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Sample records for biological physiological psychological

  1. Cassava biology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2004-11-01

    Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or in many processed forms and products, mostly starch, flour, and for animal feed. Because of its inherent tolerance to stressful environments, where other food crops would fail, it is often considered a food-security source against famine, requiring minimal care. Under optimal environmental conditions, it compares favorably in production of energy with most other major staple food crops due to its high yield potential. Recent research at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia has demonstrated the ability of cassava to assimilate carbon at very high rates under high levels of humidity, temperature and solar radiation,which correlates with productivity across all environments whether dry or humid. When grown on very poor soils under prolonged drought for more than 6 months, the crop reduce both its leaf canopy and transpiration water loss, but its attached leaves remain photosynthetically active, though at greatly reduced rates. The main physiological mechanism underlying such a remarkable tolerance to drought was rapid stomatal closure under both atmospheric and edaphic water stress, protecting the leaf against dehydration while the plant depletes available soil water slowly during long dry periods. This drought tolerance mechanism leads to high crop water use efficiency values. Although the cassava fine root system is sparse, compared to other crops, it can penetrate below 2 m soil,thus enabling the crop to exploit deep water if available. Leaves of cassava and wild Manihot possess elevated activities of the C4 enzyme PEP carboxylase but lack the leaf Kranz anatomy typical of C4

  2. Physiological and psychological assessment of sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihashi, R.; Ohira, Masayoshi; Kimura, Teiji; Fujiwara, Takayuki

    The psycho-physiological effects of several sound stimulations were investigated to evaluate the relationship between a psychological parameter, such as subjective perception, and a physiological parameter, such as the heart rate variability (HRV). Eight female students aged 21-22 years old were tested. Electrocardiogram (ECG) and the movement of the chest-wall for estimating respiratory rate were recorded during three different sound stimulations; (1) music provided by a synthesizer (condition A); (2) birds twitters (condition B); and (3) mechanical sounds (condition C). The percentage power of the low-frequency (LF; 0.05<=0.15 Hz) and high-frequency (HF; 0.15<=0.40 Hz) components in the HRV (LF%, HF%) were assessed by a frequency analysis of time-series data for 5 min obtained from R-R intervals in the ECG. Quantitative assessment of subjective perception was also described by a visual analog scale (VAS). The HF% and VAS value for comfort in C were significantly lower than in either A and/or B. The respiratory rate and VAS value for awakening in C were significantly higher than in A and/or B. There was a significant correlation between the HF% and the value of the VAS, and between the respiratory rate and the value of the VAS. These results indicate that mechanical sounds similar to C inhibit the para-sympathetic nervous system and promote a feeling that is unpleasant but alert, also suggesting that the HRV reflects subjective perception.

  3. Post-myelogram headache - physiological or psychological?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.; Maynard, N.; Briggs, M.; Anslow, P.; McPherson, K.; Northover, J.

    1991-01-01

    Psychological aspects of post-lumbar puncture headache have hitherto received little attention. A hundred consecutive patients admitted for elective myelography were studied. Post-myelogram headache was assessed by an independent observer and found to be strongly associated with normality of the test (P<0.001). Psychological testing showed a trend between Hospital Anxiety Depression score and normality of myelogram as well as development of headache, although this did not achieve statistical significance. This study suggestet that there is a large psychological as well as organic component to post-myelogram headache. (orig.)

  4. From physiological psychology to psychological physiology: Postnonclassical approach to ethnocultural phenomena.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmolov, A.G.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In modern science, along with the “classic” and “non-classical” approach to solving fundamental and applied problems, there is an actively developing “postnonclassical” research paradigm. This renovation of general scientific methodology has been accompanied by the emergence of new experimental technologies and new scientific research directions based on them. “Social psychophysiology” is one such direction. It is formed within the frame of postnonclassical methodology at the intersection of neuroscience and psychology. This work is devoted to the analytical review of the methods, achievements and prospects of contemporary social neuroscience and social psychophysiology studying brain structures that are specifically related to the implementation of social forms of behavior and intercultural communication. Physiological studies of brain activity during social interaction processes, which are simulated using virtual reality environments, are analyzed, and the physiological approach to the study of the brain mechanisms associated with social perception, social cognition and social behavior is used. Along with the analysis of psychophysiological studies of the mechanisms of social perception and social cognition, we discuss the theories of “Brain Reading” and “Theory of Mind” and the underlying data concerning “Gnostic neurons recognition of persons and recognition of emotional facial expressions”, “mirror neurons”, “emotional resonance” and “cognitive resonance”. Particular emphasis is placed on the discussion of a fundamentally new trend in the study of the relationship between the brain and culture (i.e., “cultural neuroscience”. Related to this connection, the following topics are raised: physiological mechanisms protecting the “individual distance” in communication between members of a personified community, psychophysiological approaches to the study of cross-cultural differences, physiological

  5. Psychological motivation and physiological consequences of smoking in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkhutdinova, E.T.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychological and physiological characteristics were assessed in thirteen students aged 19-23 who are smokers for more than a year. Psychological status was studied with the use of the Spilberger-Khanin inventory of reactive and personality anxiety; physiological status was assessed through the analysis of cardio-rhythm. Fagerstrom tobacco dependence and Horn smoking motivation questionnaires were used as well. Study participants demonstrated high levels of personal anxiety, while changes in physiological and psychological characteristics after smoking were insignificant. Most common motivation to smoke was associated with desire to relax and cope with anxiety. Author concludes that smoking inhibits physiological functions but does not influence emotional status significantly. (Full text is in Russian

  6. Psychological and Physiological Responses to Depressed Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-18

    psychological pain and anguish experienced by depressed persons and their families is underscored by the significant number of suicides related to...Statistical analyses were pertormed using the SPSS -X statistical package. These analyses included examination of the sex of target, affect of target, and sex

  7. Physiological and Psychological Aspects of Night and Shift Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtczak-Jaroszowa, Jadwiga

    Results of physiological and psychological studies related to night and shift work are reviewed from the standpoint of their possible use by industry in understanding the problems of shift work and finding solutions. (New research data that has appeared since original preparation of the manuscript is presented in a three-part addendum with…

  8. Psychological and physiological responses to odor-evoked autobiographic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko; Yamakawa, Kaori; Kawanishi, Yoko; Tsuboi, Hirohito; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Sadato, Norihiro; Oshida, Akiko; Katayama, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Mitsuyoshi; Ohira, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    The "Proust phenomenon" occurs when a certain smell evokes a specific memory. Recent studies have demonstrated that odor-evoked autobiographic memories are more emotional than those elicited by other sensory stimuli because of the direct neural communication between the olfactory system and the amygdala. The amygdala is known to regulate various physiological activities including the endocrine and immune systems; therefore, odor-evoked autobiographic memory may trigger various psychological and physiological responses; however, the responses elicited by this memory remains obscure. In this study, we aimed to investigate the psychological and physiological responses accompanying odor-evoked autobiographic memory. We recruited healthy male and female volunteers and investigated changes in their mood states and autonomic nervous, endocrine, and immune activities when autobiographic memory was evoked in the participants by asking them to smell an odor(s) that was nostalgic to them. The autobiographic memories associated with positive emotion resulted in increased positive mood states, such as comfort and happiness, and decreased negative mood states, such as anxiety. Furthermore, heart rate was decreased, skin-conductance level was increased, and peripheral interleukin-2 level was decreased after smelling the nostalgic odor. These psychological and physiological responses were significantly correlated. The present study suggests that odor-evoked autobiographic memory along with a positive feeling induce various physiological responses, including the autonomic nervous and immune activities. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to observe an interaction between odor-evoked autobiographic memories and immune function.

  9. Human Performance: Psychological and Physiological Sex Differences (A Selected Bibliography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    Sons, 1977. 6 15. Horn, J, L. Human abilities: A review of research and theory in the early 1970’s. Annual Review of Psychology. 1976, 27^, 437...Mother-Infant Interaction, Howard A. Moss. 149. Sex of Parent X Sex of Child: Socioemotional Development, Micheal Lewis and Marsha Weinraub. 165...C. Thomas, 1971. Contents: Biology of Sex Differences. 3. Psychological Sex Differences. 12. Freudian Theory of Feminine Development. 43. The

  10. Physiological and psychological effects of gardening activity in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ahmad; Qibing, Chen; Tao, Jiang

    2018-04-06

    Gardening has long been one of most enjoyable pastimes among older adults. Whether gardening activities contribute to the well-being of older adults is a major question. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the psychophysiological relaxing effects of gardening activities on older adults living in modern institutional care. The study participants were 40 older women aged 79.5 ± 8.09 years (mean ± SD). A cross-over study design was used to investigate the physiological and psychological responses to environments with and without plants. Physiological evaluation was carried out using blood pressure and electroencephalography, and psychological evaluation was carried out using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Semantic Differential method. Blood pressure was significantly lower, and changes in brainwaves were observed. Psychological responses showed that participants were more "comfortable and relaxed" after the plant task than after the control task. In addition, total anxiety levels were significantly lower after carrying out the plant task than after the control task. Our research suggests that gardening activities might enhance physiological and psychological relaxation in older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; ••: ••-••. © 2018 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  11. Investigation on maternal physiological and psychological factors of cheilopalatognathus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J; Zhao, W; Ma, R M; Li, X J; Wen, Z H; Liu, X F; Hu, W D; Zhang, C B

    2013-01-01

    Case-control study on mothers of cheilopalatognathus children was conducted, to investigate the maternal physiological and psychological factors for occurrence of cheilopalatognathus. One hundred ten mothers of cheilopalatognathus children who were scheduled for one-stage surgery were selected as a research group, and 110 mothers of normal children served as a normal control group at the same time. Trait Anxiety Inventory (T-AI), Life Events Scale (LES), Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ), Type C Behavior Scale (CBS), adult Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), and homemade general questionnaire survey were employed for the investigation. Compared with the control group, the scores for negative event tension value, anxiety, and depressive factors were higher in the study group (p introvert and extrovert personalities. The study results suggest that pregnant women's physiological and psychological factors can cause changes in cheilopalatognathus incidence, which is expected to be guidance for healthcare during pregnancy, to prevent the occurrence of cheilopalatognathus.

  12. Psychological and physiological responses following repeated peer death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Pizarro Andersen

    Full Text Available Undergraduates at a university in the United States were exposed - directly and indirectly - to 14 peer deaths during one academic year. We examined how individual and social factors were associated with psychological (e.g., anxiety, depression, somatization and physiological (i.e., cortisol distress responses following this unexpected and repeated experience with loss.Two to three months after the final peer death, respondents (N = 122, 61% female, 18-23 years, M = 20.13, SD = 1.14 reported prior adverse experiences, degree of closeness with the deceased, acute responses to the peer deaths, ongoing distress responses, social support, support seeking, and media viewing. A subset (n = 24 returned hair samples for evaluation of cortisol responses during the previous 3 months.Ongoing psychological distress was associated with a prior interpersonal trauma, b fewer social supports, and c media exposure to news of the deaths (p's25 p/mg compared to individuals with one or two prior bereavement experiences (who were, on average, within the normal range, 10 to 25 p/mg (p<.05. Only 8% of the sample utilized available university psychological or physical health resources and support groups.Limited research has examined the psychological and physiological impact of exposure to chronic, repeated peer loss, despite the fact that there are groups of individuals (e.g., police, military soldiers that routinely face such exposures. Prior adversity appears to play a role in shaping psychological and physiological responses to repeated loss. This topic warrants further research given the health implications of repeated loss for individuals in high-risk occupations and university settings.

  13. Identifying blood biomarkers and physiological processes that distinguish humans with superior performance under psychological stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Cooksey

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Attrition of students from aviation training is a serious financial and operational concern for the U.S. Navy. Each late stage navy aviator training failure costs the taxpayer over $1,000,000 and ultimately results in decreased operational readiness of the fleet. Currently, potential aviators are selected based on the Aviation Selection Test Battery (ASTB, which is a series of multiple-choice tests that evaluate basic and aviation-related knowledge and ability. However, the ASTB does not evaluate a person's response to stress. This is important because operating sophisticated aircraft demands exceptional performance and causes high psychological stress. Some people are more resistant to this type of stress, and consequently better able to cope with the demands of naval aviation, than others.Although many psychological studies have examined psychological stress resistance none have taken advantage of the human genome sequence. Here we use high-throughput -omic biology methods and a novel statistical data normalization method to identify plasma proteins associated with human performance under psychological stress. We identified proteins involved in four basic physiological processes: innate immunity, cardiac function, coagulation and plasma lipid physiology.The proteins identified here further elucidate the physiological response to psychological stress and suggest a hypothesis that stress-susceptible pilots may be more prone to shock. This work also provides potential biomarkers for screening humans for capability of superior performance under stress.

  14. Bone biology and physiology: Part I. The fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Donald W; Dumanian, Gregory A

    2012-06-01

    The principles of bone biology and physiology permeate all subspecialty practices in plastic and reconstructive surgery from hand surgery to aesthetic surgery. Despite its importance in our practices, the biology of bone healing and bone physiology rarely surfaces within textbooks, literature reviews, or residency curricula. In this article, the authors present the first of a two-part series reviewing the important concepts of bone biology and bone physiology relevant to plastic surgery in an effort to ameliorate this educational gap.

  15. Towards Integration of Biological and Physiological Functions at Multiple Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taishin eNomura

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An aim of systems physiology today can be stated as to establish logical and quantitative bridges between phenomenological attributes of physiological entities such as cells and organs and physical attributes of biological entities, i.e., biological molecules, allowing us to describe and better understand physiological functions in terms of underlying biological functions. This article illustrates possible schema that can be used for promoting systems physiology by integrating quantitative knowledge of biological and physiological functions at multiple levels of time and space with the use of information technology infrastructure. Emphasis will be made for systematic, modular, hierarchical, and standardized descriptions of mathematical models of the functions and advantages for the use of them.

  16. Physiology and molecular biology of petal senescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Woltering, E.J.

    2008-01-01

    Petal senescence is reviewed, with the main emphasis on gene expression in relation to physiological functions. Autophagy seems to be the major mechanism for large-scale degradation of macromolecules, but it is still unclear if it contributes to cell death. Depending on the species, petal senescence

  17. Personality and physiological reactions to acute psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibbey, Adam; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J; Phillips, Anna C; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2013-10-01

    Stable personality traits have long been presumed to have biological substrates, although the evidence relating personality to biological stress reactivity is inconclusive. The present study examined, in a large middle aged cohort (N=352), the relationship between key personality traits and both cortisol and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. Salivary cortisol and cardiovascular activity were measured at rest and in response to a psychological stress protocol comprising 5min each of a Stroop task, mirror tracing, and a speech task. Participants subsequently completed the Big Five Inventory to assess neuroticism, agreeableness, openness to experience, extraversion, and conscientiousness. Those with higher neuroticism scores exhibited smaller cortisol and cardiovascular stress reactions, whereas participants who were less agreeable and less open had smaller cortisol and cardiac reactions to stress. These associations remained statistically significant following adjustment for a range of potential confounding variables. Thus, a negative personality disposition would appear to be linked to diminished stress reactivity. These findings further support a growing body of evidence which suggests that blunted stress reactivity may be maladaptive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychology and evolutionary biology; Causal analysis, evidence, and nomothetic laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hezewijk, René

    2008-01-01

    Published as a chapter in Van Hezewijk, R. (2003). Psychology and evolutionary biology; Causal analysis, evidence, and nomothetic laws. In N. Stephenson, L. Radtke, R. Jorna & H. J. Stam (Eds.), Theoretical psychology; Critical contributions (pp. 405-415). Concord, Ontario: Captus Press.

  19. Physiological and psychological stress limits for astronautics Observations during the Skylab I-III missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, E. C.

    1975-01-01

    The physiological and psychological factors of manned space flight had a particular significance in the Skylab missions during which astronauts were subjected to a life in a space environment for longer periods of time than on previous space missions. The Skylab missions demonstrated again the great adaptability of human physiology to the environment of man. The results of Skylab have indicated also approaches for enhancing the capability of man to tolerate the physiological and psychological stresses of space flight.

  20. Human thermal physiological and psychological responses under different heating environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaojun; Ning, Haoran; Ji, Yuchen; Hou, Juan; He, Yanan

    2015-08-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that many residents of severely cold areas of China who use floor heating (FH) systems feel warmer but drier compared to those using radiant heating (RH) systems. However, this phenomenon has not been verified experimentally. In order to validate the empirical hypothesis, and research the differences of human physiological and psychological responses in these two asymmetrical heating environments, an experiment was designed to mimic FH and RH systems. The subjects participating in the experiment were volunteer college-students. During the experiment, the indoor air temperature, air speed, relative humidity, globe temperature, and inner surface temperatures were measured, and subjects' heart rate, blood pressure and skin temperatures were recorded. The subjects were required to fill in questionnaires about their thermal responses during testing. The results showed that the subjects' skin temperatures, heart rate and blood pressure were significantly affected by the type of heating environment. Ankle temperature had greatest impact on overall thermal comfort relative to other body parts, and a slightly cool FH condition was the most pleasurable environment for sedentary subjects. The overall thermal sensation, comfort and acceptability of FH were higher than that of RH. However, the subjects of FH felt drier than that of RH, although the relative humidity in FH environments was higher than that of the RH environment. In future environmental design, the thermal comfort of the ankles should be scrutinized, and a FH cool condition is recommended as the most comfortable thermal environment for office workers. Consequently, large amounts of heating energy could be saved in this area in the winter. The results of this study may lead to more efficient energy use for office or home heating systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. System as metaphor in the psychology and biology of shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunder, R

    1996-01-01

    Biological theories of brain and psychological theories of mind are two systems of explanation that seem related to one another. The nature of the relationship is problematic and constitutes the age-old mind-body problem. The most prominent solutions currently are variations of materialism. While psychological theories can be consistent with materialism, there remains a difficulty in comprehending nonphysical (social, psychological) causes of physical effects. This difficulty is an obstacle to integration in psychiatry, where we routinely assume that illnesses that include or depend on biological dysfunction are caused multifactorially by causal agents such as perceived parental warmth, parental loss, stressful life events, genetics, and personality (Hammen et al. 1992; Kendler et al. 1993). Unity theory adopts the stance that neurobiological theories and psychological theories are essentially disparate explanations of the same psychobiological events; thus the relationship of mind to brain is one of shared reference (Goodman 1991; Maunder 1995). In Goodman's model the gap between biological and psychological systems is not bridgeable. Different conceptual categories refer to the same referents but cannot interact with each other. Stepping into the breach, systems theory has been presented as offering a language that can bridge the gap between psychological and biological theories of causation (Schwartz 1981; Weiner 1989). Thus, there is a controversy about the applicability of systems theory for integration in psychiatry.

  2. Phi in physiology, psychology and biomechanics: The golden ratio between myth and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosa, Marco; Morone, Giovanni; Paolucci, Stefano

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in the use of the so-called golden ratio (Phi, ϕ), an irrational number with fractal properties, used in artworks since V century BC. and now for modelling complex biological structures and functions. This number, in fact, recursively pops-up in human history, from Ancient Greeks to Renaissance, and to contemporary scientific studies. Nevertheless, recent scientific results often fall between two extremes: those of a priori sceptic researchers accusing the artificial emergence of ϕ in many studies, and those of researchers that find a mystic meaning in the presence of ϕ in human physiology. This review moves between these two extremes to provide a scientifically based discussion about the possible presence of Phi in human physiology, psychology, and biomechanics of heart and locomotion. We provide scientific evidence, analysing reasons for the presence of Phi, reporting the weakness of some studies overstating the potential meaning of this number, and reporting the reasons for which it could be actually found in some biological structures and functions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Physiology is rocking the foundations of evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Denis

    2013-08-01

    The 'Modern Synthesis' (Neo-Darwinism) is a mid-20th century gene-centric view of evolution, based on random mutations accumulating to produce gradual change through natural selection. Any role of physiological function in influencing genetic inheritance was excluded. The organism became a mere carrier of the real objects of selection, its genes. We now know that genetic change is far from random and often not gradual. Molecular genetics and genome sequencing have deconstructed this unnecessarily restrictive view of evolution in a way that reintroduces physiological function and interactions with the environment as factors influencing the speed and nature of inherited change. Acquired characteristics can be inherited, and in a few but growing number of cases that inheritance has now been shown to be robust for many generations. The 21st century can look forward to a new synthesis that will reintegrate physiology with evolutionary biology.

  4. Determining environmental causes of biological effects: the need for a mechanistic physiological dimension in conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebacher, Frank; Franklin, Craig E

    2012-06-19

    The emerging field of Conservation Physiology links environmental change and ecological success by the application of physiological theory, approaches and tools to elucidate and address conservation problems. Human activity has changed the natural environment to a point where the viability of many ecosystems is now under threat. There are already many descriptions of how changes in biological patterns are correlated with environmental changes. The next important step is to determine the causative relationship between environmental variability and biological systems. Physiology provides the mechanistic link between environmental change and ecological patterns. Physiological research, therefore, should be integrated into conservation to predict the biological consequences of human activity, and to identify those species or populations that are most vulnerable.

  5. Physiological and psychological effects of walking in stay-in forest therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bum-Jin; Tsunetsugu, Yuko; Morikawa, Takeshi; Kagawa, Takahide; Lee, Juyoung; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2014-01-01

    To provide scientific evidence of the physiological and psychological effects of forest and urban environments on 47 young male adults undergoing stay-in forest therapy. Field experiments were conducted at four sites in Japan. At each site, 12 subjects participated in the experiment. The experiments were conducted in forest and urban environments, and the subjects' physiological and psychological responses to these environments were compared. On the first day, six subjects were sent to a forest area, and the other six were sent to an urban area as controls. The groups were switched the next day. Heart rate variability and heart rate were measured to assess physiological responses. The semantic differential method for assessing emotions, the reports of "refreshed" feeling, and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) were used to assess psychological responses. The physiological and psychological responses of each subject were recorded during and after walking, and the differences in indices were compared between the two environments. The forest environment was associated with a higher parasympathetic nervous activity, a lower sympathetic nervous activity, and a lower heart rate than the urban environment. The subjective evaluation scores were generally in accordance with the physiological reactions and were significantly higher in the forest environment than in the urban environment. POMS measurements showed that the forest environment was psychologically relaxing and enhanced psychological vigor. This study provided clear scientific evidence of the physiological effects of forest therapy. The results will contribute to the development of forest therapy research and support the inclusion of forest therapy in preventive medicine.

  6. Biological properties of extracellular vesicles and their physiological functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez-Mó, María; Siljander, Pia R.-M.; Andreu, Zoraida; Zavec, Apolonija Bedina; Borràs, Francesc E.; Buzas, Edit I.; Buzas, Krisztina; Casal, Enriqueta; Cappello, Francesco; Carvalho, Joana; Colás, Eva; Silva, Anabela Cordeiro-da; Fais, Stefano; Falcon-Perez, Juan M.; Ghobrial, Irene M.; Giebel, Bernd; Gimona, Mario; Graner, Michael; Gursel, Ihsan; Gursel, Mayda; Heegaard, Niels H. H.; Hendrix, An; Kierulf, Peter; Kokubun, Katsutoshi; Kosanovic, Maja; Kralj-Iglic, Veronika; Krämer-Albers, Eva-Maria; Laitinen, Saara; Lässer, Cecilia; Lener, Thomas; Ligeti, Erzsébet; Linē, Aija; Lipps, Georg; Llorente, Alicia; Lötvall, Jan; Manček-Keber, Mateja; Marcilla, Antonio; Mittelbrunn, Maria; Nazarenko, Irina; Hoen, Esther N.M. Nolte-‘t; Nyman, Tuula A.; O'Driscoll, Lorraine; Olivan, Mireia; Oliveira, Carla; Pállinger, Éva; del Portillo, Hernando A.; Reventós, Jaume; Rigau, Marina; Rohde, Eva; Sammar, Marei; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Santarém, N.; Schallmoser, Katharina; Ostenfeld, Marie Stampe; Stoorvogel, Willem; Stukelj, Roman; Van der Grein, Susanne G.; Vasconcelos, M. Helena; Wauben, Marca H. M.; De Wever, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been recognized as potent vehicles of intercellular communication, both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. This is due to their capacity to transfer proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, thereby influencing various physiological and pathological functions of both recipient and parent cells. While intensive investigation has targeted the role of EVs in different pathological processes, for example, in cancer and autoimmune diseases, the EV-mediated maintenance of homeostasis and the regulation of physiological functions have remained less explored. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current understanding of the physiological roles of EVs, which has been written by crowd-sourcing, drawing on the unique EV expertise of academia-based scientists, clinicians and industry based in 27 European countries, the United States and Australia. This review is intended to be of relevance to both researchers already working on EV biology and to newcomers who will encounter this universal cell biological system. Therefore, here we address the molecular contents and functions of EVs in various tissues and body fluids from cell systems to organs. We also review the physiological mechanisms of EVs in bacteria, lower eukaryotes and plants to highlight the functional uniformity of this emerging communication system. PMID:25979354

  7. Biological properties of extracellular vesicles and their physiological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Yáñez-Mó

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, extracellular vesicles (EVs have been recognized as potent vehicles of intercellular communication, both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. This is due to their capacity to transfer proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, thereby influencing various physiological and pathological functions of both recipient and parent cells. While intensive investigation has targeted the role of EVs in different pathological processes, for example, in cancer and autoimmune diseases, the EV-mediated maintenance of homeostasis and the regulation of physiological functions have remained less explored. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current understanding of the physiological roles of EVs, which has been written by crowd-sourcing, drawing on the unique EV expertise of academia-based scientists, clinicians and industry based in 27 European countries, the United States and Australia. This review is intended to be of relevance to both researchers already working on EV biology and to newcomers who will encounter this universal cell biological system. Therefore, here we address the molecular contents and functions of EVs in various tissues and body fluids from cell systems to organs. We also review the physiological mechanisms of EVs in bacteria, lower eukaryotes and plants to highlight the functional uniformity of this emerging communication system.

  8. Impact of Positive Emotions Enhancement on Physiological Processes and Psychological Functioning in Military Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa: time course and mechanisms of change. Journal of Clinical consulting Psychology 2002, 20, 267-274. [44...RTO-MP-HFM-181 14 - 1 Impact of Positive Emotions Enhancement on Physiological Processes and Psychological Functioning in Military Pilots...practical tool using different techniques in order to improve regulation of emotions before, during and after actions [3]. This psychological training is

  9. Inter-level relations in computer science, biology, and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, F.; Bruggeman, F.; Jonker, C.M.; Looren de Jong, H.; Tamminga, A.; Treur, J.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigations into inter-level relations in computer science, biology and psychology call for an empirical turn in the philosophy of mind. Rather than concentrate on a priori discussions of inter-level relations between 'completed' sciences, a case is made for the actual study of the way

  10. Inter-level relations in computer science, biology and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, F.C.; Bruggeman, F.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Looren De Jong, H.; Tamminga, A.M.; Treur, J.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigations into inter-level relations in computer science, biology and psychology call for an empirical turn in the philosophy of mind. Rather than concentrate on a priori discussions of inter-level relations between "completed" sciences, a case is made for the actual study of the way

  11. Inter-level relations in computer science, biology, and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, Fred; Bruggeman, Frank; Jonker, Catholijn; Looren de Jong, Huib; Tamminga, Allard; Treur, Jan; Westerhoff, Hans; Wijngaards, Wouter

    2002-01-01

    Investigations into inter-level relations in computer science, biology and psychology call for an *empirical* turn in the philosophy of mind. Rather than concentrate on *a priori* discussions of inter-level relations between “completed” sciences, a case is made for the actual study of the way

  12. The psychology and physiology of temperament: pragmatism in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordogna, F

    2001-01-01

    This paper traces William James's famous "temperament thesis" according to which the philosophical stance that individuals take depends on their "temperaments." It seeks to understand James's conception of temperament by locating James within a set of contemporary investigations that linked the sources of mental, and even higher, intellectual processes to the physiological and organic constitution of the individual. The paper argues that James understood temperament along the reflex-arc model and discusses the implications of that physiological account of temperament for James's overall conception of philosophy.

  13. Personality and physiological reactions to acute psychological stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bibbey, Adam; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Phillips, Anna C.; de Rooij, Susanne R.

    2013-01-01

    Stable personality traits have long been presumed to have biological substrates, although the evidence relating personality to biological stress reactivity is inconclusive. The present study examined, in a large middle aged cohort (N=352), the relationship between key personality traits and both

  14. The birth of experimental psychology in Germany between psychophysical methods and physiological theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinatra, Maria

    2006-01-01

    In 1879 Wundt's laboratory of psychology was opened in Leipzig, and it has been the landmark ever since for the beginning of modern experimental psychology. Its founder, Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt, was the first to successfully demarcate the areas of scientific psychology as being distinct from either physiology or philosophy, thus guaranteeing the survival of psychology, which was regarded as an autonomous discipline set upon a secure institutional framework. This paper attempts to clarify the basic facts and concepts related to the roots of scientific psychology in Germany, i.e., the context in which the "Founding Father" worked, as well as of those predecessors who proposed the topics and apparatus of his laboratory. Attention will be paid in particular to the psychophysical methods of Weber and Fechner, especially in regard to colour perception. In this context, an outline is presented of the history of reaction time experiments in astronomy, physiology, and psychology, and of the role played by the scientific instruments. It is shown how the methodology of physics and physiology contributed to the emancipation of scientific psychology and to the formation of its orientation.

  15. The biology of human sexuality: evolution, ecology and physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PW Bateman

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Many evolutionary biologists argue that human sexual behaviour can be studied in exactly the same way as that of other species. Many sociologists argue that social influences effectively obscure, and are more important than, a reductionist biological approach to human sexual behaviour. Here,we authors attempt to provide a broad introduction to human sexual behaviour from a biological standpoint and to indicate where the ambiguous areas are. We outline the evolutionary selective pressures that are likely to have influenced human behaviour and mate choice in the past and in the present; ecological features that influence such things as degree of parental care and polygamy; and the associated physiology of human sexuality. Then they end with a discussion of �abnormal� sexuality.

  16. Biological causal links on physiological and evolutionary time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmon, Amit; Pilpel, Yitzhak

    2016-04-26

    Correlation does not imply causation. If two variables, say A and B, are correlated, it could be because A causes B, or that B causes A, or because a third factor affects them both. We suggest that in many cases in biology, the causal link might be bi-directional: A causes B through a fast-acting physiological process, while B causes A through a slowly accumulating evolutionary process. Furthermore, many trained biologists tend to consistently focus at first on the fast-acting direction, and overlook the slower process in the opposite direction. We analyse several examples from modern biology that demonstrate this bias (codon usage optimality and gene expression, gene duplication and genetic dispensability, stem cell division and cancer risk, and the microbiome and host metabolism) and also discuss an example from linguistics. These examples demonstrate mutual effects between the fast physiological processes and the slow evolutionary ones. We believe that building awareness of inference biases among biologists who tend to prefer one causal direction over another could improve scientific reasoning.

  17. The psychological and physiological stress relief effect of the green roof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.; Koshimizu, H. [Meiji Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Agriculture

    2007-07-01

    The visual sense influences human psychology and physiology. As such, green gardens in urban environments are touted as being healing gardens that lead to stress relief and improved work efficiency. This paper focused on the visual aspects of such rehabilitation sites. Psychological and physiological experiments were conducted on human response to green roofs in order to quantify the stress relief effect of the green roof scenery. In addition, different green roof designs were tested to determine whether they change the stress relief effect. A 360 degrees panorama photograph of green roofs was shown to 3 male and 3 female students in Meiji University. The experiment was followed by a questionnaire survey based on the semantic differential (SD) method as a psychological evaluation. The SD method is a representative psychological measurement to quantify an image of people for a scene. The changes in heart rate were studied along with blood pressure, and stress degree as a physiological evaluation. The relation between the results of the SD method-based psychological evaluation and the physiological experiment was determined using multiple regression analysis. It was concluded that the stress relief effect can be improved by changing linear scenery to a more curvy one. 15 refs., 4 tabs., 20 figs.

  18. General physiology, experimental psychology, and evolutionism. Unicellular organisms as objects of psychophysiological research, 1877-1918.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloegel, Judy Johns; Schmidgen, Henning

    2002-12-01

    This essay aims to shed new light on the relations between physiology and psychology in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by focusing on the use of unicellular organisms as research objects during that period. Within the frameworks of evolutionism and monism advocated by Ernst Haeckel, protozoa were perceived as objects situated at the borders between organism and cell and individual and society. Scholars such as Max Verworn, Alfred Binet, and Herbert Spencer Jennings were provoked by these organisms to undertake experimental investigations situated between general physiology and psychology that differed from the physiological psychology advocated by Wilhelm Wundt. Some of these investigations sought to locate psychological properties in the molecular structure of protoplasm; others stressed the existence of organic and psychological individuality in protozoa. In the following decades, leading philosophers such as Friedrich Nietzsche, Charles Sanders Peirce, and Henri Bergson, as well as psychological researchers like Sigmund Freud, integrated the results of these investigations into their reflections on such problems as the nature of the will, the structure of the ego, and the holistic nature of the reactions of organisms to their environment.

  19. Kinetic Behaviour of Nanoparticles Across the Biological Physiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emond, Claude, E-mail: claude.emond@biosmc.com [BioSimulation Consulting Inc., 220E. Delaware Avenue 1182, Newark, DE, 19711 (United States)

    2011-07-06

    Nanotoxicokinetics is a subsection of the toxicology field that involves the study of kinetic displacement of nanoparticles (NPs) in an organism. Four different steps, namely absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination (ADME), are involved in nanotoxicokinetics. However, only ADE will be covert in this mini review. Because of their size, NPs react differently than particulate matter larger than the nanometre unit in diameter. In the organism, a closer interaction between NPs and biological matrices, called nanotoxicodynamics, might increase the health effects. (Animals are usually in studies to evaluate the global interaction of NPs and biological matrices and to control and reduce the bias.) Understanding the different steps of kinetics is very important to increase the confidence of the amount of NP delivery in the target organ and to assess the level of risk. The objective of this work was to review the behaviour of the NPs interacting with the biological kinetic steps of the ADME and their limitations and constraints. Specifically, it was reviewed the impact of each of the four steps of nanotoxicokinetics, from exposure to elimination in the organism. Recent publications have provided some information on this issue, allowing for a better understanding on how the NPs behave across physiology; however, information is still lacking. We also systematically reviewed the ADME process, and supported our review with examples from the literature. We reviewed the two major factors that influence the absorption of NPs: enumerated biotransformation and elimination limitations. One of the focuses of this study was the interaction between NPs and biological matrices because the morphology and chemical properties may drive the potential for exposure. This paper present different examples of interactions find from literature. To study these interactions, we used a classical pharmacokinetic approach employed in the pharmaceutical industry and compared it to a dynamic

  20. The impact of windows and daylight on acute-care nurses' physiological, psychological, and behavioral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh, Rana Sagha; Shepley, Mardelle McCuskey; Williams, Gary; Chung, Susan Sung Eun

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the physiological and psychological effects of windows and daylight on registered nurses. To date, evidence has indicated that appropriate environmental lighting with characteristics similar to natural light can improve mood, alertness, and performance. The restorative effects of windows also have been documented. Hospital workspaces generally lack windows and daylight, and the impact of the lack of windows and daylight on healthcare employees' well being has not been thoroughly investigated. Data were collected using multiple methods with a quasi-experimental approach (i.e., biological measurements, behavioral mapping, and analysis of archival data) in an acute-care nursing unit with two wards that have similar environmental and organizational conditions, and similar patient populations and acuity, but different availability of windows in the nursing stations. Findings indicated that blood pressure (p windows and daylight. A possible micro-restorative effect of windows and daylight may result in lowered blood pressure and increased oxygen saturation and a positive effect on circadian rhythms (as suggested by body temperature) and morning sleepiness. Critical care/intensive care, lighting, nursing, quality care, work environment.

  1. Aging and Variability of Individual Differences: A Longitudinal Analysis of Social, Psychological, and Physiological Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, George L.; Douglass, Elizabeth B.

    This paper explores the relationship between age and individual differences. Two hypotheses were tested through the use of repeated measures of functioning in terms of social, psychological, and physiological parameters: (1) individual differences do not decrease with age, and (2) individuals tend to maintain the same rank in relation to age peers…

  2. A Review of Physiological and Psychological Changes in Aging and Their Implications for Teachers of Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Samuel E.

    This review of literature on the aging process points out primary physiological and psychological changes in maturing adults which have implications for teachers of adults. Visual acuity and hearing decline during adult years and there is a general slowing down process of most bodily activities. Teachers should be aware of the need for good…

  3. ANXIETY, PHYSIOLOGICALLY AND PSYCHOLOGICALLY MEASURED, AND ITS CONSEQUENCES ON MENTAL TEST PERFORMANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHAMBERS, ALMA C.; HOPKINS, KENNETH D.

    EXPERIMENTS WERE CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH (1) EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED ANXIETY INFLUENCES ABILITY TEST PERFORMANCE AND (2) THE VARIOUS PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASURES OF ANXIETY ARE RELATED. HIGH SCHOOL SENIORS WERE ADMINISTERED THE FOLLOWING MEASURES OF ANXIETY--(1) S-R INVENTORY OF ANXIOUSNESS, (2) AFFECT ADJECTIVE…

  4. Operators work reliability current control based on the psychological and physiological criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpenko, A.V.; Burov, A.Yu.; Grigorus', A.G.; Kal'nish, V.V.; Kapshuk, A.P.; Grigor'yants, T.N.; Bobko, N.A.

    1984-01-01

    A possibility of developing highly sensitive criteria for assessment of mental working ability at the expense of profound automated analysis of available psychological and physiological criteria is disclosed; it is a precondition for developing operator is woAking ability control system not requiring additional personnel for its operation

  5. Self-regulation method: psychological, physiological and clinical considerations. An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemi, A; Tomita, S; Kuroda, M; Hayashida, Y; Ikemi, Y

    1986-01-01

    Body-oriented therapies as relaxation training and certain forms of meditation are gaining popularity in the treatment and prevention of psychosomatic disorders. In this paper, a new method of self-control called self-regulation method (SRM), derived from autogenic training and Zen meditation, is presented. The technique of SRM is introduced. Secondly, physiological studies on SRM using skin temperature, galvanic skin response, and cortical evoked potentials are presented. Thirdly, the results of psychological tests conducted on SRM are presented. These psycho-physiological studies suggest that SRM may elicit a state of 'relaxed alertness'. Fourthly, clinical applications of SRM are discussed, and 3 cases are presented. Finally, SRM is discussed in relation to the psychology and physiology of 'relaxed alertness'.

  6. Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: Bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Dziechciaż

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: Bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging. The aging of humans is a physiological and dynamic process ongoing with time. In accordance with most gerontologists’ assertions it starts in the fourth decade of life and leads to death. The process of human aging is complex and individualized, occurs in the biological, psychological and social sphere. Biological aging is characterized by progressive age-changes in metabolism and physicochemical properties of cells, leading to impaired self-regulation, regeneration, and to structural changes and functional tissues and organs. It is a natural and irreversible process which can run as successful aging, typical or pathological. Biological changes that occur with age in the human body affect mood, attitude to the environment, physical condition and social activity, and designate the place of seniors in the family and society. Psychical ageing refers to human awareness and his adaptability to the ageing process. Among adaptation attitudes we can differentiate: constructive, dependence, hostile towards others and towards self attitudes. With progressed age, difficulties with adjustment to the new situation are increasing, adverse changes in the cognitive and intellectual sphere take place, perception process involutes, perceived sensations and information received is lowered, and thinking processes change. Social ageing is limited to the role of an old person is culturally conditioned and may change as customs change. Social ageing refers to how a human being perceives the ageing process and how society sees it.

  7. Integrative Evaluation of Automated Massage Combined with Thermotherapy: Physical, Physiological, and Psychological Viewpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do-Won Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Various types of massages are reported to relieve stress, pain, and anxiety which are beneficial for rehabilitation; however, more comprehensive studies are needed to understand the mechanism of massage therapy. In this study, we investigated the effect of massage therapy, alone or in combination with infrared heating, on 3 different aspects: physical, physiological, and psychological. Twenty-eight healthy university students were subjected to 3 different treatment conditions on separate days, one condition per day: control, massage only, or massage with infrared heating. Physical (trunk extension [TE]; maximum power of erector spinae, physiological (heart-rate variability [HRV]; electroencephalogram [EEG], and psychological (state-trait anxiety inventory [STAI]; visual analogue scale [VAS] measurements were evaluated and recorded before and after each treatment condition. The results showed that massage therapy, especially when combined with infrared heating, significantly improved physical functioning, increased parasympathetic response, and decreased psychological stress and anxiety. In the current study, we observed that massage therapy contributes to various physical, physiological, and psychological changes, where the effect increases with thermotherapy.

  8. Integrative Evaluation of Automated Massage Combined with Thermotherapy: Physical, Physiological, and Psychological Viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Won; Lee, Dae Woon; Schreiber, Joergen; Im, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Hansung

    2016-01-01

    Various types of massages are reported to relieve stress, pain, and anxiety which are beneficial for rehabilitation; however, more comprehensive studies are needed to understand the mechanism of massage therapy. In this study, we investigated the effect of massage therapy, alone or in combination with infrared heating, on 3 different aspects: physical, physiological, and psychological. Twenty-eight healthy university students were subjected to 3 different treatment conditions on separate days, one condition per day: control, massage only, or massage with infrared heating. Physical (trunk extension [TE]; maximum power of erector spinae), physiological (heart-rate variability [HRV]; electroencephalogram [EEG]), and psychological (state-trait anxiety inventory [STAI]; visual analogue scale [VAS]) measurements were evaluated and recorded before and after each treatment condition. The results showed that massage therapy, especially when combined with infrared heating, significantly improved physical functioning, increased parasympathetic response, and decreased psychological stress and anxiety. In the current study, we observed that massage therapy contributes to various physical, physiological, and psychological changes, where the effect increases with thermotherapy.

  9. Physiological and Psychological Effects on High School Students of Viewing Real and Artificial Pansies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho Igarashi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The relaxation effects of gardening have attracted attention; however, very few studies have researched its physiological effects on humans. This study aimed to clarify the physiological and psychological effects on high school students of viewing real and artificial pansies. Forty high school students (male: 19, female: 21 at Chiba Prefectural Kashiwanoha Senior High School, Japan, participated in this experiment. The subjects were presented with a visual stimulation of fresh yellow pansies (Viola x wittrockiana “Nature Clear Lemon” in a planter for 3 min. Artificial yellow pansies in a planter were used as the control. Heart rate variability was used as a physiological measurement and the modified semantic differential method was used for subjective evaluation. Compared with artificial pansies, visual stimulation with real flowers resulted in a significant decrease in the ratio of low- to high-frequency heart rate variability component, which reflects sympathetic nerve activity. In contrast, high frequency, which reflects parasympathetic nerve activity, showed no significant difference. With regard to the psychological indices, viewing real flowers resulted in “comfortable”, “relaxed”, and “natural” feelings. The findings indicate that visual stimulation with real pansies induced physiological and psychological relaxation effects in high school students.

  10. Effects of competitive pressure on expert performance: underlying psychological, physiological, and kinematic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Andrew; Kavussanu, Maria; McIntyre, David; Boardley, Ian D; Ring, Christopher

    2011-08-01

    Although it is well established that performance is influenced by competitive pressure, our understanding of the mechanisms which underlie the pressure-performance relationship is limited. The current experiment examined mediators of the relationship between competitive pressure and motor skill performance of experts. Psychological, physiological, and kinematic responses to three levels of competitive pressure were measured in 50 expert golfers, during a golf putting task. Elevated competitive pressure increased putting accuracy, anxiety, effort, and heart rate, but decreased grip force. Quadratic effects of pressure were noted for self-reported conscious processing and impact velocity. Mediation analyses revealed that effort and heart rate partially mediated improved performance. The findings indicate that competitive pressure elicits effects on expert performance through both psychological and physiological pathways. Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  11. Physiological strain in the Hungarian mining industry: The impact of physical and psychological factors

    OpenAIRE

    József Varga; Imre Nagy; László Szirtes; János Pórszász

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of these investigations completed on workplaces in the Hungarian mining industry were to characterize the physiological strain of workers by means of work pulse and to examine the effects of work-related psychological factors. Material and Methods: Continuous heart rate (HR) recording was completed on 71 miners over a total of 794 shifts between 1987 and 1992 in mining plants of the Hungarian mining industry using a 6-channel recorder – Bioport (ZAK, Germany). The w...

  12. Integrative evaluation of automated massage combined with thermotherapy: physical, physiological, and psychological viewpoints

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dowon; Lee, Daewoon; Schreiber, Jürgen; Im, Changhwan; Kim, Hansung

    2016-01-01

    Various types of massages are reported to relieve stress, pain, and anxiety which are beneficial for rehabilitation; however, more comprehensive studies are needed to understand the mechanism of massage therapy. In this study, we investigated the effect of massage therapy, alone or in combination with infrared heating, on 3 different aspects: physical, physiological, and psychological. Twenty-eight healthy university students were subjected to 3 different treatment conditions on separate days...

  13. Physiological and Psychological Effects of a Forest Therapy Program on Middle-Aged Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Hiroko; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong; Kobayashi, Maiko; Miura, Takashi; Kagawa, Takahide; Li, Qing; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Imai, Michiko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-12-01

    The natural environment is increasingly recognized as an effective counter to urban stress, and "Forest Therapy" has recently attracted attention as a relaxation and stress management activity with demonstrated clinical efficacy. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of a forest therapy program on middle-aged females. Seventeen Japanese females (62.2 ± 9.4 years; mean ± standard deviation) participated in this experiment. Pulse rate, salivary cortisol level, and psychological indices were measured on the day before forest therapy and on the forest therapy day. Pulse rate and salivary cortisol were significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy, indicating that subjects were in a physiologically relaxed state. Subjects reported feeling significantly more "comfortable," "relaxed," and "natural" according to the semantic differential (SD) method. The Profile of Mood State (POMS) negative mood subscale score for "tension-anxiety" was significantly lower, while that for "vigor" was significantly higher following forest therapy. Our study revealed that forest therapy elicited a significant (1) decrease in pulse rate, (2) decrease in salivary cortisol levels, (3) increase in positive feelings, and (4) decrease in negative feelings. In conclusion, there are substantial physiological and psychological benefits of forest therapy on middle-aged females.

  14. Does empathy have a cost? Diverging psychological and physiological effects within families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manczak, Erika M; DeLongis, Anita; Chen, Edith

    2016-03-01

    Parental empathy is associated with a host of beneficial psychosocial outcomes for children. However, less is known about the effects of being empathic for parents. The current study tested the hypothesis that, although parental empathy may be beneficial to children both psychologically and physiologically, it may take a physiological toll on parents. The current study examined psychological and physiological correlates of parental empathy in 247 parent-adolescent dyads. During a baseline laboratory visit, parents and adolescents provide blood samples from which markers of systemic inflammation, including interleukin 1-ra, interleukin 6, and C-reactive protein, were assayed. Parents completed self-report questionnaires of empathy, well-being, and self-esteem, and also reported on their child's emotion regulation. Following the laboratory visit, adolescents completed 2 weeks of daily diary reporting on their emotion regulation abilities. In adolescents, parental empathy was significantly associated with both better emotion regulation and with less systemic inflammation. For parents, being empathic was associated with greater self-esteem and purpose in life, but also with higher systemic inflammation. These findings reinforce the importance of simultaneously considering both psychological and physical health-related effects of psychosocial traits and suggests that empathy may have diverging effects across providers and recipients of empathy. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Physiological and Psychological Effects of a Forest Therapy Program on Middle-Aged Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Ochiai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural environment is increasingly recognized as an effective counter to urban stress, and “Forest Therapy” has recently attracted attention as a relaxation and stress management activity with demonstrated clinical efficacy. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of a forest therapy program on middle-aged females. Seventeen Japanese females (62.2 ± 9.4 years; mean ± standard deviation participated in this experiment. Pulse rate, salivary cortisol level, and psychological indices were measured on the day before forest therapy and on the forest therapy day. Pulse rate and salivary cortisol were significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy, indicating that subjects were in a physiologically relaxed state. Subjects reported feeling significantly more “comfortable,” “relaxed,” and “natural” according to the semantic differential (SD method. The Profile of Mood State (POMS negative mood subscale score for “tension–anxiety” was significantly lower, while that for “vigor” was significantly higher following forest therapy. Our study revealed that forest therapy elicited a significant (1 decrease in pulse rate, (2 decrease in salivary cortisol levels, (3 increase in positive feelings, and (4 decrease in negative feelings. In conclusion, there are substantial physiological and psychological benefits of forest therapy on middle-aged females.

  16. Transforming Water: Social Influence Moderates Psychological, Physiological, and Functional Response to a Placebo Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, Alia J; Phillips, Damon J; Goyer, J Parker; Akinola, Modupe; Higgins, E Tory

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how social influence can alter physiological, psychological, and functional responses to a placebo product and how such responses influence the ultimate endorsement of the product. Participants consumed a product, "AquaCharge Energy Water," falsely-labeled as containing 200 mg of caffeine but which was actually plain spring water, in one of three conditions: a no social influence condition, a disconfirming social influence condition, and a confirming social influence condition. Results demonstrated that the effect of the product labeling on physiological alertness (systolic blood pressure), psychological alertness (self-reported alertness), functional alertness (cognitive interference), and product endorsement was moderated by social influence: participants experienced more subjective, physiological and functional alertness and stronger product endorsement when they consumed the product in the confirming social influence condition than when they consumed the product in the disconfirming social influence condition. These results suggest that social influence can alter subjective, physiological, and functional responses to a faux product, in this case transforming the effects of plain water.

  17. Methods of estimating the effect of integral motorcycle helmets on physiological and psychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Anna; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona; Luczak, Anna; Konarska, Maria; Pietrowski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a method for a comprehensive assessment of the effect of integral motorcycle helmets on physiological and cognitive responses of motorcyclists. To verify the reliability of commonly used tests, we conducted experiments with 5 motorcyclists. We recorded changes in physiological parameters (heart rate, local skin temperature, core temperature, air temperature, relative humidity in the space between the helmet and the surface of the head, and the concentration of O(2) and CO(2) under the helmet) and in psychological parameters (motorcyclists' reflexes, fatigue, perceptiveness and mood). We also studied changes in the motorcyclists' subjective sensation of thermal comfort. The results made it possible to identify reliable parameters for assessing the effect of integral helmets on performance, i.e., physiological factors (head skin temperature, internal temperature and concentration of O(2) and CO(2) under the helmet) and on psychomotor factors (reaction time, attention and vigilance, work performance, concentration and a subjective feeling of mood and fatigue).

  18. The Role of Odor-Evoked Memory in Psychological and Physiological Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Rachel S

    2016-07-19

    This article discusses the special features of odor-evoked memory and the current state-of-the-art in odor-evoked memory research to show how these unique experiences may be able to influence and benefit psychological and physiological health. A review of the literature leads to the conclusion that odors that evoke positive autobiographical memories have the potential to increase positive emotions, decrease negative mood states, disrupt cravings, and reduce physiological indices of stress, including systemic markers of inflammation. Olfactory perception factors and individual difference characteristics that would need to be considered in therapeutic applications of odor-evoked-memory are also discussed. This article illustrates how through the experimentally validated mechanisms of odor-associative learning and the privileged neuroanatomical relationship that exists between olfaction and the neural substrates of emotion, odors can be harnessed to induce emotional and physiological responses that can improve human health and wellbeing.

  19. The Role of Odor-Evoked Memory in Psychological and Physiological Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel S. Herz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the special features of odor-evoked memory and the current state-of-the-art in odor-evoked memory research to show how these unique experiences may be able to influence and benefit psychological and physiological health. A review of the literature leads to the conclusion that odors that evoke positive autobiographical memories have the potential to increase positive emotions, decrease negative mood states, disrupt cravings, and reduce physiological indices of stress, including systemic markers of inflammation. Olfactory perception factors and individual difference characteristics that would need to be considered in therapeutic applications of odor-evoked-memory are also discussed. This article illustrates how through the experimentally validated mechanisms of odor-associative learning and the privileged neuroanatomical relationship that exists between olfaction and the neural substrates of emotion, odors can be harnessed to induce emotional and physiological responses that can improve human health and wellbeing.

  20. Effect of a care plan based on Roy adaptation model biological dimension on stroke patients' physiologic adaptation level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimohammadi, Nasrollah; Maleki, Bibi; Shahriari, Mohsen; Chitsaz, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is a stressful event with several functional, physical, psychological, social, and economic problems that affect individuals' different living balances. With coping strategies, patients try to control these problems and return to their natural life. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of a care plan based on Roy adaptation model biological dimension on stroke patients' physiologic adaptation level. This study is a clinical trial in which 50 patients, affected by brain stroke and being admitted in the neurology ward of Kashani and Alzahra hospitals, were randomly assigned to control and study groups in Isfahan in 2013. Roy adaptation model care plan was administered in biological dimension in the form of four sessions and phone call follow-ups for 1 month. The forms related to Roy adaptation model were completed before and after intervention in the two groups. Chi-square test and t-test were used to analyze the data through SPSS 18. There was a significant difference in mean score of adaptation in physiological dimension in the study group after intervention (P adaptation in the patients affected by brain stroke in the study and control groups showed a significant increase in physiological dimension in the study group by 47.30 after intervention (P adaptation model biological dimension care plan can result in an increase in adaptation in patients with stroke in physiological dimension. Nurses can use this model for increasing patients' adaptation.

  1. Binaural beat technology in humans: a pilot study to assess psychologic and physiologic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahbeh, Helané; Calabrese, Carlo; Zwickey, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Binaural beat technology (BBT) products are sold internationally as personal development and health improvement tools. Producers suggest benefit from regular listening to binaural beats including reduced stress and anxiety, and increased focus, concentration, motivation, confidence, and depth in meditation. Binaural beats are auditory brainstem responses that originate in the superior olivary nucleus as a result of different frequency auditory stimuli provided to each ear. Listeners to binaural beat "hear" a beat at a frequency equal to the difference between the frequencies of the applied tones. The objectives of this pilot study were to gather preliminary data on psychologic and physiologic effects of 60 days daily use of BBT for hypothesis generation and to assess compliance, feasibility, and safety for future studies. Uncontrolled pilot study. Eight healthy adults participated in the study. Participants listened to a CD with delta (0-4 Hz) binaural beat frequencies daily for 60 days. Psychologic and physiological data were collected before and after a 60-day intervention. PSYCHOLOGIC: Depression (Beck Depression Inventory-2), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), mood (Profile of Mood States), absorption (Tellegen Absorption Scale) and quality of Life (World Health Organization-Quality of Life Inventory). PHYSIOLOGICAL: Cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, melatonin, insulin-like growth factor-1, serotonin, dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, weight, blood pressure, high sensitivity C-reactive protein. There was a decrease in trait anxiety (p = 0.004), an increase in quality of life (p = 0.03), and a decrease in insulin-like growth factor-1 (p = 0.01) and dopamine (p = 0.02) observed between pre- and postintervention measurements. Binaural beat technology may exhibit positive effect on self-reported psychologic measures, especially anxiety. Further research is warranted to explore the effects on anxiety using a larger, randomized and controlled trial.

  2. Visual and psychological stress during computer work in healthy, young females-physiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Randi; Falkenberg, Helle K; Fostervold, Knut Inge; Thorud, Hanne Mari S

    2018-05-30

    Among computer workers, visual complaints, and neck pain are highly prevalent. This study explores how occupational simulated stressors during computer work, like glare and psychosocial stress, affect physiological responses in young females with normal vision. The study was a within-subject laboratory experiment with a counterbalanced, repeated design. Forty-three females performed four 10-min computer-work sessions with different stress exposures: (1) minimal stress; (2) visual stress (direct glare); (3) psychological stress; and (4) combined visual and psychological stress. Muscle activity and muscle blood flow in trapezius, muscle blood flow in orbicularis oculi, heart rate, blood pressure, blink rate and postural angles were continuously recorded. Immediately after each computer-work session, fixation disparity was measured and a questionnaire regarding perceived workstation lighting and stress was completed. Exposure to direct glare resulted in increased trapezius muscle blood flow, increased blink rate, and forward bending of the head. Psychological stress induced a transient increase in trapezius muscle activity and a more forward-bent posture. Bending forward towards the computer screen was correlated with higher productivity (reading speed), indicating a concentration or stress response. Forward bent posture was also associated with changes in fixation disparity. Furthermore, during computer work per se, trapezius muscle activity and blood flow, orbicularis oculi muscle blood flow, and heart rate were increased compared to rest. Exposure to glare and psychological stress during computer work were shown to influence the trapezius muscle, posture, and blink rate in young, healthy females with normal binocular vision, but in different ways. Accordingly, both visual and psychological factors must be taken into account when optimizing computer workstations to reduce physiological responses that may cause excessive eyestrain and musculoskeletal load.

  3. Female juvenile murderers: Biological and psychological dynamics leading to homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heide, Kathleen M; Solomon, Eldra P

    2009-01-01

    The increasing involvement of girls under 18 in violent crime has been a matter of growing concern in the United States in recent years. This article reviews the arrests of female juveniles for violent crime and then focuses specifically on their involvement in homicide. Arrests of girls for murder, unlike arrests for assault, have not risen over the last 30 years, suggesting that the dynamics that propel female juveniles to engage in lethal violence differ from those contributing to assaultive behavior by this same group. A review of the literature indicates that theories as to why female adolescents kill do not take into account recent scientific findings on brain development and the biological effects of early trauma in explaining serious violent behavior by girls. Three cases, evaluated by the authors, involving female adolescents charged with murder or attempted murder, are presented. The authors focus on the biological and psychological dynamics that help explain their violent behavior. They discuss the effects of insecure attachment and child maltreatment, and trace a critical pathway between these early experiences and future risk of violent behavior. The dynamics of child maltreatment in fostering rage and violence are discussed thereafter in terms of offender accountability. The article concludes with a discussion of treatment and recommendations for future research.

  4. Competitive active video games: Physiological and psychological responses in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisón, Juan F; Cebolla, Ausias; Guixeres, Jaime; Álvarez-Pitti, Julio; Escobar, Patricia; Bruñó, Alejandro; Lurbe, Empar; Alcañiz, Mariano; Baños, Rosa

    2015-10-01

    Recent strategies to reduce sedentary behaviour in children include replacing sedentary screen time for active video games. Active video game studies have focused principally on the metabolic consumption of a single player, with physiological and psychological responses of opponent-based multiplayer games to be further evaluated. To determine whether adding a competitive component to playing active video games impacts physiological and psychological responses in players. Sixty-two healthy Caucasian children and adolescents, nine to 14 years years of age, completed three conditions (8 min each) in random order: treadmill walking, and single and opponent-based Kinect active video games. Affect, arousal, rate of perceived exertion, heart rate and percentage of heart rate reserve were measured for each participant and condition. Kinect conditions revealed significantly higher heart rate, percentage of heart rate reserve, rate of perceived exertion and arousal when compared with treadmill walking (Pvideo games improved children's psychological responses (affect and rate of perceived exertion) compared with single play, providing a solution that may contribute toward improved adherence to physical activity.

  5. Defining of medical and psychological assistance volume to women with physiological pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bozhuk

    2015-05-01

    Summary. Mother and prenate are in close symbiotic relationship, which manifests itself in the interaction at physiological and psychological levels of organisms’ functioning. Reflexive accepting yourself as a pregnant woman depends also on the the motives of conception, planed / not planed parenthood, social situation and level of psychological and social support. The aim of the research is to determine the volume and structure of medical and psychological assistance. The research was conducted in maternity hospital prenatal consultation centre of Chernihiv City Council and Municipal nonprofit company "Consultation and Diagnostic Center" of Golosiivsky district in Kyiv in 2010-2014. The research involved 185 pregnant women whose age ranged from 17 to 36 years old (group 1 μ = 25,5 ± 0,27, group 2 -μ = 24,8 ± 0,27. Women of group 1 show some fear of future childbirth, which applies to both the woman herself and the unborn child. The course of psychological education was developed for women of group 1, which included not only the educational part regarding the physiology of pregnancy and childbirth, postpartum, etc. but also the part aimed at reducing anxiety and overcoming identified fears. For the women of group 2 psychological influence is required in all researched spheres (personal, psycho-social, psycho-emotional and reproductive if the fear of future birth is present and vivid. According to conducted research for women of group 2 there were found the next targets of psycho-therapeutic influence which have been taken into account when developing the course of psycho- correction: to normalize psycho-emotional state of the pregnant woman, to reduce anxiety level; to work with identified fears; to normalize emotional relation in the dyad "prenate - mother" and creating the triad "father-mother-prenate"; to normalize family relations and to construct optimal types of family systems; to harmonize personal traits of the pregnant woman. Based on the results of

  6. Biological properties of extracellular vesicles and their physiological functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yáñez-Mó, María; Siljander, Pia R-M; Andreu, Zoraida; Zavec, Apolonija Bedina; Borràs, Francesc E; Buzas, Edit I; Buzas, Krisztina; Casal, Enriqueta; Cappello, Francesco; Carvalho, Joana; Colás, Eva; Cordeiro-da Silva, Anabela; Fais, Stefano; Falcon-Perez, Juan M; Ghobrial, Irene M; Giebel, Bernd; Gimona, Mario; Graner, Michael; Gursel, Ihsan; Gursel, Mayda; Heegaard, Niels H H; Hendrix, An; Kierulf, Peter; Kokubun, Katsutoshi; Kosanovic, Maja; Kralj-Iglic, Veronika; Krämer-Albers, Eva-Maria; Laitinen, Saara; Lässer, Cecilia; Lener, Thomas; Ligeti, Erzsébet; Linē, Aija; Lipps, Georg; Llorente, Alicia; Lötvall, Jan; Manček-Keber, Mateja; Marcilla, Antonio; Mittelbrunn, Maria; Nazarenko, Irina; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther N M; Nyman, Tuula A; O'Driscoll, Lorraine; Olivan, Mireia; Oliveira, Carla; Pállinger, Éva; Del Portillo, Hernando A; Reventós, Jaume; Rigau, Marina; Rohde, Eva; Sammar, Marei; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Santarém, N; Schallmoser, Katharina; Ostenfeld, Marie Stampe; Stoorvogel, Willem|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074352385; Stukelj, Roman; Van der Grein, Susanne G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412755211; Vasconcelos, M Helena; Wauben, Marca H M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/112675735; De Wever, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been recognized as potent vehicles of intercellular communication, both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. This is due to their capacity to transfer proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, thereby influencing various physiological and pathological

  7. Assessment of Psychological and Psycho-physiological Problems Among Visually Impaired Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneswari, Mohanraj; Immanuel Selvaraj, Chinnadurai; Selvaraj, Balakrishnan; Srinivasan, Thiruvengadam

    2016-03-01

    Visual impairment tends to evoke more discomfiture than any other disability. Primarily, the biggest issue may be that blindness is visible. Furthermore, visual impairment develops serious medical, psychological, social and economic problems. The focus of the current study was to investigate the psychological and psycho physiological problems of visually impaired adolescent students. Purposive sampling was adopted to select 150 visually impaired students (71 males and 72 females) from five schools in Coimbatore city of the Tamil Nadu state, India. Anxiety, frustration, aggression and social and personal adjustment levels of the visually impaired students were measured in this study using Taylor's manifest anxiety scale, frustration test, aggression scale and the adolescent adjustment inventory, respectively. Anxiety (χ(2) = 185.66, P = 0 at P < 0.01), frustration (χ(2) = 167.23, P = 0 at P < 0.01) and aggression (χ(2) = 57.66, P = 0 at P < 0.01) were significantly related to adjustment among visually impaired students. The adjustment score had a significant positive correlation with anxiety (r = 0.919, P = 0 at P < 0.01), frustration (r = 0.887, P = 0 at P < 0.01) and aggression levels (r = 0.664, P = 0 at P < 0.01), anxiety was significantly correlated with frustration (r = 0. 961, P = 0 at P < 0.01) and aggression levels (r = 0.727, P < 0.01) and frustration was significantly correlated with aggression level (r = 0. 637, P = 0 at P < 0.01) of visually impaired adolescents. There was a positive relationship between psycho-physiological disorders and anxiety frustration, aggression and adjustment among visually impaired students. Visually impaired students exhibited significant levels of psychological and psycho-physiological problems.

  8. Psychological and Physiological Biomarkers of Neuromuscular Fatigue after Two Bouts of Sprint Interval Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertas Skurvydas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of our study was to determinate whether a repeated bout (RB (vs. first bout [FB] of sprint interval cycling exercise (SIE is sufficient to mitigate SIE-induced psychological and physiological biomarker kinetics within 48 h after the exercise. Ten physically active men (age, 22.6 ± 5.2 years; VO2max, 44.3 ± 5.7 ml/kg/min performed the FB of SIE (12 repeats of 5 s each on one day and the RB 2 weeks later. The following parameters were measured: motor performance (voluntary, electrically induced and isokinetic skeletal muscle contraction torque, and central activation ratio [CAR]; stress markers [brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, cortisol, norepinephrine, and epinephrine]; inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α; metabolic markers (glucose and lactate; muscle and rectal temperature; cycling power output; and psychological perceptions. The average cycling power output and neuromuscular fatigue after exercise did not differ between the FB and RB. There were significant decreases in cortisol and BDNF concentration at 12 h (P < 0.05 and 24 h (P < 0.001 after the FB, respectively. The decrease in cortisol concentration observed 12 h after exercise was significantly greater after the RB (P < 0.05 than after the FB. The immune-metabolic response to the RB (vs. FB SIE was suppressed and accompanied by lower psychological exertion. Most of the changes in psychological and physiological biomarkers in the FB and RB were closely related to the response kinetics of changes in BDNF concentration.

  9. Building a Model of Employee Training through Holistic Analysis of Biological, Psychological, and Sociocultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    While theories of adult learning and motivation are often framed as being either biological, psychological, or sociocultural, they represent a more complex, integral process. To gain a more holistic perspective of this process, a study was designed to concurrently investigate relationships between a biological factor (age), psychological factors…

  10. Psychological and physiological human responses to simulated and real environments: A comparison between Photographs, 360° Panoramas, and Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuera-Trujillo, Juan Luis; López-Tarruella Maldonado, Juan; Llinares Millán, Carmen

    2017-11-01

    Psychological research into human factors frequently uses simulations to study the relationship between human behaviour and the environment. Their validity depends on their similarity with the physical environments. This paper aims to validate three environmental-simulation display formats: photographs, 360° panoramas, and virtual reality. To do this we compared the psychological and physiological responses evoked by simulated environments set-ups to those from a physical environment setup; we also assessed the users' sense of presence. Analysis show that 360° panoramas offer the closest to reality results according to the participants' psychological responses, and virtual reality according to the physiological responses. Correlations between the feeling of presence and physiological and other psychological responses were also observed. These results may be of interest to researchers using environmental-simulation technologies currently available in order to replicate the experience of physical environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Benefits of belonging: experimental manipulation of social inclusion to enhance psychological and physiological health parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begen, Fiona M; Turner-Cobb, Julie M

    2015-01-01

    Acute changes in social belonging are important triggers for alterations in health and well-being, yet research has emphasised the negative effects of 'exclusion' at the expense of evaluating the potentially positive effects of 'inclusion'. This study examined the impact of acute belonging on physiological and psychological outcomes. A healthy population (N = 138) were randomly allocated to 'included' or 'excluded' conditions. Condition-dependent differences in pre/during-task heart rate and pre/post-task self-reports of negative/positive mood, and social self-esteem, were assessed. Included participants showed decreased heart rate and negative mood, and increased social self-esteem. No inclusion-related change in positive mood was shown. An increase in heart rate was observed in excluded participants though no changes in negative/positive mood or social self-esteem were shown. Shifts in social self-esteem acted as a mechanism through which inclusion/exclusion impacted upon negative and positive mood alterations. Results remained significant in presence of covariates (sex, global self-esteem, rumination and social anxiety). Findings suggest that acting to enhance belonging through 'inclusion' resulted in adaptive physiological and psychological outcomes. Neutral and potentially protective responses were observed in the immediate aftermath of 'exclusion'. Self-esteem served as one route through which these effects were transmitted.

  12. The effect of playing videogames on social, psychological and physiological variables in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncada Jiménez, José

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this manuscript will be to present scientific evidence regarding the effects of videogame playing on different aspects of the social life of children and adolescents, as well as the general potential psychological and physiological effects. A literature review from relevant databases has been performed, and experimental and meta-analytical studies have been scrutinized for positive and negative effects of videogames in children and adolescents. In general, it has been found that there is a billionaire videogame industry and yet, despite the worldwide popularity of videogames, research is still scarce and sometimes contradictory. Some research suggests a correlation between excess time video gaming on negative social and psychological aspects such as isolation and aggressive behavior; while other research suggests a positive association with motor learning, motor re-training and resilience. As far as physiological effects it has been reported that active videogames might promote higher energy expenditure than passive videogames; therefore, given an adequate parental instruction might provide videogames beneficial properties to combat the global epidemic of sedentary behavior and obesity. Videogames and everything related «to be» in front of a screen will be common to future generations, and therefore more systematic studies are required to determine the long-term exposure effects to these devices.

  13. Investigating psychological and physiological responses to the Trier Social Stress Test in young adults with insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ivy Y; Jarrin, Denise C; Ivers, Hans; Morin, Charles M

    2017-12-01

    Stress and hyperarousal both contribute to insomnia. Elevated stress-related sleep reactivity is associated with hyperarousal, and might constitute a vulnerability to future insomnia. The present study examined acute stress-induced arousal and its association with nocturnal sleep. Participants were 30 healthy adults (66.7% female, M age  = 26.7 years): 10 with insomnia (INS) and 20 good sleepers with high vulnerability (HV) or low vulnerability (LV) to insomnia. They underwent two consecutive nights of polysomnography. During the evening preceding the second night, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was administered, and psychological and physiological arousal indices were assessed. The TSST elicited an increase in psychological and physiological arousal in all three groups. The INS group showed greater acute cortisol response (p stress reactivity and bedtime hyperarousal might represent a trait-like vulnerability in certain good sleepers. More research is warranted to validate and expand these preliminary findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The importance of physiological ecology in conservation biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, C.R.; Nussear, K.E.; Esque, T.C.; Dean-Bradley, K.; DeFalco, L.A.; Castle, K.T.; Zimmerman, L.C.; Espinoza, R.E.; Barber, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Many of the threats to the persistence of populations of sensitive species have physiological or pathological mechanisms, and those mechanisms are best understood through the inherently integrative discipline of physiological ecology. The desert tortoise was listed under the Endangered Species Act largely due to a newly recognized upper respiratory disease thought to cause mortality in individuals and severe declines in populations. Numerous hypotheses about the threats to the persistence of desert tortoise populations involve acquisition of nutrients, and its connection to stress and disease. The nutritional wisdom hypothesis posits that animals should forage not for particular food items, but instead, for particular nutrients such as calcium and phosphorus used in building bones. The optimal foraging hypothesis suggests that, in circumstances of resource abundance, tortoises should forage as dietary specialists as a means of maximizing intake of resources. The optimal digestion hypothesis suggests that tortoises should process ingesta in ways that regulate assimilation rate. Finally, the cost-of-switching hypothesis suggests that herbivores, like the desert tortoise, should avoid switching food types to avoid negatively affecting the microbe community responsible for fermenting plants into energy and nutrients. Combining hypotheses into a resource acquisition theory leads to novel predictions that are generally supported by data presented here. Testing hypotheses, and synthesizing test results into a theory, provides a robust scientific alternative to the popular use of untested hypotheses and unanalyzed data to assert the needs of species. The scientific approach should focus on hypotheses concerning anthropogenic modifications of the environment that impact physiological processes ultimately important to population phenomena. We show how measurements of such impacts as nutrient starvation, can cause physiological stress, and that the endocrine mechanisms

  15. Exercise Physiology and the Academy: Contributions to Physiological Concepts and Biological Systems during the Commemorative Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the contributions made by Academy Fellows during the past 75 years to concepts within the body of knowledge associated with exercise physiology, a literature search was undertaken. Of the charter Fellows, Hetherington and eight others (34%) were identified. Schneider in 1933 was the first of 18 Fellows who became authors, co-authors,…

  16. ‘Integrative Physiology 2.0’: integration of systems biology into physiology and its application to cardiovascular homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Diederik W D; Merkus, Daphne; van der Velden, Jolanda; Verhoeven, Adrie J M; Duncker, Dirk J

    2011-01-01

    Since the completion of the Human Genome Project and the advent of the large scaled unbiased ‘-omics’ techniques, the field of systems biology has emerged. Systems biology aims to move away from the traditional reductionist molecular approach, which focused on understanding the role of single genes or proteins, towards a more holistic approach by studying networks and interactions between individual components of networks. From a conceptual standpoint, systems biology elicits a ‘back to the future’ experience for any integrative physiologist. However, many of the new techniques and modalities employed by systems biologists yield tremendous potential for integrative physiologists to expand their tool arsenal to (quantitatively) study complex biological processes, such as cardiac remodelling and heart failure, in a truly holistic fashion. We therefore advocate that systems biology should not become/stay a separate discipline with ‘-omics’ as its playing field, but should be integrated into physiology to create ‘Integrative Physiology 2.0’. PMID:21224228

  17. Listening to music and physiological and psychological functioning: the mediating role of emotion regulation and stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, M V; Scholz, U; Ehlert, U; Nater, U M

    2012-01-01

    Music listening has been suggested to have short-term beneficial effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the association and potential mediating mechanisms between various aspects of habitual music-listening behaviour and physiological and psychological functioning. An internet-based survey was conducted in university students, measuring habitual music-listening behaviour, emotion regulation, stress reactivity, as well as physiological and psychological functioning. A total of 1230 individuals (mean = 24.89 ± 5.34 years, 55.3% women) completed the questionnaire. Quantitative aspects of habitual music-listening behaviour, i.e. average duration of music listening and subjective relevance of music, were not associated with physiological and psychological functioning. In contrast, qualitative aspects, i.e. reasons for listening (especially 'reducing loneliness and aggression', and 'arousing or intensifying specific emotions') were significantly related to physiological and psychological functioning (all p = 0.001). These direct effects were mediated by distress-augmenting emotion regulation and individual stress reactivity. The habitual music-listening behaviour appears to be a multifaceted behaviour that is further influenced by dispositions that are usually not related to music listening. Consequently, habitual music-listening behaviour is not obviously linked to physiological and psychological functioning.

  18. Bmi-1: At the crossroads of physiological and pathological biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Resham; Mustafi, Soumyajit Banerjee; Street, Mark; Dey, Anindya; Dwivedi, Shailendra Kumar Dhar

    2015-01-01

    Bmi-1 is a member of the Polycomb Repressor Complex1 that mediates gene silencing by regulating chromatin structure and is indispensable for self-renewal of both normal and cancer stem cells. Despite three decades of research that have elucidated the transcriptional regulation, post-translational modifications and functions of Bmi-1 in regulating the DNA damage response, cellular bioenergetics, and pathologies, the entire potential of a protein with such varied function remains to be realized. This review attempts to synthesize the current knowledge on Bmi-1 with an emphasis on its role in both normal physiology and cancer. Additionally, since cancer stem cells are emerging as a new paradigm for therapy resistance, the role of Bmi-1 in this perspective is also highlighted. The wide spectrum of malignancies that implicate Bmi-1 as a signature for stemness and oncogenesis also make it a suitable candidate for therapy. Nonetheless new approaches are vitally needed to further characterize physiological roles of Bmi-1 with the long-term goal of using Bmi-1 as a prognostic marker and a therapeutic target. PMID:26448339

  19. Postpartum physiology, psychology and paediatric follow up study (P4 Study) - Study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Gregory K; Roberts, Lynne; Mangos, George; Henry, Amanda; Pettit, Franziska; O'Sullivan, Anthony; Homer, Caroline S E; Craig, Maria; Harvey, Samuel B; Brown, Mark A

    2016-10-01

    Women who have had hypertension in pregnancy are at greater risk of long term cardiovascular disease (CVD). Little is known about their cardiovascular risk postpartum or the effects on the woman's mental health and the outcomes of their infants. In this project we will study the physiological and psychological health of women and the physical health and development of their infants six months, two years and five years after birth. We will establish normal blood pressure (BP) and metabolic function for women who were normotensive in pregnancy and use these to assess women who had gestational hypertension (GH) or preeclampsia (PE). Women will be asked to participate if they have given birth in the preceding six months. They will be excluded if they had diabetes, hypertension, renal or other serious maternal disease prior to pregnancy or congenital anomaly in the pregnancy. We will recruit 292 women who were normotensive and their babies, 100 who had GH and 100 who had PE and their babies. They will be assessed at six months, two and five years after birth. At each assessment mothers will have their blood pressure (BP) assessed peripherally with a liquid crystal sphygmomanometer and 24h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), and centrally with non-invasive applanation tonometry. Additional physiological testing will include: body composition; energy balance; vascular compliance; cardiac function; liver and renal function, lipids and biochemistry; glucose and insulin; and urinalysis. Psychological status will be assessed with validated self-report questionnaires for depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mother-infant bonding. The babies will have a medical examination by a paediatrician at each assessment. Their behavioural development will be assessed with an Ages and Stages Questionnaire completed by their mother at each assessment and a developmental assessment by a child psychologist at two and five years. This study will re

  20. Physiological strain in the Hungarian mining industry: The impact of physical and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, József; Nagy, Imre; Szirtes, László; Pórszász, János

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of these investigations completed on workplaces in the Hungarian mining industry were to characterize the physiological strain of workers by means of work pulse and to examine the effects of work-related psychological factors. Continuous heart rate (HR) recording was completed on 71 miners over a total of 794 shifts between 1987 and 1992 in mining plants of the Hungarian mining industry using a 6-channel recorder - Bioport (ZAK, Germany). The work processes were simultaneously documented by video recording along with drawing up the traditional ergonomic workday schedule. All workers passed health evaluation for fitness for work. The effects of different psychological factors (simulated danger, "instrument stress," presence of managers, and effect of prior involvement in accidents as well as different mining technologies and work place illumination) on the work pulse were evaluated. The statistical analysis was completed using SPSS software (version 13.0, SPSS Inc., USA). The work-related physiological strain differed between work places with different mining technologies in groups of 12-18 workers. The work pulse was lowest in bauxite mining (ΔHR = 22±8.9 bpm) and highest in drift drilling in dead rock with electric drilling machine (ΔHR = 30±6.9 bpm). During sham alarm situation the work pulse was significantly higher than during normal activities with the same physical task (ΔHR = 36.7±4.8 bpm vs. 25.8±1.6 bpm, p < 0.001). When work was performed under different psychological stress, the work pulse was consistently higher, while improving the work place illumination decreased the physiological strain appreciably (ΔHR (median, 25-75 percentiles) = 23, 20-26 bmp vs. 28, 25-31.3 bpm, p < 0.001). Recording the heart rate during whole-shift work along with the work conditions gives reliable results and helps isolating factors that contribute to increased strain. The results can be used to implement preventive and health promotion measures. This

  1. Physiological strain in the Hungarian mining industry: The impact of physical and psychological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Varga

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of these investigations completed on workplaces in the Hungarian mining industry were to characterize the physiological strain of workers by means of work pulse and to examine the effects of work-related psychological factors. Material and Methods: Continuous heart rate (HR recording was completed on 71 miners over a total of 794 shifts between 1987 and 1992 in mining plants of the Hungarian mining industry using a 6-channel recorder – Bioport (ZAK, Germany. The work processes were simultaneously documented by video recording along with drawing up the traditional ergonomic workday schedule. All workers passed health evaluation for fitness for work. The effects of different psychological factors (simulated danger, “instrument stress,” presence of managers, and effect of prior involvement in accidents as well as different mining technologies and work place illumination on the work pulse were evaluated. The statistical analysis was completed using SPSS software (version 13.0, SPSS Inc., USA. Results: The work-related physiological strain differed between work places with different mining technologies in groups of 12–18 workers. The work pulse was lowest in bauxite mining (ΔHR = 22±8.9 bpm and highest in drift drilling in dead rock with electric drilling machine (ΔHR = 30±6.9 bpm. During sham alarm situation the work pulse was significantly higher than during normal activities with the same physical task (ΔHR = 36.7±4.8 bpm vs. 25.8±1.6 bpm, p < 0.001. When work was performed under different psychological stress, the work pulse was consistently higher, while improving the work place illumination decreased the physiological strain appreciably (ΔHR (median, 25–75 percentiles = 23, 20–26 bmp vs. 28, 25–31.3 bpm, p < 0.001. Conclusions: Recording the heart rate during whole-shift work along with the work conditions gives reliable results and helps isolating factors that contribute to increased strain. The

  2. Physiological links of circadian clock and biological clock of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Chang, Hung-Chun

    2017-07-01

    Circadian rhythms orchestrate biochemical and physiological processes in living organisms to respond the day/night cycle. In mammals, nearly all cells hold self-sustained circadian clocks meanwhile couple the intrinsic rhythms to systemic changes in a hierarchical manner. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus functions as the master pacemaker to initiate daily synchronization according to the photoperiod, in turn determines the phase of peripheral cellular clocks through a variety of signaling relays, including endocrine rhythms and metabolic cycles. With aging, circadian desynchrony occurs at the expense of peripheral metabolic pathologies and central neurodegenerative disorders with sleep symptoms, and genetic ablation of circadian genes in model organisms resembled the aging-related features. Notably, a number of studies have linked longevity nutrient sensing pathways in modulating circadian clocks. Therapeutic strategies that bridge the nutrient sensing pathways and circadian clock might be rational designs to defy aging.

  3. THERMOREGULATION AND HUMAN PERFORMANCE: PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank E Marino

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Vol 53 (Medicine & Sport Science This collection on the latest interpretation of research data about the relationship between thermoregulation, exercise performance and fatigue is published as the 53rd volume of Medicine and Sport Science Journal. PURPOSE The book aims to explain how the advances in technology and methodology allowed studying the affects of the changing body temperature on metabolism and the role played by the nervous system in shaping human performance under challenging thermal situations. FEATURES This publication provides different interpretations of recent research for a better understanding of the limitations of thermoregulation in nine titles. The presented titles are: The Evolutionary Basis of Thermoregulation and Exercise Performance; Comparative Thermoregulation and the Quest for Athletic Supremacy; Thermoregulation, Fatigue and Exercise Modality; Neuromuscular Response to Exercise Heat Stress; Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction, Endotoxemia and Gastrointestinal Symptoms: The 'Canary in the Coal Mine' during Exercise-Heat Stress?; Effects of Peripheral Cooling on Characteristics of Local Muscle; Cooling Interventions for the Protection and Recovery of Exercise Performance from Exercise-Induced Heat Stress; Ethnicity and Temperature Regulation; Exercise Heat Stress and Metabolism. The evidence for the human's ability to adjust their performance according to the thermal limits in order to preserve cellular homeostasis is particularly noteworthy. AUDIENCE This is a fundamental book for any students and/or researchers involved in the fields of medicine, exercise physiology and human performance with special reference to thermal regulation. ASSESSMENT This publication is a must-read text for all those working in thermal medicine, exercise physiology and human performance fields

  4. Molecular cell biology and physiology of solute transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Michael J.; Seo-Mayer, Patricia; Zhang, Li

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review An enormous body of research has been focused on exploring the mechanisms through which epithelial cells establish their characteristic polarity. It is clear that under normal circumstances cell–cell contacts mediated by the calcium-dependent adhesion proteins of the intercellular adhesion junctions are required to initiate complete polarization. Furthermore, formation of the tight, or occluding, junctions that limit paracellular permeability has long been thought to help to establish polarity by preventing the diffusion of membrane proteins between the two plasmalemmal domains. This review will discuss several selected kinases and protein complexes and highlight their relevance to transporting epithelial cell polarization. Recent findings Recent work has shed new light on the roles of junctional complexes in establishing and maintaining epithelial cell polarity. In addition, work from several laboratories, suggests that the formation of these junctions is tied to processes that regulate cellular energy metabolism. Summary Junctional complexes and energy sensing kinases constitute a novel class of machinery whose capacity to generate and modulate epithelial cell polarity is likely to have wide ranging and important physiological ramifications. PMID:18695392

  5. Symposium on Biophysics and Physiology of Biological Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Capraro, V; Porter, K; Robertson, J

    1967-01-01

    The study of cell membranes began to attract increasing interest before the turn of the present century with the observations of 0 verton. Since that time many investigators have become interested in the broad problem of structure and function of the membrane and today we find ourselVes at a stage in which several branches of research, particularly physical chemistry, biochemistry, biophysics, physiology and pharmacology have come together, leading to the possibility of obtaining a better perspective of the overall problems. The purpose of this Symposium was to assemble in an orderly sequence representations of the knowledge of membranes achieved to date in the areas of the various disciplines. It was thought that to bring together many points of view on a problem should allow the conferees to see better what had been accomplished, what has been overlooked and what needs further development. It is to be hoped that efforts of this type have and will fulfill the desired purpose. This volume contains the majorit...

  6. Physiological and psychological individual differences influence resting brain function measured by ASL perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, M; Coen, S J; Farmer, A D; Aziz, Q; Williams, S C R; Alsop, D C; Fukudo, S; O'Gorman, R L

    2014-09-01

    Effects of physiological and/or psychological inter-individual differences on the resting brain state have not been fully established. The present study investigated the effects of individual differences in basal autonomic tone and positive and negative personality dimensions on resting brain activity. Whole-brain resting cerebral perfusion images were acquired from 32 healthy subjects (16 males) using arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI. Neuroticism and extraversion were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised. Resting autonomic activity was assessed using a validated measure of baseline cardiac vagal tone (CVT) in each individual. Potential associations between the perfusion data and individual CVT (27 subjects) and personality score (28 subjects) were tested at the level of voxel clusters by fitting a multiple regression model at each intracerebral voxel. Greater baseline perfusion in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and cerebellum was associated with lower CVT. At a corrected significance threshold of p individual autonomic tone and psychological variability influence resting brain activity in brain regions, previously shown to be associated with autonomic arousal (dorsal ACC) and personality traits (amygdala, caudate, etc.) during active task processing. The resting brain state may therefore need to be taken into account when interpreting the neurobiology of individual differences in structural and functional brain activity.

  7. Effects of adjunctive exercise on physiological and psychological parameters in depression: a randomized pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerling, Arno; Tegtbur, Uwe; Gützlaff, Elke; Kück, Momme; Borchert, Luise; Ates, Zeynep; von Bohlen, Anne; Frieling, Helge; Hüper, Katja; Hartung, Dagmar; Schweiger, Ulrich; Kahl, Kai G

    2015-05-15

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with decreased physical activity and increased rates of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. Exercise training has been shown to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic syndrome factors. Therefore, our study aimed at examining whether patients receiving an exercise program as an adjunct to inpatient treatment will benefit in terms of physiological and psychological factors. Fourty-two inpatients with moderate to severe depression were included. Twenty-two patients were randomized to additional 3x weekly exercise training (EXERCISE) and compared to treatment as usual (TAU). Exercise capacity was assessed as peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT) and workload expressed as Watts (W). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to NCEP ATPIII panel criteria. After 6 weeks of treatment, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak, VAT, Watt), waist circumference and HDL cholesterol were significantly improved in EXERCISE participants. Treatment response expressed as ≥50% MADRS reduction was more frequent in the EXERCISE group. Adjunctive exercise training in depressed inpatients improves physical fitness, MetS factors, and psychological outcome. Given the association of depression with cardiometablic disorders, exercise training is recommended as an adjunct to standard antidepressant treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Multilevel functional genomics data integration as a tool for understanding physiology: a network biology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsen, Peter K; Turan, Nil; Egginton, Stuart; Falciani, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    The overall aim of physiological research is to understand how living systems function in an integrative manner. Consequently, the discipline of physiology has since its infancy attempted to link multiple levels of biological organization. Increasingly this has involved mathematical and computational approaches, typically to model a small number of components spanning several levels of biological organization. With the advent of "omics" technologies, which can characterize the molecular state of a cell or tissue (intended as the level of expression and/or activity of its molecular components), the number of molecular components we can quantify has increased exponentially. Paradoxically, the unprecedented amount of experimental data has made it more difficult to derive conceptual models underlying essential mechanisms regulating mammalian physiology. We present an overview of state-of-the-art methods currently used to identifying biological networks underlying genomewide responses. These are based on a data-driven approach that relies on advanced computational methods designed to "learn" biology from observational data. In this review, we illustrate an application of these computational methodologies using a case study integrating an in vivo model representing the transcriptional state of hypoxic skeletal muscle with a clinical study representing muscle wasting in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. The broader application of these approaches to modeling multiple levels of biological data in the context of modern physiology is discussed. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Exercise and multiple sclerosis: physiological, psychological, and quality of life issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, G; Andersen, M B

    2001-12-01

    The case for the benefits of physical activity has been well documented in healthy individuals, and the potential for reducing the risk of mental and physical ill health is substantial. Yet, individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) have long been advised to avoid participation in exercise in order to minimise the risk of exacerbations and symptoms of fatigue. There is, however, increasing interest in how acute and chronic exercise affect physiological and psychological functioning in MS. Much of the research has examined physiological tolerance to exercise and focused on responses in terms of heart rate, blood pressure, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle function, and symptom stability. Little research has focused on understanding how exercise affects psychosocial functioning and brings about changes in depression, affect, mood, well-being, and quality of life. This paper provides a summary of the research exploring the efficacy of physical activity for people with MS. In addition, the key issues that face clinical practice are examined, and considerations for research are discussed.

  10. Effectiveness of Mindfulness-based interventions on physiological and psychological complications in adults with diabetes: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordali, Farhan; Cumming, Jennifer; Thompson, Janice L

    2017-07-01

    This systematic review aimed to examine the effectiveness of Mindfulness-based interventions in reducing diabetes-related physiological and psychological symptoms in adults with types 1 and 2 diabetes. Five databases were systematically searched. A total of 11 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Mindfulness-based intervention effectiveness for physiological outcomes (glycaemic control and blood pressure) was mixed. Mindfulness-based interventions appear to have psychological benefits reducing depression, anxiety and distress symptoms across several studies. Studies' short-term follow-up periods may not allow sufficient time to observe physiological changes or illustrate Mindfulness-based interventions' potential long-term efficacy. More long-term studies that include a consistent, standardised set of outcome measures are required.

  11. Intra-individual psychological and physiological responses to acute laboratory stressors of different intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoluda, Nadine; Strahler, Jana; Schlotz, Wolff; Niederberger, Larissa; Marques, Sofia; Fischer, Susanne; Thoma, Myriam V; Spoerri, Corinne; Ehlert, Ulrike; Nater, Urs M

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of stress is understood as a multidimensional concept which can be captured by psychological and physiological measures. There are various laboratory stress protocols which enable stress to be investigated under controlled conditions. However, little is known about whether these protocols differ with regard to the induced psycho-physiological stress response pattern. In a within-subjects design, 20 healthy young men underwent four of the most common stress protocols (Stroop test [Stroop], cold pressor test [CPT], Trier Social Stress Test [TSST], and bicycle ergometer test [Ergometer]) and a no-stress control condition (rest) in a randomized order. For the multidimensional assessment of the stress response, perceived stress, endocrine and autonomic biomarkers (salivary cortisol, salivary alpha-amylase, and heart rate) were obtained during the experiments. All stress protocols evoked increases in perceived stress levels, with the highest levels in the TSST, followed by Ergometer, Stroop, and CPT. The highest HPA axis response was found in the TSST, followed by Ergometer, CPT, and Stroop, whilst the highest autonomic response was found in the Ergometer, followed by TSST, Stroop, and CPT. These findings suggest that different stress protocols differentially stimulate various aspects of the stress response. Physically demanding stress protocols such as the Ergometer test appear to be particularly suitable for evoking autonomic stress responses, whereas uncontrollable and social-evaluative threatening stressors (such as the TSST) are most likely to elicit HPA axis stress responses. The results of this study may help researchers in deciding which stress protocol to use, depending on the individual research question. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. When pain and hunger collide; psychological influences on differences in brain activity during physiological and non-physiological gastric distension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coen, S J

    2011-06-01

    Functional neuroimaging has been used extensively in conjunction with gastric balloon distension in an attempt to unravel the relationship between the brain, regulation of hunger, satiety, and food intake tolerance. A number of researchers have also adopted a more physiological approach using intra-gastric administration of a liquid meal which has revealed different brain responses to gastric balloon distension. These differences are important as they question the utility and relevance of non-physiological models such as gastric balloon distension, especially when investigating mechanisms of feeding behavior such as satiety. However, an assessment of the relevance of physiological versus non-physiological gastric distension has been problematic due to differences in distension volumes between studies. In this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Geeraerts et al. compare brain activity during volume matched nutrient gastric distension and balloon distension in healthy volunteers. Gastric balloon distension activated the 'visceral pain neuromatrix'. This network of brain regions was deactivated during nutrient infusion, supporting the notion that brain activity during physiological versus non-physiological distension is indeed different. The authors suggest deactivation of the pain neuromatrix during nutrient infusion serves as a prerequisite for tolerance of normal meal volumes in health. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Apple biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and in postharvest according to production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Martins

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the incidence of biological and physiological disorders in the field and postharvested apples cvs. Gala, Fuji and Catarina grown in four production systems: conventional, organic transition, integrated and organic. Apples were evaluated for damages related to biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and after harvest. The greatest damages were attributed to pests, especially Anastrepha fraterculus in the organic system and Grapholita molesta in the organic transition. Apples produced in organic orchards had higher damage levels caused by postharvest physiological disorders than those grown in other production systems. For apples becoming from organic orchards most of the damage was due to lenticels breakdown and degeneration ('Gala', and bitter pit ('Fuji' and 'Catarina'. The incidence of postharvest rot was not influenced by apple production system.

  14. Human physiology and psychology in space flight; Uchu hiko ni okeru ningen no seiri to shinri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murai, T. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-10-05

    Human beings' adaptation to space and the effects on them of a prolonged stay in space are discussed. Some effects may be detrimental to crewmen even when they are medically judged as 'normal' and 'adaptable.' Bone deliming, muscular atrophy, and hypodynamia may be physiologically 'normal' and 'adaptable' in the zero-gravity environment where no strength is required to hold a position or attitude, and they will not cause any serious problems if crewmen are to stay in the zero-gravity environment permanently. Astronauts work on conditions that they return to the earth, however, and they have to stand on their own legs when back on the ground. Such being the case, they in the space vehicle are forced to make efforts at having their bone density and muscular strength sustained. It is inevitable for a space station to be a closed, isolated system, and the crewmen have to live in multinational, multicultural, and multilingual circumstances in case the flight is an international project. They will be exposed to great social and psychological stresses, and their adaptability to such stresses presents an important task. (NEDO)

  15. Effects of Endotoxin and Psychological Stress on Redox Physiology, Immunity and Feather Corticosterone in Greenfinches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Meitern

    Full Text Available Assessment of costs accompanying activation of immune system and related neuroendocrine pathways is essential for understanding the selective forces operating on these systems. Here we attempted to detect such costs in terms of disruption to redox balance and interference between different immune system components in captive wild-caught greenfinches (Carduelis chloris. Study birds were subjected to an endotoxin-induced inflammatory challenge and temporary exposure to a psychological stressor (an image of a predator in a 2*2 factorial experiment. Injection of bacterial endotoxin resulted in up-regulation of two markers of antioxidant protection - erythrocyte glutathione, and plasma oxygen radical absorbance (OXY. These findings suggest that inflammatory responses alter redox homeostasis. However, no effect on markers of oxidative damage to proteins or DNA in erythrocytes could be detected. We found no evidence that the endotoxin injection interfered with antibody production against Brucella abortus antigen or the intensity of chronic coccidiosis. The hypothesis of within-immune system trade-offs as a cost of immunity was thus not supported in our model system. We showed for the first time that administration of endotoxin can reduce the level of corticosterone deposited into feathers. This finding suggests a down-regulation of the corticosterone secretion cascade due to an endotoxin-induced immune response, a phenomenon that has not been reported previously. Exposure to the predator image did not affect any of the measured physiological parameters.

  16. Music in CrossFit®—Influence on Performance, Physiological, and Psychological Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Brupbacher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaining increasing popularity within the fitness sector, CrossFit® serves as an appealing and efficient high intensity training approach to develop strength and endurance on a functional level; and music is often utilized to produce ergogenic effects. The present randomized, controlled, crossover study aimed at investigating the effects of music vs. non-music on performance, physiological and psychological outcomes. Thirteen (age: 27.5, standard deviation (SD 6.2 years, healthy, moderately trained subjects performed four identical workouts over two weeks. The order of the four workouts (two with, and two without music, 20 min each was randomly assigned for each individual. Acute responses in work output, heart rate, blood lactate, rate of perceived exertion, perceived pain, and affective reaction were measured at the 5th, 10th, 15th, and 20th min during the training sessions. Training with music resulted in a significantly lower work output (460.3 repetitions, SD 98.1 vs. 497.8 repetitions, SD 103.7; p = 0.03. All other parameters did not differ between both music conditions. This is partly in line with previous findings that instead of providing ergogenic effects, applying music during CrossFit® may serve as a more distractive stimulus. Future studies should separate the influence of music on a more individual basis with larger sample sizes.

  17. Abnormal illness behaviour: physiological, psychological and social dimensions of coping with distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Looper, Karl J

    2006-01-01

    Pilowsky introduced the term 'abnormal illness behaviour' to characterize syndromes of excessive or inadequate response to symptoms, including hypochondriasis, somatization, and denial of illness. This review summarizes recent work from sociology, health psychology and psychiatry that contributes to an understanding of the processes that may underlie abnormal illness behaviour. Disturbances in the regulation of physiological systems may account for many 'unexplained' symptoms and sickness behaviour. Increased attention to bodily sensations, sensitivity to pain and catastrophizing play important roles in illness behaviour in medical illness. Developmental adversities and parental modelling of illness behaviour in childhood may increase bodily preoccupation and health care utilization. Apparent cross-national differences in illness behaviour may reflect differences in health care systems, but cultural models of illness and social stigma remain important determinants of illness denial and avoidance of mental health services. Research into illness behaviour is relevant to efforts to rethink the psychiatric nosology of somatoform disorders. The discrete somatoform disorders might well be replaced by a dimensional framework that identifies specific pathological processes in cognition, perception and social behaviour that contribute to bodily distress, impaired coping, inappropriate use of health services, chronicity and disability.

  18. Young adults' psychological and physiological reactions to the 2016 U.S. presidential election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Lindsay T; Zeiders, Katharine H; Chaku, Natasha; Toomey, Russell B; Nair, Rajni L

    2018-06-01

    Elections present unique opportunities to study how sociopolitical events influence individual processes. The current study examined 286 young adults' mood and diurnal cortisol responses to the 2016 U.S. presidential election in real-time: two days before the election, election night, and two days after the election of Donald Trump, with the goal of understanding whether (and the extent to which) the election influenced young adults' affective and biological states. Utilizing piecewise trajectory analyses, we observed high, and increasing, negative affect leading up to the election across all participants. Young adults who had negative perceptions of Trump's ability to fulfill the role of president and/or were part of a non-dominant social group (i.e., women, ethnic/racial minority young adults) reported increased signs of stress before the election and on election night. After the election, we observed a general "recovery" in self-reported mood; however, diurnal cortisol indicators suggested that there was an increase in biological stress among some groups. Overall, findings underscore the role of macro-level factors in individuals' health and well-being via more proximal attitudes and physiological functioning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Systems Biology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Physiology and its DNA Damage Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazio, Alessandro

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model organism in biology, being widely used in fundamental research, the first eukaryotic organism to be fully sequenced and the platform for the development of many genomics techniques. Therefore, it is not surprising that S. cerevisiae has also been widely...... used in the field of systems biology during the last decade. This thesis investigates S. cerevisiae growth physiology and DNA damage response by using a systems biology approach. Elucidation of the relationship between growth rate and gene expression is important to understand the mechanisms regulating...... set of growth dependent genes by using a multi-factorial experimental design. Moreover, new insights into the metabolic response and transcriptional regulation of these genes have been provided by using systems biology tools (Chapter 3). One of the prerequisite of systems biology should...

  20. Cell physiology at the Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory: a brief look back and forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory (MDIBL) has played important roles in the development of modern physiological concepts and tools, particularly in the fields of kidney and epithelial cell physiology. Over the last decade, MDIBL has undergone remarkable growth and evolution. This article will briefly review MDIBL's past and outline its future directions. It is hoped that this overview will renew and stimulate interest in MDIBL and, in particular, will encourage an even wider community of physiologists to participate in its ongoing growth and development. PMID:21068363

  1. Acute Effect of Virtual Reality Exercise Bike Games on College Students' Physiological and Psychological Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Nan; Pope, Zachary; Gao, Zan

    2017-07-01

    Commercially available virtual reality (VR) exercise systems are extensively used in many health domains among clinical populations. However, evidence regarding the efficacy of this technology on healthy adults' health-related outcomes is unknown. This pilot study compared physiological and psychological responses following exercise on a VR-based exercise bike (VirZoom) and traditional stationary exercise bike. Twelve healthy college students (9 females; M age  = 25.01, SD = ± 4.74; M BMI  = 22.84, SD = ± 3.68) completed two separate 20-minute exercise sessions on the VR-based exercise bike and traditional stationary exercise bike. Blood pressure (BP), ratings of perceived exertion, self-efficacy, and enjoyment were assessed as primary outcomes. Dependent t-tests indicated no significant differences in mean systolic or diastolic BP changes from pre to postexercise between the VR-based exercise and traditional stationary biking sessions (all p > 0.05). Notably, participants reported significantly higher ratings of perceived exertion (p < 0.05, Cohen's d = 0.68) during the traditional exercise biking session compared with VR-based exercise biking session. However, participants had significantly higher self-efficacy (p < 0.05, Cohen's d = -0.83) and enjoyment (p < 0.05, Cohen's d = -0.89) during the VR-based exercise biking session compared with traditional stationary biking. The commercially available VR-based exercise bike (VirZoom) may be considered an effective, enjoyable, and motivating physical activity tool. Further interventions with larger and more diverse samples and examinations of more health-related outcomes are warranted to determine optimal application of VR-based exercise programming among various populations.

  2. Ayahuasca: Psychological And Physiologic Effects, Pharmacology And Potential Uses In Addiction And Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, Jonathan; Hallak, Jaime; Dursun, Serdar M; Baker, Glen

    2018-01-24

    Ayahuasca, a traditional Amazonian decoction with psychoactive properties, is made from bark of the Banisteriopsis caapi vine (contains beta-carboline alkaloids) and leaves of the Psychotria viridis bush (supply the hallucinogen N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT)). Originally used by indigenous shamans for the purposes of spirit communication, magical experiences, healing, and religious rituals, across several South American countries ayahuasca has been incorporated into folk medicine and spiritual healing, and several Brazilian churches use it routinely to foster spiritual experience. More recently it is being used in Europe and North America, not only for religious or healing reasons, but also for recreation. To review ayahuasca's behavioral effects, possible adverse effects, proposed mechanisms of action and potential clinical uses in mental illness. We searched Medline, in English, using the terms ayahuasca, dimethytryptamine, Banisteriopsis caapi, and Psychotria viridis and reviewed the relevant publications. The following aspects of ayahuasca are summarized: Political and legal factors; acute and chronic psychological effects; electrophysiological studies and imaging; physiological effects, safety and adverse effects; pharmacology; potential psychiatric uses. Many years of shamanic wisdom have indicated potential therapeutic uses for ayahuasca, and many present day studies suggest that it may be useful for treating various psychiatric disorders and addictions. The side effect profile appears to be relatively mild, but more detailed studies need to be done. Several prominent researchers feel that government regulations with regard to ayahuasca should be relaxed so that it could be provided more readily to recognized credible researchers to conduct comprehensive clinical trials. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Development of Animal Physiology Practical Guidance Oriented Guided Inquiry for Student of Biology Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Z. A. Z.; Sumarmin, R.; Violita, V.

    2018-04-01

    The guides used for practicing animal physiology need to be revised and adapted to the lecture material. This is because in the subject of Animal Physiology. The guidance of animal physiology practitioners is still conventional with prescription model instructions and is so simple that it is necessary to develop a practical guide that can lead to the development of scientific work. One of which is through practice guided inquiry guided practicum guide. This study aims to describe the process development of the practical guidance and reveal the validity, practicality, and effectiveness Guidance Physiology Animals guided inquiry inferior to the subject of Animal Physiology for students Biology Department State University of Padang. This type of research is development research. This development research uses the Plomp model. Stages performed are problem identification and analysis stage, prototype development and prototyping stage, and assessment phase. Data analysis using descriptive analysis. The instrument of data collection using validation and practical questionnaires, competence and affective field of competence observation and psychomotor and cognitive domain competence test. The result of this research shows that guidance of Inquiry Guided Initiative Guided Physiology with 3.23 valid category, practicality by lecturer with value 3.30 practical category, student with value 3.37 practical criterion. Affective effectiveness test with 93,00% criterion is very effective, psychomotor aspect 89,50% with very effective criteria and cognitive domain with value of 67, pass criterion. The conclusion of this research is Guided Inquiry Student Guided Protoxial Guidance For Students stated valid, practical and effective.

  4. The College Student and Marijuana: Research Findings Concerning Adverse Biological and Psychological Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholi, Armand M., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This paper focuses on current knowledge about adverse biological and psychological affects of marijuana use, with special reference to risks for college students. Short-term effects on intellectual functioning and perceptual-motor coordination and long-term effects on reproduction and motivation are highlighted. (PP)

  5. Psychological Effects towards Humans Living in the Environment Made of Biological Concrete in Malaysia at 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirreza Talaiekhozani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In day-to-day life concrete become a compulsory material in the construction field as to make it a real concern among researchers for producing concrete with improved properties. Biological method is one of the new methods to improve concrete properties. Although, much research about biological concrete has been carried out, but till now nobody has not studied for the psychological effects of using a house or offices made up of biological concrete. The aim of this study is to investigate and find out the person's opinion about staying in a house or offices made up of biological concrete. In this study, a questionnaire containing eight questions was prepared and distributed among 21 persons in Malaysia University of Technology including students, academic and non-academic staffs among which few of them was an expert in the field of biological concrete and others did not have any knowledge about the bioconcrete. Finally, the results obtained from the questionnaires were analyzed. The results showed that 81% of participants in this study would like to stay in a house or office made up of biological concrete. However, 38% of participants believe that staying in a house or office made of biological concrete can cause health related problems. The current research paper can be considered significant for architects and civil engineers to have the insight to look into the psychological aspects of using biological concrete for various applications in the field of construction.

  6. DAISY: a new software tool to test global identifiability of biological and physiological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellu, Giuseppina; Saccomani, Maria Pia; Audoly, Stefania; D'Angiò, Leontina

    2007-10-01

    A priori global identifiability is a structural property of biological and physiological models. It is considered a prerequisite for well-posed estimation, since it concerns the possibility of recovering uniquely the unknown model parameters from measured input-output data, under ideal conditions (noise-free observations and error-free model structure). Of course, determining if the parameters can be uniquely recovered from observed data is essential before investing resources, time and effort in performing actual biomedical experiments. Many interesting biological models are nonlinear but identifiability analysis for nonlinear system turns out to be a difficult mathematical problem. Different methods have been proposed in the literature to test identifiability of nonlinear models but, to the best of our knowledge, so far no software tools have been proposed for automatically checking identifiability of nonlinear models. In this paper, we describe a software tool implementing a differential algebra algorithm to perform parameter identifiability analysis for (linear and) nonlinear dynamic models described by polynomial or rational equations. Our goal is to provide the biological investigator a completely automatized software, requiring minimum prior knowledge of mathematical modelling and no in-depth understanding of the mathematical tools. The DAISY (Differential Algebra for Identifiability of SYstems) software will potentially be useful in biological modelling studies, especially in physiology and clinical medicine, where research experiments are particularly expensive and/or difficult to perform. Practical examples of use of the software tool DAISY are presented. DAISY is available at the web site http://www.dei.unipd.it/~pia/.

  7. Biological and psychological predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder onset and chronicity. A one-year prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gandubert

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: This prospective study shows that peritraumatic psychological and biological markers are independent predictors of PTSD onset with specificities according to the stage of PTSD development; the psychological diathesis, i.e. peritraumatic distress and dissociation, being a better predictor of short-term dysfunction whereas biological diathesis was also predictive of development and maintenance of PTSD.

  8. Sociogenomic Personality Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W.; Jackson, Joshua J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we address a number of issues surrounding biological models of personality traits. Most traditional and many contemporary biological models of personality traits assume that biological systems underlying personality traits are causal and immutable. In contrast, sociogenomic biology, which we introduce to readers in this article, directly contradicts the widely held assumption that something that is biological, heritable, or temperamental, is unchangeable. We provide examples of how seemingly unchanging biological systems, such as DNA, are both dependent on environments for elicitation and can be modified by environmental changes. Finally, we synthesize sociogenomic biology with personality psychology in a model of personality traits that integrates this more modern perspective on biology, physiology, and environment that we term sociogenomic personality psychology. We end the article with a discussion of the future directions of sociogenomic personality psychology. PMID:19012657

  9. A sigh of relief or a sigh to relieve: The psychological and physiological relief effect of deep breaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlemincx, Elke; Van Diest, Ilse; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2016-10-15

    Both animal and human research have revealed important associations between sighs and relief. Previously we argued to conceive of sighs as resetters which temporarily induce relief. The present study aimed to investigate the psychological and physiological relief effect of sighs by instructed deep breaths and spontaneous sighs compared to a control breathing maneuver. Participants completed three blocks of 40 trials during which uncertainty cues were followed by either safety cues followed by a positive picture, or danger cues followed by a negative picture. One block was presented without breathing instructions, two subsequent blocks with breathing instructions. During the presentation of the safety and danger cues, an instruction was given to either 'take a deep breath' or 'postpone the next inhalation for 2 s (breath hold). Continuously, participants rated relief and Frontalis electromyography was recorded. Trait anxiety sensitivity was assessed by the Anxiety Sensitivity Index. Self-reported relief and physiological tension were compared 5s before and after instructed deep breaths and breath holds, and before and after spontaneous deep breaths and breath holds in the respective blocks. Results show that self-reported relief following an instructed deep breath was higher than before. Physiological tension decreased following a spontaneous sigh in high anxiety sensitive persons and following a spontaneous breath hold in low anxiety sensitive persons. These results are the first to show that a deep breath relieves and, in anxiety sensitive persons, reduces physiological tension. These findings support the hypothesis that sighs are psychological and physiological resetters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of the psychological, physiological and EEG profile of acute betel quid intoxication in naïve subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Peter G; Chou, Tung-Shan; Shen, Tsu-Wang

    2011-01-01

    Betel quid use and abuse is wide spread in Asia but the physiological basis of intoxication and addiction are unknown. In subjects naïve to the habit of betel quid intoxication, the psychological and physiological profile of intoxication has never been reported. We compared the effect of chewing gum or chewing betel quid, and subsequent betel quid intoxication, on psychological assessment, prospective time interval estimation, numerical and character digit span, computerized 2 choice tests and mental tasks such as reading and mathematics with concurrent monitoring of ECG, EEG and face temperature in healthy, non-sleep deprived, male subjects naïve to the habit of chewing betel quid. Betel quid intoxication, dose dependently induced tachycardia (max 30 bpm) and elevated face temperature (0.7°C) (Pbetel quid intoxication. Betel quid intoxication strongly influenced the psychological aspects of perception such as slowing of the prospective perception of passage of a 1 minute time interval in 8 subjects (Pbetel quid intoxication in 10 subjects. The prevalence of betel quid consumption across a range of social and work settings warrants greater investigation of this widespread but largely under researched drug.

  11. Characterization of the Psychological, Physiological and EEG Profile of Acute Betel Quid Intoxication in Naïve Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Peter G.; Chou, Tung-Shan; Shen, Tsu-Wang

    2011-01-01

    Betel quid use and abuse is wide spread in Asia but the physiological basis of intoxication and addiction are unknown. In subjects naïve to the habit of betel quid intoxication, the psychological and physiological profile of intoxication has never been reported. We compared the effect of chewing gum or chewing betel quid, and subsequent betel quid intoxication, on psychological assessment, prospective time interval estimation, numerical and character digit span, computerized 2 choice tests and mental tasks such as reading and mathematics with concurrent monitoring of ECG, EEG and face temperature in healthy, non-sleep deprived, male subjects naïve to the habit of chewing betel quid. Betel quid intoxication, dose dependently induced tachycardia (max 30 bpm) and elevated face temperature (0.7°C) (Pchewing gum (max 12 bpm and 0.3°C) in 12 subjects. Gross behavioral indices of working memory such as numerical or character digit span in 8 subjects, or simple visual-motor performance such as reaction speed or accuracy in a two choice scenario in 8 subjects were not affected by betel quid intoxication. Betel quid intoxication strongly influenced the psychological aspects of perception such as slowing of the prospective perception of passage of a 1 minute time interval in 8 subjects (Pincreased arousal (Pchewing gum by betel quid intoxication in 10 subjects. The prevalence of betel quid consumption across a range of social and work settings warrants greater investigation of this widespread but largely under researched drug. PMID:21909371

  12. Effects of music tempo on performance, psychological, and physiological variables during 20 km cycling in well-trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Few studies have investigated the effects of music on trained athletes during high intensity endurance tasks. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of different music tempi on performance, psychological, and physiological responses of well-trained cyclists to time trial cycling. 10 male road cyclists (M age = 35 yr., SD = 7), with a minimum of three years racing experience, performed four 20-km time trials on a Computrainer Pro 3D indoor cycle trainer over a period of four weeks. The time-trials were spaced one week apart. The music conditions for each trial were randomised between fast-tempo (140 bpm), medium-tempo (120 bpm), slow-tempo (100 bpm), and no music. Performance (completion time, power output, average speed and cadence), physiological (heart rate, oxygen consumption, breathing frequency and respiratory exchange ratio), psychophysical (RPE), and psychological (mood states) data were collected for each trial. Results indicated no significant changes in performance, physiological, or psychophysical variables. Total mood disturbance and tension increased significantly in the fast-tempo trial when compared with medium and no-music conditions.

  13. Apology isn't good enough: an apology suppresses an approach motivation but not the physiological and psychological anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Kenta; Okanoya, Kazuo; Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Although studies have emphasized the multiple components of anger, little is known about the physiological and psychological mechanisms of the approach motivational component and the negative emotional component of anger. In the present study, participants wrote brief opinions about social problems (e.g., tuition hikes) and received a handwritten, insulting comment about their composition from the experimenter. Half of the participants (apology group) received a simple apologetic sentence at the end of the insulting comment. Half of the participants (no apology group) did not receive one. The physiological responses of the participants were recorded prior to, and after they read the comments. Increases in heart rate and asymmetric frontal brain activity were suppressed only in the apology group. Both groups showed an increase in skin conductance response. Our psychological scales showed that the apology suppressed self reported state anger from an approach-motivational standpoint but not from a negative emotional standpoint. The results suggest that anger is not a unitary process but has multiple components. The apology did provide a different physiological profile but did not dampen down the subjective experience of anger. Thus, providing an apology may not always be effective for alleviating the experience of anger to an insult.

  14. The pharmacology of the human female orgasm - its biological and physiological backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Roy J

    2014-06-01

    The female orgasm has been examined over the years by numerous scientific disciplines yet it still has many secrets to be disclosed. Because its physiology, especially its neurophysiology, is sparingly understood its pharmacology is necessarily limited based mainly on the side effects of drugs. Few published studies have used a placebo group as controls. The paucity of focussed studies is well illustrated by the fact that there still is no approved medication to treat female orgasmic dysfunction. The present brief overview examines the most important aspects of its biology and especially its physiology highlighting the many questions that need answering if we are to have a comprehensive pharmacology of the female orgasm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of biological, experiential and psychological factors in wine preference segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Gary J; Hayes, John E

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims We sought to determine the influence of selected biological, experiential and psychological variables on self-reported liking and consumption of wine in a sample of 329 Ontario wine consumers. Methods and Results Cluster analysis revealed three distinct groups, representing plausible market segments: wine lovers; dry table wine likers/sweet dislikers; and sweet wine likers/fortified dislikers. These groups differ in level of wine expertise, wine adventurousness, alcohol intake, bitterness from 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), and several demographic variables. PROP hypo-tasters (n=113) and PROP hyper-tasters (n=112) differed in liking scores for nine of the 11 wine styles [ANCOVA, P(F)variables examined. Taste phenotype also contributes significantly to variation in wine liking. Significance of the Study Ontario wine consumers fall into one of three wine liking clusters, which differ in experiential, biological, psychological and demographic features that can be targeted through branding and marketing strategies. PMID:28579910

  16. The effect of abstract versus concrete framing on judgments of biological and psychological bases of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nancy S; Johnson, Samuel G B; Ahn, Woo-Kyoung; Knobe, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Human behavior is frequently described both in abstract, general terms and in concrete, specific terms. We asked whether these two ways of framing equivalent behaviors shift the inferences people make about the biological and psychological bases of those behaviors. In five experiments, we manipulated whether behaviors are presented concretely (i.e. with reference to a specific person, instantiated in the particular context of that person's life) or abstractly (i.e. with reference to a category of people or behaviors across generalized contexts). People judged concretely framed behaviors to be less biologically based and, on some dimensions, more psychologically based than the same behaviors framed in the abstract. These findings held true for both mental disorders (Experiments 1 and 2) and everyday behaviors (Experiments 4 and 5), and yielded downstream consequences for the perceived efficacy of disorder treatments (Experiment 3). Implications for science educators, students of science, and members of the lay public are discussed.

  17. Key Issues Concerning Biolog Use for Aerobic and Anaerobic Freshwater Bacterial Community-Level Physiological Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Bradley W.; Lind, Owen T.

    2006-06-01

    Bacterial heterotrophy in aquatic ecosystems is important in the overall carbon cycle. Biolog MicroPlates provide information into the metabolic potential of bacteria involved in carbon cycling. Specifically, Biolog EcoPlatesTM were developed with ecologically relevant carbon substrates to allow investigators to measure carbon substrate utilization patterns and develop community-level physiological profiles from natural bacterial assemblages. However, understanding of the functionality of these plates in freshwater research is limited. We explored several issues of EcoPlate use for freshwater bacterial assemblages including inoculum density, incubation temperature, non-bacterial color development, and substrate selectivity. Each of these has various effects on plate interpretation. We offer suggestions and techniques to resolve these interpretation issues. Lastly we propose a technique to allow EcoPlate use in anaerobic freshwater bacterial studies.

  18. [Office employees physiological and psychological state effects of workplace peculiarities comprehensive analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Consumer goods company clerkship working condition hygienic evaluation, psychological state and cardio-vascular system analyses have shown that work tension is governing factor for organism functional strain development in comparison with occupational environment factors. Received data confirm determined before indices comprehension as specific for psychological and cardio-vascular system state reserves decrease degree under mental work tension elevation. For purpose of functional strain and overstrain manifestation before occupational disease incipient character forming early warning "Methodical recommendation on occupational stress under office employees arduous mental work evaluation" was developed.

  19. The Physiological and Psychological Effects of Ostracism in Adults with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmer, Emily; McDonald, Skye; Kelly, Michelle; Rushby, Jacqueline Ann

    2017-01-01

    Whilst some form of ostracism is experienced by most people at some point in their lives, it is experienced far more often in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Little is known about how this social exclusion is interpreted, experienced or managed. This study aimed to explore the psychological (mood and social needs) as well as the…

  20. Custom AFM for X-ray beamlines: in situ biological investigations under physiological conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumí-Audenis, B. [ESRF, The European Synchrotron, Grenoble (France); Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), Barcelona (Spain); Physical Chemistry Department, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Networking Biomedical Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Madrid (Spain); Carlà, F. [ESRF, The European Synchrotron, Grenoble (France); Vitorino, M. V. [University of Lisboa, Falculty of Science, Biosystems and Integrative Sciences Institute - BIOISI, Lisbon (Portugal); Panzarella, A. [ESRF, The European Synchrotron, Grenoble (France); Porcar, L. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Boilot, M. [ORTEC, Marseille (France); Guerber, S. [CEA, LETI Grenoble (France); Bernard, P. [ESRF, The European Synchrotron, Grenoble (France); Rodrigues, M. S. [University of Lisboa, Falculty of Science, Biosystems and Integrative Sciences Institute - BIOISI, Lisbon (Portugal); Sanz, F.; Giannotti, M. I. [Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), Barcelona (Spain); Physical Chemistry Department, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Networking Biomedical Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Madrid (Spain); Costa, L., E-mail: luca.costa@esrf.fr [ESRF, The European Synchrotron, Grenoble (France)

    2015-09-30

    The performance of a custom atomic force microscope for grazing-incidence X-ray experiments on hydrated soft and biological samples is presented. A fast atomic force microscope (AFM) has been developed that can be installed as a sample holder for grazing-incidence X-ray experiments at solid/gas or solid/liquid interfaces. It allows a wide range of possible investigations, including soft and biological samples under physiological conditions (hydrated specimens). The structural information obtained using the X-rays is combined with the data gathered with the AFM (morphology and mechanical properties), providing a unique characterization of the specimen and its dynamics in situ during an experiment. In this work, lipid monolayers and bilayers in air or liquid environment have been investigated by means of AFM, both with imaging and force spectroscopy, and X-ray reflectivity. In addition, this combination allows the radiation damage induced by the beam on the sample to be studied, as has been observed on DOPC and DPPC supported lipid bilayers under physiological conditions.

  1. Physiological and psychological effects of forest therapy on middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Hiroko; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong; Kobayashi, Maiko; Takamatsu, Ako; Miura, Takashi; Kagawa, Takahide; Li, Qing; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Imai, Michiko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-02-25

    Time spent walking and relaxing in a forest environment ("forest bathing" or "forest therapy") has well demonstrated anti-stress effects in healthy adults, but benefits for ill or at-risk populations have not been reported. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of forest therapy (relaxation and stress management activity in the forest) on middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure. Blood pressure and several physiological and psychological indices of stress were measured the day before and approximately 2 h following forest therapy. Both pre- and post-treatment measures were conducted at the same time of day to avoid circadian influences. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), urinary adrenaline, and serum cortisol were all significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy (ptherapy. These results highlight that forest is a promising treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure into the optimal range and possibly prevent progression to clinical hypertension in middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure.

  2. Effects of Inhalation of Emissions from Cedar Timber on Psychological and Physiological Factors in an Indoor Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Azuma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Components extracted from cedar timber have been reported to have stress-reducing effects in humans. If the positive effects of cedar timber in indoor environments are scientifically proven, an indoor environment that utilizes cedar timber may contribute to the improvement or promotion of well-being in humans. In this study, we evaluated the effects of inhaling emissions of volatile constituents from cedar timber (Cryptomeria japonica on the psychological and physiological factors in indoor environments. A case-control study with a crossover design was conducted with 10 subjects occupying two rooms that were controlled for interior materials, indoor climate, and room size. Cedrol and β-eudesmol were specifically detected in the case room. However, no significant differences were observed in psychological and physiological factors. There was a significant loss in vigor in the control group from the time before entering the room to the time after leaving the room; however, this loss in vigor was not seen in the case group. Temperature conditions were higher than the indoor environmental standard in Japan but similar in the two groups. Our results showed a minor positive change in vigor among participants exposed to cedar timber for a short term. Inhalation of emissions of volatile constituents from cedar timber may have positive effects in humans; however, further research on their efficacy is needed.

  3. Physiological and Psychological Effects of Forest Therapy on Middle-Aged Males with High-Normal Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Ochiai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Time spent walking and relaxing in a forest environment (“forest bathing” or “forest therapy” has well demonstrated anti-stress effects in healthy adults, but benefits for ill or at-risk populations have not been reported. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of forest therapy (relaxation and stress management activity in the forest on middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure. Blood pressure and several physiological and psychological indices of stress were measured the day before and approximately 2 h following forest therapy. Both pre- and post-treatment measures were conducted at the same time of day to avoid circadian influences. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP, urinary adrenaline, and serum cortisol were all significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy (p < 0.05. Subjects reported feeling significantly more “relaxed” and “natural” according to the Semantic Differential (SD method. Profile of Mood State (POMS negative mood subscale scores for “tension-anxiety,” “confusion,” and “anger-hostility,” as well as the Total Mood Disturbance (TMD score were significantly lower following forest therapy. These results highlight that forest is a promising treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure into the optimal range and possibly prevent progression to clinical hypertension in middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure.

  4. The role of non-rainfall water on physiological activation in desert biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiaoli; Peng, Chengrong; Li, Hua; Li, Shuangshuang; Huang, Shun; Hu, Yao; Zhang, Jinli; Li, Dunhai

    2018-01-01

    Non-rainfall water (NRW, e.g. fog and dew), in addition to rainfall and snowfall, are considered important water inputs to drylands. At the same time, biological soil crusts (BSCs) are important components of drylands. However, little information is available regarding the effect of NRW inputs on BSC activation. In this study, the effects of NRW on physiological activation in three BSC successional stages, including the cyanobacteria crust stage (Crust-C), moss colonization stage (Crust-CM), and moss crust stage (Crust-M), were studied in situ. Results suggest NRW inputs hydrated and activated physiological activity (Fv/Fm, carbon exchange, and nitrogen fixation) in BSCs but led to a negative carbon balance and low rates of nitrogen fixation in BSCs. One effective NRW event could hydrate BSCs for 7 h. Following simulated rainfall, the physiological activities recovered within 3 h, and net carbon gain occurred until 3 h after hydration, whereas NRW-induced physiological recovery processes were slower and exhibited lower activities, leading to a negative carbon balance. There were significant positive correlations between NRW amounts and the recovered values of Fv/Fm in all the three BSC stages (p < .001). The thresholds for Fv/Fm activation decreased with BSC succession, and the annual effective NRW events increased with BSC succession, with values of 29.8, 89.2, and 110.7 in Crust-C, Crust-CM and Crust-M, respectively. The results suggest that moss crust and moss-cyanobacteria crust use NRW to prolong metabolic activity and reduce drought stress more efficiently than cyanobacteria crusts. Therefore, these results suggest that BSCs utilize NRW to sustain life while growth and biomass accumulation require precipitation (rainfall) events over a certain threshold.

  5. Dental anxiety: a comparison of students of dentistry, biology, and psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storjord HP

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Helene Persen Storjord,1 Mari Mjønes Teodorsen,1 Jan Bergdahl,1 Rolf Wynn,2,3 Jan-Are Kolset Johnsen1 1Department of Clinical Dentistry, 2Department of Clinical Medicine, UiT - The Arctic University of Norway, 3Division of Addictions and Specialized Psychiatric Services, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway Introduction: Dental anxiety is an important challenge for many patients and clinicians. It is thus of importance to know more about dental students' own experiences with dental anxiety and their understanding of dental anxiety. The aim was to investigate differences in dental anxiety levels between dental students, psychology students, and biology students at a Norwegian university. Materials and methods: A total of 510 students of dentistry, psychology, and biology at the University of Tromsø received a questionnaire consisting of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, demographic questions, and questions relating to their last visit to the dentist/dental hygienist; 169 students gave complete responses. Nonparametric tests were used to investigate differences between the student groups. Results: The respondents were 78% female and 22% male; their mean age was 24 years. The dental students showed a significantly lower degree of dental anxiety than the psychology (P<0.001 and biology students (P<0.001. A significant decrease in dental anxiety levels was found between novice and experienced dentistry students (P<0.001. Discussion: The dental students had less dental anxiety compared to psychology students and biology students. Experienced dental students also had less dental anxiety than novice dental students. This could indicate that the dentistry program structure at the university may influence dental anxiety levels. Conclusion: Dental anxiety seemed to be less frequent in dentistry students compared to students of biology or clinical psychology. The practice-oriented dentistry education at the university might contribute to

  6. Characterization of the psychological, physiological and EEG profile of acute betel quid intoxication in naïve subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G Osborne

    Full Text Available Betel quid use and abuse is wide spread in Asia but the physiological basis of intoxication and addiction are unknown. In subjects naïve to the habit of betel quid intoxication, the psychological and physiological profile of intoxication has never been reported. We compared the effect of chewing gum or chewing betel quid, and subsequent betel quid intoxication, on psychological assessment, prospective time interval estimation, numerical and character digit span, computerized 2 choice tests and mental tasks such as reading and mathematics with concurrent monitoring of ECG, EEG and face temperature in healthy, non-sleep deprived, male subjects naïve to the habit of chewing betel quid. Betel quid intoxication, dose dependently induced tachycardia (max 30 bpm and elevated face temperature (0.7°C (P<0.001 above the effects observed in response to chewing gum (max 12 bpm and 0.3°C in 12 subjects. Gross behavioral indices of working memory such as numerical or character digit span in 8 subjects, or simple visual-motor performance such as reaction speed or accuracy in a two choice scenario in 8 subjects were not affected by betel quid intoxication. Betel quid intoxication strongly influenced the psychological aspects of perception such as slowing of the prospective perception of passage of a 1 minute time interval in 8 subjects (P<0.05 and perceived increased arousal (P<0.01 and perceived decreased ability to think (P<0.05 in 31 subjects. The EEG spectral profile recorded from mental states associated with open and closed eyes, and mental tasks such as reading and eyes closed mental arithmetic were significantly modified (P<0.05 relative to chewing gum by betel quid intoxication in 10 subjects. The prevalence of betel quid consumption across a range of social and work settings warrants greater investigation of this widespread but largely under researched drug.

  7. Physiological and psychological reactions to work in men and women with identical job tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Roger; Hansen, Åse Marie; Ohlsson, Kerstina

    2009-01-01

    decrease in perceived energy levels during the workshift but there were no differences between men and women as regards cortisol, adrenaline, noradrenaline, heart-rate activation, perceived stress, pain and physical exertion. In conclusion, differential physiological activation during the workshift seem...

  8. Psychological Distress and Physiological Reactivity During In Vivo Exposure in People With Aviophobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, B.; Spinhoven, P.; de Geus, E.J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Exposure is regarded to be a crucial component of therapies for phobias. According to emotional processing theory, the success of exposure therapy is predicted by activation of subjective and physiological fear responses and their within-session habituation and between-session adaptation.

  9. Physiology as the antechamber to metaphysics: the young William James's hope for a philosophical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, P J

    1999-11-01

    In the 5 years before 1878, when his career in psychology was becoming established, William James wrote a series of notes and reviews assessing the work of many of the pioneers in the new field. Adopting a public and confident voice, even while he was privately still uncertain and searching, James criticized the dogmatism of positivist and idealist claims to the study of the human brain and mind. In his short writings of 1873-1877, James started to formulate his own middle path. His first steps on that path show that he did not reject either scientific or philosophic inquiry; instead, he viewed scientific knowledge as a way to understand philosophical questions more deeply. Saving his sharpest critiques for positivism, James endorsed scientific investigation without materialist assmptions. While his career in psychology was still only a hope, James treated science as a means toward humanist insight.

  10. Principles for integrating reactive species into in vivo biological processes: Examples from exercise physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritelis, Nikos V; Cobley, James N; Paschalis, Vassilis; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Theodorou, Anastasios A; Kyparos, Antonios; Nikolaidis, Michalis G

    2016-04-01

    The equivocal role of reactive species and redox signaling in exercise responses and adaptations is an example clearly showing the inadequacy of current redox biology research to shed light on fundamental biological processes in vivo. Part of the answer probably relies on the extreme complexity of the in vivo redox biology and the limitations of the currently applied methodological and experimental tools. We propose six fundamental principles that should be considered in future studies to mechanistically link reactive species production to exercise responses or adaptations: 1) identify and quantify the reactive species, 2) determine the potential signaling properties of the reactive species, 3) detect the sources of reactive species, 4) locate the domain modified and verify the (ir)reversibility of post-translational modifications, 5) establish causality between redox and physiological measurements, 6) use selective and targeted antioxidants. Fulfilling these principles requires an idealized human experimental setting, which is certainly a utopia. Thus, researchers should choose to satisfy those principles, which, based on scientific evidence, are most critical for their specific research question. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) study: Biological and psychological factors associated with learning performance in adult distance education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neroni, Joyce; Gijselaers, Jérôme; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Groot, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Learning is crucial for everyone. The association between biological (eg, sleep, nutrition) and psychological factors (eg, test anxiety, goal orientation) and learning performance has been well established for children, adolescents and college students in traditional education. Evidence for these

  12. Biological and psychological markers of stress in humans: focus on the Trier Social Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P; Kennedy, Paul J; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G; Clarke, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Validated biological and psychological markers of acute stress in humans are an important tool in translational research. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), involving public interview and mental arithmetic performance, is among the most popular methods of inducing acute stress in experimental settings, and reliably increases hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. However, although much research has focused on HPA axis activity, the TSST also affects the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system, the immune system, cardiovascular outputs, gastric function and cognition. We critically assess the utility of different biological and psychological markers, with guidance for future research, and discuss factors which can moderate TSST effects. We outline the effects of the TSST in stress-related disorders, and if these responses can be abrogated by pharmacological and psychological treatments. Modified TSST protocols are discussed, and the TSST is compared to alternative methods of inducing acute stress. Our analysis suggests that multiple readouts are necessary to derive maximum information; this strategy will enhance our understanding of the psychobiology of stress and provide the means to assess novel therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of work-related sleep restriction on acute physiological and psychological stress responses and their interactions: A review among emergency service personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Wolkow

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Emergency work can expose personnel to sleep restriction. Inadequate amounts of sleep can negatively affect physiological and psychological stress responses. This review critiqued the emergency service literature (e.g., firefighting, police/law enforcement, defense forces, ambulance/paramedic personnel that has investigated the effect of sleep restriction on hormonal, inflammatory and psychological responses. Furthermore, it investigated if a psycho-physiological approach can help contextualize the significance of such responses to assist emergency service agencies monitor the health of their personnel. The available literature suggests that sleep restriction across multiple work days can disrupt cytokine and cortisol levels, deteriorate mood and elicit simultaneous physiological and psychological responses. However, research concerning the interaction between such responses is limited and inconclusive. Therefore, it is unknown if a psycho-physiological relationship exists and as a result, it is currently not feasible for agencies to monitor sleep restriction related stress based on psycho- physiological interactions. Sleep restriction does however, appear to be a major stressor contributing to physiological and psychological responses and thus, warrants further investigation.

  14. Effects of work-related sleep restriction on acute physiological and psychological stress responses and their interactions: A review among emergency service personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkow, Alexander; Ferguson, Sally; Aisbett, Brad; Main, Luana

    2015-01-01

    Emergency work can expose personnel to sleep restriction. Inadequate amounts of sleep can negatively affect physiological and psychological stress responses. This review critiqued the emergency service literature (e.g., firefighting, police/law enforcement, defense forces, ambulance/paramedic personnel) that has investigated the effect of sleep restriction on hormonal, inflammatory and psychological responses. Furthermore, it investigated if a psycho-physiological approach can help contextualize the significance of such responses to assist emergency service agencies monitor the health of their personnel. The available literature suggests that sleep restriction across multiple work days can disrupt cytokine and cortisol levels, deteriorate mood and elicit simultaneous physiological and psychological responses. However, research concerning the interaction between such responses is limited and inconclusive. Therefore, it is unknown if a psycho-physiological relationship exists and as a result, it is currently not feasible for agencies to monitor sleep restriction related stress based on psycho- physiological interactions. Sleep restriction does however, appear to be a major stressor contributing to physiological and psychological responses and thus, warrants further investigation. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  15. The role of psychological and physiological factors in decision making under risk and in a dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas eFooken

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Different methods to elicit risk attitudes of individuals often provide differing results despite a common theory. Reasons for such inconsistencies may be the different influence of underlying factors in risk-taking decisions. In order to evaluate this conjecture, a better understanding of underlying factors across methods and decision contexts is desirable. In this paper we study the difference in result of two different risk elicitation methods by linking estimates of risk attitudes to gender, age and personality traits, which have been shown to be related. We also investigate the role of these factors during decision-making in a dilemma situation. For these two decision contexts we also investigate the decision-maker's physiological state during the decision, measured by heart rate variability (HRV, which we use as an indicator of emotional involvement. We found that the two elicitation methods provide different individual risk attitude measures which is partly reflected in a different gender effect between the methods. Personality traits explain only relatively little in terms of driving risk attitudes and the difference between methods. We also found that risk taking and the physiological state are related for one of the methods, suggesting that more emotionally involved individuals are more risk averse in the experiment. Finally, we found evidence that personality traits are connected to whether individuals made a decision in the dilemma situation, but risk attitudes and the physiological state were not indicative for the ability to decide in this decision context.

  16. Conservation Physiology and Conservation Pathogens: White-Nose Syndrome and Integrative Biology for Host-Pathogen Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Craig K R

    2015-10-01

    Conservation physiology aims to apply an understanding of physiological mechanisms to management of imperiled species, populations, or ecosystems. One challenge for physiologists hoping to apply their expertise to conservation is connecting the mechanisms we study, often in the laboratory, with the vital rates of populations in the wild. There is growing appreciation that infectious pathogens can threaten populations and species, and represent an important issue for conservation. Conservation physiology has much to offer in terms of addressing the threat posed to some host species by infectious pathogens. At the same time, the well-developed theoretical framework of disease ecology could provide a model to help advance the application of physiology to a range of other conservation issues. Here, I use white-nose syndrome (WNS) in hibernating North American bats as an example of a conservation problem for which integrative physiological research has been a critical part of research and management. The response to WNS highlights the importance of a well-developed theoretical framework for the application of conservation physiology to a particular threat. I review what is known about physiological mechanisms associated with mortality from WNS and emphasize the value of combining a strong theoretical background with integrative physiological studies in order to connect physiological mechanisms with population processes and thereby maximize the potential benefits of conservation physiology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. An Investigation of the Relationship between Stressful Life Events and Psychological, Behavioral and Physiological Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    LOU DEcISIO LATITUDE *Figure 2-2. Demand vs Control Model. 4roa ’Jb Psychological Factors and Coronarý Heart Disease" by Karasek . Theorell . Schwartz...Wright-Patterson AFB OH, AD A134381- Karasek , R.A., Baker, D., Marxer, F., Ahebom, A., & Theorell , T. (1981). Job Decision Latitude, Job Demands, and...hormones have been shown to promote CHD in "* •animal experiments (Kornitzer et al., 1982). Applying this process to the job environment scenario, Karasek

  18. 'Integrative Physiology 2.0': Integration of systems biology into physiology and its application to cardiovascular homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.W.D. Kuster (Diederik); D. Merkus (Daphne); J. van der Velden (Jolanda); A.J.M. Verhoeven (Adrie); D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractSince the completion of the Human Genome Project and the advent of the large scaled unbiased '-omics' techniques, the field of systems biology has emerged. Systems biology aims to move away from the traditional reductionist molecular approach, which focused on understanding the role of

  19. Physiological frailty index (PFI): quantitative in-life estimate of individual biological age in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoch, Marina P; Wrobel, Michelle; Kuropatwinski, Karen K; Gitlin, Ilya; Leonova, Katerina I; Toshkov, Ilia; Gleiberman, Anatoli S; Hutson, Alan D; Chernova, Olga B; Gudkov, Andrei V

    2017-03-19

    The development of healthspan-extending pharmaceuticals requires quantitative estimation of age-related progressive physiological decline. In humans, individual health status can be quantitatively assessed by means of a frailty index (FI), a parameter which reflects the scale of accumulation of age-related deficits. However, adaptation of this methodology to animal models is a challenging task since it includes multiple subjective parameters. Here we report a development of a quantitative non-invasive procedure to estimate biological age of an individual animal by creating physiological frailty index (PFI). We demonstrated the dynamics of PFI increase during chronological aging of male and female NIH Swiss mice. We also demonstrated acceleration of growth of PFI in animals placed on a high fat diet, reflecting aging acceleration by obesity and provide a tool for its quantitative assessment. Additionally, we showed that PFI could reveal anti-aging effect of mTOR inhibitor rapatar (bioavailable formulation of rapamycin) prior to registration of its effects on longevity. PFI revealed substantial sex-related differences in normal chronological aging and in the efficacy of detrimental (high fat diet) or beneficial (rapatar) aging modulatory factors. Together, these data introduce PFI as a reliable, non-invasive, quantitative tool suitable for testing potential anti-aging pharmaceuticals in pre-clinical studies.

  20. Psychological profiles of gender and personality traces of Brazilian professional athletes of futsal, and their influence on physiological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento MGB

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Marcelo Guimarães Boia do Nascimento,1,2 Sérgio Adriano Gomes,1 Márcio Rabelo Mota,1,2 Renata Aparecida,1 Gislane Ferreira de Melo21Physical Education Department, Universitary Center of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil; 2Physical Education Department, Catholic University of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil Abstract: The present study aimed to identify the psychological profiles of professional futsal players in terms of the gender schema and to evaluate the physiological parameters (speed, acceleration, strength, and power and fatigue index of these athletes according to their gender profiles and relative to their positions on the court. The Masculine Inventory of the Self-concept Gender Schemas was used to classify the sample into typological groups, and the Running Anaerobic Sprint Test was used to measure the physiological parameters (speed, acceleration, strength, and power and the fatigue index. The study sample was composed of 64 male professional futsal players who competed in the National Indoor Soccer league in 2013; the subjects had an average weight of 76.00±6.7 kg. Among the athletes studied, 23 (35.9% were classified as heteroschematic female, 22 (34.4% as heteroschematic male, and 19 (29.7% as isoschematic. Regarding their positions on the court, eleven were goalkeepers (17.2%, 13 (20.3% were defenders, 28 (43.8% were midfielders, and 12 (18.8% were attackers. The players had similar weights even when belonging to different typological groups and having different positions in the court. However, it is worth noting that male heteroschematic players had a greater mean weight (77.11±5.93 kg and that the goalkeeper was, on average, the heaviest player (79.36±8.14 kg. The results of the physiological parameter analysis relative to typological group showed that, on average, high-level soccer players presented similar performance profiles in different rounds, as statistically significant differences were not found in any of the studied

  1. The physiological, musculoskeletal and psychological effects of stand up paddle boarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Ben; Hing, Wayne; Climstein, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Stand up paddle boarding (SUP) is a rapidly growing sport and recreational activity where anecdotal evidence exists for its proposed health, fitness and injury rehabilitation benefits. While limited scientific evidence exists to substantiate these claims, previous studies have shown that high levels of fitness, strength and balance exists amongst participants of this sport. The purpose of this study was to conduct a training intervention on a group of previously untrained individuals to ascertain the potential of SUP on various health parameters. An intervention study was conducted where after being tested initially, subjects were left for 6 weeks to act as their own control before the SUP intervention began. A total of 13 SUP participants completed the training study (nine males, four females) which was comprised of three 1 h sessions per week for 6 weeks. No significant changes occurred during the initial control period. Significant ( P  psychological (+17.49 %) domains. No significant changes were detected in static or dynamic balance over the duration of the training intervention. These results demonstrate the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and psychological improvements achievable for the novice when utilizing SUP as a training tool. The result from this study provides some evidence to substantiate the claims of health and fitness benefits SUP.

  2. Physiological and psychological responses to expressions of emotion and empathy in post-stress communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Makiko; Fujita, Mizuho; Yamada, Shigeyuki

    2009-01-01

    The effects of communicating during and after expressing emotions and receiving empathy after exposure to stress were investigated for 18 female students (9 pairs). After mental and physical tasks, a subject spoke to a listener about the stress task. In Experiment 1, responses to speaking about negative emotions aroused by the task (the "with emotion" condition) were compared to speaking about only objective facts about the task (the control). In Experiment 2, responses to empathetic reactions from the listener (the "with empathy" condition) were compared to no reaction (the control). Electroencephalograms were recorded, and heart rate variability (HRV) was calculated from electrocardiogram data. Subjective stress was estimated by a visual analog scale. Experiment 1 demonstrated that expressing emotions activated the left temporal region (T3) in the "with emotion" condition. In Experiment 2, physiological responses depended on cognition of different elements of empathy. During communication, feeling that the listener had the same emotion decreased the subject's T3 activity and sympathetic activity balance indicated by HRV. After communication, feeling that the listener understood her emotions decreased bilateral frontal and temporal activity. On the other hand, subjective stress did not differ between conditions in both experiments. These findings indicate that the comfort of having shared a message reduced physiological activity, especially in the "with empathy" condition. Conversely, even in the "with empathy" condition, not sharing a message can result in more discomfort or stress than the control. Sharing might be associated with cognition of the degree of success of communication, which reflected in the physiological responses. In communication, therefore, expressing emotions and receiving empathy did not in themselves reduce stress, and the level of cognition of having shared a message is a key factor in reducing stress.

  3. Effect of suspension systems on the physiological and psychological responses to sub-maximal biking on simulated smoothand bumpy tracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titlestad, John; Fairlie-Clarke, Tony; Whittaker, Arthur; Davie, Mark; Watt, Ian; Grant, Stanley

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the physiological and psychological responses of cyclists riding on a hard tail bicycle and on a full suspension bicycle. Twenty males participated in two series of tests. A test rig held the front axle of the bicycle steady while the rear wheel rotated against a heavy roller with bumps (or no bumps) on its surface. In the first series of tests, eight participants (age 19-27 years, body mass 65-82 kg) were tested on both the full suspension and hard tail bicycles with and without bumps fitted to the roller. The second series of test repeated the bump tests with a further six participants (age 22-31 years, body mass 74-94 kg) and also involved an investigation of familiarization effects with the final six participants (age 21-30 years, body mass 64-80 kg). Heart rate, oxygen consumption (VO(2)), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and comfort were recorded during 10 min sub-maximal tests. Combined data for the bumps tests show that the full suspension bicycle was significantly different (P < 0.001) from the hard tail bicycle on all four measures. Oxygen consumption, heart rate and RPE were lower on average by 8.7 (s = 3.6) ml . kg(-1) . min(-1), 32.1 (s = 12.1) beats . min(-1) and 2.6 (s = 2.0) units, respectively. Comfort scores were higher (better) on average by 1.9 (s = 0.8) units. For the no bumps tests, the only statistically significant difference (P = 0.008) was in VO(2), which was lower for the hard tail bicycle by 2.2 (s = 1.7) ml . kg(-1) . min(-1). The results indicate that the full suspension bicycle provides a physiological and psychological advantage over the hard tail bicycle during simulated sub-maximal exercise on bumps.

  4. Mechanisms of change: Testing how preventative interventions impact psychological and physiological stress functioning in mothers in neglectful families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Sheree L; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-11-01

    The present study applies a multilevel approach to an examination of the effect of two randomized preventive interventions with mothers in neglectful families who are also contending with elevated levels of impoverishment and ecological risk. Specifically, we examined how participation in either child-parent psychotherapy (CPP) or psychoeducational parenting intervention (PPI) was associated with reductions in maternal psychological parenting stress and in turn physiological stress system functioning when compared to mothers involved in standard community services as well as a demographic comparison group of nonmaltreating mothers. The resulting group sizes in the current investigation were 44 for CPP, 34 for PPI, 27 for community services, and 52 for nonmaltreating mothers. Mothers and their 13-month-old infants were randomly assigned to intervention group at baseline. Mothers completed assessments on stress within the parenting role at baseline and postintervention. Basal cortisol was sampled at postintervention and 1-year follow-up. Latent difference score analyses examined change in these constructs over time. Results suggested that mothers within the CPP intervention experienced significant declines in child-related parenting stress, while mothers in the PPI intervention reported declines in parent-related parenting stress. In turn, significant decreases in stress within the CPP mothers were further associated with adaptive basal cortisol functioning at 1-year postintervention. The results highlight the value of delineating how participation in preventive interventions aimed at ameliorating child maltreatment in neglectful families within the context of poverty may operate through improvements in psychological and physiological stress functioning. Findings are discussed with respect to the importance of multilevel assessments of intervention process and outcome.

  5. Mechanisms of Change: Testing how Preventative Interventions Impact Psychological and Physiological Stress Functioning in Mothers in Neglectful Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Sheree L.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-01-01

    The present study applies a multilevel approach to an examination of the effect of two randomized preventative interventions with mothers in neglectful families who are also contending with elevated levels of impoverishment and ecological risk. Specifically, we examined how participation in either Child-Parent Psychotherapy (CPP) or Psychoeducational Parenting (PPI) interventions was associated with reductions in maternal psychological parenting stress and in turn physiological stress system functioning when compared to mothers involved in standard community services (CS) as well as a demographic comparison group of nonmaltreating mothers (NC). The resulting group sizes in the current investigation were: CPP (n = 44), PPI (n = 34), CS (n = 27), and NC (n = 52). Mothers and infants who were 13-months of age were randomly assigned to intervention group at baseline. Mothers completed assessments on stress within the parenting role at baseline and post-intervention. Basal cortisol was sampled at post-intervention and 1-year follow-up. Latent difference score analyses examined change in these constructs over time. Results suggested that mothers within the CPP intervention experienced significant declines in child-related parenting stress while mothers in the PPI intervention reported declines in parent-related parenting stress. In turn, significant decreases in stress within the CPP mothers were further associated with adaptive basal cortisol functioning at 1-year post-intervention. Results highlight the value of delineating how participation in preventtive interventions aimed at ameliorating child maltreatment in neglectful families within the context of poverty may operate through improvements in psychological and physiological stress functioning. Findings are discussed with respect to the importance of multi-level assessments of intervention process and outcome. PMID:26535951

  6. Influence of biological, experiential and psychological factors in wine preference segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Gary J; Hayes, John E

    2017-06-01

    We sought to determine the influence of selected biological, experiential and psychological variables on self-reported liking and consumption of wine in a sample of 329 Ontario wine consumers. Cluster analysis revealed three distinct groups, representing plausible market segments: wine lovers; dry table wine likers/sweet dislikers; and sweet wine likers/fortified dislikers. These groups differ in level of wine expertise, wine adventurousness, alcohol intake, bitterness from 6- n -propylthiouracil (PROP), and several demographic variables. PROP hypo-tasters ( n =113) and PROP hyper-tasters ( n =112) differed in liking scores for nine of the 11 wine styles [ANCOVA, P (F)branding and marketing strategies.

  7. Alliances in Human Biology: The Harvard Committee on Industrial Physiology, 1929-1939.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Jason

    2015-08-01

    In 1929 the newly-reorganized Rockefeller Foundation funded the work of a cross-disciplinary group at Harvard University called the Committee on Industrial Physiology (CIP). The committee's research and pedagogical work was oriented towards different things for different members of the alliance. The CIP program included a research component in the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory and Elton May's interpretation of the Hawthorne Studies; a pedagogical aspect as part of Wallace Donham's curriculum for Harvard Business School; and Lawrence Henderson's work with the Harvard Pareto Circle, his course Sociology 23, and the Harvard Society of Fellows. The key actors within the CIP alliance shared a concern with training men for elite careers in government service, business leadership, and academic prominence. But the first communications between the CIP and the Rockefeller Foundation did not emphasize training in human biology. Instead, the CIP presented itself as a coordinating body that would be able to organize all the varied work going on at Harvard that did not fit easily into one department, and it was on this basis that the CIP became legible to the President of Harvard, A. Lawrence Lowell, and to Rockefeller's Division of Social Sciences. The members of the CIP alliance used the term human biology for this project of research, training and institutional coordination.

  8. Biological significance of complex N-glycans in plants and their impact on plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Asparagine (N)-linked protein glycosylation is a ubiquitous co- and post-translational modification which can alter the biological function of proteins and consequently affects the development, growth, and physiology of organisms. Despite an increasing knowledge of N-glycan biosynthesis and processing, we still understand very little about the biological function of individual N-glycan structures in plants. In particular, the N-glycan-processing steps mediated by Golgi-resident enzymes create a structurally diverse set of protein-linked carbohydrate structures. Some of these complex N-glycan modifications like the presence of β1,2-xylose, core α1,3-fucose or the Lewis a-epitope are characteristic for plants and are evolutionary highly conserved. In mammals, complex N-glycans are involved in different cellular processes including molecular recognition and signaling events. In contrast, the complex N-glycan function is still largely unknown in plants. Here, in this short review, I focus on important recent developments and discuss their implications for future research in plant glycobiology and plant biotechnology.

  9. Impact of Viewing vs. Not Viewing a Real Forest on Physiological and Psychological Responses in the Same Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Horiuchi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of viewing versus not viewing a real forest on human subjects’ physiological and psychological responses in the same setting. Fifteen healthy volunteers (11 males, four females, mean age 36 years participated. Each participant was asked to view a forest while seated in a comfortable chair for 15 min (Forest condition vs. sitting the same length of time with a curtain obscuring the forest view (Enclosed condition. Both conditions significantly decreased blood pressure (BP variables, i.e., systolic BP, diastolic BP, and mean arterial pressure between pre and post experimental stimuli, but these reductions showed no difference between conditions. Interestingly, the Forest viewing reduced cerebral oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2 assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS and improved the subjects’ Profile of Mood States (POMS scores, whereas the Enclosed condition increased the HbO2 and did not affect the POMS scores. There were no significant differences in saliva amylase or heart rate variability (HRV between the two conditions. Collectively, these results suggest that viewing a real forest may have a positive effect on cerebral activity and psychological responses. However, both viewing and not viewing the forest had similar effects on cardiovascular responses such as BP variables and HRV.

  10. Physiological and psychological correlates of attention-related body sensations (tingling and warmth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tihanyi, B T; Köteles, F

    2017-09-01

    Body sensations play an essential role in the subjective evaluation of our physical health, illness, and healing. They are impacted by peripheral somatic and external processes, but they are also heavily modulated by mental processes, e.g., attention, motor control, and emotion. Body sensations, such as tingling, numbness, pulse, and warmth, can emerge due to simply focusing attention on a body part. It is however an open question, if these sensations are connected with actual peripheral changes or happen "only in the mind." Here, we first tested whether the intensity of such attention-related body sensations is related to autonomic and somatomotor physiological processes and to psychological traits. In this study, attention-related body sensations were not significantly connected to changes in physiology, except warmth sensation, which was linked to decrease in muscle tension. Overall intensity of tingling significantly correlated with body awareness and tendentiously with body-mind practice. This strengthened the hypothesis that attention-related body sensations are more the result of top-down functions, and the connection with peripheral processes is weak. Here, we suggested a novel protocol to examine the effect of manipulating attention on body sensations, which together with our results and discussion can inspire future researches.

  11. Animal-Assisted Activity: Effects of a Complementary Intervention Program on Psychological and Physiological Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepps, Peggy; Stewart, Charles N; Bruckno, Stephen R

    2014-07-01

    Animal-assisted activity is the use of trained animals for the therapeutic, motivational, or educational benefit of patients. Subjects of this study were 218 patients hospitalized on the mental health unit of a community hospital with an existing, complementary animal-assisted activity program. Half of the patients participated in a 1-hour session of animal-assisted activity. The other half, who served as a comparison group, participated in a 1-hour stress management program. It was hypothesized that an animal-assisted activity program would improve ratings of depression, anxiety, and pain and the associated physiological measures of stress and discomfort. Self-report ratings of depression, anxiety, and pain were collected before and after treatment sessions, and blood pressure, pulse, and salivary cortisol were measured. There were significant decreases in depression (P animal-assisted activity program, comparable to those in the more traditional stress management group. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Effects of Physical Exercise on Cognitive Functioning and Wellbeing: Biological and Psychological Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mandolesi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Much evidence shows that physical exercise (PE is a strong gene modulator that induces structural and functional changes in the brain, determining enormous benefit on both cognitive functioning and wellbeing. PE is also a protective factor for neurodegeneration. However, it is unclear if such protection is granted through modifications to the biological mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration or through better compensation against attacks. This concise review addresses the biological and psychological positive effects of PE describing the results obtained on brain plasticity and epigenetic mechanisms in animal and human studies, in order to clarify how to maximize the positive effects of PE while avoiding negative consequences, as in the case of exercise addiction.

  13. Beyond the 'new cross-cultural psychiatry': cultural biology, discursive psychology and the ironies of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2006-03-01

    The 'new cross-cultural psychiatry' heralded by Kleinman in 1977 promised a revitalized tradition that gave due respect to cultural difference and did not export psychiatric theories that were themselves culture bound. In the ensuing years, the view of culture within anthropology has continued to change, along with our understanding of the relationship of biological processes to cultural diversity, and the global political economic contexts in which mental health care is delivered. This article considers the implications of these new notions of culture, biology and the context of practice for theory in cultural psychiatry. The future of cultural psychiatry lies in advancing a broad perspective that: (a) is inherently multidisciplinary (involving psychiatric epidemiology, medical anthropology and sociology, cognitive science and social psychology), breaking down the nature/culture dichotomy with an integrative view of culture as a core feature of human biology, while remaining alert to cultural constructions of biological theory; (b) attends to psychological processes but understands these as not exclusively located within the individual but as including discursive processes that are fundamentally social; and (c) critically examines the interaction of both local and global systems of knowledge and power. Globalization has brought with it many ironies for cultural psychiatry: Transnational migrations have resulted in cultural hybridization at the same time as ethnicity has become more salient; the call for evidence-based medicine has been used to limit the impact of cultural research; and cultural psychiatry itself has been co-opted by pharmaceutical companies to inform marketing campaigns to promote conventional treatments for new populations. Cultural psychiatry must address these ironies to develop the self-critical awareness and flexibility needed to deliver humane care in shifting contexts.

  14. A Neural Systems-Based Neurobiology and Neuropsychiatry Course: Integrating Biology, Psychodynamics, and Psychology in the Psychiatric Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Timothy; Hughes, John D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Psychotherapy and biological psychiatry remain divided in psychiatry residency curricula. Behavioral neurobiology and neuropsychiatry provide a systems-level framework that allows teachers to integrate biology, psychodynamics, and psychology. Method: The authors detail the underlying assumptions and outline of a neural systems-based…

  15. Gender Differences in Patients' Beliefs About Biological, Environmental, Behavioral, and Psychological Risk Factors in a Cardiac Rehabilitation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Saeidi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are significant gender differences in the epidemiology and presentation of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, physiological aspects of CVDs, response to diagnostic tests or interventions, and prevalence or incidence of the associated risk factors. Considering the independent influence of gender on early dire consequences of such diseases, this study was conducted to investigate gender differences in patients' beliefs about biological, environmental, behavioral, and psychological risk factors in a cardiac rehabilitation program. Materials and Methods: This study has cross sectional design. The sample was composed of 775 patients referred to cardiac rehabilitation unit in Imam Ali Hospital in Kermanshah, Iran. The data were collected using clinical interview and patients’ medical records. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, and chi-square test​​. To do the statistical analysis, SPSS version 20 was utilized. Results: As the results indicated, there was a significant difference between the beliefs of men and women about risk factors of heart disease (X2= 48.36; P

  16. Analysis of heart rate variability and possibility of its utilization in psychology and psycho-physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovaleva A.V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Indices of heart rate variability are reliable and objective indicators of autonomic nervous systemtonus (of its sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions which in its turn reflect the changes in psycho-emotional state of a person, development of stress or any kind of tension. The purpose of this article was to describethe contemporary methods of objective study of a person’s functional state by the definition of autonomic regulation of heart rate and also the review of foreign studies which discuss the possibility of utilizing this method in psychology and psychophysiology. The review describes two approaches to the analysis of heart rate variability: temporal and frequency-response analyses. The indices used for temporal analysis include average duration of RR-intervalsand percentage of couples of RR-intervals, differing in more than 50ms(рNN50. The indices of frequency-response analysis included intensity of HF component, reflecting influences of parasympathetic outflow; intensity of LF component, reflecting sympathetic influences; intensity of VLF components; correlation of LF and HF waves, reflecting vegetal balance.

  17. The analytical change in plasma creatinine that constitutes a biologic/physiologic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffaletti, John G; Hammett-Stabler, Catherine A; Gearhart, Margaret; Roy Choudhury, Kingshuk; Handel, Elizabeth A

    2016-08-01

    Accurate and precise measurements of creatinine are necessary to evaluate changes in kidney function related to a decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR). When serial measurements of creatinine are monitored in an individual, it is useful to know what magnitude of an analytical change in creatinine indicates a true physiologic/biologic change in plasma creatinine that might warrant clinical intervention. We compared results between three different methods for creatinine using large chemistry analyzers, two based on alkaline picrate (AP1 and AP2), and one based on dry-slide enzymatic conversion (ENZ). On each of three different segments or days of the study spaced 1-2months apart, we selected 10 different plasma samples having creatinine concentrations ranging from about 0.5mg/dL to 4.5mg/dL (44 to 400μmol/L). Each sample was analyzed in triplicate on each of two same-model analyzers at each institution, then from this data we determined the precision of each model of analyzer. The within-instrument precision of each analyzer was evaluated from the differences between the triplicate results on each sample by each analyzer (mean and SD of the differences). The between-instrument precision was evaluated as the differences between results on the same sample (1, 2, 3, etc.) analyzed on different analyzers of the same model (A and B). This between-analyzer precision data was used to determine both the range and mean±2SD of the differences that could be used to indicate that greater changes in creatinine concentrations would represent a biologic change. The within-instrument precision was best for the ENZ method in comparison to the two alkaline picrate rate methods. The between-instrument precision of the 90 consecutive measurements (30 samples×triplicate analyses) between the same-model analyzers were (mean and SD of differences in mg/dL): -0.018 and 0.029 (ENZ); 0.016 and 0.11 (AP1), and -0.058 and 0.071 (AP2). While all three of the creatinine methods studied

  18. The interaction of psychological and physiological homeostatic drives and role of general control principles in the regulation of physiological systems, exercise and the fatigue process - The Integrative Governor theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair Gibson, A; Swart, J; Tucker, R

    2018-02-01

    Either central (brain) or peripheral (body physiological system) control mechanisms, or a combination of these, have been championed in the last few decades in the field of Exercise Sciences as how physiological activity and fatigue processes are regulated. In this review, we suggest that the concept of 'central' or 'peripheral' mechanisms are both artificial constructs that have 'straight-jacketed' research in the field, and rather that competition between psychological and physiological homeostatic drives is central to the regulation of both, and that governing principles, rather than distinct physical processes, underpin all physical system and exercise regulation. As part of the Integrative Governor theory we develop in this review, we suggest that both psychological and physiological drives and requirements are underpinned by homeostatic principles, and that regulation of the relative activity of each is by dynamic negative feedback activity, as the fundamental general operational controller. Because of this competitive, dynamic interplay, we propose that the activity in all systems will oscillate, that these oscillations create information, and comparison of this oscillatory information with either prior information, current activity, or activity templates create efferent responses that change the activity in the different systems in a similarly dynamic manner. Changes in a particular system are always the result of perturbations occurring outside the system itself, the behavioural causative 'history' of this external activity will be evident in the pattern of the oscillations, and awareness of change occurs as a result of unexpected rather than planned change in physiological activity or psychological state.

  19. Biological and psychological rhythms: an integrative approach to rhythm disturbances in autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botbol, Michel; Cabon, Philippe; Kermarrec, Solenn; Tordjman, Sylvie

    2013-09-01

    Biological rhythms are crucial phenomena that are perfect examples of the adaptation of organisms to their environment. A considerable amount of work has described different types of biological rhythms (from circadian to ultradian), individual differences in their patterns and the complexity of their regulation. In particular, the regulation and maturation of the sleep-wake cycle have been thoroughly studied. Its desynchronization, both endogenous and exogenous, is now well understood, as are its consequences for cognitive impairments and health problems. From a completely different perspective, psychoanalysts have shown a growing interest in the rhythms of psychic life. This interest extends beyond the original focus of psychoanalysis on dreams and the sleep-wake cycle, incorporating central theoretical and practical psychoanalytic issues related to the core functioning of the psychic life: the rhythmic structures of drive dynamics, intersubjective developmental processes and psychic containment functions. Psychopathological and biological approaches to the study of infantile autism reveal the importance of specific biological and psychological rhythmic disturbances in this disorder. Considering data and hypotheses from both perspectives, this paper proposes an integrative approach to the study of these rhythmic disturbances and offers an etiopathogenic hypothesis based on this integrative approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biological oscillations for learning walking coordination: dynamic recurrent neural network functionally models physiological central pattern generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoellinger, Thomas; Petieau, Mathieu; Duvinage, Matthieu; Castermans, Thierry; Seetharaman, Karthik; Cebolla, Ana-Maria; Bengoetxea, Ana; Ivanenko, Yuri; Dan, Bernard; Cheron, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The existence of dedicated neuronal modules such as those organized in the cerebral cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum, or spinal cord raises the question of how these functional modules are coordinated for appropriate motor behavior. Study of human locomotion offers an interesting field for addressing this central question. The coordination of the elevation of the 3 leg segments under a planar covariation rule (Borghese et al., 1996) was recently modeled (Barliya et al., 2009) by phase-adjusted simple oscillators shedding new light on the understanding of the central pattern generator (CPG) processing relevant oscillation signals. We describe the use of a dynamic recurrent neural network (DRNN) mimicking the natural oscillatory behavior of human locomotion for reproducing the planar covariation rule in both legs at different walking speeds. Neural network learning was based on sinusoid signals integrating frequency and amplitude features of the first three harmonics of the sagittal elevation angles of the thigh, shank, and foot of each lower limb. We verified the biological plausibility of the neural networks. Best results were obtained with oscillations extracted from the first three harmonics in comparison to oscillations outside the harmonic frequency peaks. Physiological replication steadily increased with the number of neuronal units from 1 to 80, where similarity index reached 0.99. Analysis of synaptic weighting showed that the proportion of inhibitory connections consistently increased with the number of neuronal units in the DRNN. This emerging property in the artificial neural networks resonates with recent advances in neurophysiology of inhibitory neurons that are involved in central nervous system oscillatory activities. The main message of this study is that this type of DRNN may offer a useful model of physiological central pattern generator for gaining insights in basic research and developing clinical applications.

  1. Peptic Ulcer at the End of the 20th Century: Biological and Psychological Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Levenstein

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevailing concept of peptic ulcer etiology has swung over entirely in just a few years from the psychological to the infectious, yet the rich literature documenting an association between psychosocial factors and ulcer is not invalidated by the discovery of Helicobacter pylori. Physical and psychological stressors interact to induce ulcers in animal models, concrete life difficulties and subjective distress predict the development of ulcers in prospective cohorts, shared catastrophes such as war and earthquakes lead to surges in hospitalizations for complicated ulcers, and stress or anxiety can worsen ulcer course. Many known ulcer risk factors, including smoking, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, heavy drinking, loss of sleep and skipping breakfast, can increase under stress; the association of low socioeconomic status with ulcer is also accounted for in part by psychosocial factors. Among possible physiological mechanisms, stress may induce gastric hypersecretion, reduce acid buffering in the stomach and the duodenum, impair gastroduodenal blood flow, and affect healing or inflammation through psychoneuroimmunological mechanisms. Psychosocial factors seem to be particularly prominent among idiopathic or complicated ulcers, but they are probably operative in run of the mill H pylori disease as well, either through additive effects or by facilitating the spread of the organism across the pylorus, while gastrointestinal damage by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can also be potentiated by stress. Although the clinical importance of peptic ulcer is fading along with the millenium, due to secular trends and new therapies, it remains worthy of study as a splendid example of the biopsychosocial model.

  2. Effects of foliage plants on human physiological and psychological responses at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumeno, Desto; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    2015-02-01

    Escalation of task demands and time pressures tends to make a worker run into work stress, which leads to mental fatigue and depression. The mental fatigue can be reduced when attention capacity is restored. Nature can serve as a source of fascination which can restore the attention capacity. People bring plants indoors so they can experience nature in their workplace. The stress and fatigue are also affected by air temperatures. The increase or decrease of temperatures from the comfort zone may induce the stress and fatigue. The objective of this study is to investigate the intervention of using foliage plants placed inside a building at different air temperature levels. The effects of foliage plants on human stress and fatigue were measured by human physiological responses such as heart rate, amylase level, electroencephalography (EEG), and the secondary task-reaction time. Several different tasks, namely typing, math and logical sequences are included in the investigation of these studies. Fifteen subjects, with the age ranged from 22 to 38 years old have participated in the study using within subject design. From the study, it is revealed that the presence of foliage plants at several temperatures have different effects on meditation, secondary task reaction time and typing accuracy. This study also revealed that the presence of plants on several types of tasks has different effects of attention which are useful for increasing work performance.

  3. THE EFFECT OF PROGRESSIVE MUSCULAR RELAXATION AND PSYCHOLOGICAL COUNSELING ON PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS DURING SURGICAL STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avnish

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Present study was carried out to study the effect of muscular relaxation technique and counseling on physiological parameters on subjects undergoing surgery. The study was conducted in 32 individuals between ages of 20 – 70 at Civil hospital, GMERS, Valsad and was compared with a control group (N=32 of the same age. The parameters recorded were arterial pulse, arterial blood pressure. The results show the significant differences in the recorded parameters in control ( n=34 and study group (n=33. Pulse rat e ( 75.54 to 80.17 , systolic ( 121.49 to 126.29 and diastolic blood pressure ( 80.4 to 84.23 values increased in preoperative period than on admission in the control group while study group showed decrease in the preoperative value compared to that on admi ssion Pulse rate ( 77.94 to 74.80, systolic ( 124.50 to 122.19 and diastolic blood pressure ( 82.88 to 81. The results obtained were analyzed for statistical significance. The results obtained were statistically significant

  4. Physiological and psychological responses of humans to the index of greenness of an interior space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji-Young; Park, Sin-Ae; Jung, Soo-Jin; Lee, Ji-Young; Son, Ki-Cheol; An, Youn-Joo; Lee, Sang-Woo

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the optimal index of greenness in terms of psychophysiological responses and subjective preference. We recruited 103 adult (51 male, 52 female) participants, who were examined individually in an interior space (lab) setting at Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea. Participants observed plants in the space for 3min per experimental index of greenness (5%, 20%, 50%, and 80%). During this period, heart rate variability (HRV) and electroencephalographic (EEG) physiological responses were measured, and the participant's preference for index of greenness and subjective index of greenness was determined via surveys. HRV values were normal, and not significantly different, except that male participants showed higher mean variability between cardiac NN intervals and greater autonomic activity than female participants (P<0.05). EEG data were not significantly different, except that female participants had a significantly higher mean amplitude at the left occipital (O1) electrode than male participants (P<0.01). Subjectively, participants preferred the 50% index of greenness the most, though they consistently reported the subjective index of greenness to be ∼15% higher than the actual level. We conclude that given a limited interior space, even a small amount of greenery may exert a relaxing effect on people. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fathering and adolescents' psychological adjustment: the role of fathers' involvement, residence and biology status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, E

    2008-03-01

    Studies on fathering and child mental health are now increasingly looking for specificity in children's psychological adjustment, indicating whether the impact of fathering is diagnostically specific or non-specific. Data from 435 fathers of secondary school-aged children in Britain were used to explore the association between resident biological fathers', non-resident biological fathers' and stepfathers' involvement and children's total difficulties, prosocial behaviour, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity and peer problems (all measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) in adolescence. After controlling for child-, father- and family-related factors, fathers' involvement was negatively associated with children's total difficulties and hyperactivity, was positively associated with children's prosocial behaviour, and was unrelated with children's emotional symptoms, conduct problems and peer problems. There was no non-resident biological father effect. Compared with resident biological fathers, stepfathers reported more total difficulties, conduct problems and hyperactivity in their children even after adjusting for involvement. Whether this reflects stepfathers' low tolerance levels or biological fathers' complacency, as sociobiologists would argue, or whether this is due to pre-existing predispositions of children in families which separate and restructure, to the effects of these multiple family changes or to the high exposure of children in restructured families to parental risk factors, is, given the data available and the study design, unclear. However, this study showed that, compared with their peers in biological father families, adolescents in stepfather families are perceived to be at higher risk of behaviour problems, and that father involvement is related to specific aspects of child adjustment.

  6. A pilot randomized control trial investigating the effect of mindfulness practice on pain tolerance, psychological well-being, and physiological activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kingston, Jessica; Chadwick, Paul; Meron, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of mindfulness training on pain tolerance, psychological well-being, physiological activity, and the acquisition of mindfulness skills. Methods: Forty-two asymptomatic University students participated in a randomized, single-blind, active control pilot study. ...

  7. Effect of Iron Fortified Wheat Flour on the Biology and Physiology of Red Flour Beetle, (Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron overload in the fortified flour can influence the life stages and physiology of the insects. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of commercially available premix iron fortified flour as well as effect of different concentrations of post-mix iron fortified flour (30–5 ppm on biology of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Hebrst.. Larval and pupal duration, total developmental time, fecundity and larval weights in two consecutive generations of beetle were compared with control treatment. Amylase and protease activities of gut of the beetle were also measured in premix and postmix flours. Results showed that larval mortality increased in two sources of premix iron flour when compared with control. Larval weight was reduced in first generation only. The larval mortality was significantly higher in 30 ppm postmix iron fortified flour than in other postmix concentrations and control treatment. The larvae of T. castaneum fed on two sources of premix and in various concentrations of postmix iron fortified flour revealed an increase in amylases and decrease in protease activities.

  8. Biological and physiological characteristics of Neotyphodium gansuense symbiotic with Achnatherum inebrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunjie; Nan, Zhibiao; Li, Fei

    2008-01-01

    Biological and physiological characteristics of Neotyphodium gansuense were compared with Neotyphodium coenophialum and Epichloë festucae at a range of temperatures and pH values, and on carbon and nitrogen amended media. N. gansuense was able to grow at 10-30 degrees C, but not at 5 degrees C, and slowly at 35 degrees C. The optimal temperature for both N. gansuense and N. coenophialum was 25 degrees C, but that of E. festucae was 20-25 degrees C. The optimal pH ranges for mycelial growth of N. gansuense, N. coenophialum and E. festucae were 5-9, 5-9 and 5-7, respectively. The Neotyphodium and Epichloë endophytes varied in their ability to grow on media containing different carbon and nitrogen nutrients. The preference of N. gansuense for carbon source was sucrose>glucose, lactose, sorbitol, inulin, maltose, mannitol, starch, fructose>xylose. Growth of all three endophytes tested was significantly improved by peptone, tryptone, casein, yeast extract and l-proline. Yeast extract, peptone, casein, tryptone, l-proline, potassium nitrate, ammonium oxalic acid and l-leucine significantly improved growth of N. gansuense. However, ammonium nitrite was not utilized at all by any tested endophyte. N. gansuense grew significantly better on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and oat meal agar (OMA) than on corn meal agar (CMA) and drunken-horse-grass agar (DA), and most slowly on water agar (WA) and saltwater nutrient agar (SNA).

  9. Association of physiological and psychological health outcomes with physical activity and sedentary behavior in adults with type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jeanette M; Cox, Daniel; Rice, David J

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association between change in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) over a 6-month period with physiological and psychological factors in adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods Participants included 26 middle-aged (mean age=56.1±10.8 years; 42% women), overweight/obese (mean body mass index (BMI) =37.22±8.78 kg/m2) adults who had been diagnosed with T2D within the past 5 years (mean HbA1c=7.81%). Participants underwent a physical examination, blood tests, and psychological questionnaires, including a self-report questionnaire that assessed the consumption of high glycemic and low glycemic load foods. Participants wore an Actigraph accelerometer for 7 days to assess MVPA and SB. All measures were collected at baseline and at the 6-month follow-up. Spearman rank correlations and regression models were conducted to examine the relationship between activity variables, and the association of activity measures with health outcomes at the 6-month follow-up. Results Decreases in duration of SB bouts and increases in MVPA were associated with decreased levels of HbA1c (p<0.05). Over 50% of the variance in HbA1c levels could be attributed to changes in MVPA and SB. Conclusions MVPA and SB were independently associated with diabetes-related health outcomes. Results suggest that emphasis should be placed on increasing MVPA while decreasing SB, particularly duration of SB bouts. This suggests that even small changes in daily behavior may contribute to improvement in diabetes-related health outcomes. PMID:28405340

  10. The phytotronist and the phenotype: plant physiology, Big Science, and a Cold War biology of the whole plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, David P D

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes how, from the early twentieth century, and especially in the early Cold War era, the plant physiologists considered their discipline ideally suited among all the plant sciences to study and explain biological functions and processes, and ranked their discipline among the dominant forms of the biological sciences. At their apex in the late-1960s, the plant physiologists laid claim to having discovered nothing less than the "basic laws of physiology." This paper unwraps that claim, showing that it emerged from the construction of monumental big science laboratories known as phytotrons that gave control over the growing environment. Control meant that plant physiologists claimed to be able to produce a standard phenotype valid for experimental biology. Invoking the standards of the physical sciences, the plant physiologists heralded basic biological science from the phytotronic produced phenotype. In the context of the Cold War era, the ability to pursue basic science represented the highest pinnacle of standing within the scientific community. More broadly, I suggest that by recovering the history of an underappreciated discipline, plant physiology, and by establishing the centrality of the story of the plant sciences in the history of biology can historians understand the massive changes wrought to biology by the conceptual emergence of the molecular understanding of life, the dominance of the discipline of molecular biology, and the rise of biotechnology in the 1980s. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of Psychological and Physiological Responses to Imposed vs. Self-selected High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Erin; Cantacessi, Cheyann; McNamer, Olivia; Holmes, Heather; von Bargen, Robert; Ramirez, Richard; Gallagher, Daren; Vargas, Stacy; Santia, Ben; Rodriguez, Karen; Astorino, Todd A

    2018-05-08

    Kellogg, E, Cantacessi, C, McNamer, O, Holmes, H, von Bargen, R, Ramirez, R, Gallagher, D, Vargas, S, Santia, B, Rodriguez, K, and Astorino, TA. Comparison of psychological and physiological responses to imposed vs. self-selected high-intensity interval training. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-High-intensity interval training elicits similar physiological adaptations as moderate intensity continuous training (MICT). Some studies report greater enjoyment to a bout of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) vs. MICT, which is surprising considering that HIIE is more intense and typically imposed on the participant. This study compared physiological and perceptual responses between imposed and self-selected HIIE. Fourteen adults (age = 24 ± 3 years) unfamiliar with HIIE initially performed ramp exercise to exhaustion to measure maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) followed by 2 subsequent sessions whose order was randomized. Imposed HIIE consisted of eight 60 seconds bouts at 80 percent peak power output (%PPO) separated by 60 seconds recovery at 10 %PPO. Self-selected HIIE (HIIESS) followed the same structure, but participants freely selected intensity in increments of 10 %PPO to achieve a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) ≥7. During exercise, heart rate, V[Combining Dot Above]O2, blood lactate concentration (BLa), affect (+5 to -5), and RPE were assessed. Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale was measured after exercise. Results showed higher V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (+10%, p = 0.013), BLa (p = 0.001), and RPE (p = 0.001) in HIIESS vs. HIIEIMP, and lower affect (p = 0.01), and enjoyment (87.6 ± 15.7 vs. 95.7 ± 11.7, p = 0.04). There was a significantly higher power output in self-selected vs. imposed HIIE (263.9 ± 81.4 W vs. 225.2 ± 59.6 W, p < 0.001). Data suggest that intensity mediates affective responses rather than the mode of HIIE performed by the participant.

  12. Decision-Making Under Risk: Integrating Perspectives From Biology, Economics, and Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sandeep

    2014-08-01

    Decision-making under risk has been variably characterized and examined in many different disciplines. However, interdisciplinary integration has not been forthcoming. Classic theories of decision-making have not been amply revised in light of greater empirical data on actual patterns of decision-making behavior. Furthermore, the meta-theoretical framework of evolution by natural selection has been largely ignored in theories of decision-making under risk in the human behavioral sciences. In this review, I critically examine four of the most influential theories of decision-making from economics, psychology, and biology: expected utility theory, prospect theory, risk-sensitivity theory, and heuristic approaches. I focus especially on risk-sensitivity theory, which offers a framework for understanding decision-making under risk that explicitly involves evolutionary considerations. I also review robust empirical evidence for individual differences and environmental/situational factors that predict actual risky decision-making that any general theory must account for. Finally, I offer steps toward integrating various theoretical perspectives and empirical findings on risky decision-making. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  13. Effect of Planting Date and Biological and Chemical Fertilizers on Phenology and Physiological Indices of Peanuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sepehri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. is an annual herbaceous plant in Fabaceae which grown in tropical to temperate regions worldwide for extracting its seed oil and nut consumption. Select the optimum planting date is one of the most important agricultural techniques that comply with the seed yield is maximized . For instance, delay planting date can reduce the number of fertile nodes and the number of pods per plant. The delay in planting date reduces total dry matter (TDM, leaf area index (LAI, crop growth rate (CGR and yield in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Daneshian et al., (2008 reported that the delay in planting date reduced sunflower (Helianthus annuus yield due to high temperatures in early growth which shortened flowering time and reduced solar radiation. On the other hand, due to increase importance of environmental issues has been attending biofertilizers to replace chemical fertilizers. Biofertilizers has formed by beneficial bacteria and fungi that each of them are produced for a specific purpose, such as nitrogen fixation, release of phosphate, potassium and iron ions of insoluble compound. The use of nitrogen fertilizer with slow-releasing ability stimulated shoot growth in soybean (Glycine max and be created more LAI in the reproductive process, particularly during grain filling stage and finally increased seed yield . Therefore, this study was conducted in order to evaluate the interaction of biological and chemical fertilizers in the purpose of achieving sustainable agriculture with emphasis of the effects of various planting dates on physiological parameters and growth of peanut in Hamadan. Materials and Methods In order to investigate the effects of planting date on important physiological indices of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L. under the influence of biological and chemical fertilizers. A field experiment was conducted in the research farm of Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan during 2013 growing season. This study was

  14. Defining and measuring blood donor altruism: a theoretical approach from biology, economics and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R; Ferguson, E

    2014-02-01

    While blood donation is traditionally described as a behaviour motivated by pure altruism, the assessment of altruism in the blood donation literature has not been theoretically informed. Drawing on theories of altruism from psychology, economics and evolutionary biology, it is argued that a theoretically derived psychometric assessment of altruism is needed. Such a measure is developed in this study that can be used to help inform both our understanding of the altruistic motives of blood donors and recruitment intervention strategies. A cross-sectional survey (N = 414), with a 1-month behavioural follow-up (time 2, N = 77), was designed to assess theoretically derived constructs from psychological, economic and evolutionary biological theories of altruism. Theory of planned behaviour (TPB) variables and co-operation were also assessed at time 1 and a measure of behavioural co-operation at time 2. Five theoretical dimensions (impure altruism, kinship, self-regarding motives, reluctant altruism and egalitarian warm glow) of altruism were identified through factor analyses. These five altruistic motives differentiated blood donors from non-donors (donors scored higher on impure altruism and reluctant altruism), showed incremental validity over TPB constructs to predict donor intention and predicted future co-operative behaviour. These findings show that altruism in the context of blood donation is multifaceted and complex and, does not reflect pure altruism. This has implication for recruitment campaigns that focus solely on pure altruism. © 2013 The Authors. Vox Sanguinis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. on behalf of International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  15. Behavioural, physiological and psychological responses of passengers to the thermal environment of boarding a flight in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuxin; Liu, Hong; Li, Baizhan; Cheng, Yong; Mmereki, Daniel; Kong, Deyu

    2018-06-01

    In practice, passengers actively respond to the thermal environment when they board an aircraft in winter, which is not considered in the current standards. In this study, the behavioural, physiological and psychological responses to the thermal environment were examined at 22 °C (with 68 subjects), 20 °C and 26 °C (with 32 subjects). The results showed that the three air temperature levels had significant effect on nozzle usage and clothing adjustment behaviours, surface skin temperature, and thermal sensation vote (TSV). The walking/waiting states prior to boarding the aircraft cabin had a significant effect on the proportion of jacket removal, TSV and thermal comfort vote. After 10 min in the aircraft cabin, the subjects maintained their comfort in a wider range of the thermal environment when the behavioural adjustments existed compared to when they did not. Thus, a suggestion was made for behavioural adjustments to be provided in aircraft cabins. Practitioner Summary: Experimental investigation of human responses was conducted in an aircraft cabin. Analysis showed that the subjects maintained their comfort in a wider range of the thermal environment when the behavioural adjustments existed compared to when they did not. Thus, a suggestion was made for behavioural adjustments to be provided in aircraft cabins.

  16. The Influence of Urban Natural and Built Environments on Physiological and Psychological Measures of Stress— A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Beil

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Environments shape health and well-being, yet little research has investigated how different real-world environmental settings influence the well-known determinant of health known as stress. Using a cross-over experimental design; this pilot study investigated the effect of four urban environments on physiological and psychological stress measures. Participants (N = 15 were exposed on separate days to one of the four settings for 20 min. These settings were designated as Very Natural; Mostly Natural; Mostly Built and Very Built. Visitation order to the four settings was individually randomized. Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase; as well as self-report measures of stress; were collected before and after exposure to each setting. Gender was included as a variable in analysis; and additional data about environmental self-identity, pre-existing stress, and perceived restorativeness of settings were collected as measures of covariance. Differences between environmental settings showed greater benefit from exposure to natural settings relative to built settings; as measured by pre-to-post changes in salivary amylase and self-reported stress; differences were more significant for females than for males. Inclusion of covariates in a regression analysis demonstrated significant predictive value of perceived restorativeness on these stress measures, suggesting some potential level of mediation. These data suggest that exposure to natural environments may warrant further investigation as a health promotion method for reducing stress.

  17. Time course of physiological and psychological responses in humans during a 20-day severe-cold-acclimation programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Brazaitis

    Full Text Available The time course of physiological and psychological markers during cold acclimation (CA was explored. The experiment included 17 controlled (i.e., until the rectal temperature reached 35.5°C or 170 min had elapsed; for the CA-17 session, the subjects (n = 14 were immersed in water for the same amount of time as that used in the CA-1 session head-out water immersions at a temperature of 14°C over 20 days. The data obtained in this study suggest that the subjects exhibited a thermoregulatory shift from peripheral-to-central to solely central input thermoregulation, as well as from shivering to non-shivering thermogenesis throughout the CA. In the first six CA sessions, a hypothermic type of acclimation was found; further CA (CA-7 to CA-16 led to a transitional shift to a hypothermic-insulative type of acclimation. Interestingly, when the subjects were immersed in water for the same time as that used in the CA-1 session (CA-17, the CA led to a hypothermic type of acclimation. The presence of a metabolic type of thermogenesis was evident only under thermoneutral conditions. Cold-water immersion decreased the concentration of cold-stress markers, reduced the activity of the innate immune system, suppressed specific immunity to a lesser degree and yielded less discomfort and cold sensation. We found a negative correlation between body mass index and Δ metabolic heat production before and after CA.

  18. Psychological and physiological stress negatively impacts early engagement and retention of opioid-dependent individuals on methadone maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremko, Kellie M; Sterling, Robert C; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated whether psychological and/or physiological measures of stress would impede induction onto methadone maintenance and predict early (scale (PSS) and post-traumatic stress disorder checklist (PCLC); 60% exhibited abnormal cortisol. Addiction severity index (ASI), drug-use, and stress indices explained between 17 and 37% of the variance in engagement including attendance, opioid abstinence, and methadone stabilization. Participants who discontinued treatment displayed poor engagement, abnormal cortisol, elevated withdrawal symptoms, higher distress, and increased ongoing opioid use versus compliant individuals. Discontinuation was initially related to drug-use severity; however, by 6 months, retention depended primarily upon cortisol abnormalities, which increased an individual's discontinuation risk by 7.7-fold. These findings support admission screening with the ASI/cortisol for drop out, and stress/drug-use indices for engagement that together may enable clinically-relevant early recognition and interventions for prevention of stress-induced relapse in opioid-dependent populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ruminant Metabolic Systems Biology: Reconstruction and Integration of Transcriptome Dynamics Underlying Functional Responses of Tissues to Nutrition and Physiological Statea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bionaz, Massimo; Loor, Juan J.

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput ‘omics’ data analysis via bioinformatics is one key component of the systems biology approach. The systems approach is particularly well-suited for the study of the interactions between nutrition and physiological state with tissue metabolism and functions during key life stages of organisms such as the transition from pregnancy to lactation in mammals, ie, the peripartal period. In modern dairy cows with an unprecedented genetic potential for milk synthesis, the nature of the physiologic and metabolic adaptations during the peripartal period is multifaceted and involves key tissues such as liver, adipose, and mammary. In order to understand such adaptation, we have reviewed several works performed in our and other labs. In addition, we have used a novel bioinformatics approach, Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA), in combination with partly previously published data to help interpret longitudinal biological adaptations of bovine liver, adipose, and mammary tissue to lactation using transcriptomics datasets. Use of DIA with transcriptomic data from those tissues during normal physiological adaptations and in animals fed different levels of energy prepartum allowed visualization and integration of most-impacted metabolic pathways around the time of parturition. The DIA is a suitable tool for applying the integrative systems biology approach. The ultimate goal is to visualize the complexity of the systems at study and uncover key molecular players involved in the tissue’s adaptations to physiological state or nutrition. PMID:22807626

  20. Toward modular biological models: defining analog modules based on referent physiological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Brenden K; Ropella, Glen E P; Hunt, C Anthony

    2014-08-16

    Currently, most biomedical models exist in isolation. It is often difficult to reuse or integrate models or their components, in part because they are not modular. Modular components allow the modeler to think more deeply about the role of the model and to more completely address a modeling project's requirements. In particular, modularity facilitates component reuse and model integration for models with different use cases, including the ability to exchange modules during or between simulations. The heterogeneous nature of biology and vast range of wet-lab experimental platforms call for modular models designed to satisfy a variety of use cases. We argue that software analogs of biological mechanisms are reasonable candidates for modularization. Biomimetic software mechanisms comprised of physiomimetic mechanism modules offer benefits that are unique or especially important to multi-scale, biomedical modeling and simulation. We present a general, scientific method of modularizing mechanisms into reusable software components that we call physiomimetic mechanism modules (PMMs). PMMs utilize parametric containers that partition and expose state information into physiologically meaningful groupings. To demonstrate, we modularize four pharmacodynamic response mechanisms adapted from an in silico liver (ISL). We verified the modularization process by showing that drug clearance results from in silico experiments are identical before and after modularization. The modularized ISL achieves validation targets drawn from propranolol outflow profile data. In addition, an in silico hepatocyte culture (ISHC) is created. The ISHC uses the same PMMs and required no refactoring. The ISHC achieves validation targets drawn from propranolol intrinsic clearance data exhibiting considerable between-lab variability. The data used as validation targets for PMMs originate from both in vitro to in vivo experiments exhibiting large fold differences in time scale. This report demonstrates

  1. Chaste: an open source C++ library for computational physiology and biology.

    KAUST Repository

    Mirams, Gary R; Arthurs, Christopher J; Bernabeu, Miguel O; Bordas, Rafel; Cooper, Jonathan; Corrias, Alberto; Davit, Yohan; Dunn, Sara-Jane; Fletcher, Alexander G; Harvey, Daniel G; Marsh, Megan E; Osborne, James M; Pathmanathan, Pras; Pitt-Francis, Joe; Southern, James; Zemzemi, Nejib; Gavaghan, David J

    2013-01-01

    Chaste - Cancer, Heart And Soft Tissue Environment - is an open source C++ library for the computational simulation of mathematical models developed for physiology and biology. Code development has been driven by two initial applications: cardiac electrophysiology and cancer development. A large number of cardiac electrophysiology studies have been enabled and performed, including high-performance computational investigations of defibrillation on realistic human cardiac geometries. New models for the initiation and growth of tumours have been developed. In particular, cell-based simulations have provided novel insight into the role of stem cells in the colorectal crypt. Chaste is constantly evolving and is now being applied to a far wider range of problems. The code provides modules for handling common scientific computing components, such as meshes and solvers for ordinary and partial differential equations (ODEs/PDEs). Re-use of these components avoids the need for researchers to 're-invent the wheel' with each new project, accelerating the rate of progress in new applications. Chaste is developed using industrially-derived techniques, in particular test-driven development, to ensure code quality, re-use and reliability. In this article we provide examples that illustrate the types of problems Chaste can be used to solve, which can be run on a desktop computer. We highlight some scientific studies that have used or are using Chaste, and the insights they have provided. The source code, both for specific releases and the development version, is available to download under an open source Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) licence at http://www.cs.ox.ac.uk/chaste, together with details of a mailing list and links to documentation and tutorials.

  2. Chaste: an open source C++ library for computational physiology and biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary R Mirams

    Full Text Available Chaste - Cancer, Heart And Soft Tissue Environment - is an open source C++ library for the computational simulation of mathematical models developed for physiology and biology. Code development has been driven by two initial applications: cardiac electrophysiology and cancer development. A large number of cardiac electrophysiology studies have been enabled and performed, including high-performance computational investigations of defibrillation on realistic human cardiac geometries. New models for the initiation and growth of tumours have been developed. In particular, cell-based simulations have provided novel insight into the role of stem cells in the colorectal crypt. Chaste is constantly evolving and is now being applied to a far wider range of problems. The code provides modules for handling common scientific computing components, such as meshes and solvers for ordinary and partial differential equations (ODEs/PDEs. Re-use of these components avoids the need for researchers to 're-invent the wheel' with each new project, accelerating the rate of progress in new applications. Chaste is developed using industrially-derived techniques, in particular test-driven development, to ensure code quality, re-use and reliability. In this article we provide examples that illustrate the types of problems Chaste can be used to solve, which can be run on a desktop computer. We highlight some scientific studies that have used or are using Chaste, and the insights they have provided. The source code, both for specific releases and the development version, is available to download under an open source Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD licence at http://www.cs.ox.ac.uk/chaste, together with details of a mailing list and links to documentation and tutorials.

  3. Chaste: an open source C++ library for computational physiology and biology.

    KAUST Repository

    Mirams, Gary R

    2013-03-14

    Chaste - Cancer, Heart And Soft Tissue Environment - is an open source C++ library for the computational simulation of mathematical models developed for physiology and biology. Code development has been driven by two initial applications: cardiac electrophysiology and cancer development. A large number of cardiac electrophysiology studies have been enabled and performed, including high-performance computational investigations of defibrillation on realistic human cardiac geometries. New models for the initiation and growth of tumours have been developed. In particular, cell-based simulations have provided novel insight into the role of stem cells in the colorectal crypt. Chaste is constantly evolving and is now being applied to a far wider range of problems. The code provides modules for handling common scientific computing components, such as meshes and solvers for ordinary and partial differential equations (ODEs/PDEs). Re-use of these components avoids the need for researchers to \\'re-invent the wheel\\' with each new project, accelerating the rate of progress in new applications. Chaste is developed using industrially-derived techniques, in particular test-driven development, to ensure code quality, re-use and reliability. In this article we provide examples that illustrate the types of problems Chaste can be used to solve, which can be run on a desktop computer. We highlight some scientific studies that have used or are using Chaste, and the insights they have provided. The source code, both for specific releases and the development version, is available to download under an open source Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) licence at http://www.cs.ox.ac.uk/chaste, together with details of a mailing list and links to documentation and tutorials.

  4. Synchronization as a biological, psychological and social mechanism to create common time: A theoretical frame and a single case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yan; Pöppel, Ernst; Wang, Lingyan; Lin, Xiaoxiong; Yang, Taoxi; Avram, Mihai; Blautzik, Janusch; Paolini, Marco; Silveira, Sarita; Vedder, Aline; Zaytseva, Yuliya; Zhou, Bin

    2015-12-01

    Synchronizing neural processes, mental activities, and social interactions is considered to be fundamental for the creation of temporal order on the personal and interpersonal level. Several different types of synchronization are distinguished, and for each of them examples are given: self-organized synchronizations on the neural level giving rise to pre-semantically defined time windows of some tens of milliseconds and of approximately 3 s; time windows that are created by synchronizing different neural representations, as for instance in aesthetic appreciations or moral judgments; and synchronization of biological rhythms with geophysical cycles, like the circadian clock with the 24-hr rhythm of day and night. For the latter type of synchronization, an experiment is described that shows the importance of social interactions for sharing or avoiding common time. In a group study with four subjects being completely isolated together for 3 weeks from the external world, social interactions resulted both in intra- and interindividual circadian synchronization and desynchronization. A unique phenomenon in circadian regulation is described, the "beat phenomenon," which has been made visible by the interaction of two circadian rhythms with different frequencies in one body. The separation of the two physiological rhythms was the consequence of social interactions, that is, by the desire of a subject to share and to escape common time during different phases of the long-term experiment. The theoretical arguments on synchronization are summarized with the general statement: "Nothing in cognitive science makes sense except in the light of time windows." The hypothesis is forwarded that time windows that express discrete timing mechanisms in behavioral control and on the level of conscious experiences are the necessary bases to create cognitive order, and it is suggested that time windows are implemented by neural oscillations in different frequency domains. © 2015 The

  5. Understanding the Biological Roles of Pectins in Plants through Physiological and Functional Characterizations of Plant and Fungal Mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stranne, Maria

    The plant cell wall is a dynamic structure and it is involved in regulating a number of physiological features of plants such as physical strength, growth, cell differentiation, intercellular communication, water movement and defense responses. Pectins constitute a major class of plant cell wall...... polysaccharides and consist of backbones rich in galacturonic acids, which are decorated with a range of functional groups including acetyl esters and arabinan sidechains. Although much effort has been made to uncover biological functions of pectins in plants and remarkable progresses have taken place, many...... aspects remain elusive. Studies described in this thesis aimed at gaining new insights into the biological roles of pectin acetylation and arabinosylation in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The thesis consists of four chapters: physiological characterization of cell wall mutants affected in cell...

  6. Harnessing the Power of Integrated Mitochondrial Biology and Physiology: A Special Report on the NHLBI Mitochondria in Heart Diseases Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Peipei; Gustafsson, Åsa B; Bers, Don M; Blatter, Lothar A; Cai, Hua; Jahangir, Arshad; Kelly, Daniel; Muoio, Deborah; O'Rourke, Brian; Rabinovitch, Peter; Trayanova, Natalia; Van Eyk, Jennifer; Weiss, James N; Wong, Renee; Schwartz Longacre, Lisa

    2015-07-17

    Mitochondrial biology is the sum of diverse phenomena from molecular profiles to physiological functions. A mechanistic understanding of mitochondria in disease development, and hence the future prospect of clinical translations, relies on a systems-level integration of expertise from multiple fields of investigation. Upon the successful conclusion of a recent National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute initiative on integrative mitochondrial biology in cardiovascular diseases, we reflect on the accomplishments made possible by this unique interdisciplinary collaboration effort and exciting new fronts on the study of these remarkable organelles. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Change in Psychological, Physiological, and Situational Factors in Adults After Treatment of Chronic Cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Cynthia L; Crawford, Sybil L; Bova, Carol; Irwin, Richard S

    2017-09-01

    We hypothesized that addressing anxiety and depressive mood disorders will improve chronic cough severity and cough quality of life (CQOL). Major tenets of the theory of unpleasant symptoms were examined in a longitudinal observational study of consecutive adults with cough of > 8 weeks' duration treated in our cough clinic. At baseline and 3 and 6 months, subjects completed 3 Punum Ladders rating cough severity, the CQOL Questionnaire, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales-21, and the Duke Functional Social Support Questionnaire. Cross-sectional baseline and longitudinal regression analyses were conducted. Eighty subjects (55 women) with a mean age of 58.5 ± 11.1 years and a cough duration of 86.0 ± 123.7 months were enrolled. At baseline, worse cough severity was significantly associated with less education and worse ability to speak bothered by cough and the urge to cough. Worse CQOL was significantly associated with worse depression symptoms, urinary incontinence, and ability to speak; use of self-prescribed remedies; and younger age. Significant improvements in depression and stress symptoms occurred at 3 and 6 months. Anxiety symptoms improved, particularly in the first 3 months. Improvement in cough severity was significantly associated with less education, male sex, and improvement in ability to speak and urge to cough. Improvement in CQOL was significantly associated with improvement in urinary incontinence, urge to cough, anxiety symptoms, and use of self-prescribed remedies. Using the theory of unpleasant symptoms, we have come to appreciate that managing psychological, physiological, and situational factors in addition to focusing on identifying the cause of cough is important to maximize improvement in CQOL. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Seyle’s biological stressors influence dramatically skin physiology: our experiences with electrical admittance magnitude measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Martini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Abrupt changes of environmental temperatures and assault of chemical and physical assaults belong to the series of biological stresses recorded by the austro-canadian endocrinologist Seyle onto skin, phenomena that are progressively overset all natural events and anthropological lifestyles, are too often depreciated and underestimated by dermatologists and cosmetologists at all. Aims of our study is to evaluate by electrical admittance magnitude measurements the influence these two irrefutable afflictions, designed as stressors, influence negatively human skin and to do this we have selected, to conduct the study, peculiar individuals that, owing to their choice of living, may or not be injured by extreme changes of temperatures and aggressions by chemical and physical pollutants. Materials and Methods: We have recruited 20 nuns in a cloistered convent in Mid Italy: ten of these have been always accustomed to live inside the cloister and their life-style permits the good conservation of the intact skin physiology (that is living at air temperature and medium-low relative humidity and the other ten are accustomed to live and work outdoor and to be assaulted by abrupt and extreme changes of environmental temperature and pollutants. Cloistered nuns have the chance to choose where to live, indoor or aoutdoor. We measured the electrical admittance magnitude (in μmho at the beginning and at the end of the experiment that lasts 29 weeks, using an appropriate instrument based on the system developed by Feldman, working at a single frequency of 30kHz. Results and Conclusion: It is self evident that after the simulation of phyto-induced cortisol release onto the skins of all the 20 volunteers, the subjects that which live outdoor show an exaggerated value of dehydration with regard to the subjects that live indoor. Changes of environmental temperatures and chemical pollutants, is self evident, jeopardize human skin integrity and safety, but

  9. A systems biology approach to studying Tai Chi, physiological complexity and healthy aging: design and rationale of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Peter M; Manor, Brad; Novak, Vera; Costa, Madelena D; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Goldberger, Ary L; Ahn, Andrew C; Yeh, Gloria Y; Peng, C-K; Lough, Matthew; Davis, Roger B; Quilty, Mary T; Lipsitz, Lewis A

    2013-01-01

    Aging is typically associated with progressive multi-system impairment that leads to decreased physical and cognitive function and reduced adaptability to stress. Due to its capacity to characterize complex dynamics within and between physiological systems, the emerging field of complex systems biology and its array of quantitative tools show great promise for improving our understanding of aging, monitoring senescence, and providing biomarkers for evaluating novel interventions, including promising mind-body exercises, that treat age-related disease and promote healthy aging. An ongoing, two-arm randomized clinical trial is evaluating the potential of Tai Chi mind-body exercise to attenuate age-related loss of complexity. A total of 60 Tai Chi-naïve healthy older adults (aged 50-79) are being randomized to either six months of Tai Chi training (n=30), or to a waitlist control receiving unaltered usual medical care (n=30). Our primary outcomes are complexity-based measures of heart rate, standing postural sway and gait stride interval dynamics assessed at 3 and 6months. Multiscale entropy and detrended fluctuation analysis are used as entropy- and fractal-based measures of complexity, respectively. Secondary outcomes include measures of physical and psychological function and tests of physiological adaptability also assessed at 3 and 6months. Results of this study may lead to novel biomarkers that help us monitor and understand the physiological processes of aging and explore the potential benefits of Tai Chi and related mind-body exercises for healthy aging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Virtual reality in Latin American clinical psychology and the VREPAR project. Virtual Reality Environments for Psycho-Neuro-physiological Assessment and Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mauro Rubens

    2002-10-01

    Starting with the excellent collective work done by the European Community (EC)-funded Virtual Reality Environments for Psycho-Neuro-physiological Assessment and Rehabilitation (VREPAR) projects, I try to indicate some possible pathways that would allow a better integration of this advanced technology into the reality of Latin American psychology. I myself use analyses that I did in my master's degree in the PUCSP-Catholic University in São Paulo, Brazil. I also include a brief description of the CD-ROM Clinical Psychology Uses of Virtual Reality (CPUVR) that accompanies my thesis. I point out the importance of collaboration between psychology and other disciplines, including computer science. I explain the method that I used to work with digital information, important for the formation of a critical mass of people thinking in Portuguese and Spanish to accelerate a technological jump.

  11. Understanding psychological stress, its biological processes, and impact on primary headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Justin M; Thebarge, Ronald W

    2006-10-01

    Psychological stress is generally acknowledged to be a central contributor to primary headache. Stress results from any challenge or threat, either real or perceived, to normal functioning. The stress response is the body's activation of physiological systems, namely the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, to protect and restore functioning. Chronic activation of the stress response can lead to wear and tear that eventually can predispose an individual to disease. There are multiple ways that stress and headache are closely related. Stress can (a) be a predisposing factor that contributes to headache disorder onset, (b) accelerate the progression of the headache disorder into a chronic condition, and (c) precipitate and exacerbate individual headache episodes. How stress impacts headache is not often understood. However, stress is assumed to affect primary headache by directly impacting pain production and modulation processes at both the peripheral and central levels. Stress can also independently worsen headache-related disability and quality of life. Finally, the headache experience itself can serve as a stressor that compromises an individual's health and well-being. With the prominent role that stress plays in headache, there are implications for the evaluation of stress and the use of stress reduction strategies at the various stages of headache disorder onset and progression. Future directions can help to develop a better empirical understanding of the pattern of the stress and headache connections and the mechanisms that explain the connections. Further research can also examine the interactive effects of stress and other factors that impact headache disorder onset, course, and adjustment.

  12. An exploratory study of adolescent response to fluoxetine using psychological and biological predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada H. Zohar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Not enough is known about predicting therapeutic response to serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors, and specifically to fluoxetine. This exploratory study used psychological and biological markers for (retrospective prediction of treatment-response to fluoxetine in depressed and/or anxious adolescents. Methods Forty-one consecutive adolescent outpatients with a primary diagnosis of severe affective and/or anxiety disorders were assessed and treated with an open-label 8-week trial of fluoxetine. Type D personality was assessed with the 14-item questionnaire, the DS14. In addition, TNFα, IL-6, and IL-1b were measured pre- and post-treatment. Results There was an elevation of Type D personality in patients, compared to the adolescent population rate. Post-treatment, 44% of patients were classified as non-responders; the relative risk of non-response for Type D personality patients was 2.8. Binary logistic regression predicting response vs. non-response showed a contribution of initial TNFα levels as well as Type D personality to non-response. Conclusions In this exploratory study, the most significant contributor to non-response was Type D personality. However, the measurement of Type D was not prospective, and thus may be confounded with psychiatric morbidity. The measurement of personality in psychiatric settings may contribute to the understanding of treatment response and have clinical utility.

  13. You can't take it with you? Effects of handheld portable media consoles on physiological and psychological responses to video game and movie content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivory, James D; Magee, Robert G

    2009-06-01

    Portable media consoles are becoming extremely popular devices for viewing a number of different types of media content, both for entertainment and for educational purposes. Given the increasingly heavy use of portable consoles as an alternative to traditional television-style monitors, it is important to investigate how physiological and psychological effects of portable consoles may differ from those of television-based consoles, because such differences in physiological and psychological responses may precipitate differences in the delivered content's effectiveness. Because portable consoles are popular as a delivery system for multiple types of media content, such as movies and video games, it is also important to investigate whether differences between the effects of portable and television-based consoles are consistent across multiple types of media. This article reports a 2 x 2 (console: portable or television-based x medium: video game or movie) mixed factorial design experiment with physiological arousal and self-reported flow experience as dependent variables, designed to explore whether console type affects media experiences and whether these effects are consistent across different media. Results indicate that portable media consoles evoke lower levels of physiological arousal and flow experience and that this effect is consistent for both video games and movies. These findings suggest that even though portable media consoles are often convenient compared to television-based consoles, the convenience may come at a cost in terms of the user experience.

  14. Assessing the Soil Physiological Potential Using Pedo-Biological Diagnosis Under Minimum-Tillage System and Mineral Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazar Bireescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of sustainable agriculture is the protection of environment and natural vegetal and soil resources. Accordingly, the objective of this research was to assess the impact of technological systems by minimum tillage on soil biological activity, using the Pedo-Biological Diagnosis of Soil Resources. Our research was conducted on haplic chernozem from Experimental Station of UASVM of Iasi, Romania, during the seasonal dynamic, to the soybean crop, on unfertilized and fertilized agrofond, using moderate mineral doses (N80P80 as average of 2009–2010 period, under minimum tillage (2x disk, paraplow, chisel compared to conventional (plugging at 20 cm and 30 cm. In the case of soil works with chisel and paraplow without return of furrow, the Pedo-Biological Diagnosis highlights an increase of soil physiological potential, in the both variants (unfertilized and fertilized, unlike the method of alternating the depth of plugging that proved to be ineffective.

  15. Biological, psychological and social processes that explain celebrities' influence on patients' health-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J; Tan, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Celebrities can have substantial influence as medical advisors. However, their impact on public health is equivocal: depending on the advice's validity and applicability, celebrity engagements can benefit or hinder efforts to educate patients on evidence-based practices and improve their health literacy. This meta-narrative analysis synthesizes multiple disciplinary insights explaining the influence celebrities have on people's health-related behaviors. Systematic searches of electronic databases BusinessSource Complete, Communication & Mass Media Complete, Humanities Abstracts, ProQuest Political Science, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Sociology Abstracts were conducted. Retrieved articles were used to inform a conceptual analysis of the possible processes accounting for the substantial influence celebrities may have as medical advisors. Fourteen mechanisms of celebrity influence were identified. According to the economics literature, celebrities distinguish endorsed items from competitors and can catalyze herd behavior. Marketing studies tell us that celebrities' characteristics are transferred to endorsed products, and that the most successful celebrity advisors are those viewed as credible, a perception they can create with their success. Neuroscience research supports these explanations, finding that celebrity endorsements activate brain regions involved in making positive associations, building trust and encoding memories. The psychology literature tells us that celebrity advice conditions people to react positively toward it. People are also inclined to follow celebrities if the advice matches their self-conceptions or if not following it would generate cognitive dissonance. Sociology explains how celebrities' advice spreads through social networks, how their influence is a manifestation of people's desire to acquire celebrities' social capital, and how they affect the ways people acquire and interpret health information. There are clear and deeply rooted biological

  16. Biological consilience of hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide in plants: Gases of primordial earth linking plant, microbial and animal physiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Hideo; Cohen, Michael F

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is produced in the mammalian body through the enzymatic activities of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST). A growing number of studies have revealed that biogenic H2S produced in tissues is involved in a variety of physiological responses in mammals including vasorelaxation and neurotransmission. It is now evident that mammals utilize H2S to regulate multiple signaling systems, echoing the research history of the gaseous signaling molecules nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) that had previously only been recognized for their cytotoxicity. In the human diet, meats (mammals, birds and fishes) and vegetables (plants) containing cysteine and other sulfur compounds are the major dietary sources for endogenous production of H2S. Plants are primary producers in ecosystems on the earth and they synthesize organic sulfur compounds through the activity of sulfur assimilation. Although plant H2S-producing activities have been known for a long time, our knowledge of H2S biology in plant systems has not been updated to the extent of mammalian studies. Here we review recent progress on H2S studies, highlighting plants and bacteria. Scoping the future integration of H2S, NO and O2 biology, we discuss a possible linkage between physiology, ecology and evolutional biology of gas metabolisms that may reflect the historical changes of the Earth's atmospheric composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Physiology of Women's Sexual Function : Basic Knowledge and New Findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salonia, Andrea; Giraldi, Annamaria; Chivers, Meredith L.; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Levin, Roy; Maravilla, Kenneth R.; McCarthy, Margaret M.

    Introduction. Data concerning the physiology of female sexual functioning are still obtained from animal studies, but an increasing amount of novel evidence comes from human studies. Aim. To gain knowledge of psychological and biologic physiology of women's sexual functioning, mainly addressing

  18. Platelet serotonin level and impulsivity in human self-destructive behavior: A biological and psychological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Era Dutta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Suicide is a disease and a global public health problem. Suicidology has come to become a topic of study for intervention and research. The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5HT] system has remained a prime area of investigation. The neurons and platelets display structural and functional similarities. Ninety-nine percent of 5HT is contained in platelets, which shares similar 5HT uptake and release mechanisms with 5HT neurons. Aims: This study aims to study human self-destructive behavior (HSDB. Objectives: Exploring the biological (serotonin levels in platelets and psychological aspects (impulsivity of attempted suicide or HSDB. Settings and Design: Thirty-one patients, above the age of 18 years, with a recent history of HSDB, were studied and given an International Classification of Diseases-10 diagnosis, after a detailed interview. Subjects and Methods: For the platelet 5HT estimation, blood samples were collected, and enzyme immunometric assay carried out. Detailed assessment of the impulsivity was done by the 25-item structured diagnostic interview for borderlines by Zanarini et al. Statistical Analysis Used: We obtained both categorical and continuous data. Chi-square test, Fisher's test, Student's t-test, and Pearson's product moment correlation were used. Results: Female subjects outnumbered males by 2:1. Major depression, adjustment disorder, personality disorder were predominant diagnoses. The mean platelet serotonin concentration for males = 57.3 ng/ml, that of females = 56.05 ng/ml (P > 0.05. Platelet 5HT levels were found to be negatively correlated with impulsivity scores (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Platelet serotonin levels in our study sample were quite low when compared with those reported in published literature. Low serotonin levels were inversely related to impulsivity, but only in males.

  19. Effects and safety of mechanical bathing as a complementary therapy for terminal stage cancer patients from the physiological and psychological perspective: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Sawako; Iwawaki, Yoko; Takishita, Yukie; Yamamoto, Yoko; Murota, Masako; Yoshioka, Saori; Hayano, Azusa; Hosokawa, Toyoshi; Yamanaka, Ryuya

    2017-11-01

    In palliative care hospitals in Japan, mechanical bathing is conducted to maintain cleanliness. However, the physiological and psychological influence of mechanical bathing on patients has not been sufficiently studied. The objective of this study was to assess, using physiological and psychological indices, the effects of mechanical bathing care for patients in the terminal stage of cancer. Mechanical bathing was performed using a Marine Court SB7000 in a supine or semi-seated position. The heart rate variability analysis method was used to measure autonomic nervous system function. The patients' state of anxiety was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), a psychological index, and patients' verbal responses were also collected after mechanical bathing. Twenty-four patients were enrolled in this study. Their sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity did not differ before and after bathing. A significant difference was found between pre- and post-bathing anxiety, as evaluated by STAI (P mechanical bathing according to STAI evaluation and their verbal responses. The findings suggest that the method of bathing used in this study is safe and pain-relieving for terminal stage cancer patients. It is thus possible to provide safe and comfortable care for terminal stage cancer patients using mechanical baths. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Comparison of Physiological and Psychological Relaxation Using Measurements of Heart Rate Variability, Prefrontal Cortex Activity, and Subjective Indexes after Completing Tasks with and without Foliage Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin-Ae; Song, Chorong; Oh, Yun-Ah; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Son, Ki-Cheol

    2017-09-20

    The objective of this study was to compare physiological and psychological relaxation by assessing heart rate variability (HRV), prefrontal cortex activity, and subjective indexes while subjects performed a task with and without foliage plants. In a crossover experimental design, 24 university students performed a task transferring pots with and without a foliage plant for 3 min. HRV and oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentration in the prefrontal cortex were continuously measured. Immediately thereafter, subjective evaluation of emotions was performed using a modified semantic differential (SD) method and a profile of mood state questionnaire (POMS). Results showed that the natural logarithmic (ln) ratio of low frequency/high frequency, as an estimate of sympathetic nerve activity, was significantly lower while performing the task with foliage plants for the average 3 min measurement interval. Oxy-Hb concentration in the left prefrontal cortex showed a tendency to decrease in the 2-3 min interval in the task with foliage plants compared to the task without plants. Moreover, significant psychological relaxation according to POMS score and SD was demonstrated when the task involved foliage plants. In conclusion, the task involving foliage plants led to more physiological and psychological relaxation compared with the task without foliage plants.

  1. Comparison of Physiological and Psychological Relaxation Using Measurements of Heart Rate Variability, Prefrontal Cortex Activity, and Subjective Indexes after Completing Tasks with and without Foliage Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin-Ae Park

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare physiological and psychological relaxation by assessing heart rate variability (HRV, prefrontal cortex activity, and subjective indexes while subjects performed a task with and without foliage plants. In a crossover experimental design, 24 university students performed a task transferring pots with and without a foliage plant for 3 min. HRV and oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb concentration in the prefrontal cortex were continuously measured. Immediately thereafter, subjective evaluation of emotions was performed using a modified semantic differential (SD method and a profile of mood state questionnaire (POMS. Results showed that the natural logarithmic (ln ratio of low frequency/high frequency, as an estimate of sympathetic nerve activity, was significantly lower while performing the task with foliage plants for the average 3 min measurement interval. Oxy-Hb concentration in the left prefrontal cortex showed a tendency to decrease in the 2–3 min interval in the task with foliage plants compared to the task without plants. Moreover, significant psychological relaxation according to POMS score and SD was demonstrated when the task involved foliage plants. In conclusion, the task involving foliage plants led to more physiological and psychological relaxation compared with the task without foliage plants.

  2. Identity dimensions versus proactive coping in late adolescence while taking into account biological sex and psychological gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalka Dorota

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the relationship between proactive coping strategies and the dimensions of identity formation, along with the role of biological sex and psychological gender as moderators for this relationship. We conducted analyses aimed at showing differences in terms of identity dimensions levels and proactive coping strategies used by a group of individuals with different biological sex and psychological gender. A group of 101 students from upper secondary schools (47 females, 54 males from Pomeranian Voivodeship took part in the study. We used in our research The Dimensions of Identity Development Scale; The Psychological Gender Inventory and The Proactive Coping Inventory for Adolescents. We found, among others, that in the case of a proactive strategy, biological sex turned out to be a significant moderator in the relationship between this variable and identity dimensions: ruminative exploration, commitment-making and identification with commitment. In the case of instrumental support seeking, psychological gender turned out to be a significant moderator for the relationship between these variables and a part of identity dimensions. The obtained results show that, regardless of whether young people, in terms of characteristics that are stereotypically associated with biological sex, are described as aschematic (undifferentiated individuals or schematic (sex-typed when entering adulthood and attempting to constitute themselves, more often cope in a task-oriented manner by trying to create a set of information useful in difficult situations and aspire to obtain informational support from individuals in one’s own social network, who are regarded as safe people.

  3. It is not all bad for the grey city - A crossover study on physiological and psychological restoration in a forest and an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigsdotter, Ulrika K; Corazon, Sus Sola; Sidenius, Ulrik; Kristiansen, Jesper; Grahn, Patrik

    2017-07-01

    Today, urbanization presents a challenge to urban planning with regard to creating healthy living environments. The aim of this research is to gain further knowledge of the restorativeness of a best case urban and natural environment: that is a historic down town urban environment and forest environment located in an arboretum. The study has a cross-over design where 51 (N) female university students are exposed to the two environments through both seated viewing and walking. A mixed method approach is used with both physiological measurements of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability (HRV) and psychological measurements of mood change and perceived restorativeness. The HRV results show no significant differences between the two environments, and both environments are found to be more physiologically restorative than being at the office or on the minibus. The results of the psychological measures indicate that the forest walk has a positive effect on mood, while the walk in the urban environment has no effect. The forest environment is also rated more highly with regard to perceived restorativeness than the urban environment. The results support the current research that shows natural environments as more restorative than urban environments. The study also adds to the ongoing debate on healthy urban planning by indicating that architectural and historical qualities may be associated with the physiological well-being of citizens. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. APS Conference on Understanding the Biological Clock: From Genetics to Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Martin

    1996-01-01

    The Conference was designed to take advantage of the fusion of two intellectually dominant but heretofore separate lines of clock research, vertebrate physiology and invertebrate and microbial genetics. The APS Conference attracted 251 scientists, 68 of whom were students. In addition to the excellent speaker program organized by Dunlap and Loros, the attendees also submitted 93 volunteer abstracts that were programmed in poster sessions. Thirty-four percent of the submitted abstracts were first authorized by a female student or scientist.

  5. Applications of Magnetic Resonance in Model Systems: Tumor Biology and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Gillies

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A solid tumor presents a unique challenge as a system in which the dynamics of the relationship between vascularization, the physiological environment and metabolism are continually changing with growth and following treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS studies have demonstrated quantifiable linkages between the physiological environment, angiogenesis, vascularization and metabolism of tumors. The dynamics between these parameters continually change with tumor aggressiveness, tumor growth and during therapy and each of these can be monitored longitudinally, quantitatively and non-invasively with MRI and MRS. An important aspect of MRI and MRS studies is that techniques and findings are easily translated between systems. Hence, pre-clinical studies using cultured cells or experimental animals have a high connectivity to potential clinical utility. In the following review, leaders in the field of MR studies of basic tumor physiology using pre-clinical models have contributed individual sections according to their expertise and outlook. The following review is a cogent and timely overview of the current capabilities and state-of-the-art of MRI and MRS as applied to experimental cancers. A companion review deals with the application of MR methods to anticancer therapy.

  6. Noise sensitivity in relation to baseline arousal, physiological response and psychological features to noise exposure during task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, K.; Hofman, W.F.; van Kamp, I.

    2010-01-01

    People who consider themselves sensitive to noise, experience more noise annoyance, sleep disturbance and reduced daytime performance. Besides psychological factors, an association with cardiovascular reactions during noise has been established in noise sensitives. Decreased efficiency of the

  7. DRD2/CHRNA5 interaction on prefrontal biology and physiology during working memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabella Di Giorgio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prefrontal behavior and activity in humans are heritable. Studies in animals demonstrate an interaction between dopamine D2 receptors and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on prefrontal behavior but evidence in humans is weak. Therefore, we hypothesize that genetic variation regulating dopamine D2 and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor signaling impact prefrontal cortex activity and related cognition. To test this hypothesis in humans, we explored the interaction between functional genetic variants in the D2 receptor gene (DRD2, rs1076560 and in the nicotinic receptor α5 gene (CHRNA5, rs16969968 on both dorsolateral prefrontal cortex mediated behavior and physiology during working memory and on prefrontal gray matter volume. METHODS: A large sample of healthy subjects was compared for genotypic differences for DRD2 rs1076560 (G>T and CHNRA5 rs16969968 (G>A on prefrontal phenotypes, including cognitive performance at the N-Back task, prefrontal physiology with BOLD fMRI during performance of the 2-Back working memory task, and prefrontal morphometry with structural MRI. RESULTS: We found that DRD2 rs1076560 and CHNRA5 rs16969968 interact to modulate cognitive function, prefrontal physiology during working memory, and prefrontal gray matter volume. More specifically, CHRNA5-AA/DRD2-GT subjects had greater behavioral performance, more efficient prefrontal cortex activity at 2Back working memory task, and greater prefrontal gray matter volume than the other genotype groups. CONCLUSIONS: The present data extend previous studies in animals and enhance our understanding of dopamine and acetylcholine signaling in the human prefrontal cortex, demonstrating interactions elicited by working memory that are modulated by genetic variants in DRD2 and CHRNA5.

  8. DRD2/CHRNA5 interaction on prefrontal biology and physiology during working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giorgio, Annabella; Smith, Ryan M; Fazio, Leonardo; D'Ambrosio, Enrico; Gelao, Barbara; Tomasicchio, Aldo; Selvaggi, Pierluigi; Taurisano, Paolo; Quarto, Tiziana; Masellis, Rita; Rampino, Antonio; Caforio, Grazia; Popolizio, Teresa; Blasi, Giuseppe; Sadee, Wolfgang; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Prefrontal behavior and activity in humans are heritable. Studies in animals demonstrate an interaction between dopamine D2 receptors and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on prefrontal behavior but evidence in humans is weak. Therefore, we hypothesize that genetic variation regulating dopamine D2 and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor signaling impact prefrontal cortex activity and related cognition. To test this hypothesis in humans, we explored the interaction between functional genetic variants in the D2 receptor gene (DRD2, rs1076560) and in the nicotinic receptor α5 gene (CHRNA5, rs16969968) on both dorsolateral prefrontal cortex mediated behavior and physiology during working memory and on prefrontal gray matter volume. A large sample of healthy subjects was compared for genotypic differences for DRD2 rs1076560 (G>T) and CHNRA5 rs16969968 (G>A) on prefrontal phenotypes, including cognitive performance at the N-Back task, prefrontal physiology with BOLD fMRI during performance of the 2-Back working memory task, and prefrontal morphometry with structural MRI. We found that DRD2 rs1076560 and CHNRA5 rs16969968 interact to modulate cognitive function, prefrontal physiology during working memory, and prefrontal gray matter volume. More specifically, CHRNA5-AA/DRD2-GT subjects had greater behavioral performance, more efficient prefrontal cortex activity at 2Back working memory task, and greater prefrontal gray matter volume than the other genotype groups. The present data extend previous studies in animals and enhance our understanding of dopamine and acetylcholine signaling in the human prefrontal cortex, demonstrating interactions elicited by working memory that are modulated by genetic variants in DRD2 and CHRNA5.

  9. The gravitational plant physiology facility-Description of equipment developed for biological research in spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, D. G.; Chapman, D. K.; Brown, A. H.; Lewis, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    In January 1992, the NASA Suttle mission STS 42 carried a facility designed to perform experiments on plant gravi- and photo-tropic responses. This equipment, the Gravitational Plant Physiology Facility (GPPF) was made up of a number of interconnected units mounted within a Spacelab double rack. The details of these units and the plant growth containers designed for use in GPPF are described. The equipment functioned well during the mission and returned a substantial body of time-lapse video data on plant responses to tropistic stimuli under conditions of orbital microgravity. GPPF is maintained by NASA Ames Research Center, and is flight qualifiable for future spacelab missions.

  10. On making nursing undergraduate human reproductive physiology content meaningful and relevant: discussion of human pleasure in its biological context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClusky, Leon Mendel

    2012-01-01

    The traditional presentation of the Reproductive Physiology component in an Anatomy and Physiology course to nursing undergraduates focuses on the broad aspects of hormonal regulation of reproduction and gonadal anatomy, with the role of the higher centres of the brain omitted. An introductory discussion is proposed which could precede the lectures on the reproductive organs. The discussion gives an overview of the biological significance of human pleasure, the involvement of the neurotransmitter dopamine, and the role of pleasure in the survival of the individual and even species. Pleasure stimuli (positive and negative) and the biological significance of naturally-induced pleasurable experiences are briefly discussed in the context of reproduction and the preservation of genetic material with an aim to foster relevancy between subject material and human behaviour in any type of society. The tenderness of this aspect of the human existence is well-understood because of its invariable association with soul-revealing human expressions such as love, infatuation, sexual flirtations, all of which are underpinned by arousal, desire and/or pleasure. Assuming that increased knowledge correlates with increased confidence, the proposed approach may provide the nurse with an adequate knowledge base to overcome well-known barriers in communicating with their patients about matters of sexual health and intimacy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biological, Psychological, and Sociocultural Factors Contributing to the Drive for Muscularity in Weight-Training Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Catharina; Rollitz, Laura; Voracek, Martin; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    The drive for muscularity and associated behaviors (e.g., exercising and dieting) are of growing importance for men in Western societies. In its extreme form, it can lead to body image concerns and harmful behaviors like over-exercising and the misuse of performance-enhancing substances. Therefore, investigating factors associated with the drive for muscularity, especially in vulnerable populations like bodybuilders and weight trainers can help identify potential risk and protective factors for body image problems. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the aim of the current study was to explore different factors associated with drive for muscularity in weight-training men. To this purpose, German-speaking male weight trainers (N = 248) completed an online survey to determine the extent to which biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors contribute to drive for muscularity and its related attitudes and behaviors. Using multiple regression models, findings showed that media ideal body internalization was the strongest positive predictor for drive for muscularity, while age (M = 25.9, SD = 7.4) held the strongest negative association with drive for muscularity. Dissatisfaction with muscularity, but not with body fat, was related to drive for muscularity. The fat-free mass index, a quantification of the actual degree of muscularity of a person, significantly predicted drive for muscularity-related behavior but not attitudes. Body-related aspects of self-esteem, but not global self-esteem, were significant negative predictors of drive for muscularity. Since internalization of media body ideals presented the highest predictive value for drive for muscularity, these findings suggest that media body ideal internalizations may be a risk factor for body image concerns in men, leading, in its most extreme form to disordered eating or muscle dysmorphia. Future research should investigate the relations between drive for muscularity, age, body composition

  12. Human development I: Twenty Fundamental Problems of Biology, Medicine, and Neuro-Psychology Related to Biological Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyge Dahl Hermansen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In a new series of papers, we address a number of unsolved problems in biology today. First of all, the unsolved enigma concerning how the differentiation from a single zygote to an adult individual happens has been object for severe research for decades. By uncovering a new holistic biological paradigm that introduces an energetic-informational interpretation of reality as a new way to experience biology, these papers will try to solve the problems connected with the events of biological ontogenesis involving a fractal hierarchy, from a single cell to the function of the human brain. The problems discussed are interpreted within the frames of a universe of roomy fractal structures containing energetic patterns that are able to deliver biological information. We think biological organization is guided by energetic changes on the level of quantum mechanics, interacting with the intention that again guides the energetic conformation of the fractal structures to gain disorders or healthiness. Furthermore, we introduce two new concepts: “metamorphous top down” evolution and “adult human metamorphosis”. The first is a new evolutionary theory involving metamorphosis as a main concept of evolution. The last is tightly linked to the evolutionary principle and explains how human self-recovery is governed. Other subjects of special interest that we shall look deeper into are the immunological self-nonself discrimination, the structure and function of the human brain, the etiology and salutogenesis of mental and somatic diseases, and the structure of the consciousness of a human being. We shall criticize Szentagothai’s model for the modulated structure of the human cerebral cortex and Jerne’s theory of the immunological regulatory anti-idiotypic network.

  13. Prolonged non-metabolic heart rate variability reduction as a physiological marker of psychological stress in daily life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuil, B.; Brosschot, J.F.; Tollenaar, M.S.; Lane, R.D.; Thayer, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prolonged cardiac activity that exceeds metabolic needs can be detrimental for somatic health. Psychological stress could result in such "additional cardiac activity." PURPOSE In this study, we examined whether prolonged additional reductions in heart rate variability (AddHRVr) can be

  14. Effects of confinement on physiological and psychological responses and expression of interleukin 6 and brain derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in primiparous and multiparous weaning sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study aimed to investigate whether the long-lasting, recurrent restricting of sows leads to the physiological and psychological reaction of discomfort. Methods Sows (Large White that had experienced restricting for about 0.5 or 3 years and age-matched sows kept in a group housing system (loose sows were compared. Pupillary light reflex parameters were measured at the weaning stage. Immediately after slaughter, blood samples were taken to measure serum cortisol levels, and the brain was dissected, gene expression in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and hypothalamus was analyzed. Results The serum cortisol levels were higher in the confined sows than in the loose sows. The full maturity, but not the young adolescent, confined sows had longer latency time in the onset of pupil constriction than their loose counterparts. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed an increased expression of interleukin 6 mRNA in the hippocampus and decreased expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in hippocampus and hypothalamus and to a lesser extent in the frontal cortex of the full maturity confined sows, compared with the full maturity loose sows. Conclusion Taken together, these data indicated that recurrent restricting stress in full maturity sows leads to the physiological and psychological reaction of discomfort.

  15. The Effect of Inhalation Aromatherapy on Physiological and Psychological Parameters of Patient’s Candidate for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft: Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rajai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anxiety and stress are common problems before coronary artery bypass graft surgery has a destructive effect on the patient's condition. One of the medications therapies that are effective in reducing anxiety level is Aromatherapy. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of inhalation aromatherapy on physiological and psychological parameters of patients who are candidate for coronary artery bypass graft. Method: In this pilot study, 30 patients candidate of coronary artery bypass graft were selected by convenient sampling method. For intervention on the morning of the surgery, patients inhaled Lavender essential oil from a distance of 5 cm of the nose, for 20 minutes. Physiological and psychological parameters of patients the day before surgery and then 5 and 30 minutes after intervention was estimated by Form vital signs and DASS questionnaire. Data were analyzed in three phases using Descriptive Statistics and repeated measures ANOVA by SPSS.17. Results: 20% of patients were female, 80% male with an average age of 65/36±8/05. The results show a significant difference between the three time phases in variable of the pulse (P = 0/041, respiration (P = 0/040 and stress (P=0.046. Discussion: Aromatherapy can be an effective way to reduce stress levels and pulse in patients candidate for coronary artery bypass graft. Since this results study obtained from a pilot study, to Generalize the results, clinical trials with larger sample size is recommended.

  16. Effects of a laughter and exercise program on physiological and psychological health among community-dwelling elderly in Japan: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirosaki, Mayumi; Ohira, Tetsuya; Kajiura, Mitsugu; Kiyama, Masahiko; Kitamura, Akihiko; Sato, Shinichi; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effects of a once-weekly laughter and exercise program on physical and psychological health among elderly people living in the community. As a regular exercise program can be difficult to maintain, we provided a more enjoyable program to enhance adherence to exercise. A total of 27 individuals aged 60 years or older, without disabilities, were randomly assigned to either an immediate treatment group (n=14) or a delayed treatment group (n=13). The intervention was a 120-min session consisting of laughter and exercise, carried out once a week for 10 consecutive weeks. Measurements taken at baseline, 3 and 6 months included bodyweight, height, body fat, lean mass, bone mineral density, hemoglobin A1c (HbA(1c)), glucose, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, as well as self-rated health and psychological factors. All participants completed the 3-month program. Bone mineral density increased significantly in the immediate treatment group compared with the delayed treatment group during the first 3 months (Plaughter and exercise program might have physiological and psychological health benefits for the elderly. Laughter might be an effective strategy to motivate the elderly to participate in physical activity. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. Heat shock protein 70 kDa: molecular biology, biochemistry, and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, J G; Tsokos, G C

    1998-11-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are detected in all cells, prokaryotic and eukaryotic. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that various stressors transiently increase production of HSPs as protection against harmful insults. Increased levels of HSPs occur after environmental stresses, infection, normal physiological processes, and gene transfer. Although the mechanisms by which HSPs protect cells are not clearly understood, their expression can be modulated by cell signal transducers, such as changes in intracellular pH, cyclic AMP, Ca2+, Na+, inositol trisphosphate, protein kinase C, and protein phosphatases. Most of the HSPs interact with other proteins in cells and alter their function. These and other protein-protein interactions may mediate the little understood effects of HSPs on various cell functions. In this review, we focus on the structure of the HSP-70 family (HSP-70s), regulation of HSP-70 gene expression, their cytoprotective effects, and the possibility of regulating HSP-70 expression through modulation of signal transduction pathways. The clinical importance and therapeutic potential of HSPs are discussed.

  18. Voltage-Gated Proton Channels: Molecular Biology, Physiology, and Pathophysiology of the HV Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels (HV) are unique, in part because the ion they conduct is unique. HV channels are perfectly selective for protons and have a very small unitary conductance, both arguably manifestations of the extremely low H+ concentration in physiological solutions. They open with membrane depolarization, but their voltage dependence is strongly regulated by the pH gradient across the membrane (ΔpH), with the result that in most species they normally conduct only outward current. The HV channel protein is strikingly similar to the voltage-sensing domain (VSD, the first four membrane-spanning segments) of voltage-gated K+ and Na+ channels. In higher species, HV channels exist as dimers in which each protomer has its own conduction pathway, yet gating is cooperative. HV channels are phylogenetically diverse, distributed from humans to unicellular marine life, and perhaps even plants. Correspondingly, HV functions vary widely as well, from promoting calcification in coccolithophores and triggering bioluminescent flashes in dinoflagellates to facilitating killing bacteria, airway pH regulation, basophil histamine release, sperm maturation, and B lymphocyte responses in humans. Recent evidence that hHV1 may exacerbate breast cancer metastasis and cerebral damage from ischemic stroke highlights the rapidly expanding recognition of the clinical importance of hHV1. PMID:23589829

  19. Quantum Information Biology: From Information Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics to Applications in Molecular Biology and Cognitive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Masanari; Basieva, Irina; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Yamato, Ichiro

    2015-10-01

    We discuss foundational issues of quantum information biology (QIB)—one of the most successful applications of the quantum formalism outside of physics. QIB provides a multi-scale model of information processing in bio-systems: from proteins and cells to cognitive and social systems. This theory has to be sharply distinguished from "traditional quantum biophysics". The latter is about quantum bio-physical processes, e.g., in cells or brains. QIB models the dynamics of information states of bio-systems. We argue that the information interpretation of quantum mechanics (its various forms were elaborated by Zeilinger and Brukner, Fuchs and Mermin, and D' Ariano) is the most natural interpretation of QIB. Biologically QIB is based on two principles: (a) adaptivity; (b) openness (bio-systems are fundamentally open). These principles are mathematically represented in the framework of a novel formalism— quantum adaptive dynamics which, in particular, contains the standard theory of open quantum systems.

  20. A counterpoint between computer simulations and biological experiments to train new members of a laboratory of physiological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozu, Marcelo; Dorr, Ricardo A; Gutiérrez, Facundo; Politi, M Teresa; Toriano, Roxana

    2012-12-01

    When new members join a working group dedicated to scientific research, several changes occur in the group's dynamics. From a teaching point of view, a subsequent challenge is to develop innovative strategies to train new staff members in creative thinking, which is the most complex and abstract skill in the cognitive domain according to Bloom's revised taxonomy. In this sense, current technological and digital advances offer new possibilities in the field of education. Computer simulation and biological experiments can be used together as a combined tool for teaching and learning sometimes complex physiological and biophysical concepts. Moreover, creativity can be thought of as a social process that relies on interactions among staff members. In this regard, the acquisition of cognitive abilities coexists with the attainment of other skills from psychomotor and affective domains. Such dynamism in teaching and learning stimulates teamwork and encourages the integration of members of the working group. A practical example, based on the teaching of biophysical subjects such as osmosis, solute transport, and membrane permeability, which are crucial in understanding the physiological concept of homeostasis, is presented.

  1. Biological and physiological changes in raw and radiation-processed legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Wakeil, F.A.; Sharabash, M.T.M.; Farag, M. Diaa El-Din H.; Mahrous, S.R.

    1994-01-01

    Body weight of rats fed on raw kidney beans, soybeans, broad beans, chick peas and lupines suffered from poor growth due to some antinutritional factors. When the studied legumes were exposed to 10 kGy, the rats gained more weight than those kept on raw legumes. When extracts of raw legumes were intraperitoneally injected, the LD 50 were found to be 125, 300 and 1800 mg/kg, for raw kidney beans, raw soybeans, and raw broad beans respectively. However, injecting extracts of raw chick peas and raw lupines did not kill the rats even at higher concentration levels of 3000 mg/kg. Similar results were obtained with irradiated chick peas and lupines (10 kGy). Meanwhile, after irradiation treatment of kidney beans, soybeans and broad beans, the LD 50 were found to be 250, 400 and 2000 mg/kg for the above pulses respectively. Both raw and irradiated kidney beans and raw soybeans were most active in stimulating pancreas and liver growth and reducing spleen weight. Irradiated soybeans showed a moderate but significant increase in liver weight only. However, rats fed on both raw and irradiated broad beans, chick peas and lupines in their diets did not suffer any pancreatic and liver hypertrophy or spleen atrophy. The haematological parameters investigated showed that there was no significant differences between rat groups fed on either raw or irradiated legumes. It could be concluded that irradiation offers a good treatment for legumes as it has a beneficial effect to correct the poor growth for rats fed on raw beans during experimental period without any deleterious physiological effects. (author)

  2. Stress in biological invasions: Introduced invasive grey squirrels increase physiological stress in native Eurasian red squirrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santicchia, Francesca; Dantzer, Ben; van Kesteren, Freya; Palme, Rupert; Martinoli, Adriano; Ferrari, Nicola; Wauters, Lucas Armand

    2018-05-23

    Invasive alien species can cause extinction of native species through processes including predation, interspecific competition for resources or disease-mediated competition. Increases in stress hormones in vertebrates may be associated with these processes and contribute to the decline in survival or reproduction of the native species. Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) have gone extinct across much of the British Isles and parts of Northern Italy following the introduction of North American invasive grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis). We extracted glucocorticoid metabolites from faecal samples to measure whether the presence of the invasive species causes an increase in physiological stress in individuals of the native species. We show that native red squirrels in seven sites where they co-occurred with invasive grey squirrels had glucocorticoid concentrations that were three times higher than those in five sites without the invasive species. Moreover, in a longitudinal study, stress hormones in native red squirrels increased after colonisation by grey squirrels. When we experimentally reduced the abundance of the invasive grey squirrels, the concentration of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in co-occurring red squirrels decreased significantly between pre- and postremoval periods. Hence, we found that the invasive species acts as a stressor which significantly increases the concentrations of glucocorticoids in the native species. Given that sustained elevations in glucocorticoids could reduce body growth and reproductive rate, our results are consistent with previous studies where the co-occurrence of the invasive grey squirrel was associated with smaller size and lower reproductive output in red squirrels. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2018 British Ecological Society.

  3. Psychological, Relational, and Biological Correlates of Ego-Dystonic Masturbation in a Clinical Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Castellini, PhD, MD

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Clinicians should consider that some subjects seeking treatment in a sexual medicine setting might report compulsive sexual behaviors. EM represents a clinically relevant cause of disability, given the high level of psychological distress reported by subjects with this condition, and the severe impact on quality of life in interpersonal relationships.

  4. A female sex offender with multiple paraphilias: a psychologic, physiologic (laboratory sexual arousal) and endocrine case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A J; Swaminath, S; Baxter, D; Poulin, C

    1990-05-01

    A 20 year old female pedophile exhibiting multiple paraphilias and who had been both a victim of incest and an active participant, undertook extensive clinical, psychometric, endocrine and laboratory sexual arousal studies. Her psychiatric, psychometric and physiologic arousal profiles showed similarities to those of a sizable proportion of male child molesters, especially incestors. It is suggested that laboratory arousal tests (using the vaginal photoplethysmograph) may have a role in the assessment of some female sex offenders.

  5. A network biology approach to understanding the importance of chameleon proteins in human physiology and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahramali, Golnaz; Goliaei, Bahram; Minuchehr, Zarrin; Marashi, Sayed-Amir

    2017-02-01

    Chameleon proteins are proteins which include sequences that can adopt α-helix-β-strand (HE-chameleon) or α-helix-coil (HC-chameleon) or β-strand-coil (CE-chameleon) structures to operate their crucial biological functions. In this study, using a network-based approach, we examined the chameleon proteins to give a better knowledge on these proteins. We focused on proteins with identical chameleon sequences with more than or equal to seven residues long in different PDB entries, which adopt HE-chameleon, HC-chameleon, and CE-chameleon structures in the same protein. One hundred and ninety-one human chameleon proteins were identified via our in-house program. Then, protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks, Gene ontology (GO) enrichment, disease network, and pathway enrichment analyses were performed for our derived data set. We discovered that there are chameleon sequences which reside in protein-protein interaction regions between two proteins critical for their dual function. Analysis of the PPI networks for chameleon proteins introduced five hub proteins, namely TP53, EGFR, HSP90AA1, PPARA, and HIF1A, which were presented in four PPI clusters. The outcomes demonstrate that the chameleon regions are in critical domains of these proteins and are important in the development and treatment of human cancers. The present report is the first network-based functional study of chameleon proteins using computational approaches and might provide a new perspective for understanding the mechanisms of diseases helping us in developing new medical therapies along with discovering new proteins with chameleon properties which are highly important in cancer.

  6. A physical/psychological and biological stress combine to enhance endoplasmic reticulum stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Emeny, Rebecca T.; Gao, Donghong; Ault, Jeffrey G.; Kasten-Jolly, Jane; Lawrence, David A., E-mail: david.lawrence@health.ny.gov

    2015-12-01

    The generation of an immune response against infectious and other foreign agents is substantially modified by allostatic load, which is increased with chemical, physical and/or psychological stressors. The physical/psychological stress from cold-restraint (CR) inhibits host defense against Listeria monocytogenes (LM), due to early effects of the catecholamine norepinephrine (NE) from sympathetic nerves on β1-adrenoceptors (β1AR) of immune cells. Although CR activates innate immunity within 2 h, host defenses against bacterial growth are suppressed 2–3 days after infection (Cao and Lawrence 2002). CR enhances inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO production. The early innate activation leads to cellular reduction-oxidation (redox) changes of immune cells. Lymphocytes from CR-treated mice express fewer surface thiols. Splenic and hepatic immune cells also have fewer proteins with free thiols after CR and/or LM, and macrophages have less glutathione after the in vivo CR exposure or exposure to NE in vitro. The early induction of CR-induced oxidative stress elevates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which could interfere with keeping phagocytized LM within the phagosome or re-encapsuling LM by autophagy once they escape from the phagosome. ER stress-related proteins, such as glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), have elevated expression with CR and LM. The results indicate that CR enhances the unfolded protein response (UPR), which interferes with host defenses against LM. Thus, it is postulated that increased stress, as exists with living conditions at low socioeconomic conditions, can lower host defenses against pathogens because of oxidative and ER stress processes. - Highlights: • Cold-restraint (physical/psychological stress) induces early oxidative stress. • The oxidative stress relates to catecholamine signaling beta-adrenoceptors. • Physical/psychological stress combines infection enhancing inflammation. • Endoplasmic reticulum

  7. Relationship Between Postpartum Depression and Psychological and Biological Variables in the Initial Postpartum Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Morales, Dolores; Toro-Molina, Susana; Peñacoba-Puente, Cecilia; Losa-Iglesias, Marta; Carmona-Monge, Francisco Javier

    2018-06-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to evaluate the predictive relationship between psychological symptomatology 24 h postpartum and depression 4 months postpartum, and analyze the relationship between estradiol and postpartum mood. Methods Two hundred women participated in an assessment 24 h postpartum and gave a blood sample for estradiol analysis. One hundred eleven of these women completed the second assessment 4 months postpartum. The Beck Depression Inventory II and the Scale of State-Trait Anxiety were used to assess psychological symptoms. Results At 24 h postpartum, symptoms of depression, trait anxiety, and state anxiety were all significantly correlated with each other. Depression at 24 h postpartum was the only significant independent predictor of depression at 4 months postpartum, explaining 28.7% of the variance. No statistically significant relationship was found between levels of estradiol and mood. Symptoms of depression immediately postpartum thus appear to be a predictor of postpartum depression. Conclusions for Practice These results suggest that early postpartum psychological evaluation of the mother, and intervention as warranted, might prevent or lessen postpartum depression.

  8. Socio-demographic, biological, and psychological factors that predict the formation of anxiety and depressive disorders in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabokon N.O.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to analyze the influence of socio-demographic, biological, and psychological factors on the formation of anxiety-depressive disorders (ADD in children. Material and methods: 160 6–14-year-old children with (ADD being treated at the Sumy Oblast Pediatric Hospital and Sumy regional clinical psychoneurologic dispensary were examined. The diagnosis of standard ADD was conducted by ICD-10 and DSM_IV criteria. We used clinical psychopathological, somatoneurological, pathopsychological methods (depression rating scale CDRS-R; reactive and personal anxiety Spielberger—Hanin scale, L.K.Yahyn, D.M.Mendelevych questionnaires as well as socio-psychological interviewing and surveys («Scale of family environment» S.Y. Kupriyanov, «Scale of family adaptability and cohesion» — FACES-3, D.H. Olson. Results. The formation of ADD in children is associated with the child being exposed to a number of social, psychological and biological factors, among which the most important are: pathological forms of upbringing, incomplete family and labor migration of parents, education progenitors, bad habits of parents, disharmonious social relations between mothers and children, severe chronic illness of a parent, conflicts in the family and at school, excessive psycho-emotional pressure on the child and school bullying, genetics, burdened perinatal period, psychopathological symptoms during the first year of life and frequent respiratory infections in children. Conclusions. Determined the descriptiveness of the factors that should be considered when developing programs of early socio-therapeutically intervention in the rehabilitation of children with ADD and predicting the formation of resistance to treatment of the psychopathology at the later stages of ontogenesis.

  9. Stress-related exhaustion disorder--clinical manifestation of burnout? A review of assessment methods, sleep impairments, cognitive disturbances, and neuro-biological and physiological changes in clinical burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Giorgio; Perski, Aleksander; Osika, Walter; Savic, Ivanka

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide an overview of the literature on clinically significant burnout, focusing on its assessment, associations with sleep disturbances, cognitive impairments, as well as neurobiological and physiological correlates. Fifty-nine English language articles and six book chapters were included. The results indicate that exhaustion disorder (ED), as described in the Swedish version of the International Classification of Diseases, seems to be the most valid clinical equivalent of burnout. The data supports the notion that sleep impairments are causative and maintaining factors for this condition. Patients with clinical burnout/ED suffer from cognitive impairments in the areas of memory and executive functioning. The studies on neuro-biological mechanisms have reported functional uncoupling of networks relating the limbic system to the pre-frontal cortex, and decreased volumes of structures within the basal ganglia. Although there is a growing body of literature on the physiological correlates of clinical burnout/ED, there is to date no biomarker for this condition. More studies on the role of sleep disturbances, cognitive impairments, and neurobiological and physiological correlates in clinical burnout/ED are warranted. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Comparison of different cooling regimes within a shortened liquid cooling/warming garment on physiological and psychological comfort during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Gloria R.; Koscheyev, Victor S.; Coca, Aitor; List, Nathan

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of different cooling regime intensities to maintain physiological and subjective comfort during physical exertion levels comparable to that engaged in during extravehicular activities (EVA) in space. We studied eight subjects (six males, two females) donned in our newly developed physiologically based shortened liquid cooling/warming garment (SLCWG). Rigorous (condition 1) and mild (condition 2) water temperature cooling regimes were compared at physical exertion levels comparable to that performed during EVA to ascertain the effectiveness of a lesser intensity of cooling in maintaining thermal comfort, thus reducing energy consumption in the portable life support system. Exercise intensity was varied across stages of the session. Finger temperature, rectal temperature, and subjective perception of overall body and hand comfort were assessed. Finger temperature was significantly higher in the rigorous cooling condition and showed a consistent increase across exercise stages, likely due to the restriction of heat extraction because of the intensive cold. In the mild cooling condition, finger temperature exhibited an overall decline with cooling, indicating greater heat extraction from the body. Rectal temperature was not significantly different between conditions, and showed a steady increase over exercise stages in both rigorous and mild cooling conditions. Ratings of overall comfort were 30% higher (more positive) and more stable in mild cooling (p<0.001). The mild cooling regime was more effective than rigorous cooling in allowing the process of heat exchange to occur, thus maintaining thermal homeostasis and subjective comfort during physical exertion.

  11. Adverse physiological and psychological effects of screen time on children and adolescents: Literature review and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissak, Gadi

    2018-07-01

    A growing body of literature is associating excessive and addictive use of digital media with physical, psychological, social and neurological adverse consequences. Research is focusing more on mobile devices use, and studies suggest that duration, content, after-dark-use, media type and the number of devices are key components determining screen time effects. Physical health effects: excessive screen time is associated with poor sleep and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as high blood pressure, obesity, low HDL cholesterol, poor stress regulation (high sympathetic arousal and cortisol dysregulation), and Insulin Resistance. Other physical health consequences include impaired vision and reduced bone density. Psychological effects: internalizing and externalizing behavior is related to poor sleep. Depressive symptoms and suicidal are associated to screen time induced poor sleep, digital device night use, and mobile phone dependency. ADHD-related behavior was linked to sleep problems, overall screen time, and violent and fast-paced content which activates dopamine and the reward pathways. Early and prolonged exposure to violent content is also linked to risk for antisocial behavior and decreased prosocial behavior. Psychoneurological effects: addictive screen time use decreases social coping and involves craving behavior which resembles substance dependence behavior. Brain structural changes related to cognitive control and emotional regulation are associated with digital media addictive behavior. A case study of a treatment of an ADHD diagnosed 9-year-old boy suggests screen time induced ADHD-related behavior could be inaccurately diagnosed as ADHD. Screen time reduction is effective in decreasing ADHD-related behavior. Components crucial for psychophysiological resilience are none-wandering mind (typical of ADHD-related behavior), good social coping and attachment, and good physical health. Excessive digital media use by children and adolescents

  12. The Effects of Forest Therapy on Coping with Chronic Widespread Pain: Physiological and Psychological Differences between Participants in a Forest Therapy Program and a Control Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin-Woo; Choi, Han; Jeon, Yo-Han; Yoon, Chong-Hyeon; Woo, Jong-Min; Kim, Won

    2016-02-24

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of a two-day forest therapy program on individuals with chronic widespread pain. Sixty one employees of a public organization providing building and facilities management services within the Seoul Metropolitan area participated in the study. Participants were assigned to an experimental group (n = 33) who participated in a forest therapy program or a control group (n = 28) on a non-random basis. Pre- and post-measures of heart rate variability (HRV), Natural Killer cell (NK cell) activity, self-reported pain using the visual analog scale (VAS), depression level using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and health-related quality of life measures using the EuroQol Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS) were collected in both groups. The results showed that participants in the forest therapy group, as compared to the control group, showed physiological improvement as indicated by a significant increase in some measures of HRV and an increase in immune competence as indicated by NK cell activity. Participants in the forest therapy group also reported significant decreases in pain and depression, and a significant improvement in health-related quality of life. These results support the hypothesis that forest therapy is an effective intervention to relieve pain and associated psychological and physiological symptoms in individuals with chronic widespread pain.

  13. The Effects of Forest Therapy on Coping with Chronic Widespread Pain: Physiological and Psychological Differences between Participants in a Forest Therapy Program and a Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Woo Han

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of a two-day forest therapy program on individuals with chronic widespread pain. Sixty one employees of a public organization providing building and facilities management services within the Seoul Metropolitan area participated in the study. Participants were assigned to an experimental group (n = 33 who participated in a forest therapy program or a control group (n = 28 on a non-random basis. Pre- and post-measures of heart rate variability (HRV, Natural Killer cell (NK cell activity, self-reported pain using the visual analog scale (VAS, depression level using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and health-related quality of life measures using the EuroQol Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS were collected in both groups. The results showed that participants in the forest therapy group, as compared to the control group, showed physiological improvement as indicated by a significant increase in some measures of HRV and an increase in immune competence as indicated by NK cell activity. Participants in the forest therapy group also reported significant decreases in pain and depression, and a significant improvement in health-related quality of life. These results support the hypothesis that forest therapy is an effective intervention to relieve pain and associated psychological and physiological symptoms in individuals with chronic widespread pain.

  14. 'Battling my biology': psychological effects of genetic testing for risk of weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, S F; Wardle, J

    2014-04-01

    The availability of genetic tests for multifactorial conditions such as obesity raises concerns that higher-risk results could lead to fatalistic reactions or lower-risk results to complacency. No study has investigated the effects of genetic test feedback for the risk of obesity in non-clinical samples. The present study explored psychological and behavioral reactions to genetic test feedback for a weight related gene (FTO) in a volunteer sample (n = 18) using semi-structured interviews. Respondents perceived the gene test result as scientifically objective; removing some of the emotion attached to the issue of weight control. Those who were struggling with weight control reported relief of self-blame. There was no evidence for either complacency or fatalism; all respondents emphasized the importance of lifestyle choices in long-term weight management, although they recognized the role of both genes and environment. Regardless of the test result, respondents evaluated the testing positively and found it motivating and informative. Genetic test feedback for risk of weight gain may offer psychological benefits beyond its objectively limited clinical utility. As the role of genetic counselors is likely to expand, awareness of reasons for genetic testing for common, complex conditions and reactions to the test result is important.

  15. A brief historical perspective on the advent of brain oscillations in the biological and psychological disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaş, Sirel; Barry, Robert J

    2017-04-01

    We aim to review the historical evolution that has led to the study of the brain (body)-mind relationship based on brain oscillations, to outline and illustrate the principles of neuro-oscillatory dynamics using research findings. The paper addresses the relevant developments in behavioral sciences after Wundt established the science of psychology, and developments in the neurosciences after alpha and gamma oscillations were discovered by Berger and Adrian, respectively. Basic neuroscientific studies have led to a number of principles: (1) spontaneous EEG is composed of a set of oscillatory components, (2) the brain responds with oscillatory activity, (3) poststimulus oscillatory activity is a function of prestimulus activity, (4) the brain response results from a superposition of oscillatory components, (5) there are multiplicities with regard to oscillations and functions, and (6) oscillations are spatially integrated. Findings of clinical studies suggest that oscillatory responses can serve as biomarkers for neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the field of psychology is still making limited use of neuro-oscillatory dynamics for a bio-behavioral understanding of cognitive-affective processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Functional genomics to assess biological responses to marine pollution at physiological and evolutionary timescales: toward a vision of predictive ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Noah M; Whitehead, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Marine pollution is ubiquitous, and is one of the key factors influencing contemporary marine biodiversity worldwide. To protect marine biodiversity, how do we surveil, document and predict the short- and long-term impacts of pollutants on at-risk species? Modern genomics tools offer high-throughput, information-rich and increasingly cost-effective approaches for characterizing biological responses to environmental stress, and are important tools within an increasing sophisticated kit for surveiling and assessing impacts of pollutants on marine species. Through the lens of recent research in marine killifish, we illustrate how genomics tools may be useful for screening chemicals and pollutants for biological activity and to reveal specific mechanisms of action. The high dimensionality of transcriptomic responses enables their usage as highly specific fingerprints of exposure, and these fingerprints can be used to diagnose environmental problems. We also emphasize that molecular pathways recruited to respond at physiological timescales are the same pathways that may be targets for natural selection during chronic exposure to pollutants. Gene complement and sequence variation in those pathways can be related to variation in sensitivity to environmental pollutants within and among species. Furthermore, allelic variation associated with evolved tolerance in those pathways could be tracked to estimate the pace of environmental health decline and recovery. We finish by integrating these paradigms into a vision of how genomics approaches could anchor a modernized framework for advancing the predictive capacity of environmental and ecotoxicological science. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Neuropsychiatric Model of Biological and Psychological Processes in the Remission of Delusions and Auditory Hallucinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gaag, M.

    2006-01-01

    This selective review combines cognitive models and biological models of psychosis into a tentative integrated neuropsychiatric model. The aim of the model is to understand better, how pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavior therapy come forward as partners in the treatment of psychosis and play

  18. Psychological, Relational, and Biological Correlates of Ego-Dystonic Masturbation in a Clinical Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Giovanni; Fanni, Egidia; Corona, Giovanni; Maseroli, Elisa; Ricca, Valdo; Maggi, Mario

    2016-09-01

    Attitudes toward masturbation are extremely varied, and this practice is often perceived with a sense of guilt. To evaluate the prevalence of ego-dystonic masturbation (EM), defined as masturbation activity followed by a sense of guilt, in a clinical setting of sexual medicine and the impact of EM on psychological and relational well-being. A series of 4,211 men attending an andrology and sexual medicine outpatient clinic was studied retrospectively. The presence and severity of EM were defined according to ANDROTEST items related to masturbation, determined by the mathematical product of the frequency of masturbation and the sense of guilt after masturbation. Clinical, biochemical, and psychological parameters were studied using the Structured Interview on Erectile Dysfunction, ANDROTEST, and modified Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire. Three hundred fifty-two subjects (8.4%) reported any sense of guilt after masturbation. Subjects with EM were younger than the remaining sample (mean age ± SD = 51.27 ± 13.43 vs 48.31 ± 12.04 years, P < .0001) and had more psychiatric comorbidities. EM severity was positively associated with higher free-floating (Wald = 35.94, P < .001) and depressive (Wald = 16.85, P < .001) symptoms, and subjects with a higher EM score reported less phobic anxiety (Wald = 4.02, P < .05) and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (Wald = 7.6, P < .01). A higher EM score was associated with a higher alcohol intake. Subjects with EM more often reported the partner's lower frequency of climax and more problems achieving an erection during sexual intercourse. EM severity was positively associated with worse relational and intrapsychic domain scores. Clinicians should consider that some subjects seeking treatment in a sexual medicine setting might report compulsive sexual behaviors. EM represents a clinically relevant cause of disability, given the high level of psychological distress reported by subjects with this condition, and the severe impact on

  19. Efficient interrupting skills of amino acid metallointercalators with DNA at physiological pH: Evaluation of biological assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Natarajan; Selvaganapathy, Muthusamy; Radhakrishnan, Srinivasan

    2014-06-01

    The 4-aminoantipyrine derivatives (sbnd NO2, sbnd OCH3) and their mixed-ligand complexes with amino acids have been synthesized and investigated for their binding with CT DNA using UV-visible spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and viscosity measurements under physiological conditions of pH (stomach 4.7; blood 7.4). The results from all techniques i.e. binding constant (Kb), and free energy change (ΔG) were in good agreement and inferred spontaneous compound-DNA complexes formation via intercalation. Among all the compounds 1 and 4 showed comparatively greater binding at pH 7.4 as evident from its greater Kb values. All the complexes exhibit oxidative cleavage of supercoiled (SC) pBR322 plasmid DNA in the presence of H2O2 as an activator. It is remarkable that at 25 μM concentration 1 and 4 completely degrade SC DNA into undetectable minor fragments and thus they act as efficient chemical nucleases. Among the new complexes, complexes 1 and 4 have highest potential against all the microorganisms tested. The results of the above biological experiments also reveal that the choice of different metal ions has little influence on the DNA binding, DNA cleavage and antimicrobial assay.

  20. Exploring ethical considerations for the use of biological and physiological markers in population-based surveys in less developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyder Adnan A

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health information needs of developing countries increasingly include population-based estimates determined by biological and physiological measures. Collection of data on these biomarkers requires careful reassessment of ethical standards and procedures related to issues of safety, informed consent, reporting, and referral policies. This paper reviews the survey practices of health examination surveys that have been conducted in developed nations and discusses their application to similar types of surveys proposed for developing countries. Discussion The paper contends that a unitary set of ethical principles should be followed for surveys around the world that precludes the danger of creating double standards (and implicitly lowers standards for work done in developing countries. Global ethical standards must, however, be interpreted in the context of the unique historical and cultural context of the country in which the work is being done. Factors that influence ethical considerations, such as the relationship between investigators in developed and developing countries are also discussed. Summary The paper provides a set of conclusions reached through this discussion and recommendations for the ethical use of biomarkers in populations-based surveys in developing countries.

  1. Biological Sensitivity to the Effects of Childhood Family Adversity on Psychological Well-Being in Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Jennifer A; Ibrahim, Mariam Hanna; Luecken, Linda J

    2017-08-01

    The theory of biological sensitivity to context may inform our understanding of why some children exposed to family adversity develop mental health problems in emerging adulthood whereas others demonstrate resilience. This study investigated the interactive effects of heart rate (HR) reactivity and childhood family adversity (maltreatment and changes in family structure) on depressive symptoms and positive affect among 150 undergraduate students (18-28 years old; 77% White, non-Hispanic; 61% female). Participants reported on childhood parental divorce or death, and child maltreatment, and current depressive symptoms and positive affect. HR reactivity was assessed in response to a laboratory interpersonal stressor. HR reactivity moderated the effects of child maltreatment on depressive symptoms and positive affect; higher maltreatment was associated with more depressive symptoms and less positive affect, but only among those with average and higher levels of HR reactivity. Results suggest that higher physiological reactivity may confer greater susceptibility to environmental contexts.

  2. Multidisciplinary Assessment and Treatment of Self-Injurious Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability: Integration of Psychological and Biological Theory and Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshawi, Noha F.; Hurwitz, Sarah; Morriss, Danielle; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review is to consider the psychological (largely behavioral) and biological [neurochemical, medical (including genetic), and pharmacological] theories and approaches that contribute to current thinking about the etiology and treatment of self-injurious behavior (SIB) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and/or…

  3. ALOUD: Adult Learning Open University Determinants Study: Association between biological and psychological determinants and study success in adult formal distance education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Renate; Neroni, Joyce; Gijselaers, Jérôme; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    De Groot, R. H. M., Neroni, J., Gijselaers, J., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 6 December). ALOUD: Adult Learning Open University Determinants Study: Associations between biological and psychological determinants and study success in adult formal distance education. Presented at the Open University for

  4. Use of the Pyrithiamine-Induced Thiamine Deficient Animal Model of Korsakoff’s Syndrome for Exploratory Research Activities in Undergraduate Physiological Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Robert W.; Hill, Jonathan E.; Sandusky, Leslie A.; Marino, Christina L.

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate neuroscience laboratory activities frequently focus on exercises that build student’s wet/dry laboratory skills, foster critical thinking, and provide opportunities for hands-on experiences. Such activities are, without a doubt, extremely important, but sometimes fall short of modeling actual research and often lack the ‘unknown’ hypothetical nature accompanying empirical studies. In this article we report a series of research activities using an animal model of Korsakoff’s syndrome in a Physiological Psychology course. The activities involve testing hypotheses regarding performance of animals with experimentally-induced Korsakoff’s syndrome and the effectiveness of glucose as a memory-enhancer in this model. Students were given a set of 24 articles for use in answering a series of laboratory report questions regarding the activities. At the conclusion of the course, students were asked to complete a questionnaire designed to assess the effectiveness of the laboratory activities. Results of the laboratory exercises indicated that locomotor activity, environmental habituation, and anxiety were unaffected in the Korsakoff condition, and glucose had no effect. Results of performance in the T-maze indicated that Korsakoff animals had significantly fewer spontaneous alternations than controls, but Korsakoff animals given glucose did not reveal this difference. Results of the student assessments indicated that the activities were considered educational, challenging, and more interesting than standard laboratory activities designed to reproduce reliable phenomena. PMID:23494173

  5. From Grouping to Coupling: A New Perceptual Organization in Vision, Psychology, and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Baingio; Porcheddu, Daniele; Deiana, Katia

    2016-01-01

    In this work, perceptual organization has been studied with the same spirit and phenomenological methods used by Gestalt psychologists. This was accomplished through new conditions that cannot be explained in terms of the classical principles of grouping. Perceptual grouping represents the way through which our visual system builds integrated elements on the basis of the maximal homogeneity among the components of the stimulus pattern. Our results demonstrated the inconsistency of organization by grouping, and more importantly, the inconsistency of the principle of similarity. On the contrary, they suggested the unique role played by the principle of dissimilarity among elements that behaves like an accent or a visual emphasis within a whole. The principle of accentuation was here considered as imparting a directional structure to the elements and to the whole object thus creating new phenomena. The salience of the resulting phenomena reveals the supremacy of dissimilarity in relation to similarity and the fact that it belongs to a further organization dynamics that we called “coupling.” In biology, coupling and its principle of accentuation are very strongly related to disruptive camouflage. Moreover, they are source of sexual attraction. They advertise the presence and elicit species identification/communication. In human beings accentuation is needed to show ourselves to others, to understand the way we dress, choose, and create clothes or invent fashion, the way we change our body accentuating several parts and hiding some others, the way we use maquillage. The existence of maquillage itself is derived from the need to accentuate something with the purpose to increase sexual attraction, to exhibit physical strength and beauty, to show or hide social status (e.g., being the king, a warrior, a priest, etc.). Last but not least, accentuation plays a basic role also in making it easier or difficult to read and understand written words. PMID:27471483

  6. Constructive remodeling of biologic scaffolds is dependent on early exposure to physiologic bladder filling in a canine partial cystectomy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruch, Alan V; Nieponice, Alejandro; Qureshi, Irfan R; Gilbert, Thomas W; Badylak, Stephen F

    2010-06-15

    Biologic scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) have been used to facilitate the constructive remodeling of several tissue types. Previous studies suggest that the ECM scaffold remodeling process is dependent on microenvironmental factors, including tissue-specific biomechanical loading. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of long-term catheterization (LTC), with its associated inhibition of bladder filling and physiologic biomechanical loading, on ECM scaffold remodeling following partial cystectomy in a canine model. Reconstruction of the partial cystectomy site was performed using ECM scaffolds prepared from porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) or porcine urinary bladder matrix (UBM). Animals were randomly assigned to either a long-term catheterization (LTC) group (n=5, catheterized 28 d) or a short-term catheterization group (STC, n=5, catheterized 24 h), and scaffold remodeling was assessed by histologic methods at 4 and 12 wk postoperatively. By 4 wk, animals in the STC group showed a well-developed and highly differentiated urothelium, a robust vascularization network, abundant smooth muscle actin (SMA), and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (smMHC) expressing spindle-shaped cells, and many neuronal processes associated with newly formed arterioles. In contrast, at 4 wk the scaffolds in LTC animals were not epithelialized, and did not express neuronal markers. The scaffolds in the LTC group developed a dense granulation tissue containing SMA+, smMHC-, spindle-shaped cells that were morphologically and phenotypically consistent with myofibroblasts, but not smooth muscle cells. By 12 wk postoperatively, the ECM scaffolds in the STC animals showed a constructive remodeling response, with a differentiated urothelium and islands of smooth muscle cells within the remodeled scaffold. In contrast, at 12 wk the scaffolds in LTC animals had a remodeling response more consistent with fibrosis even though catheters had been

  7. Bridging the Gap between Physiology and Behavior: Evidence from the sSoTS Model of Human Visual Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavritsaki, Eirini; Heinke, Dietmar; Allen, Harriet; Deco, Gustavo; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2011-01-01

    We present the case for a role of biologically plausible neural network modeling in bridging the gap between physiology and behavior. We argue that spiking-level networks can allow "vertical" translation between physiological properties of neural systems and emergent "whole-system" performance--enabling psychological results to be simulated from…

  8. The Use of Smartphones as a Digital Security Blanket: The Influence of Phone Use and Availability on Psychological and Physiological Responses to Social Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, John F; Hooker, Emily D; Rohleder, Nicolas; Pressman, Sarah D

    2018-05-01

    Mobile phones are increasingly becoming a part of the social environment, and when individuals feels excluded during a socially stressful situation, they often retreat to the comfort of their phone to ameliorate the negativity. This study tests whether smartphone presence does, in fact, alter psychological and physiological responses to social stress. Participants (N = 148, 84% female, mean age = 20.4) were subjected to a peer, social-exclusion stressor. Before exclusion, participants were randomized to one of the following three conditions: (1) phone-present with use encouraged, (2) phone-present with use restricted, or (3) no phone access. Saliva samples and self-report data were collected throughout the study to assess salivary alpha amylase (sAA), cortisol, and feelings of exclusion. Participants in both phone-present conditions reported lower feelings of exclusion compared with individuals who had no access to their phone (F(2,143) = 5.49, p = .005). Multilevel modeling of sAA responses revealed that the individuals in the restricted-phone condition had a significantly different quadratic trajectory after the stressor compared with the phone use (υ = -0.12, z = -2.15, p = .032), and no-phone conditions (υ = -0.14, z = -2.64, p = .008). Specifically, those in the restricted-phone condition showed a decrease in sAA after exclusion, those in the no-phone condition showed a gradual increase, and phone users exhibited little change. Cortisol responses to the stressor did not vary by condition. Taken together, these results suggest that the mere presence of a phone (and not necessarily phone use) can buffer against the negative experience and effects of social exclusion.

  9. Differential physiological responses of dalmatian toadflax, Linaria dalmatica L. Miller, to injury from two insect biological control agents: Implications for decision-making in biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert K. D. Peterson; Sharlene E. Sing; David K. Weaver

    2005-01-01

    Successful biological control of invasive weeds with specialist herbivorous insects is predicated on the assumption that the injury stresses the weeds sufficiently to cause reductions in individual fitness. Because plant gas exchange directly impacts growth and fitness, characterizing how injury affects these primary processes may provide a key indicator of...

  10. A computational systems biology software platform for multiscale modeling and simulation: Integrating whole-body physiology, disease biology, and molecular reaction networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eEissing

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, in silico studies and trial simulations already complement experimental approaches in pharmaceutical R&D and have become indispensable tools for decision making and communication with regulatory agencies. While biology is multi-scale by nature, project work and software tools usually focus on isolated aspects of drug action, such as pharmacokinetics at the organism scale or pharmacodynamic interaction on the molecular level. We present a modeling and simulation software platform consisting of PK-Sim® and MoBi® capable of building and simulating models that integrate across biological scales. A prototypical multiscale model for the progression of a pancreatic tumor and its response to pharmacotherapy is constructed and virtual patients are treated with a prodrug activated by hepatic metabolization. Tumor growth is driven by signal transduction leading to cell cycle transition and proliferation. Free tumor concentrations of the active metabolite inhibit Raf kinase in the signaling cascade and thereby cell cycle progression. In a virtual clinical study, the individual therapeutic outcome of the chemotherapeutic intervention is simulated for a large population with heterogeneous genomic background. Thereby, the platform allows efficient model building and integration of biological knowledge and prior data from all biological scales. Experimental in vitro model systems can be linked with observations in animal experiments and clinical trials. The interplay between patients, diseases, and drugs and topics with high clinical relevance such as the role of pharmacogenomics, drug-drug or drug-metabolite interactions can be addressed using this mechanistic, insight driven multiscale modeling approach.

  11. The role of age of disclosure of biological origins in the psychological wellbeing of adolescents conceived by reproductive donation: a longitudinal study from age 1 to age 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilioi, Elena; Blake, Lucy; Jadva, Vasanti; Roman, Gabriela; Golombok, Susan

    2017-03-01

    The question of whether children should be told of their biological origins is one of the most controversial issues regarding the birth of children through donated eggs, sperm, embryos or surrogacy. In the sixth phase of this longitudinal study when the children were aged 14 years, family relationships and adolescent adjustment were examined in 87 families created through reproductive donation and 54 natural conception families. The quality of family relationships was assessed by standardised interview with mothers and by standardised questionnaires and an observational measure with mothers and adolescents. Adolescent adjustment was assessed using standardised questionnaires. Systematic information on whether and when parents had told children about their biological origins was obtained at earlier phases of the study. There were no overall differences between disclosing families and either nondisclosing or natural conception families. However, within the disclosing families, more positive family relationships and higher levels of adolescent wellbeing were found for adolescents who had been told about their biological origins before age 7. The earlier children born through reproductive donation are told about their biological origins, the more positive are the outcomes in terms of the quality of family relationships and psychological wellbeing at adolescence. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  12. From systems biology to photosynthesis and whole-plant physiology: a conceptual model for integrating multi-scale networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, David J; Hanson, Paul J; Norby, Richard J; Tuskan, Gerald A; Wullschleger, Stan D

    2012-02-01

    Network analysis is now a common statistical tool for molecular biologists. Network algorithms are readily used to model gene, protein and metabolic correlations providing insight into pathways driving biological phenomenon. One output from such an analysis is a candidate gene list that can be responsible, in part, for the biological process of interest. The question remains, however, as to whether molecular network analysis can be used to inform process models at higher levels of biological organization. In our previous work, transcriptional networks derived from three plant species were constructed, interrogated for orthology and then correlated with photosynthetic inhibition at elevated temperature. One unique aspect of that study was the link from co-expression networks to net photosynthesis. In this addendum, we propose a conceptual model where traditional network analysis can be linked to whole-plant models thereby informing predictions on key processes such as photosynthesis, nutrient uptake and assimilation, and C partitioning.

  13. Evaluation of the Effects of Biological and Chemical Fertilizers on Some Physiological and Growth Characteristics of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Menbari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the use of soil-born microorganisms as biological fertilizers is considered to be a natural and most desirable solution to maintain sustainability of agricultural soil system. Potassium releasing bacteria, nitrogen fixing and phosphorus dissolving bacteria make mentioned elements available to plants. In order to evaluate the effects of bio-fertilizers Potabarvar 2, Sinorhizobium meliloti, as well as urea fertilizer on physiological properties and yield of Fenugreek, an experiment as complete randomized block design was conducted with five treatments and three replications. Treatments included biofertilizer Potabarvar 2, S. meliloti, inoculation with a mixture of Sinorhizobium+Potabarvar 2, positive control (based on soil analysis and negative control (no fertilization and inoculation.The results showed that all morphological traits were significant at 1%. Most physiological traits except for carotenoid were significantly affected by S. meliloti, and a mixture of Sinorhizobium+Potabarvar 2. Seed inoculation with biofertilizer Sinorhizobium meliloti and Potabarvar 2 lead to increase in growth and eventually shoot yield. Separate application of these biofertilizers led to better results than the integrated application. Symbiotic relationship of Sinorhizobium with Fenugreek increased physiological indices data, especially the absorption of nitrogen and phosphorus, as well as the amount of phenolic antioxidant have been significantly affected. In general, application of S. meliloti resulted in better and more effective increase in yield, quality and plant growth than fertilizer Potabarvar 2 and a mixture of Sinorhizobium+Potabarvar 2.

  14. Sloth biology: an update on their physiological ecology, behavior and role as vectors of arthropods and arboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmore D.P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of the research undertaken since 1971 on the behavior and physiological ecology of sloths. The animals exhibit numerous fascinating features. Sloth hair is extremely specialized for a wet tropical environment and contains symbiotic algae. Activity shows circadian and seasonal variation. Nutrients derived from the food, particularly in Bradypus, only barely match the requirements for energy expenditure. Sloths are hosts to a fascinating array of commensal and parasitic arthropods and are carriers of various arthropod-borne viruses. Sloths are known reservoirs of the flagellate protozoan which causes leishmaniasis in humans, and may also carry trypanosomes and the protozoan Pneumocystis carinii.

  15. Physiological Mechanisms Only Tell Half Story: Multiple Biological Processes are involved in Regulating Freezing Tolerance of Imbibed Lactuca sativa Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Ganesh K; Han, Yingying; Li, Weijie; Song, Danping; Song, Xiaoyan; Shen, Mengqi; Zhou, Qiang; Zhang, Chenxue; Liu, Baolin

    2017-03-13

    The physiological mechanisms by which imbibed seeds survive freezing temperatures in their natural environment have been categorized as freezing avoidance by supercooling and freezing tolerance by extracellular freeze-desiccation, but the biochemical and molecular mechanisms conferring seed freezing tolerance is unexplored. In this study, using imbibed Lactuca sativa seeds we show that fast cooled seeds (60 °C h -1 ) suffered significantly higher membrane damage at temperature between -20 °C and -10 °C than slow cooled (3 °Ch -1 ) seeds (P  0.05). However, both SOD activity and accumulation of free proline were induced significantly after slow cooling to -20 °C compared with fast cooling. RNA-seq demonstrated that multiple pathways were differentially regulated between slow and fast cooling. Real-time verification of some differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that fast cooling caused mRNA level changes of plant hormone and ubiquitionation pathways at higher sub-zero temperature, whilst slow cooling caused mRNA level change of those pathways at lower sub-zero ttemperatures. Thus, we conclude that imbibed seed tolerate low temperature not only by physiological mechanisms but also by biochemical and molecular changes.

  16. Implementation of physiological fluids to provide insight into the characterization, fate, and biological interactions of silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitner, Emily K.; Burns, Katherine E.; Hussain, Saber M.; Comfort, Kristen K.

    2018-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are being increasingly utilized in consumer and medical applications. However, there remains conflicting reports on their safety, which are evaluated through a combination of in vitro and in vivo exposure models. These discrepancies may arise, in part, due to the inherent differences between cell-based and animal systems. It is well established that nanotoxicological effects are highly dependent on the unique physicochemical properties and behavior of the particle set, including size, surface chemistry, agglomeration, and ionic dissolution. However, recent studies have identified that these properties vary as a function of exposure environment; providing a rationale for the contradictory results between in vitro and in vivo assessments. Artificial physiological fluids are emerging as a powerful tool as they allow for the characterization of NPs in an environment which they would likely encounter in vivo, in addition to having the experimental advantages of flexibility and consistency. Here, we demonstrated that the utilization of artificial fluids provided a mechanism to assess AgNP behavior and induced bioresponses in environments that they would likely encounter in vivo. AgNPs were introduced within an alveolar-based exposure model, which included alveolar epithelial (A549) cells incubated within artificial alveolar fluid (AF). Additionally, the particles underwent extensive characterization within both AF and lysosomal fluid, which the AgNPs would encounter following cellular internalization. Following incubation in physiological environments AgNP properties were significantly modified versus a traditional media environment, including alterations to both extent of agglomeration and rate of ionic dissolution. Moreover, when A549s were exposed to AgNPs in AF, the cells displayed lower cytotoxicity and stress rates, corresponding to a fluid-dependent drop in silver ion production. This work highlights the need for enhanced in vitro

  17. Physiology of Women's Sexual Function: Basic Knowledge and New Findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salonia, Andrea; Giraldi, Annamaria; Chivers, Meredith L

    2010-01-01

    Introduction.  Data concerning the physiology of female sexual functioning are still obtained from animal studies, but an increasing amount of novel evidence comes from human studies. Aim.  To gain knowledge of psychological and biologic physiology of women's sexual functioning, mainly addressing...... and responses is of paramount importance. A biopsychological paradigm was considered when reviewing currently available data, thus considering aspects of: (i) sexual differentiation of the brain, which is critical for sex differentiation in behavior; (ii) central neurobiology of sexual function, highlighting...... arousal in women in both procreation/reproduction and recreation/pleasure. The interaction between physiological and psychological states of women's sexual response, nonspecific sexual response, interoceptive awareness, and flexibility of sexual interests have also been addressed. Conclusion.  Further...

  18. The effect of lichen-dominated biological soil crusts on growth and physiological characteristics of three plant species in a temperate desert of northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, W W; Serpe, M; Zhang, Y M

    2015-11-01

    Biocrusts (biological soil crusts) cover open spaces between vascular plants in most arid and semi-arid areas. Information on effects of biocrusts on seedling growth is controversial, and there is little information on their effects on plant growth and physiology. We examined impacts of biocrusts on growth and physiological characteristics of three habitat-typical plants, Erodium oxyrhynchum, Alyssum linifolium and Hyalea pulchella, growing in the Gurbantunggut Desert, northwest China. The influence of biocrusts on plant biomass, leaf area, leaf relative water content, photosynthesis, maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (F(v)/F(m)), chlorophyll, osmotic solutes (soluble sugars, protein, proline) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase) was investigated on sites with or without biocrust cover. Biomass, leaf area, leaf water content, photosynthesis, F(v)/F(m) and chlorophyll content in crusted soils were higher than in uncrusted soils during early growth and lower later in the growth period. Soluble sugars, proline and antioxidant enzyme activity were always higher in crusted than in uncrusted soils, while soluble protein content was always lower. These findings indicate that biocrusts have different effects on these three ephemeral species during growth in this desert, primarily via effects on soil moisture, and possibly on soil nutrients. The influence of biocrusts changes during plant development: in early plant growth, biocrusts had either positive or no effect on growth and physiological parameters. However, biocrusts tended to negatively influence plants during later growth. Our results provide insights to explain why previous studies have found different effects of biocrusts on vascular plant growth. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. Whither Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F

    2017-07-01

    Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants. In thinking about the way we want psychology to evolve, psychologists need to pay more than lip service to the idea that complex questions in psychology require multiple levels of analysis with contributions from biological (brain, hormones, and genetics), individual differences and social and cultural perspectives. Early career psychologists who can attain a breadth of knowledge will be well-positioned for a team approach to psychological inquiry. Finally, I offer the belief that an emphasis on enhancing critical thinking skills at all levels of education offers the best hope for the future.

  20. The impact of congenital heart diseases on the quality of life of patients and their families in Saudi Arabia. Biological, psychological, and social dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad S. Azhar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the impact of congenital heart diseases (CHDs on bio-psychosocial aspects of the quality of life (QOL of patients and their families. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out between May 2014 and August 2015, including children aged <16 years, and followed-up at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for CHD. A broad questionnaire was administered to investigate biological, psychological, and social dimensions of afflicted children, their parents, and siblings. Outcomes were computed as impact scores (0-100% for each dimension and family member. Results: A total of 180 children (104 [57.8%] males; mean age ± standard deviation [SD] = 5.65 ± 4.8 years were included. There were 25% children complaining of recurrent respiratory infections, 35% of frequent hospitalizations, 38.9% had milestone delay, and 12 (6.7% only had a social security registration. Mothers declared difficulty coping with their children’s disease in 20% of cases and 22.2% reported being depressed. Mean ± SD impact scores in afflicted children were: 26.1 ± 26.2 (biological, 28.7 ± 28.8 (psychological, and (20.2 ± 25.7 social dimensions. Mothers’ impact scores were higher than fathers’. Complex CHDs had an additional impact, and children from families with less knowledge on CHD had relatively greater impact scores. Conclusion: Congenital heart diseases impact all aspects of QOL of patients and their families, and are associated with high comorbidity. Social and psychological support and education for patients and their parents are crucial factors for improving QOL.

  1. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis of Sex-Biased Expressed Genes Reveals Discrete Biological and Physiological Features of Male and Female Schistosoma japonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Cai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating disease caused by blood flukes (digenetic trematodes of the genus Schistosoma. Schistosomes are sexually dimorphic and exhibit dramatic morphological changes during a complex lifecycle which requires subtle gene regulatory mechanisms to fulfil these complex biological processes. In the current study, a 41,982 features custom DNA microarray, which represents the most comprehensive probe coverage for any schistosome transcriptome study, was designed based on public domain and local databases to explore differential gene expression in S. japonicum. We found that approximately 1/10 of the total annotated genes in the S. japonicum genome are differentially expressed between adult males and females. In general, genes associated with the cytoskeleton, and motor and neuronal activities were readily expressed in male adult worms, whereas genes involved in amino acid metabolism, nucleotide biosynthesis, gluconeogenesis, glycosylation, cell cycle processes, DNA synthesis and genome fidelity and stability were enriched in females. Further, miRNAs target sites within these gene sets were predicted, which provides a scenario whereby the miRNAs potentially regulate these sex-biased expressed genes. The study significantly expands the expressional and regulatory characteristics of gender-biased expressed genes in schistosomes with high accuracy. The data provide a better appreciation of the biological and physiological features of male and female schistosome parasites, which may lead to novel vaccine targets and the development of new therapeutic interventions.

  2. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis of Sex-Biased Expressed Genes Reveals Discrete Biological and Physiological Features of Male and Female Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Pengfei; Liu, Shuai; Piao, Xianyu; Hou, Nan; Gobert, Geoffrey N; McManus, Donald P; Chen, Qijun

    2016-04-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating disease caused by blood flukes (digenetic trematodes) of the genus Schistosoma. Schistosomes are sexually dimorphic and exhibit dramatic morphological changes during a complex lifecycle which requires subtle gene regulatory mechanisms to fulfil these complex biological processes. In the current study, a 41,982 features custom DNA microarray, which represents the most comprehensive probe coverage for any schistosome transcriptome study, was designed based on public domain and local databases to explore differential gene expression in S. japonicum. We found that approximately 1/10 of the total annotated genes in the S. japonicum genome are differentially expressed between adult males and females. In general, genes associated with the cytoskeleton, and motor and neuronal activities were readily expressed in male adult worms, whereas genes involved in amino acid metabolism, nucleotide biosynthesis, gluconeogenesis, glycosylation, cell cycle processes, DNA synthesis and genome fidelity and stability were enriched in females. Further, miRNAs target sites within these gene sets were predicted, which provides a scenario whereby the miRNAs potentially regulate these sex-biased expressed genes. The study significantly expands the expressional and regulatory characteristics of gender-biased expressed genes in schistosomes with high accuracy. The data provide a better appreciation of the biological and physiological features of male and female schistosome parasites, which may lead to novel vaccine targets and the development of new therapeutic interventions.

  3. Exploring the Great Schism in the Social Sciences: Confirmation Bias and the Interpretation of Results Relating to Biological Influences on Human Behavior and Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winking, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    The nature-nurture debate is one that biologists often dismiss as a false dichotomy, as all phenotypic traits are the results of complex processes of gene and environment interactions. However, such dismissiveness belies the ongoing debate that is unmistakable throughout the biological and social sciences concerning the role of biological influences in the development of psychological and behavioral traits in humans. Many have proposed that this debate is due to ideologically driven biases in the interpretation of results. Those favoring biological approaches have been accused of a greater willingness to accept biological explanations so as to rationalize or justify the status quo of inequality. Those rejecting biological approaches have been accused of an unwillingness to accept biological explanations so as to attribute inequalities solely to social and institutional factors, ultimately allowing for the possibility of social equality. While it is important to continue to investigate this topic through further research and debate, another approach is to examine the degree to which the allegations of bias are indeed valid. To accomplish this, a convenience sample of individuals with relevant postgraduate degrees was recruited from Mechanical Turk and social media. Participants were asked to rate the inferential power of different research designs and of mock results that varied in the degree to which they supported different ideologies. Results were suggestive that researchers harbor sincere differences of opinion concerning the inferential value of relevant research. There was no suggestion that ideological confirmation biases drive these differences. However, challenges associated with recruiting a large enough sample of experts as well as identifying believable mock scenarios limit the study's inferential scope.

  4. Physiological and Psychological Predictors of Short-Term Disability in Workers with a History of Low Back Pain: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Jean-Daniel; Cantin, Vincent; Piché, Mathieu; Descarreaux, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Despite an elusive pathophysiology, common characteristics are often observed in individuals with chronic low back pain (LBP). These include psychological symptoms, altered pain perception, altered pain modulation and altered muscle activation. These factors have been explored as possible determinants of disability, either separately or in cross-sectional studies, but were never assessed in a single longitudinal study. Therefore, the objective was to determine the relative contribution of psychological and neurophysiological factors to future disability in individuals with past LBP. The study included two experimental sessions (baseline and six months later) to assess cutaneous heat pain and pain tolerance thresholds, pain inhibition, as well as trunk muscle activation. Both sessions included the completion of validated questionnaires to determine clinical pain, disability, pain catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs and pain vigilance. One hundred workers with a history of LBP and 19 healthy individuals took part in the first experimental session. The second experimental session was exclusively conducted on workers with a history of LBP (77/100). Correlation analyses between initial measures and disability at six months were conducted, and measures significantly associated with disability were used in multiple regression analyses. A first regression analysis showed that psychological symptoms contributed unique variance to future disability (R2 = 0.093, p = .009). To control for the fluctuating nature of LBP, a hierarchical regression was conducted while controlling for clinical pain at six months (R2 = 0.213, p disability in individuals with past or present LBP. Then again, the link between psychological symptoms and pain inhibition needs to be clarified as both of these factors are linked together and influence disability in their own way.

  5. Introduction to Psychology. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalat, James W.

    Chapters in this textbook for college students in introductory psychology courses are: (1) What is Psychology?; (2) Scientific Methods in Psychology; (3) Biological Psychology; (4) Sensation and Perception; (5) Altered States; (6) Learning; (7) Memory; (8) Cognition and Language; (9) Intelligence and Its Measurement; (10) Development; (11)…

  6. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Discursive psychology examines how psychological issues are made relevant and put to use in everyday talk. Unlike traditional psychological perspectives, discursive psychology does not approach the question of what psychology comprises and explains from an analyst's perspective. Instead, the focus

  7. Nasal Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Physiology Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy ...

  8. The foundations of space biology and medicine. Volume 2: Ecological and physiological bases of space biology and medicine. Part 3: Effect on the organism of dynamic flight factors. Chapter 1: Principles of gravitational biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    The physical principles of gravitation are discussed, such as gravitational and intertial forces, weight and mass, weightlessness, size and scale effects, scale limits of gravitational effects, and gravity as a biogenic factor. The behavior of the accelerative force gravitation, is described. This law proposes and quantifies the mutual gravitational attraction existing between all bodies of matter, the force being proportional to the product of masses, and inversely related to the square of the distance separating them. Gravity orientation, chronic acceleration, and hematology are examined. Systematic responses, such as circulation and renal functions, are also considered, along with animal response to a decreased acceleration field and physiology of hyper- and hypodynamic fields.

  9. Posttraumatic Growth in Populations with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder-A Systematic Review on Growth-Related Psychological Constructs and Biological Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Christine F; Schmidt, Ulrike; Rosner, Rita

    2016-11-01

    Posttraumatic growth (PTG) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are possible consequences of trauma. PTG is supposed to emerge from cognitive processes and can have functional and dysfunctional aspects. This systematic review aims to identify and evaluate publications assessing PTG in adults diagnosed with PTSD in order to analyse the relationship between both constructs, how PTG is related to specific psychological variables and if there are biological variables linked to PTG. This extended review evaluates the quality of measures applied and is the first to study PTG only in populations meeting full PTSD criteria. In addition, the relationship between PTG and other relevant constructs, such as openness, optimism and social support, is explored. Our systematic literature search identified 140 studies of which 19 fulfilled our inclusion criteria; most of them used the Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory. Results indicate that trauma survivors with PTSD exhibit more PTG than those without PTSD and that PTG can be intensified during the therapeutic process whereat it is unclear whether PTG is a desirable outcome of PTSD therapy. Positive correlations between PTG and PTSD are reported. For diagnosed populations, we could not find strong evidence of a quadratic relationship between PTG and PTSD, although some studies support this hypothesis. Findings regarding the association of PTG with psychological variables are heterogeneous. Only one study focused on PTG as well as on biological variables (salivary cortisol) but did not discuss possible links between these two so far unconnected research fields in PTSD. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Trauma survivors with PTSD develop more PTG than those without PTSD, it remains unclear whether PTSD and PTG are curvilinearly related. PTG can be enhanced through PTSD therapy, nevertheless one must not assume that PTG is a favorable treatment outcome since we do not know if the development of PTG during therapy promotes

  10. The transition from pediatric to adult care for youth with epilepsy: Basic biological, sociological, and psychological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camfield, Peter; Camfield, Carol; Busiah, Kanetee; Cohen, David; Pack, Alison; Nabbout, Rima

    2017-04-01

    Transition from pediatric to adult health care for adolescents with epilepsy is challenging for the patient, family, and health care workers. This paper is the first of three that summarize the main findings from the 2nd Symposium on Transition in Epilepsies, held in Paris from June 14-25, 2016. In this paper we describe five basic themes that have an important effect on transition. First, there are important brain changes in adolescence that leave an imbalance between risk taking and pleasure seeking behaviors and frontal executive function compared with adults. Second, puberty is a major change during the transition age. The three most important but separate neuroendocrine axes involved in puberty are gonadarche (activation of the gonads), adrenarche (activation of adrenal androgen production), and activation of the growth hormone-insulin like growth factor. Third, sexual debut occurs during the transition years, and at an earlier age in adolescents with epilepsy than controls. Adult sexual performance is often unsatisfactory. Although AED-induced alterations in sexual hormones and temporal lobe epilepsy may play a role in hyposexuality, depression, anxiety, and other social factors appear most important. Fourth, psychological development is very important with an evolution from an early stage (ages 10-13years) with concrete thinking, to a middle stage (ages 14-17) with analytic and more abstract introspective thinking, and then to a late stage (ages 18-21) with at least the beginnings of adult reasoning. Epilepsy may derail this relatively orderly progression. Adolescents with autistic spectrum disorder may present with severe behavior problems that are sometimes related to undiagnosed epilepsy. Fifth, bone health in adolescence is critical to establish adequate mineralization for all of adult life. While AED interference with Vitamin D metabolism is important, there is evidence that the effects of AEDs on bone are more complex and involve changes in remodeling

  11. Unbalanced plasma TNF-α and IL-12/IL-10 profile in women with migraine is associated with psychological and physiological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Arão Belitardo; Bachi, André Luis Lacerda; Ribeiro, Reinaldo Teixeira; Mello, Marco Tulio; Tufik, Sergio; Peres, Mario Fernando Prieto

    2017-12-15

    Increased plasma pro-inflammatory and decreased anti-inflammatory cytokines have been implicated in physiological and behavioural aspects of mood- and pain-related disorders, including migraine. In this case-control study, we assessed mood scores, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO 2Peak ), and plasma concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-12p70 interictally in women with episodic migraine with/without aura (ICHD-II), taking no preventive medicine, and in healthy women recruited from São Paulo Hospital and local community, respectively. Thirty-seven participants (mean±SD age=34±10 and BMI=26.5±4.9) were assessed. Groups (Control, n=17; Migraine, n=20) showed no differences in age, BMI, and VO 2Peak . Migraine patients showed higher tension (p=0.019) and anxiety scores (p=0.046), TNF-α (pmigraine was positively associated with TNF-α and IL-12p70, and negatively associated with IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10. Anxiety scores were positively associated with IL-12p70, and VO 2Peak was negatively associated with TNF-α. In conclusion, an exaggeratedly skewed cytokine profile, in particular the TNF-α and 12p70/IL-10 balance may be related to migraine pathomechanisms, and its psychiatric comorbidities and functional capacity. Additional studies are needed to confirm these results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Atlas based brain volumetry: How to distinguish regional volume changes due to biological or physiological effects from inherent noise of the methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opfer, Roland; Suppa, Per; Kepp, Timo; Spies, Lothar; Schippling, Sven; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Fully-automated regional brain volumetry based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in quantitative neuroimaging. In clinical trials as well as in clinical routine multiple MRIs of individual patients at different time points need to be assessed longitudinally. Measures of inter- and intrascanner variability are crucial to understand the intrinsic variability of the method and to distinguish volume changes due to biological or physiological effects from inherent noise of the methodology. To measure regional brain volumes an atlas based volumetry (ABV) approach was deployed using a highly elastic registration framework and an anatomical atlas in a well-defined template space. We assessed inter- and intrascanner variability of the method in 51 cognitively normal subjects and 27 Alzheimer dementia (AD) patients from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative by studying volumetric results of repeated scans for 17 compartments and brain regions. Median percentage volume differences of scan-rescans from the same scanner ranged from 0.24% (whole brain parenchyma in healthy subjects) to 1.73% (occipital lobe white matter in AD), with generally higher differences in AD patients as compared to normal subjects (e.g., 1.01% vs. 0.78% for the hippocampus). Minimum percentage volume differences detectable with an error probability of 5% were in the one-digit percentage range for almost all structures investigated, with most of them being below 5%. Intrascanner variability was independent of magnetic field strength. The median interscanner variability was up to ten times higher than the intrascanner variability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Editorial overview: Evolutionary psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gangestad, S.W.; Tybur, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Functional approaches in psychology - which ask what behavior is good for - are almost as old as scientific psychology itself. Yet sophisticated, generative functional theories were not possible until developments in evolutionary biology in the mid-20th century. Arising in the last three decades,

  14. PSYCHOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anida Fazlagić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, postpartum depression may include any nonpsychotic depressive disorder during the first four weeks of postpartum, according to research criteria during the first year after birth. The exact cause of postpartum depression is not yet known, and most researchers believe that postpartum depression is a bio-psycho-social problem. So far, the biological aspect of the disease is explained by changing the levels of estrogen and progesterone during pregnancy, and by decrease of hormone levels after birth. Psychological correlates are often associated with low selfesteem, pessimism as a personality trait, bad strategies of coping with stress, mood swings and emotional reactions. The social aspect of the disease is associated with the existential conditions of pregnant woman, support of partners and education level. This paper will include issues like hereditary causes and possible psychological factors of postpartum depression prevention. Nowadays, it is estimated that on average 15% of women, regardless of the pregnancy outcome, are suffering from postpartum depression. However, this information includes only those women who were diagnosed with postpartum depression and who themselves reported about it. Almost every woman receives basic care during pregnancy to prevent complications in the physiological level. This paper has shown possible psychological factors of postpartum depression prevention, the impact of optimism, self-esteem and coping skills.

  15. [Methods and Applications of Psychological Stress State Assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Yang, Yadan; Hou, Yongjie; Chen, Zetao

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, the response of individual's physiological system under psychological stress state is discussed, and the theoretical support for psychological stress assessment research is provided. The two methods, i.e., the psychological stress assessment of questionnaire and physiological parameter assessment used for current psychological stress assessment are summarized. Then, the future trend of development of psychological stress assessment research is pointed out. We hope that this work could do and provide further support and help to psychological stress assessment studies.

  16. Biophysics and cell physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, P.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on research activities in the fields of physiology and low-temperature biology of mammalian embryos; effects of sub-zero temperatures on eggs and embryos of sea urchins; survival of frozen-thawed human red cells; effects of radiation on physiology of Escherichia coli; transfer of triplet electronic energy in dinucleotides; effects of x radiation on DNA degradation; energy deposition by neutrons; photosynthesis; excision repair of uv-induced pyrimidine dimers in DNA of plant cells

  17. Study protocol: psychological and physiological consequences of exposure to mass media in young women - an experimental cross-sectional and longitudinal study and the role of moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsch, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Repeated exposure to thin beauty ideals is part of the daily routine. Exposure to thin ideals via mass media plays an important role in the development and maintenance of eating disorders (EDs), low self-esteem, depressive or anxious feelings in young females. It is important to elucidate the circumstances under which exposure to thin ideals develops its detrimental impact and to investigate whether these features are more pronounced in EDs than in other mental disorders also related to negative body image. We investigate the following key questions: (1) Does laboratory induced exposure to thin ideals (waiting room design) relate to impairments in terms of body image, affect and eating behavior and biological stress response (salivary alpha-amylase, salivary cortisol, heart rate and heart rate variability) in 18 to 35 year old female suffering from anorexia and bulimia nervosa (AN, BN) compared to female healthy controls and to a sample of females suffering from mixed mental disorders (depression, anxiety and somatic symptom disorder (SSD) disorders)? (2) How do moderators such as cognitive distortions ("Thought-Shape Fusion, TSF"), and correlates of emotion regulation (ER) moderate the influence of the exposure? (3) Are these characteristics amenable to change after treatment? Altogether 250 female participants including patients with AN, BN, depressive, anxiety and SSD disorders, and healthy women will be recruited in Switzerland and Germany. The findings will provide knowledge about the role of moderators influencing the effects of exposure to thin ideals promoted by mass media in eating disorder (ED) patients, patients suffering from mixed mental disorders and healthy controls. Evaluating their differential susceptibility will contribute to a better understanding of the role of negative body image in the maintenance of not only symptoms of ED, but also of depression, anxiety and SSD. Additionally our results will shed light on the stability of effects in

  18. Rice Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.A. Counce; Davidi R. Gealy; Shi-Jean Susana Sung

    2002-01-01

    Physiology occurs tn physical space through chemical reactions constrained by anatomy and morphology, yet guided by genetics. Physiology has been called the logic of life. Genes encode structural and fimcdonal proteins. These proteins are subsequently processed to produce enzymes that direct and govern the biomechanical processes involved in the physiology of the...

  19. Can You Change a Student's Mind in a Course about the Brain? Belief Change Following an Introductory Course in Biological Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Ian A

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate courses in the neurosciences, including biological psychology, often appeal to students because they offer perspectives on human behavior and experience that are so different from those students arrive with or are exposed to elsewhere on campus. Consider, for example, this passage from Crick's, Astonishing Hypothesis: "You, your joys and your sorrows, your memories and your ambitions, your sense of personal identity and free will, are in fact no more than the behaviour of a vast assembly of nerve cells and their associated molecules." Unfortunately, because this perspective is at such odds with those many students arrive with, the very thing that makes these classes so interesting is also likely to engender resistance. With Crick's hypothesis serving as the theme of my introductory course in biological psychology, we explore the ways in which complex experiences and behaviors can be explained by lower-level, biological phenomena. Historically, and for a host of valid reasons, class assessment tends to focus on whether students understand the course material (e.g., Can you explain the role of Ca(2+) in synaptic transmission?), rather than whether students believe what they have been introduced to (e.g., Do you believe that the mind exists as something separate from the body?). For a number of years, however, I have also been collecting pre- and post-test data from students enrolled in three formats of the class in an effort to measure changes in beliefs. One format was a conventional standalone class, whereas the other two were more intensive and involved parallel coursework in the Philosophy of Mind with a second instructor. The full assessment, identical at both test intervals, was comprised of 56 items and included 16 items from a Theoretical Orientation Scale (TOS; Coan, 1979), several of which addressed whether human behavior was predictable; 14 items that addressed dualism, the veracity of our perceptions, personal responsibility, and other

  20. Can You Change a Student’s Mind in a Course about the Brain? Belief Change Following an Introductory Course in Biological Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Ian A.

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate courses in the neurosciences, including biological psychology, often appeal to students because they offer perspectives on human behavior and experience that are so different from those students arrive with or are exposed to elsewhere on campus. Consider, for example, this passage from Crick’s, Astonishing Hypothesis: “You, your joys and your sorrows, your memories and your ambitions, your sense of personal identity and free will, are in fact no more than the behaviour of a vast assembly of nerve cells and their associated molecules.” Unfortunately, because this perspective is at such odds with those many students arrive with, the very thing that makes these classes so interesting is also likely to engender resistance. With Crick’s hypothesis serving as the theme of my introductory course in biological psychology, we explore the ways in which complex experiences and behaviors can be explained by lower-level, biological phenomena. Historically, and for a host of valid reasons, class assessment tends to focus on whether students understand the course material (e.g., Can you explain the role of Ca2+ in synaptic transmission?), rather than whether students believe what they have been introduced to (e.g., Do you believe that the mind exists as something separate from the body?). For a number of years, however, I have also been collecting pre- and post-test data from students enrolled in three formats of the class in an effort to measure changes in beliefs. One format was a conventional standalone class, whereas the other two were more intensive and involved parallel coursework in the Philosophy of Mind with a second instructor. The full assessment, identical at both test intervals, was comprised of 56 items and included 16 items from a Theoretical Orientation Scale (TOS; Coan, 1979), several of which addressed whether human behavior was predictable; 14 items that addressed dualism, the veracity of our perceptions, personal responsibility, and other

  1. Physiological Implications of Testing Cues: A Profile of Test Anxiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermis, Wm. J.

    Anxiety is defined as the fear of the unknown. The construct of anxiety incorporates both psychological and physiological components. This study was designed to explore the association between psychometric results and physiological results. The association between perceived effects (i.e., psychological) and actual effects (i.e., physiological) of…

  2. Why Are There Old People? Senescence as Biological and Cultural Preparedness for the Transmission of Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergler, N.L.; Goldstein, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    Biological theories of adaptation are used to generate a model of human cognitive development in which physiological and cognitive change in aged persons can be understood as an adaptive stage of development. Related literature is reviewed that focuses on the elderly as information transmitters and on the psychology of "telling."…

  3. Biological mechanisms underlying the role of physical fitness in health and resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Marni N.; Deuster, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Physical fitness, achieved through regular exercise and/or spontaneous physical activity, confers resilience by inducing positive psychological and physiological benefits, blunting stress reactivity, protecting against potentially adverse behavioural and metabolic consequences of stressful events and preventing many chronic diseases. In this review, we discuss the biological mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of physical fitness on mental and physical health. Physical fitness appear...

  4. Physiology Flies with Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Amita

    2017-11-30

    The 2017 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology has been awarded to Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael Young for elucidating molecular mechanisms of the circadian clock. From studies beginning in fruit flies, we now know that circadian regulation pervades most biological processes and has strong ties to human health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Plant Physiology and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taiz, Lincoln; Zeiger, Eduardo; Møller, Ian Max

    Throughout its twenty-two year history, the authors of Plant Physiology have continually updated the book to incorporate the latest advances in plant biology and implement pedagogical improvements requested by adopters. This has made Plant Physiology the most authoritative, comprehensive......, and widely used upper-division plant biology textbook. In the Sixth Edition, the Growth and Development section (Unit III) has been reorganized and expanded to present the complete life cycle of seed plants from germination to senescence. In recognition of this enhancement, the text has been renamed Plant...... Physiology and Development. As before, Unit III begins with updated chapters on Cell Walls and Signals and Signal Transduction. The latter chapter has been expanded to include a discussion of major signaling molecules, such as calcium ions and plant hormones. A new, unified chapter entitled Signals from...

  6. Dietary modification of brain function: effects on neuroendocrine and psychological determinants of mental health- and stress-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waladkhani, A R; Hellhammer, J

    2008-01-01

    Stress is associated with both psychological and biological adaptation. Chronic stress, however, impairs adaptation, and may finally lead to illness, in part through unhealthy changes in nutritional behavior. This chapter shows how physiological and psychological stress responses are affected by different food ingredients, and how stress affects health behavior, for example food choice. It becomes obvious that nutrition is closely linked to food choice and that food ingredients affect a broad range of neuroendocrine and related psychological processes, which regulate adaptation to chronic stress. Thus, dietary modification may become a valuable tool to modify the susceptibility to stress and stress-related disorders.

  7. knowledge and information on psychological, physiological

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abrham

    2011-11-03

    Nov 3, 2011 ... Hence, this study was conducted to determine sex education knowledge level of .... using single population proportion by the formula. (n=z2pq/d2) and sex ..... In India there is a huge debate on the curriculum of sex education ...

  8. Knowledge and Information on Psychological, Physiological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Sex education aims to reduce the risks of potentially negative outcome from sexual behavior such as fear and stigma of menstruation, unwanted and unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections including HIV. Hence, this study was conducted to determine sex education knowledge level of ...

  9. Is evolutionary psychology a metatheory for psychology? A discussion of four major issues in psychology from an evolutionary developmental perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, A.; van der Maas, H.L.J.; Raijmakers, M.E.J.

    2008-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology has been proposed as a metatheoretical framework for psychology. We argue that evolutionary psychology should be expanded if it is to offer new insights regarding the major issues in psychology. Evolutionary developmental biology can provide valuable new insights into issues

  10. Physiology of High-Altitude Acclimatization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Sonam Chawla1 Shweta Saxena2. Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Delhi; Experimental Biology Division Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences Defence Research and Development Organisation Lucknow Road, Timarpur Delhi 110054 ...

  11. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 483

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion.

  12. Effects of nitrogen deposition and soil fertility on cover and physiology of Cladonia foliacea (Huds.) Willd., a lichen of biological soil crusts from Mediterranean Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa-Hueso, Raul; Manrique, Esteban

    2011-01-01

    We are fertilizing a thicket with 0, 10, 20 and 50 kg nitrogen (N) ha -1 yr -1 in central Spain. Here we report changes in cover, pigments, pigment ratios and FvFm of the N-tolerant, terricolous, lichen Cladonia foliacea after 1-2 y adding N in order to study its potential as biomarker of atmospheric pollution. Cover tended to increase. Pigments increased with fertilization independently of the dose supplied but only significantly with soil nitrate as covariate. β-carotene/chlorophylls increased with 20-50 kg N ha -1 yr -1 (over the background) and neoxanthin/chlorophylls also increased with N. (Neoxanthin+lutein)/carotene decreased with N when nitrate and pH seasonalities were used as covariates. FvFm showed a critical load above 40 kg N ha -1 yr -1 . Water-stress, iron and copper also explained variables of lichen physiology. We conclude that this tolerant lichen could be used as biomarker and that responses to N are complex in heterogeneous Mediterranean-type landscapes. - Research highlights: → We are providing evidence of the potential use of the crust-forming lichen Cladonia foliacea as biomarker of atmospheric pollution in Mediterranean ecosystems of Europe, which are understudied with regard to this topic. → Pigment concentration increased with N addition and FvFm, used as indicator of physiological status, showed a critical load above 20 kg N ha -1 y -1 . → Soil nitrate and pH were important in modulating responses to simulated N pollution and other soil parameters (micro-nutrients, water content...) also explained variables of lichen physiology. → We conclude that Cladonia foliacea could be used as biomarker and that responses to N are complex in heterogeneous Mediterranean-type landscapes. - Nitrogen deposition and soil variables affect the physiology of terrestrial Mediterranean lichens.

  13. Effects of nitrogen deposition and soil fertility on cover and physiology of Cladonia foliacea (Huds.) Willd., a lichen of biological soil crusts from Mediterranean Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa-Hueso, Raul, E-mail: raul.ochoa@ccma.csic.e [Instituto de Recursos Naturales, Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C/Serrano 115 bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Manrique, Esteban [Instituto de Recursos Naturales, Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C/Serrano 115 bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    We are fertilizing a thicket with 0, 10, 20 and 50 kg nitrogen (N) ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in central Spain. Here we report changes in cover, pigments, pigment ratios and FvFm of the N-tolerant, terricolous, lichen Cladonia foliacea after 1-2 y adding N in order to study its potential as biomarker of atmospheric pollution. Cover tended to increase. Pigments increased with fertilization independently of the dose supplied but only significantly with soil nitrate as covariate. {beta}-carotene/chlorophylls increased with 20-50 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} (over the background) and neoxanthin/chlorophylls also increased with N. (Neoxanthin+lutein)/carotene decreased with N when nitrate and pH seasonalities were used as covariates. FvFm showed a critical load above 40 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. Water-stress, iron and copper also explained variables of lichen physiology. We conclude that this tolerant lichen could be used as biomarker and that responses to N are complex in heterogeneous Mediterranean-type landscapes. - Research highlights: We are providing evidence of the potential use of the crust-forming lichen Cladonia foliacea as biomarker of atmospheric pollution in Mediterranean ecosystems of Europe, which are understudied with regard to this topic. Pigment concentration increased with N addition and FvFm, used as indicator of physiological status, showed a critical load above 20 kg N ha{sup -1} y{sup -1}. Soil nitrate and pH were important in modulating responses to simulated N pollution and other soil parameters (micro-nutrients, water content...) also explained variables of lichen physiology. We conclude that Cladonia foliacea could be used as biomarker and that responses to N are complex in heterogeneous Mediterranean-type landscapes. - Nitrogen deposition and soil variables affect the physiology of terrestrial Mediterranean lichens.

  14. SOME PSYCHO CULTURAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS AS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    This study sought to find out the extent to which some psycho cultural and ... psycho cultural and physiological variables (gender, age, traditional beliefs about ..... (Ed.) Confronting the AIDS Epidemic, ... Counselling Psychology, 6 (1): 39-57.

  15. Etiologia dos transtornos alimentares: aspectos biológicos, psicológicos e sócio-culturais Etiology of eating disorders: biological, psychological and sociocultural determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Morgan

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Os transtornos alimentares possuem uma etiologia multifatorial, composta de predisposições genéticas, socioculturais e vulnerabilidades biológicas e psicológicas. Entre os fatores predisponentes, destacam-se a história de transtorno alimentar e (ou transtorno do humor na família, os padrões de interação presentes no ambiente familiar, o contexto sociocultural, caracterizado pela extrema valorização do corpo magro, disfunções no metabolismo das monoaminas centrais e traços de personalidade. A dieta é o comportamento precursor que geralmente antecede a instalação de um transtorno alimentar. Contudo, a presença isolada da dieta não é suficiente para desencadear o transtorno alimentar, tornando-se necessária uma interação entre os fatores de risco e outros eventos precipitantes. Por último, o curso transitório ou crônico de um transtorno alimentar está relacionado à persistência de distorções cognitivas, à ocorrência de eventos vitais significativos e a alterações secundárias ao estado de desnutrição.Eating disorders have a multifactorial etiology, composed by genetic predisposition, sociocultural factors, and biological and psychological vulnerabilities. Among the predisposing factors, emphasis is given to a history of eating and/or mood disorders, personality traits, patterns of family interaction, alterations in brain monoamines and sociocultural overvalued drive for thinness. Dieting is the most frequently event present at the onset of an eating disorder. Nevertheless, dieting itself is not sufficient to precipitate an eating disorder. An interaction among risk factors and other precipitating events is necessary. Finally, the chronic or transitory course of an eating disorder is related to the persistence of distorted cognitions, to the occurrence of significant vital events, and to starvation-induced psychobiological alterations.

  16. Biology of Sexual Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Mysore Nagaraj

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Sexual activity is a multifaceted activity, involving complex interactions between the nervous system, the endocrine system, the vascular system and a variety of structures that are instrumental in sexual excitement, intercourse and satisfaction. Sexual function has three components i.e., desire, arousal and orgasm. Many sexual dysfunctions can be categorized according to the phase of sexual response that is affected. In actual clinical practice however, sexual desire, arousal and orgasmic difficulties more often than not coexist, suggesting an integration of phases. Sexual dysfunction can result from a wide variety of psychological and physiological causes including derangements in the levels of sex hormones and neurotrensmitters. This review deals with the biology of different phases of sexual function as well as implications of hormones and neurotransmitters in sexual dysfunction

  17. Contexto social, biológico, psicológico, económico y cultural en personas con heridas en miembros inferiores Social, biological, psychological, economic and cultural contexts of people with wounded legs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENATA VIRGINIA GONZÁLEZ CONSUEGRA

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación caracteriza los contextos cultural, económico, social, biológico y psicológico de las personas usuarias del programa Clínica de Heridas dirigido por un grupo de profesoras del área de Fundamentación en enfermería de la Facultad de Enfermería de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Se sabe que el cuidado de personas con heridas exige el conocimiento de la severidad de las mismas, especialmente las heridas vasculares que son crónicas y de lenta cicatrización. Las condiciones que retardan su recuperación conllevan alto riesgo de complicaciones, así como el estado nutricional, la accesibilidad a asistencia médica y la motivación para la recuperación. La pobre cicatrización y las lesiones derivadas de los procesos lentos de recuperación de la integridad de la piel en las heridas de origen vascular son un grave problema de salud porque exponen al individuo a infecciones que pueden volverse graves o incluso llevar a la muerte, además porque originan una importante alteración de la autoestima, que puede causar en algunas personas aislamiento y sentimientos de minusvalía. En el proceso de recuperación hay que tener en cuenta aspectos como la nutrición, edad, enfermedades asociadas, estadio de la herida, aspectos psicológicos y apoyo social con que cuenta la persona. Una vez definida la multicausalidad en las personas con heridas de origen vascular, se realiza esta investigación que pretende aportar, desde los diferentes contextos de estudio, las bases teóricas y prácticas que orienten en forma asertiva al profesional de enfermería y al resto del grupo interdisciplinario para elaborar planes de cuidado más integrales que trasciendan lo biológico, a fin de mejorar el estado de salud en la población vulnerable.This research characterizes the cultural, economic, social, biological and psychological context of users of the Injury Treatment Center program led by a group of lecturers of the area of

  18. Physiological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natera, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    The physiological characteristics of man depend on the intake, metabolism and excretion of stable elements from food, water, and air. The physiological behavior of natural radionuclides and radionuclides from nuclear weapons testing and from the utilization of nuclear energy is believed to follow the pattern of stable elements. Hence information on the normal physiological processes occurring in the human body plays an important role in the assessment of the radiation dose received by man. Two important physiological parameters needed for internal dose determination are the pulmonary function and the water balance. In the Coordinated Research Programme on the characterization of Asian population, five participants submitted data on these physiological characteristics - China, India, Japan, Philippines and Viet Nam. During the CRP, data on other pertinent characteristics such as physical and dietary were simultaneously being collected. Hence, the information on the physiological characteristics alone, coming from the five participants were not complete and are probably not sufficient to establish standard values for the Reference Asian Man. Nonetheless, the data collected is a valuable contribution to this research programme

  19. Physiologic and psychobehavioral research in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redd, W H; Silberfarb, P M; Andersen, B L; Andrykowski, M A; Bovbjerg, D H; Burish, T G; Carpenter, P J; Cleeland, C; Dolgin, M; Levy, S M

    1991-02-01

    A major thrust in research in psychosocial oncology is the study of the interaction of psychologic and physiologic variables. This discussion reviews the current status and future directions of such research. Areas addressed include pain, nausea and vomiting with chemotherapy, sexuality, effects of cancer on psychologic and neuropsychologic function, impact of psychologic factors on cancer and its treatment, and psychoneuroimmunology. In addition, specific recommendations for strategies to facilitate research in these areas of psychosocial oncology are proposed.

  20. Relations between Intuitive Biological Thinking and Biological Misconceptions in Biology Majors and Nonmajors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed "misconceptions," among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists…

  1. La Investigación Básica. La Investigación en Ciencias Fisiológicas: Bioquímica, Biología Molecular y Fisiología. Cuestiones Previas Basic Research. Research in Physiological Sciences: Biochemistry, Biophysics, Molecular Biology and Physiology. Some prior considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constancio González Martínez

    2004-03-01

    conjugate some general ideas on scientific research with known facts on the socioeconomic reality of Latin American countries. In the initial part of the talk I put forward a definition of research, emphasizing the great value of considering the teleology of biological phenomena for the advance of biological sciences. A succinct consideration of the importance of Good Laboratory Practices, especially if there is not a tradition of research, drove my talk to the presentation of some basic data on the socioeconomic situation of the Latin American countries. In the second half of the conference my efforts were directed to incite our Latin American colleagues to demand from their politicians, and to justify in front of their fellow citizens, the necessity of implementing a program on scientific research as a national priority. Such demand should be justified on the basis of the recognition that research represents a way to correctly use the intellectual capital of the citizens of every country and a mean to profit from free international resources, that research is a source of culture, contributing to the national identity of any given country, and finally, on the fact that research is an activity that generates wealth. I concluded my talk pointing out that basic research, and therefore research in physiological sciences, is assembled so tight with basic research that they conform a unique reality.

  2. Human physiology in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikos, J.

    1996-01-01

    The universality of gravity (1 g) in our daily lives makes it difficult to appreciate its importance in morphology and physiology. Bone and muscle support systems were created, cellular pumps developed, neurons organised and receptors and transducers of gravitational force to biologically relevant signals evolved under 1g gravity. Spaceflight provides the only microgravity environment where systematic experimentation can expand our basic understanding of gravitational physiology and perhaps provide new insights into normal physiology and disease processes. These include the surprising extent of our body's dependence on perceptual information, and understanding the effect and importance of forces generated within the body's weightbearing structures such as muscle and bones. Beyond this exciting prospect is the importance of this work towards opening the solar system for human exploration. Although both appear promising, we are only just beginning to taste what lies ahead.

  3. Physiology for engineers applying engineering methods to physiological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chappell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to qualitative and quantitative aspects of human physiology. It looks at biological and physiological processes and phenomena, including a selection of mathematical models, showing how physiological problems can be mathematically formulated and studied. It also illustrates how a wide range of engineering and physics topics, including electronics, fluid dynamics, solid mechanics and control theory can be used to describe and understand physiological processes and systems. Throughout the text there are introductions to measuring and quantifying physiological processes using both signal and imaging technologies. Physiology for Engineers describes the basic structure and models of cellular systems, the structure and function of the cardiovascular system, the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart and provides an overview of the structure and function of the respiratory and nervous systems. It also includes an introduction to the basic concepts and applications of reacti...

  4. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography With Indexes. Supplement 497

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This supplemental issue of Aerospace Medicine and Biology, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes (NASA/SP#2000-7011) lists reports, articles, and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention.

  5. Regulatory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  6. Mathematical physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Sneyd, James

    2009-01-01

    There has been a long history of interaction between mathematics and physiology. This book looks in detail at a wide selection of mathematical models in physiology, showing how physiological problems can be formulated and studied mathematically, and how such models give rise to interesting and challenging mathematical questions. With its coverage of many recent models it gives an overview of the field, while many older models are also discussed, to put the modern work in context. In this second edition the coverage of basic principles has been expanded to include such topics as stochastic differential equations, Markov models and Gibbs free energy, and the selection of models has also been expanded to include some of the basic models of fluid transport, respiration/perfusion, blood diseases, molecular motors, smooth muscle, neuroendrocine cells, the baroreceptor loop, turboglomerular oscillations, blood clotting and the retina. Owing to this extensive coverage, the second edition is published in two volumes. ...

  7. Development and Application of a Physiological-based Framework for Assessing the Biological Significance of Military Activities on Threatened and Endangered Animal Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-17

    scrub and slash pine flatwoods. J. Herpetology 25:317-321. Brode, E.E. 1959. Notes on the behavior of Gopherus polyphemus. Herpetologica 15:101-102...Gopherus polyphemus, in northeastern Florida. J. Herpetology 30:14-18. Dale, V.H., S.C. Beyeler, and B. Jackson. 2002. Understory vegetation...Interior, National Biological Survey. Diemer, J.E. 1992. Demography of the tortoise Gopherus polyphemus in Northern Florida. J. Herpetology 26:281-289

  8. Investigative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  9. Physiological pseudomyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R

    1990-08-01

    Objective refraction through plus fogging lenses and base-in prisms revealed that normally accommodation is not completely relaxed when the stimulus to accommodation is zero. The myopic shift in the refractive error due to this focus error of accommodation was defined as physiological pseudomyopia. Two previously established features of accommodation are responsible for this behavior: (1) accommodation acts as a proportional control system for steady-state responses; and (2) the rest focus of accommodation is nonzero. It is proposed that the hyperopic shift in refraction observed in cycloplegia is the result of elimination of physiological pseudomyopia.

  10. H2A-DUBbing the mammalian epigenome: expanding frontiers for histone H2A deubiquitinating enzymes in cell biology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Jad I; Nijnik, Anastasia

    2014-05-01

    Posttranslational modifications of histone H2A through the attachment of ubiquitin or poly-ubiquitin conjugates are common in mammalian genomes and play an important role in the regulation of chromatin structure, gene expression, and DNA repair. Histone H2A deubiquitinases (H2A-DUBs) are a group of structurally diverse enzymes that catalyze the removal ubiquitin from histone H2A. In this review we provide a concise summary of the mechanisms that mediate histone H2A ubiquitination in mammalian cells, and review our current knowledge of mammalian H2A-DUBs, their biochemical activities, and recent developments in our understanding of their functions in mammalian physiology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  12. Kantian Psychologism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperber, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/377312894

    2017-01-01

    For more than a hundred years now, the dominant view amongst scholars has been that Kant's philosophy has nothing to do with psychology, or, at the very least, that psychology is inessential to Kant's philosophical project. In the early reception of Kant's work, however, psychology played a central

  13. Annotated Bibliography on the Teaching of Psychology: 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David E.; Schroder, Simone I.

    1998-01-01

    Includes materials on: (1) abnormal and clinical psychology, and personality; (2) career issues; (3) cognition and learning; (4) educational technology; (5) faculty evaluation; (6) graduate education; (7) high school instruction; (8) history of psychology; (9) introductory psychology; (10) perception, and physiological and comparative psychology;…

  14. Darwinian Theory, Functionalism, and the First American Psychological Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    American functionalist psychology constituted an effort to model scientific psychology on the successes of English evolutionary theory. In part it was a response to the stagnation of Wundt's psychological research program, which had been grounded in German experimental physiology. In part it was an attempt to make psychology more appealing within…

  15. Children's Education and Mental Health in Spain during and after the Civil War: Psychiatry, Psychology and "Biological Pedagogy" at the Service of Franco's Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Amparo; Canales, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the child psychiatry and psychology developed during the Spanish Civil War and immediate postwar period. The aim is to demonstrate that, despite the existence of a certain degree of disciplinary continuity in relation to the pre-war period, both disciplines were placed at the service of Francoism. This meant that the…

  16. Psychological Stress in Childhood and Susceptibility to the Chronic Diseases of Aging: Moving toward a Model of Behavioral and Biological Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith; Parker, Karen J.

    2011-01-01

    Among people exposed to major psychological stressors in early life, there are elevated rates of morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases of aging. The most compelling data come from studies of children raised in poverty or maltreated by their parents, who show heightened vulnerability to vascular disease, autoimmune disorders, and premature…

  17. Exercise physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The passing of Professor Bengt Saltin on September 12, 2014 truly marks the end of an era. As editor of the Journal of Applied Physiology and one of Bengt’s many collaborators and colleagues, I wanted the Journal to celebrate his many seminal contributions by means of an Editorial. Professor Bent...

  18. Mathematical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelder, William H

    2010-09-01

    Mathematical psychology is a sub-field of psychology that started in the 1950s and has continued to grow as an important contributor to formal psychological theory, especially in the cognitive areas of psychology such as learning, memory, classification, choice response time, decision making, attention, and problem solving. In addition, there are several scientific sub-areas that were originated by mathematical psychologists such as the foundations of measurement, stochastic memory models, and psychologically motivated reformulations of expected utility theory. Mathematical psychology does not include all uses of mathematics and statistics in psychology, and indeed there is a long history of such uses especially in the areas of perception and psychometrics. What is most unique about mathematical psychology is its approach to theory construction. While accepting the behaviorist dictum that the data in psychology must be observable and replicable, mathematical models are specified in terms of unobservable formal constructs that can predict detailed aspects of data across multiple experimental and natural settings. By now almost all the substantive areas of cognitive and experimental psychology have formal mathematical models and theories, and many of these are due to researchers that identify with mathematical psychology. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Socioecological psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro

    2014-01-01

    Socioecological psychology investigates humans' cognitive, emotional, and behavioral adaption to physical, interpersonal, economic, and political environments. This article summarizes three types of socioecological psychology research: (a) association studies that link an aspect of social ecology (e.g., population density) with psychology (e.g., prosocial behavior), (b) process studies that clarify why there is an association between social ecology and psychology (e.g., residential mobility → anxiety → familiarity seeking), and (c) niche construction studies that illuminate how psychological states give rise to the creation and maintenance of a social ecology (e.g., familiarity seeking → dominance of national chain stores). Socioecological psychology attempts to bring the objectivist perspective to psychological science, investigating how objective social and physical environments, not just perception and construal of the environments, affect one's thinking, feeling, and behaviors, as well as how people's thinking, feeling, and behaviors give rise to social and built environments.

  20. Assessments at multiple levels of biological organization allow for an integrative determination of physiological tolerances to turbidity in an endangered fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenbein, Matthias; Fangue, Nann A; Geist, Juergen; Komoroske, Lisa M; Truong, Jennifer; McPherson, Rina; Connon, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Turbidity can influence trophic levels by altering species composition and can potentially affect fish feeding strategies and predator-prey interactions. The estuarine turbidity maximum, described as an area of increased suspended particles, phytoplankton and zooplankton, generally represents a zone with higher turbidity and enhanced food sources important for successful feeding and growth in many fish species. The delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) is an endangered, pelagic fish species endemic to the San Francisco Estuary and Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, USA, where it is associated with turbid waters. Turbidity is known to play an important role for the completion of the species' life cycle; however, turbidity ranges in the Delta are broad, and specific requirements for this fish species are still unknown. To evaluate turbidity requirements for early life stages, late-larval delta smelt were maintained at environmentally relevant turbidity levels ranging from 5 to 250 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) for 24 h, after which a combination of physiological endpoints (molecular biomarkers and cortisol), behavioural indices (feeding) and whole-organism measures (survival) were determined. All endpoints delivered consistent results and identified turbidities between 25 and 80 NTU as preferential. Delta smelt survival rates were highest between 12 and 80 NTU and feeding rates were highest between 25 and 80 NTU. Cortisol levels indicated minimal stress between 35 and 80 NTU and were elevated at low turbidities (5, 12 and 25 NTU). Expression of stress-related genes indicated significant responses for gst, hsp70 and glut2 in high turbidities (250 NTU), and principal component analysis on all measured genes revealed a clustering of 25, 35, 50 and 80 NTU separating the medium-turbidity treatments from low- and high-turbidity treatments. Taken together, these data demonstrate that turbidity levels that are either too low or too high affect delta

  1. Depression and anxiety: Associations with biological and perceived stress reactivity to a psychological stress protocol in a middle-aged population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, Susanne R.; Schene, Aart H.; Phillips, David I.; Roseboom, Tessa J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Depression and anxiety have been linked to higher as well as lower reactivity to stressful circumstances. Large, population-based studies investigating the association between depression and anxiety, perceived and physiological stress responses are lacking. Methods: We studied 725 men

  2. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  3. Placebo and the new physiology of the doctor-patient relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Fabrizio

    2013-07-01

    Modern medicine has progressed in parallel with the advancement of biochemistry, anatomy, and physiology. By using the tools of modern medicine, the physician today can treat and prevent a number of diseases through pharmacology, genetics, and physical interventions. Besides this materia medica, the patient's mind, cognitions, and emotions play a central part as well in any therapeutic outcome, as investigated by disciplines such as psychoneuroendocrinoimmunology. This review describes recent findings that give scientific evidence to the old tenet that patients must be both cured and cared for. In fact, we are today in a good position to investigate complex psychological factors, like placebo effects and the doctor-patient relationship, by using a physiological and neuroscientific approach. These intricate psychological factors can be approached through biochemistry, anatomy, and physiology, thus eliminating the old dichotomy between biology and psychology. This is both a biomedical and a philosophical enterprise that is changing the way we approach and interpret medicine and human biology. In the first case, curing the disease only is not sufficient, and care of the patient is of tantamount importance. In the second case, the philosophical debate about the mind-body interaction can find some important answers in the study of placebo effects. Therefore, maybe paradoxically, the placebo effect and the doctor-patient relationship can be approached by using the same biochemical, cellular and physiological tools of the materia medica, which represents an epochal transition from general concepts such as suggestibility and power of mind to a true physiology of the doctor-patient interaction.

  4. Weaving Together Space Biology and the Human Research Program: Selecting Crops and Manipulating Plant Physiology to Produce High Quality Food for ISS Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia; Hummerick, Mary; Douglas, Grace; Wheeler, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Researchers from the Human Research Program (HRP) have teamed up with plant biologists at KSC to explore the potential for plant growth and food production on the international space station (ISS) and future exploration missions. KSC Space Biology (SB) brings a history of plant and plant-microbial interaction research for station and for future bioregenerative life support systems. JSC HRP brings expertise in Advanced Food Technology (AFT), Advanced Environmental Health (AEH), and Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP). The Veggie plant growth hardware on the ISS is the platform that first drove these interactions. As we prepared for the VEG-01 validation test of Veggie, we engaged with BHP to explore questions that could be asked of the crew that would contribute both to plant and to behavioral health research. AFT, AEH and BHP stakeholders were engaged immediately after the return of the Veggie flight samples of space-grown lettuce, and this team worked with the JSC human medical offices to gain approvals for crew consumption of the lettuce on ISS. As we progressed with Veggie testing we began performing crop selection studies for Veggie that were initiated through AFT. These studies consisted of testing and down selecting leafy greens, dwarf tomatoes, and dwarf pepper crops based on characteristics of plant growth and nutritional levels evaluated at KSC, and organoleptic quality evaluated at JSCs Sensory Analysis lab. This work has led to a successful collaborative proposal to the International Life Sciences Research Announcement for a jointly funded HRP-SB investigation of the impacts of light quality and fertilizer on salad crop productivity, nutrition, and flavor in Veggie on the ISS. With this work, and potentially with other pending joint projects, we will continue the synergistic research that will advance the space biology knowledge base, help close gaps in the human research roadmap, and enable humans to venture out to Mars and beyond.

  5. Environmental physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Summaries of research projects conducted during 1978 and 1979 are presented. Subject areas include: the effects of environmental pollutants on homeostasis of the hematopoietic system; pollutant effects on steroid metabolism; pollutant effects on pulmonary macrophages; effects of toxic gases on lung cells; the development of immunological methods for assessing lung damage at the cellular level; the response of erythropoietin concentration to various physiological changes; and the study of actinide metabolism in monkey skeletons

  6. An update: improvements in imaging perfluorocarbon-mounted plant leaves with implications for studies of plant pathology, physiology, development and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, George R; Mansfield, Jessica C; Christmas, Jacqueline T; Witterick, Eleanor; Fricker, Mark D; Grant, Murray R; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Everson, Richard M; Moger, Julian; Love, John

    2014-01-01

    Plant leaves are optically complex, which makes them difficult to image by light microscopy. Careful sample preparation is therefore required to enable researchers to maximize the information gained from advances in fluorescent protein labeling, cell dyes and innovations in microscope technologies and techniques. We have previously shown that mounting leaves in the non-toxic, non-fluorescent perfluorocarbon (PFC), perfluorodecalin (PFD) enhances the optical properties of the leaf with minimal impact on physiology. Here, we assess the use of the PFCs, PFD, and perfluoroperhydrophenanthrene (PP11) for in vivo plant leaf imaging using four advanced modes of microscopy: laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), two-photon fluorescence microscopy, second harmonic generation microscopy, and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy. For every mode of imaging tested, we observed an improved signal when leaves were mounted in PFD or in PP11, compared to mounting the samples in water. Using an image analysis technique based on autocorrelation to quantitatively assess LSCM image deterioration with depth, we show that PP11 outperformed PFD as a mounting medium by enabling the acquisition of clearer images deeper into the tissue. In addition, we show that SRS microscopy can be used to image PFCs directly in the mesophyll and thereby easily delimit the "negative space" within a leaf, which may have important implications for studies of leaf development. Direct comparison of on and off resonance SRS micrographs show that PFCs do not to form intracellular aggregates in live plants. We conclude that the application of PFCs as mounting media substantially increases advanced microscopy image quality of living mesophyll and leaf vascular bundle cells.

  7. An update: improvements in imaging perfluorocarbon-mounted plant leaves with implications for studies of plant pathology, physiology, development and cell biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George R Littlejohn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant leaves are optically complex, which makes them difficult to image by light microscopy. Careful sample preparation is therefore required to enable researchers to maximise the information gained from advances in fluorescent protein labelling, cell dyes and innovations in microscope technologies and techniques. We have previously shown that mounting leaves in the non-toxic, non-fluorescent perfluorocarbon (PFC, perfluorodecalin (PFD enhances the optical properties of the leaf with minimal impact on physiology. Here, we assess the use of the perfluorocarbons PFD, and perfluoroperhydrophenanthrene (PP11 for in vivo plant leaf imaging using 4 advanced modes of microscopy: laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM, Two-photon fluorescence (TPF microscopy, second harmonic generation (SHG microscopy and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS microscopy. For every mode of imaging tested, we observed an improved signal when leaves were mounted in PFD or in PP11, compared to mounting the samples in water. Using an image analysis technique based on autocorrelation to quantitatively assess LSCM image deterioration with depth, we show that PP11 outperformed PFD as a mounting medium by enabling the acquisition of clearer images deeper into the tissue. In addition, we show that SRS microscopy can be used to image perfluorocarbons directly in the mesophyll and thereby easily delimit the negative space within a leaf, which may have important implications for studies of leaf development. Direct comparison of on and off resonance SRS micrographs show that PFCs do not to form intracellular aggregates in live plants. We conclude that the application of PFCs as mounting media substantially increases advanced microscopy image quality of living mesophyll and leaf vascular bundle cells.

  8. The evolutionary psychology of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shawaf, Laith

    2016-10-01

    An evolutionary psychological perspective suggests that emotions can be understood as coordinating mechanisms whose job is to regulate various psychological and physiological programs in the service of solving an adaptive problem. This paper suggests that it may also be fruitful to approach hunger from this coordinating mechanism perspective. To this end, I put forward an evolutionary task analysis of hunger, generating novel a priori hypotheses about the coordinating effects of hunger on psychological processes such as perception, attention, categorization, and memory. This approach appears empirically fruitful in that it yields a bounty of testable new hypotheses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  10. Physiology insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watanabe, Richard M; Hansen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the search for genetic determinants of type 2 diabetes has resulted in identification of numerous type 2 diabetes-associated loci as well as a number of loci associating with related prediabetic traits. These findings have illuminated new biological pathways contributing to the p......In recent years, the search for genetic determinants of type 2 diabetes has resulted in identification of numerous type 2 diabetes-associated loci as well as a number of loci associating with related prediabetic traits. These findings have illuminated new biological pathways contributing...... insulin levels. Combined, these loci only account for a fraction of the observed familial clustering of type 2 diabetes and only up to about 10 % of the variation in prediabetic quantitative traits. Improved methods are needed to dig deeper into a biological understanding of the pathophysiology of type 2...

  11. Psychological models of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilay, Shira; Apter, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is highly complex and multifaceted. Consequent to the pioneering work of Durkheim and Freud, theoreticians have attempted to explain the biological, social, and psychological nature of suicide. The present work presents an overview and critical discussion of the most influential theoretical models of the psychological mechanisms underlying the development of suicidal behavior. All have been tested to varying degrees and have important implications for the development of therapeutic and preventive interventions. Broader and more in-depth approaches are still needed to further our understanding of suicidal phenomena.

  12. Occupational physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Toomingas, Allan; Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus

    2011-01-01

    In a clear and accessible presentation, Occupational Physiology focuses on important issues in the modern working world. Exploring major public health problems-such as musculoskeletal disorders and stress-this book explains connections between work, well-being, and health based on up-to-date research in the field. It provides useful methods for risk assessment and guidelines on arranging a good working life from the perspective of the working individual, the company, and society as a whole.The book focuses on common, stressful situations in different professions. Reviewing bodily demands and r

  13. The physiology mechanisms on drought tolerance and adaptation of biological soil crust moss Bryum argenteum and Didymodon vinealis in Tenger Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X.; Shi, Y.; Chen, C.; Jia, R.; Li, X.

    2012-04-01

    Bryum argenteum Hedw. and Didymodon vinealis Brid are two dominant moss species in the restored vegetation area in Tenger Desert, which sampled from biological soil crusts and where is an extreme drought regions. We found that they resorted to different osmotic adjustment strategies to mitigate osmotic stress. Under the gradual drought stress, both Bryum argenteum and Didymodon vinealis accumulated K+ and soluble sugar such as sucrose and trehalose. Their glycine betaine contents both decreased, while their proline content had no significant change. With enhanced drought stress, Bryum argenteum's Na+ content was low and decreased significantly, whereas Didymodon vinealis's Na+ content increased sharply and reached to a high level. We found the different of the mechanism of between active oxygen scavenging on Enzymatic and non - enzymatic system in two species moss of Bryum argenteum Hedw and Didymodon vinealis Brid under extreme drought stress. The result showed that two species of Moss of SOD activity gradually enhanced, and they have the material basis for effectively eliminates in vivo of Superoxide free radical. POD in Didymodon nigrescen and CAT in Bryum argeneum are major resistance o oxidative stress effects. The content of GSH rise with the stress also enhanced. The mechanism of finding Bryum argenteum Hedw and Didymodon vinealis Brid tolerance of dehydration ability were focus on different direction, but they are all given positive response to stress and enhance resistance. We investigated the responses of signal transduction substances to gradual drought stress in Didymodon vinealis and Bryum argenteum. The results suggested that: under gradual drought stress, the activities of TP H+-ATPase and PM H+-ATPase of Didymodon vinealis and Bryum argenteum both increased, resulting in their increase of K+ contents and turgor pressures, and triggered biosynthesis of signal transduction substances. ABA had no obvious effect in signal transduction of Bryum argenteum

  14. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  15. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.

    2015-01-01

    Discursive psychology was established in the United Kingdom by the end of the 1980s, mainly in response to the dominant cognitivist approach in social psychology. While it borrowed notions from poststructuralism and sociology of science, it is most akin to conversation analysis. Discursive

  16. Psychological experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, Martijn; Emmanuel, Steven M.; McDonald, William; Stewart, Jon

    2015-01-01

    For Kierkegaard the ‘psychological experiment’ is a literary strategy. It enables him to dramatize an existential conflict in an experimental mode. Kierkegaard’s aim is to study the source of movement that animates the existing individual (this is the psychological part). However, he is not

  17. The Effects Of An Exercise Physiology Program on Physical Fitness Variables, Body Satisfaction, and Physiology Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Arlette C.; Rosenblatt, Evelyn S.; Kempner, Lani; Feldman, Brandon B.; Paolercio, Maria A.; Van Bemden, Angie L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of an exercise physiology program on high school students' physical fitness, body satisfaction, and physiology knowledge. Intervention students received exercise physiology theory and active aerobic and resistance exercise within their biology course. Data from student surveys and measurements indicated that the integrated…

  18. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography With Indexes. Supplement 486

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied, in most cases, by an abstract.

  19. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes. Supplement 492

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This report lists reports, articles and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion.

  20. Predictability of cardiovascular risks by psychological measures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolcová, Iva; Kebza, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2008), s. 241-241 ISSN 0887-0446 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/06/0747 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : CVD risks * psychological measures * physiological risks Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  1. Physiological Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eric D.

    The analysis of physiological sound in the peripheral auditory system solves three important problems. First, sound energy impinging on the head must be captured and presented to the transduction apparatus in the ear as a suitable mechanical signal; second, this mechanical signal needs to be transduced into a neural representation that can be used by the brain; third, the resulting neural representation needs to be analyzed by central neurons to extract information useful to the animal. This chapter provides an overview of some aspects of the first two of these processes. The description is entirely focused on the mammalian auditory system, primarily on human hearing and on the hearing of a few commonly used laboratory animals (mainly rodents and carnivores). Useful summaries of non-mammalian hearing are available [1]. Because of the large size of the literature, review papers are referenced wherever possible.

  2. System Theory and Physiological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R W

    1963-05-03

    Engineers and physiologists working together in experimental and theoretical studies predict that the application of system analysis to biological processes will increase understanding of these processes and broaden the base of system theory. Richard W. Jones, professor of electrical engineering at Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, and John S. Gray, professor of physiology at Northwestern's Medical School, discuss these developments. Their articles are adapted from addresses delivered in Chicago in November 1962 at the 15th Annual Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology.

  3. Computational Systems Chemical Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Oprea, Tudor I.; May, Elebeoba E.; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology, SCB (Oprea et al., 2007).

  4. Treatment guidelines for Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders of the Polish Sleep Research Society and the Section of Biological Psychiatry of the Polish Psychiatric Association. Part I. Physiology, assessment and therapeutic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichniak, Adam; Jankowski, Konrad S; Skalski, Michal; Skwarło-Sońta, Krystyna; Zawilska, Jolanta B; Żarowski, Marcin; Poradowska, Ewa; Jernajczyk, Wojciech

    2017-10-29

    Majority of the physiological processes in the human organism are rhythmic. The most common are the diurnal changes that repeat roughly every 24 hours, called circadian rhythms. Circadian rhythms disorders have negative influence on human functioning. The aim of this article is to present the current understanding of the circadian rhythms physiological role, with particular emphasis on the circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWD), principles of their diagnosis and chronobiological therapy. The guidelines are based on the review of recommendations from the scientific societies involved in sleep medicine and the clinical experiences of the authors. Researchers participating in the preparation of guidelines were invited by the Polish Sleep Research Society and the Section of Biological Psychiatry of the Polish Psychiatric Association, based on their significant contributions in circadian rhythm research and/or clinical experience in the treatment of such disorders. Finally, the guidelines were adjusted to the questions and comments given by the members of both Societies. CRSWD have a significant negative impact on human health and functioning. Standard methods used to assess CRSWD are sleep diaries and sleep logs, while the actigraphy, when available, should be also used. The most effective methods of CRSWD treatment are melatonin administration and light therapy. Behavioral interventions are also recommended. Afourteen-day period of sleep-wake rhythm assessment in CRSWD enables accurate diagnosis, adequate selection of chronobiological interventions, and planning adequate diurnal timing of their application. This type of assessment is quite easy, low-cost, and provides valuable indications how to adjust the therapeutic approach to the circadian phase of the particular patient.

  5. Proceedings of the 13. Annual meeting of the Federation of Societies on Experimental Biology; 23. Brazilian congress on biophysics; 30. Brazilian congress on pharmacology and experimental therapeutics; 33. Brazilian congress on physiology; 14. Brazilian congress on clinical research; 22. Brazilian congress on neuroscience and behaviour. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Several aspects concerning neuroscience and behavior, compared physiology, endocrinology, pharmacology, molecular immunology and immuno diagnosis, biochemistry, genetic and toxicology of either animals, plants and microorganisms are studied. Topics such as cell membrane structures (including receptors), enzymatic assays, biological pathways, structural chemical analysis, metabolism, biological functions, blood pressure regulation are focused. The use of radiolabelled compounds, e.g. radioassay, radioimmunoassay, radioreceptor assay, are the most applied techniques

  6. On the Essence of the Mind and the Object of Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-07-26

    a simple reflectional process. At one time, Wundt , unable to discriminate between the object of psychology and the object of physiology, intro...duced the new term "physiological psychology." As the objects of this science Wundt lists those vital processes which have an external as well as an...physiology alone." According to Wundt perception represents, on the one hand, only a psychological fact and, on the other hand, only a physiological act. It

  7. The role of age of disclosure of biological origins in the psychological wellbeing of adolescents conceived by reproductive donation: a longitudinal study from age 1 to age 14.

    OpenAIRE

    Ilioi, Elena; Blake, Lucy; Jadva, Vasanti Harish; Roman, Gabriela; Golombok, Susan Esther

    2017-01-01

    $\\textbf{BACKGROUND}$: The question of whether children should be told of their biological origins is one of the most controversial issues regarding the birth of children through donated eggs, sperm, embryos or surrogacy. $\\textbf{METHODS}$: In the sixth phase of this longitudinal study when the children were aged 14 years, family relationships and adolescent adjustment were examined in 87 families created through reproductive donation and 54 natural conception families. The quality of f...

  8. The role of age of disclosure of biological origins in the psychological wellbeing of adolescents conceived by reproductive donation: a longitudinal study from age 1 to age 14

    OpenAIRE

    Ilioi, Elena; Blake, Lucy; Jadva, Vasanti; Roman, Gabriela; Golombok, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background The question of whether children should be told of their biological origins is one of the most controversial issues regarding the birth of children through donated eggs, sperm, embryos or surrogacy. Methods In the sixth phase of this longitudinal study when the children were aged 14?years, family relationships and adolescent adjustment were examined in 87 families created through reproductive donation and 54 natural conception families. The quality of family relationships was asses...

  9. The Biology of Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses topics to aid in understanding animal behavior, including the value of the biological approach to psychology, functional systems, optimality and fitness, universality of environmental effects on behavior, and evolution of social behavior. (DS)

  10. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cognitive-behavioral therapy ), relaxation therapy , hypnotherapy , and biofeedback therapy . Psychological treatments can also be combined. Review of well- ... Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics ... Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation Techniques for IBS Take Part in Online ...

  11. Physiological Monitoring in Diving Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Physiological Monitoring in Diving Mammals Andreas...825-2025 email: andreas.fahlman@tamucc.edu Peter L. Tyack School of Biology Sea Mammal Research Unit Scottish Oceans Institute...OBJECTIVES This project is separated into three aims: Aim 1: Develop a new generation of tags/data logger for marine mammals that will

  12. Physiology Applied to Everyday: The Practice of Professional Contextualization of Physiology Concepts as a Way of Facilitating Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Sidnei; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela Billig

    2014-01-01

    The teaching of Physiology is indispensable in many biological and health disciplines. Physiology is one of the major components of the curriculum in a number of life science courses, including the study of life, cells, tissues, and organisms as well as their functions. A bigger challenge for physiology teachers is to make physiological concepts…

  13. Space Physiology within an Exercise Physiology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; West, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Compare and contrast strategies remain common pedagogical practices within physiological education. With the support of an American Physiological Society Teaching Career Enhancement Award, we have developed a junior- or senior-level undergraduate curriculum for exercise physiology that compares and contrasts the physiological adaptations of…

  14. [Psychological harassment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puech, Paloma; Pitcho, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Two types of harassment are distinguished: sexual and psychological. In the private sector, according to French labour laws and the penal code, psychological harassment is actionable. It is up to the employer to prove the absence of harassment. The sanctions incurred can be up to 5 years imprisonment and a 150,000 euro fine and various measures of compensation for damages can be envisaged.

  15. Descartes' embodied psychology: Descartes' or Damasio's error?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkebøen, G

    2001-08-01

    Damasio (1994) claims that Descartes imagined thinking as an activity separate from the body, and that the effort to understand the mind in general biological terms was retarded as a consequence of Descartes' dualism. These claims do not hold; they are "Damasio's error". Descartes never considered what we today call thinking or cognition without taking the body into account. His new dualism required an embodied understanding of cognition. The article gives an historical overview of the development of Descartes' radically new psychology from his account of algebraic reasoning in the early Regulae (1628) to his "neurobiology of rationality" in the late Passions of the soul (1649). The author argues that Descartes' dualism opens the way for mechanistic and mathematical explanations of all kinds of physiological and psychological phenomena, including the kind of phenomena Damasio discusses in Descartes' error. The models of understanding Damasio puts forward can be seen as advanced version of models which Descartes introduced in the 1640s. A far better title for his book would have been Descartes' vision.

  16. Psychological examinations of radiological personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litver, B.Ya.; Ivanov, E.V.

    1978-01-01

    It is pointed out that a comprehensjve hygienic evaluation of the impact of ionizing radiations on man needs to take into account not only the biologic effects of these radiations, but also their psychologic and emotional effects, which may aggravate or lessen the disturbances caused by radiation. Several methods of psychologic examination of persons handling ionizing radiation sources are proposed, and the desirability of applying these methods in the dispensary system is indicated

  17. Retinal Biochemistry, Physiology and Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ricardo Luiz; Sivaprasad, Sobha; Chong, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The vitreous, the vasculature of the retina, macular pigments, phototransduction, retinal pigment epithelium, Bruch's membrane and the extracellular matrix, all play an important role in the normal function of the retina as well as in diseases. Understanding the pathophysiology allows us to target treatment. As ocular angiogenesis, immunity and inflammation are covered elsewhere, those subjects will not be discussed in this chapter. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Molecular Biology and Physiology of Methanogenic Archaebacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-27

    anaerobic food chains, the methanogens contribute to the mineralization of large amounts of organic matter. The end product of their metabolism...of radiolabelled substrate to product [8; Worrell and Nagle, in preparation]. Strain RT103, a formate auxotroph was isolated from the kanamycin...methylmercaptopurine riboside 0. 16 Bacteriocidald 8-aza-2, 6-diaminopurine 0.0011 6-thioguanine 0.0004 8-azaguanine 0.0004 6- mercaptopurine 0 8

  19. Archaea: evolution, physiology, and molecular biology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garrett, Roger A; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2007-01-01

    ...: mechanisms of rearrangement and change Kim Brügger, Xu Peng and Roger A. Garrett vii xi 1 17 29 39 51 59 75 95 9 Specialist Article Plasmids Georg Lipps 10 Specialist Article Integration mech...

  20. Archaea: Evolution, Physiology, and Molecular Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    field, including an account by Carl Woese of his original discovery of the Archaea (until 1990 termed archaebacteria) and the initially mixed reactions of the scientific community. The review chapters and specialized articles address the emerging significance of the Archaea within a broader scientific......Introduced by Crafoord Prize winner Carl Woese, this volume combines reviews of the major developments in archaeal research over the past 10-15 years with more specialized articles dealing with important recent breakthroughs. Drawing on major themes presented at the June 2005 meeting held in Munich...

  1. [Human orgasm from the physiological perspective--part I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałecki, Piotr; Depko, Andrzej; Jedrzejewska, Sylwia; Talarowska, Monika

    2012-07-01

    Physiological phenomenon of sexuality occurring in both sexes that brings physical and mental satisfaction, and often affects the quality of life is an orgasm. The ability to experience regular orgasms affects relationship with partner. The definition of orgasm is not an easy task. The way of experiencing it is subjective, and the possibility of observing significantly reduced. Contemporary works on the phenomenon of orgasm are concentrated on several aspects: biological perspective (neurophysiological and biochemical determinants of orgasm), psychological perspective and on the differences in its course in both sexes. In sexology are two models of sexual response: a linear model of sexual response (by W. Masters and V. Johnson, and H. S. Kaplan) and the circular model of sexual response (created by R. Basson). The ability to experiencing an orgasm is inherent in men. In women, that phenomenon is acquired, is the consequence of further experience.

  2. Political psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Psychological IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Stine Willum

    2015-01-01

    ’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...

  4. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  5. [The Effect of Social-Psychological Factors on the Development of Occupational Stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinina, S A; Yushkova, O I

    2015-01-01

    The article presents data on social-psychological factors which cause the occupational stress. The results showed that there is a link between the level of work motivation and the physiological cost of work. We observed a number of peculiarities of occupational stress development caused by psychoemotional tension depending on the class of intensity of intellectual labor; we also studied biological age of the subjects. The speed of ageing of the employees who work under conditions of emotional stress (direct or indirect responsibility for the safety of other people) was found to increase. The study suggested promising directions of occupational stress prevention.

  6. Physiological regulation through learnt control of appetites by contingencies among signals from external and internal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, David A

    2008-11-01

    As reviewed by [Cooper, S. J. (2008). From Claude Bernard to Walter Cannon: emergence of the concept of homeostasis. Appetite 51, 419-27.] Claude Bernard's idea of stabilisation of bodily states, as realised in Walter B. Cannon's conception of homeostasis, took mathematical form during the 1940s in the principle that externally originating disturbance of a physiological parameter can feed an informative signal around the brain to trigger counteractive processes--a corrective mechanism known as negative feedback, in practice reliant on feedforward. Three decades later, enough was known of the physiology and psychology of eating and drinking for calculations to show how experimentally demonstrated mechanisms of feedforward that had been learnt from negative feedback combine to regulate exchanges of water and energy between the body and the surroundings. Subsequent systemic physiology, molecular neuroscience and experimental psychology, however, have been traduced by a misconception that learnt controls of intake are 'non-homeostatic', the myth of biological 'set points' and an historic failure to address evidence for the ingestion-adapting information-processing mechanisms on which an operationally integrative theory of eating and drinking relies.

  7. Bridging the gap between physiology and behavior: evidence from the sSoTS model of human visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavritsaki, Eirini; Heinke, Dietmar; Allen, Harriet; Deco, Gustavo; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2011-01-01

    We present the case for a role of biologically plausible neural network modeling in bridging the gap between physiology and behavior. We argue that spiking-level networks can allow "vertical" translation between physiological properties of neural systems and emergent "whole-system" performance-enabling psychological results to be simulated from implemented networks and also inferences to be made from simulations concerning processing at a neural level. These models also emphasize particular factors (e.g., the dynamics of performance in relation to real-time neuronal processing) that are not highlighted in other approaches and that can be tested empirically. We illustrate our argument from neural-level models that select stimuli by biased competition. We show that a model with biased competition dynamics can simulate data ranging from physiological studies of single-cell activity (Study 1) to whole-system behavior in human visual search (Study 2), while also capturing effects at an intermediate level, including performance breakdown after neural lesion (Study 3) and data from brain imaging (Study 4). We also show that, at each level of analysis, novel predictions can be derived from the biologically plausible parameters adopted, which we proceed to test (Study 5). We argue that, at least for studying the dynamics of visual attention, the approach productively links single-cell to psychological data.

  8. Structure-Function Relations in Physiology Education: Where's the Mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Matthew E.; Gardner, Stephanie M.

    2017-01-01

    Physiology demands systems thinking: reasoning within and between levels of biological organization and across different organ systems. Many physiological mechanisms explain how structures and their properties interact at one level of organization to produce emergent functions at a higher level of organization. Current physiology principles, such…

  9. Conservation physiology of animal migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J.; Chapman, Jacqueline M.; Souliere, Christopher M.; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    because of the complexity of biological systems, the inherently dynamic nature of the environment and the scale at which many migrations occur and associated threats operate, necessitating improved integration of physiological approaches to the conservation of migratory animals. PMID:27293751

  10. Physiological blunting during pregnancy extends to induced relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro, Janet A; Mendelson, Tamar; Williams, Erica L; Costigan, Kathleen A

    2012-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that pregnancy is accompanied by hyporesponsivity to physical, cognitive, and psychological challenges. This study evaluates whether observed autonomic blunting extends to conditions designed to decrease arousal. Physiological and psychological responsivity to an 18-min guided imagery relaxation protocol in healthy pregnant women during the 32nd week of gestation (n=54) and non-pregnant women (n=28) was measured. Data collection included heart period (HP), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), tonic and phasic measures of skin conductance (SCL and NS-SCR), respiratory period (RP), and self-reported psychological relaxation. As expected, responses to the manipulation included increased HP, RSA, and RP and decreased SCL and NS-SCR, followed by post-manipulation recovery. However, responsivity was attenuated for all physiological measures except RP in pregnant women, despite no difference in self-reported psychological relaxation. Findings support non-specific blunting of physiological responsivity during pregnancy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  12. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  13. Exercise addiction- diagnosis, bio-psychological mechanisms and treatment issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Aviv; Weinstein, Yitzhak

    2014-01-01

    Exercise and sports activity are beneficial both physically and psychologically but excessive exercise may have adverse physiological and psychological effects. There are methodological issues in the definition, diagnosis and etiology of exercise addiction. Several questionnaires and diagnostic tools have been developed and validated and they show high validity and reliability. Exercise addiction has been suggested as having an obsessive-compulsive dimension as well as rewarding aspects that may include it among the behavioral addictions. Biological studies show that in rodents, exercise such as wheel running activates the dopamine reward system and thus contributing to stress reduction. Further evidence suggests that running is associated with endorphins and cannabinoids thus explaining the "runners high" or euphoric feelings that may lead to exercise addiction. Genetic studies suggest that genes which control preference for drugs also control the preference for naturally rewarding behaviors such as exercise. Psychological studies also explain exercise addiction in terms of reward, habituation, social support, stress-relief, avoidance of withdrawal and reduction of anxiety. It has been suggested that exercise addiction is a part of a continuum of sportive activity that develops in stages from the recreational exercise to at-risk exercise, problematic exercise and finally into exercise addiction. Assessment and treatment should take into account the various stages of exercise addiction development, its comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders such as eating disorders or substance use and alcohol disorders. Treatment approaches for exercise addiction are based on the cognitive-behavioral approach but little is known about their effectiveness. A single-case study shows promise of pharmacological treatment for exercise addiction and further studies are required. This review summarizes diagnostic and phenomenology of exercise addiction with emphasis on

  14. Psychological Readiness and Motor Skills Needed for Toilet Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Psychological Readiness and Motor Skills Needed for Toilet Training Page Content Article Body ... to see toilet training as a desirable skill. Motor Skills In addition to his physiological development, your child’s ...

  15. Human physiological models of insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Gary S

    2007-12-01

    Despite the wide prevalence and important consequences of insomnia, remarkably little is known about its pathophysiology. Available models exist primarily in the psychological domain and derive from the demonstrated efficacy of behavioral treatment approaches to insomnia management. However, these models offer little specific prediction about the anatomic or physiological foundation of chronic primary insomnia. On the other hand, a growing body of data on the physiology of sleep supports a reasonably circumscribed overview of possible pathophysiological mechanisms, as well as the development of physiological models of insomnia to guide future research. As a pragmatic step, these models focus on primary insomnia, as opposed to comorbid insomnias, because the latter is by its nature a much more heterogeneous presentation, reflecting the effects of the distinct comorbid condition. Current understanding of the regulation of sleep and wakefulness in mammalian brain supports four broad candidate areas: 1) disruption of the sleep homeostat; 2) disruption of the circadian clock; 3) disruption of intrinsic systems responsible for the expression of sleep states; or 4) disruption (hyperactivity) of extrinsic systems capable of over-riding normal sleep-wake regulation. This review examines each of the four candidate pathophysiological mechanisms and the available data in support of each. While studies that directly test the viability of each model are not yet available, descriptive data on primary insomnia favor the involvement of dysfunctional extrinsic stress-response systems in the pathology of primary chronic insomnia.

  16. Klismaphilia--a physiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, J

    1982-10-01

    Dr. Joanne Denko coined the work klismaphilia to describe the practices of some of her patients who enjoyed the use of enemas as a sexual stimulant. Since then questions occasionally appear in the professional literature asking about the relationship between enemas and sexual pleasure. This paper considers some of the physiological aspects of the human sexual apparatus that relate to anal sensitivity and explores why klismaphilia can be sexually grafifying. The paper starts with a discussion of the physiological basis for anal sensitivity and anal masturbation in both the human male and the human female. The paper then goes on to relate all this to the sexual sensations received from an enema, and discusses the similarities and differences between all these types of stimulation. Some of the psychological aspects of klismaphilia are also considered in relationship to the physiology involved. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of masked anal masturbation among the population at large. A comprehensive list of references from the literature is given to support these findings.

  17. Psychological barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.

    2004-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes treatment outcomes ultimately depend on patients and their ability to make long-term behavioural changes that support good self-care and metabolic control. Patients' perceptions about diabetes and diabetes-related complications can have a strong influence on their emotional well...... of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...... many patients from starting insulin therapy, even if oral agents have failed. Depression, stress and anxiety represent further obstacles to optimum self-care and the attainment of glucose goals. Healthcare professionals should endeavour to understand and accommodate these issues when setting personal...

  18. Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology is the official journal of the Cameroon Forum for Biological Sciences (CAFOBIOS). It is an interdisciplinary journal for the publication of original research papers, short communications and review articles in all fields of experimental biology including biochemistry, physiology, ...

  19. Nitric oxide: a physiologic messenger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, C J; Dinerman, J L; Snyder, S H

    1994-02-01

    To review the physiologic role of nitric oxide, an unusual messenger molecule that mediates blood vessel relaxation, neurotransmission, and pathogen suppression. A MEDLINE search of articles published from 1987 to 1993 that addressed nitric oxide and the enzyme that synthesizes it, nitric oxide synthase. Animal and human studies were selected from 3044 articles to analyze the clinical importance of nitric oxide. Descriptions of the structure and function of nitric oxide synthase were selected to show how nitric oxide acts as a biological messenger molecule. Biochemical and physiologic studies were analyzed if the same results were found by three or more independent observers. Two major classes of nitric oxide synthase enzymes produce nitric oxide. The constitutive isoforms found in endothelial cells and neurons release small amounts of nitric oxide for brief periods to signal adjacent cells, whereas the inducible isoform found in macrophages releases large amounts of nitric oxide continuously to eliminate bacteria and parasites. By diffusing into adjacent cells and binding to enzymes that contain iron, nitric oxide plays many important physiologic roles. It regulates blood pressure, transmits signals between neurons, and suppresses pathogens. Excess amounts, however, can damage host cells, causing neurotoxicity during strokes and causing the hypotension associated with sepsis. Nitric oxide is a simple molecule with many physiologic roles in the cardiovascular, neurologic, and immune systems. Although the general principles of nitric oxide synthesis are known, further research is necessary to determine what role it plays in causing disease.

  20. Quantitative Circulatory Physiology: an integrative mathematical model of human physiology for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Sean R; Hodnett, Benjamin L; Summers, Richard L; Coleman, Thomas G; Hester, Robert L

    2007-06-01

    We have developed Quantitative Circulatory Physiology (QCP), a mathematical model of integrative human physiology containing over 4,000 variables of biological interactions. This model provides a teaching environment that mimics clinical problems encountered in the practice of medicine. The model structure is based on documented physiological responses within peer-reviewed literature and serves as a dynamic compendium of physiological knowledge. The model is solved using a desktop, Windows-based program, allowing students to calculate time-dependent solutions and interactively alter over 750 parameters that modify physiological function. The model can be used to understand proposed mechanisms of physiological function and the interactions among physiological variables that may not be otherwise intuitively evident. In addition to open-ended or unstructured simulations, we have developed 30 physiological simulations, including heart failure, anemia, diabetes, and hemorrhage. Additional stimulations include 29 patients in which students are challenged to diagnose the pathophysiology based on their understanding of integrative physiology. In summary, QCP allows students to examine, integrate, and understand a host of physiological factors without causing harm to patients. This model is available as a free download for Windows computers at http://physiology.umc.edu/themodelingworkshop.

  1. Chewing Over Physiology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; de Arcisio Miranda, Manoel; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-01-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the differentareas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it…

  2. Plant Physiology in Greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2004 Ep Heuvelink and Tijs Kierkels have been writing a continuing series of plant physiology articles for the Dutch horticultural journal Onder Glas and the international edition In Greenhouses. The book Plant Physiology in Greenhouses consists of 50 of their plant physiology articles. The

  3. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes. Supplement 504

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This supplemental issue of Aerospace Medicine and Biology, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes (NASA/SP-2000-7011) lists reports, articles, and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied, in most cases, by an abstract. Two indexes- subject and author are included after the abstract section.

  4. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes. Supplement 490

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This supplemental issue of Aerospace Medicine and Biology, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes (NASA/SP-1999-7011) lists reports, articles, and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied, in most cases, by an abstract. Two indexes-subject and author are included after the abstract section.

  5. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes. Supplement 489

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This supplemental issue of Aerospace Medicine and Biology, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes (NASA/SP-1999-7011) lists reports, articles, and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied, in most cases, by an abstract.

  6. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes. Supplement 487

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This supplemental issue of Aerospace Medicine and Biology, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes (NASA/SP-1999-7011) lists reports, articles, and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied, in most cases, by an abstract. Two indexes-subject and author are included after the abstract section.

  7. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes. Supplement 498

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This supplemental issue of Aerospace Medicine and Biology, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes (NASA/SP-1999-7011) lists reports, articles, and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied, in most cases, by an abstract.

  8. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography With Indexes. Supplement 502

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This supplemental issue of Aerospace Medicine and Biology, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes (NASA/SP-2000-7011) lists reports, articles, and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied, in most cases, by an abstract. Two indexes-subject and author are included after the abstract section.

  9. Psychology and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Nancy M.

    1985-01-01

    Considers recent efforts within the field of psychology to understand issues involving gender. Demonstrates patterns of development within feminist psychology and its relation to mainstream psychology. Examines status of the field, two case studies, and new research. (Author/SA)

  10. Doppler radar physiological sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Lubecke, Victor M; Droitcour, Amy D; Park, Byung-Kwon; Singh, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive description of the theory and practical implementation of Doppler radar-based physiological monitoring. This book includes an overview of current physiological monitoring techniques and explains the fundamental technology used in remote non-contact monitoring methods. Basic radio wave propagation and radar principles are introduced along with the fundamentals of physiological motion and measurement. Specific design and implementation considerations for physiological monitoring radar systems are then discussed in detail. The authors address current research and commercial development of Doppler radar based physiological monitoring for healthcare and other applications.

  11. A history of the Federation of European Societies of Plant Physiology FESPP since its foundation in 1978--including notes on events preceding the foundation and following re-naming as the Federation of European Societies of Plant Biology (FESPB) in 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenthaler, Hartmut

    2004-06-01

    After several years of close contacts and extensive discussion between various plant physiologists of different European countries, the Federation of European Societies of Plant Physiology (FESPP) was established in 1978 in Edinburgh. The aim of the FESPP was and remains to promote up-to-date plant physiology research in all European countries and to stimulate scientific cooperation and the exchange of scientists between the different member societies by organizing congresses and workshops as well as editing four (recently five) Federation-affiliated journals. The short History of FESPP presented here covers the preparatory years of the 1970s that led to its actual foundation in 1978, and then its further development up to and following the Federation's reconstitution in 2002 as the Federation of European Societies of Plant Biology (FESPB).

  12. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  13. APRENDIZAJES EN PSICOLOGÍA EDUCACIONAL. UNA EXPERIENCIA DE FORMACIÓN DOCENTE EN CIENCIAS BIOLÓGICAS / LEARNING PROCESSES IN EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. A TEACHER TRAINING EXPERIENCE IN BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Duarte

    2016-06-01

    . / This article approaches the learning processes in the biological sciences through the analysis of ethnographic observations in natural sciences classes in secondary schools from Córdoba. The analysis is based on the ethnographic records made by students of the subject Educational Psychology, part of the Teacher Training program in Biological Sciences from the Universidad Nacional de Córdoba between 2008 and 2015. These ethnographic records are kept in the context of a teacher training experience that seeks that future biology teachers can approach situated learning processes in order to facilitate the processes of conceptualization, analysis and the understanding of the dynamics, the dimensions and the problems related to teaching and learning practices in secondary schools. At the beginning of the article we describe the classroom and institutional conditions in which the interactions between the students and the biological sciences contents take place in the secondary schools that have promoted this teaching experience. Then, we delve into these specific interactions in two sections. The first one focuses on the interactions between the knowledgeable subject and the natural sciences contents on the basis of the identified variations according to the type of tasks that students must solve in the classroom, the focus on previous ideas, the kinds of participation promoted, authorized or rejected by the teacher in charge, the dialogic exchanges that occur around the contents, the uses of questions and answers in class, the space where these learning activities are developed and the materials with which students interact. The second section focuses on the forms, uses and potential effects of the evaluation practices in these observed classes. Finally, we focus on some questions and reflections derived from the analysis presented.

  14. Yeast genetics and molecular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers subjects and the following titles: cell biology; RNA processing and translation; organelle biogenesis; cell division cycle; mating physiology; recombination and repair; retro-transposition; and metabolic regulating mechanisms

  15. Physiological and Psychological Characteristics of Successful Combat Controller Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    here. Reaction Time. Eye-hand reaction speeds were measured on the Makoto Sports Arena (Makoto USA, Centennial , CO) in reactive and proactive modes... depression , self- consciousness, immoderation, and vulnerability. Individuals that score low in this area are less easily upset and are less emotionally

  16. Female physiology meets psychology : menstrual cycle and contraceptive pill effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobey, Kelly Denise

    2013-01-01

    In dit proefschrift toon ik aan dat het gebruik van hormonale contraceptie (HC) de natuurlijke hormonale fluctuaties verstoort, wat negatieve psychologische gevolgen kan hebben voor sociale relaties. Onderzoek naar de gevolgen van HC op gedrag in sociale relaties draagt mogelijk bij aan meer

  17. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  18. X-ray microanalysis in plant physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, D.

    1979-01-01

    X-ray microanalysis represents a highly sensitive and modern method for the measurement of ions in the very small compartments of the cell. The limitations of X-ray microanalysis in biological objects exist in the preparation of the tissues and the quantitation of the results. In plant physiology this method has provided several surprising results and new insights for further investigations. (author)

  19. Physiological blunting during pregnancy extends to induced relaxation

    OpenAIRE

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Mendelson, Tamar; Williams, Erica L.; Costigan, Kathleen A.

    2011-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that pregnancy is accompanied by hyporesponsivity to physical, cognitive, and psychological challenges. This study evaluates whether observed autonomic blunting extends to conditions designed to decrease arousal. Physiological and psychological responsivity to an 18-minute guided imagery relaxation protocol in healthy pregnant women during the 32nd week of gestation (n = 54) and non-pregnant women (n = 28) was measured. Data collection included heart period (HP)...

  20. Is it possible to assess visual–perceptual processes involved in writing through a tablet test?The new title is: Psychological and physiological processes in figure - tracing abilities measured using a tablet computer: a study with 7 - 9 - year - old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Giammarco

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the use of a tablet computer to assess figure-tracing skills and their relationships with psychological (visual–perceptual processes, cognitive processes, handwriting skills and physiological (body mass index, isometric strength of arms parameters with school-children of second (7-8-year-olds and fourth (9-10-year-olds grades. We were also interested in gender differences. The task required tracing of geometric figures on a template, shown on a tablet screen in light grey, for the segments that make up the target figure, one at a time. This figure-tracing tablet test allows acquisition and automated analysis of four parameters: number of strokes (pen lift for each segment; oscillations of lines drawn with respect to reference lines; pressure of pen on tablet; and average speed of tracing. The results show a trade-off between speed and quality for the tablet parameters, with higher speed associated with more oscillations with respect to the reference lines, and lower number of strokes for each segment, in both male and female children. The involvement of visual–motor integration on the ability to reduce the oscillations in this tablet test was only seen for the male children, while both the male and female children showed a relationship between oscillations and more general/ abstract visual–spatial processes. These data confirm the role of visual–motor processes in this figure-tracing tablet test only for male children, while more general visual–spatial processes influence the performance in the tablet test for both sexes. We conclude that the test proposed is useful to screen for grapho-motor difficulties.

  1. Positive Psychology and old age Psychology. Theoretical Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Lombardo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a theoretical review of developments and research of the posi- tive psychology and of the psychology of aging. Some concepts that are in that intersection are: psychic capital, strengths, psychological wellbeing and emo- tional regulation. In all the cases they are positive psychic factors associated to the successful aging. Since the end of the 20th century, within the psychology of aging has been developing and achieved fundamental transformations in term of theoretical bases in which it leans on. One of these transformations arises of its encounter with the positive Psychology, of recent appearance too. The theoretical work in this field is of interest because from a classic perspec- tive, from a biological view, aging is regarded as the decline in physical and psychic strengths and, therefore, the loss of those features and positive qualities that were fundamental during the youthful and mature life. Old age would be marked by a deterioration, fragility and loss of progressive selfregulation of the individual person. This view lead to ignoring clearly positive aspects of old the age such as the gathering experience or the greater availability of free time that would allow elderly people to search for ways of personal realization, among others. Of the journey for the different concepts in those that positive psychology and gerontology go being defined a group of characteristic of what we can call the psychic aging. In the first place a change appears in the perspective about what this process implies. Aging is not seen as a relentless and universal process of decline, but rather besides a great variability, it presents different aspects in those that we see the development of potentialities and resources that were not present in other ages. 

  2. 19. Annual meeting of the Federation of Societies on Experimental Biology; 29. Brazilian congress on biophysics; 39. Brazilian congress on physiology; 20. Brazilian congress on clinical investigation; 28. Brazilian congress on neuro sciences and behavior. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Utilization of radioisotopes and ionizing radiations is reported in several aspects related to various diseases. Biological pathways, biological receptors and metabolism are studied by radioassay, tracer techniques, labelled compounds (C14, tritium compounds, e.g.) and radiopharmaceuticals application. Radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and radiation effects are studied as well. In vivo dynamic function studies are presented, mainly in rats and mice. Use of phantoms and tissue-equivalent materials in dosimetry and monitoring, evaluation of radiation dose distribution, calculation and measurement of adsorbed doses are also presented. Environmental issues are also considered, specially regarding to soils and plants

  3. A Brief History of Bacterial Growth Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moselio eSchaechter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Arguably, microbial physiology started when Leeuwenhoek became fascinated by observing a Vorticella beating its cilia, my point being that almost any observation of microbes has a physiological component. With the advent of modern microbiology in the mid 19th century, the field became recognizably distinctive with such discoveries as anaerobiosis, fermentation as a biological phenomenon, and the nutritional requirements of microbes. Soon came the discoveries of Winogradsky and his followers of the chemical changes in the environment that result from microbial activities. Later, during the first half of the 20th century, microbial physiology became the basis for much of the elucidation of central metabolism.Bacterial physiology then became a handmaiden of molecular biology and was greatly influenced by the discovery of cellular regulatory mechanisms. Microbial growth, which had come of age with the early work of Hershey, Monod, and others, was later pursued by studies on a whole cell level by what became known as the Copenhagen School. During this time, the exploration of physiological activities became coupled to modern inquiries into the structure of the bacterial cell.Recent years have seen the development of a further phase in microbial physiology, one seeking a deeper quantitative understanding of phenomena on a whole cell level. This pursuit is exemplified by the emergence of systems biology, which is made possible by the development of technologies that permit the gathering of information in huge amounts. As has been true through history, the research into microbial physiology continues to be guided by the development of new methods of analysis. Some of these developments may well afford the possibility of making stunning breakthroughs.

  4. Microgravity Fluids for Biology, Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, DeVon; Kohl, Fred; Massa, Gioia D.; Motil, Brian; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Quincy, Charles; Sato, Kevin; Singh, Bhim; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity Fluids for Biology represents an intersection of biology and fluid physics that present exciting research challenges to the Space Life and Physical Sciences Division. Solving and managing the transport processes and fluid mechanics in physiological and biological systems and processes are essential for future space exploration and colonization of space by humans. Adequate understanding of the underlying fluid physics and transport mechanisms will provide new, necessary insights and technologies for analyzing and designing biological systems critical to NASAs mission. To enable this mission, the fluid physics discipline needs to work to enhance the understanding of the influence of gravity on the scales and types of fluids (i.e., non-Newtonian) important to biology and life sciences. In turn, biomimetic, bio-inspired and synthetic biology applications based on physiology and biology can enrich the fluid mechanics and transport phenomena capabilities of the microgravity fluid physics community.

  5. Plant Systems Biology (editorial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 2003, Plant Physiology published an Arabidopsis special issue devoted to plant systems biology. The intention of Natasha Raikhel and Gloria Coruzzi, the two editors of this first-of-its-kind issue, was ‘‘to help nucleate this new effort within the plant community’’ as they considered that ‘‘...

  6. Differences in morphometrics and reproductive physiology between two populations of Trissolcus japonicus, a promising biological control agent candidate for brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys Stal) in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trissolcus japonicus (Ashmead), a solitary egg parasitoid of Pentatomidae native to Southeast Asia, has been undergoing host-range testing in U.S. quarantine facilities since 2009 as a candidate for the biological control of brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys Stål)(BMSB), an invasive agri...

  7. Erratum to : Daphnia revisited: local stability and bifurcation theory for physiologically structured population models explained by way of an example (Journal of Mathematical Biology, , 61, 2, (277-318), 10.1007/s00285-009-0299-y)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekmann, Odo; Gyllenberg, Mats; Metz, J. A.J.; Nakaoka, Shinji; de Roos, André M.

    2017-01-01

    In the original publication, the addresses of the authors Dr. J.A.J. Metz and Dr. S. Nakaoka were incorrectly published. The correct address list for the authors are: J.A.J. Metz: Institute of Biology and Institute of Mathematics, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9516, 2300RA Leiden, The Netherlands. S.

  8. Advances in physiological computing

    CERN Document Server

    Fairclough, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    This edited collection will provide an overview of the field of physiological computing, i.e. the use of physiological signals as input for computer control. It will cover a breadth of current research, from brain-computer interfaces to telemedicine.

  9. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2009-01-01

    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  10. Cognitive psychology and depth psychology backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.F.

    1986-01-01

    The sixth chapter gives an insight into the risk perception process which is highly determined by emotions, and, thus, deals with the psychological backgrounds of both the conscious cognitive and the subconscious intuitive realms of the human psyche. The chapter deals with the formation of opinion and the origination of an attitude towards an issue; cognitive-psychological patterns of thinking from the field of risk perception; the question of man's rationality; pertinent aspects of group behaviour; depth psychological backgrounds of the fear of technology; the collective subconscious; nuclear energy as a preferred object of projection for various psychological problems of modern man. (HSCH) [de

  11. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  12. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2017-01-01

    advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories......The proliferation of cultural transition and intercultural contact has highlighted the importance of psychological theories of acculturation. Acculturation, understood as contact between diverse cultural streams, has become prevalent worldwide due to technological, economical, and educational...... of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...

  13. Physiological effects of bioceramic material: harvard step, resting metabolic rate and treadmill running assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ting-Kai; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Lee, Chi-Ming; Kan, Nai-Wen; Hou, Chien-Wen

    2013-12-31

    Previous biomolecular and animal studies have shown that a room-temperature far-infrared-rayemitting ceramic material (bioceramic) demonstrates physical-biological effects, including the normalization of psychologically induced stress-conditioned elevated heart rate in animals. In this clinical study, the Harvard step test, the resting metabolic rate (RMR) assessment and the treadmill running test were conducted to evaluate possible physiological effects of the bioceramic material in human patients. The analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) during the Harvard step test indicated that the bioceramic material significantly increased the high-frequency (HF) power spectrum. In addition, the results of RMR analysis suggest that the bioceramic material reduced oxygen consumption (VO2). Our results demonstrate that the bioceramic material has the tendency to stimulate parasympathetic responses, which may reduce resting energy expenditure and improve cardiorespiratory recovery following exercise.

  14. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes. Supplement 488

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This report lists reports, articles and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied, in most cases, by an abstract.

  15. Psychological factors in developing high performance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Wikman, Johan Michael

    2017-01-01

    calls for great efforts in dealing with competitive pressure and demands mental strength with regard to endurance, self-motivation and willpower. But while it is somewhat straightforward to specify the physical and physiological skills needed for top performance in a specific sport, it becomes less...... clear with regard to the psychological skills that are needed. Therefore, the main questions to be addressed in this chapter are: (1) which psychological skills are needed to reach top performance? And (2) (how) can these skills be developed in young talents?...

  16. The psychology of thinking, animal psychology, and the young Karl Popper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Hark, Michel

    2004-01-01

    In the 1920s, Karl Popper wrote two large manuscripts on psychology that he never published. In his autobiography, Unended Quest, he attempts to reduce the importance of his work in psychology as much as possible, and in his philosophical work he is an antipsychologist. However, in this article, it is argued that Popper's early psychology has been pivotally important for the development of his philosophy. In particular, it is shown that Popper's views on psychology underwent a radical shift, one that paved the way for his characteristic deductive stance in philosophy. Popper's views shifted from an inductive and associationistic psychology toward a noninductive psychology of problem solving. Tracing the historical background of Popper's early work reveals how he integrated various parts of the psychology of Karl Groos into his analysis of the childish phenomenon of dogmatic thinking and how he shortly after appropriated various elements of the animal psychology of Hans Volkelt and Herbert Jennings in his biological approach to (dogmatic) thinking. In the monumental works of Otto Selz, however, Popper finally found the roots of a noninductive and biological approach to the growth of individual and scientific knowledge. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Physiological correlates of stress-induced decrements in human perceptual performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Stress-induced changes in human performance have been thought to result from alterations in the "multidimensional arousal state" of the individual, as indexed by alterations in the physiological and psychological mechanisms controlling performance. I...

  18. Quantum Mechanics predicts evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torday, J S

    2018-07-01

    Nowhere are the shortcomings of conventional descriptive biology more evident than in the literature on Quantum Biology. In the on-going effort to apply Quantum Mechanics to evolutionary biology, merging Quantum Mechanics with the fundamentals of evolution as the First Principles of Physiology-namely negentropy, chemiosmosis and homeostasis-offers an authentic opportunity to understand how and why physics constitutes the basic principles of biology. Negentropy and chemiosmosis confer determinism on the unicell, whereas homeostasis constitutes Free Will because it offers a probabilistic range of physiologic set points. Similarly, on this basis several principles of Quantum Mechanics also apply directly to biology. The Pauli Exclusion Principle is both deterministic and probabilistic, whereas non-localization and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle are both probabilistic, providing the long-sought after ontologic and causal continuum from physics to biology and evolution as the holistic integration recognized as consciousness for the first time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  20. Endogenous Pyrogen Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisel, William R.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the physiology of endogenous pyrogen (EP), the fever-producing factor of cellular origin. Included are: its hormone-like role, its molecular nature, bioassay procedures, cellular production and mechanisms of EP action. (SA)

  1. New concepts in white adipose tissue physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proença, A.R.G.; Sertié, R.A.L.; Oliveira, A.C.; Campaãa, A.B.; Caminhotto, R.O.; Chimin, P.; Lima, F.B.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies address the physiology of adipose tissue (AT). The interest surrounding the physiology of AT is primarily the result of the epidemic outburst of obesity in various contemporary societies. Briefly, the two primary metabolic activities of white AT include lipogenesis and lipolysis. Throughout the last two decades, a new model of AT physiology has emerged. Although AT was considered to be primarily an abundant energy source, it is currently considered to be a prolific producer of biologically active substances, and, consequently, is now recognized as an endocrine organ. In addition to leptin, other biologically active substances secreted by AT, generally classified as cytokines, include adiponectin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, resistin, vaspin, visfatin, and many others now collectively referred to as adipokines. The secretion of such biologically active substances by AT indicates its importance as a metabolic regulator. Cell turnover of AT has also recently been investigated in terms of its biological role in adipogenesis. Consequently, the objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive critical review of the current literature concerning the metabolic (lipolysis, lipogenesis) and endocrine actions of AT

  2. New concepts in white adipose tissue physiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proença, A.R.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Laboratório de Biotecnologia, Faculdade de Ciências Aplicadas, Limeira, SP, Brasil, Laboratório de Biotecnologia, Faculdade de Ciências Aplicadas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Limeira, SP (Brazil); Sertié, R.A.L. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, A.C. [Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Instituto Superior de Ciências Biomédicas, Fortaleza, CE, Brasil, Instituto Superior de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Campaãa, A.B.; Caminhotto, R.O.; Chimin, P.; Lima, F.B. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-03-03

    Numerous studies address the physiology of adipose tissue (AT). The interest surrounding the physiology of AT is primarily the result of the epidemic outburst of obesity in various contemporary societies. Briefly, the two primary metabolic activities of white AT include lipogenesis and lipolysis. Throughout the last two decades, a new model of AT physiology has emerged. Although AT was considered to be primarily an abundant energy source, it is currently considered to be a prolific producer of biologically active substances, and, consequently, is now recognized as an endocrine organ. In addition to leptin, other biologically active substances secreted by AT, generally classified as cytokines, include adiponectin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, resistin, vaspin, visfatin, and many others now collectively referred to as adipokines. The secretion of such biologically active substances by AT indicates its importance as a metabolic regulator. Cell turnover of AT has also recently been investigated in terms of its biological role in adipogenesis. Consequently, the objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive critical review of the current literature concerning the metabolic (lipolysis, lipogenesis) and endocrine actions of AT.

  3. Physiology of Ramadan fasting

    OpenAIRE

    Shokoufeh Bonakdaran

    2016-01-01

    Considering the emphasis of Islam on the importance of fasting, Muslims attempt to fast from dawn until sunset during the holy month of Ramadan. Fasting is associated with several benefits for normal and healthy individuals. However, it could pose high risks to the health of diabetic patients due to certain physiological changes. This study aimed to compare the physiological changes associated with fasting in healthy individuals and diabetic patients during Ramadan. Furthermore, we reviewed t...

  4. Personalized physiological medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Can

    2017-12-28

    This paper introduces the concept of personalized physiological medicine that is specifically directed at the needs of the critically ill patient. This differs from the conventional view of personalized medicine, characterized by biomarkers and gene profiling, instead focusing on time-variant changes in the pathophysiology and regulation of various organ systems and their cellular and subcellular constituents. I propose that personalized physiological medicine is composed of four pillars relevant to the critically ill patient. Pillar 1 is defined by the frailty and fitness of the patient and their physiological reserve to cope with the stress of critical illness and therapy. Pillar 2 involves monitoring of the key physiological variables of the different organ systems and their response to disease and therapy. Pillar 3 concerns the evaluation of the success of resuscitation by assessment of the hemodynamic coherence between the systemic and microcirculation and parenchyma of the organ systems. Finally, pillar 4 is defined by the integration of the physiological and clinical data into a time-learning adaptive model of the patient to provide feedback about the function of organ systems and to guide and assess the response to disease and therapy. I discuss each pillar and describe the challenges to research and development that will allow the realization of personalized physiological medicine to be practiced at the bedside for critically ill patients.

  5. Historiography of Czech psychology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoskovcová, S.; Hoskovec, J.; Plháková, A.; Šebek, M.; Švancara, J.; Vobořil, Dalibor

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2010), s. 309-334 ISSN 1093-4510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : Czech psychologists * Czechoslovak psychology * ideologic influences on psychology Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2010

  6. Teachers and Psychological Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, George W., Jr.

    The importance of the written psychological report is explored, and, in particular, its relationship to teachers' needs and requirements is discussed. Additionally, the characteristics of a "good" psychological report are listed, and teachers are advised to use these criteria in evaluating the psychological reports they are receiving. (Author)

  7. Psychology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  8. What is Political Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morton

    1983-01-01

    Political psychology is the study of the bidirectional interaction of political and psychological processes. This academic discipline was founded after the First World War by Harold D. Lasswell. The content of political psychology is discussed and illustrative studies of the field are briefly summarized. (CS)

  9. Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…

  10. [Psychological aspects of pruritus and therapy options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, A; Schut, C; Schneider, G

    2016-08-01

    Besides biological factors, which cause or influence chronic pruritus, more and more attention has recently also been paid to psychological and psychoneuroimmunological factors which uphold the symptom. This review article gives an overview of the state of research regarding psychological and psychoneuroimmunological factors and the resulting therapeutic options. The article is based on a literature search in the PubMed database. Under experimental conditions, pruritus can be induced by verbal instructions and modulated by placebo and nocebo effects. Stressful life events can also induce pruritus or its exacerbation. This can also be demonstrated on a cellular level. The knowledge that pruritus intensity is modulated by cognitions, behavioral factors, and stress is important for the development and application of psychological interventions. More research should be done regarding psychological interventions in the treatment of chronic itch and they should be applied clinically more often.

  11. Abstracts of the 10. Annual meeting of the Federation of the Experimental Biological Societies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The meeting was about experimental biology and it was discussed topics related to medicine, pharmacology, cellular biology, biophysics, toxicology, physiology, immunology, radiobiology, photobiology, natural products and environment

  12. Physiological aspects of forest disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, H.

    1986-01-01

    Many kinds of forest disease having the most varied causes are currently classified as 'forest die-back'. These include for one part diseases of obvious etiology: infectious diseases, damage from frost and drought, as well as harmful effects of defined air pollutants from known sources. But apart from this, a fast growing tendency is noted for extensive damage to appear whose origin is not yet clearly elucidated and which are probably the result of many factors, in other words, which can be termed as 'chain disease'. A striking fact is that any scientist who has so far attributed that last-mentioned disease condition of forests to any single decisive cause, has chosen one from his own specific scientific field. Physiologic-biochemical analysis of the damage symptoms is impaired by the fact that trees are, for obvious biological reasons, difficult objects for providing precise data. Yet reliable statements can be made on the paths by which wet and dry depositions penetrate into the plant organs, the penetration of pollutants into the cell, their points of attack in cells and tissue (above all photosynthesis, material transport, and hormone balance), and their influence on the correlations between the individual organs. Particular attention should be paid to possible or indirect effects on the mycorrhiza of forest trees, i.e. on the symbiosis between roots and fungi. The physiologic-biochemical investigations and considerations reported provide circumstantial evidence, but no proof regarding the causes hitherto unexplained. (orig.) [de

  13. Integrative Physiology: At the Crossroads of Nutrition, Microbiota, Animal Physiology, and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leulier, François; MacNeil, Lesley T; Lee, Won-Jae; Rawls, John F; Cani, Patrice D; Schwarzer, Martin; Zhao, Liping; Simpson, Stephen J

    2017-03-07

    Nutrition is paramount in shaping all aspects of animal biology. In addition, the influence of the intestinal microbiota on physiology is now widely recognized. Given that diet also shapes the intestinal microbiota, this raises the question of how the nutritional environment and microbial assemblages together influence animal physiology. This research field constitutes a new frontier in the field of organismal biology that needs to be addressed. Here we review recent studies using animal models and humans and propose an integrative framework within which to define the study of the diet-physiology-microbiota systems and ultimately link it to human health. Nutritional Geometry sits centrally in the proposed framework and offers means to define diet compositions that are optimal for individuals and populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic approaches in comparative and evolutionary physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgham, Jamie T.; Kelly, Scott A.; Garland, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    Whole animal physiological performance is highly polygenic and highly plastic, and the same is generally true for the many subordinate traits that underlie performance capacities. Quantitative genetics, therefore, provides an appropriate framework for the analysis of physiological phenotypes and can be used to infer the microevolutionary processes that have shaped patterns of trait variation within and among species. In cases where specific genes are known to contribute to variation in physiological traits, analyses of intraspecific polymorphism and interspecific divergence can reveal molecular mechanisms of functional evolution and can provide insights into the possible adaptive significance of observed sequence changes. In this review, we explain how the tools and theory of quantitative genetics, population genetics, and molecular evolution can inform our understanding of mechanism and process in physiological evolution. For example, lab-based studies of polygenic inheritance can be integrated with field-based studies of trait variation and survivorship to measure selection in the wild, thereby providing direct insights into the adaptive significance of physiological variation. Analyses of quantitative genetic variation in selection experiments can be used to probe interrelationships among traits and the genetic basis of physiological trade-offs and constraints. We review approaches for characterizing the genetic architecture of physiological traits, including linkage mapping and association mapping, and systems approaches for dissecting intermediary steps in the chain of causation between genotype and phenotype. We also discuss the promise and limitations of population genomic approaches for inferring adaptation at specific loci. We end by highlighting the role of organismal physiology in the functional synthesis of evolutionary biology. PMID:26041111

  15. Character strengths, social anxiety, and physiological stress reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of character strengths on the physiological reactivity to social anxiety induced by the Trier Social Stress Task were reported. On the basis of their scores in the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire, 30 college students were assigned to either high- (n = 15 or low-character-strength (n = 15 groups. Their psychological stress and physiological data across three laboratory stages (namely, baseline, stress exposure, and post-stress were collected. Results indicated that individuals with high character strengths exhibited rapid cardiovascular recovery from baseline to post-stress even if high- and low-character-strength groups showed similar patterns of cardiovascular arousal in response to the stress at baseline and stress exposure. These results prove that character strengths are stress-defense factors that allow for psychological and physiological adaptation to stress.

  16. Impact of human emotions on physiological characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partila, P.; Voznak, M.; Peterek, T.; Penhaker, M.; Novak, V.; Tovarek, J.; Mehic, Miralem; Vojtech, L.

    2014-05-01

    Emotional states of humans and their impact on physiological and neurological characteristics are discussed in this paper. This problem is the goal of many teams who have dealt with this topic. Nowadays, it is necessary to increase the accuracy of methods for obtaining information about correlations between emotional state and physiological changes. To be able to record these changes, we focused on two majority emotional states. Studied subjects were psychologically stimulated to neutral - calm and then to the stress state. Electrocardiography, Electroencephalography and blood pressure represented neurological and physiological samples that were collected during patient's stimulated conditions. Speech activity was recording during the patient was reading selected text. Feature extraction was calculated by speech processing operations. Classifier based on Gaussian Mixture Model was trained and tested using Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients extracted from the patient's speech. All measurements were performed in a chamber with electromagnetic compatibility. The article discusses a method for determining the influence of stress emotional state on the human and his physiological and neurological changes.

  17. On the Cultivation of Students' Interests in Biology Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the importance of middle school students' interests in learning biology. Considering the psychological characteristics of middle school students, this paper suggests several practical ways for inspiring students' interests in learning biology.

  18. Apple biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and in postharvest according to production system Distúrbios biológicos e fisiológicos no pomar e na pós-colheita de maçãs em função do sistema de produção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Martins

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the incidence of biological and physiological disorders in the field and postharvested apples cvs. Gala, Fuji and Catarina grown in four production systems: conventional, organic transition, integrated and organic. Apples were evaluated for damages related to biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and after harvest. The greatest damages were attributed to pests, especially Anastrepha fraterculus in the organic system and Grapholita molesta in the organic transition. Apples produced in organic orchards had higher damage levels caused by postharvest physiological disorders than those grown in other production systems. For apples becoming from organic orchards most of the damage was due to lenticels breakdown and degeneration ('Gala', and bitter pit ('Fuji' and 'Catarina'. The incidence of postharvest rot was not influenced by apple production system.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ocorrência de distúrbios biológicos e fisiológicos, tanto em nível de campo como em pós-colheita, de maçãs 'Gala', 'Fuji' e 'Catarina', produzidas em pomares conduzidos em quatro sistemas de produção: convencional, transição convencional-orgânico, integrado e orgânico. As maçãs foram avaliadas quanto à presença de danos ocasionados por distúrbios biológicos e fisiológicos no pomar e em pós-colheita. Os maiores danos foram atribuídos às pragas, principalmente à Anastrepha fraterculus em sistema orgânico e à Grapholita molesta em sistema de transição convencional-orgânico. As maçãs produzidas em sistema orgânico tiveram maiores danos em pós-colheita ocasionados por distúrbios fisiológicos do que as dos demais sistemas de produção. Nas frutas produzidas em sistema orgânico, os danos, em sua maioria foram com degenerescência e depressão lenticelar para a cv. Gala, e bitter pit para as cvs. Fuji e Catarina. A incidência de podridões pós-colheita não foi influenciada pelo sistema de

  19. The development of radioimmunoassay for somatostatin, its use in the measurement of this peptide in tissues and biological fluids, and an assessment of its physiological role in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimstone, B.; Sheppard, M.

    1979-06-01

    Somatostatin peptide initially isolated from ovine hypothalamus has inhibitory effect on secretion growth hormone and on other pituitary hormones like TSH, ACTH. The assay sensitivity sensitivity was approximately 6 pg/tube. The authors did not observe any significant crossreactivity with 19 different hormones and biological substances. High concentration of somatostatin was found in central nervous system, but not only in median eminence of hypothalamus but also in other areas including spine cord. High level of somatostatin was also observed in pancreas, gastric antrum and distal colon. The determinations of somatostatin-like in sera of 22 men and 26 women allowed to establish the normal values which are 0.274+-0.009 ng/ml. MCR in normal subjects was 1949+-250 ml/min, in cases with chronic liver disease the values were similar, and in subjects with chronic renal failure highly significant lowering of MCR equal 501+-32.7 ml/min was observed. Tsub(1/2) varied from 1.1 to 3.0 min in normal subjects, in patients with liver diseases was in ranges 1.2 - 4.8 min and in chronic renal failure from 2.6 - 4.9 min

  20. Physiological Aging and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osness, Wayne

    This paper explores the nature of the aging process by providing an overview of the available evidence relating to the body systems that are most critical to biological function. Each system is treated separately to more clearly describe various aspects of the aging process and then integrated in a discussion of the theories of biological aging.…

  1. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences (Niger. J. Physiol. Sci.) is a biannual publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria. It covers diverse areas of research in physiological sciences, publishing reviews in current research areas and original laboratory and clinical research in physiological sciences. Other websites ...

  2. Dehydration: physiology, assessment, and performance effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of dehydration assessment and presents a unique evaluation of the dehydration and performance literature. The importance of osmolality and volume are emphasized when discussing the physiology, assessment, and performance effects of dehydration. The underappreciated physiologic distinction between a loss of hypo-osmotic body water (intracellular dehydration) and an iso-osmotic loss of body water (extracellular dehydration) is presented and argued as the single most essential aspect of dehydration assessment. The importance of diagnostic and biological variation analyses to dehydration assessment methods is reviewed and their use in gauging the true potential of any dehydration assessment method highlighted. The necessity for establishing proper baselines is discussed, as is the magnitude of dehydration required to elicit reliable and detectable osmotic or volume-mediated compensatory physiologic responses. The discussion of physiologic responses further helps inform and explain our analysis of the literature suggesting a ≥ 2% dehydration threshold for impaired endurance exercise performance mediated by volume loss. In contrast, no clear threshold or plausible mechanism(s) support the marginal, but potentially important, impairment in strength, and power observed with dehydration. Similarly, the potential for dehydration to impair cognition appears small and related primarily to distraction or discomfort. The impact of dehydration on any particular sport skill or task is therefore likely dependent upon the makeup of the task itself (e.g., endurance, strength, cognitive, and motor skill). © 2014 American Physiological Society.

  3. Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E-Tools Safety and Health Topics / Biological Agents Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... 202) 693-2300 if additional assistance is required. Biological Agents Menu Overview In Focus: Ebola Frederick A. ...

  4. Simulated Exercise Physiology Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Pivarnik, James M.

    This book consists of a lab manual and computer disks for either Apple or IBM hardware. The lab manual serves as "tour guide" for the learner going through the various lab experiences. The manual contains definitions, proper terminology, and other basic information about physiological principles. It is organized so a step-by-step procedure may be…

  5. Personalized physiological medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ince, Can

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of personalized physiological medicine that is specifically directed at the needs of the critically ill patient. This differs from the conventional view of personalized medicine, characterized by biomarkers and gene profiling, instead focusing on time-variant

  6. Physiological responses to hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Thomas; Thoresen, Marianne

    2015-04-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia is the only treatment currently recommended for moderate or severe encephalopathy of hypoxic‒ischaemic origin in term neonates. Though the effects of hypothermia on human physiology have been explored for many decades, much of the data comes from animal or adult studies; the latter originally after accidental hypothermia, followed by application of controlled hypothermia after cardiac arrest or trauma, or during cardiopulmonary bypass. Though this work is informative, the effects of hypothermia on neonatal physiology after perinatal asphyxia must be considered in the context of a prolonged hypoxic insult that has already induced a number of significant physiological sequelae. This article reviews the effects of therapeutic hypothermia on respiratory, cardiovascular, and metabolic parameters, including glycaemic control and feeding requirements. The potential pitfalls of blood‒gas analysis and overtreatment of physiological changes in cardiovascular parameters are also discussed. Finally, the effects of hypothermia on drug metabolism are covered, focusing on how the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and dosing requirements of drugs frequently used in neonatal intensive care may change during therapeutic hypothermia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Face of Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul White

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between the physiology of the emotions and the display of character in Victorian Britain. Charles Bell and others had begun to link certain physiological functions, such as respiration, with the expression of feelings such as fear, regarding the heart and other internal organs as instruments by which the emotions were made visible. But a purely functional account of the emotions, which emerged through the development of reflex physiology during the second half of the century, would dramatically alter the nature of feelings and the means of observing them. At the same time, instinctual or acquired sympathy, which had long underpinned the accurate reading of expressions, became a problem to be surmounted by new 'objectively'. Graphic recording instruments measuring a variety of physiological functions and used with increasing frequency in clinical diagnostics became of fundamental importance for tracing the movement of feelings during the period prior to the development of cinematography. They remained, in the form of devices such as the polygraph, a crucial and controversial means of measuring affective states, beneath the potentially deceptive surface of the body.

  8. Serpins in arthropod biology

    OpenAIRE

    Meekins, David A.; Kanost, Michael R.; Michel, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Serpins are the largest known family of serine proteinase inhibitors and perform a variety of physiological functions in arthropods. Herein, we review the field of serpins in arthropod biology, providing an overview of current knowledge and topics of interest. Serpins regulate insect innate immunity via inhibition of serine proteinase cascades that initiate immune responses such as melanization and antimicrobial peptide production. In addition, several serpins with anti-pathogen activity are ...

  9. Mobile devices for the remote acquisition of physiological and behavioral biomarkers in psychiatric clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W Adams, Zachary; McClure, Erin A; Gray, Kevin M; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Treiber, Frank A; Ruggiero, Kenneth J

    2017-02-01

    Psychiatric disorders are linked to a variety of biological, psychological, and contextual causes and consequences. Laboratory studies have elucidated the importance of several key physiological and behavioral biomarkers in the study of psychiatric disorders, but much less is known about the role of these biomarkers in naturalistic settings. These gaps are largely driven by methodological barriers to assessing biomarker data rapidly, reliably, and frequently outside the clinic or laboratory. Mobile health (mHealth) tools offer new opportunities to study relevant biomarkers in concert with other types of data (e.g., self-reports, global positioning system data). This review provides an overview on the state of this emerging field and describes examples from the literature where mHealth tools have been used to measure a wide array of biomarkers in the context of psychiatric functioning (e.g., psychological stress, anxiety, autism, substance use). We also outline advantages and special considerations for incorporating mHealth tools for remote biomarker measurement into studies of psychiatric illness and treatment and identify several specific opportunities for expanding this promising methodology. Integrating mHealth tools into this area may dramatically improve psychiatric science and facilitate highly personalized clinical care of psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychological Stress and Mitochondria: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Martin; McEwen, Bruce S

    Mitochondria are multifunctional life-sustaining organelles that represent a potential intersection point between psychosocial experiences and biological stress responses. This article provides a systematic review of the effects of psychological stress on mitochondrial structure and function. A systematic review of the literature investigating the effects of psychological stress on mitochondrial function was conducted. The review focused on experimentally controlled studies allowing us to draw causal inference about the effect of induced psychological stress on mitochondria. A total of 23 studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies involved male laboratory animals, and most demonstrated that acute and chronic stressors influenced specific facets of mitochondrial function, particularly within the brain. Nineteen studies showed significant adverse effects of psychological stress on mitochondria and four found increases in function or size after stress. In humans, only six observational studies were available, none with experimental designs, and most only measured biological markers that do not directly reflect mitochondrial function, such as mitochondrial DNA copy number. Overall, evidence supports the notion that acute and chronic stressors influence various aspects of mitochondrial biology, and that chronic stress exposure can lead to molecular and functional recalibrations among mitochondria. Limitations of current animal and human studies are discussed. Maladaptive mitochondrial changes that characterize this subcellular state of stress are termed mitochondrial allostatic load. Prospective studies with sensitive measures of specific mitochondrial outcomes will be needed to establish the link between psychosocial stressors, emotional states, the resulting neuroendocrine and immune processes, and mitochondrial energetics relevant to mind-body research in humans.

  11. Ethnographic Fieldwork in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    It is argued in the present article that ethnographic fieldwork can serve useful methodological ends within psychology and open the discipline to the cultural landscape of psychological phenomena in everyday life in social practices. Furthermore, a positive case is made for the soundness...... of ethnographic fieldwork. That is, rather than disputing the claim that qualitative methods can serve scientific ends, it is argued that ethnographic fieldwork is suitable for studying the constitution of psychological phenomena in social practices across time....

  12. Psychology and criminal justice

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Joanna R.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is designed to give the reader a flavour of a few areas in which psychology has been applied to criminal justice. It begins by providing some historical context and showing the development of some applications of psychology to criminal justice. The chapter is broadly split into 3 sections: Pre Trial; Trial; and Post Trial. In most of this chapter, the areas considered assess how psychology has had an influence on the law and how psychologists work within criminal justice settings...

  13. Strategic Psychological Operations management

    OpenAIRE

    Sokoloski, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    United States Military Psychological Operations are engaged in a type of mass marketing of ideas. To accomplish this The United States Army Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations Command (USACAPOC) employs active and reserve PSYOP units to conduct PSYOP campaigns. However the methodology used to manage these campaigns often hinders the effective employment of timely and effective Psychological Operations. PSYOP has a difficult job to accomplish but PSYOP does not have the proper managemen...

  14. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  15. Center for Deployment Psychology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Deployment Psychology was developed to promote the education of psychologists and other behavioral health specialists about issues pertaining to the...

  16. Psychology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  17. Nonlinear dynamics in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Guastello

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas – cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope of issues that are of substantive interest to psychological theory. A budding literature on the implications of NDS principles in professional practice is reported also.

  18. Status of physiology education in US Doctor of Pharmacy programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed A; Khan, Seher A; Talukder, Rahmat M

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the current status of physiology education in US Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) programs. A survey instrument was developed and distributed through SurveyMonkey to American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) Biological Sciences section members of 132 PharmD programs. Survey items focused on soliciting qualitative and quantitative information on the delivery of physiology curricular contents and faculty perceptions of physiology education. A total of 114 programs responded to the survey, resulting in a response rate of 86%. Out of 114 schools/colleges, 61 programs (54%) offered standalone physiology courses, and 53 programs (46%) offered physiology integrated with other courses. When integrated, the average contact hours for physiology contents were significantly reduced compared with standalone courses (30 vs. 84 h, P US PharmD programs remains. The reduction of physiology contents is evident when physiology is taught as a component of integrated courses. Given current trends that favor integrated curricula, these data suggest that additional collaboration among basic and clinical science faculty is required to ensure that physiology contents are balanced and not underemphasized in a PharmD curriculum. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Workplace Re-organization and Changes in Physiological Stress Markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, Rikke Hinge; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kristiansen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in physiological stress markers as a consequence of workplace reorganization. Moreover, we aimed to investigate changes in the psychosocial work environment (job strain, effortreward imbalance (ERI), in psychological distress (stress symptoms......, perceived stress) and the mediating effect of these factors on changes in physiological stress markers. We used data from a longitudinal study that studied the health consequences of a major reorganization of non-state public offices executed in Denmark on 1 January 2007. Collection of clinical...... and questionnaire data was in 2006 and 2008, and in this sub-study we included 359 participants. To reflect stress reactions of the autonomic nervous system, the endocrine system and the immune system, we included 13 physiological markers. We observed significant change in several physiological stress markers...

  20. Biological Correlates of Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Timucin Oral

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Empathy can be defined as the capacity to know emotionally what another is experiencing from within the frame of reference of that other person and the capacity to sample the feelings of another or it can be metaphorized as to put oneself in another’s shoes. Although the concept of empathy was firstly described in psychological theories, researches studying the biological correlates of psychological theories have been increasing recently. Not suprisingly, dinamically oriented psychotherapists Freud, Kohut, Basch and Fenichel had suggested theories about the biological correlates of empathy concept and established the basis of this modality decades ago. Some other theorists emphasized the importance of empathy in the early years of lifetime regarding mother-child attachment in terms of developmental psychology and investigated its role in explanation of psychopathology. The data coming from some of the recent brain imaging and animal model studies also seem to support these theories. Although increased activity in different brain regions was shown in many of the brain imaging studies, the role of cingulate cortex for understanding mother-child relationship was constantly emphasized in nearly all of the studies. In addition to these studies, a group of Italian scientists has defined a group of neurons as “mirror neurons” in their studies observing rhesus macaque monkeys. Later, they also defined mirror neurons in human studies, and suggested them as “empathy neurons”. After the discovery of mirror neurons, the hopes of finding the missing part of the puzzle for understanding the biological correlates of empathy raised again. Although the roles of different biological parameters such as skin conductance and pupil diameter for defining empathy have not been certain yet, they are going to give us the opportunity to revise the inconsistent basis of structural validity in psychiatry and to stabilize descriptive validity. In this review, the

  1. Childhood obesity treatment and prevention. Psychological perspectives of clinical approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Catena Quattropani; Teresa Buccheri

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This work focuses on clinical psychologist’ presence within childhood obesity prevention programmes in several countries. Method: The Authors collected articles considering psychological, biological and social aspects linked to childhood obesity. Results: Studies reveal that childhood obesity prevention programmes are based on biological, medical and educational aspects; clinical psychologists up until now have been engaged almost exclusively in the treatment of obesity. Conclusion...

  2. Social Psychology and Gender: A New Direction through Feminist Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grella, Christine E.

    Traditionally, social psychology has conceptualized sex and gender as subject variables with sex as a biological substrate and gender as a sociocultural consequence of sex. These ideas rest on the assumption of two distinct biological categories. However, gender is better thought of in dialectical rather than oppositional terms. Gender is both…

  3. Psychological health of operators in NPPs and accident prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Huayun

    2004-01-01

    Mental and physical health of operators of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is directly related to normal and safe operation of NPPs. The cognitive process, volitional character, attention, emotion, feeling and personality are important factors that affect operators' safe behavior. Alcohol, medical drugs and operators' biological rhythm are can also make great effects on their psychological health. By means of job-fitness psychological test, better candidates for operators could be primarily selected from point of psychological view. Psychological follow-up of post skill training, simulator training and practical work of operators can make NPPs prevent from operational accidents due to human errors to the greatest extent. It is helpful for NPPs to find and solve some psychological problems by means of psychological counseling, regulation or psychotherapy. (author)

  4. Molecular eyes: proteins that transform light into biological information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennis, J.T.M.; Mathes, T.

    2013-01-01

    Most biological photoreceptors are protein/cofactor complexes that induce a physiological reaction upon absorption of a photon. Therefore, these proteins represent signal converters that translate light into biological information. Researchers use this property to stimulate and study various

  5. Renal phosphate handling: Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is a common anion. It plays an important role in energy generation. Renal phosphate handling is regulated by three organs parathyroid, kidney and bone through feedback loops. These counter regulatory loops also regulate intestinal absorption and thus maintain serum phosphorus concentration in physiologic range. The parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, Fibrogenic growth factor 23 (FGF23 and klotho coreceptor are the key regulators of phosphorus balance in body.

  6. Alchemical crossings in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Marculino de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss the contributions of Alchemy to the field of Psychology, especially for Analytical Psychology as a proposal of an Alchemical Psychology, whose representatives highlighted here are Carl Gustav Jung and James Hillman. It is understood that the knowledge of Alchemy have been applied in various areas such as metallurgy, chemistry, philosophy, and it has a possible application in the field of Psychology. In this sense, it is observed that if to Jung the concepts of Alchemy interlace connections with the knowledge proposed by Analytical Psychology, on the other hand Hillman adopts this knowledge to develop a strategy for use in the field of psychotherapy, proposing to think alchemically. Thus, for this second author in the exercise of Psychology, the meetings with the patient go beyond the application of theories, constituting as a “do-soul” in the office. This is, more than translating symbols, it is proposed to “stay with the image”, with an attention from both the patient and the psychologist for that the words expressed in this dialogue does not become “wordthings” or be reduced to a unique meaning that tends to discard the image. It is hoped, through this work, to promote knowledge of the professionals about the Analytical Psychology and Alchemy Psychology in their connections with Alchemy and its reverberations in the field of psychotherapy in these approaches.

  7. Transpersonal Psychology in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Thomas Bradford; Clark, Frances Vaughan

    The introduction to this booklet states that transpersonal psychology focuses attention on the human capacity for self-transcendence as well as self-realization, and is concerned with the optimum development of consciousness. This booklet attempts to illustrate the value of this psychology in education, not as a complete substitute for traditional…

  8. Simulation and psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieckmann, Peter; Krage, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Psychology is relevant for improving the use of simulation in anesthesiology, as it allows us to describe, explain and optimize the interactions of learners and instructors as well as the design of simulation scenarios and debriefings. Much psychological expertise is not used for simulation...

  9. Virtual Reality in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of using virtual environments (VEs) in psychology arise from the fact that movements in virtual space, and accompanying perceptual changes, are treated by the brain in much the same way as those in equivalent real space. The research benefits of using VEs, in areas of psychology such as spatial learning and cognition, include…

  10. Environmental Psychology: An Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, L.; Berg, van den A.E.; Groot, de J.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Psychology: An Introduction offers a research-based introduction to the psychological relationship between humans and their built and natural environments and discusses how sustainable environments can be created to the benefit of both people and nature •Explores the environment's

  11. Psychological effects of nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickley, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    This report is divided into five parts. (1) Discussion of the psychological milieu before a nuclear confrontation. (2) Acute psychological reactions to nuclear warfare (some of which may reflect, in part, direct radiogenic alteration of nervous system functions). (3) Chronic psychological effects of a nuclear confrontation. (4) Issues concerning treatment of these psychological changes. (5) Prevention of adverse psychological reactions to nuclear warfare

  12. Circadian physiology of metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Satchidananda

    2016-11-25

    A majority of mammalian genes exhibit daily fluctuations in expression levels, making circadian expression rhythms the largest known regulatory network in normal physiology. Cell-autonomous circadian clocks interact with daily light-dark and feeding-fasting cycles to generate approximately 24-hour oscillations in the function of thousands of genes. Circadian expression of secreted molecules and signaling components transmits timing information between cells and tissues. Such intra- and intercellular daily rhythms optimize physiology both by managing energy use and by temporally segregating incompatible processes. Experimental animal models and epidemiological data indicate that chronic circadian rhythm disruption increases the risk of metabolic diseases. Conversely, time-restricted feeding, which imposes daily cycles of feeding and fasting without caloric reduction, sustains robust diurnal rhythms and can alleviate metabolic diseases. These findings highlight an integrative role of circadian rhythms in physiology and offer a new perspective for treating chronic diseases in which metabolic disruption is a hallmark. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Theorising context in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to address the issue of what context is and how it can be incorporated in psychological theory by using the case study of creativity research. It starts from a basic definition of context as the spatiotemporal continuum that, together with psychological phenomena, constitutes...... a totality and should be considered a single, integrated whole. As such, contexts are neither subjective, existing only in perception, nor are they a set of variables external to the person, but participate directly in the processes under study in psychology. We can therefore distinguish between “flat......” theorising, one-dimensional and overconcerned with intra-psychological factors, and “3-D” models trying to articulate the psychological, the spatial (sociomaterial), and the temporal. These categories are illustrated by different theoretical approaches to creativity. It is argued here that a cultural...

  14. Open Single Item of Perceived Risk Factors (OSIPRF toward Cardiovascular Diseases Is an Appropriate Instrument for Evaluating Psychological Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Saeidi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychological symptoms are considered as one of the aspects and consequences of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, management of which can precipitate and facilitate the process of recovery. Evaluation of the psychological symptoms can increase awareness of treatment team regarding patients’ mental health, which can be beneficial for designing treatment programs (1. However, time-consuming process of interviews and assessment by questionnaires lead to fatigue and lack of patient cooperation, which may be problematic for healthcare evaluators. Therefore, the use of brief and suitable alternatives is always recommended.The use of practical and easy to implement instruments is constantly emphasized. A practical method for assessing patients' psychological status is examining causal beliefs and attitudes about the disease. The causal beliefs and perceived risk factors by patients, which are significantly related to the actual risk factors for CVDs (2, are not only related to psychological adjustment and mental health but also have an impact on patients’ compliance with treatment recommendations (3.It seems that several risk factors are at play regarding the perceived risk factors for CVDs such as gender (4, age (5, and most importantly, patients’ psychological status (3. Accordingly, evaluation of causal beliefs and perceived risk factors by patients could probably be a shortcut method for evaluation of patients’ psychological health. In recent years, Saeidi and Komasi (5 proposed a question and investigated the perceived risk factors with an open single item: “What do you think is the main cause of your illness?”. According to the authors, the perceived risk factors are recorded in five categories including biological (age, gender, and family history, environmental (dust, smoke, passive smoking, toxic substances, and effects of war, physiological (diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, behavioral (lack of exercise, nutrition

  15. African Journals Online: Biology & Life Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 71 ... Anatomy Journal of Africa is the Official Journal for the Association of Anatomical ... It publishes original articles pertaining to various aspects of renal ... in all fields of experimental biology including biochemistry, physiology, ...

  16. Proceedings of the 13. Annual meeting of the Federation of Societies on Experimental Biology; 23. Brazilian congress on biophysics; 30. Brazilian congress on pharmacology and experimental therapeutics; 33. Brazilian congress on physiology; 14. Brazilian congress on clinical research; 22. Brazilian congress on neuroscience and behaviour. Abstracts; Anais do 13. Reuniao anual da Federacao de Sociedades de Biologia Experimental; 23. Congresso brasileiro de biofisica; 30. Congresso brasileiro de farmacologia e terapeutica experimental; 33. Congresso brasileiro de fisiologia; 14. Congresso brasileiro de investigacao clinica; 22. Congresso brasileiro de neurociencias e comportamento. Resumos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    Several aspects concerning neuroscience and behavior, compared physiology, endocrinology, pharmacology, molecular immunology and immuno diagnosis, biochemistry, genetic and toxicology of either animals, plants and microorganisms are studied. Topics such as cell membrane structures (including receptors), enzymatic assays, biological pathways, structural chemical analysis, metabolism, biological functions, blood pressure regulation are focused. The use of radiolabelled compounds, e.g. radioassay, radioimmunoassay, radioreceptor assay, are the most applied techniques.

  17. Applied physiology of triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, M L; Douglas, P S

    1995-04-01

    The triathlon is a 3-event endurance sport in which athletes compete sequentially in swimming, cycling and running. The primary determinant of success is the ability to sustain a high rate of energy expenditure for prolonged periods of time. Exercise training-induced physiological adaptations in virtually all systems of the body allow the athlete to accomplish this. Aerobic capacity (measured as maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max), economy of motion (submaximal VO2) and fractional utilisation of maximal capacity (%VO2max) reflect the integrated responses of these physiological adaptations. Numerous studies have reported relatively high mean VO2max values for various groups of triathletes that are comparable to those reported for athletes in single-event endurance sports and clearly above those reported for untrained individuals. In shorter distance triathlons and in studies using recreational (rather than elite) triathletes, VO2max is related to performance in the corresponding event of the triathlon (e.g. tethered swimming VO2max with swim time). In longer events and with more elite triathletes, VO2max correlates less well with performance. The physiological adaptations that correspond to and facilitate improved VO2max occur centrally in the cardiovascular system, centred on increased maximal cardiac output, and peripherally in the metabolic systems, centred around increased arterio-venous O2 (a-v O2) difference. While a high VO2max in individuals is clearly of importance to triathlon performance, energy output must be sustained for long periods of time, making economy of motion also very important. Studies suggests that competitive swimmers have better swimming economy than triathletes. However, since many triathletes have previously been competitive swimmers this finding is questionable. The finding suggests that triathletes from nonswimming backgrounds would benefit from improving swimming technique rather than concentrating training workouts solely on distance. In

  18. Short-Term Psychological Effects of Interactive Video Game Technology Exercise on Mood and Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, William D.; Newton, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Recent interest in interactive video game technology (IVGT) has spurred the notion that exercise from this technology may have meaningful physiological and psychological benefits for children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the short-term psychological effects of interactive video game exercise in young adults and whether…

  19. Rubella Deaf-Blind Child: Implications of Psychological Assessment. Proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouin, Carole

    Presented are proceedings of a conference involving authorities in testing and evaluating the blind, deaf, and deaf-blind. In a paper titled "Psychological Implications of Assessing the Deaf", C. Goetzinger discusses references used in audiology, anatomy and physiology of the ear, degrees of hearing impairment, and implications of the various…

  20. The rise of quantitative methods in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Cousineau

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative methods have a long history in some scientific fields. Indeed, no one today would consider a qualitative data set in physics or a qualitative theory in chemistry. Quantitative methods are so central in these fields that they are often labelled “hard sciences”. Here, we examine the question whether psychology is ready to enter the “hard science club” like biology did in the forties. The facts that a over half of the statistical techniques used in psychology are less than 40 years old and that b the number of simulations in empirical papers has followed an exponential growth since the eighties, both suggests that the answer is yes. The purpose of Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology is to provide a concise and easy access to the currents methods.

  1. Psychology or Psychological Science?: A Survey of Graduate Psychology Faculty Regarding Program Names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collisson, Brian; Rusbasan, David

    2018-01-01

    The question of renaming graduate psychology programs to psychological science is a timely and contentious issue. To better understand why some programs, but not others, are changing names, we surveyed chairpersons (Study 1) and faculty (Study 2) within graduate psychology and psychological science programs. Within psychology programs, a name…

  2. Anatomy and physiology of genital organs - women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziottin, Alessandra; Gambini, Dania

    2015-01-01

    "Anatomy is destiny": Sigmund Freud viewed human anatomy as a necessary, although not a sufficient, condition for understanding the complexity of human sexual function with a solid biologic basis. The aim of the chapter is to describe women's genital anatomy and physiology, focusing on women's sexual function with a clinically oriented vision. Key points include: embryology, stressing that the "female" is the anatomic "default" program, differentiated into "male" only in the presence of androgens at physiologic levels for the gestational age; sex determination and sex differentiation, describing the interplay between anatomic and endocrine factors; the "clitoral-urethral-vaginal" complex, the most recent anatomy reading of the corpora cavernosa pattern in women; the controversial G spot; the role of the pelvic floor muscles in modulating vaginal receptivity and intercourse feelings, with hyperactivity leading to introital dyspareunia and contributing to provoked vestibulodynia and recurrent postcoital cystitis, whilst lesions during delivery reduce vaginal sensations, genital arousability, and orgasm; innervation, vessels, bones, ligaments; and the physiology of women's sexual response. Attention to physiologic aging focuses on "low-grade inflammation," genital and systemic, with its impact on women sexual function, especially after the menopause, if the woman does not or cannot use hormone replacement therapy. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Political Psychology of European Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The...

  4. Computer support for physiological cell modelling using an ontology on cell physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Shimayoshi; Kazuhiro, Komurasaki; Akira, Amano; Takeshi, Iwashita; Masanori, Kanazawa; Tetsuya, Matsuda

    2006-01-01

    The development of electrophysiological whole cell models to support the understanding of biological mechanisms is increasing rapidly. Due to the complexity of biological systems, comprehensive cell models, which are composed of many imported sub-models of functional elements, can get quite complicated as well, making computer modification difficult. Here, we propose a computer support to enhance structural changes of cell models, employing the markup languages CellML and our original PMSML (physiological model structure markup language), in addition to a new ontology for cell physiological modelling. In particular, a method to make references from CellML files to the ontology and a method to assist manipulation of model structures using markup languages together with the ontology are reported. Using these methods three software utilities, including a graphical model editor, are implemented. Experimental results proved that these methods are effective for the modification of electrophysiological models.

  5. The emergence of Applied Physiology within the discipline of Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M

    2016-08-01

    Despite the availability and utilization of the physiology textbooks authored by Albrecht von Haller during the 18th century that heralded the modern age of physiology, not all physicians or physiologists were satisfied with its presentation, contents, or application to medicine. Initial reasons were fundamental disagreements between the "mechanists," represented by Boerhaave, Robinson, and von Haller, and the "vitalists," represented by the faculty and graduates of the Montpellier School of Medicine in France, notably, Bordeu and Barthez. Subsequently, objections originated from Europe, United Kingdom, and the United States in publications that focused not only on the teaching of physiology to medical and secondary students, but on the specific applications of the content of physiology to medicine, health, hygiene, pathology, and chronic diseases. At the turn of the 20th century, texts began to appear with applied physiology in their titles and in 1926, physician Samson Wright published a textbook entitled Applied Physiology that was intended for both medical students and the medical profession. Eleven years later, physicians Best and Taylor published The Physiological Basis of Medical Practice: A University of Toronto Texbook in Applied Physiology Although both sets of authors defined the connection between applied physiology and physiology, they failed to define the areas of physiology that were included within applied physiology. This was accomplished by the American Physiological Society (APS) Publications Committee in 1948 with the publication of the Journal of Appplied Physiology, that stated the word "applied" would broadly denote human physiology whereas the terms stress and environment would broadly include work, exercise, plus industrial, climatic and social factors. NIH established a study section (SS) devoted to applied physiology in 1964 which remained active until 2001 when it became amalgamated into other SSs. Before the end of the 20th century when

  6. [Anatomy and physiology of sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cour, F; Droupy, S; Faix, A; Methorst, C; Giuliano, F

    2013-07-01

    Knowledge of the physiology of male and female sexuality has advanced considerably. Initially there is always desire with its biological neuroendocrine components and its emotional field which is particularly marked in women. There is a distinction between "spontaneous" sexual desire related to intrinsic affective, cognitive stimuli, and fantasies, and "reactive" sexual desire in response to physical arousal. There are similarities between men and women concerning the activation of cerebral zones in sexual arousal contexts in laboratory conditions. The neural pathways for sexual arousal are similar between men and women, bringing into play the sympathetic centres of the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord and, at the sacral level, the parasympathetic center and the motoneurons controlling the muscular contractions of the pelviperineal striated muscles. Genital sensitivity is mainly transmitted by the pudendal nerve in both men and women. Sexual arousal in men consists of penile erection, and ejaculation accompanied with orgasm. In women, sexual arousal causes increase in blood to flow to the vagina leading to lubrication and to the vulva leading to the erection of the clitoris and vulvar hyperaemia. The orgasm which can be multiple in women is accompanied by contractions of the striated perineal muscles. Several neurotransmitters are closely involved in the control of sexuality at the central level: dopamine, ocytocin, serotonin, and peripheral: nitric oxide and noradrenaline in men, vasoactive intestinal peptide and neuropeptide Y in women. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Study on Driver Visual Physiological Characteristics in Urban Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyuan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the integrated traffic environment, human factor is always a main factor of the three elementary factors, besides the vehicle and road factor. The driver physiological and psychological characteristics have an important impact especially on traffic safety in urban road traffic conditions. Some typical traffic scenes in condition of urban road, such as light signal control at intersection, overtaking, and passing, are selected for condition analysis. An eye movement apparatus was used to obtain driver eye closure, blink frequency, and other visual physiological indicators in the traffic conditions of urban road. The regular patterns of driver visual characteristics in the corresponding scenes were analyzed in detail to provide data and theoretical support for the further research on traffic safety of urban environment from the viewpoint of driver psychology and behavior.

  8. Physiology of woody plants

    CERN Document Server

    Hazewinkel, Michiel; Pallardy, Stephen G

    1996-01-01

    This completely revised classic volume is an up-to-date synthesis of the intensive research devoted to woody plants. Intended primarily as a text for students and a reference for researchers, this interdisciplinary book should be useful to a broad range of scientists from agroforesters, agronomists, and arborists to plant pathologists, ecophysiologists, and soil scientists. Anyone interested in plant physiology will find this text invaluable. Key Features * Includes supplementary chapter summaries and lists of general references * Provides a solid foundation of reference information * Thoroughly updated classic text/reference.

  9. Physiological and behavioral factors related to physical activity in black women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Nancy A; Melkus, Gail D; Chyun, Deborah A

    2011-10-01

    To describe relationships among physical activity (PA), physiological factors, and psychological factors in Black women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A cross-sectional design was used (N = 109). Data were collected on PA(activity/inactivity, TV hours, bed confinement), physiology (blood pressure, lipids, hemoglobin A1c), psychology (anxiety,emotional distress, physical functioning, bodily pain, vitality), and health care provider (HCP) support. Walking was the preferred PA; TV viewing averaged 3.7 hours/day, and 24% reported confinement to bed >1 week in the last year. Inactive women had greater physiological and psychological problems than active women. Women watching TV >2 hours/day had more physiological problems than women watching TV Women reporting >1 week of confinement to bed in the last year had more physiological and psychological problems than those confined to bed women with T2DM should promote walking, address TV viewing time, incorporate HCP’s role of PA counseling/support,and address several psychological factors.

  10. Thinking Psychology Today

    OpenAIRE

    ÁNGELA MARÍA ROBLEDO-GÓMEZ

    2008-01-01

    The inauguration text of the V Congress of Psychology at the Javeriana University, “Thinking the Present: Psychology, Criticism, and Globalization Times”, is presented. This event took place in April, 2008, in Bogotá, Colombia. These thoughts invite to see Psychology in the present, and to ask oneself about the forms of life that we are built of and that go through subjectivities in today’s World, within the framework of the Economical, Cultural, Social and Political conditions of our countri...

  11. Psychological response of accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, V.S.; Nikiforov, A.M.; Cheprasov, V.Yu.

    1996-01-01

    The psychological status of rescuers of consequences of Chernobyl[s accidents, having planned stationary examination and treatment of common somatic diseases, has been examined. THe age of men represented the study group was 35-54 years old. The results of medical-psychological examination showed the development in rescuers of common dysadaptation and stress state, characterized by depressive-hypochondriac state with high anxiety. The course of psychotherapeutic activities made possible to improve essentionally the psychological status of the patients. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  12. SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Lane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport

  13. Didactic tools for understanding respiratory physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehoe, P Donnelly; Bratovich, C; Perrone, Ms; Castells, L Mendez

    2007-01-01

    The challenges in Bioengineering are not only the application of engineering knowledge to the measurement of physiological variables, but also the simulation of biological systems. Experience has shown that the physiology of the respiratory system involves a set of concepts that cannot be effectively taught without the help of a group of didactic tools that contribute to the measurement of characteristic specific variables and to the simulation of the system itself. This article describes a series of tools designed to optimize the teaching of the respiratory system, including the use of spirometers and software developed entirely by undergraduate Bioengineering students from Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios (UNER). The impact these resources have caused on the understanding of the topic and how each of them has facilitated the interpretation of the concepts by the students is also discussed

  14. Physiology, production and action of progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraborrelli, Stefania

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this article is to review the physiology of progesterone and focus on its physiological actions on tissues such as endometrium, uterus, mammary gland, cardiovascular system, central nervous system and bones. In the last decades, the interest of researchers has focused on the role of progesterone in genomic and non-genomic receptor mechanisms. We searched PubMed up to December 2014 for publications on progesterone/steroidogenesis. A better understanding of the biological genomic and non-genomic receptor mechanisms could enable us in the near future to obtain a more comprehensive knowledge of the safety and efficacy of this agent during hormone replacement therapy (natural progesterone), in vitro fertilization (water-soluble subcutaneous progesterone), in traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease and diabetic neuropathy, even though further clinical studies are needed to prove its usefulness. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Opportunities in Biological Sciences; [VGM Career Horizons Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Charles A.

    This book provides job descriptions and discusses career opportunities in various fields of the biological sciences. These fields include: (1) biotechnology, genetics, biomedical engineering, microbiology, mycology, systematic biology, marine and aquatic biology, botany, plant physiology, plant pathology, ecology, and wildlife biology; (2) the…

  16. Start making sense: Art informing health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptein, Ad A; Hughes, Brian M; Murray, Michael; Smyth, Joshua M

    2018-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the arts may be useful in health care and in the training of health care professionals. Four art genres - novels, films, paintings and music - are examined for their potential contribution to enhancing patient health and/or making better health care providers. Based on a narrative literature review, we examine the effects of passive (e.g. reading, watching, viewing and listening) and active (e.g. writing, producing, painting and performing) exposure to the four art genres, by both patients and health care providers. Overall, an emerging body of empirical evidence indicates positive effects on psychological and physiological outcome measures in patients and some benefits to medical training. Expressive writing/emotional disclosure, psychoneuroimmunology, Theory of Mind and the Common Sense Model of Self-Regulation are considered as possible theoretical frameworks to help incorporate art genres as sources of inspiration for the further development of health psychology research and clinical applications.

  17. Start making sense: Art informing health psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Brian M; Murray, Michael; Smyth, Joshua M

    2018-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the arts may be useful in health care and in the training of health care professionals. Four art genres – novels, films, paintings and music – are examined for their potential contribution to enhancing patient health and/or making better health care providers. Based on a narrative literature review, we examine the effects of passive (e.g. reading, watching, viewing and listening) and active (e.g. writing, producing, painting and performing) exposure to the four art genres, by both patients and health care providers. Overall, an emerging body of empirical evidence indicates positive effects on psychological and physiological outcome measures in patients and some benefits to medical training. Expressive writing/emotional disclosure, psychoneuroimmunology, Theory of Mind and the Common Sense Model of Self-Regulation are considered as possible theoretical frameworks to help incorporate art genres as sources of inspiration for the further development of health psychology research and clinical applications. PMID:29552350

  18. Children's psychological responses to hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessey, Judith A

    2003-01-01

    The data-based literature addressing children's psychological responses to hospitalization was reviewed using methods outlined by Cooper (1989). Using a developmental science perspective, early research was reviewed and a model of variables that contribute to children's responses was constructed. This model consists of three major foci, including maturational and cognitive variables (developmental level, experience, coping style), ecological variables (family and hospital milieu), and biological variables (inborn factors and pathophysiology). Coping serves as the overarching framework for examining these variables and their contributions to children's responses to hospitalization. A variety of theoretical perspectives from the social sciences have been used, with psychoanalytic and stress and adaptation theories predominating. The majority of the research used simple case study, descriptive, or pre- and post-test designs. Methodologic issues were common. Little qualitative work has been done. Future research directions call for studies to adopt new theoretical and empirical models that are methodologically rigorous and clinically relevant and that embrace the precepts of developmental science.

  19. Employee subjective well-being and physiological functioning: An integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuykendall, Lauren; Tay, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that worker subjective well-being influences physiological functioning-an early signal of poor health outcomes. While several theoretical perspectives provide insights on this relationship, the literature lacks an integrative framework explaining the relationship. We develop a conceptual model explaining the link between subjective well-being and physiological functioning in the context of work. Integrating positive psychology and occupational stress perspectives, our model explains the relationship between subjective well-being and physiological functioning as a result of the direct influence of subjective well-being on physiological functioning and of their common relationships with work stress and personal resources, both of which are influenced by job conditions.

  20. Psychological Risk Factors in Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Robert A.; Houle, Timothy T.; Rhudy, Jamie L.; Norton, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Headache is a chronic disease that occurs with varying frequency and results in varying levels of disability. To date, the majority of research and clinical focus has been on the role of biological factors in headache and headache-related disability. However, reliance on a purely biomedical model of headache does not account for all aspects of headache and associated disability. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the current manuscript expands the view of what factors influence headache by considering the role psychological (i.e., cognitive and affective) factors have in the development, course, and consequences of headache. The manuscript initially reviews evidence showing that neural circuits responsible for cognitive–affective phenomena are highly interconnected with the circuitry responsible for headache pain. The manuscript then reviews the influence cognitions (locus of control and self-efficacy) and negative affect (depression, anxiety, and anger) have on the development of headache attacks, perception of headache pain, adherence to prescribed treatment, headache treatment outcome, and headache-related disability. The manuscript concludes with a discussion of the clinical implications of considering psychological factors when treating headache. PMID:17371358