological efficacy and toxic effect of emergency water disinfection process based on advanced oxidation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yiping; Yuan, Xiaoli; Xu, Shujing; Li, Rihong; Zhou, Xinying; Zhang, Zhitao

    2015-12-01

    An innovative and removable water treatment system consisted of strong electric field discharge and hydrodynamic cavitation based on advanced oxidation technologies was developed for reactive free radicals producing and waterborne pathogens eliminating in the present study. The biological efficacy and toxic effects of this advanced oxidation system were evaluated during water disinfection treatments. Bench tests were carried out with synthetic microbial-contaminated water, as well as source water in rainy season from a reservoir of Dalian city (Liaoning Province, China). Results showed that high inactivation efficiency of Escherichia coli (>5 log) could be obtained for synthetic contaminated water at a low concentration (0.5-0.7 mg L(-1)) of total oxidants in 3-10 s. The numbers of wild total bacteria (108 × 10(3) CFU mL(-1)) and total coliforms (260 × 10(2) MPN 100 mL(-1)) in source water greatly reduced to 50 and 0 CFU mL(-1) respectively after treated by the advanced oxidation system, which meet the microbiological standards of drinking water, and especially that the inactivation efficiency of total coliforms could reach 100%. Meanwhile, source water qualities were greatly improved during the disinfection processes. The values of UV254 in particular were significantly reduced (60-80%) by reactive free radicals. Moreover, the concentrations of possible disinfection by-products (formaldehyde and bromide) in treated water were lower than detection limits, indicating that there was no harmful effect on water after the treatments. These investigations are helpful for the ecotoxicological studies of advanced oxidation system in the treatments of chemical polluted water or waste water. The findings of this work suggest that the developed water treatment system is ideal in the acute phases of emergencies, which also could offer additional advantages over a wide range of applications in water pollution control.

  10. Oil refinery wastewater treatment using coupled electrocoagulation and fixed film biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Laura S.; Rodriguez, Oscar M.; Reyna, Silvia; Sánchez-Salas, José Luis; Lozada, J. Daniel; Quiroz, Marco A.; Bandala, Erick R.

    2016-02-01

    Oil refinery wastewater was treated using a coupled treatment process including electrocoagulation (EC) and a fixed film aerobic bioreactor. Different variables were tested to identify the best conditions using this procedure. After EC, the effluent was treated in an aerobic biofilter. EC was capable to remove over 88% of the overall chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the wastewater under the best working conditions (6.5 V, 0.1 M NaCl, 4 electrodes without initial pH adjustment) with total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal slightly higher than 80%. Aluminum release from the electrodes to the wastewater was found an important factor for the EC efficiency and closely related with several operational factors. Application of EC allowed to increase the biodegradability of the sample from 0.015, rated as non-biodegradable, up to 0.5 widely considered as biodegradable. The effluent was further treated using an aerobic biofilter inoculated with a bacterial consortium including gram positive and gram negative strains and tested for COD and TPH removal from the EC treated effluent during 30 days. Cell count showed the typical bacteria growth starting at day three and increasing up to a maximum after eight days. After day eight, cell growth showed a plateau which agreed with the highest decrease on contaminant concentration. Final TPHs concentration was found about 600 mgL-1 after 30 days whereas COD concentration after biological treatment was as low as 933 mgL-1. The coupled EC-aerobic biofilter was capable to remove up to 98% of the total TPH amount and over 95% of the COD load in the oil refinery wastewater.

  11. Enhanced biological processes associated with alopecia in polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A Keith; Stott, Jeffrey; Waters, Shannon; Atwood, Todd

    2015-10-01

    Populations of wildlife species worldwide experience incidents of mass morbidity and mortality. Primary or secondary drivers of these events may escape classical detection methods for identifying microbial insults, toxin exposure, or additional stressors. In 2012, 28% of polar bears sampled in a study in the southern Beaufort Sea region of Alaska had varying degrees of alopecia that was concomitant with reduced body condition. Concurrently, elevated numbers of sick or dead ringed seals were detected in the southern Beaufort, Chukchi, and Bering seas in 2012, resulting in the declaration of an unusual mortality event (UME) by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The primary and possible ancillary causative stressors of these events are unknown, and related physiological changes within individual animals have been undetectable using classical diagnostic methods. Here we present an emerging technology as a potentially guiding investigative approach aimed at elucidating the circumstances responsible for the susceptibility of certain polar bears to observed conditions. Using transcriptomic analysis we identified enhanced biological processes including immune response, viral defense, and response to stress in polar bears with alopecia. Our results support an alternative mechanism of investigation into the causative agents that, when used proactively, could serve as an early indicator for populations and species at risk. We suggest that current or classical methods for investigation into events of unusual morbidity and mortality can be costly, sometimes unfocused, and often inconclusive. Advances in technology allow for implementation of a holistic system of surveillance and investigation that could provide early warning of health concerns in wildlife species important to humans. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Biological Carbon Dioxide Assimilation Process Using Marine Phytoplankton Tetraselmis suecica and Bivalve Perna viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirichai Dharmvanij

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Biological CO2 assimilation process using marine phytoplankton and marine bivalve was evaluated by carbon assimilation of the green mussel Perna viridis fed with Tetraselmis suecica under laboratory condition. Incorporation of carbon dioxide into phytoplankton biomass was performed through aeration. The experiment consisted of three treatments i.e. mussels without feeding (Control, mussels fed with T. suecica cultured with air (Treatment 1: T-Air, and mussels fed with T. suecica cultured with 1.5% CO2 in air (Treatment 2: T-CO2. The results showed that growth of mussels in T-Air and T-CO2 was 22.4 ± 4.0 mg/individual/day and 28.9 ± 12.3 mg/individual/day, respectively, which was significantly higher than control (mussels without feeding. Growth of mussels in T-Air was significantly lower than in T-CO2. Carbon content in shell (15.59 ± 0.57 % D.W. and meat (38.28 ± 1.72 % D.W. of mussels fed with aerated T. suecica (T-Air was significantly higher than that found in mussels fed with 1.5% CO2 T. suecica (14.2 ± 0.47 and 36.61± 0.43 % D.W. in shell and in meat, respectively (p≤0.05. With T-Air, 1.95±0.27 and 9.36±1.24% of carbon from T. suecica cells was assimilated into shell and meat of the mussel, respectively, while in T-CO2 , carbon assimilation from T. suecica cells in shell and meat was 2.19±0.55 and 11.22±2.76% respectively.

  13. 1st International Nuclear Science and Technology Conference 2014 (INST2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Nuclear technology has played an important role in many aspects of our lives, including agriculture, energy, materials, medicine, environment, forensics, healthcare, and frontier research. The International Nuclear Science and Technology Conference (INST) aims to bring together scientists, engineers, academics, and students to share knowledge and experiences about all aspects of nuclear sciences. INST has evolved from a series of national conferences in Thailand called Nuclear Science and Technology (NST) Conference, which has been held for 11 times, the first being in 1986. INST2014 was held in August 2014 and hosted by Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT). The theme was "Driving the future with nuclear technology". The conference working language was English. The proceedings were peer reviewed and considered for publication. The topics covered in the conference were: • Agricultural and food applications [AGR] • Environmental applications [ENV] • Radiation processing and industrial applications [IND] • Medical and nutritional applications [MED] • Nuclear physics and engineering [PHY] • Nuclear and radiation safety [SAF] • Other related topics [OTH] • Device and instrument presentation [DEV] Awards for outstanding oral and poster presentations will be given to qualified students who present their work during the conference.

  14. Renal transplant assessment with color and pulsed ultrasonography. 1st part: surgical complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Hervas, C.; Gil de Miguel, A.

    1994-01-01

    Color duplex Doppler ultrasound (US) is a highly important technique in kidney transplantation (Tx). We have performed 304 serial explorations in 140 transplant recipients assessing the morphological aspect of the graft, possible dilatation of the urinary tract and collections. Subsequently, we used color and pulsed Doppler to study the renal vascular permeability and the parenchymal resistance, calculating the indices of resistance (RI) and systolic acceleration and the frequencies. We have compared these findings with those observed in a control group of 45 patients with normally functioning grafts and we have also compared them according to the different pathologies, with those of other diagnostic imaging techniques to identify the present role of each in the assessment of kidney transplantation. Plain US plays an important role in the detection of dilations and peri renal collections, and Doppler makes it possible to differentiate, in some cases, obstructive from non obstructive dilatation. The US features of collections are nonspecific. In pulsed Doppler US, the lymphocytes present slightly elevated RI, higher than those produced in secondary dilation, in abscess-related processes and in sub capsular collections with parenchymal compromise. Color duplex Doppler is of greatest use in the diagnosis of vascular complications of Tx, especially thrombosis, stenosis and A-V fistulas. (Author)

  15. From bench to clinic and back: Perspective on the 1st IQPC Translational Research conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hörig Heidi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Translational Research (TR provides a set of tools and communication context for scientists and clinicians to optimize the drug discovery and development process. In the proceedings of a Princeton conference on this timely topic, the strengths and needs of this developing field were debated. Outcomes and key points from these discussions are summarized in this article which covers the topics of defining what we mean by translational research (both theoretically and in operational terms, ways in which to engender the TR mindset and embed it in organizations such as the pharmaceutical industry in order to optimize the impact of available technologies (including imaging methods, the scientific basis and under-pinnings of TR including genomics knowledge, information sharing, as well as examples of application to drug discovery and development. Importantly, it should be noted that collaborations and communications between the stakeholders in this field, namely academia, industry and regulatory authorities, must be strengthened in order for the promise of TR to be delivered as better therapies to patients.

  16. A Case Study Documenting the Process by Which Biology Instructors Transition from Teacher-Centered to Learner-Centered Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbach-Ad, Gili; Hunt Rietschel, Carly

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we used a case study approach to obtain an in-depth understanding of the change process of two university instructors who were involved with redesigning a biology course. Given the hesitancy of many biology instructors to adopt evidence-based, learner-centered teaching methods, there is a critical need to understand how biology instructors transition from teacher-centered (i.e., lecture-based) instruction to teaching that focuses on the students. Using the innovation-decision model for change, we explored the motivation, decision-making, and reflective processes of the two instructors through two consecutive, large-enrollment biology course offerings. Our data reveal that the change process is somewhat unpredictable, requiring patience and persistence during inevitable challenges that arise for instructors and students. For example, the change process requires instructors to adopt a teacher-facilitator role as opposed to an expert role, to cover fewer course topics in greater depth, and to give students a degree of control over their own learning. Students must adjust to taking responsibility for their own learning, working collaboratively, and relinquishing the anonymity afforded by lecture-based teaching. We suggest implications for instructors wishing to change their teaching and administrators wishing to encourage adoption of learner-centered teaching at their institutions. PMID:27856550

  17. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic bight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paffenhoefer, G.A.; Yoder, J.A.

    1980-01-31

    Progress is reported on research conducted during 1979 on the biological oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight. The presentation consists of a number of published articles and abstracts of oral presentations. (ACR)

  18. Stability-based sorting: The forgotten process behind (not only) biological evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toman, Jan; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2017-12-21

    Natural selection is considered to be the main process that drives biological evolution. It requires selected entities to originate dependent upon one another by the means of reproduction or copying, and for the progeny to inherit the qualities of their ancestors. However, natural selection is a manifestation of a more general persistence principle, whose temporal consequences we propose to name "stability-based sorting" (SBS). Sorting based on static stability, i.e., SBS in its strict sense and usual conception, favours characters that increase the persistence of their holders and act on all material and immaterial entities. Sorted entities could originate independently from each other, are not required to propagate and need not exhibit heredity. Natural selection is a specific form of SBS-sorting based on dynamic stability. It requires some form of heredity and is based on competition for the largest difference between the speed of generating its own copies and their expiration. SBS in its strict sense and selection thus have markedly different evolutionary consequences that are stressed in this paper. In contrast to selection, which is opportunistic, SBS is able to accumulate even momentarily detrimental characters that are advantageous for the long-term persistence of sorted entities. However, it lacks the amplification effect based on the preferential propagation of holders of advantageous characters. Thus, it works slower than selection and normally is unable to create complex adaptations. From a long-term perspective, SBS is a decisive force in evolution-especially macroevolution. SBS offers a new explanation for numerous evolutionary phenomena, including broad distribution and persistence of sexuality, altruistic behaviour, horizontal gene transfer, patterns of evolutionary stasis, planetary homeostasis, increasing ecosystem resistance to disturbances, and the universal decline of disparity in the evolution of metazoan lineages. SBS acts on all levels in

  19. Biological, psychological and social processes that explain celebrities' influence on patients' health-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J; Tan, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Celebrities can have substantial influence as medical advisors. However, their impact on public health is equivocal: depending on the advice's validity and applicability, celebrity engagements can benefit or hinder efforts to educate patients on evidence-based practices and improve their health literacy. This meta-narrative analysis synthesizes multiple disciplinary insights explaining the influence celebrities have on people's health-related behaviors. Systematic searches of electronic databases BusinessSource Complete, Communication & Mass Media Complete, Humanities Abstracts, ProQuest Political Science, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Sociology Abstracts were conducted. Retrieved articles were used to inform a conceptual analysis of the possible processes accounting for the substantial influence celebrities may have as medical advisors. Fourteen mechanisms of celebrity influence were identified. According to the economics literature, celebrities distinguish endorsed items from competitors and can catalyze herd behavior. Marketing studies tell us that celebrities' characteristics are transferred to endorsed products, and that the most successful celebrity advisors are those viewed as credible, a perception they can create with their success. Neuroscience research supports these explanations, finding that celebrity endorsements activate brain regions involved in making positive associations, building trust and encoding memories. The psychology literature tells us that celebrity advice conditions people to react positively toward it. People are also inclined to follow celebrities if the advice matches their self-conceptions or if not following it would generate cognitive dissonance. Sociology explains how celebrities' advice spreads through social networks, how their influence is a manifestation of people's desire to acquire celebrities' social capital, and how they affect the ways people acquire and interpret health information. There are clear and deeply rooted biological

  20. The teach-learning process of high school students: a case of Educational Biology for teachers formation

    OpenAIRE

    Marisa Laporta Chudo; Maria Cecília Sonzogno

    2007-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the teach-learning process of high school students, in the scope of Educational Biology. To plan and to develop a methodology with lesson strategies that facilitate the learning. To analyze, in the students vision, the positive and negative points in the process. Method. A research was developed -- of which had participated students of the first semester of the Pedagogy of a high school private institution in São Paulo city -- of the type action-research, with increased ...

  1. Mathematical computer simulation of the process of ultrasound interaction with biological medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovleva, T.; Nassiri, D.; Ciantar, D.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to study theoretically the interaction of ultrasound irradiation with biological medium and the peculiarities of ultrasound scattering by inhomogeneities of biological tissue, which can be represented by fractal structures. This investigation has been used for the construction of the computer model of three-dimensional ultrasonic imaging system what gives the possibility to define more accurately the pathological changes in such a tissue by means of its image analysis. Poster 180. (author)

  2. Biological and Psychosocial Processes in the Development of Children’s Appetitive Traits: Insights from Developmental Theory and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine G. Russell

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing concern expressed about children’s food intakes and dietary patterns. These are closely linked to children’s appetitive traits (such as disinhibited eating and food fussiness/neophobia. Research has examined both biological and psychosocial correlates or predictors of these traits. There has been less focus on possible processes or mechanisms associated with children’s development of these traits and research that links biological and psychosocial factors. There is an absence of research that links biological and psychosocial factors. In the present article, we outline a model intended to facilitate theory and research on the development of appetitive traits. It is based on scholarship from developmental theory and research and incorporates biological factors such as genetic predispositions and temperament as well as psychosocial factors in terms of parent cognitions, feeding styles and feeding practices. Particular attention is directed to aspects such as emotional eating and feeding, self-regulation of energy intake, and non-shared family environments. We highlight the opportunity for longitudinal research that examines bidirectional, transactional and cascade processes and uses a developmental framework. The model provides a basis for connecting the biological foundations of appetitive traits to system-level analysis in the family. Knowledge generated through the application of the model should lead to more effective prevention and intervention initiatives.

  3. Multidisciplinary Approaches to Radiation Balanced Lasers (MARBLe): 1st Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hehlen, Markus Peter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL) and New Mexico Consortium (NMC), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-12

    The initial main modifications of the existing μPD crystal-growth system at LANL have been completed. This now gives us the new capability to develop the growth of crystalline RBL materials by both the μPD and the Bridgman method. Quantitative mass spectrometry of the growth atmosphere was conducted to identify possible sources of gaseous trace species (primarily hydrogen) that could cause the undesired reduction of Yb3+ to Yb2+ during the crystal growth. Hydrogen was found to be at sufficiently low levels to not be a respective concern. Studies on the thermal decomposition of YbF3 to form Yb2+ are currently underway in collaboration with MARBLe team member Prof. Pauzauskie. First samples of Yb3+-doped YLiF4 (YLF:Yb) and undoped LiLuF4 (LLF) were grown, and MARBLe team member Prof. Sheik-Bahae has performed measurements of laser-induced heating (YLF:Yb) and background absorption coefficient (LLF). We discovered that one or several of the YF3, LiF, and YbF3 precursors contains organic impurities that chemically reduce to black residue during the high-temperature growth in oxygen-free argon atmosphere. A process for removal of these residues prior to growth is being considered. Comparing the results from incongruently melting YLF with those of congruently melting LLF indicate that a congruently melting material is preferred for Bridgman growth. Crystal-growth experiments with LLF are currently underway. The results of these studies on Yb3+ doped materials will be directly applicable to the future growth of Er3+ and Tm3+ doped as well as Yb3+, Nd3+ co-doped RBL crystals. There was no activity on the parallel effort of developing rareearth- doped chalcogenide glasses. The primary reason was a lack of manpower due to a delayed hiring of a student. In September 2017, we have hired a Postdoctoral Researcher who will be

  4. Towards the prediction of essential genes by integration of network topology, cellular localization and biological process information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemke Ney

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of essential genes is important for the understanding of the minimal requirements for cellular life and for practical purposes, such as drug design. However, the experimental techniques for essential genes discovery are labor-intensive and time-consuming. Considering these experimental constraints, a computational approach capable of accurately predicting essential genes would be of great value. We therefore present here a machine learning-based computational approach relying on network topological features, cellular localization and biological process information for prediction of essential genes. Results We constructed a decision tree-based meta-classifier and trained it on datasets with individual and grouped attributes-network topological features, cellular compartments and biological processes-to generate various predictors of essential genes. We showed that the predictors with better performances are those generated by datasets with integrated attributes. Using the predictor with all attributes, i.e., network topological features, cellular compartments and biological processes, we obtained the best predictor of essential genes that was then used to classify yeast genes with unknown essentiality status. Finally, we generated decision trees by training the J48 algorithm on datasets with all network topological features, cellular localization and biological process information to discover cellular rules for essentiality. We found that the number of protein physical interactions, the nuclear localization of proteins and the number of regulating transcription factors are the most important factors determining gene essentiality. Conclusion We were able to demonstrate that network topological features, cellular localization and biological process information are reliable predictors of essential genes. Moreover, by constructing decision trees based on these data, we could discover cellular rules governing

  5. Social and moral norm differences among Portuguese 1st and 6th year medical students towards their intention to comply with hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Magda S; Mearns, Kathryn; Silva, Silvia A

    2012-01-01

    This study examines social and moral norms towards the intention to comply with hand hygiene among Portuguese medical students from 1st and 6th years (N = 175; 121 from the 1st year, 54 from the 6th year). The study extended the theory of planned behaviour theoretical principles and hypothesised that both subjective and moral norms will be the best predictors of 1st and 6th year medical students' intention to comply with hand hygiene; however, these predictors ability to explain intention variance will change according to medical students' school year. Results indicated that the subjective norm, whose referent focuses on professors, is a relevant predictor of 1st year medical students' intention, while the subjective norm that emphasises the relevance of colleagues predicts the intentions of medical students from the 6th year. In terms of the moral norm, 6th year students' intention is better predicted by a norm that interferes with compliance; whereas intentions from 1st year students are better predicted by a norm that favours compliance. Implications of the findings highlight the importance of role models and mentors as key factors in teaching hand hygiene in medical undergraduate curricula.

  6. ADAPT: building conceptual models of the physical and biological processes across permafrost landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, M.; Vincent, W. F.; Lemay, M.

    2012-12-01

    Fundamental and applied permafrost research is called upon in Canada in support of environmental protection, economic development and for contributing to the international efforts in understanding climatic and ecological feedbacks of permafrost thawing under a warming climate. The five year "Arctic Development and Adaptation to Permafrost in Transition" program (ADAPT) funded by NSERC brings together 14 scientists from 10 Canadian universities and involves numerous collaborators from academia, territorial and provincial governments, Inuit communities and industry. The geographical coverage of the program encompasses all of the permafrost regions of Canada. Field research at a series of sites across the country is being coordinated. A common protocol for measuring ground thermal and moisture regime, characterizing terrain conditions (vegetation, topography, surface water regime and soil organic matter contents) is being applied in order to provide inputs for designing a general model to provide an understanding of transfers of energy and matter in permafrost terrain, and the implications for biological and human systems. The ADAPT mission is to produce an 'Integrated Permafrost Systems Science' framework that will be used to help generate sustainable development and adaptation strategies for the North in the context of rapid socio-economic and climate change. ADAPT has three major objectives: to examine how changing precipitation and warming temperatures affect permafrost geosystems and ecosystems, specifically by testing hypotheses concerning the influence of the snowpack, the effects of water as a conveyor of heat, sediments, and carbon in warming permafrost terrain and the processes of permafrost decay; to interact directly with Inuit communities, the public sector and the private sector for development and adaptation to changes in permafrost environments; and to train the new generation of experts and scientists in this critical domain of research in Canada

  7. Biological sludge solubilisation for reduction of excess sludge production in wastewater treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, T; Yao, Y; Kihara, Y

    2006-01-01

    A novel sludge disintegration system (JFE-SD system) was developed for the reduction of excess sludge production in wastewater treatment plants. Chemical and biological treatments were applied to disintegrate excess sludge. At the first step, to enhance biological disintegration, the sludge was pretreated with alkali. At the second step, the sludge was disintegrated by biological treatment. Many kinds of sludge degrading microorganisms integrated the sludge. The efficiency of the new sludge disintegration system was confirmed in a full-scale experiment. The JFE-SD system reduced excess sludge production by approximately 50% during the experimental period. The quality of effluent was kept at quite a good level. Economic analysis revealed that this system could significantly decrease the excess sludge treatment cost.

  8. Deep Neural Networks: A New Framework for Modeling Biological Vision and Brain Information Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2015-11-24

    Recent advances in neural network modeling have enabled major strides in computer vision and other artificial intelligence applications. Human-level visual recognition abilities are coming within reach of artificial systems. Artificial neural networks are inspired by the brain, and their computations could be implemented in biological neurons. Convolutional feedforward networks, which now dominate computer vision, take further inspiration from the architecture of the primate visual hierarchy. However, the current models are designed with engineering goals, not to model brain computations. Nevertheless, initial studies comparing internal representations between these models and primate brains find surprisingly similar representational spaces. With human-level performance no longer out of reach, we are entering an exciting new era, in which we will be able to build biologically faithful feedforward and recurrent computational models of how biological brains perform high-level feats of intelligence, including vision.

  9. Biological methylation of inorganic mercury by Saccharomyces cerevisiae - a possible environmental process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisinger, K.; Stoeppler, M.; Nuernberg, H.W.

    1983-01-01

    The biological methylation of inorganic mercury by S-adenosylmethione (SAM) was investigated by incubation experiments with Saccharomyces cerevisae (''bakers' yeast''). The methyl donor (methionine) and the acceptor (Hg 2+ as HgCl 2 ) were also applied in their labelled form (double labelling). Methylmercury as a result of a possibly biological methyl group transfer could not be detected. As reaction product only small amounts (0.01per mille yield) of elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) were found, while the overwhelming amount of HgCl 2 had not reacted. (orig.) [de

  10. Full Monte Carlo-Based Biologic Treatment Plan Optimization System for Intensity Modulated Carbon Ion Therapy on Graphics Processing Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Nan; Shen, Chenyang; Tsai, Min-Yu; Pinto, Marco; Tian, Zhen; Dedes, Georgios; Pompos, Arnold; Jiang, Steve B; Parodi, Katia; Jia, Xun

    2018-01-01

    One of the major benefits of carbon ion therapy is enhanced biological effectiveness at the Bragg peak region. For intensity modulated carbon ion therapy (IMCT), it is desirable to use Monte Carlo (MC) methods to compute the properties of each pencil beam spot for treatment planning, because of their accuracy in modeling physics processes and estimating biological effects. We previously developed goCMC, a graphics processing unit (GPU)-oriented MC engine for carbon ion therapy. The purpose of the present study was to build a biological treatment plan optimization system using goCMC. The repair-misrepair-fixation model was implemented to compute the spatial distribution of linear-quadratic model parameters for each spot. A treatment plan optimization module was developed to minimize the difference between the prescribed and actual biological effect. We used a gradient-based algorithm to solve the optimization problem. The system was embedded in the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system under a client-server architecture to achieve a user-friendly planning environment. We tested the system with a 1-dimensional homogeneous water case and 3 3-dimensional patient cases. Our system generated treatment plans with biological spread-out Bragg peaks covering the targeted regions and sparing critical structures. Using 4 NVidia GTX 1080 GPUs, the total computation time, including spot simulation, optimization, and final dose calculation, was 0.6 hour for the prostate case (8282 spots), 0.2 hour for the pancreas case (3795 spots), and 0.3 hour for the brain case (6724 spots). The computation time was dominated by MC spot simulation. We built a biological treatment plan optimization system for IMCT that performs simulations using a fast MC engine, goCMC. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that full MC-based IMCT inverse planning has been achieved in a clinically viable time frame. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation on thiosulfate-involved organics and nitrogen removal by a sulfur cycle-based biological wastewater treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jin; Lu, Hui; Cui, Yanxiang; Wei, Li; Liu, Rulong; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2015-02-01

    Thiosulfate, as an intermediate of biological sulfate/sulfite reduction, can significantly improve nitrogen removal potential in a biological sulfur cycle-based process, namely the Sulfate reduction-Autotrophic denitrification-Nitrification Integrated (SANI(®)) process. However, the related thiosulfate bio-activities coupled with organics and nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment lacked detailed examinations and reports. In this study, S2O3(2-) transformation during biological SO4(2-)/SO3(2-) co-reduction coupled with organics removal as well as S2O3(2-) oxidation coupled with chemolithotrophic denitrification were extensively evaluated under different experimental conditions. Thiosulfate is produced from the co-reduction of sulfate and sulfite through biological pathway at an optimum pH of 7.5 for organics removal. And the produced S2O3(2-) may disproportionate to sulfide and sulfate during both biological S2O3(2-) reduction and oxidation most possibly carried out by Desulfovibrio-like species. Dosing the same amount of nitrate, pH was found to be the more direct factor influencing the denitritation activity than free nitrous acid (FNA) and the optimal pH for denitratation (7.0) and denitritation (8.0) activities were different. Spiking organics significantly improved both denitratation and denitritation activities while minimizing sulfide inhibition of NO3(-) reduction during thiosulfate-based denitrification. These findings in this study can improve the understanding of mechanisms of thiosulfate on organics and nitrogen removal in biological sulfur cycle-based wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Remediation of PCB-contaminated soils. Risk analysis of biological in situ processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rein, Arno

    2006-12-08

    Biological in situ measures can be efficient and cost effective options for the remediation of contaminated sites. However, the accepted application requires a detailed and reliable analysis of potential impacts. An important objective is to quantify the potential of contaminant degradation and metabolite formation. This thesis addresses a quantitative multimedia risk assessment. Methodologies and tools were developed for this objective and applied to evaluate in situ bioremediation of soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Soil bacteria in conjunction with plant roots were addressed (rhizoremediation) with a focus on the use of genetically modified microorganisms (GMOs). PCBs are known to be harmful compounds that are ubiquitously distributed in the environment. PCB contaminations in soil and groundwater were identified as important problems. 209 different congeners are sterically possible, but not all are of environmental significance. PCB congeners of concern were evaluated with respect to their potential toxicity, environmental occurrence and mobility. For this objective, congener specific data on the toxicity potential and the frequency in environmental matrices were collected. To quantify the mobility potential, multimedia modelling was performed applying deterministic and probabilistic procedures. 56 PCB congeners of concern were evaluated, and multimedia risk assessments of PCB-contaminated soils should concentrate on this group. Kinetics parameters were specified for degradation experiments with individual PCB congeners in solution and different bacterial strains. These laboratory assays were performed with wild-type Burkholderia sp. strain LB400 and the genetically modified Pseudomonas fluorescens strains F113pcb and F113L::1180. The F113 derivatives demonstrated a good survival ability in willow (Salix sp.) rhizosphere (mesocosm experiments). Therefore, and due to high depletion rates, rhizoremediation with F113L::1180 and willow

  13. Systematic Review of the Research on Motor Fitness of 1st-Year Students Attending Polish Institutions of Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Podstawski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study. To establish: 1 the amount of research on general motor fitness of 1st-year students, conducted at selected Polish institutions of higher education between 1953-2010; 2 the number and kind of motor tests applied in this kind of research as well as the frequency of these tests during the period under study. Material and methods: The material for this research was composed of the publications on motor fitness of the first-year students taking part in specific motor trials applied at Polish tertiary institutions between 1953 - 2010. A diagnostic poll method was used in the research. Results: Fifty-four original research cases conducted in the period under study were observed. Within this period the trials such as: “100m run”, “jump from the run-up”, “grenade throw” and “ shot put” were more popular during the earlier years, while the trials such us: “zig-zag run”, “standing long jump”, and “medicine ball throw” were characteristic of more recent studies. Some of the most popular motor trials were: “standing long jump” – 38 cases, “medicine ball throw” – 30 cases, “zig-zag run” – 28 cases, “shuttle runs” – 9 cases, "short distance runs” – 12 cases, “downward bend from standing position” – 10 cases, and "vertical jump” – 8 cases. Conclusions: 1. Little research concerning the level of physical fitness of first-year students attending Polish tertiary institutions was conducted in the years 1953-2010; 2. The amount of motor fitness research carried out during this period fails to provide constant systematic assessment of the state of the students’ physical condition, which is a result of too large dispersions in time and territory where the measurements were taken; 3. In the motor fitness tests conducted with 1st-year students the determining variable was mainly gender, and only few research cases were found in which general motor fitness was analyzed according to

  14. Invasive pneumococcal disease in healthy adults: increase of empyema associated with the clonal-type Sweden(1-ST306.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imma Grau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD occurs mainly in the elderly and patients with co-morbidities. Little is known about the clinical characteristics, serotypes and genotypes causing IPD in healthy adults. METHODS: We studied 745 culture-proven cases of IPD in adult patients aged 18-64 years (1996-2010. Patients were included in two groups: 1. adults with co-morbidities, and 2. healthy adults, who had no prior or coincident diagnosis of a chronic or immunosuppressive underlying disease. Microbiological studies included pneumococcal serotyping and genotyping. RESULTS: Of 745 IPD episodes, 525 (70% occurred in patients with co-morbidities and 220 (30% in healthy adults. The healthy adults with IPD were often smokers (56% or alcohol abusers (18%. As compared to patients with co-morbidities, the healthy adults had (P<0.05: younger age (43.5+/-13.1 vs. 48.7+/-11.3 years; higher proportions of women (45% vs. 24%, pneumonia with empyema (15% vs. 7% and infection with non-PCV7 serotypes including serotypes 1 (25% vs. 5%, 7F (13% vs. 4%, and 5 (7% vs. 2%; and lower mortality (5% vs. 20%. Empyema was more frequently caused by serotype 1. No death occurred among 79 patients with serotype 1 IPD. There was an emergence of virulent clonal-types Sweden(1-ST306 and Netherlands(7F-ST191. The vaccine serotype coverage with the PCV13 was higher in healthy adults than in patients with co-morbidities: 82% and 56%, respectively, P<0.001. CONCLUSION: In this clinical study, one-third of adults with IPD had no underlying chronic or immunosuppressive diseases (healthy adults. They were often smokers and alcohol abusers, and frequently presents with pneumonia and empyema caused by virulent clones of non-PCV7 serotypes such as the Sweden(1-ST306. Thus, implementing tobacco and alcohol abuse-cessation measures and a proper pneumococcal vaccination, such as PCV13 policy, in active smokers and alcohol abusers may diminish the burden of IPD in adults.

  15. Automated Processing of Imaging Data through Multi-tiered Classification of Biological Structures Illustrated Using Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Zhan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative imaging has become a vital technique in biological discovery and clinical diagnostics; a plethora of tools have recently been developed to enable new and accelerated forms of biological investigation. Increasingly, the capacity for high-throughput experimentation provided by new imaging modalities, contrast techniques, microscopy tools, microfluidics and computer controlled systems shifts the experimental bottleneck from the level of physical manipulation and raw data collection to automated recognition and data processing. Yet, despite their broad importance, image analysis solutions to address these needs have been narrowly tailored. Here, we present a generalizable formulation for autonomous identification of specific biological structures that is applicable for many problems. The process flow architecture we present here utilizes standard image processing techniques and the multi-tiered application of classification models such as support vector machines (SVM. These low-level functions are readily available in a large array of image processing software packages and programming languages. Our framework is thus both easy to implement at the modular level and provides specific high-level architecture to guide the solution of more complicated image-processing problems. We demonstrate the utility of the classification routine by developing two specific classifiers as a toolset for automation and cell identification in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. To serve a common need for automated high-resolution imaging and behavior applications in the C. elegans research community, we contribute a ready-to-use classifier for the identification of the head of the animal under bright field imaging. Furthermore, we extend our framework to address the pervasive problem of cell-specific identification under fluorescent imaging, which is critical for biological investigation in multicellular organisms or tissues. Using these examples as a

  16. Automated Processing of Imaging Data through Multi-tiered Classification of Biological Structures Illustrated Using Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Mei; Crane, Matthew M; Entchev, Eugeni V; Caballero, Antonio; Fernandes de Abreu, Diana Andrea; Ch'ng, QueeLim; Lu, Hang

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative imaging has become a vital technique in biological discovery and clinical diagnostics; a plethora of tools have recently been developed to enable new and accelerated forms of biological investigation. Increasingly, the capacity for high-throughput experimentation provided by new imaging modalities, contrast techniques, microscopy tools, microfluidics and computer controlled systems shifts the experimental bottleneck from the level of physical manipulation and raw data collection to automated recognition and data processing. Yet, despite their broad importance, image analysis solutions to address these needs have been narrowly tailored. Here, we present a generalizable formulation for autonomous identification of specific biological structures that is applicable for many problems. The process flow architecture we present here utilizes standard image processing techniques and the multi-tiered application of classification models such as support vector machines (SVM). These low-level functions are readily available in a large array of image processing software packages and programming languages. Our framework is thus both easy to implement at the modular level and provides specific high-level architecture to guide the solution of more complicated image-processing problems. We demonstrate the utility of the classification routine by developing two specific classifiers as a toolset for automation and cell identification in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. To serve a common need for automated high-resolution imaging and behavior applications in the C. elegans research community, we contribute a ready-to-use classifier for the identification of the head of the animal under bright field imaging. Furthermore, we extend our framework to address the pervasive problem of cell-specific identification under fluorescent imaging, which is critical for biological investigation in multicellular organisms or tissues. Using these examples as a guide, we envision

  17. Dyneins: structure, biology and disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    .... From bench to bedside, Dynein: Structure, Biology and Disease offers research on fundamental cellular processes to researchers and clinicians across developmental biology, cell biology, molecular biology, biophysics, biomedicine...

  18. Pseudorandom numbers: evolutionary models in image processing, biology, and nonlinear dynamic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroslavsky, Leonid P.

    1996-11-01

    We show that one can treat pseudo-random generators, evolutionary models of texture images, iterative local adaptive filters for image restoration and enhancement and growth models in biology and material sciences in a unified way as special cases of dynamic systems with a nonlinear feedback.

  19. Treatment of acid and sulphate-rich effluents in an integrated biological/chemical process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maree, JP

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available .4 g SO4/(l.d). The rate of biological sulphate removal was found to be directly related to the square root of sulphate, COD and VSS concentrations respectively, and inversely proportional to sulphide concentration. The practical value of simultaneous...

  20. A Parallel Distributed Processing Approach to Behavior and Biology in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    delusions) and the other that reflects dopamine underactivity (negative symptoms - e.g., avolition, amotivation and withdrawal). Several authors have... amotivation . While both may be related to frontal lobe Behavior and Biology in Schizophrenia Cohen and Servan-Schreiber 32 deficits, the models in their

  1. Neuropsychiatric Model of Biological and Psychological Processes in the Remission of Delusions and Auditory Hallucinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gaag, M.

    2006-01-01

    This selective review combines cognitive models and biological models of psychosis into a tentative integrated neuropsychiatric model. The aim of the model is to understand better, how pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavior therapy come forward as partners in the treatment of psychosis and play

  2. StochPy: A Comprehensive, User-Friendly Tool for Simulating Stochastic Biological Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.R. Maarleveld (Timo); B.G. Olivier (Brett); F.J. Bruggeman (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractSingle-cell and single-molecule measurements indicate the importance of stochastic phenomena in cell biology. Stochasticity creates spontaneous differences in the copy numbers of key macromolecules and the timing of reaction events between genetically-identical cells. Mathematical models

  3. Development of biological treatment known as SBR process for supporting radiation treatment of industrial wastewater using electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomsaton Abu Bakar; Siti Aishah Hashim; Zulkafli Ghazali; Khairul Zaman Dahlan; Ismail Yaziz

    2005-01-01

    Electron beam irradiation of wastewater is capable of degrading stable non-biodegradable compound. However it requires high dose and in turn increase the cost of operation. A combination of irradiation and biological treatment is expected to overcome this problem. In this study, the treatment system will use a biological process known as Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). The SBR will be developed in a series and each series consist of reaction tank and clarifier tank. Filling and reaction step will occur in reaction tank while settling, decanting and idling step will ensue in the clarifier tank. The process is designed as such to enable rapid and simultaneous analysis on treated sample in order to achieve reliable results. (Author)

  4. Stem Cell Gene Therapy for Fanconi Anemia: Report from the 1st International Fanconi Anemia Gene Therapy Working Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolar, Jakub; Adair, Jennifer E; Antoniou, Michael; Bartholomae, Cynthia C; Becker, Pamela S; Blazar, Bruce R; Bueren, Juan; Carroll, Thomas; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina; Clapp, D Wade; Dalgleish, Robert; Galy, Anne; Gaspar, H Bobby; Hanenberg, Helmut; Von Kalle, Christof; Kiem, Hans-Peter; Lindeman, Dirk; Naldini, Luigi; Navarro, Susana; Renella, Raffaele; Rio, Paula; Sevilla, Julián; Schmidt, Manfred; Verhoeyen, Els; Wagner, John E; Williams, David A; Thrasher, Adrian J

    2011-01-01

    Survival rates after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for Fanconi anemia (FA) have increased dramatically since 2000. However, the use of autologous stem cell gene therapy, whereby the patient's own blood stem cells are modified to express the wild-type gene product, could potentially avoid the early and late complications of allogeneic HCT. Over the last decades, gene therapy has experienced a high degree of optimism interrupted by periods of diminished expectation. Optimism stems from recent examples of successful gene correction in several congenital immunodeficiencies, whereas diminished expectations come from the realization that gene therapy will not be free of side effects. The goal of the 1st International Fanconi Anemia Gene Therapy Working Group Meeting was to determine the optimal strategy for moving stem cell gene therapy into clinical trials for individuals with FA. To this end, key investigators examined vector design, transduction method, criteria for large-scale clinical-grade vector manufacture, hematopoietic cell preparation, and eligibility criteria for FA patients most likely to benefit. The report summarizes the roadmap for the development of gene therapy for FA. PMID:21540837

  5. 1st Quarter Transportation Report FY 2015: Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Louis [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-02-20

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. This report summarizes the 1st quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. Tabular summaries are provided which include the following: Sources of and carriers for LLW and MLLW shipments to and from the NNSS; Number and external volume of LLW and MLLW shipments; Highway routes used by carriers; and Incident/accident data applicable to LLW and MLLW shipments. In this report shipments are accounted for upon arrival at the NNSS, while disposal volumes are accounted for upon waste burial. The disposal volumes presented in this report include minor volumes of non-radioactive classified waste/material that were approved for disposal (non-radioactive classified or nonradioactive classified hazardous). Volume reports showing cubic feet generated using the Low-Level Waste Information System may vary slightly due to rounding conventions for volumetric conversions from cubic meters to cubic feet.

  6. Palaeopathology of human remains of the 1st century BC–3rd century AD from Armenia (Beniamin, Shirakavan I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khudaverdyan Anahit Yu.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to document the pathology of the individuals from the archeological sites of Beniamin and Shirakavan I, Armenia, dated on the 1st century BC - 3rd century AD. The findings revealed that two groups differed in mean age at death of adults. At Beniamin it was 24 years, 40.8 years for males and 30.9 years for females, whereas at Shirakavanit it was 29.3 years, 29.6 years for males and 35.8 years for females. The greatest mortality appeared to have occurred when the children reached the age of one year (Beniamin. The population had high number of young-adult females with a cause of death associated with child-bearing. Very few females survived to old age. Traumatic conditions (63.64% and enamel hypoplasias (57.2% have a high frequency in the skeletal material from Shirakavan. The volume of selection of Shirakavan does not allow itself to so big discussion as it was possible with the Beniamin site. Fewer hypoplasias in Beniamin group indicate that food resources were more abundant and more easily exploited. The small frequency of a periodontal disorder indicates that dental hygiene was good during the Antiquity period. We here report a case of possible pituitary dwarfism and a case of decapitation.

  7. Child gender and weight status moderate the relation of maternal feeding practices to body esteem in 1st grade children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka H; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Harrist, Amanda W; Topham, Glade; Page, Melanie

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of body dissatisfaction development is critical for minimizing adverse effects of poor body esteem on eating behaviors, self-esteem, and overall health. Research has examined body esteem and its correlates largely in pre-adolescents and adolescents; however, important questions remain about factors influencing body esteem of younger children. The main purpose of this study was to test moderation by children's gender and weight status of the relation of maternal controlling feeding practices to 1st graders' body esteem. The Body Esteem Scale (BES) and anthropometric measurements were completed during one-on-one child interviews at school. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (restriction, monitoring, concern, self-assessed maternal weight). A total of 410 mother/child dyads (202 girls) participated. Percent of children classified as overweight (BMI-for-age ≥85th) was: girls - 29%; boys - 27%. Gender moderated the relation between restriction and body esteem (β = -.140, p = .05), with maternal restriction predicting body esteem in girls but not boys. The hypothesized three-way interaction among gender, child weight status, and monitoring was confirmed. Monitoring was significantly inversely related to body esteem only for overweight/obese girls (b = -1.630). The moderating influence of gender or gender and weight status on the link between maternal feeding practices and body esteem suggests the importance of body esteem interventions for girls as early as first grade. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An introduction to continuous-time stochastic processes theory, models, and applications to finance, biology, and medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Capasso, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    This textbook, now in its third edition, offers a rigorous and self-contained introduction to the theory of continuous-time stochastic processes, stochastic integrals, and stochastic differential equations. Expertly balancing theory and applications, the work features concrete examples of modeling real-world problems from biology, medicine, industrial applications, finance, and insurance using stochastic methods. No previous knowledge of stochastic processes is required. Key topics include: * Markov processes * Stochastic differential equations * Arbitrage-free markets and financial derivatives * Insurance risk * Population dynamics, and epidemics * Agent-based models New to the Third Edition: * Infinitely divisible distributions * Random measures * Levy processes * Fractional Brownian motion * Ergodic theory * Karhunen-Loeve expansion * Additional applications * Additional  exercises * Smoluchowski  approximation of  Langevin systems An Introduction to Continuous-Time Stochastic Processes, Third Editio...

  9. Enzyme and metabolic engineering for the production of novel biopolymers: crossover of biological and chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ken'ichiro; Taguchi, Seiichi

    2013-12-01

    The development of synthetic biology has transformed microbes into useful factories for producing valuable polymers and/or their precursors from renewable biomass. Recent progress at the interface of chemistry and biology has enabled the production of a variety of new biopolymers with properties that substantially differ from their petroleum-derived counterparts. This review touches on recent trials and achievements in the field of biopolymer synthesis, including chemo-enzymatically synthesized aliphatic polyesters, wholly biosynthesized lactate-based polyesters, polyhydroxyalkanoates and other unusual bacterially synthesized polyesters. The expanding diversities in structure and the material properties of biopolymers are key for exploring practical applications. The enzyme and metabolic engineering approaches toward this goal are discussed by shedding light on the successful case studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biological processes for advancing lignocellulosic waste biorefinery by advocating circular economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Rossana; Faraco, Vincenza

    2016-09-01

    The actualization of a circular economy through the use of lignocellulosic wastes as renewable resources can lead to reduce the dependence from fossil-based resources and contribute to a sustainable waste management. The integrated biorefineries, exploiting the overall lignocellulosic waste components to generate fuels, chemicals and energy, are the pillar of the circular economy. The biological treatment is receiving great attention for the biorefinery development since it is considered an eco-friendly alternative to the physico-chemical strategies to increase the biobased product recovery from wastes and improve saccharification and fermentation yields. This paper reviews the last advances in the biological treatments aimed at upgrading lignocellulosic wastes, implementing the biorefinery concept and advocating circular economy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Protein-polymer nano-machines. Towards synthetic control of biological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Cameron

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The exploitation of nature's machinery at length scales below the dimensions of a cell is an exciting challenge for biologists, chemists and physicists, while advances in our understanding of these biological motifs are now providing an opportunity to develop real single molecule devices for technological applications. Single molecule studies are already well advanced and biological molecular motors are being used to guide the design of nano-scale machines. However, controlling the specific functions of these devices in biological systems under changing conditions is difficult. In this review we describe the principles underlying the development of a molecular motor with numerous potential applications in nanotechnology and the use of specific synthetic polymers as prototypic molecular switches for control of the motor function. The molecular motor is a derivative of a TypeI Restriction-Modification (R-M enzyme and the synthetic polymer is drawn from the class of materials that exhibit a temperature-dependent phase transition. The potential exploitation of single molecules as functional devices has been heralded as the dawn of new era in biotechnology and medicine. It is not surprising, therefore, that the efforts of numerous multidisciplinary teams 12. have been focused in attempts to develop these systems. as machines capable of functioning at the low sub-micron and nanometre length-scales 3. However, one of the obstacles for the practical application of single molecule devices is the lack of functional control methods in biological media, under changing conditions. In this review we describe the conceptual basis for a molecular motor (a derivative of a TypeI Restriction-Modification enzyme with numerous potential applications in nanotechnology and the use of specific synthetic polymers as prototypic molecular switches for controlling the motor function 4.

  12. Biological processes for environmental control of effluent streams in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumate, S.E. II; Hancher, C.W.; Strandberg, G.W.; Scott, C.D.

    1978-01-01

    Nitrates and radioactive heavy metals need to be removed from aqueous effluent streams in the fuel cycle. Biological methods are being developed for reducing nitrate or nitrite to N 2 gas and for decreasing dissolved metal concentration to less than 1 g/m 3 . Fluidized-bed denitrification bioreactors are being tested. Removal of uranium from solution by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied

  13. Assessing the application of advanced oxidation processes, and their combination with biological treatment, to effluents from pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merayo, Noemí; Hermosilla, Daphne; Blanco, Laura; Cortijo, Luis; Blanco, Angeles

    2013-11-15

    The closure of water circuits within pulp and paper mills has resulted in a higher contamination load of the final mill effluent, which must consequently be further treated in many cases to meet the standards imposed by the legislation in force. Different treatment strategies based on advanced oxidation processes (ozonation and TiO2-photocatalysis), and their combination with biological treatment (MBR), are herein assessed for effluents of a recycled paper mill and a kraft pulp mill. Ozone treatment achieved the highest efficiency of all. The consumption of 2.4 g O3 L(-1) resulted in about a 60% COD reduction treating the effluent from the kraft pulp mill at an initial pH=7; although it only reached about a 35% COD removal for the effluent of the recycled paper mill. Otherwise, photocatalysis achieved about a 20-30% reduction of the COD for both type of effluents. In addition, the effluent from the recycled paper mill showed a higher biodegradability, so combinations of these AOPs with biological treatment were tested. As a result, photocatalysis did not report any significant COD reduction improvement whether being performed as pre- or post-treatment of the biological process; whereas the use of ozonation as post-biological treatment enhanced COD removal a further 10%, summing up a total 90% reduction of the COD for the combined treatment, as well as it also supposed an increase of the presence of volatile fatty acids, which might ultimately enable the resultant wastewater to be recirculated back to further biological treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Biological monitoring to determine worker dose in a butadiene processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtold, W.E.; Hayes, R.B. [National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Butadiene (BD) is a reactive gas used extensively in the rubber industry and is also found in combustion products. Although BD is genotoxic and acts as an animal carcinogen, the evidence for carcinogenicity in humans is limited. Extrapolation from animal studies on BD carcinogenicity to risk in humans has been controversial because of uncertainties regarding relative biologic exposure and related effects in humans vs. experimental animals. To reduce this uncertainty, a study was designed to characterize exposure to BD at a polymer production facility and to relate this exposure to mutational and cytogenetic effects. Biological monitoring was used to better assess the internal dose of BD received by the workers. Measurement of 1,2-dihydroxy-4-(N-acetylcysteinyl) butane (M1) in urine served as the biomarker in this study. M1 has been shown to correlate with area monitoring in previous studies. Most studies that relate exposure to a toxic chemical with its biological effects rely on exposure concentration as the dose metric; however, exposure concentration may or may not reflect the actual internal dose of the chemical.

  15. BIOLOGY STUDENTS’ TEACHER OPINIONS ABOUT THE INTEGRATION OF ICT INTO THE LEARNING AND TEACHING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Špernjak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Biology laboratory work can be performed in various ways, even using information and communication technologies (ICT. Whether a teacher incorporates it into laboratory work is related to different factors, but educators can influence students’ beliefs about the value of ICT through their pedagogical practice. In our study, student teachers of biology gave opinions on how successfully university professors use ICT in the classroom, where they acquired most knowledge about ICT and their attitude towards using of ICT in laboratory work. Student teachers were critical about the knowledge and usage of ICT of university professors in class. During their student teachers mostly failed to acquire knowledge about ICT and practice in incorporating it into daily routines. These results will be presented to our university professors, at which time we will suggest how they could use ICT more effectively in daily practice because, on the one hand, they are responsible for students teacher attitudes and for the level of student teacher knowledge, while, on the others, they precipitate indirectly in forming the pupils’ attitudes and determining the level of the pupils’ knowledge of ICT. The study was done on 85 student teachers of biology. Attitudes toward ICT are statistically significant by gender.

  16. Process Analytical Technology for Advanced Process Control in Biologics Manufacturing with the Aid of Macroscopic Kinetic Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornecki, Martin; Strube, Jochen

    2018-03-16

    Productivity improvements of mammalian cell culture in the production of recombinant proteins have been made by optimizing cell lines, media, and process operation. This led to enhanced titers and process robustness without increasing the cost of the upstream processing (USP); however, a downstream bottleneck remains. In terms of process control improvement, the process analytical technology (PAT) initiative, initiated by the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA), aims to measure, analyze, monitor, and ultimately control all important attributes of a bioprocess. Especially, spectroscopic methods such as Raman or near-infrared spectroscopy enable one to meet these analytical requirements, preferably in-situ. In combination with chemometric techniques like partial least square (PLS) or principal component analysis (PCA), it is possible to generate soft sensors, which estimate process variables based on process and measurement models for the enhanced control of bioprocesses. Macroscopic kinetic models can be used to simulate cell metabolism. These models are able to enhance the process understanding by predicting the dynamic of cells during cultivation. In this article, in-situ turbidity (transmission, 880 nm) and ex-situ Raman spectroscopy (785 nm) measurements are combined with an offline macroscopic Monod kinetic model in order to predict substrate concentrations. Experimental data of Chinese hamster ovary cultivations in bioreactors show a sufficiently linear correlation (R² ≥ 0.97) between turbidity and total cell concentration. PLS regression of Raman spectra generates a prediction model, which was validated via offline viable cell concentration measurement (RMSE ≤ 13.82, R² ≥ 0.92). Based on these measurements, the macroscopic Monod model can be used to determine different process attributes, e.g., glucose concentration. In consequence, it is possible to approximately calculate (R² ≥ 0.96) glucose concentration based on online cell

  17. Process Analytical Technology for Advanced Process Control in Biologics Manufacturing with the Aid of Macroscopic Kinetic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kornecki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Productivity improvements of mammalian cell culture in the production of recombinant proteins have been made by optimizing cell lines, media, and process operation. This led to enhanced titers and process robustness without increasing the cost of the upstream processing (USP; however, a downstream bottleneck remains. In terms of process control improvement, the process analytical technology (PAT initiative, initiated by the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA, aims to measure, analyze, monitor, and ultimately control all important attributes of a bioprocess. Especially, spectroscopic methods such as Raman or near-infrared spectroscopy enable one to meet these analytical requirements, preferably in-situ. In combination with chemometric techniques like partial least square (PLS or principal component analysis (PCA, it is possible to generate soft sensors, which estimate process variables based on process and measurement models for the enhanced control of bioprocesses. Macroscopic kinetic models can be used to simulate cell metabolism. These models are able to enhance the process understanding by predicting the dynamic of cells during cultivation. In this article, in-situ turbidity (transmission, 880 nm and ex-situ Raman spectroscopy (785 nm measurements are combined with an offline macroscopic Monod kinetic model in order to predict substrate concentrations. Experimental data of Chinese hamster ovary cultivations in bioreactors show a sufficiently linear correlation (R2 ≥ 0.97 between turbidity and total cell concentration. PLS regression of Raman spectra generates a prediction model, which was validated via offline viable cell concentration measurement (RMSE ≤ 13.82, R2 ≥ 0.92. Based on these measurements, the macroscopic Monod model can be used to determine different process attributes, e.g., glucose concentration. In consequence, it is possible to approximately calculate (R2 ≥ 0.96 glucose concentration based on online cell

  18. Control of a Biological Nitrogen Removal Process in an Intensified Single Reactor Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Gernaey, Krist

    2013-01-01

    The nitrogen removing granular sludge process is a novel and intensified process. However, its stable operation and control remains a challenging problem. In this contribution, a new process oriented approach is used to develop, evaluate and benchmark control strategies to ensure stable operation...

  19. Moving beyond the Lone Scientist: Helping 1st-Grade Students Appreciate the Social Context of Scientific Work Using Stories about Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkawy, Azza

    2009-01-01

    While several studies have documented young children's (K-2) stereotypic views of scientists and scientific work, few have examined students' views of the social nature of scientific work and the strategies effective in broadening these views. The purpose of this study is to examine how stories about scientists influence 1st-grade students' views…

  20. Occurrence of cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide in aqueous environment and their removal by biological and abiotic wastewater treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Česen, Marjeta; Kosjek, Tina; Laimou-Geraniou, Maria; Kompare, Boris; Širok, Brane; Lambropolou, Dimitra; Heath, Ester

    2015-09-15

    Cytostatic drug residues in the aqueous environment are of concern due to their possible adverse effects on non-target organisms. Here we report the occurrence and removal efficiency of cyclophosphamide (CP) and ifosfamide (IF) by biological and abiotic treatments including advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Cyclophosphamide was detected in hospital wastewaters (14-22,000 ng L(-1)), wastewater treatment plant influents (19-27 ng L(-1)) and effluent (17 ng L(-1)), whereas IF was detected only in hospital wastewaters (48-6800 ng L(-1)). The highest removal efficiency during biological treatment (attached growth biomass in a flow through bioreactor) was 59 ± 15% and 35 ± 9.3% for CP and IF, respectively. Also reported are the removal efficiencies of both compounds from wastewater using hydrodynamic cavitation (HC), ozonation (O3) and/or UV, either individually or in combination with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Hydrodynamic cavitation did not remove CP and IF to any significant degree. The highest removal efficiencies: 99 ± 0.71% for CP and 94 ± 2.4% for IF, were achieved using UV/O3/H2O2 at 5 g L(-1) for 120 min. When combined with biological treatment, removal efficiencies were >99% for both compounds. This is the first report of combined biological and AOP treatment of CP and IF from wastewater with a removal efficiency >99%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Quality transformation of dissolved organic carbon during water transit through lakes: contrasting controls by photochemical and biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Martin; Klaus, Marcus; Panneer Selvam, Balathandayuthabani; Ström, Lena; Laudon, Hjalmar; Jansson, Mats; Karlsson, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may be removed, transformed, or added during water transit through lakes, resulting in changes in DOC composition and pigmentation (color). However, the process-based understanding of these changes is incomplete, especially for headwater lakes. We hypothesized that because heterotrophic bacteria preferentially consume noncolored DOC, while photochemical processing removes colored fractions, the overall changes in DOC color upon water passage through a lake depend on the relative importance of these two processes, accordingly. To test this hypothesis we combined laboratory experiments with field studies in nine boreal lakes, assessing both the relative importance of different DOC decay processes (biological or photochemical) and the loss of color during water transit time (WTT) through the lakes. We found that influence from photo-decay dominated changes in DOC quality in the epilimnia of relatively clear headwater lakes, resulting in systematic and selective net losses of colored DOC. However, in highly pigmented brown-water lakes (absorbance at 420 nm > 7 m-1) biological processes dominated, and there was no systematic relationship between color loss and WTT. Moreover, in situ data and dark experiments supported our hypothesis on the selective microbial removal of nonpigmented DOC, mainly of low molecular weight, leading to persistent water color in these highly colored lakes. Our study shows that brown headwater lakes may not conform to the commonly reported pattern of the selective removal of colored constituents in freshwaters, as DOC can show a sustained degree of pigmentation upon transit through these lakes.

  2. Termo do 1º Consenso em Disfunção Temporomandibular e Dor Orofacial Statement of the 1st Consensus on Temporomandibular Disorders and Orofacial Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Vieira Carrara

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O Termo do 1º Consenso em Disfunção Temporomandibular e Dor Orofacial* foi criado com o propósito de substituir divergências por evidência científica dentro dessa especialidade da Odontologia. O documento oferece informações claras e fundamentadas para orientar o cirurgião-dentista e demais profissionais de saúde sobre os cuidados demandados pelo paciente, tanto no processo de diagnóstico diferencial quanto na fase de aplicação das terapias de controle da dor e disfunção. O Termo foi aprovado no mês de janeiro de 2010 em reunião realizada durante o Congresso Internacional de Odontologia do Estado de São Paulo e converge o pensamento dos profissionais mais conceituados do Brasil na especialidade Disfunção Temporomandibular e Dor Orofacial.This Statement of the 1st Consensus on Temporomandibular Disorders and Orofacial Pain was created with the purpose of substituting controversies for scientific evidence within this specialty field of dentistry. The document provides clear and well-grounded guidance to dentists and other health professionals about the care required by patients both in the process of differential diagnosis and during the stage when they undergo treatment to control pain and dysfunction. The Statement was approved in January 2010 at a meeting held during the International Dental Congress of São Paulo and draws together the views of Brazil's most respected professionals in the specialty of Temporomandibular Disorders and Orofacial Pain.

  3. Mental performance in 8-year-old children fed reduced protein content formula during the 1st year of life: safety analysis of a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano, J; Luque, V; Canals-Sans, J; Ferré, N; Koletzko, B; Grote, V; Weber, M; Gruszfeld, D; Szott, K; Verduci, E; Riva, E; Brasselle, G; Poncelet, P; Closa-Monasterolo, R

    2016-01-22

    In humans, maximum brain development occurs between the third trimester of gestation and 2 years of life. Nutrition during these critical windows of rapid brain development might be essential for later cognitive functioning and behaviour. In the last few years, trends on protein recommendations during infancy and childhood have tended to be lower than that in the past. It remains to be demonstrated that lower protein intakes among healthy infants, a part of being able to reduce obesity risk, is safe in terms of mental performance achievement. Secondary analyses of the EU CHOP, a clinical trial in which infants from five European countries were randomised to be fed a higher or a lower protein content formula during the 1st year of life. Children were assessed at the age of 8 years with a neuropsychological battery of tests that included assessments of memory (visual and verbal), attention (visual, selective, focused and sustained), visual-perceptual integration, processing speed, visual-motor coordination, verbal fluency and comprehension, impulsivity/inhibition, flexibility/shifting, working memory, reasoning, visual-spatial skills and decision making. Internalising, externalising and total behaviour problems were assessed using the Child Behaviour Checklist 4-18. Adjusted analyses considering factors that could influence neurodevelopment, such as parental education level, maternal smoking, child's gestational age at birth and head circumference, showed no differences between feeding groups in any of the assessed neuropsychological domains and behaviour. In summary, herewith we report on the safety of lower protein content in infant formulae (closer to the content of human milk) according to long-term mental performance.

  4. La expansión del Reino dacio bajo Burebista, siglo I a.C. = The Expansion of the Dacian Kingdom under Burebista, 1st c. BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Soria Molina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante la primera mitad del siglo I a.C., los geto-dacios se convirtieron en la mayor superpotencia de Europa Oriental bajo el liderazgo de uno de sus más famosos reyes: Burebista. Tras fundar el Estado dacio a través de la unificación de las diversas tribus geto-dácicas, Burebista lideró a su pueblo hasta construir un auténtico «imperio» que se extendía desde el curso medio del Danubio hasta las costas occidentales del Mar Negro, y desde la actual Eslovaquia hasta los límites de Tracia y Dalmacia. A través de las principales fuentes literarias, epigráficas y arqueológicas analizaremos el proceso expansionista llevado a cabo por Burebista, sus premisas y causas, la secuencia de los acontecimientos y sus consecuencias.During the first half of the 1st century BC the geto-dacians became the greatest superpower of Eastern Europe under the leadership of one of their most famous kings: Burebista. After founding the Dacian Estate through the unification of the diverse geto-dacian tribes, Burebista led his people to build an authentic ‘empire’ that stretched from the middle Danube course to the western Black Sea coast, and from nowadays Slovakia to the limits of Tracia and Dalmatia. Through the main literary, epigraphical and archaeological sources we are going to analyse the expansionist process accomplished by Burebista, its premises, causes, sequence of events and consequences.

  5. Processing of natural and recombinant CXCR3-targeting chemokines and implications for biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensbergen, P J; van der Raaij-Helmer, E M; Dijkman, R; van der Schors, R C; Werner-Felmayer, G; Boorsma, D M; Scheper, R J; Willemze, R; Tensen, C P

    2001-09-01

    Chemokines comprise a class of peptides with chemotactic activity towards leukocytes. The potency of different chemokines for the same receptor often varies as a result of differences in primary structure. In addition, post-translational modifications have been shown to affect the effectiveness of chemokines. Although in several studies, natural CXCR3-targeting chemokines have been isolated, detailed information about the proteins and their possible modifications is lacking. Using a combination of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry we studied the protein profile of CXCR3-targeting chemokines expressed by interferon-gamma-stimulated human keratinocytes. The biological implications of one of the identified modifications was studied in more detail using calcium mobilization and chemotaxis assays. We found that the primary structure of human CXCL10 is different from the generally accepted sequence. In addition we identified a C-terminally truncated CXCL10, lacking the last four amino acids. Native CXCL11 was primarily found in its intact mature form but we also found a mass corresponding to an N-terminally truncated human CXCL11, lacking the first two amino acids FP, indicating that this chemokine is a substrate for dipeptidylpeptidase IV. Interestingly, this same truncation was found when we expressed human CXCL11 in Drosophila S2 cells. The biological activity of this truncated form of CXCL11 was greatly reduced, both in calcium mobilization (using CXCR3 expressing CHO cells) as well as its chemotactic activity for CXCR3-expressing T-cells. It is concluded that detailed information on chemokines at the protein level is important to characterize the exact profile of these chemotactic peptides as modifications can severely alter their biological activity.

  6. Collection and processing of information in biological kinetics studies with radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remy, J.; Lafuma, J.

    1968-01-01

    The authors present an automatic method for the collection and treatment of information in biological kinetics experiments using radioactive tracers. The recording are made without any time constant on magnetic tape. The information recorded is sampled by a 400 channel multi-scale analyzer and transferred to punched cards. The digital analysis is done by an I.B.M. computer. The method is illustrated by an example: the hepatic fixation of colloidal gold in the pig. Its advantages and requirements are discussed. In the appendix are given the FORTRAN texts for two programmes used in treating the example presented. (authors) [fr

  7. Composting of biological waste. Processes and utilisation; Bioabfallkompostierung. Verfahren und Verwertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronauer, A.; Claassen, N.; Ebertseder, T.; Fischer, P.; Gutser, R.; Helm, M.; Popp, L.; Schoen, H.

    1997-12-31

    The project investigated environmentally compatible concepts for procesing and utilisation of biological waste by means of composting and spreading on agricultural and gardening plots. The project comprised three parts: Composting techniques, applications of compost in agriculture and gardening, and applications in landscaping. This volume comprises all three reports. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die umweltschonende Aufbereitung und Verwertung von Bioabfall durch Kompostierung und Rueckfuehrung auf landwirtschaftliche und gaertnerische Flaechen wurde untersucht. Dieses Projekt war dreigeteilt in die Bereiche der Kompostierung selbst, der Anwendung des Komposts in der Landwirtschaft und seiner Anwendung im Gartenbau sowie im Garten- und Landschaftsbau (GaLa-Bau). Die vorliegende Schrift enthaelt die genannten drei Teilberichte. (orig./SR)

  8. A Population Biology Perspective on the Stepwise Infection Process of the Bacterial Pathogen Pasteuria ramosa in Daphnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Dieter; Duneau, David; Hall, Matthew D; Luijckx, Pepijn; Andras, Jason P; Du Pasquier, Louis; Ben-Ami, Frida

    2016-01-01

    The infection process of many diseases can be divided into series of steps, each one required to successfully complete the parasite's life and transmission cycle. This approach often reveals that the complex phenomenon of infection is composed of a series of more simple mechanisms. Here we demonstrate that a population biology approach, which takes into consideration the natural genetic and environmental variation at each step, can greatly aid our understanding of the evolutionary processes shaping disease traits. We focus in this review on the biology of the bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa and its aquatic crustacean host Daphnia, a model system for the evolutionary ecology of infectious disease. Our analysis reveals tremendous differences in the degree to which the environment, host genetics, parasite genetics and their interactions contribute to the expression of disease traits at each of seven different steps. This allows us to predict which steps may respond most readily to selection and which steps are evolutionarily constrained by an absence of variation. We show that the ability of Pasteuria to attach to the host's cuticle (attachment step) stands out as being strongly influenced by the interaction of host and parasite genotypes, but not by environmental factors, making it the prime candidate for coevolutionary interactions. Furthermore, the stepwise approach helps us understanding the evolution of resistance, virulence and host ranges. The population biological approach introduced here is a versatile tool that can be easily transferred to other systems of infectious disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Interactions between physical, chemical and biological processes in aquatic systems - impacts on receiving waters with different contents of treated wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreuzinger, N.

    2000-08-01

    Two scenarios have be chosen within this PhD Thesis to describe the integrative key-significance of interactions between most relevant physical, chemical and biological processes in aquatic systems. These two case studies are used to illustrate and describe the importance of a detailed synthesis of biological, physical and chemical interactions in aquatic systems in order to provide relevant protection of water resources and to perform a sound water management. Methods are described to allow a detailed assessment of particular aspects within the complexity of the overall integration and therefore serve as a basis to determine the eventual necessity of proposed water management measures. Regarding the anthropogenic influence of treated wastewater on aquatic systems, one case study focuses on the interactions between emitted waters from a wastewater treatment plant and the resulting immission situation of its receiving water (The receiving water is quantitatively influenced by the treated wastewater by 95 %). This thesis proves that the effluent of wastewater treatment plants operated by best available technology meets the quality standards of running waters for the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus, carbon-parameters, oxygen-regime and ecotoxicology. Within the second case study the focus is put on interactions between immissions and water usage. The general importance of biological phosphorus precipitation on the trophic situation of aquatic systems is described. Nevertheless, this generally known but within the field of applied limnology so far unrespected process of immobilization of phosphorus could be shown to represent a significant and major impact on phytoplannctotic development and eutrification. (author)

  10. New approaches for improving the production of the 1st and 2nd generation ethanol by yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurylenko, Olena; Semkiv, Marta; Ruchala, Justyna; Hryniv, Orest; Kshanovska, Barbara; Abbas, Charles; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn; Sibirny, Andriy

    2016-01-01

    Increase in the production of 1st generation ethanol from glucose is possible by the reduction in the production of ethanol co-products, especially biomass. We have developed a method to reduce biomass accumulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the manipulation of the intracellular ATP level due to overexpression of genes of alkaline phosphatase, apyrase or enzymes involved in futile cycles. The strains constructed accumulated up to 10% more ethanol on a cornmeal hydrolysate medium. Similar increase in ethanol accumulation was observed in the mutants resistant to the toxic inhibitors of glycolysis like 3-bromopyruvate and others. Substantial increase in fuel ethanol production will be obtained by the development of new strains of yeasts that ferment sugars of the abundant lignocellulosic feedstocks, especially xylose, a pentose sugar. We have found that xylose can be fermented under elevated temperatures by the thermotolerant yeast, Hansenula polymorpha. We combined protein engineering of the gene coding for xylose reductase (XYL1) along with overexpression of the other two genes responsible for xylose metabolism in yeast (XYL2, XYL3) and the deletion of the global transcriptional activator CAT8, with the selection of mutants defective in utilizing ethanol as a carbon source using the anticancer drug, 3-bromopyruvate. Resulted strains accumulated 20-25 times more ethanol from xylose at the elevated temperature of 45°C with up to 12.5 g L(-1) produced. Increase in ethanol yield and productivity from xylose was also achieved by overexpression of genes coding for the peroxisomal enzymes: transketolase (DAS1) and transaldolase (TAL2), and deletion of the ATG13 gene.

  11. A learning skills course for the 1st year medical students: an experience at a Saudi medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqui IA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Imran A Siddiqui,1 Khalid A Bin Abdulrahman,2 Mohammed A Alsultan3 1Department of Medical Education and Postgraduate Studies, Saudi Commission for Health Specialties, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2College of Medicine, Al-Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Every year nearly 1,500 students enter into medical program after passing high school and national aptitude exams. However, many students experience frustration, failure, and psychological morbidities like stress, depression, and anxiety because they are not aware of their learning styles or do not have effective learning skills and strategies. The College of Medicine of Al-Imam Muhammad ibn Saud Islamic University has adopted the outcome based, community oriented, Spiral Curriculum. Although the curriculum is innovative, on the other hand, it is very demanding. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to share educational structure and evaluation results of the course on effective learning and study skills for the 1st year medical students. Methods: To prepare our students in order to cope with this demanding but promising curriculum, we conducted an effective and comprehensive learning skills course for 16 weeks in the first semester of year 1 in the medical program. Performance of each student was assessed and the course evaluation was done by students at the end of the course. Results: The attendance of the students throughout the course was over 90%. The average performance of students in the summative assessment was 78% and the course was generally liked by the students. Discussion: Students overall had a positive attitude toward the learning skills course. Majority of the students showed interest in attending the sessions regularly and realized the significance of this course to improve their learning skills. Keywords: medical students, learning

  12. Biological reduction of nitrates in wastewaters from nuclear processing using a fluidized-bed bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitt, W.W.; Hancher, C.W.; Patton, B.D.

    1981-01-01

    There are a number of nitrate-containing wastewater sources, as concentrated as 30 wt.% NO 3 - and as large as 2000 m 3 /day, in the nuclear fuel cycle. The biological reduction of nitrate in wastewater to gaseous nitrogen, accompanied by the oxidation of a nutrient carbon source to gaseous carbon dioxide, is an ecologically sound and cost-effective method of treating wastewaters containing nitrates. These nitrate-containing wastewater sources can be successfully biologically denitrified to meet discharge standards in the range of 10 to 20 gN(NO 3 - )/m 3 by the use of a fluidized-bed bioreactor. The denitrification bacteria are a mixed culture derived from garden soil; the major strain is Pseudomonas. In the fluidized-bed bioreactor the bacteria are allowed to attach to 0.25- to 0.50-mm-diam coal fluidization particles, which are then fluidized by the upward flow of influent wastewater. Maintaining the bacteria-to-coal weight ratio at approximately 1:10 results in a bioreactor bacteria loading of greater than 20,000 g/m 3 . This paper describes the results of a biodenitrification R and D program based on the use of fluidized bioreactors capable of operating at nitrate levels up to 7000 g/m 3 and achieving denitrification rates as high as 80 g N(NO 3 - ) per day per liter of empty bioreactor volume. 4 figures, 7 tables

  13. The value of mechanistic biophysical information for systems-level understanding of complex biological processes such as cytokinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Thomas D

    2014-12-02

    This review illustrates the value of quantitative information including concentrations, kinetic constants and equilibrium constants in modeling and simulating complex biological processes. Although much has been learned about some biological systems without these parameter values, they greatly strengthen mechanistic accounts of dynamical systems. The analysis of muscle contraction is a classic example of the value of combining an inventory of the molecules, atomic structures of the molecules, kinetic constants for the reactions, reconstitutions with purified proteins and theoretical modeling to account for the contraction of whole muscles. A similar strategy is now being used to understand the mechanism of cytokinesis using fission yeast as a favorable model system. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of Fenton Oxidation Process Coupled with Biological Treatment for the Removal of Reactive Black 5 from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Bahmani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation of azo dyes is difficult due to their complex structures and low BOD to COD ratios. In the present study, the efficiency of using Fenton’s reagent (H2O2 + Fe2+ as a pretreatment process to enhance microbial transformation of reactive black 5 (RB5 in an aqueous system was evaluated. The RB5 with an initial concentration of 250 mg/L was decolorized up to 90% in 60 h by using a bacterial consortium. Fenton’s reagent at a Fe2+ concentration of 0.5 mM and H2O2 concentration of 2.9 mM (molar ratio, 1:5.8 was most effective for decolorization at pH = 3.0. The extent of RB5 removal by the combined Fenton–biotreatment was about 2 times higher than that of biotreatment alone. The production of some aromatic amines intermediates implied partial mineralization of the RB5 in Fenton treatment alone; in addition, decreasing of GC-MS peaks suggested that dearomatization occurred in Fenton-biological process. Fenton pretreatment seems to be a cost–effective option for the biotreatment of azo dyes, due mainly to the lower doses of chemicals, lower sludge generation, and saving of time. Our results demonstrated positive effects of inoculating bacterial consortium which was capable of dye biodegradation with a Fenton’s pretreatment step as well as the benefits of low time required for the biological process. In addition, the potential of field performance of Fenton-biological process because of using bacterial consortium is an other positive effect of it.

  15. Improved elucidation of biological processes linked to diabetic nephropathy by single probe-based microarray data analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens D Cohen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a complex and chronic metabolic disease that evolves into a progressive fibrosing renal disorder. Effective transcriptomic profiling of slowly evolving disease processes such as DN can be problematic. The changes that occur are often subtle and can escape detection by conventional oligonucleotide DNA array analyses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined microdissected human renal tissue with or without DN using Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays (HG-U133A by standard Robust Multi-array Analysis (RMA. Subsequent gene ontology analysis by Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID showed limited detection of biological processes previously identified as central mechanisms in the development of DN (e.g. inflammation and angiogenesis. This apparent lack of sensitivity may be associated with the gene-oriented averaging of oligonucleotide probe signals, as this includes signals from cross-hybridizing probes and gene annotation that is based on out of date genomic data. We then examined the same CEL file data using a different methodology to determine how well it could correlate transcriptomic data with observed biology. ChipInspector (CI is based on single probe analysis and de novo gene annotation that bypasses probe set definitions. Both methods, RMA and CI, used at default settings yielded comparable numbers of differentially regulated genes. However, when verified by RT-PCR, the single probe based analysis demonstrated reduced background noise with enhanced sensitivity and fewer false positives. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using a single probe based analysis approach with de novo gene annotation allowed an improved representation of the biological processes linked to the development and progression of DN. The improved analysis was exemplified by the detection of Wnt signaling pathway activation in DN, a process not previously reported to be involved in this disease.

  16. How to use molecular biology tools for the study of the anaerobic digestion process?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabezas, Angela; Araujo, de Juliana Calabria; Callejas, Cecilia; Galès, Amandine; Hamelin, Jérôme; Marone, Antonella; Machado de Sousa, Diana; Trably, Eric; Etchebehere, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is used with success for the treatment of solid waste, urban and industrial effluents with a concomitant energy production. The process is robust and stable, but the complexity of the microbial community involved in the process is not yet fully comprehensive. Nowadays, the

  17. Processing Biological Gender and Number Information during Chinese Pronoun Resolution: ERP Evidence for Functional Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaodong; Jiang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2013-01-01

    There have been a number of behavioral and neural studies on the processing of syntactic gender and number agreement information, marked by different morpho-syntactic features during sentence comprehension. By using the event-related potential (ERP) technique, the present study investigated whether the processing of semantic gender information and…

  18. Optimization of free ammonia concentration for nitrite accumulation in shortcut biological nitrogen removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jinwook; Shim, Hojae; Park, Seong-Jun; Kim, Seung-Jin; Bae, Wookeun

    2006-03-01

    A shortcut biological nitrogen removal (SBNR) utilizes the concept of a direct conversion of ammonium to nitrite and then to nitrogen gas. A successful SBNR requires accumulation of nitrite in the system and inhibition of the activity of nitrite oxidizers. A high concentration of free ammonia (FA) inhibits nitrite oxidizers, but unfortunately decreases the ammonium removal rate as well. Therefore, the optimal range of FA concentration is necessary not only to stabilize nitrite accumulation but also to achieve maximum ammonium removal. In order to derive such optimal FA concentrations, the specific substrate utilization rates of ammonium and nitrite oxidizers were measured. The optimal FA concentration range appeared to be 5-10 mg/L for the adapted sludge. The simulated results from the modified inhibition model expressed by FA and ammonium/nitrite concentrations were shown very similar to the experimental results.

  19. Information support of the processes of organizational management of the earth’s biological resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovezgheldyiev А.О.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers the classification of information and a brief description of all major organizations, institutions and communities involved in the study or solving problems of global warming, the preservation of the environment and ecology of the Earth's biosphere. All the organizations, institutions and communities are organized by statuses: international, regional, national, and others. Their information description specifies the name in Ukrainian and English languages, internet addresses, the number of member states, the location of the headquarters, the purpose and main activities, as well as the condition and status of relations with Ukraine. It is proposed to create a unified information database of all these agencies on the status of biological resources of our planet Earth. We considered the principal Ukraine's problems in biodiversity conservation and environmental protection for now.

  20. Dynamics of Intracellular Polymers in Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Processes under Different Organic Carbon Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhen Xing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR may deteriorate or fail during low organic carbon loading periods. Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs in EBPR were acclimated under both high and low organic carbon conditions, and then dynamics of polymers in typical cycles, anaerobic conditions with excess organic carbons, and endogenous respiration conditions were examined. After long-term acclimation, it was found that organic loading rates did not affect the yield of PAOs and the applied low organic carbon concentrations were advantageous for the enrichment of PAOs. A low influent organic carbon concentration induced a high production of extracellular carbohydrate. During both anaerobic and aerobic endogenous respirations, when glycogen decreased to around 80 ± 10 mg C per gram of volatile suspended solids, PAOs began to utilize polyphosphate significantly. Regressed by the first-order reaction model, glycogen possessed the highest degradation rate and then was followed by polyphosphate, while biomass decay had the lowest degradation rate.